WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable electric capacity

  1. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  2. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  3. Sufficient Flexibility and Capacity in Electricity Markets with Renewables: A Review of Innovative Market Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekamane, Jonas Khubute; Katz, Jonas; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This review of the literature collects innovative market mechanisms that tend to get overlooked in the discussion of whether unassisted energy-only markets can ensure sufficient capacity or if capacity remuneration mechanisms are required. The paper complements existing literature reviews...... and pinpoints advantageous research areas relating to the market design of electricity systems with high shares of variable renewable energy...

  4. 75 FR 43519 - Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No. 5 Substation and the Palo Verde Hub AGENCY... Department of Energy (DOE), is requesting SOIs from entities that are interested in purchasing transmission...

  5. Intermittently renewable energy, optimal capacity mix and prices in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, Irena; Tishler, Asher

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the effect of intermittently renewable energy on generation capacity mix and market prices. We consider two generating technologies: (1) conventional fossil-fueled technology such as combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT), and (2) sunshine-dependent renewable technology such as photovoltaic cells (PV). In the first stage of the model (game), when only the probability distribution functions of future daily electricity demand and sunshine are known, producers maximize their expected profits by determining the CCGT and PV capacity to be constructed. In the second stage, once daily demand and sunshine conditions become known, each producer selects the daily production by each technology, taking the capacities of both technologies as given, and subject to the availability of the PV capacity, which can be used only if the sun is shining. Using real-world data for Israel, we confirm that the introduction of PV technology amplifies price volatility. A large reduction in PV capacity cost increases PV adoption but may also raise the average price. Thus, when considering the promotion of renewable energy to reduce CO 2 emissions, regulators should assess the behavior of the electricity market, particularly with respect to characteristics of renewable technologies and demand and supply uncertainties. - Research Highlights: → This paper assesses the effect of intermittently renewable energy on generation capacity mix and market prices. → We consider two generating technologies: (1) conventional fossil-fueled technology such as CCGT and (2) sunshine-dependent renewable technology such as photovoltaic cells (PV). →Using real-world data for Israel, we confirm that the introduction of PV technology amplifies price volatility. → A large reduction in PV capacity cost increases PV adoption but may also raise the average price.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  7. Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing...... not designed to take into account the uncertainty brought by the substantial variability and limited predictability associated with stochastic sources, most notably wind power and solar energy. Due to these developments, the need for decision making models able to account for the uncertainty introduced by high...... from renewables, and on the adaption of electricity market designs and power system operations to the aforementioned characteristics of renewables. Additionally, the aim of the research group is supplemented by providing the appropriate frameworks for secure future investments in the field...

  8. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  9. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  10. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization: A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experiences (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Getman, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This is the Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64831. Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate. Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  11. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization. A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experience for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Getman, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate (NDRC ERI 2015). Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  12. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  13. Overview of renewable electricity in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    RTE is the mainspring in enhancing energy transition and developing renewable energy in France. To further knowledge on the subject, RTE publishes a detailed inventory of existing and projected wind and photovoltaic installations. This vast overview was achieved with the help of ERDF, ADEeF (Association of electricity distribution network operators in France) and SER (Association of renewable energy industrialists). 2015's outstanding facts: The wind and photovoltaic industries are the major contributor to the growth of renewable electrical energy (REN), with 16.5 GW installed capacity in December 31, 2015. These two industries now represent 38% of the generation capacity of REN in France. Renewable electricity generation power in metropolitan France amounts to 43.6 GW, 58% of which is of hydroelectric origin

  14. Integrating Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.; Madsen, Henrik

    in the electricity market. • The development of procedures to enable demand response and to facilitate the integration of stochastic renewable units. This book is written in a modular and tutorial manner and includes many illustrative examples to facilitate its comprehension. It is intended for advanced...... such as: • The modeling and forecasting of stochastic renewable power production. • The characterization of the impact of renewable production on market outcomes. • The clearing of electricity markets with high penetration of stochastic renewable units. • The development of mechanisms to counteract...

  15. Capacity market design and renewable energy: Performance incentives, qualifying capacity, and demand curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, Audun; Levin, Todd; Byers, Conleigh

    2018-01-01

    A review of capacity markets in the United States in the context of increasing levels of variable renewable energy finds substantial differences with respect to incentives for operational performance, methods to calculate qualifying capacity for variable renewable energy and energy storage, and demand curves for capacity. The review also reveals large differences in historical capacity market clearing prices. The authors conclude that electricity market design must continue to evolve to achieve cost-effective policies for resource adequacy.

  16. Renewable sources of electricity in the SWEB area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Following the privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry, Regional Electricity Companies now have greater influence on the generation and supply of electricity, including power from renewable sources. The introduction of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation has also greatly assisted the development of electricity generation from renewables, culminating in around 260 MW of new renewables capacity by April 1993 in England and Wales, including 116 MW from windfarms. In view of the increased interest in renewables shown nationally and within the South West, SWEB and the Department of Trade and Industry agreed to conduct a study of the renewable energy technologies and their associated resource potential within the SWEB region. (author)

  17. Influence of renewable sources of energy on the operation of the production capacity in electrical power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova-Potseva, Sofija

    2012-01-01

    interconnection systems, i.e. wind occurrence during periods of operation of the system near the technical minimum of thermal power plants. The doctoral thesis presents the results from the analyzed occurrence of suppressed energy, when wind power is injected into the system during periods when thermal power plants operate near the technical minimum. Further comparison was made of the possibilities for wind energy injection into the system for different wind power plants installed capacity in the considered system. In PhD dissertation, also, the emission of pollutants from thermal power plants, that used various types of fossil fuels such as: solid, liquid and gaseous, is considered. Then the reduction of CO 2 has been analyzed if wind power plants are integrated in the power system. Therefore the benefits from the production of electrical energy from wind power plants in terms of reducing production costs in the system and reducing the environmental impacts caused by the emission of pollutants in the environment has been investigated. (Author)

  18. Design limitations in Australian renewable electricity policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, Greg; Diesendorf, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Renewable electricity is pivotal to the medium and long-term reduction of Australia's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, if deep cuts in them are eventually implemented. This paper examines the effectiveness of the principal existing policies that could potentially promote the expansion of renewable electricity (RElec) in Australia: the expanded Renewable Energy Target (RET); the proposed emissions trading scheme (ETS); and the state and territory-based feed-in tariffs. We find the effectiveness of RET is severely eroded by the inclusion of solar and heat pump hot water systems; by the inclusion of 'phantom' tradable certificates; and by high electricity consumption growth. We also find that the ETS will not produce a high enough carbon price to assist most RElec technologies before 2020; and that most of the feed-in tariffs exclude large-scale RElec and will give little assistance to small-scale RElec because they are mostly net tariffs. Unless there is a major revision of its RElec policy mechanisms, Australia will fail to reach its renewable electricity target and in particular will fail to build up its solar generation capacity which could be a major source of future deep cuts in the country's electricity generation emissions.

  19. Renewable electricity in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.; Agterbosch, S.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch policy goal is to achieve a share of 17% renewable electricity in the domestic demand in 2020, corresponding to 18-24 TWh. It is uncertain whether and under which conditions this aim can be achieved. This paper aims to explore the feasible deployment of renewable electricity production in the Netherlands until 2020 by evaluating different images representing policies and societal preferences. Simultaneously, the most promising technologies for different settings are investigated and identified. First Dutch policy goals, governmental policy measures and definitions of renewable electricity are discussed. Second, a comparison is made of four existing studies that analyze the possible developments of renewable electricity production in the coming decades. Finally, three images are set up with emphasis on the different key factors that influence the maximum realizable potential. Results indicate onshore wind, offshore wind and large-scale biomass plants as most promising, robust options in terms of economical performance, ecological sustainability and high technical implementation rate. In the image with high implementation rates, an annual production of 42 TWh may be achieved in 2020, while under stringent economical or ecological criteria, about 25 TWh may be reached. When only the robust options are considered, 9-22 TWh can be realized. The analysis illustrates the importance of taking the different key factors mentioned influencing implementation into account. Doing so allows for identification of robust and less robust technological options under different conditions

  20. Scenarios of Expansion to Electric Generation Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Somoza-Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the building scenarios of expansion to electric generation capacity enough to supply the demand to 2050. We were using the LEAP facility (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System, to simulate dispatch of electricity at minimum cost. Finally, we show the cost-benefice analysis of the technologies availability, included externality and CO2 emission limited. However that we included the externals cost in this analysis, it results insufficient to closed gap between fossil and renewable technologies of electric generation. Nevertheless, in some opportunities the renewable options had very important participations in the minimal cost scenario of expansion.

  1. Renewable Electricity: Insights for the Coming Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Camila [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A sophisticated set of renewable electricity (RE) generation technologies is now commercially available. Globally, RE captured approximately half of all capacity additions since 2011. The cost of RE is already competitive with fossil fuels in some areas around the world, and prices are anticipated to continue to decline over the next decade. RE options, led by wind and solar, are part of a suite of technologies and business solutions that are transforming electricity sectors around the world. Renewable deployment is expected to continue due to: increasingly competitive economics; favorable environmental characteristics such as low water use, and minimal local air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; complementary risk profiles when paired with natural gas generators; strong support from stakeholders. Despite this positive outlook for renewables, the collapse in global oil prices since mid-2014 and continued growth in natural gas supply in the United States--due to the development of low-cost shale gas--raise questions about the potential impacts of fossil fuel prices on RE. Today, oil plays a very minor role in the electricity sectors of most countries, so direct impacts on RE are likely to be minimal (except where natural gas prices are indexed on oil). Natural gas and RE generating options appear to be more serious competitors than oil and renewables. Low gas prices raise the hurdle for RE to be cost competitive. Additionally, although RE emits far less GHG than natural gas, both natural gas and RE offer the benefits of reducing carbon relative to coal and oil (see Section 4.1 for more detail on the GHG intensity of electricity technologies). However, many investors and decision makers are becoming aware of the complementary benefits of pairing natural gas and renewables to minimize risk of unstable fuel prices and maintain the reliability of electricity to the grid.

  2. Electric distribution systems and embedded generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderaro, V.; Galdi, V.; Piccolo, A.; Siano, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main policy issues of European States are sustainable energy supply promotion and liberalization of energy markets, which introduced market competition in electricity production and created support mechanisms to encourage renewable electricity production and consumption. As a result of liberalization, any generator, including small-scale and renewable energy based units, can sell electricity on the free market. In order to meet future sustainability targets, connection of a higher number of Distributed Generation (DG) units to the electrical power system is expected, requiring changes in the design and operation of distribution electricity systems, as well as changes in electricity network regulation. In order to assist distribution system operators in planning and managing DG connections and in maximizing DG penetration and renewable sources exploitation, this paper proposed a reconfiguration methodology based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA), that was tested on a 70-bus system with DG units. The simulation results confirmed that the methodology represents a suitable tool for distribution system operators when dealing with DG capacity expansion and power loss issues, providing information regarding the potential penetration network-wide and allowing maximum exploitation of renewable generation. 35 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Determining the Optimal Capacities of Renewable-Energy-Based Energy Conversion Systems for Meeting the Demands of Low-Energy District Heating, Electricity, and District Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    as 55 °C for supply and 25 °C for return, and with additional considerations being directed to supply electricity and cooling. Several optimal solutions with various nominal capacities of the technologies involved were obtained in each of the two case studies, one being for the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  5. Panorama of renewable electricity synthesis as at 31 March 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    RTE is the mainspring in enhancing energy transition and developing renewable energy in France. To further knowledge on the subject, RTE publishes a detailed inventory of existing and projected wind and photovoltaic installations. This vast overview was achieved with the help of ENEDIS (ERDF), ADEeF (Association of electricity distribution network operators in France) and SER (Association of renewable energy industrialists). First quarter 2017 outstanding facts: 41% of renewable energy production capacity are from solar or wind origin. With almost 25,5 GW, hydroelectricity remains the first renewable energy source in France. The bio-energy power generation reaches 1,9 GW. All sources included, renewable energy sources have grown by almost 2,4 GW in a year, reaching 46,4 GW at 31 March 2017. Power distribution systems are continuously evolving in order to meet the 40% renewable electricity production goal by 2030

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  7. A thermal storage capacity market for non dispatchable renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mouaky, Ammar; Arrad, Mouad; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Mimet, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increasingly high capacity of wind power and solar PV in Germany and some other European countries and the high share of variable renewable energy resources in comparison to fossil and nuclear capacity, a power reserve market structured by auction systems was created to facilitate the exchange of balance power capacities between systems and even grid operators. Morocco has a large potential for both wind and solar energy and is engaged in a program to deploy 2000MW of wind capacity by 2020 and 3000 MW of solar capacity by 2030. Although the competitiveness of wind energy is very strong, it appears clearly that the wind program could be even more ambitious than what it is, especially when compared to the large exploitable potential. On the other hand, heavy investments on concentrated solar power plants equipped with thermal energy storage have triggered a few years ago including the launching of the first part of the Nour Ouarzazate complex, the goal being to reach stable, dispatchable and affordable electricity especially during evening peak hours. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of shared thermal storage capacity between dispatchable and non dispatchable renewable energies and particularly CSP and wind power. Thus highlighting the importance of a storage capacity market in parallel to the power reserve market and the and how it could enhance the development of both wind and CSP market penetration.

  8. Envisioning a renewable electricity future for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Trieu; Mulcahy, David; Hand, M. Maureen; Baldwin, Samuel F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high renewable electricity penetration scenarios in the United States using detailed capacity expansion modeling that is designed to properly account for the variability and uncertainty of wind and solar resources. The scenarios focus solely on the electricity system, an important sector within the larger energy sector, and demonstrate long-term visions of a U.S. power system where renewable technologies, including biomass, geothermal, hydropower, solar, and wind, contribute 80% of 2050 annual electricity, including 49–55% from wind and solar photovoltaic generation. We present the integration challenges of achieving this high penetration and characterize the options to increase grid flexibility to manage variability. Four high renewable pathways are modeled and demonstrate the robustness and diversity of renewable options. We estimate 69–82% annual greenhouse gas emission reductions and 3%–30% incremental electricity price increases associated with reaching 80%-by-2050 renewable electricity relative to reference scenarios. This paper affirms and strengthens similar analysis from the Renewable Electricity Futures study by using an improved model and updated data to better reflect investment and dispatch decisions under current outlooks for the U.S. electricity sector. - Highlights: • We model high renewable electricity scenarios for the U.S. electricity sector. • The mix of technologies will depend on future costs and system conditions. • Integration challenges and flexibility options are presented. • We estimate an incremental electricity price increase of 3–30% to achieve 80% RE (renewable electricity). • We estimate 69–82% reduction in annual carbon emissions with 80% RE

  9. Renewable, ethical? Assessing the energy justice potential of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Banerjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy justice is increasingly being used as a framework to conceptualize the impacts of energy decision making in more holistic ways and to consider the social implications in terms of existing ethical values. Similarly, renewable energy technologies are increasingly being promoted for their environmental and social benefits. However, little work has been done to systematically examine the extent to which, in what ways and in what contexts, renewable energy technologies can contribute to achieving energy justice. This paper assesses the potential of renewable electricity technologies to address energy justice in various global contexts via a systematic review of existing studies analyzed in terms of the principles and dimensions of energy justice. Based on publications including peer reviewed academic literature, books, and in some cases reports by government or international organizations, we assess renewable electricity technologies in both grid integrated and off-grid use contexts. We conduct our investigation through the rubric of the affirmative and prohibitive principles of energy justice and in terms of its temporal, geographic, socio-political, economic, and technological dimensions. Renewable electricity technology development has and continue to have different impacts in different social contexts, and by considering the different impacts explicitly across global contexts, including differences between rural and urban contexts, this paper contributes to identifying and understanding how, in what ways, and in what particular conditions and circumstances renewable electricity technologies may correspond with or work to promote energy justice.

  10. Promoting renewable energy through capacity markets: An analysis of the Russian support scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anatole

    2012-01-01

    Most existing support schemes aim to stimulate the deployment of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector on the basis of the electricity output (MW h) of renewable energy installations. Support is anchored in the electricity commodity market. In contrast to this established approach, Russia intends to promote renewable energy through the capacity market. The idea is to remunerate investors for the installed capacity (MW) of their installations, in particular for the availability of their installations to produce electricity. This article argues that, contrary to the implicit consensus, a capacity-based approach to supporting renewable energy can provide an alternative to the current output-based schemes. Capacity-based schemes limit the incentive that the operators of renewable energy installations currently have under output-based schemes to deliver electricity to the grid even in periods of low demand. These schemes also provide investors with a more predictable income flow. However, to be successful, the regulation of capacity supply – currently designed for flexible power plants – needs to accommodate the specific production patterns of variable renewable energy installations. This paper examines ways to overcome this challenge in Russia and provides more general conclusions on the complex interaction between capacity markets and renewable energy investments.

  11. Panorama of renewable electricity. Synthesis as at 30 June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    RTE is the mainspring in enhancing energy transition and developing renewable energy in France. To further knowledge on the subject, we publish a detailed inventory of existing and projected wind and photovoltaic installations. This vast overview was achieved with the help of ERDF, ADEeF (Association of electricity distribution network operators in France) and SER (Association of renewable energy industrialists). 2015's outstanding facts: The wind and photovoltaic industries are the major contributor to the growth of renewable electrical energy (REN), with 1913 MW installed between 1 July 2014 and 30 June 2015. These two industries now represent a third of the generation capacity of REN in France. Renewable electricity generation power in metropolitan France amounts to 42 582 MW, 60% of which is of hydroelectric origin

  12. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J.; Kvale, L.; Alatorre, C.

    2007-04-01

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  13. Required storage capacity to increase the value of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, T.

    2014-01-01

    The effort to achieve a more eco - friendly production of energy leads to larger shares of renewables in the electricity sector, resulting in more supply - dependency and volatility. This results in a time shift between production and consumption. In order to gain an upper hand, possibilities for transferring renewable energies from the time of production to the time when the demand occurs are researched. Energy storage systems will play a big role in this process, with pumped storage plants being the most developed and most common technology nowadays. As a first part of this thesis, the renewables in Germany are studied through the use of models on the basis of hourly measured values of the primary energy carriers for the corresponding technology. For these data series many years’ worth of measurements were considered, resulting in data for the hourly production values of the renewable energy sources. The results show a strong dependency between production and the seasons of the year. Furthermore a very small secured contribution of renewable production during times of peak load is registered, leading to the conclusion that energy storages are indeed necessary. Different strategies for the dispatch of the storage technologies pumped hydro storage, compressed air storage and hydrogen storage are developed for the region of Germany, which will be dispatched outside the energy - only market. The different strategies for the storage dispatch have the reduction of the resulting load in common, by preferably transferring renewable energy from times when it is not needed to those times with high loads. This resulting load needs to be covered by thermal power plants. The required capacities of the different storage technologies are evaluated and compared. By using pumped storage plants the increase in the value of renewables, as measured by the secure contribution during peak load hours, is determined. An analysis of different compositions of renewable production allows

  14. Renewable and efficient electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Gilbert M

    2013-01-01

    A solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems-in a completely updated, new edition The second edition of Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems provides a solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems. For each topic, essential theoretical background is introduced, practical engineering considerations associated with designing systems and predicting their performance are provided, and methods for evaluating the economics of these systems are presented. While the book focuses on

  15. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  16. Equilibrium Transitions from Non Renewable Energy to Renewable Energy under Capacity Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Moreaux, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We study the transition between non-renewable and renewable energy sources with adjustment costs over the production capacity of renewable energy. Assuming constant variable marginal costs for both energy sources, convex adjustment costs and a more expensive renewable energy, we show the following. With sufficiently abundant non-renewable energy endowments, the dynamic equilibrium path is composed of a first time phase of only non-renewable energy use followed by a transition phase substituti...

  17. powering nigeria through renewable electricity investments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    and reliable information, which consumers, investors and the government can rely upon. ..... and Participation in a Private Sector Driven Electricity Industry in Nigeria: Recent .... Furthermore, renewable energy technologies are still very new to.

  18. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  19. Costs for renewable electricity. Learning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, R.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to provide an objective basis for the determination of the assumptions that are used for the calculation of the so-called uneconomic top of electricity production from renewable energy sources, carried out by ECN and KEMA. The results will be used for the determination of the subsidy tariffs for new renewable energy projects and is part of the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP, abbreviated in Dutch) policy [nl

  20. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  1. Renewable energy technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    The output of electricity supplied by some renewable sources cannot be easily predicted in advance because of their dependence on naturally varying phenomena (e.g. wind or sunshine). To accommodate this variability within the grid, additional amounts of conventional plant might be maintained in reserve, which would add to the overall system cost. This paper examines some aspects of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation as well as factors to be considered in the incorporation of renewables within a grid. 7 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  2. What Do Capacity Deployment Rates Tell Us about the Efficiency of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources Support Measures in Greece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Papadelis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of fiscal support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E is a multifaceted notion that cannot be adequately described by a single metric. Efficiency is related to the ability of a policy measure to support deployment without creating negative feedback effects. These negative effects may stem from saturation of the grid’s ability to absorb an increased amount of RES-E power, the inability of regulatory bodies to cope with the larger workload due to the increased number of projects requesting permits or from rent-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the primary rationale for feed-in tariffs (FITs and other fiscal support schemes is that increased deployment of RES-E technologies will lead to reductions in costs and increases in efficiency. As a result, the efficiency of an RES-E support policy should be also judged by its ability to capitalize on cost reductions. Overall, we present an approach to facilitate ongoing assessments of the efficiency of support measures for RES-E deployment. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the FIT support policy in Greece as a case study. In particular, the RES-E support policy in Greece has been recently revised through tariff cuts and a moratorium on new production licenses. We aim to demonstrate that if publicly available data are appropriately monitored, a policy revision can take place in a timelier and less disruptive manner.

  3. Renewable energy promotion in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    The opening of electricity markets to competition involves fundamental structural changes in the electricity supply industry. There is, however, doubt that the new industrial organisation will provide the right price signals that will ensure that renewable energy options will be adopted. Therefore, one of the numerous challenges in the energy industry restructuring process is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents mechanisms to promote the use of renewable energy in competitive electricity markets. These mechanisms include the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Systems Benefit Charge (SBC). The paper discusses merits and disadvantages of these mechanisms, given the experience made in the United States and the United Kingdom. (author)

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of a U.S. Grid with 80% Renewable Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Trieu

    2013-04-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States over the next several decades. This study explores the implications and challenges of very high renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies in 2050. At such high levels of renewable electricity penetration, the unique characteristics of some renewable resources, specifically geographical distribution and variability and un-certainty in output, pose challenges to the operability of the nation's electric system. The study focuses on key technical implications of this environment from a national perspective, exploring whether the U.S. power system can supply electricity to meet customer demand on an hourly basis with high levels of renewable electricity, including variable wind and solar generation. The study also identifies some of the potential economic, environmental, and social implications of deploying and integrating high levels of renewable electricity in the U.S. The full report and associated supporting information is available at: http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/refutures/.

  9. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  10. Sustainability-guided promotion of renewable electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the threat of global climate change, high fuel import dependence, and rapidly rising electricity demand levels have intensified the quest for more sustainable energy systems. This in turn has increased the need for policy makers to promote electricity generation from renewable energy sources. Guaranteed prices coupled with a buy-back obligation for electricity fed into the grid is a popular renewables promotion instrument, especially in Europe. More recently, driven mainly by electricity market liberalisation efforts, quota targets for the share of renewables in combination with tradable 'green' certificates (TGC) have received considerable attention. TGC offer a greater theoretical potential for economic efficiency gains, due to price competition and the greater flexibility assigned to the obliged parties. While guaranteed prices and TGC schemes support the operation of renewable energy technology systems, bidding schemes for renewable energy generation capacity are used to raise economic efficiency on the plant construction side. All of these policy instruments suffer from the shortcoming that they do not explicitly account for the often widely varying environmental, social and economic impacts of the technologies concerned. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the design of renewable energy policy instruments that is based on integrated assessment. In particular, we argue that using participatory multicriteria evaluation as part of the design of renewable energy promotion policies would make it possible: (1) to differentiate the level of promotion in a systematic and transparent manner according to their socio-ecological economic impact, and (2) to explicitly account for the preferences of stakeholders. A further problem of existing TGC and bidding schemes is that diversity of supply could be severely diminished, if few low-cost technologies were allowed to dominate the renewable energy market. To ensure a certain diversity of

  11. Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration NREL works with industry partners to optimize strategies for effectively interconnecting renewable renewable electric grid integration work includes research and development (R&D) on advanced inverters

  12. Balancing renewable on intra day electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, R.; Bems, J.

    2012-01-01

    Intra day electricity markets contribute to facilitate transition from conventional sources to renewable which need to be balanced on real-time basic due to the unpredictable nature of weather. This paper describes the way from regional electricity markets to a single pan-european market model which is target model of the European Commission. Single liquid intra day electricity market where market participants can balance their portfolios is prerequisite to a full utilisation of renewable power sources and a solution for some problems experienced by TSOs with loop and parallel flows from neighbouring countries. Integrated German and French intra day electricity market which uses Flexible Intra day Trading Scheme is described in this paper as a market which could be extended further to the CEE region with very poor liquidity of its local intra day markets. (Authors)

  13. The electricity market reinvention by regional renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Just one hundred years ago, electricity was classified as a luxury good. Since renewable energies entered the German market 25 years ago, they slowly started to change some fundamental conditions. The ubiquity of electrical devices in our daily life is not something we think about anymore in the industrialised world. It has become as normal as breathing. Yet unlike air, power has to be obtained and distributed. The constant availability of current is therefore not a given thing, but something...

  14. Renewable Energy and Electricity Prices in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Gelabert; Xavier Labandeira; Pedro Linares

    2011-01-01

    Growing concerns about climate change and energy dependence are driving specific policies to support renewable or more efficient energy sources in many regions, particularly in the production of electricity. These policies have a non-negligible cost, and therefore a careful assessment of their impacts seems necessary. In particular, one of the most-debated impacts is their effect on electricity prices, for which there have been some ex-ante studies, but few ex-post studies. This article prese...

  15. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  16. High current capacity electrical connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettis, E.S.; Watts, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a ''sandwiched'' configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with contact buttons in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors

  17. The long-run equilibrium impact of intermittent renewables on wholesale electricity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, D.

    2016-01-01

    High levels of low variable cost intermittent renewables lower wholesale electricity prices, and the depression of these prices could legitimately be recovered from consumers, preferably through capacity payments. Given that renewables are frequently subsidized for their learning benefits and carbon reduction, this paper asks what part of these subsidies should be recovered from final consumers. In long-run equilibrium, renewables have no impact on the number of hours peaking capacity runs, a...

  18. Advice letter on policy instruments renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In a letter of July 2010 the Energy Council made recommendations for a policy framework with more obligations and fewer subsidies. This included the Energy Council's advice to investigate whether the introduction of a supplier obligation could play a major role in the realisation of the CO2 emission target of the Netherlands and increase the share of renewable energy in line with European agreements. This advice letter deals with one aspect of the broader considerations: the share of renewable electricity and the kind of incentive framework that is needed to achieve the target concerned. In this letter we will examine the possibilities of the SDE+ support (financial incentive for renewable energy) scheme and the supplier obligation, the effects on the market and the consequences for achieving the target. This letter closes with conclusions and recommendations. [nl

  19. Efficient integration of renewable energies in the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabe, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity sector aims to carry out coordination tasks within the system by markets and market prices. This study examines how markets need to be designed to carry out coordination tasks caused by integration of renewable energies in an efficient way. This question is applied to the German electricity system and recommendations are derived from identified deficits. The examination uses the structure-conduct-performance approach of industrial organisation economics. Integration of renewable energies does not result in entirely new coordination tasks but complicates those that exist in any electricity supply system. Within the short-term coordination tasks provision and operation of reserve capacity is affected by renewable energies. Long-term coordination means that the relation between fixed and variable costs of generators as well as generator flexibility has to be adjusted to the characteristics of renewable energies. The relevant short-term coordination task with the network is congestion management. In the long run costs of grid expansion and permanent congestion management have to be balanced. For the execution of short-run coordination tasks integrated and centralised market architectures are superior to decentralised architectures. The increase of short-term coordination tasks due to renewable energies caused by inflexibilities of consumers and conventional generators results in more information that has to be considered. By centralising that information in one market, an increase in productive efficiency can be obtained. In Germany the increased coordination tasks are determined by the integration of wind generators into the electricity system. The present German market architecture results in inefficiencies in short-term coordination. This is demonstrated by an analysis of procedural rules and prices of the ancillary service markets. They demonstrate that market performance is low and significant deviations from competitive prices

  20. Plug-in electric vehicles integrating fluctuating renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallinger, David

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines a method to model plug-in electric vehicles as part of the power system and presents results for the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources. The scientific contribution includes: - A novel approach to characterizing fluctuating generation. This allows the detailed comparison of results from energy analysis and is the basis to describe the effect of electricity from renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles on the power system. - The characterization of mobile storage, which includes the description of mobility behavior using probabilities and battery discharging costs. - The introduction of an agent-based simulation approach, coupling energy markets and distributed grids using a price-based mechanism design. - The description of an agent with specific driving behavior, battery discharging costs and optimization algorithm suitable for real plug-in vehicles and simulation models. - A case study for a 2030 scenario describing the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance generation from renewable energy sources in California and Germany.

  1. Seminar on support mechanisms to renewable energy sources and on electricity markets evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Leinekugel Le Cocq, Thibaut; Najdawi, Celine; Rathmann, Max; Soekadar, Ann-Christin

    2013-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Seminar on support mechanisms to renewable energy sources and on electricity markets evolution. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 150 participants exchanged views on support instruments to renewable energy sources in a context of decentralized power generation and evolving market design. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of Support mechanisms to renewable energy sources and electricity market evolution in France (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Support mechanisms in Germany and in France. Similarities and Synergy potentials (Celine Najdawi); 3 - Keynote 'introduction to the French capacity market' (Thibaut Leinekugel Le Cocq); 4 - Power market design for a high renewables share (Max Rathmann); 5 - German electricity System and Integration of Renewable energies. The Current Discussion on the Necessity of Adapting the electricity Market Design (Ann-Christin Soekadar)

  2. Impact of electrical intertie capacity on carbon policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, J.; Niet, T.; Lyseng, B.; Palmer-Wilson, K.; Keller, V.; Moazzen, I.; Pitt, L.; Wild, P.; Rowe, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the potential cost and emissions reductions that result from an increase in electricity transmission capacity between Canada's two westernmost provinces: Alberta, a fossil fuel dominated jurisdiction, and British Columbia, a predominantly hydroelectric jurisdiction. A bottom-up model is used to find the least cost electricity generation mix in Alberta and British Columbia under different carbon policies. The long-term evolution of the electricity system is determined by minimizing net present cost of electricity generation for the time span of 2010–2060. Different levels of intertie capacity expansion are considered together with a variety of carbon tax and carbon cap scenarios. Results indicate that increased intertie capacity reduces the cost of electricity and emissions under carbon pricing policies. However, the expandable intertie does not encourage greater adoption of variable renewable generation. Instead, it is used to move low-cost energy from the United States to Alberta. The optimal intertie capacity and cost reduction of increased interconnectivity increases with more restrictive carbon policies. - Highlights: • A techno-economic optimization model is used to examine electricity generation in western Canada. • Interprovincial electricity transmission can decrease carbon abatement costs. • Market conditions can reduce the expected synergy between storage hydroelectricity and variable renewable generation. • Inconsistent carbon policies between regions mean emissions are moved, not avoided.

  3. Unforeseen consequences of dedicated renewable energy transmission: Potential implications for renewable electricity development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezdek, Roger

    2010-09-15

    Renewable electricity generation requires expansion of electricity transmission, and the U.S. is planning to build a 'green' transmission lines restricted to renewable electricity. However, local jurisdictions are resisting this unless the transmission serves local constituents and existing power plants. This paper finds that if such transmission is built and local access allowed, then the major beneficiaries may be existing power plants. Their access to added transmission could enable them to sell electric power at rates against which renewables cannot compete. These issues must be addressed if large additions of new transmission lines are to facilitate expansion of renewable electricity generation worldwide.

  4. Mathematical modelling of electricity market with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses the electricity market with conventional energy sources on fossil fuel and non-conventional renewable energy sources (RESs) with stochastic operating conditions. A mathematical model of long-run (accounting for development of generation capacities) equilibrium in the market is constructed. The problem of determining optimal parameters providing the maximum social criterion of efficiency is also formulated. The calculations performed have shown that the adequate choice of price cap, environmental tax, subsidies to RESs and consumption tax make it possible to take into account external effects (environmental damage) and to create incentives for investors to construct conventional and renewable energy sources in an optimal (from the society view point) mix. (author)

  5. State-scale evaluation of renewable electricity policy: The role of renewable electricity credits and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Todd; Thomas, Valerie M.; Lee, Audrey J.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a state-scale version of the MARKAL energy optimization model, commonly used to model energy policy at the US national scale and internationally. We apply the model to address state-scale impacts of a renewable electricity standard (RES) and a carbon tax in one southeastern state, Georgia. Biomass is the lowest cost option for large-scale renewable generation in Georgia; we find that electricity can be generated from biomass co-firing at existing coal plants for a marginal cost above baseline of 0.2-2.2 cents/kWh and from dedicated biomass facilities for 3.0-5.5 cents/kWh above baseline. We evaluate the cost and amount of renewable electricity that would be produced in-state and the amount of out-of-state renewable electricity credits (RECs) that would be purchased as a function of the REC price. We find that in Georgia, a constant carbon tax to 2030 primarily promotes a shift from coal to natural gas and does not result in substantial renewable electricity generation. We also find that the option to offset a RES with renewable electricity credits would push renewable investment out-of-state. The tradeoff for keeping renewable investment in-state by not offering RECs is an approximately 1% additional increase in the levelized cost of electricity. - Research Highlights: →We examine state-scale impacts of a renewable electricity standard and a carbon tax. →Georgia has low electricity prices and bioenergy is the main renewable option. →A carbon tax of $50/tCO 2 does not significantly increase renewable generation. →Renewable electricity credits divert renewable investment to other states. →Keeping renewable electricity generation in-state increases electricity costs by 1%.

  6. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  7. A Transition Strategy from Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy Sources in the Mexican Electricity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Vidal-Amaro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources exploitation acquires special importance for creating low-carbon energy systems. In Mexico a national regulation limits the fossil fuel-based electricity generation to 65%, 60% and 50% by years 2024, 2030 and 2050 respectively. This study evaluates several scenarios of renewables incorporation into the Mexican electricity system to attend those targets as well as a 75% renewables-based electricity share target towards a 100% renewable system. By its size, the Mexican electricity system, with a generation of 260.4 TWh/year (85% based on fossil fuels, can be regarded as an illustrating reference. The impact of increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaic solar, biomass, biogas, geothermal, hydro and concentrating solar power on the system’s capacity to attend demand on a one-hour timescale resolution is investigated utilizing the EnergyPLAN model and the minimum total mix capacity method. Possible excess of electricity production is also assessed. For every target year, a solution is obtained corresponding to the combination resulting in the minimum total generation capacity for the electricity system. A transition strategy to a system with a high share of renewables-based electricity is designed where every transition step corresponds to the optimal energy mix for each of the target years.

  8. Power system and market integration of renewable electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Georg

    2017-07-01

    This paper addresses problems of power generation markets that arise under high shares of intermittent generation. After discussing the economic fundamentals of wind and photovoltaic investments, the paper introduces the concept of the "Merit order effect of renewables". According to this concept electricity prices on wholesale power markets become smaller in periods during which large volumes of wind and photovoltaic generation is available and squeeze out relative expensive gas-fired power generation. The merit order effect of renewables has a couple of consequences. Among others it challenges the profitability of conventional power generation. If such generation capacities are still necessary, at least during a transitory period, a capacity mechanism may be put in place that generates an additional stream of income to the operators of conventional power generators. Another consequence of growing intermittent power generation is the need for concepts and technologies that deal with excess generation. Among these concepts are virtual and physical power storage capacities. In the last parts of the paper models are presented that are able to analyze these concepts from an economic point of view.

  9. Renewable Electricity Standards: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In widespread use globally, renewable electricity standards (RES) are one of the most widely adopted renewable energy policies and a critical regulatory vehicle to accelerate renewable energy deployment. This policy brief provides an introduction to key RES design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific RES policy design.

  10. Achieving 33% renewable electricity generation by 2020 in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmsley, Michael R.W.; Walmsley, Timothy G.; Atkins, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of California, USA reaching its renewable electricity target of 33%, excluding large hydro, by 2020, which is set out in the state's RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard). The emerging renewable electricity mix in California and surrounding states which form the WECC (Western Electricity Coordination Council) is analysed using the CEPA (Carbon Emission Pinch Analysis) and EROI (Energy Return on Energy Invested) methodologies. The reduction in emissions with increased renewables is illustrated and the challenge of maintaining high EROI levels for renewable generation is examined for low and high electricity demand growth. Results demonstrate that wind and solar PV collectively form an integral part of California reaching the 33% renewables target by 2020. Government interventions of tax rebates and subsidies, net electricity metering and a four tiered electricity price have accelerated the uptake of electricity generation from wind and solar PV. Residential uptake of solar PV is also reducing overall California electricity grid demand. Emphasis on new renewable generation is stimulating development of affordable wind and solar technology in California which has the added benefit of enhancing social sustainability through improved employment opportunities at a variety of technical levels. - Highlights: • CA (California, USA) aims to achieve 33% renewable electricity sales by 2020. • Carbon Emission Pinch Analysis is applied to the case study of CA. • Energy Return on Energy Invested analysis shows impacts of renewable energy uptake. • Solar PV and wind are the most cost and energy efficiency renewable resources in CA. • State government intervention is needed to reach the 33% renewable electricity goal.

  11. The European directive on renewable electricity: conflicts and compromises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of its efforts to increase the use of renewable energy in Europe, a Directive regarding renewable electricity was agreed by the European Union in 2001. The purpose of this article is to examine this Directive, examining how the discussions surrounding its content unfolded. The investigation focuses upon three contentious issues that were debated during the Directive's development: the definition of 'renewable', the national targets for renewable electricity (their levels, as well as whether they should be 'binding' or 'indicative') and the questions associated with harmonisation (whether one Union-wide 'support scheme' for renewable electricity should be in place, and, if so, what it should be). During the 5 years that the Directive was negotiated, many intra-Union conflicts were eventually resolved, at least temporarily, by compromises. Nevertheless, some difficult decisions regarding the promotion of renewable electricity in the European Union still have to be taken

  12. The welfare effects of integrating renewable energy into electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid, Alberto J.

    The challenges of deploying more renewable energy sources on an electric grid are caused largely by their inherent variability. In this context, energy storage can help make the electric delivery system more reliable by mitigating this variability. This thesis analyzes a series of models for procuring electricity and ancillary services for both individuals and social planners with high penetrations of stochastic wind energy. The results obtained for an individual decision maker using stochastic optimization are ambiguous, with closed form solutions dependent on technological parameters, and no consideration of the system reliability. The social planner models correctly reflect the effect of system reliability, and in the case of a Stochastic, Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (S-SC-OPF or SuperOPF), determine reserve capacity endogenously so that system reliability is maintained. A single-period SuperOPF shows that including ramping costs in the objective function leads to more wind spilling and increased capacity requirements for reliability. However, this model does not reflect the inter temporal tradeoffs of using Energy Storage Systems (ESS) to improve reliability and mitigate wind variability. The results with the multiperiod SuperOPF determine the optimum use of storage for a typical day, and compare the effects of collocating ESS at wind sites with the same amount of storage (deferrable demand) located at demand centers. The collocated ESS has slightly lower operating costs and spills less wind generation compared to deferrable demand, but the total amount of conventional generating capacity needed for system adequacy is higher. In terms of the total system costs, that include the capital cost of conventional generating capacity, the costs with deferrable demand is substantially lower because the daily demand profile is flattened and less conventional generation capacity is then needed for reliability purposes. The analysis also demonstrates that the

  13. Excess electricity diagrams and the integration of renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a methodology of showing the rate of integration off specific renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system.......The article presents a methodology of showing the rate of integration off specific renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system....

  14. Role of Non-Renewable and Renewable Energy for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Ali Bekhet; Nor Hamisham Harun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of non-renewable energy and renewable energy utilization in Malaysia, including hydropower, solar photovoltaic, biomass and biogas technologies. Malaysia mainly depends on non-renewable energy (natural gas, coal and crude oil) for electricity generation. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the energy sector and discusses diversification of electricity generation as a strategy for providing sustainable ener...

  15. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  16. Contribution of green labels in electricity retail markets to fostering renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zomer, Sigourney P.E.

    2016-01-01

    In European countries, retailers are obliged to disclose the energy source and the related environmental impacts of their portfolio over the preceding year. The electricity supplied in the Dutch retail market is presented as renewable energy for 34%, but this relatively high share is for 69% based on certificates (Guarantees of Origin) which are imported from in particular Norway. The certificates are used to sell green electricity to consumers. The premium for green electricity which is actually paid by Dutch consumers is no more than a few percentages of the retail price. The low level of this premium is related to the abundant supply of certificates at low marginal costs from Norway. This also means that the premium for green electricity is too low to give an incentive for investments in new capacity. Hence, the current labelling system for renewable electricity is mainly valuable, besides being an instrument for tracking and tracing of renewable energy, as a marketing instrument for electricity retailers. The effectiveness of Guarantees of Origin as a policy instrument to foster renewable electricity sources is weak. This effectiveness can be raised by implementing restrictions on the international trade or the issuance of new certificates. - Highlights: • In Europe, electricity retailers are obliged to disclose the energy source. • In the Netherlands, most renewable energy is based on imported certificates. • The certificates system does not result in more renewable energy. • Restrictions on international trade may improve the effectiveness.

  17. Backup of Renewable Energy for an Electrical Island: Case Study of Israeli Electricity System—Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, A.; Kuperman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources. PMID:24624044

  18. Backup of renewable energy for an electrical island: case study of Israeli electricity system--current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, A; Kuperman, A

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources.

  19. Backup flexibility classes in emerging large-scale renewable electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachtberger, D.P.; Becker, S.; Schramm, S.; Greiner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible backup demand in a European wind and solar based power system is modelled. • Three flexibility classes are defined based on production and consumption timescales. • Seasonal backup capacities are shown to be only used below 50% renewable penetration. • Large-scale transmission between countries can reduce fast flexible capacities. - Abstract: High shares of intermittent renewable power generation in a European electricity system will require flexible backup power generation on the dominant diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal weather timescales. The same three timescales are already covered by today’s dispatchable electricity generation facilities, which are able to follow the typical load variations on the intra-day, intra-week, and seasonal timescales. This work aims to quantify the changing demand for those three backup flexibility classes in emerging large-scale electricity systems, as they transform from low to high shares of variable renewable power generation. A weather-driven modelling is used, which aggregates eight years of wind and solar power generation data as well as load data over Germany and Europe, and splits the backup system required to cover the residual load into three flexibility classes distinguished by their respective maximum rates of change of power output. This modelling shows that the slowly flexible backup system is dominant at low renewable shares, but its optimized capacity decreases and drops close to zero once the average renewable power generation exceeds 50% of the mean load. The medium flexible backup capacities increase for modest renewable shares, peak at around a 40% renewable share, and then continuously decrease to almost zero once the average renewable power generation becomes larger than 100% of the mean load. The dispatch capacity of the highly flexible backup system becomes dominant for renewable shares beyond 50%, and reach their maximum around a 70% renewable share. For renewable shares

  20. Development and bottlenecks of renewable electricity generation in China: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-04-02

    This review provides an overview on the development and status of electricity generation from renewable energy sources, namely hydropower, wind power, solar power, biomass energy, and geothermal energy, and discusses the technology, policy, and finance bottlenecks limiting growth of the renewable energy industry in China. Renewable energy, dominated by hydropower, currently accounts for more than 25% of the total electricity generation capacity. China is the world's largest generator of both hydropower and wind power, and also the largest manufacturer and exporter of photovoltaic cells. Electricity production from solar and biomass energy is at the early stages of development in China, while geothermal power generation has received little attention recently. The spatial mismatch in renewable energy supply and electricity demand requires construction of long-distance transmission networks, while the intermittence of renewable energy poses significant technical problems for feeding the generated electricity into the power grid. Besides greater investment in research and technology development, effective policies and financial measures should also be developed and improved to better support the healthy and sustained growth of renewable electricity generation. Meanwhile, attention should be paid to the potential impacts on the local environment from renewable energy development, despite the wider benefits for climate change.

  1. Are government policies effective in promoting deployment of renewable electricity resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Kniefel, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Using a panel data over 50 US states and years 1991-2007, this paper uses a state fixed-effects model with state-specific time-trends to estimate the effects of state policies on the penetration of various emerging renewable electricity sources, including wind, biomass, geothermal, and solar photovoltaic. Renewable portfolio standards with either capacity or sales requirements have a significant impact on the penetration of all types of renewables-however, this impact is variable depending on the type of renewable source: it is negative for combined renewables, wind, and biomass; and positive for geothermal and solar. Further, clean energy funds and required green power options mostly result in increasing the penetration of all types of renewables. On the other hand, voluntary renewable portfolio standards as well as state green power purchasing programs are found to be ineffective in increasing the penetration of any type of renewable source. Finally, economic variables, such as electricity price, natural gas price, and per capita GDP as well as structural variables, such as league of conservation voters rating and the share of coal-generated electricity are found to be generally insignificant, suggesting the crucial role of policy in increasing the penetration of renewables. - Highlights: → Ascertains the impact of state policies on increasing the renewable capacity. → Renewable portfolio requirements have an (sometimes unexpected) impact. → Clean energy funds and required green power options have a positive impact. → Voluntary renewable standards as well as state green power purchasing requirements are ineffective. → Economics as well as political and structural variables are ineffective.

  2. Generation Capacity Investments and High Levels of Renewables. The Impact of a German Capacity Market on Northwest Europe. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Van Hout, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Presently, Northwest European centralised electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market, the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit. Potentially, the designs of these markets could leave the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. Further, increasing penetration of renewables could exacerbate this problem. Of all the different options available to tackle the 'missing money' problem, capacity mechanisms have attracted most of the attention in recent policy debates in Europe. This paper contributes to ongoing policy discussions by providing a quantitative analysis of the phenomena of 'missing money' and capacity mechanisms in Northwest Europe. Our analysis shows that in the case of energy-only markets with a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, the 'missing money' problem may be aggravated, because operating hours for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have considerable impacts on cross-border electricity flows and investment decisions. Stand-alone introduction of a capacity market in Germany will likely result in higher investments in Germany at the expense of lower investments outside Germany and an increase in net exports from Germany. A possible advantage of a unilateral capacity mechanism in Germany may be a reduction in super-peak prices in the larger market area. Thus, neighbouring countries may have the possibility to free ride on the increase in flexible capacity in Germany. However, this advantage is conditional and depends on sufficient availability of interconnection capacity necessary to be able to use this reserve capacity. Otherwise, security of supply might be more at risk if the German

  3. Capacity payment impact on gas-fired generation investments under rising renewable feed-in — A real options analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hach, Daniel; Spinler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We assess the effect of capacity payments on investments in gas-fired power plants in the presence of different degrees of renewable energy technology (RET) penetration. Low variable cost renewables increasingly make investments in gas-fired generation unprofitable. At the same time, growing feed-in from intermittent RETs amplifies fluctuations in power generation, thus entailing the need for flexible buffer capacity—currently mostly gas-fired power plants. A real options approach is applied to evaluate investment decisions and timing of a single investor in gas-fired power generation. We investigate the necessity and effectiveness of capacity payments. Our model incorporates multiple uncertainties and assesses the effect of capacity payments under different degrees of RET penetration. In a numerical study, we implement stochastic processes for peak-load electricity prices and natural gas prices. We find that capacity payments are an effective measure to promote new gas-fired generation projects. Especially in times of high renewable feed-in, capacity payments are required to incentivize peak-load investments. - Highlights: • We assess capacity payments under the specific focus of the influence of different degrees of renewable feed-in. • We use a real options approach to analyze investment decision and timing. • Our model reflects stochastic gas prices and stochastic electricity prices. • The case study shows the value of capacity payments to investors especially under high renewable feed-in.

  4. Capacity choices in liberalised electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Rodriguez, Fidel; Marin, Pedro L.; Siotis, Georges

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of investment in electricity generation in the context of a liberalised market. We use the main results derived from a theoretical model where firms invest strategically to simulate the Spanish electricity system with real-world data. Our results indicate that, under reasonable parameter constellations regarding the number of agents, the level of capacity resulting from private decisions falls well short of the social optimum. Last, we show that two regulatory mechanisms that have been used to generate additional incentives for private agents to install capacity (capacity payment and price-adder) are ineffective and/or prohibitively costly.

  5. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  6. Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A.; Kentish, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately owned industry is discussed together with the market reform measures adopted in the sector. Current renewable energy policy is analysed, and the scope of the 2005 Renewable Energy Promotion Law is investigated. This is conducted within the context of the electricity sector reform that China adopted, and its effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy. This study draws upon primary information collected from interviews with stakeholders on the policy adequacy, and identifies three main types of shortcomings that have interfered with a more successful expansion of renewable energy in China. (author)

  7. Renewable energy supply for electric vehicle operations in California

    OpenAIRE

    Papavasiliou, Anthony; Oren, Shmuel S.; Sidhy, Ikhlaq; Kaminsky, Phil; 32nd IAEE International Conference

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological progress, policy thrust and economic circumstances, the large scale integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is becoming a reality in California, however the variable and unpredictable supply of these renewable resources poses a significant obstacle to their integration. At the same time we are witnessing a strong thrust towards the large scale deployment of electric vehicles which can ideally complement renewable power supply by acting as stor...

  8. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  9. Role of targeted policies in mainstreaming renewable energy in a resource constrained electricity system: A case study of Karnataka electricity system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrutha, A.A.; Balachandra, P.; Mathirajan, M.

    2017-01-01

    India is aggressively pursuing its renewable energy capacity expansion goals. Targeted policies such as Feed-in Tariff (FIT), Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) and Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are introduced to stimulate renewable energy capacity expansion as well as generation. Currently, Indian power utilities treat RPO targets as a cost-burden, and therefore there is prevalence of non-compliance. Even other policies, such as FIT and RECs, in their present form, have failed to influence increase in renewable electricity supply. This has lead us to raise an important question whether these policies are adequate for building a cost-effective renewable energy-based low carbon electricity system for India. In this paper, we discuss the impact of above targeted policies in increasing the share of renewable electricity generation in the case of Karnataka State Electricity System. Various scenarios are developed and analysed using mixed-integer programming model to study the impacts. The results suggest that optimally managed FIT and REC schemes can provide opportunities for utilities to benefit from reduced costs. Overall, the above policies are inadequate, and introduction of market-based incentives, which expand the scope of trading in renewable energy certificates, are essential to achieve the desired objectives. - Highlights: • Analysing impacts of targeted energy policies in increasing renewable electricity share. • Scenario analyses are used to study impact on costs, targets, shortages and compliance. • Current policies are inadequate to ensure renewable energy utilization beyond targets. • Policies are necessary to incentivise compliance and penalise non-compliance.

  10. Power system and market integration of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdmann Georg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses problems of power generation markets that arise under high shares of intermittent generation. After discussing the economic fundamentals of wind and photovoltaic investments, the paper introduces the concept of the “Merit order effect of renewables”. According to this concept electricity prices on wholesale power markets become smaller in periods during which large volumes of wind and photovoltaic generation is available and squeeze out relative expensive gas-fired power generation. The merit order effect of renewables has a couple of consequences. Among others it challenges the profitability of conventional power generation. If such generation capacities are still necessary, at least during a transitory period, a capacity mechanism may be put in place that generates an additional stream of income to the operators of conventional power generators. Another consequence of growing intermittent power generation is the need for concepts and technologies that deal with excess generation. Among these concepts are virtual and physical power storage capacities. In the last parts of the paper models are presented that are able to analyze these concepts from an economic point of view.

  11. Electrical capacity and resistance determination of emitting electric transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba Fernandez, J.; Ramis Soriano, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we calculate the electrical resistance and capacity of emitting electric transducer, which is mainly formed, in direct relationship with its properties, by a ceramic capacitor. Our aim is to motivate the students with an attractive element in order to carry out traditional measurements of the charge and discharge transients of a capacitor, implementing high resistance setups. (Author) 5 refs

  12. Urges use of renewable energy sources to generate electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of generation of electric power through renewable energy sources like geothermal and wind energy. The author that is the actual Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines explains the needs of Guatemala in the sector of energy in promoting the renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal energy because Guatemala has a potential generation by this sources

  13. Comparing the feed-in tariff incentives for renewable electricity in Ontario and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabee, Warren E.; Mannion, Justine; Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The development of feed-in tariff (FIT) programs to support green electricity in Ontario (the Green Energy and Green Economy Act of 2009) and Germany (the Erneuerbare Energien-Gesetz of 2000) is compared. The two policies are highly comparable, offering similar rates for most renewable electricity technologies. Major differences between the policies include the level of differentiation found in the German policy, as well as the use of a price degression strategy for FIT rates in Germany compared to an escalation strategy in Ontario. The German renewable electricity portfolio is relatively balanced, compared to Ontario where wind power dominates the portfolio. At the federal level, Canada does not yet have a policy similar to the European Directive on Renewable Energy, and this lack may impact decisions taken by manufacturers of renewable technologies who consider establishing operations in the province. Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act could be benefit from lessons in the German system, especially with regard to degression of feed-in tariff rates over time, which could significantly reduce payments to producers over the course of a contract, and in turn encourage greater competitiveness among renewable power providers in the future. - Highlights: ► We compare two jurisdictions that utilize feed-in tariffs to support renewable electricity. ► Complementary policy such as mandated renewable energy use in conjunction with tariffs increases certainty for investors. ► Targeted incentives in the form of adders can deliver more diversity in renewable generation capacity. ► Degression of tariff rates delivers renewable generation capacity at lower cost.

  14. Impact of renewables on electricity markets – Do support schemes matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Jenny; Gaio, Alberto; Pfluger, Benjamin; Ragwitz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Rising renewable shares influence electricity markets in several ways: among others, average market prices are reduced and price volatility increases. Therefore, the “missing money problem” in energy-only electricity markets is more likely to occur in systems with high renewable shares. Nevertheless, renewables are supported in many countries due to their expected benefits. The kind of support instrument can however influence the degree to which renewables influence the market. While fixed feed-in tariffs lead to higher market impacts, more market-oriented support schemes such as market premiums, quota systems and capacity-based payments decrease the extent to which markets are affected. This paper analyzes the market impacts of different support schemes. For this purpose, a new module is added to an existing bottom-up simulation model of the electricity market. In addition, different degrees of flexibility in the electricity system are considered. A case study for Germany is used to derive policy recommendations regarding the choice of support scheme. - Highlights: •Renewable support schemes matter regarding the impact on electricity markets. •Market-oriented support schemes reduce the impact on electricity markets. •More flexible electricity systems reduce the need for market participation. •Sliding premiums combine market integration with a productive risk allocation.

  15. Croatia's rural areas - renewable energy based electricity generation for isolated grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protic Sonja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Western Balkan states face the consequences of the Yugoslavian war, which left hometowns with dilapidated electricity grid connections, a high average age of power plant capacities and low integration of renewable energy sources, grid bottlenecks and a lack of competition. In order to supply all households with electricity, UNDP Croatia did a research on decentralized supply systems based on renewable energy sources. Decentralized supply systems offer cheaper electricity connections and provide faster support to rural development. This paper proposes a developed methodology to financially compare isolated grid solutions that primarily use renewable energies to an extension of the public electricity network to small regions in Croatia. Isolated grid supply proves to be very often a preferable option. Furthermore, it points out the lack of a reliable evaluation of non-monetizable aspects and promotes a new interdisciplinary approach.

  16. Electric power from renewable energy: resources and stakes for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the essential of the last thematic letter published by the IFEN (French institute of the environment), devoted to the resources and stakes of the electric power produced by the renewable energies in France. (A.L.B.)

  17. Retail Rate Impacts of Renewable Electricity: Some First Thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    This report summarizes select recent analyses of the retail rate impacts of renewable electricity, introduce core limitations of available literature, as rate impacts remain only partly assessed, and highlight a wide range of estimated historical and possible future rate impacts.

  18. Renewable sources electric power: resources and challenges for the France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchereau, J.M.; Dormoy, C.

    2001-05-01

    This paper provides information (statistical data, legal framework) on the electric power produced by the renewable energy sources in France. It explains the associated local economical challenge and the french objectives in the European Union Directive. (A.L.B.)

  19. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa. (author)

  20. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa

  1. The ADEME's 100% renewable electric mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2015-01-01

    The author comments, discusses and criticizes the content of a report published by the ADEME which stated that metropolitan France could be supplied by an energy being at 100 per cent from renewable origin. He first outlines some contradictions in the introducing text (a theoretical or scenario-based study?). He comments the basic hypothesis for 2050: 50.000 wind turbines and 500 square kilometres of solar plants and tens of thousands of roofs equipped with solar arrays, exploitation of sea wave energy, production of methane to be stored by using exceeding electricity, high capacity of energy storage. He discusses the second supposed parameter (reduction of the energy needs to 422 TWh), comments how meteorology is simulated over a year and hour per hour. He discusses the fact that still possible cold waves are not really taken into account as far as maximum demand is concerned, and outlines that the tested peak reveals the failure of the proposed system. Then, the author proposes a comparison with the German work performed by the Fraunhofer Institute for the German project of Energiewende. He outlines that the ADEME study does not address the fine management of the grid, and states that anticipated costs are optimistic. He finally outlines that the report has been misinterpreted, and that its actual content is in fact that going beyond 40 per cent of renewable energies in the French energy mix would be very risky for the energy supply and the reliability of the energy system, and also very expensive

  2. The characteristics of electricity storage, renewables and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper accepts the widespread view that as electricity generation systems transition towards a greater proportion of renewables provision, there will be an increasing need for storage facilities. However, it differs from most such studies in contrasting the private incentives of a storage operator with the public desirability of bulk storage. A key factor in the context of a market such as Britain, where renewable energy largely means wind generation, is the nature of wind generation itself. The problem of wind's high variance and intermittent nature is explored. It is argued that not only is there a missing money and a missing market issue in providing secure energy supplies, there is also a missing informational issue. A key opportunity for new storage is participation in a capacity market, if the setting is right. - Highlights: • Considers both the public and private incentives for developing energy storage. • Consideration of the intermittency of wind as a factor influencing storage. • Arbitrage analysed alongside other earning streams. • Impact of market design on extent of storage.

  3. The impact of demand side management strategies in the penetration of renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, André; Silva, Carlos; Ferrão, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    High fuel costs, increasing energy security and concerns with reducing emissions have pushed governments to invest in the use of renewable energies for electricity generation. However, the intermittence of most renewable resources when renewable energy provides a significant share of the energy mix can create problems to electricity grids, which can be minimized by energy storage systems that are usually not available or expensive. An alternative solution consists on the use of demand side management strategies, which can have the double effect of reducing electricity consumption and allowing greater efficiency and flexibility in the grid management, namely by enabling a better match between supply and demand. This work analyzes the impact of demand side management strategies in the evolution of the electricity mix of Flores Island in the Azores archipelago which is characterized by high shares of renewable energy and therefore the introduction of more renewable energy sources makes it an interesting case study for testing innovative solutions. The electricity generation system is modeled in TIMES, a software which optimizes the investment and operation of wind and hydro plants until 2020 based on scenarios for demand growth, deployment of demand response technologies in the domestic sector and promotion of behavioral changes to eliminate standby power. The results show that demand side management strategies can lead to a significant delay in the investment on new generation capacity from renewable resources and improve the operation of the existing installed capacity. -- Highlights: ► Energy efficiency can help reduce the need for investment in more renewable energy. ► Dynamic demand helps increase the use of renewable energy in low demand periods. ► Around 40% of total consumption by domestic appliances is used as dynamic demand. ► The load of domestic appliances is mainly shifted to the 5:00 to 9:00 period.

  4. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  5. U.S. Renewable Electricity Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US green energy market is broken up into two main groups: the mandatory markets including state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and voluntary markets, also referred to as green power markets.  This page delineates this two markets.

  6. Report on the renewal of the hydro-electric concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The administrative procedures of the renewable of the hydro-electric concessions in France is a real problem, leading to too long time of the case files examination. This mission aimed to identify the technical and financial criteria on which the decision maker will base his choice to give the concessions renewal. This report exposes the evaluation and the recommendations of the mission. The first part establishes an evaluation of the situation of the hydro-electric concessions and the today renewal procedures. The second part presents a analysis of this situation and the recommendations. The last part brings the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  7. Harmonization of renewable electricity feed-in laws: A comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    This comment aims at critically analyzing some of the economic efficiency issues that are raised in the paper by Munoz et al. [2007. Harmonization of renewable electricity feed-in laws in the European Union. Energy Policy 35, 3104-3114] on the harmonization of feed-in law schemes for renewable electricity in the European Union. We comment on the choice between green certificate systems and feed-in laws, but pay particular attention to the implementation and design of a harmonized feed-in law scheme. In the comment we argue first that the approach suggested by Munoz et al. tends to downplay many of the practical difficulties in assessing the real costs facing investors in renewable electricity, not the least since the presence of regulatory uncertainty about the marginal costs of renewable electricity may be essential for the choice between different support systems. Concerning the benefit side of renewable electricity promotion, the Munoz et al. (2007) paper builds on an interpretation of the EU Renewables Directive that provides plenty of room for national priorities and that therefore essentially implies that harmonized support premiums per se are of little value. We argue instead that a harmonized system should primarily address the international spillover effects from renewable electricity promotion, not the least those related to improved security of supply in Europe. There exists then a strong case for disregarding the specific national benefits of renewable electricity production in the design of harmonized support systems, and for instead considering international-perhaps at the start bilateral-policy support coordination based on entirely uniform support levels

  8. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  9. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  10. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Management of Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco

    -by-price. In a similar setup, the optimal trading (and pricing) problem for a retailer connected to flexible consumers is considered. Finally, market and system operators are challenged by the increasing penetration of renewables, which put stress on markets that were designed to accommodate a generation mix largely......This thesis deals with the development and application of models for decision-making under uncertainty to support the participation of renewables in electricity markets. The output of most renewable sources, e.g., wind, is intermittent and, furthermore, it can only be predicted with a limited...... accuracy. As a result of their non-dispatchable and stochastic nature, the management of renewables poses new challenges as compared to conventional sources of electricity. Focusing in particular on short-term electricity markets, both the trading activities of market participants (producers, retailers...

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  15. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    There is considerable debate about the degree to which restructured markets perform successfully in their use of capacity markets. In providing appropriate incentives for new and existing generation to meet reliability requirements, a variety of capacity market designs have developed across RTOs and ISOs in the United States and internationally. Growing levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because VREs suppress energy prices while providing relatively little capacity, with these effects increase with VRE penetration. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets under consideration using variable resource requirement (VRR) demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers, including where there substantive differences in opinion. Third, we consider some of the challenges that may be specific to higher penetration levels of VRE. While the well known 'merit order' effect from VRE can be expected to suppress wholesale energy prices and revenue, this may be partly mitigated by increased capacity payments and the greater importance of AS payments for flexible capacity. The potential for greater reliance on capacity markets for generator revenues may amplify any inefficiency and costs associated with capacity price volatility and other suboptimal market design choices. Regulatory intervention to ensure adequate capacity payments and ancillary service revenue may become more prevalent under current market designs as the timescale for market signals shifts increasingly from near term (e.g., day-ahead in wholesale electricity markets) to longer term (annual intervals in capacity markets). Our review and discussion with market participants suggest substantive challenges may

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Three Proposed Federal Renewable Electricity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyzes potential impacts of proposed national renewable electricity standard (RES) legislation. An RES is a mandate requiring certain electricity retailers to provide a minimum share of their electricity sales from qualifying renewable power generation. The analysis focuses on draft bills introduced individually by Senator Jeff Bingaman and Representative Edward Markey, and jointly by Representative Henry Waxman and Markey. The analysis uses NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to evaluate the impacts of the proposed RES requirements on the U.S. energy sector in four scenarios.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Three Proposed Federal Renewable Electricity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Logan, J.; Bird, L.; Short, W.

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyzes potential impacts of proposed national renewable electricity standard (RES) legislation. An RES is a mandate requiring certain electricity retailers to provide a minimum share of their electricity sales from qualifying renewable power generation. The analysis focuses on draft bills introduced individually by Senator Jeff Bingaman and Representative Edward Markey, and jointly by Representative Henry Waxman and Markey. The analysis uses NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to evaluate the impacts of the proposed RES requirements on the U.S. energy sector in four scenarios.

  18. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development

  19. Renewables within the German Electricity System - Experiences and Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaltschmitt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades renewable sources of energy as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel energy have gained more and more importance within the German electricity system. Their share has increased from less than 4 % to roughly one third of the gross electricity production in the last 25 years. Against this background, the goal of this paper is to present briefly the current status of the use of renewables within the German electricity system, to assess selected developments taking place during this development process as well as to identify given challenges and needs as well as necessary actions to pave the road for a further use of renewable sources of energy within the German electricity provision system. The political driver for the latter is the overarching goal to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions which has been confirmed within the Paris agreement signed by the end of 2015.

  20. Effects of renewables penetration on the security of Portuguese electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, João Pedro; Dias, Luís; Martins, Inês; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the importance of the electricity sector in energy security in Portugal. • We compare energy security indicators for 2004 and 2011. • Strong wind penetration has an important role on the country energy security. • Infrastructure is the weaker component in electricity sector supply chain. - Abstract: The increase of renewables in power sector, together with the increase of their electricity share in final energy consumption, is changing our perception about energy security with diverse and contradictory statements. The Portuguese security of electricity supply is analyzed in this study by comparing selected indicators for 2 years before and after the high increase of onshore wind since 2005. Our goal is to find how the security of electricity supply was impacted by the penetration of renewables, taking a supply chain approach. Our analysis highlights that the penetration of renewables has decreased the energy dependence of the power sector by more than 20% between 2004 and 2011, while risks related to the concentration of natural gas suppliers and to the still-high share of fossil fuels suffering from price volatility are discussed. We observed a significant improvement in power interconnections with Spain, as well as an increase of the de-rated generation capacity margin, allowing proper management of renewable power intermittency if necessary, thereby improving power security. Although the share of intermittent renewables almost quadrupled in total installed capacity between those years, the indicators reveal an improvement in the quality of transport and distribution when delivering electricity to end-users. Although electricity prices increased, mainly due to taxes, the lack of energy efficiency is an aspect deserving improvement to alleviate the pressure on electricity security, mainly at high peak demands

  1. The renewable energy targets of the Maghreb countries: Impact on electricity supply and conventional power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard; Zingerle, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, the three countries of the North African Maghreb region, are showing increased efforts to integrate renewable electricity into their power markets. Like many other countries, they have pronounced renewable energy targets, defining future shares of 'green' electricity in their national generation mixes. The individual national targets are relatively varied, reflecting the different availability of renewable resources in each country, but also the different political ambitions for renewable electricity in the Maghreb states. Open questions remain regarding the targets' economic impact on the power markets. Our article addresses this issue by applying a linear electricity market optimization model to the North African countries. Assuming a competitive, regional electricity market in the Maghreb, the model minimizes dispatch and investment costs and simulates the impact of the renewable energy targets on the conventional generation system until 2025. Special emphasis is put on investment decisions and overall system costs. - Research Highlights: →Market simulation shows impact of RES-E penetration on the conventional power system of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. →Noticeable effects on dispatch and investments in fossil power plants. →Reduced utilization of base-load plants - stronger investments in flexible capacities. →Overall system costs can be decreased by optimizing the RES-E goals.

  2. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  3. Implications of high renewable electricity penetration in the U.S. for water use, greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, and materials supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arent, Doug; Pless, Jacquelyn; Mai, Trieu; Wiser, Ryan; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam; Heath, Garvin; Macknick, Jordan; Bazilian, Morgan; Schlosser, Adam; Denholm, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable electricity generation could supply 80% of U.S. generation in 2050. • GHGs are reduced proportionally and water use is reduced by 50%. • Gross land-use impacts total less than 3% of land area of the contiguous U.S. • Some clean energy technologies rely on materials that face short-term risks. • No insurmountable long-term constraints to materials supply were identified. - Abstract: Recent work found that renewable energy could supply 80% of electricity demand in the contiguous United States in 2050 at the hourly level. This paper explores some of the implications of achieving such high levels of renewable electricity for supply chains and the environment in scenarios with renewable supply up to such levels. Expanding the renewable electricity supply at this scale by 2050 implies annual capacity additions of roughly 20 gigawatts per year (GW/year) over the next decade, rising to roughly 40 GW/year from 2040 to 2050. Given total 2012 renewable electricity capacity additions of slightly more than 16 GW, this suggests moderate growth of the related supply chains, averaging overall roughly 4% annual growth to 2040. Transitioning to high renewable electricity supply would lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and water use, with only modest land-use implications. While renewable energy expansion implies moderate growth of the renewable electricity supply chains, no insurmountable long-term constraints to renewable electricity technology manufacturing capacity or materials supply are identified

  4. Tax barriers to four renewable electric generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, A.F.; Chapman, R.A.; Reilly, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    The tax loads associated with constructing and owning current and advanced solar central receiver, biomass-electric, and flash and binary cycle geothermal projects are compared to the tax loads incurred by natural gas-fired generation matched in size, hours of operation, and technology status. All but one of the eight renewable projects carry higher tax burdens under current tax codes. These higher tax loads proportionately reduce the competitiveness of renewables. Three tax neutralizing policies are applied to the renewable projects, each restoring competitiveness for some of the projects. The results show that RD and D must be accompanied with such public initiatives as tax neutrality in order for the majority of renewable projects to compete with advanced gas turbines in the emerging electric services market

  5. Overview of renewable electric power in 2016 in Normandy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    This publication proposes an assessment of renewable electricity produced in 2016 in the Normandie region, and thus highlights how these territories are committed in an energy transition logics and in a positive evolution of the region energy mix. After a recall of national and regional objectives in terms of final consumption and of shares of renewable energies, definitions, figures, objectives, installed and connected powers, projects, evolutions, electric power production cover rate, numbers and locations of installations are given by graphs and maps and briefly commented for the different renewable sources: onshore wind energy, solar photovoltaic energy, hydroelectricity, bio-energies. A regional assessment which gathers some of these information is given, and modalities of support to renewable energies are briefly presented for onshore and offshore wind energy, photovoltaic, hydroelectricity and biogas

  6. Assessing the performance of renewable electricity support instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Lauber, Volkmar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of feed-in tariffs and tradable certificates is assessed on criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and institutional feasibility. In the early stage of transition to an energy system based entirely on renewable energy supplies, renewable electricity can only thrive if support takes into account the specific technical, economic and political problems which result from embedding this electricity in conventional power systems whose technology, organizational structure, environmental responsibility and general mission differ profoundly from the emerging, renewable-based system. Support schemes need to capture the diversity of power supplies, the variable nature of some renewable supplies, and their different attributes for the purposes of public policy. They must take into account the variety of generators – including small, decentralized generation – emerging in a renewable-based system, and the new relationships between generators and customers. Renewable energy policies need a clear point of reference: because the incumbent power systems are not sustainable they must adapt to the requirements of the renewable ones, not the other way round. Incumbent systems carry the responsibility of paying the transition, something that corresponds best with the polluter pays principle. - Highlights: ► Present power systems must adapt to the requirements of growing renewable ones, not the opposite. ► Well performing support systems capture the diversity of renewable sources and technologies. ► Feed-in Tariffs are superior in addressing the renewables' diversity and in promoting innovation. ► Feed-in Tariffs put transition burdens on incumbents and stimulate independent producers.

  7. Willingness to pay for electricity from renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Houston, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    National polls reveal widespread public preference and willingness to pay more for renewables. ``Green pricing`` programs attempt to capitalize on these preferences and on an expressed willingness to pay more for environmental protection. This report explores the utility option of green pricing as a method of aggregating public preferences for renewables. It summarizes national data on public preferences for renewables and willingness to pay (WTP) for electricity from renewable energy sources; examines utility market studies on WTP for renewables and green-pricing program features; critiques utility market research on green pricing; and discusses experiences with selected green-pricing programs. The report draws inferences for program design and future research. Given the limited experiences with the programs so far, the evidence suggests that programs in which customers pay a monthly premium for a specific renewable electricity product elicit a higher monthly financial commitment per customer than programs asking for contributions to unspecified future actions involving renewables. The experience with green-pricing programs is summarized and factors likely to affect customer participation are identified.

  8. Integrated scheduling of renewable generation and electric vehicles parking lot in a smart microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarmand, Masoud; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated operation of renewable generation and electric vehicles is presented. • The capability of electric vehicles in providing reserve has been analyzed. • A new electric vehicles charging/discharging management system is proposed. • The technical features of electric vehicle’s batteries are considered. - Abstract: Integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) into the electric power system may bring up many technical issues. The power system may put at risk the security and reliability of operation due to intermittent nature of renewable generation and uncontrolled charging/discharging procedure of EVs. In this paper, an energy resources management model for a microgrid (MG) is proposed. The proposed method considers practical constraints, renewable power forecasting errors, spinning reserve requirements and EVs owner satisfaction. A case study with a typical MG including 200 EVs is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed energy resource scheduling method satisfies financial and technical goals of parking lot as well as the security and economic issues of MG. Moreover, EV owners could earn profit by discharging their vehicles’ batteries or providing the reserve capacity and finally have desired State Of Charge (SOC) in the departure time

  9. More competition: Threat or chance for financing renewable electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Sandor; Jaeger-Waldau, Arnulf

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines how increased competition in electricity markets may reshape the future electricity generation portfolio and its potential impact on the renewable energy (RE) within the energy mix. The present analysis, which is based on modelling investor behaviour with a time horizon up to 2030, considers the economic aspects and conditions for this development with a particular focus on the photovoltaics. These aspects include pure financial/investment factors, such as the expected returns in the sector, subsidisation of certain RE resources and other policies focusing on the energy sector (liberalisation, environmental policies and security of supply considerations). The results suggest that policies aiming at the expansion of renewable energy technologies and strengthening the competition in the electricity markets have mutually reinforcing effects. More competition can reduce the financial burden of the existing renewable support schemes and consequently help to achieve the already established RE targets. (author)

  10. Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes present major reliability issues, leading to great interest in the current development of gearless direct-drive wind energy systems. Offering high reliability, high efficiency and low maintenance, developments in these direct-drive systems point the way to the next generation of wind power, and Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems is an authoritative guide to their design, development and operation. Part one outlines electrical drive technology, beginning with an overview of electrical generators for direct drive systems. Principles of electrical design for permanent magnet generators are discussed, followed by electrical, thermal and structural generator design and systems integration. A review of power electronic converter technology and power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications is then conducted. Part two then focuses on wind and marine applications, beginning with a commercial overview of wind turbine drive systems and a...

  11. Guest Editorial Electric Machines in Renewable Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliprantis, Dionysios; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Muljadi, Eduard; Brown, Ian; Chiba, Akira; Dorrell, David; Erlich, Istvan; Kerszenbaum, Isidor Izzy; Levi, Emil; Mayor, Kevin; Mohammed, Osama; Papathanassiou, Stavros; Popescu, Mircea; Qiao, Wei; Wu, Dezheng

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this special issue is to collect and disseminate publications that highlight recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of renewable energy resources. The use of these resources for production of electricity is increasing rapidly worldwide. As of 2015, a majority of countries have set renewable electricity targets in the 10%-40% range to be achieved by 2020-2030, with a few notable exceptions aiming for 100% generation by renewables. We are experiencing a truly unprecedented transition away from fossil fuels, driven by environmental, energy security, and socio-economic factors.Electric machines can be found in a wide range of renewable energy applications, such as wind turbines, hydropower and hydrokinetic systems, flywheel energy storage devices, and low-power energy harvesting systems. Hence, the design of reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and controllable electric machines is crucial in enabling even higher penetrations of renewable energy systems in the smart grid of the future. In addition, power electronic converter design and control is critical, as they provide essential controllability, flexibility, grid interface, and integration functions.

  12. Supply amount and marginal price of renewable electricity under the renewables portfolio standard in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Kenichiro; Asano, Hiroshi [Central Research institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Socio-economic Research Center

    2006-10-15

    The Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) in Japan requires that approximately 1.35% of each retail supplier's electricity sales in FY2010 come from renewable energy sources (RES), for example, photovoltaics, wind, biomass, geothermal, and small hydropower. To help retail suppliers and renewable generators develop effective strategies, this study provides a quantitative analysis of the impact of this measure. We assume the supply conditions for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) based on regional resource endowments, and we derive the cost-effective compositions of renewable portfolios, RES-E certificate prices, and additional costs to retail suppliers. The future prospects of RES-E are assessed based on technology, region, and year up to FY2010. The analysis reveals that wind power and biomass power generated from municipal waste will provide the majority of the total supply of RES-E under the RPS. It also indicates that the marginal price of RES-E certificates will be approximately 5.8 JPY/kWh (5.2 USc/kWh) in FY2010, in the case wherein the marginal price of electricity is assumed to be 4 JPY/kWh (3.6 USc/kWh). In order to elaborate on this further, sensitivity analyses for some parameters of RES and the price of electricity are provided. The dynamic supply curves of RES-E certificates are also indicated. (author)

  13. Supply amount and marginal price of renewable electricity under the renewables portfolio standard in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Kenichiro; Asano, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) in Japan requires that approximately 1.35% of each retail supplier's electricity sales in FY2010 come from renewable energy sources (RES), for example, photovoltaics, wind, biomass, geothermal, and small hydropower. To help retail suppliers and renewable generators develop effective strategies, this study provides a quantitative analysis of the impact of this measure. We assume the supply conditions for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) based on regional resource endowments, and we derive the cost-effective compositions of renewable portfolios, RES-E certificate prices, and additional costs to retail suppliers. The future prospects of RES-E are assessed based on technology, region, and year up to FY2010. The analysis reveals that wind power and biomass power generated from municipal waste will provide the majority of the total supply of RES-E under the RPS. It also indicates that the marginal price of RES-E certificates will be approximately 5.8 JPY/kWh (5.2 USc/kWh) in FY2010, in the case wherein the marginal price of electricity is assumed to be 4 JPY/kWh (3.6 USc/kWh). In order to elaborate on this further, sensitivity analyses for some parameters of RES and the price of electricity are provided. The dynamic supply curves of RES-E certificates are also indicated

  14. Supply amount and marginal price of renewable electricity under the renewables portfolio standard in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Kenichiro; Asano, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) in Japan requires that approximately 1.35% of each retail supplier's electricity sales in FY2010 come from renewable energy sources (RES), for example, photovoltaics, wind, biomass, geothermal, and small hydropower. To help retail suppliers and renewable generators develop effective strategies, this study provides a quantitative analysis of the impact of this measure. We assume the supply conditions for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) based on regional resource endowments, and we derive the cost-effective compositions of renewable portfolios, RES-E certificate prices, and additional costs to retail suppliers. The future prospects of RES-E are assessed based on technology, region, and year up to FY2010. The analysis reveals that wind power and biomass power generated from municipal waste will provide the majority of the total supply of RES-E under the RPS. It also indicates that the marginal price of RES-E certificates will be approximately 5.8 JPY/kWh (5.2 USc/kWh) in FY2010, in the case wherein the marginal price of electricity is assumed to be 4 JPY/kWh (3.6 USc/kWh). In order to elaborate on this further, sensitivity analyses for some parameters of RES and the price of electricity are provided. The dynamic supply curves of RES-E certificates are also indicated. (author)

  15. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    How can renewable energy sources be efficiently integrated into the North African electricity systems? By using techno-economic modeling methods, this book explores optimized electricity system expansion pathways until the year 2030 for the five North African countries - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The results indicate that renewable energy integration is actually a viable business case for the entire region, if wind and solar capacities are properly planned in conjunction with the conventional generation system and under consideration of the country-specific electricity supply-/demand patterns. Further aspects featured in this publication are the impact of renewable power on the transnational electricity transmission system and the question how decision making processes about renewable energy strategies can be improved in the North African context. The book is a contribution to the scientific literature about energy issues in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), but also seeks to address political and industrial practitioners concerned with the development of the region's renewable energy future.

  16. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    How can renewable energy sources be efficiently integrated into the North African electricity systems? By using techno-economic modeling methods, this book explores optimized electricity system expansion pathways until the year 2030 for the five North African countries - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The results indicate that renewable energy integration is actually a viable business case for the entire region, if wind and solar capacities are properly planned in conjunction with the conventional generation system and under consideration of the country-specific electricity supply-/demand patterns. Further aspects featured in this publication are the impact of renewable power on the transnational electricity transmission system and the question how decision making processes about renewable energy strategies can be improved in the North African context. The book is a contribution to the scientific literature about energy issues in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), but also seeks to address political and industrial practitioners concerned with the development of the region's renewable energy future.

  17. Generation capacity adequacy in interdependent electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in regional electricity markets with transmission constraints. Differences between regulatory policies and market designs in terms of generation adequacy policies may distort the normal functioning of the neighboring markets, as well as the reliability of supply. We test the effect of heterogeneous regulatory design between two interdependent markets: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. We rely on a long-term market simulation model in system dynamics that characterizes expansion decision in a competitive regime. The results show that differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. We examine both the short and long terms effect, and how free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other. The main finding is that the lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. - Research highlights: → We model the long-term dynamic of two interdependent markets. → We examine both the short and long terms effect of heterogeneous regulatory design: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. → Differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. → Lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. → Free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other.

  18. Optimal grid design and logistic planning for wind and biomass based renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Atif; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the grid design and optimal allocation of wind and biomass resources for renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties is studied. Due to wind intermittency, generation of wind electricity is not uniform and cannot be counted on to be readily available to meet the demand. Biomass represents a type of stored energy and is the only renewable resource that can be used for producing biofuels and generating electricity whenever required. However, amount of biomass resources are finite and might not be sufficient to meet the demand for electricity and biofuels. Potential of wind and biomass resources is therefore jointly analyzed for electricity generation. Policies are proposed and evaluated for optimal allocation of finite biomass resources for electricity generation. A stochastic programming model is proposed that optimally balances the electricity demand across the available supply from wind and biomass resources under uncertainties in wind speed and electricity sale price. A case study set in the American Midwest is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by determining the optimal decisions for generation and transmission of renewable electricity. Sensitivity analysis shows that level of subsidy for renewable electricity production has a major impact on the decisions. - Highlights: • Stochastic optimization model for wind/biomass renewable electricity supply chain. • Multiple uncertainties in wind speeds and electricity sale price. • Proposed stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model under uncertainties. • Uncertainty affects grid connectivity and allocation of power generation capacity. • Location of wind farms is found to be insensitive to the stochastic environment

  19. Renewable Generators' Consortium: ensuring a market for green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This project summary focuses on the objectives and key achievements of the Renewable Generators Consortium (RGC) which was established to help renewable energy projects under the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) to continue to generate in the open liberated post-1998 electricity market. The background to the NFFO is traced, and the development of the Consortium, and the attitudes of generators and suppliers to the Consortium are discussed along with the advantages of collective negotiations through the RGC, the Heads of Terms negotiations, and the success of RGC which has demonstrated the demand for green electricity

  20. Financial incentives to promote renewable energy systems in European electricity markets: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Huber, C.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    Renewable energy systems may contribute to sustainable development. Therefore, one of the challenges for energy policy is to ensure that renewable energy options have a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents a survey on promotion mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewable energies in European electricity markets. Strategies include rebates and tax incentives, regulated rates, system benefit charges, bidding-oriented mechanisms and various types of green pricing programs. The paper concludes that efficient promotion mechanisms should focus on incentives per kWh generated rather than on rebates on the investment in generating capacity (kW), and that there is no one single program type which has the best application to the promotion of all renewable technologies. For example, enhanced buy-back rates work as a dissemination strategy for wind energy but they do not work for photovoltaics. (author)

  1. Competing on service and branding in the renewable electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, Angela; Pandit, Ameet P.

    2012-01-01

    Green marketing research has traditionally analysed the effect of attitudes and norms on purchase intentions and behaviours. While we are aware of research examining attitudes and behaviours towards green tangible products (e.g., ), there is no understanding regarding how these factors apply to intangible renewable power services. Similarly, branding and its effects are scant in a contemporary green marketing context. Of this research, most has evaluated the product and not service brands. Some have researched the extent of green branding and its effects on attitudes (e.g., ). Despite this, research evaluating the role of renewable electricity retailer brands and their characteristics is limited. This study works towards understanding this and seeks to bind the existing branding, services marketing and consumer behaviour literatures to understand the motivators behind renewable electricity purchase in Australia. With the introduction of contestable customers and the increase in importance of renewable energy around the world, it is imperative that renewable electricity retailers attract consumer interest and attain their consideration. Using focus group research and in-depth interviews from consumers in Australia, this paper analyses the strategic options available to the power provider to increase their appeal to the consumer. Theoretical and managerial implications are reviewed. - Highlights: ► We examine the motivations to adopt renewable electricity by Australian consumers. ► Renewable power suppliers should create a ‘living brand’ where employees are invested in the brand. ► Service interaction is a point of differentiation leading to increased competitive advantage. ► Building a sense of brand community helps build customer loyalty and the rise of green energy programs. ► Functional and emotional brand positioning appeals to consumers can be used to increase adoption.

  2. Notebook 'Electricity with a renewable origin: a changing Europe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This publication gathers several articles or links to articles which state that the solar photovoltaic will cost less than 5 cent per KWh within 16 years, outline that a third of the Danish electricity has been produced by wind energy in 2013, notice that wind energy and solar energy are stagnating in France, describe the content and meaning of the EEG 2.0 reform in Germany which addresses renewable energy, indicate that Portugal has reached 70 pc of electricity based on renewable energy, describes the example of the energy autonomy of the El Hierro island (one of the Canary Islands) by using renewable energies, discuss the fact that the abundance of fossil energies hides the potential of renewable energies, comments the example of the French Polynesia where half of the electricity will have a renewable origin in 2020, and deny the fact that solar energy would boost coal consumption in Germany. This publication also contains a study made by the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems which analyzes the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energy technologies in the third quarter of 2013, and predicts their future cost development through 2030 based on technology-specific learning curves and market scenarios. This study more specifically proposes an analysis of the current situation and of future market development of photovoltaic (PV), wind power and biogas power plants in Germany, an economic modelling of the technology-specific LCOE (Status 3. quarter of 2013) for different types of power plants and local conditions (e.g. solar irradiation and wind conditions) on the basis of common market conditions, an assessment of the different technology and financial parameters based on sensitivity analysis of the individual technologies, a forecast for the future LCOE of renewable energy technologies through 2030 based on learning curve models and market scenarios, and an analysis of the current situation and future market development of PV

  3. Impact of competitive electricity market on renewable generation technology choice and policies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Market objectives based on private value judgments will conflict with social policy objectives toward environmental quality in an emerging restructured electricity industry. This might affect the choice of renewables in the future generation mix. The US electricity industry's long-term capacity planning and operations is simulated for alternative market paradigms to study this impact. The analysis indicates that the share of renewable energy generation sources would decrease and emissions would increase considerably in a more competitive industry, with greater impact occurring in a monopoly market. Alternative environmental policy options can overcome market failures and help achieve appropriate levels of renewable generation. An evaluation of these policies indicate their varying cost-effectiveness, with higher levels of intervention necessary if market power exists. (Author)

  4. Rejecting renewables: The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    If renewable power systems deliver such impressive benefits, why do they still provide only 3 percent of national electricity generation in the United States? As an answer, this article demonstrates that the impediments to renewable power are socio-technical, a term that encompasses the technological, social, political, regulatory, and cultural aspects of electricity supply and use. Extensive interviews of public utility commissioners, utility managers, system operators, manufacturers, researchers, business owners, and ordinary consumers reveal that it is these socio-technical barriers that often explain why wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources are not embraced. Utility operators reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big, conventional power plants. Consumers practically ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies), and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) prevent consumers from becoming fully invested in their electricity choices. As a result, newer and cleaner technologies that may offer social and environmental benefits but are not consistent with the dominant paradigm of the electricity industry continue to face comparative rejection.

  5. Rejecting renewables. The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-11-15

    If renewable power systems deliver such impressive benefits, why do they still provide only 3 percent of national electricity generation in the United States? As an answer, this article demonstrates that the impediments to renewable power are socio-technical, a term that encompasses the technological, social, political, regulatory, and cultural aspects of electricity supply and use. Extensive interviews of public utility commissioners, utility managers, system operators, manufacturers, researchers, business owners, and ordinary consumers reveal that it is these socio-technical barriers that often explain why wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources are not embraced. Utility operators reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big, conventional power plants. Consumers practically ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies), and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) prevent consumers from becoming fully invested in their electricity choices. As a result, newer and cleaner technologies that may offer social and environmental benefits but are not consistent with the dominant paradigm of the electricity industry continue to face comparative rejection. (author)

  6. Rejecting renewables: The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-11-15

    If renewable power systems deliver such impressive benefits, why do they still provide only 3 percent of national electricity generation in the United States? As an answer, this article demonstrates that the impediments to renewable power are socio-technical, a term that encompasses the technological, social, political, regulatory, and cultural aspects of electricity supply and use. Extensive interviews of public utility commissioners, utility managers, system operators, manufacturers, researchers, business owners, and ordinary consumers reveal that it is these socio-technical barriers that often explain why wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources are not embraced. Utility operators reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big, conventional power plants. Consumers practically ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies), and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) prevent consumers from becoming fully invested in their electricity choices. As a result, newer and cleaner technologies that may offer social and environmental benefits but are not consistent with the dominant paradigm of the electricity industry continue to face comparative rejection.

  7. Sustainable electricity options for Malaysia: the emerging importance of renewable electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, M.M.; Yusop, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic expansion in Malaysia over recent decades has led to a large growth in demand for electricity. Demand growth has put a strain on the ability of the economy to expand its electricity infrastructure capacity rapidly to meet the surge in demand. Over the next decade or two, assuming Malaysia will continue to grow at current growth rates of 4.0%, Malaysia will require enormous supply of electricity to meet demand growth. To congregate this challenge, Malaysia needs to consider the energy supply systems that can contribute to the long-term sustainability of economy in the future. Energy supply is critical to social and economic development, and they both have direct and indirect impacts on the environment. The idea of sustainable energy frequently focuses on renewable energy (RE) resources and consideration of these resources in meeting the energy requirements of Malaysia is given high priority in this paper. This paper will embrace the issue of electricity supply resources, technologies and energy policies in accommodating the economy towards energy sustainability over the long term, thus meeting immediate energy needs. It is also the intention of this paper to highlight new and existing RE technologies and their important roles in encouraging a sustainable electricity supply growth pattern in Malaysia. RE generation systems will begin to make significant contributions to new generation capacity installations. However, political and policy reform will have to occur at an unprecedented rate for this to materialise. Malaysia Vision 2020 envisions for a caring society to evolve as part of the country ambition of achieving developed nation status. A balanced growth using sustainable development principles is advocated in which today's needs are met without compromising the needs of future generation

  8. Integration of renewable energies in the electricity market; Integration erneuerbarer Energien in den Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Eike

    2014-08-15

    Capacity markets such as the decentralised performance market as demanded by the electricity economy put wind power and photovoltaic plants at a disadvantage. The author therefore argues against the establishment of a capacity market and in favour of making better use of the electricity market's already existing significant potential for further development, specifically through: flexibilisation of exchange electricity markets, closer coupling between exchange electricity markets and control energy markets, and incorporation of electricity consumers into the market mechanism. This would at the same time serve to meet a decisive prerequisite for a smooth transition from today's to tomorrow's electricity supply, and that is a single electricity market for conventional power plants as well as electricity production plants fuelled with renewable resources, whether or not entailing fuel costs, in which all types of plants compete with each other on a level playing field. If a capacity market should prove necessary after all in a few years, it can still be set up. Safeguarding security of supply is of vital importance for both the economy and society at large. For emergencies a strategic reserve with a capacity of several GW should therefore be created, and the Ordinance on Reserve Power Plants should be amended to this effect. The establishment by the Renewable Energy Law of 2014 of an obligation of direct marketing for wind power and photovoltaic plants appears to have been premature considering the deficits of the electricity market and the large fleet of inflexible conventional power plants. What is needed now is a near-term flexibilisation of the electricity market and reform of the CO{sub 2} emissions trading scheme.

  9. Electricity prices, large-scale renewable integration, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyritsis, Evangelos; Andersson, Jonas; Serletis, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of intermittent solar and wind power generation on electricity price formation in Germany. We use daily data from 2010 to 2015, a period with profound modifications in the German electricity market, the most notable being the rapid integration of photovoltaic and wind power sources, as well as the phasing out of nuclear energy. In the context of a GARCH-in-Mean model, we show that both solar and wind power Granger cause electricity prices, that solar power generation reduces the volatility of electricity prices by scaling down the use of peak-load power plants, and that wind power generation increases the volatility of electricity prices by challenging electricity market flexibility. - Highlights: • We model the impact of solar and wind power generation on day-ahead electricity prices. • We discuss the different nature of renewables in relation to market design. • We explore the impact of renewables on the distributional properties of electricity prices. • Solar and wind reduce electricity prices but affect price volatility in the opposite way. • Solar decreases the probability of electricity price spikes, while wind increases it.

  10. Power flow modelling in electric networks with renewable energy sources in large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhawa, Z. M.; Dvorsky, E.

    2012-01-01

    In many worlds regions there is a great potential for utilizing home grid connected renewable power generating systems, with capacities of MW thousands. The optimal utilization of these sources is connected with power flow possibilities trough the power network in which they have to be connected. There is necessary to respect the long distances among the electric power sources with great outputs and power consumption and non even distribution of the power sources as well. The article gives the solution possibilities for Libya region under utilization of wind renewable sources in north in shore regions. (Authors)

  11. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary......All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... in both energy and reserve markets. In this context, the main contribution of this thesis is the design and development of optimal offering strategies for the joint participation of renewables in the energy and reserve markets. Two distinct control policies for the splitting of available wind power...

  12. Federal policies for renewable electricity: Impacts and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Karen; Paul, Anthony; Woerman, Matt; Steinberg, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of policies that are prominent in the federal debate over addressing greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are a cap-and-trade program (CTP) on emissions, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) for electricity production, and tax credits for renewable electricity producers. Each of these policies would have different consequences, and combinations of these policies could induce interactions yielding a whole that is not the sum of its parts. This paper utilizes the Haiku electricity market model to evaluate the economic and technology outcomes, climate benefits, and cost-effectiveness of three such policies and all possible combinations of the policies. A central finding is that the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reductions from CTP can be significantly greater than those from the other policies, even for similar levels of renewable electricity production, since of the three policies, CTP is the only one that distinguishes electricity generated by coal and natural gas. It follows that CTP is the most cost-effective among these approaches at reducing CO 2 emissions. An alternative compliance payment mechanism in an RPS program could substantially affect renewables penetration, and the electricity price effects of the policies hinge partly on the regulatory structure of electricity markets, which varies across the country. - Research highlights: → Climate benefits of cap-and-trade are greater than of tax credits or RPS. → Cap-and-trade is more cost-effective at reducing emissions than tax credits or RPS. → Tax credits are a subsidy to production that raises electricity consumption. → Alternative compliance payment can substantially affect the outcome of RPS.

  13. Impacts of intermittent renewable generation on electricity system costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalla-Bejerano, Joan; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    A successful deployment of power generation coming from variable renewable sources, such as wind and solar photovoltaic, strongly depends on the economic cost of system integration. This paper, in seeking to look beyond the impact of renewable generation on the evolution of the total economic costs associated with the operation of the electricity system, aims to estimate the sensitivity of balancing market requirements and costs to the variable and non-fully predictable nature of intermittent renewable generation. The estimations reported in this paper for the Spanish electricity system stress the importance of both attributes as well as power system flexibility when accounting for the cost of balancing services. - Highlights: •A successful deployment of VRES-E strongly depends on the economic cost of its integration. •We estimate the sensitivity of balancing market requirements and costs to VRES-E. •Integration costs depend on variability, predictability and system flexibility.

  14. Electricity Storage and Renewables for Island Power. A Guide for Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komor, P; Glassmire, J [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable development. In island and remote communities, where grid extension is difficult and fuel transportation and logistics are challenging and costly, renewable energy is emerging as the energy supply solution for the 21st century, ensuring reliable and secure energy supply in such communities. The deployment of renewable energy technologies is increasing globally, supported by rapidly declining prices and government policies and strategies in many countries, resulting in renewable energy solutions being the most cost-effective option in many markets today. For example, in 2011 the Special Report of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation showed that approximately 50% of new electricity generation capacity added globally between 2008 and 2009 came from renewable energy sources. Therefore, the future of renewables as the base energy source for islands and remote communities looks very bright. However, as the share of renewables in power supply increases, the natural variability of some renewable energy sources must be tackled appropriately to ensure continuous availability and efficient use of the energy generated. Successful strategies to manage this variability can encompass a range of measures, such as a balanced supply technology portfolio, geographical spread of supply, better forecasting tools, demand-side management and appropriate storage solutions. Traditionally, large scale electricity storage systems were based on pumped hydropower installations. New solutions are emerging, including affordable and long-lasting batteries. This technology field is developing rapidly and prices are falling. IRENA has developed this report as a practical guide to the available energy storage solutions and their successful applications in the context of islands communities. The report also includes various best practice cases and different scenarios and strategies. It is

  15. Green power. Renewable electricity purchasing by Leicester City Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    This case study describes the use of renewable energy by Leicester City Council in the East Midlands. The Council, which has a long-term commitment to sustainable energy and the environment, employs over 14,000 people. A contract was first negotiated with East Midlands Electricity (now PowerGen) to supply the Council's New Walk Centre with green electricity in 1995. Some of the green energy is supplied by the Milford Mill hydroelectric plant. Use of building energy monitoring systems (BEMSs) and other good practice has allowed the Council to achieve a 20% saving in its electricity bill. The Council has also negotiated contracts to supply two smaller sites (a recycling facility called Planet Works and the city's Energy Efficiency centre) with green electricity generated by Beacon Energy, a small renewable energy company which operates two 25 kW wind turbines and two 3 kW arrays of photovoltaic cells at a site some 15 miles from Leicester. The exemption given to renewable energy from the climate change levy makes these schemes even more economic; a worked example is provided to demonstrate the impact of the climate change levy on electricity costs at the New Walk Centre. Six steps to follow when seeking to connect to green electricity are advised

  16. Impact of GB transmission charging on renewable electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Government is committed to meeting its objective of producing 10% of UK electricity supplies from renewable sources by 2010, subject to the cost to the consumer being acceptable. It is generally believed that northern Scotland - and the Highlands and Islands in particular - will be a significant source of renewable energy in future, mostly in the form of wind power; wave and tidal energy may also be important. The National Grid Company (NGC) is responsible for formulating a cost-reflective and. non-discriminatory electricity transmission charging methodology for Great Britain (GB). This determines Transmission Network Use of System (TNUoS) tariffs, which are paid by transmission-connected generators and suppliers for the use of the high voltage transmission network. Following the publication of National Grid Company's 'GB Transmission Charging: Initial Thoughts' document on 16 December 2003, there was particular concern that the level of future Transmission Network Use of System (TNUoS) tariffs in northern Scotland might impede the achievement of the Government's 2010 target for renewable electricity supplies. That document and subsequent revisions indicate that generation TNUoS charges in northern Scotland were likely to be significantly higher than anywhere else in GB. The study attempts to quantify the effect of the proposed GB-wide TNUoS charging methodology on the future growth of renewable electricity so as to ascertain the impact on the likelihood of meeting the Government's 2010 target. (UK)

  17. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles : Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power

  18. Renewable energy support in Germany: Surcharge development and the impact of a decentralized capacity mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Traber, Thure; Kemfert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The German support for renewable energies in the electricity sector is based on the feed-in tariff for investors that grants guaranteed revenues for their renewable energy supply. Corresponding to differences of granted tariffs and respective market values, a surcharge on consumption covers differential costs. While granted tariffs are bound to fall with advances in renewable energy technologies, the market design and the flexibility of the system influence the expected market values of renew...

  19. Climate and Water Vulnerability of the US Electricity Grid Under High Penetrations of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; O'Connell, M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Newmark, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The US power sector is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operations, primarily for thermoelectric cooling and hydropower technologies. Changes in the availability and temperature of water resources can limit electricity generation and cause outages at power plants, which substantially affect grid-level operational decisions. While the effects of water variability and climate changes on individual power plants are well documented, prior studies have not identified the significance of these impacts at the regional systems-level at which the grid operates, including whether there are risks for large-scale blackouts, brownouts, or increases in production costs. Adequately assessing electric grid system-level impacts requires detailed power sector modeling tools that can incorporate electric transmission infrastructure, capacity reserves, and other grid characteristics. Here, we present for the first time, a study of how climate and water variability affect operations of the power sector, considering different electricity sector configurations (low vs. high renewable) and environmental regulations. We use a case study of the US Eastern Interconnection, building off the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) that explored operational challenges of high penetrations of renewable energy on the grid. We evaluate climate-water constraints on individual power plants, using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model coupled with the PLEXOS electricity production cost model, in the context of broader electricity grid operations. Using a five minute time step for future years, we analyze scenarios of 10% to 30% renewable energy penetration along with considerations of river temperature regulations to compare the cost, performance, and reliability tradeoffs of water-dependent thermoelectric generation and variable renewable energy technologies under climate stresses. This work provides novel insights into the resilience and

  20. The Investment Environment for Renewable Energy Development in Lithuania: The Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milčiuvienė Saulė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the investment environment in renewable electricity generation capacities, evaluating the credibility of long term renewable energy targets, the stability of promotion schemes and the impartiality of national administrative procedure. The article explores two main questions: (i are the EU and Lithuanian energy policy targets and promotion schemes credible enough to convince private investors to put their money in renewable energy development; (ii does national administrative procedure put a disproportional burden on renewable energy investors or on certain group of investors? The assessment of the investment environment includes a large number of criteria, but we analyze three of them: the stability of long term strategy; the attractiveness of promotionmeasures; and the simplicity and transparency of administrative procedure. Two further criteria are investigated: the stability of targets in renewable energy and the stability of promotional measures. The greatest uncertainty for investors occurs because of constantly changing support schemes of renewable energy sources-schemes that are not harmonized among the member States. At the national level the main driver in the development of small generators is the feed-in tariff. However, the high feed-in tariff does not always guarantee the smooth development of small scale generators of renewable energy.

  1. Renewable energies - Industrials, produce your own electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    As a public bidding has been launched at the initiative of the French government on self-consumption in industrial and office building sites, this article discusses this issue of self-production and consumption, and its perspectives. Professionals and individuals could be interested in the recent evolutions as it was before more interesting to sell the produced photovoltaic electricity to EDF than to consume it. Some industries (warehouses, supermarkets, oil production, and airport) have already implemented this solution, and its development could boost the use of photovoltaic panels

  2. Essays on the integration of renewables in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas

    2017-07-06

    The thesis sheds light onto the integration of renewable energy generation into electricity markets based on five articles. The first article is concerned with the optimal strategies of renewable producers selling electricity in sequential markets. A model is developed in which renewable generators trade their production in two sequential markets, which can be regarded as the day-ahead and intraday markets. Trading in the first market takes place under uncertainty about the final production level of renewable generation. The results show that it might be optimal for renewable producers to sell less than the expected quantity in the day-ahead market. The second article focuses on the high variability in production from renewable electricity and its effect on prices. A model for the allocation of hourly and quarter-hourly electricity generation is developed, assuming that the participation in the market for quarter-hourly products is restricted. Restricted participation in the market for quarter-hourly products may have caused welfare losses of about EUR 96 million in 2015. In the third article, the hourly price elasticity of demand for electricity in the German day-ahead market is empirically estimated. The results indicate a high level of variation of price elasticity of demand throughout the day ranging from -0.02 to -0.13 depending on the time of the day in the German day-ahead market in 2015. The fourth article is concerned with the tariff design in retail markets for electricity. It focuses on the inefficiency from time-invariant pricing in combination with an increasing share of renewable energies. The last article finally takes a closer look at the balancing power market and the impact of different market designs on efficiency and competition. Based on a developed model, it shows that shorter tender frequencies could lower the costs of balancing power procurement by up to 15 %. While market concentration decreases in many markets with shorter provision

  3. Essays on the integration of renewables in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaut, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The thesis sheds light onto the integration of renewable energy generation into electricity markets based on five articles. The first article is concerned with the optimal strategies of renewable producers selling electricity in sequential markets. A model is developed in which renewable generators trade their production in two sequential markets, which can be regarded as the day-ahead and intraday markets. Trading in the first market takes place under uncertainty about the final production level of renewable generation. The results show that it might be optimal for renewable producers to sell less than the expected quantity in the day-ahead market. The second article focuses on the high variability in production from renewable electricity and its effect on prices. A model for the allocation of hourly and quarter-hourly electricity generation is developed, assuming that the participation in the market for quarter-hourly products is restricted. Restricted participation in the market for quarter-hourly products may have caused welfare losses of about EUR 96 million in 2015. In the third article, the hourly price elasticity of demand for electricity in the German day-ahead market is empirically estimated. The results indicate a high level of variation of price elasticity of demand throughout the day ranging from -0.02 to -0.13 depending on the time of the day in the German day-ahead market in 2015. The fourth article is concerned with the tariff design in retail markets for electricity. It focuses on the inefficiency from time-invariant pricing in combination with an increasing share of renewable energies. The last article finally takes a closer look at the balancing power market and the impact of different market designs on efficiency and competition. Based on a developed model, it shows that shorter tender frequencies could lower the costs of balancing power procurement by up to 15 %. While market concentration decreases in many markets with shorter provision

  4. Strategies for promoting renewables in a new electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes strategies for promoting renewable resources in an era characterized by competitive pressures in the electric industry. It begins with a background section to describe the perspective from which I am writing and the nature of the pressures confronting renewables in 1996. Then, the paper turns to a discussion of the regulatory and other options to promote renewables in this environment. The major conclusion of the paper is that there is no {open_quotes}magic bullet{close_quotes} to guide the development of renewables through the developing competitive era within the electric industry. Indeed, it appears that the job can get done only through a combination of different measures at all levels of government. The author believes that among the most effective measures are likely to be: a national renewable resources generation standard; conditions attached to restructuring events; regional interstate compacts; regional risk-sharing consortia supported by federal and state tax and fiscal policy; and state {open_quotes}systems benefits charges;{close_quotes}

  5. Simulation of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems for variable electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandoni, C.; Renzi, M.; Caresana, F.; Polonara, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) unit and a solar energy conversion device. In addition to a traditional PV system, a High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) device, the design of which is suitable for building integration application, was also modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. The work identifies the optimal management strategies for the hybrid renewable system in an effort to minimise the primary energy usage, the carbon dioxide emissions and the operational costs for variable electricity prices that result from the day-ahead electricity market. An “ad hoc” model describes the performance of the HCPV module, PV and Internal Combustion Engine, whilst the other units were simulated based on their main characteristic parameters. The developed algorithm was applied to three different building typologies. The results indicate that the best configuration is the hybrid renewable system with PV, which can provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. The hybrid renewable system with HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology when the level of solar radiation is high. - Highlights: • The paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-CCHP unit and a solar energy conversion device. • Both PV and High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) systems have been modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. • The work identifies the optimal management strategies for variable electricity prices. • Hybrid renewable systems provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. • When the level of solar radiation is high, HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology

  6. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  7. The Challenge of Integrating Renewable Generation in the Alberta Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kent Fellows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable electric generation is forecast to enjoy an increasing share of total capacity and supply regimes in the future. Alberta is no exception to this trend, having initiated policy incentives in response to calls for increasing the fraction of wind and solar energy available to the province over the next decade.1 This call is coming from various sectors including advocacy groups, the provincial government and some utilities. The University of Calgary’s School of Public Policy convened a roundtable discussion on Sept. 15, 2015. Given the wide-ranging aspects of increased renewables integration (for example the policy options, economic forces and engineering/technical issues the topic demands attention from a wide range of experts and stakeholders. To that end, we endeavoured to group expert panellists and representatives of utilities, public agencies, academe and consumer groups to consider the planning necessary to integrate new renewable capacity into the existing and future grid system in the province and its potential impact. The purpose of the roundtable was to facilitate and foster a knowledge exchange between interested and knowledgeable parties while also aggregating this knowledge into a more complete picture of the challenges and potential strategies associated with increased renewables integration in the Alberta electricity grid.

  8. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Jenkin, Philipp Beiter, and Robert Margolis

    2016-02-01

    Growing levels of variable renewable energy resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because variable renewable energy suppresses wholesale energy prices while providing relatively little capacity. This effect becomes more pronounced the higher the variable renewable energy penetration in a market. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets using administratively determined capacity demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers. Third, we consider some of the challenges to capacity markets that arise with higher variable renewable energy penetration.

  9. Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newmark, Robin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martinez, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tidwell, Vince [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-17

    This analysis provides a description of the first U.S. national electricity capacity expansion model to incorporate water resource availability and costs as a constraint for the future development of the electricity sector. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model was modified to incorporate water resource availability constraints and costs in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions along with differences in costs and efficiencies of cooling systems. Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013b). Scenarios analyzed include a business-as-usual 3 This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. scenario without water constraints as well as four scenarios that include water constraints and allow for different cooling systems and types of water resources to be utilized. This analysis provides insight into where water resource constraints could affect the choice, configuration, or location of new electricity technologies.

  10. Assessment of renewable energy technologies for charging electric vehicles in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Aman; Raj, Ratan; Kumar, Mayank; Ghandehariun, Samane; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicle charging by renewable energy can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a data-intensive techno-economic model to estimate the cost of charging an electric vehicle with a battery capacity of 16 kW h for an average travel distance of 65 km from small-scale renewable electricity in various jurisdictions in Canada. Six scenarios were developed that encompass scale of operation, charging time, and type of renewable energy system. The costs of charging an electric vehicle from an off-grid wind energy system at a charging time of 8 h is 56.8–58.5 cents/km in Montreal, Quebec, and 58.5–60.0 cents/km in Ottawa, Ontario. However, on integration with a small-scale hydro, the charging costs are 9.4–11.2 cents/km in Montreal, 9.5–11.1 cents/km in Ottawa and 10.2–12.2 cents/km in Vancouver, British Columbia. The results show that electric vehicle charging from small-scale hydro energy integration is cost competitive compared charging from conventional grid electricity in all the chosen jurisdictions. Furthermore, when the electric vehicle charging time decreases from 8 to 4 h, the cost of charging increases by 83% and 11% from wind and hydro energy systems, respectively. - Highlights: • Techno-economic analysis conducted for EV charging from wind and hydro. • EV charging from hydro energy is cost competitive than from wind energy. • GHG mitigation estimated from operation of EV charged from renewable energy. • Sensitivity of key parameters on cost of charging considered

  11. The expansion of electricity generation from renewable energies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesgen, Uwe; Duerrschmidt, Wolfhart

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of electricity generation from renewable sources in Germany is promoted by the Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), which was last amended in June 2008. In a review of the EEG the political parameters, the progress achieved, and the impacts of the Act itself are set out. This Progress Report addresses cross-sectoral aspects, notably CO 2 emissions reduction, job creation, investment and turnover in the renewables industry, and that industry's prospects for the future. Trends in the individual renewables sectors are described and policy recommendations formulated, as appropriate, on this basis. The policy recommendations have been incorporated into the new EEG from 6 June 2008. The overarching goal of the new EEG is to achieve a renewables share of at least 30% in Germany's electricity consumption in 2020. This underlines the need for radical modernisation of the energy system as a whole. This article presents an overview of the content of the Progress Report and supplements it with current statistical data and research findings contained in other publications from the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU). It also highlights the points on which the new EEG diverges from the policy recommendations contained in the Progress Report.

  12. Renewable energy for sustainable electrical energy system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    Present trends of electrical energy supply and demand are not sustainable because of the huge gap between demand and supply in foreseeable future in India. The path towards sustainability is exploitation of energy conservation and aggressive use of renewable energy systems. Potential of renewable energy technologies that can be effectively harnessed would depend on future technology developments and breakthrough in cost reduction. This requires adequate policy guidelines and interventions in the Indian power sector. Detailed MARKAL simulations, for power sector in India, show that full exploitation of energy conservation potential and an aggressive implementation of renewable energy technologies lead to sustainable development. Coal and other fossil fuel (gas and oil) allocations stagnated after the year 2015 and remain constant up to 2040. After the year 2040, the requirement for coal and gas goes down and carbon emissions decrease steeply. By the year 2045, 25% electrical energy can be supplied by renewable energy and the CO 2 emissions can be reduced by 72% as compared to the base case scenario. (author)

  13. Successful renewable energy development in a competitive electricity market: A Texas case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy in markets with competition at wholesale and retail levels poses challenges not present in areas served by vertically-integrated utilities. The intermittent nature of some renewable energy resources impact reliability, operations, and market prices, in turn affecting all market participants. Meeting renewable energy goals may require coordination among many market players. These challenges may be successfully overcome by imposing goals, establishing trading mechanisms, and implementing operational changes in competitive markets. This strategy has contributed to Texas' leadership among all US states in non-hydro renewable energy production. While Texas has been largely successful in accommodating over 9000 MW of wind power capacity, this extensive reliance upon wind power has also created numerous problems. Higher levels of operating reserves must now be procured. Market prices often go negative in the proximity of wind farms. Inaccurate wind forecasts have led to reliability problems. Five billion dollars in transmission investment will be necessary to facilitate further wind farm projects. Despite these costs, wind power is generally viewed as a net benefit. - Research Highlights: → Texas rapidly emerged as a leader in renewable energy development. → This state's experiences demonstrate that the right combination of policies to lead to rapid renewable energy development in a region with a very competitive electricity market. → Wind power development has lead to various operational challenges.

  14. Sustainable Energy Transitions in China: Renewable Options and Impacts on the Electricity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese energy consumption has been dominated by coal for decades, but this needs to change to protect the environment and mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Renewable energy development is needed to fulfil the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC for the post-2020 period, as stated on the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. This paper reviews the potential of renewable energy in China and how it could be utilised to meet the INDC goals. A business-as-usual case and eight alternative scenarios with 40% renewable electricity are explored using the EnergyPLAN model to visualise out to the year 2030. Five criteria (total cost, total capacity, excess electricity, CO2 emissions, and direct job creation are used to assess the sustainability of the scenarios. The results indicate that renewables can meet the goal of a 20% share of non-fossil energy in primary energy and 40%–50% share of non-fossil energy in electricity power. The low nuclear-hydro power scenario is the most optimal scenario based on the used evaluation criteria. The Chinese government should implement new policies aimed at promoting integrated development of wind power and solar PV.

  15. Integrated operation of electric vehicles and renewable generation in a smart distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram; Siano, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The contribution of electric vehicles to provide the reserve capacity is analyzed. • Decentralized energy and reserve scheduling in a distribution system is presented. • The integrated operation of renewable generation and electric vehicles is proposed. - Abstract: Distribution system complexity is increasing mainly due to technological innovation, renewable Distributed Generation (DG) and responsive loads. This complexity makes difficult the monitoring, control and operation of distribution networks for Distribution System Operators (DSOs). In order to cope with this complexity, a novel method for the integrated operational planning of a distribution system is presented in this paper. The method introduces the figure of the aggregator, conceived as an intermediate agent between end-users and DSOs. In the proposed method, energy and reserve scheduling is carried out by both aggregators and DSO. Moreover, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as responsive loads that can participate in ancillary service programs by providing reserve to the system. The efficiency of the proposed method is evaluated on an 84-bus distribution test system. Simulation results show that the integrated scheduling of EVs and renewable generators can mitigate the negative effects related to the uncertainty of renewable generation

  16. A potention of renewable energy sources in Slovakia in term of production of electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Kuzevič

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Electro-energetics of Slovak Republic is in this time in state of re-structuralization consequent from responsibilities which SR has with integration to the EU and on the other hand with actual status of production capacities of fossil fuels using in heat power stations and heat stations also the utilization of nuclear energy in nuclear power stations Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce. Paradoxically slim representation in production capacities have renewable energy sources, while only one relevant one is utilization of water in small hydro power stations. According to fact, that to the year 2010, the share of renewable sources of energy using in comparing with electric energy has to achieve 21,7% (direction of EU 77/2001. It is necessary to evaluate possibilities of utilization and to specify potential of utilization from technical and economical aspect.

  17. Tradable certificates for renewable electricity and energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Huld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) schemes have been developed and tested in several European countries to foster market-driven penetration of renewables. These certificates guarantee that a specific volume of electricity is generated from renewable-energy source (RES). More recently certificates (tradable white certificates (TWCs)) for the electricity saved by demand-side energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) have been introduced in some European countries. Recent advances in information and communication technology have opened up new possibilities for improving energy efficiency and increasing utilization of RESs. Use of technological resources such as the Internet and smart metering can permit real-time issuing and trading of TGCs. These technologies could also permit issuing of TWC. This paper reviews current renewable TGC and TWCs schemes in Europe and describes the possibilities for combining them in an Internet-based system. In the proposed combined tradable certificate scheme, both RESs and demand-side EEMs could bid in real time through the Internet to meet a specific obligation. The energy savings from the demand-side measures would be equivalent to the same amount of green electricity production. The paper describes the needed common targets and obligations, the certificate trading rules and the possible monitoring protocol. In particular, the paper focuses on the TWCs verification issues, including the assessment of the baseline, as these poses additional problems for TWCs compared to TGCs. (author)

  18. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  19. Can el Hierro be 100% electric-renewable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    This summer, the media have abundantly reported that the el-Hierro island in the Canaries could now count on a 100 % renewable electric mix. As a matter of fact, these reports were based on only two hours during which the Gorona del Viento (GdV) installation managed to reach the objectives announced in the project document. Full of enthusiasm, Segolene Royal, the French minister of environment and energy, rewarded the project on behalf of the 'Syndicat des energies Renouvelables' What is the situation today for this installation inaugurated in June 2014? a considerable investment, leading to a complex system with more than 34 MW of installed production power (diesel, wind and hydraulic turbines, each for about one third) when the peak electric demand is only 7.6 MW that is a factor four less. The reality of the performances after six months of effective exploitation: the renewable fraction for the three most favourable months, July to September, has been 42 %. For the half year, the figure is even more disappointing with only 30 % renewables. The reasons behind these very modest performances with respect to the announced goal, which, moreover for the year 2015, lead to a considerable cost of the renewable MWh which is going to cost four times more than the MWh produced by the diesel plant and a cost of the avoided CO 2 exceeding 1000 Euro/ton? As shown in this document, they are first the limited wind resource, which according to data could not have allowed a renewable fraction larger than 50 % and second, the nature of the contract signed by the Spanish state which does not encourage GdV to strive for the optimal environmental performances. To summarize: unrealistic objectives, deplorable governance and a technical semi-failure very costly for the Spanish citizen. (author)

  20. Consumer behavior in renewable electricity: Can branding in accordance with identity signaling increase demand for renewable electricity and strengthen supplier brands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanimann, Raphael; Vinterbäck, Johan; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    A higher percentage of energy from renewable resources is an important goal on many environmental policy agendas. Yet, the demand for renewable electricity in liberalized markets has developed much more slowly than the demand for other green products. To date, research has mainly examined the willingness to pay for renewable electricity, but limited research has been conducted on the motivations behind it. The concept of identity signaling has proven to play a significant role in consumer behavior for green products. However, (renewable) electricity in the Swedish residential market typically lacks two important drivers for identity signaling: visibility and product involvement. A consumer choice simulation among 434 Swedish households compared consumer choices for renewable electricity contracts. The results show a positive effect of identity signaling on the demand for renewable electricity and yield suggestions for increasing the share of renewable electricity without market distorting measures. This leads to implications for policymakers, electricity suppliers and researchers. - Highlights: • Low demand for renewable electricity contracts falls short of high market potential. • For this study a consumer choice simulation for electricity contracts was processed. • Higher visibility and involvement increases demand for green electricity contracts. • Branding that enables identity signaling contributes to green energy policy goals

  1. Renewable electricity generation: supporting documentation for the Renewables Advisory Board submission to the 2006 UK energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Renewables Advisory Board (RAB) is an independent, non-departmental public body, sponsored by the DTI, which brings together representatives of the renewable sector and the unions. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources offers a range of advantages to the UK electricity-generating sector. This document, prepared as supporting documentation for the RAB submission to the 2006 Energy Review, examines the role of renewable energy in improving security of supply, lowering financial risk for energy portfolios, and reducing electricity cost volatility and fuel costs for the UK. Key topics addressed in this report include: resource security; security of supply; price security; and operational security. Also covered are variability patterns, financial costs and benefits of renewable generation. Maintaining the option and flexibility of future renewables development has a real option value, with overseas evidence showing that this can be significant

  2. Renewable electricity as a differentiated good? The case of the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jihyo; Park, Jooyoung; Kim, Jinsoo; Heo, Eunnyeong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the willingness for Korean consumers to pay a premium for renewable electricity under a differentiated good framework by applying the contingent valuation method. Korean consumers have been required to pay for their use of renewable electricity as of 2012. First, we find that Korean consumers recognise renewable electricity as a differentiated good from traditional electricity generated from fossil fuels or nuclear energy. The mean willingness to pay to use renewable electricity is USD 1.26 per month. Second, we confirm the existence of perfect substitution relationships among variant renewable technologies, which suggests that Korean consumers do not perceive them as differentiated goods. One reason for this perception is that Korean consumers are more inclined to favour economic feasibility over sustainability or the availability of the resource stock when choosing between renewable technology types. In sum, we can say that Korean consumers recognise renewable electricity as a differentiated good but that they do not differentiate between variant renewable technologies. Thus, the imposition of the cost of renewable electricity on consumers in the form of increased electricity charges would be acceptable to consumers as long as any price rise properly reflects their preferences. - Highlights: ► We examine renewable electricity in Korea using contingent valuation. ► Korean consumers recognise renewable electricity to be a differentiated good. ► They do not perceive types of renewable technologies as differentiated goods. ► A cost-minimising portfolio is assumed to be preferred by Korean consumers

  3. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source: Preference for electricity products when the share of renewable energy increases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use a discrete choice experiment to infer consumers' preferences when the share of renewable energy increases. The study results indicate that consumers are generally willing to pay extra for an increasing share of renewable energy, but the renewable energy should come from a mixture of renewable energy sources. We also found that consumers prefer to trade with their current supplier rather than another well-known supplier. This study contributes to the energy portfolio theories and the theory of energy diversification in a consumer perspective. The managerial implications of this study are also discussed. - Highlights: • This paper investigates consumer preference for electricity when the share of renewable energy increases in the energy mix. • A total of 7084 choice sets were completed in the survey. • Consumer prefers a high percentage of mixed renewable energy at an affordable price level when the share of renewable increases. • Current electricity supplier was found to be the most favorable supplier for consumers. • Results had implications on energy regulators/policy makers, electricity retailers and renewable energy investors.

  4. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify

  5. Cross-border effects of capacity mechanisms in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To ensure security of supply in liberalized electricity markets, different types of capacity mechanisms are currently being debated or have recently been implemented in many European countries. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cross-border effects resulting from different choices on capacity mechanisms in neighboring countries. We consider a model with two connected countries that differ in the regulator's choice on capacity mechanism, namely strategic reserves or capacity payments. In both countries, competitive fi rms invest in generation capacity before selling electricity on the spot market. We characterize market equilibria and find the following main result: While consumers' costs may be the same under both capacity mechanisms in non-connected countries, we show that the different capacity mechanisms in interconnected countries induce redistribution effects. More precisely, we nd that consumers' costs are higher in countries in which reserve capacities are procured than in countries in which capacity payments are used to ensure the targeted reliable level of electricity.

  6. Review of Renewable Energy Technologies in Zambian Households: Capacities and Barriers Affecting Successful Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Kachapulula-Mudenda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern renewable energy has been hailed as one of the prerequisites for fostering green growth and the achievement of sustainable development. Despite efforts to promote the use of renewable energy in households, its adoption has remained fairly low, hence the need for an inquiry into household capabilities needed for the acquisition and adoption of renewable energy technologies. This paper reviews the requisite capacities of households for the adoption of renewable energy services and expounds on some of the barriers hampering renewable energy among households. It takes a desk research approach to analyse the capacities which should be possessed by Zambian households and possible barriers constraining the widespread deployment of renewable energy technologies. The findings reveal that there is a need for a broader, multidimensional understanding of access to renewable energy in order for deployment to be effective. Barriers to the successful adoption of clean energy technologies include underserved populations, policy inadequacies; an underexploited renewable energy sector and heavy reliance on a service-challenged hydro-power utility. Since most of the aforementioned challenges are institutional in nature, the paper concludes with a recommendation of a baseline assessment to understand knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and drivers for renewable energy technology adoption among households.

  7. Guide to purchasing green power. Renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates and on-site renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-30

    The Guide to Purchasing Green Power is intended for organizations that are considering the merits of buying green power as well as those that have decided to buy it and want help doing so. The Guide was written for a broad audience, including businesses, government agencies, universities, and all organizations wanting to diversify their energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use.The Guide provides an overview of green power markets and describes the necessary steps to buying green power. This section summarizes the Guide to help readers find the information they need.

  8. China's renewable energy policy: Commitments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Yin Haitao; Li Shoude

    2010-01-01

    The passing of the Renewable Energy Law (REL) in 2005 demonstrated China's commitment to renewable energy development. In the 3 years after the REL, China's renewable electricity capacity grew rapidly. From 2006 to 2008, China's wind capacity installation more than doubled every year for 3 years in a row. However, three facts prevent us from being optimistic about China's renewable electricity future. First, considered as a share of total capacity, renewable electricity capacity is decreasing instead of increasing. This is due simply to the rapid growth of fossil fuel capacity. Second, a significant amount of renewable generation capacity is wasted because it is not connected to the electricity grid. Finally, renewable electricity plants are running at a low level of efficiency. Based on an in-depth analysis of China's existing renewable energy policy, we suggest that these challenges should be dealt with by introducing a market-based mandatory renewable portfolio requirement coupled with strong regulatory monitoring of grid enterprises.

  9. 5. world inventory of the electric power produced by renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This fifth edition of the electric power production in the world by renewable energies sources, has been realized by the renewable energies observatory for ''Electricite de France''. It proposes an evaluation of the situation, providing data and analysis for each renewable energy sources, hydro electric power, wind energy, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaic and the green energy. (A.L.B.)

  10. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting activity may enter into a contract for a period not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term...

  11. Managing congestion and intermittent renewable generation in liberalized electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Friedrich

    2013-02-27

    This dissertation focuses on selected aspects of network congestion arising in liberalized electricity markets and their management methods with a special weight placed on the integration of increased renewable generation in Europe and Germany. In a first step, the theoretical concepts of congestion management are introduced complemented by a review of current management regimes in selected countries. In the second step, the European approach of managing congestion on international as well as national transmission links is analyzed and the benefits of an integrated congestion management regime are quantified. It is concluded that benefits can be achieved by a closer cooperation of national transmission system operators (TSOs). Thirdly, the German congestion management regime is investigated and the impact of higher renewable generation up to 2020 on congestion management cost is determined. It is shown that a homogeneous and jointly development of generation and transmission infrastructure is a prerequisite for the application of congestion alleviation methods and once they diverge congestion management cost tend to increase substantially. Lastly, the impact of intermittent and uncertain wind generation on electricity markets is analyzed. A stochastic electricity market model is described, which replicates the daily subsequent clearing of reserve, day ahead, and intraday market typical for European countries, and numerical results are presented.

  12. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  13. Can renewable energy be financed with higher electricity prices? evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro Hurlé, Jesús; Gracia Royo, Azucena; Pérez y Pérez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess willingness to pay for renewable energy electricity. We used a choice experiment to elicit willingness-to-pay for different electricity service attributes: renewable sources (wind, solar and biomass) and the regional origin of the electricity with data from a survey conducted in Spain in 2010. Findings indicate that a majority of consumers are not willing to pay a premium for increases in the renewable component of their electricity mix. Moreover, they would...

  14. Water-Constrained Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Modeling Under Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.; Corsi, F.; Prousevitch, A.; Rangwala, I.

    2015-12-01

    Over 80% of U.S. electricity generation uses a thermoelectric process, which requires significant quantities of water for power plant cooling. This water requirement exposes the electric sector to vulnerabilities related to shifts in water availability driven by climate change as well as reductions in power plant efficiencies. Electricity demand is also sensitive to climate change, which in most of the United States leads to warming temperatures that increase total cooling-degree days. The resulting demand increase is typically greater for peak demand periods. This work examines the sensitivity of the development and operations of the U.S. electric sector to the impacts of climate change using an electric sector capacity expansion model that endogenously represents seasonal and local water resource availability as well as climate impacts on water availability, electricity demand, and electricity system performance. Capacity expansion portfolios and water resource implications from 2010 to 2050 are shown at high spatial resolution under a series of climate scenarios. Results demonstrate the importance of water availability for future electric sector capacity planning and operations, especially under more extreme hotter and drier climate scenarios. In addition, region-specific changes in electricity demand and water resources require region-specific responses that depend on local renewable resource availability and electricity market conditions. Climate change and the associated impacts on water availability and temperature can affect the types of power plants that are built, their location, and their impact on regional water resources.

  15. Capacity Market Design: Motivation and Challenges in Alberta’s Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alberta’s electricity market is currently undergoing a period of substantial transition. The province should proceed with caution as it switches from an energy-only electricity market to a capacity market by 2021. Many other jurisdictions have already made the changeover and Alberta can learn from their experiences in order to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls that can arise with the deployment of a capacity market.There were growing concerns that the existing electricity market structure would not attract sufficient investment from conventional generation (e.g., natural gas due to the increased penetration of zero marginal cost renewable generation. As a result, the Alberta government has chosen to transition to a capacity market. For consumers, a capacity market aims to ensure there is sufficient investment in new generation capacity to “keep the lights on” and reduce price swings in the wholesale market. The capacity market will also help the province meet its goals for attracting investors and transitioning away from its dependence on coal-fired electricity generation.However, a switchover is not as simple as it sounds. In an energy-only market, firms are paid solely based on the provision of electricity in hourly wholesale markets. In capacity markets, electricity-generating firms are also paid for providing generation capacity, reflecting the potential to provide electricity at some point in the future. While capacity markets can help ensure there is a reliable supply of electricity, there are several challenges in the implementation of capacity markets. This paper discusses the motivation for the adoption of capacity markets, highlights challenges regulators face when implementing this market design in the context of Alberta, and summarizes the key trade-offs associated with energy-only versus capacity market designs.Relative to an energy-only market, a capacity market is more complex and requires that regulators specify numerous

  16. Optimization modeling of U.S. renewable electricity deployment using local input variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam

    For the past five years, state Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) laws have been a primary driver of renewable electricity (RE) deployments in the United States. However, four key trends currently developing: (i) lower natural gas prices, (ii) slower growth in electricity demand, (iii) challenges of system balancing intermittent RE within the U.S. transmission regions, and (iv) fewer economical sites for RE development, may limit the efficacy of RPS laws over the remainder of the current RPS statutes' lifetime. An outsized proportion of U.S. RE build occurs in a small number of favorable locations, increasing the effects of these variables on marginal RE capacity additions. A state-by-state analysis is necessary to study the U.S. electric sector and to generate technology specific generation forecasts. We used LP optimization modeling similar to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Renewable Energy Development System (ReEDS) to forecast RE deployment across the 8 U.S. states with the largest electricity load, and found state-level RE projections to Year 2031 significantly lower than thoseimplied in the Energy Information Administration (EIA) 2013 Annual Energy Outlook forecast. Additionally, the majority of states do not achieve their RPS targets in our forecast. Combined with the tendency of prior research and RE forecasts to focus on larger national and global scale models, we posit that further bottom-up state and local analysis is needed for more accurate policy assessment, forecasting, and ongoing revision of variables as parameter values evolve through time. Current optimization software eliminates much of the need for algorithm coding and programming, allowing for rapid model construction and updating across many customized state and local RE parameters. Further, our results can be tested against the empirical outcomes that will be observed over the coming years, and the forecast deviation from the actuals can be attributed to discrete parameter

  17. Similar goals, divergent motives. The enabling and constraining factors of Russia's capacity-based renewable energy support scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Russian government set its first quantitative renewable energy target at 4.5% of the total electricity produced and consumed by 2020. In 2013, the Government launched its capacity-based renewable energy support scheme (CRESS), however, the expects it will merely add 0.3% to the current 0.67% share of renewables (Ministry of Energy, 2016c). This raises the question what factors might explain this implementation gap. On the basis of field research in Moscow, the article offers an in-depth policy analysis of resource-geographic, financial, institutional and ecologic enabling and constraining factors of Russia's CRESS between 2009 and 2015. To avoid the trap that policy intentions remain on paper, the entire policy cycle – from goal setting to implementation – has been covered. The article concludes that wind energy, which would have contributed the lion's share of new renewable energy capacity, lags behind, jeopardizing the quantitative renewable energy target. The depreciation of the rouble decreased return on investment, and the Local Content Requirement discouraged investors given the lack of Russian wind production facilities. Contrary to resource-geographic and financial expectations, solar projects have been commissioned more accurately, benefitting from access to major business groups and existing production facilities. - Highlights: • The support scheme is focused on the oversupplied integrated electricity market. • The scheme disregards the technical and economic potential in isolated areas. • The solar industry develops at the fastest rate, wind and small hydro lag behind. • Access to business groups and production facilities condition implementation. • The devaluation of the rouble necessitated a revision of the policy design.

  18. The hillsides would allow to produce electric power from renewable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laby, F.

    2006-09-01

    A solar tower is a renewable energy plant, designed to channel the air warmed by the sun, in order to produce electric power by the use of turbines. It is composed of a giant greenhouse with a chimney in its center. The capacity of this system is proportional to the chimney high. That is the reason why french engineers proposed to use the hillsides to build chimneys of many kilometers high. The project and some technical informations are provided in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  19. Renewable energy and energy efficiency in liberalized European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Given the projected growth in global energy demand, renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) play a crucial role in the attainment of the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Policy mechanisms to promote RE and EE have been justified on the rationale of market failure, which prevents price signals alone from being sufficient to induce consumers to implement the socially optimal level. The paper shows driving forces for increasing competition in the electricity supply industry and discusses the implication of electricity industry liberalisation on RE/EE activities. Policies of the European Commission to promote RE/EE are presented, including a more detailed description of the experience made in the United Kingdom. Conclusions are that the new market structure may be too short sighted to stimulate RE and EE activities and that the design of policies should be compatible with the new market-orientated structure of the electricity industry. If implemented properly, and compatible with the competitive market organisation, electricity supply liberalisation could pave the way for 'sustainable electricity' in the European Union. (Author)

  20. Simulations of scenarios with 100% renewable electricity in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliston, Ben; Diesendorf, Mark; MacGill, Iain

    2012-01-01

    As a part of a program to explore technological options for the transition to a renewable energy future, we present simulations for 100% renewable energy systems to meet actual hourly electricity demand in the five states and one territory spanned by the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) in 2010. The system is based on commercially available technologies: concentrating solar thermal (CST) power with thermal storage, wind, photovoltaic (PV), existing hydro and biofuelled gas turbines. Hourly solar and wind generation data are derived from satellite observations, weather stations, and actual wind farm outputs. Together CST and PV contribute about half of total annual electrical energy supply. A range of 100% renewable energy systems for the NEM are found to be technically feasible and meet the NEM reliability standard. The principal challenge is meeting peak demand on winter evenings following overcast days when CST storage is partially charged and sometimes wind speeds are low. The model handles these circumstances by combinations of an increased number of gas turbines and reductions in winter peak demand. There is no need for conventional base-load power plants. The important parameter is the reliability of the whole supply-demand system, not the reliability of particular types of power plants. - Highlights: ► We simulate 100% renewable electricity in the Australian National Electricity Market. ► The energy system comprises commercially available technologies. ► A range of 100% renewable electricity systems meet the reliability standard. ► Principal challenge is meeting peak demand on winter evenings. ► The concept of ‘base-load’ power plants is found to be redundant.

  1. Motives to adopt renewable electricity technologies: Evidence from Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergek, Anna; Mignon, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion of renewable electricity technologies (RETs) has to speed up for countries to reach their, often ambitious, targets for renewable energy generation. This requires a large number of actors – including individuals, companies and other organizations – to adopt RETs. Policies will most likely be needed to induce adoption, but there is limited knowledge about what motivates RET adoption. The purpose of this paper is to complement and expand the available empirical evidence regarding motives to adopt RETs through a survey to over 600 RET adopters in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that there are many different motives to adopt RETs and that RET adopters are a heterogeneous group with regard to motives. Although environmental concerns, interest in the technology, access to an RE resource and prospects to generate economic revenues are important motives in general, adopters differ with regard to how large importance they attach to the same motive and each adopter can also have several different motives to adopt. There are also differences in motives between adopter categories (especially independent power producers vs. individuals and diversified companies) and between RETs (especially wind power vs. solar power). This implies that a variety of policy instruments might be needed to induce further adoption of a variety of RETs by a variety of adopter categories. - Highlights: • There are many different motives to adopt renewable electricity technologies (RETs). • Adopters attach different levels of importance to the same motive. • Adopters can have several different motives to adopt a particular RET. • Motives to adopt RETs differ between wind power, solar PV and small-scale hydro. • Motives to adopt RETs differ between IPPs, individuals and diversified companies.

  2. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  3. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  4. Maintaining a balanced electricity supply favours increased nuclear capacity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahti, Toivola

    2001-01-01

    Finland's electricity supply is based on a balanced mix of energy sources to maximize the security of supply and to keep the volatility of electricity price at a minimum. One third of electricity is obtained from domestic sources hydro, wood and peat. Nuclear power provides one quarter and fossil fuels slightly over one fifth. Electricity imports from neighbour countries cover the rest of the consumption. It is important to maintain this balanced structure also when electricity supply is being increased. Domestic renewable sources are not enough to cover the predicted future needs, and increasing imports would risk the security of supply. Increasing the proportion of fossil fuels is not a generally desired option. Therefore, balanced increase of nuclear capacity has to be included among the choices of future electricity generation. (author)

  5. Buying Renewable Electric Power in Montgomery County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cember, Richard P.

    2008-08-01

    From mid-August 2007 until mid-August 2008, my home electricity supply was 100% wind-generated. My experience in switching to wind-generated electric power may be of interest to fellow AGU members for three reasons. First, Montgomery County, Md., where I live, is one of the few jurisdictions in the United States that has both an electric power tax and a renewable energy credit. The county is therefore a case study in price-based public policy for greenhouse gas emissions control. Second, I was surprised by the comparatively small price difference (or ``price premium'') between wind-generated and conventionally generated power in the county, and I believe that Eos readers will be similarly surprised. Third, because so many U.S. federal agencies concerned with Earth science are based in the Washington, D. C., area, a high concentration of AGU members live in Montgomery County and may be personally interested in evaluating the price of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the generation of their own residential electricity.

  6. Examining demand response, renewable energy and efficiencies to meet growing electricity needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, N.; Eldridge, M.; Shipley, A.M.; Laitner, J.S.; Nadel, S.; Silverstein, A.; Hedman, B.; Sloan, M.

    2007-01-01

    While Texas has already taken steps to improve its renewable energy portfolio (RPS), and its energy efficiency improvement program (EEIP), the level of savings that utilities can achieve through the EEIP can be greatly increased. This report estimated the size of energy efficiency and renewable energy resources in Texas, and suggested a range of policy options that might be adopted to further extend EEIP. Current forecasts suggest that peak demand in Texas will increase by 2.3 per cent annually from 2007-2012, a level of growth which is threatening the state's ability to maintain grid reliability at reasonable cost. Almost 70 per cent of installed generating capacity is fuelled by natural gas in Texas. Recent polling has suggested that over 70 per cent of Texans are willing support increased spending on energy efficiency. Demand response measures that may be implemented in the state include incentive-based programs that pay users to reduce their electricity consumption during specific times and pricing programs, where customers are given a price signal and are expected to moderate their electricity usage. By 2023, the widespread availability of time-varying retail electric rates and complementary communications and control methods will permanently change the nature of electricity demand in the state. At present, the integrated utilities in Texas offer a variety of direct load control and time-of-use, curtailable, and interruptible rates. However, with the advent of retail competition now available as a result of the structural unbundling of investor-owned utilities, there is less demand response available in Texas. It was concluded that energy efficiency, demand response, and renewable energy resources can meet the increasing demand for electricity in Texas over the next 15 years. 4 figs

  7. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Denholm, Paul; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hannegan, Bryan

    2017-03-01

    What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

  8. Curtailment in a Highly Renewable Power System and Its Effect on Capacity Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kies

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity factor of a power plant is the ratio of generation over its potential generation. It is an important measure to describe wind and solar resources. However, the fluctuating nature of renewable power generation makes it difficult to integrate all generation at times. Whenever generation exceeds the load, curtailment or storage of energy is required. With increasing renewable shares in the power system, the level of curtailment will further increase. In this work, the influence of the curtailment on the capacity factors for a highly renewable German power system is studied. An effective capacity factor is introduced, and the implications for the distribution of renewable power plants are discussed. Three years of highly-resolved weather data were used to model wind and solar power generation. Together with historical load data and a transmission model, a possible future German power system was simulated. It is shown that effective capacity factors for unlimited transmission are strongly reduced by up to 60% (wind and 70% (photovoltaics and therefore of limited value in a highly renewable power system. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that wind power benefits more strongly from a reinforced transmission grid than photovoltaics (PV does.

  9. What can EU policy do to support renewable electricity in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Under the 2030 Climate and Energy Package, the European Union has set itself a target of increasing the share of renewable energy from to 27%. Electricity will play a key role in achieving these goals, with the share of renewable power projected to increase to around 47% of the electricity mix by 2030. While electricity is only one part of the energy system, electricity is therefore a vital sub-sector of the EU's renewable energy strategy to 2030. As the second largest energy consumer in Europe, and with relatively ambitious national goals of achieving 32% renewable energy and 40% renewable electricity (RES-E) by 2030, France will be critical to achieving the EU's objectives. As the most interconnected electricity market in Europe, France's approach to renewable electricity will also influence the redesign of electricity markets to cope with higher shares of variable RES-E in its region. Facilitating the efficient deployment and integration of renewable electricity in France is therefore an important sub-chapter of European renewable energy policy going forward. The integration of higher shares of renewable electricity in France is a significant domestic policy challenge. But EU can take a number steps to facilitate the achievement of France's goals. One area where the EU has value added is by ensuring that EU rules for state aid to renewables do not inadvertently become a barrier to cost-efficient deployment of renewables in France. The EU should also push France (and all Member States) to develop a coherent and comprehensive RES-E market integration strategy for 2030 to facilitate national and regional market development. In addition, the EU should push France to improve the quality of its enabling environment for renewable electricity projects, so that it is in line with EU benchmarks

  10. Renewable energy the best remedy for electrical load shedding in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    , right person for right job, capacity building of relevant institutions, for promotion of hydro electric power and other renewable sources. Public and private efforts in building a strong indigenous base for renewable energy technologies, designing, manufacturing, quality assurance, achieving cost effectiveness, reducing import dependence, promotion of self-reliance and minimizing environmental degradation is one of the objectives to be achieved. Electricity pilferage and technical losses, non payments of bills and corruption need to be seriously addressed. The government's policy towards renewable especially hydro and other energy balances would not only help the country to meet growing demand for electricity, but would also provide additional benefits by increasing fuel diversity or our electricity generation portfolio, reducing our exposure to fossil fuel price spikes, security and supply interruptions, deforestation, development of rural areas, minimize migration to cities, increasing economic development activity from a growing renewable energy industry and improving our environment etc. (author)

  11. Role of storage technologies to integrate high shares of renewable electricity generation into the electricity system of Germany. Simulation and optimization; Rolle und Bedeutung der Stromspeicher bei hohen Anteilen erneuerbarer Energien in Deutschland. Speichersimulation und Betriebsoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Niklas

    2013-06-13

    The share of renewable electricity generation of gross electricity consumption in Germany increased from 6.8 % to about 20 % during the years of 2000 and 2011. This share will increase even more in the future. The greater part of the renewable electricity generation is characterized by significant fluctuations, which can only be planned to a limited extent. Hence, the electricity system in Germany faces the challenge to integrate an increasing amount of fluctuating renewable electricity generation. Additionally the system stability needs to be ensured, despite a decreasing capacity in conventional power plants. One option to support the integration of large amounts of renewable electricity generation and to enhance system stability is the deployment of storage technologies. The aim of this research was to analyze the role of storage technologies to integrate high shares of renewable electricity generation into the electricity system of Germany. To achieve this aim, adiabatic compressed air energy storage, diabatic compressed air energy storage and mobile battery storage systems were simulated and compared with a pumped hydro storage as the reference storage system. Key characteristics of these storage systems were modeled within a fundamental stochastic unit commitment model of the German power markets (Joint-Market-Model) in order to analyze the effect of the implementation of these storage systems on the overall cost of the electricity system. Additionally, the operation of the storages in an electricity system with high shares of renewable energy was evaluated. The results show that the integration of large shares of renewable electricity generation into the grid can only be achieved with a substantial implementation of storage systems. To integrate 50 % of renewable energy, a storage power of 27 GW and storage capacity of 245 GWh is needed. For a renewable energy share of 80 %, a storage power of 78 GW and a storage capacity of 6.3 TWh are necessary. A 100

  12. Renewable electricity generation in India—A learning rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The cost of electricity generation using renewable technologies is widely assumed to be higher than the cost for conventional generation technologies, but likely to fall with growing experience of the technologies concerned. This paper tests the second part of that statement using learning rate analysis, based on large samples of wind and small hydro projects in India, and projects likely changes in these costs through 2020. It is the first study of learning rates for renewable generation technologies in India, and only the second in any developing country—it provides valuable input to the development of Indian energy policy and will be relevant to policy makers in other developing countries. The paper considers some potential problems with learning rate analysis raised by Nordhaus (2009. The Perils of the Learning Model for Modeling Endogenous Technological Change. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 14638). By taking account of these issues, it is possible both to improve the models used for making cost projections and to examine the potential impact of remaining forecasting problems. - Highlights: • The first learning rate analysis of wind generation costs in India. • Only the second learning rate analysis for wind in any developing country. • Reviews missing variable and related issues in learning rate analysis. • Finds a 17.7% learning rate for wind generation costs in India. • Finds no significant learning effect for small hydro

  13. Prospects for renewable electricity in the new EU Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Vries, H.J.; Barbu, A.D.

    2006-02-01

    The scope of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the overall context in which investments in RES-E will take place in short to medium term in the New Member States (NMS) of the EU and to present some preliminary results of a quantitative analysis on the potentials for various RES-E technologies to be deployed in the region in short to medium term as well as their cost. The main findings of this research suggest that factors likely to influence any future, large-scale deployment of RES-E technologies in the NMS include the choice of market strategy by the NMS governments and the energy business community in the European energy market, the ability to elaborate sound local energy plans integrated into a wider context for regional development, the investment climate and the degree to which new renewable ventures can contribute to creating new employment. With respect to the potential for RES-E electricity generation in the NMS, preliminary model results suggest that within the period 2005-2010, the NMS could provide a substantial contribution to the European commitments to increase the share of renewable energy sources in the fuel mix. While biomass and hydro (large and small) seem to be readily deployable in the region, other technologies can make it to the market too

  14. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  15. Optimizing Aggregation Scenarios for Integrating Renewable Energy into the U.S. Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    This study is an analysis of 2006 and 2007 electric load data, wind speed and solar irradiance data, and existing hydroelectric, geothermal, and other power plant data to quantify benefits of aggregating clean electric power from various Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous United States. First, various time series, statistics, and probability methods are applied to the electric load data to determine if there are any desirable demand-side results—specifically reducing variability and/or coincidence of peak events, which could reduce the amount of required carbon-based generators—in combining the electricity demands from geographically and temporally diverse areas. Second, an optimization algorithm is applied to determine the least-cost portfolio of energy resources to meet the electric load for a range of renewable portfolio standards (RPS’s) for each FERC region and for various aggregation scenarios. Finally, the installed capacities, ramp rates, standard deviation, and corresponding generator requirements from these optimization test runs are compared against the transmission requirements to determine the most economical organizational structure of the contiguous U.S. electric grid. Ideally, results from this study will help to justify and identify a possible structure of a federal RPS and offer insight into how to best organize regions for transmission planning.

  16. Balancing Renewable Electricity Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO2 emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the techn...

  17. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  18. A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand electricity generation system is dominated by hydro generation at approximately 60% of installed capacity between 2005 and 2007, augmented with approximately 32% fossil-fuelled generation, plus minor contributions from geothermal, wind and biomass resources. In order to explore the potential for a 100% renewable electricity generation system with substantially increased levels of wind penetration, fossil-fuelled electricity production was removed from an historic 3-year data set, and replaced by modelled electricity production from wind, geothermal and additional peaking options. Generation mixes comprising 53-60% hydro, 22-25% wind, 12-14% geothermal, 1% biomass and 0-12% additional peaking generation were found to be feasible on an energy and power basis, whilst maintaining net hydro storage. Wind capacity credits ranged from 47% to 105% depending upon the incorporation of demand management, and the manner of operation of the hydro system. Wind spillage was minimised, however, a degree of residual spillage was considered to be an inevitable part of incorporating non-dispatchable generation into a stand-alone grid system. Load shifting was shown to have considerable advantages over installation of new peaking plant. Application of the approach applied in this research to countries with different energy resource mixes is discussed, and options for further research are outlined.

  19. Japanese electric utilities call for IPP capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, E.

    1997-03-01

    Japan`s ten power utilities have finally grasped the nettle, and called in IPPs to supply at least 3 GW of new capacity in each of the next ten years. The first twenty schemes awarded last year are all based on existing industrial energy producers, and consist mainly of coal- or oil-fired plants of 150 MW or less. 1 tab.

  20. Renewal of nuclear electricity production: an economic trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debontride, B.; Bouteille, F.; Goebel, A.; Czech, J.

    2004-01-01

    2004 price evolution on the market asks on nuclear generation profitability and competitiveness. There were over installed capacities in Europe since several years, but electricity consumption is steadily increasing and over capacities will disappear more or less at the end of the decade. On a world basis, electricity demand grows twice as much as energy demand, so that there is a need to invest in new electricity generation capacities. The recent US black out events shows the need for securing energy supply in capacities as well as in transmission and distribution. Competitiveness of the different possible sources of energy thus needs to be carefully assessed by all the worldwide decision makers in the field of power generation. In France, the economy of the electricity production is regularly assessed by a French Government study called 'Reference costs for Electricity production' which compares the levelized cost for base load power produced by a nuclear unit (latest design available) and other conventional power stations. In the latest release published in 2003 the nuclear option (the EPR) is compared with three fossil-fired units: A twin 400 MW combined-cycle gas plant, a twin 900 MW pulverized coal station and a 400 MW fluidized bed combustion coal plant. In all cases the nuclear option is the cheapest. If external costs, based on the EU studies (ExternE), are taken into account, the advantage of the nuclear option is significantly increased. In Finland a study performed by the Lappeenranta University in 2000 concluded also in the competitiveness of the Nuclear option. This result was important in the decision making process which resulted in the decision in principle of the Finnish Parliament to allow for the construction of the fifth Nuclear power station for which the EPR was selected. In China, the same kind of economical studies recently led the governmental authorities to launch new nuclear projects. These three examples, in three countries where

  1. Impacts of High Variable Renewable Energy Futures on Wholesale Electricity Prices, and on Electric-Sector Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deb, Sidart [LCG Consulting, Los Altos, CA (United States); Asokkumar, Aarthi [LCG Consulting, Los Altos, CA (United States); Hassanzadeh, Mohammad [LCG Consulting, Los Altos, CA (United States); Aarabali, Amirsaman [LCG Consulting, Los Altos, CA (United States)

    2018-05-11

    Increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy (VRE) can affect wholesale electricity price patterns and make them meaningfully different from past, traditional price patterns. Many long-lasting decisions for supply- and demand-side electricity infrastructure and programs are based on historical observations or assume a business-as-usual future with low shares of VRE. Our motivating question is whether certain electric-sector decisions that are made based on assumptions reflecting low VRE levels will still achieve their intended objective in a high VRE future. We qualitatively describe how various decisions may change with higher shares of VRE and outline an analytical framework for quantitatively evaluating the impacts of VRE on long-lasting decisions. We then present results from detailed electricity market simulations with capacity expansion and unit commitment models for multiple regions of the U.S. for low and high VRE futures. We find a general decrease in average annual hourly wholesale energy prices with more VRE penetration, increased price volatility and frequency of very low-priced hours, and changing diurnal price patterns. Ancillary service prices rise substantially and peak net-load hours with high capacity value are shifted increasingly into the evening, particularly for high solar futures. While in this report we only highlight qualitatively the possible impact of these altered price patterns on other demand- and supply-side electric sector decisions, the core set of electricity market prices derived here provides a foundation for later planned quantitative evaluations of these decisions in low and high VRE futures.

  2. Scenario-informed multiple criteria analysis for prioritizing investments in electricity capacity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Lauro J.; Lambert, James H.; Karvetski, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Planning the expansion and energy security of electricity capacity for a national electricity utility is a complex task in almost any economy. Planning is usually an iterative activity and can involve the use of large scale planning optimization systems accompanied by assessment of uncertain scenarios emerging from economic, technological, environmental, and regulatory developments. This paper applies a multiple criteria decision analysis to prioritize investment portfolios in capacity expansion and energy security while principally studying the robustness of the prioritization to multiple uncertain and emergent scenarios. The scenarios are identified through interaction with decision makers and stakeholders. The approach finds which scenarios most affect the prioritization of the portfolios and which portfolios have the greatest upside and downside potential across scenarios. The approach fosters innovation in the use of robust and efficient technologies, renewable energy sources, and cleaner energy fuels. A demonstration is provided for assessing the performance of technology portfolios constructed from investments in nine electricity generation technologies in Mexico.

  3. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  4. Willingness to pay for renewable electricity: A contingent valuation study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiurui; Liu, Haifeng; Mao, Xianqiang; Jin, Jianjun; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2014-01-01

    In China, renewable/green electricity, which can provide significant environmental benefits in addition to meeting energy demand, has more non-use value than use-value for electricity consumers, because its users have no way to actually own this use-value. To assess the value of renewable electricity and obtain information on consumer preferences, this study estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) of Beijing residents for renewable electricity by employing the contingent valuation method (CVM) and identified the factors which affect their WTP. The survey randomly selected 700 participants, of which 571 questionnaires were valid. Half of respondents were found to have positive WTP for renewable electricity. The average WTP of Beijing residents for renewable electricity is estimated to be 2.7–3.3 US$ (18.5–22.5CNY) per month. The main factors affecting the WTP of the respondents included income, electricity consumption, bid and payment vehicle. Knowledge of and a positive attitude towards renewable energy also resulted in the relatively higher willingness of a respondent to pay for renewable electricity. The proportion of respondents replying “yes” to WTP questions using a mandatory payment vehicle was slightly higher than that for questions using a voluntary vehicle. Lastly, several policy implications of this study are presented. - Highlights: • Most (54%) of respondents in Beijing have positive WTP to renewable electricity. • The average WTP for renewable electricity ranges from 2.7 to 3.3 US$ monthly. • The main factors affecting the WTP include income, electricity consumption, bid and payment vehicle. • Deployment of renewable electricity can cause considerable benefit

  5. Energy droughts in a 100% renewable electricity mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Damien; Hingray, Benoît; François, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    During the 21st conference of parties, 175 countries agreed on limiting the temperature increase due to global warming to 2°C above preindustrial levels. Such an ambitious goal necessitates a deep transformation of our society in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Europe has started its energy transition years ago by, for instance, increasing the share of renewables in the European electricity generation and should continue in this direction. Variable renewable energies (VRE) and especially those driven by weather conditions (namely wind, solar and hydro power from river flow), are expected to play a key role in achieving the GHG reduction target. However, these renewables are often criticized for their intermittency and for the resulting difficult integration in the power supply system, especially for large shares of VRE in the energy mix. Assessing the feasibility of electricity generation using large contributions of VRE requires a deep understanding and characterization of the VRE spatiotemporal variations. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the short-term intermittency of VRE generation, but the persistency and the characteristics of periods of low/high electricity generation have been rarely studied. Yet, these particular situations require some demanding adaptations of the power supply system in term of back-up sources or production curtailment respectively. This study focuses on what we call "energy droughts" which, by analogy with hydrological or meteorological droughts, are defined as periods of very low energy production. We consider in turn "energy droughts" associated to wind, solar and hydro power (run-of-the-river). Their characteristics are estimated for 12 European regions being subjected to different climatic regimes. For each region and energy source, "droughts" are evaluated from a 30-yr time series of power generation (1983-2012). These series are simulated by using a suite of weather-to-energy conversion models with

  6. A 100% renewable electricity mix? Analyses and optimisations. Testing the boundaries of renewable energy-based electricity development in metropolitan France by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubilly, Anne-Laure; Fournie, Laurent; Chiche, Alice; Faure, Nathalie; Bardet, Regis; Alais, Jean-Christophe; Girard, Robin; Bossavy, Arthur; Le Gars, Loic; Biau, Jean-Baptiste; Piqueras, Ugo; Peyrusse, Colombe

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, ADEME published its energy and climate scenarios for the period 2030 to 2050, suggesting possible avenues to achieve a four-fold reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050 by cutting energy consumption by half and deploying renewable energy sources for electricity generation on a substantial scale. Both of these objectives were the basis for targets set by the President of France and subsequently adopted by Parliament in the Energy Transition Law to promote green growth. With this new study, ADEME submits an exploratory scientific prospective study. Questions of balance between production and demand and cost efficiency of renewable-based electricity mixes are investigated through an advanced optimisation. The electricity mixes are theoretical: they are created from scratch and do not take into account the current situation or the path needed to achieve a 100% renewable-based electricity system. It aims at highlighting the technical measures to be implemented (strengthening grids, load shedding and storage) to support a policy of growth in renewable electricity technologies. It is also be used to identify the key factors for developing renewable technologies at lower cost such as lower costs of technologies, demand-side management, development of flexibility, support of R and D of least-mature technologies and the social acceptance of renewable electricity installations. (authors)

  7. Use of derivative instruments to integrate renewable energies into the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Kilian; Nelles, Michael; Candra, Dodiek Ika

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies to the electricity market is inefficient and expensive with current measures. Further these measures are prejudicial for the existing energy-only-market. The combination of fluctuating and controllable renewable powers in virtual power plants enables the marketing of this power as a derivate on the future market. Thus would relieve the spot market and stabilize pricing on both markets. Subsequently the renewable energy obligation will reduce and renewable energies could be marketed as secured power.

  8. Mapping of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany is the champion of green energy in Europe: the contribution of renewable energies to electricity generation reached about 20% in 2011. This article describes the situation of renewable energies in Germany in 2011 with the help of 2 maps, the first one gives the installed electrical generation capacity for each region and for each renewable energy source (wind power, hydro-electricity, biomass, photovoltaic energy and biogas) and the second one details the total number of jobs (direct and indirect) for each renewable energy source and for each region. In 2011 about 372000 people worked in the renewable energy sector in Germany. (A.C.)

  9. Least cost 100% renewable electricity scenarios in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliston, Ben; MacGill, Iain; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Least cost options are presented for supplying the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) with 100% renewable electricity using wind, photovoltaics, concentrating solar thermal (CST) with storage, hydroelectricity and biofuelled gas turbines. We use a genetic algorithm and an existing simulation tool to identify the lowest cost (investment and operating) scenarios of renewable technologies and locations for NEM regional hourly demand and observed weather in 2010 using projected technology costs for 2030. These scenarios maintain the NEM reliability standard, limit hydroelectricity generation to available rainfall, and limit bioenergy consumption. The lowest cost scenarios are dominated by wind power, with smaller contributions from photovoltaics and dispatchable generation: CST, hydro and gas turbines. The annual cost of a simplified transmission network to balance supply and demand across NEM regions is a small proportion of the annual cost of the generating system. Annual costs are compared with a scenario where fossil fuelled power stations in the NEM today are replaced with modern fossil substitutes at projected 2030 costs, and a carbon price is paid on all emissions. At moderate carbon prices, which appear required to address climate change, 100% renewable electricity would be cheaper on an annual basis than the replacement scenario

  10. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  11. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurkan, G.; Langestraat, R.

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of

  12. Locational electricity capacity markets: Alternatives to restore the missing signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Amparo D.; Fraser, Hamish

    2007-03-15

    In the absence of a properly functioning electricity demand side, well-designed capacity payment mechanisms hold more promise for signaling the value of capacity than non-CPM alternatives. Locational CPMs that rely on market-based principles, such as forward capacity auctions, are superior to cost-based payments directed to specific must-run generators, as CPMs at least provide a meaningful price signal about the economic value of resources to potential investors. (author)

  13. Optimizing the U.S. Electric System with a High Penetration of Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2013-12-01

    As renewable energy generators are increasingly being installed throughout the U.S., there is growing interest in interconnecting diverse renewable generators (primarily wind and solar) across large geographic areas through an enhanced transmission system. This reduces variability in the aggregate power output, increases system reliability, and allows for the development of the best overall group of renewable technologies and sites to meet the load. Studies are therefore needed to determine the most efficient and economical plan to achieve large area interconnections in a future electric system with a high penetration of renewables. This research quantifies the effects of aggregating electric load together with diverse renewable generation throughout the ten Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous U.S. A deterministic linear program has been built in AMPL (A Mathematical Programming Language) to solve for the least-cost organizational structure and system (generators, transmission, and storage) for a highly renewable electric grid. The analysis will 1) examine a highly renewable 2006 electric system, including various sensitivity cases and additional system components such as additional load from electric vehicles, and 2) create a 'roadmap' from the existing 2006 system to a highly renewable system in 2030, accounting for projected price and demand changes and generator retirements based on age and environmental regulations. Ideally, results from this study will offer insight for a federal renewable energy policy (such as a renewable portfolio standard) and how to best organize U.S. regions for transmission planning.

  14. Can renewable energy be financed with higher electricity prices? Evidence from a Spanish region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia, Azucena; Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Pérez y Pérez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the willingness to pay for mix of renewable sources of electric power by means of a discrete choice experiment survey conducted in Spain in 2010. Two main categories of power supply attributes are explored: source of renewable power (wind, solar and biomass) and the origin of such power. The findings suggest that most consumers are not willing to pay a premium for increases in the shares of renewable in their electricity mix. For two of the three renewable sources considered (wind and biomass) an increase of the renewable mix would require a discount. Instead, we record positive willing to pay for increases in the share of both solar power and locally generated power. However, preferences for types of renewable (solar and wind) are found to be heterogeneous. By classifying respondents in two groups according to the implied importance of the share of renewable sources in their power mix we identify a market segment consisting of 20% of respondents that could promote renewable energy in the absence of subsidies. This is because such a segment shows willingness to pay higher than the current feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ► We evaluate the WTP for different renewable electricity sources in a Aragon. ► Average positive WTP is found for only some renewable sources. ► Specific market segments are willing to pay for specific renewable sources. ► Geographical origin is more important than renewable source.

  15. Cross-border effects of capacity mechanisms in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elberg, Christina

    2014-07-15

    To ensure security of supply in liberalized electricity markets, different types of capacity mechanisms are currently being debated or have recently been implemented in many European countries. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cross-border effects resulting from different choices on capacity mechanisms in neighboring countries. We consider a model with two connected countries that differ in the regulator's choice on capacity mechanism, namely strategic reserves or capacity payments. In both countries, competitive fi rms invest in generation capacity before selling electricity on the spot market. We characterize market equilibria and find the following main result: While consumers' costs may be the same under both capacity mechanisms in non-connected countries, we show that the different capacity mechanisms in interconnected countries induce redistribution effects. More precisely, we nd that consumers' costs are higher in countries in which reserve capacities are procured than in countries in which capacity payments are used to ensure the targeted reliable level of electricity.

  16. Electricity capacity expansion in a Cournot duopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brondbo, Helene K.; Storebo, Axel; Fleten, Stein Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper adopts a real options approach to analyze marginal investments in power markets with heterogeneous technologies and time-varying demand. We compare the investment behavior of two firms in a Cournot duopoly to a central planner's when two categories of power plants are available; base a...... that this results in welfare losses above 10 %, and significantly larger reduction in the consumer surplus. Further, we examine the effect of analyzing power markets without time-varying demand and find that this underestimates investments in peak load capacity....

  17. Renewable Energy Technologies for Decentralised Rural Electricity Services. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Arvidson, Anders; Forslund, Helena; Martinac, Ivo (eds.)

    2005-02-01

    The developing countries represented at the workshop were Brazil, India, Kenya, Mali, Mongolia, Nepal and Uganda. After keynote presentations which covered the experiences of different renewable electricity generation technologies in selected developing countries, the participants discussed the role of electrification in rural development, needs for further technological improvements and the needs for development of government policies for promotion of renewable energy for electricity generation. Finally, the participants discussed and agreed on recommendations addressed to donor agencies for consideration when formulating a revised Energy Policy. Renewable energy technologies should only be considered when these offer more advantages than the conventional alternatives - grid connection or stand-alone diesel generators. Such advantages may be lower costs, better supply reliability, fewer adverse local environmental impacts or better possibilities for local income-generating activities. Local needs and priorities must determine the choice of technology. Biomass-fuelled renewable technologies have a particularly strong potential in generating local economic activities compared to conventional supply options. Technologies for decentralised electricity generation using mini-hydro power plants, solar photovoltaics (PV), wind generators and biomass fuels are commercially available and are being applied in many developing countries. The limiting factors for further penetration of renewable energy are today linked to issues of cost, reliability, financing, service infrastructure, awareness of available technology and trust in the technologies from the perspective of entrepreneurs and end-users. One important limiting factor related to cost, is the capacity range within which each technology can compete with the conventional options. PV systems are still only realistic for very small power demands, whereas technologies using biomass fuels are unrealistic for small power

  18. CO2-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. WILMAR - deliverable 4.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Weber, C.; Morthorst, P.E.; Ravn, H.F.; Schmidt, R.

    2004-06-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project 'Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets' (WILMAR) and de-scribes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emissions Permits (TEPs) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) for electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the European Union and the implications for implementation in the Wilmar model. The introduction of a common emission-trading system in the EU is expected to have an upward effect on the spot prices at the electric-ity market. The variations of the spot price imply that some types of power generation may change the situation from earning money to losing money despite the increasing spot price. Heavy restrictions on emissions penalise the fossil-fuelled technologies significantly, and the associated increase in the spot price need not compensate for this. Therefore, a market of TEPs is expected to have a significant influence on the electricity spot price. However, the expected price level of TEPs are met with great uncertainty and a study of a number of economical studies shows a price span between zero and 270 USD per ton of CO 2 depending on the participation or non-participation of countries in the scheme. The price-determination at the TGC market is expected to be closely related to the price at the power spot market as the RE-producers of electricity will have expectations to the total price paid for the energy produced, i.e., for the price of electricity at the spot market plus the price per kWh obtained at the green certificate mar-ket. In the Wilmar model, the TGC market can either be handled exogenously, i.e., the increase in renewable capacity and an average annual TGC price are determined outside the model, or a simple TGC module is developed, including the long-term supply functions for the most relevant renewable technologies and an overall TGC quota. Both solutions are rather simple, but to develop a more advanced model for the TGC market seems to be

  19. Modeling the effects of the new Russian capacity mechanism on renewable energy investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, Mariia; Collan, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Russian renewable energy policy, introduced in May 2013, is a capacity mechanism-based approach to support wind, solar, and small hydro power development in Russia. This paper explores the effect of the new mechanism on the profitability of new renewable energy investments with a numerical example. The sensitivity of project profitability to selected factors is studied and the results are compared ceteris paribus to results from a generic feed-in premium case. Furthermore, the paper gives a complete and detailed presentation of the capacity price calculation procedure tied to the support mechanism. The results show that the new Russian renewable energy capacity mechanism offers a significant risk reduction to the investor in the form of dampening the sensitivity to external market factors. At the same time it shields the energy market system from excessive burden of renewable energy support. Even if the complexity of the method is a clear drawback to the detailed understanding of how the mechanism works, the design of the incentive policy could be an appealing alternative also for other emerging economies. - Highlights: •New Russian RE investment incentive mechanism is presented in detail. •Effect of the mechanism on RE investment profitability is numerically illustrated. •Sensitivity of project profitability to selected variables is studied. •Sensitivity results are compared to results under a generic feed-in premium. •The mechanism is shown to reduce market-related risks of RE investments.

  20. Security of supply, energy spillage control and peaking options within a 100% renewable electricity system for New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, issues of security of supply, energy spillage control, and peaking options, within a fully renewable electricity system, are addressed. We show that a generation mix comprising 49% hydro, 23% wind, 13% geothermal, 14% pumped hydro energy storage peaking plant, and 1% biomass-fuelled generation on an installed capacity basis, was capable of ensuring security of supply over an historic 6-year period, which included the driest hydrological year on record in New Zealand since 1931. Hydro spillage was minimised, or eliminated, by curtailing a proportion of geothermal generation. Wind spillage was substantially reduced by utilising surplus generation for peaking purposes, resulting in up to 99.8% utilisation of wind energy. Peaking requirements were satisfied using 1550 MW of pumped hydro energy storage generation, with a capacity factor of 0.76% and an upper reservoir storage equivalent to 8% of existing hydro storage capacity. It is proposed that alternative peaking options, including biomass-fuelled gas turbines and demand-side measures, should be considered. As a transitional policy, the use of fossil-gas–fuelled gas turbines for peaking would result in a 99.8% renewable system on an energy basis. Further research into whether a market-based system is capable of delivering such a renewable electricity system is suggested. - Highlights: • A 100% renewable electricity system was modelled over a 6-year period. • Security of supply was demonstrated, including for the driest year since 1931. • Stored energy spillage was controlled by using flexible base-load generation. • Wind energy utilisation of 99.8% was obtained. • Transitional use of fossil gas for peaking resulted in a 99.8% renewable system

  1. Capacity payments in imperfect electricity markets: Need and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that a variety of imperfections in wholesale 'energy-only' electricity markets lead to generators earning net revenues that are inadequate to support investment in a least cost portfolio of generating capacity and to satisfy consumer preferences for reliability. Theoretical and numerical examples are used to illustrate the sources of this 'missing money' problem. Improvements in 'energy-only' wholesale electricity markets, especially those that improve pricing when capacity is fully utilized, can reduce the magnitude of the missing money problem. However, these improvements are unlikely to fully ameliorate it. Forward capacity obligations and associated auction mechanisms to determine capacity prices are necessary to restore appropriate wholesale market prices and associated investment incentives to support the optimal portfolio of generating investments. The deficiencies of the original capacity payment mechanisms adopted in the US are discussed and the necessary improvements identified. (author)

  2. The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2015-10-01

    and fuel input depend strongly on the ability to make use of the renewable sources in real time to avoid battery bank conversion losses and dumping of excess electrical power, as well as to have sufficient battery storage capacity to minimize the need for operation of the motor/generator to meet electric loads which occur during periods when the renewable energy is not available.

  3. The impact of renewable energies on EEX day-ahead electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, Florentina; Erni, David; Pietsch, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of renewable energies, wind and photovoltaic, on the formation of day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. We give an overview of the policy decisions concerning the promotion of renewable energy sources in Germany and discuss their consequences on day-ahead prices. An analysis of electricity spot prices reveals that the introduction of renewable energies enhances extreme price changes. In the frame of a dynamic fundamental model, we show that there has been a continuous electricity price adaption process to market fundamentals. Furthermore, the fundamental drivers of prices differ among hours with different load profiles. Our results imply that renewable energies decrease market spot prices and have implications on the traditional fuel mix for electricity production. However, the prices for the final consumers increased overall because they must pay in addition the feed-in tariffs for the promotion of renewable energy. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of renewable energies on the day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. • We discuss the impact of renewables on day-ahead prices. • We show a continuous electricity price adaption process to market fundamentals. • Renewable energies decrease market spot prices and shift the merit order curve. • The prices for the final consumers however increased because of feed-in tariffs

  4. Exploring the meteorological potential for planning a high performance European electricity super-grid: optimal power capacity distribution among countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J.; Brayshaw, David J.; Methven, John; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Ruiz-Arias, José A.; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2017-11-01

    The concept of a European super-grid for electricity presents clear advantages for a reliable and affordable renewable power production (photovoltaics and wind). Based on the mean-variance portfolio optimization analysis, we explore optimal scenarios for the allocation of new renewable capacity at national level in order to provide to energy decision-makers guidance about which regions should be mostly targeted to either maximize total production or reduce its day-to-day variability. The results show that the existing distribution of renewable generation capacity across Europe is far from optimal: i.e. a ‘better’ spatial distribution of resources could have been achieved with either a ~31% increase in mean power supply (for the same level of day-to-day variability) or a ~37.5% reduction in day-to-day variability (for the same level of mean productivity). Careful planning of additional increments in renewable capacity at the European level could, however, act to significantly ameliorate this deficiency. The choice of where to deploy resources depends, however, on the objective being pursued—if the goal is to maximize average output, then new capacity is best allocated in the countries with highest resources, whereas investment in additional capacity in a north/south dipole pattern across Europe would act to most reduce daily variations and thus decrease the day-to-day volatility of renewable power supply.

  5. Estimating cell capacity for multi-cell electrical energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Iman Ahari

    A Multi-Cell Electrical Energy System is a set of batteries that are connected in series. The series batteries provide the required voltage necessary for the contraption. After using the energy that is provided by the batteries, some cells within the system tend to have a lower voltage than the other cells. Also, other factors, such as the number of times a battery has been charged or discharged, how long it has been within the system and many other factors, result in some cells having a lesser capacity compared to the other cells within the system. The outcome is that it lowers the required capacity that the electrical energy system is required to provide. By having an unknown cell capacity within the system, it is unknown how much of a charge can be provided to the system so that the cells are not overcharged or undercharged. Therefore, it is necessary to know the cells capacity within the system. Hence, if we were dealing with a single cell, the capacity could be obtained by a full charge and discharge of the cell. In a series system that contains multiple cells a full charging or discharging cannot happen as it might result in deteriorating the structure of some cells within the system. Hence, to find the capacity of a single cell within an electrical energy system it is required to obtain a method that can estimate the value of each cell within the electrical energy system. To approach this method an electrical energy system is required. The electrical energy system consists of rechargeable non-equal capacity batteries to provide the required energy to the system, a battery management system (BMS) board to monitor the cells voltages, an Arduino board that provides the required communication to BMS board, and the PC, and a software that is able to deliver the required data obtained from the Arduino board to the PC. The outcome, estimating the capacity of a cell within a multi-cell system, can be used in many battery related technologies to obtain unknown

  6. Renewable energies - China, first producer of 'green' electricity by 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    While being the biggest polluter and coal consumer in the world, China possess seven Chinese companies among the ten first solar array manufacturers, and some leaders in the wind energy and offshore wind energy sector. This article outlines the development of 'green' electricity production in China. This sector will exhibit a much greater growth rate than that foreseen in other countries during the next years: five times that in the USA, seven times that in India, eight times that in Germany, and eighteen times that in France. This progression relies on hydroelectricity and wind energy for 90 per cent. The article also comments the development of wind energy capacity in China at a higher rate than in Western countries

  7. The costs of electricity systems with a high share of fluctutating renewables. A stochastic investment and dispatch optimization model for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagl, Stephan; Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energies are meant to produce a large share of the future electricity demand. However, the availability of wind and solar power depends on local weather conditions and therefore weather characteristics must be considered when optimizing the future electricity mix. In this article we analyze the impact of the stochastic availability of wind and solar energy on the cost-minimal power plant mix and the related total system costs. To determine optimal conventional, renewable and storage capacities for different shares of renewables, we apply a stochastic investment and dispatch optimization model to the European electricity market. The model considers stochastic feed-in structures and full load hours of wind and solar technologies and different correlations between regions and technologies. Key findings include the overestimation of fluctuating renewables and underestimation of total system costs compared to deterministic investment and dispatch models. Furthermore, solar technologies are - relative to wind turbines - underestimated when neglecting negative correlations between wind speeds and solar radiation.

  8. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Effects of burden sharing and certificate trade on the renewable electricity market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Noord, M.; Skytte, K.; Nielsen, L.H.; Leonardi, M.; Whiteley, M.H.; Chapman, M.

    2001-05-01

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous European Union (EU) greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed upon an overall target of 22% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project provides insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving RES-E targets. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets), the specification of cost potential curves for renewable electricity options in each of the 15 EU Member States and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, utilities and consumer organisations were interviewed on their requirements and expectations for an international burden sharing scheme. 49 refs

  9. The Economics of Renewable Electricity Policy in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Donald N. Dewees

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluation of green or renewable power should compare the cost of renewable power with the cost savings from displaced fossil generation plus the avoided harm from reduced emissions of air pollution and greenhouse gases. We use existing estimates of the values of the harm and we calculate cost savings from renewable power based on wholesale spot prices of power in Ontario and steady-state estimates of the cost of new gas generation to estimate the value or affordability of various fo...

  10. Determining optimal interconnection capacity on the basis of hourly demand and supply functions of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Meunier, William; Coquentin, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Interconnections for cross-border electricity flows are at the heart of the project to create a common European electricity market. At the time, increase in production from variable renewables clustered during a limited numbers of hours reduces the availability of existing transport infrastructures. This calls for higher levels of optimal interconnection capacity than in the past. In complement to existing scenario-building exercises such as the TYNDP that respond to the challenge of determining optimal levels of infrastructure provision, the present paper proposes a new empirically-based methodology to perform Cost-Benefit analysis for the determination of optimal interconnection capacity, using as an example the French-German cross-border trade. Using a very fine dataset of hourly supply and demand curves (aggregated auction curves) for the year 2014 from the EPEX Spot market, it constructs linearized net export (NEC) and net import demand curves (NIDC) for both countries. This allows assessing hour by hour the welfare impacts for incremental increases in interconnection capacity. Summing these welfare increases over the 8 760 hours of the year, this provides the annual total for each step increase of interconnection capacity. Confronting welfare benefits with the annual cost of augmenting interconnection capacity indicated the socially optimal increase in interconnection capacity between France and Germany on the basis of empirical market micro-data. (authors)

  11. Capacity investment and competition in decentralized electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David Cameron

    1997-11-01

    With particular reference to the recently deregulated and market-based electricity industries in Norway, the UK and elsewhere the report analyses oligopoly entry and capacity investment decisions as a non-cooperative game in a decentralized electricity market. A two-stage game is considered, with multiple capacity types and uncertain demand, in which capacity decisions are made prior to spot-market, or price competition. Equilibrium outcomes for different pricing mechanisms or regulatory regimes are analysed. The following questions are dealt with in particular: Will industry capacity be sufficient to ensure adequate supply security? Does imperfect competition in the spot-market lead to an inefficient mix of base-load and peak-load technologies? How do different regulatory policies affect the market outcomes? 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Supply security and short-run capacity markets for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    The creation of electricity markets has raised the fundamental question as to whether markets create the right incentives for the provision of the reserves needed to maintain supply security in the short-run, or whether some form of regulation is required. In some states in the US, electricity distributors have been made responsible for providing such reserves by contracting capacity in excess of their forecasted peak demand. The so-called Installed Capacity Markets provide one means of contracting reserves, and are the subject of this paper. Under monopoly as well as under perfect competition, we identify firms' short-run opportunity costs of committing resources in the capacity market and the costs of inducing full capacity commitment. The long-run investment problem is not considered. From a welfare viewpoint, we also compare the desirability of providing reserves either through capacity markets or through the demand side (i.e. power curtailments). At the optimum, capacity obligations equal peak demand (plus expected outages) and the capacity deficiency rate (which serves as a price cap) is set at firms' opportunity costs of providing full capacity commitment. (Author)

  13. Trade in electricity certificates: a new means for stimulating electricity from renewable energy sources: final report from the electricity certificate inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    We recommend the introduction of a quota-based Swedish certificate system to promote production of electricity from renewable energy sources commencing on 1 January 2003. We recommend that the certificate system should be based on the following principles: The quota obligation should be set for the years 2003 to 2010 and for all intervening years. The quota is expressed as a share of the total amount of electricity used. It is proposed that as a guideline, a target of an increase in electricity production from renewable energy sources of 10 TWh, in a period from 2003 to 2010 inclusive, is adopted. It is estimated that approximately half of this increase can come from expansion of existing production and half from new plants. The following electricity production plants are to be entitled to certificates provided they comply with the requirement that electricity is to be produced from renewable energy sources and that they meet the environmental criteria set, including fuel requirements, where electricity is produced with the aid of: 1. wind power, 2. solar energy, 3. geothermal energy, 4. certain types of biofuel, 5. wave energy, 6. hydroelectric power at existing plants which, at the time of the Electricity Certificate law coming into effect, have a capacity not exceeding 1 500 kilowatt, 7. hydroelectric power at plants which have not been in operation after 1 July 2001 but which were commissioned after the coming into effect of the Electricity Certificate law, 8. increased installed capacity at existing hydroelectric power plants to the extent that capacity is increased by measures undertaken after 1 July 2002, and 9. hydroelectric power produced at plants, which started operation for the first time after 1 July 2002. The quota period is defined as one calendar year. Certificates may be 'banked' by those subject to quota should they have more certificates at the end of the quota period than need to be submitted. A certificate is valid for an unlimited period of

  14. Material constraints related to storage of future European renewable electricity surpluses with CO_2 methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meylan, Frédéric D.; Moreau, Vincent; Erkman, Suren

    2016-01-01

    The main challenges associated with a growing production of renewable electricity are intermittency and dispersion. Intermittency generates spikes in production, which need to be curtailed when exceeding consumption. Dispersion means electricity has to be transported over long distances between production and consumption sites. In the Directive 2009/28/EC, the European Commission recommends sustainable and effective measures to prevent curtailments and facilitate transportation of renewable electricity. This article explores the material constraints of storing and transporting surplus renewable electricity by conversion into synthetic methane. Europe is considered for its mix of energy technologies, data availability and multiple energy pathways to 2050. Results show that the requirements for key materials and land remain relatively low, respecting the recommendations of the EU Commission. By 2050, more than 6 million tons of carbon dioxide might be transformed into methane annually within the EU. The efficiency of renewable power methane production is also compared to the natural process of converting solar into chemical energy (i.e. photosynthesis), both capturing and reenergizing carbon dioxide. Overall, the production of renewable methane (including carbon dioxide capture) is more efficient and less material intensive than the production of biofuels derived from photosynthesis and biomass conversion. - Highlights: •The potential of methanation to store renewable electricity surpluses is assessed. •Material constraints are relatively low. •Biogenic CO_2 will probably be insufficient. •Production of renewable power methane is more efficient than conventional biofuels. •Renewable power methane can help decarbonizing the global energy sector.

  15. An analysis of the impact of Renewable Portfolio Standards on residential electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew James

    A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular policy for states seeking to increase the amount of renewable energy generated for consumers of electricity. The success of these state programs has prompted debate about the viability of a national RPS. The impact that these state level policies have had on the price consumers pay for electricity is the subject of some debate. Several federal organizations have conducted studies of the impact that a national RPS would have on electricity prices paid by consumers. NREL and US EIA utilize models that analyze the inputs in electricity generation to examine the future price impact of changes to electricity generation and show marginal increases in prices paid by end users. Other empirical research has produced similar results, showing that the existence of an RPS increases the price of electricity. These studies miss important aspects of RPS policies that may change how we view these price increases from RPS policies. By examining the previous empirical research on RPS policies, this study seeks to identify the controls necessary to build an effective model. These controls are utilized in a fixed effects model that seeks to show how the controls and variables of interest impact electricity prices paid by residential consumers of electricity. This study utilizes a panel data set from 1990 to 2014 to analyze the impact of these policies controlling for generating capacity, the regulatory status of utilities in each state, demographic characteristics of the states, and fuel prices. The results of the regressions indicate that prices are likely to be higher in states that have an RPS compared to states that do not have such a policy. Several of the characteristics mentioned above have price impacts, and so discussing RPS policies in the context of other factors that contribute to electricity prices is essential. In particular, the regulatory status of utilities in each state is an important determinate of price as

  16. GIS approach to the definition of capacity and generation ceilings of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Bravo, Javier; Garcia Casals, Xavier; Pinedo Pascua, Irene

    2007-01-01

    There are no discrepancies about the advantages of achieving a sustainable energy system based on locally available natural resources. However, supporters of green energy generation system were lacking some scientific and consistent study to defend their proposals. In order to have such a study, Greenpeace commissioned Technology Research Institute at the Pontificia Comillas University to carry out a study to assess ceilings for the potential and generation of renewable technologies in Spain. It demonstrates firstly a far greater renewable potential than the targets set by long term policies, and secondly, the viability of meeting the entire electricity demand projected for 2050. GIS was used to add the geographical dimension to the original project in order to generate a technical analysis linked to the specific constrictions imposed by territory (natural and anthropogenic) and not just designed to cover a certain demand. Therefore, GIS spatial analysis took into account local conditions producing a more accurate assessment than evaluations made upon 'virtual' electrical spaces. This approach could be applied to other small scale general studies in order to assess the maximum contribution of renewable energy sources to particular energy generation mix and to help set development policies supporting high participation of renewable technologies

  17. Efficient integration of renewable energies in the German electricity market; Effiziente Integration erneuerbarer Energien in den deutschen Elektrizitaetsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabe, C.A.

    2006-07-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity sector aims to carry out coordination tasks within the system by markets and market prices. This study examines how markets need to be designed to carry out coordination tasks caused by integration of renewable energies in an efficient way. This question is applied to the German electricity system and recommendations are derived from identified deficits. The examination uses the structure-conduct-performance approach of industrial organisation economics. Integration of renewable energies does not result in entirely new coordination tasks but complicates those that exist in any electricity supply system. Within the short-term coordination tasks provision and operation of reserve capacity is affected by renewable energies. Long-term coordination means that the relation between fixed and variable costs of generators as well as generator flexibility has to be adjusted to the characteristics of renewable energies. The relevant short-term coordination task with the network is congestion management. In the long run costs of grid expansion and permanent congestion management have to be balanced. For the execution of short-run coordination tasks integrated and centralised market architectures are superior to decentralised architectures. The increase of short-term coordination tasks due to renewable energies caused by inflexibilities of consumers and conventional generators results in more information that has to be considered. By centralising that information in one market, an increase in productive efficiency can be obtained. In Germany the increased coordination tasks are determined by the integration of wind generators into the electricity system. The present German market architecture results in inefficiencies in short-term coordination. This is demonstrated by an analysis of procedural rules and prices of the ancillary service markets. They demonstrate that market performance is low and significant deviations from competitive prices

  18. Electrifying Australian transport: Hybrid life cycle analysis of a transition to electric light-duty vehicles and renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, Paul; Wiedmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This research assesses life-cycle carbon impacts of different powertrains. •We illustrate a transition to low-carbon vehicles in a hybrid IO-LCA model. •Different electricity and transport scenarios are integrated in the model. •With Australia’s current grid-mix, electric vehicles offer no mitigation potential. •Using renewable energy, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66%. -- Abstract: Recent life cycle assessments confirmed the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of renewable electricity and electric vehicle technologies. However, each technology is usually assessed separately and not within a consistent macro-economic, multi-sectoral framework. Here we present a multi-regional input-output based hybrid approach with integrated scenarios to facilitate the carbon footprint assessment of all direct and indirect effects of a transition to low-emission transportation and electricity generation technologies in Australia. The work takes into account on-road energy consumption values that are more realistic than official drive-cycle energy consumption figures used in previous work. Accounting for these factors as well as for Australia’s grid electricity, which heavily relies on coal power, electric vehicles are found to have a higher carbon footprint than conventional vehicles, whereas hybrid electric vehicles have the lowest. This means that – from a carbon footprint perspective – powertrain electrification is beneficial only to a certain degree at the current stage. This situation can be changed by increasing shares of renewable electricity in the grid. In our best-case scenario, where renewable energy accounts for 96% of the electricity mix in 2050, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66% by 2050 relative to 2009. In the business-as-usual scenario (36% renewable electricity share by 2050), electric vehicles can reach a 56% reduction if fossil fuel power plants significantly increase their efficiencies

  19. The electricity prices in the European Union. The role of renewable energies and regulatory electric market reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Blanca; López, Ana J.; García-Álvarez, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The European Union electricity market has been gradually liberalized since 1990s. Theoretically, competitive markets should lead to efficiency gains in the economy thus reducing electricity prices. However, there is a controversial debate about the real effects of the electricity liberalization on electricity prices. Moreover, the increased generation of electricity from renewable energies RES-E (Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources) is also integrated in wholesale market reducing wholesale prices, but the final effect over household prices is not clear. In order to contribute to this debate, this paper provides an empirical investigation into the electricity prices determinants. In fact we develop econometric panel models to explore the relationship between the household electricity prices and variables related to the renewable energy sources and the competition in generation electricity market. More specifically we use a panel data set provided by Eurostat and covering 27 European Union countries during the period 1998–2009. Our results suggest that electricity prices increase with the deployment of RES-E and with the expansion of greenhouse gas emissions produced by energy industries- as a European Union CO 2 emission trading scheme exists. Results also reveal that country's characteristics can affect household electricity prices. -- Highlights: ► Electricity liberalized markets should lead to reduce electricity prices. ► The use of renewable energies (RES) reduce wholesale electricity prices. ► However, household electricity prices are increasing in European Union. ► Panel data models are developed to investigate the effect of RES and electricity competition on household electricity prices. ► We find that the deployment of RES increases prices paid by consumers in a liberalized market.

  20. Design and Implementation of a Control Strategy for Microgrid Containing Renewable Energy Generations and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amount of such renewable energy generations as wind/photovoltaic generations directly connected to grid acting as distributed generations will cause control, protection, security, and safety problems. Microgrid, which has advantages in usage and control of distributed generations, is a promising approach to coordinate the conflict between distributed generations and the grid. Regarded as mobile power storages, batteries of electric vehicles can depress the fluctuation of power through the point of common coupling of microgrid. This paper presents a control strategy for microgrid containing renewable energy generations and electric vehicles. The control strategy uses current control for renewable energy generations under parallel-to-grid mode, and uses master-slave control under islanding mode. Simulations and laboratory experiments prove that the control strategy works well for microgrid containing renewable energy generations and electric vehicles and provides maximum power output of renewable energy and a stable and sustainable running under islanding mode.

  1. Electricity sector reforms in four Latin-American countries and their impact on carbon dioxide emissions and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janet Ruiz-Mendoza, Belizza; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions related to energy consumption for electricity generation in four Latin-American countries in the context of the liberalization process. From 1990 to 2006, power plants based on renewable energy sources decreased its share in power installed capacity, and the carbon index defined as CO 2 emission by unit of energy for electricity production stayed almost constant for all countries with the exception of Colombia, where the index reduced due to increase in hydroelectricity generation in the last years. The paper also presents a new set of policies to promote renewable energy sources that have been developed in the four countries. The paper concludes that restructuring did not bring about environmental benefits related to a decrease in CO 2 emissions because this depend on the existence of committed policies, and dedicated institutional and regulatory frameworks.

  2. From nuclear phase-out to renewable energies in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Sebastian; Ackere, Ann van

    2016-01-01

    Liberalisation and the ever larger share of variable renewable energies (VRES), e.g. photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy, affect security of supply (SoS). We develop a system dynamics model to analyse the impact of VRES on the investment decision process and to understand how SoS is affected. We focus on the Swiss electricity market, which is currently undergoing a liberalisation process, and simultaneously faces the encouragement of VRES and a nuclear phase out. Our results show that nuclear production is replaced mainly by PV and imports; the country becomes a net importer. This evolution points to a problem of capacity adequacy. The resulting price rise, together with the subsidies needed to support VRES, lead to a rise in tariffs. In the presence of a high share of hydro, the de-rated margin may give a misleading picture of the capacity adequacy. We thus propose a new metric, the annual energy margin, which considers the energy available from all sources, while acknowledging that hydro-storage can function as a battery. This measure shows a much less reassuring picture of the country’s capacity adequacy. - Highlights: •We model the long-term dynamics of the Swiss electricity market. •Nuclear power is expected to be partially replaced by PV and imports. •These changes in the energy mix and exchange patterns cause prices to rise. •Import dependency and price rise are symptoms of a decreasing capacity adequacy. •The annual energy margin shows a less reassuring picture than the de-rated margin.

  3. Carbon Emissions, Renewable Electricity, and Profits: Comparing Policies to Promote Anaerobic Digesters on Dairies

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel D.; Sneeringer, Stacy E.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters can provide renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from manure management. Government policies that encourage digester adoption by livestock operations include construction cost-share grants, renewable electricity subsidies, and carbon pricing (offset) programs. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of these policies is not well understood. For the U.S. dairy sector, we compare predicted digester adoption rates, carbon emission reductions, renewable elect...

  4. Renewable and nuclear electricity: Comparison of environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, Charles; Jefferson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Given the widely acknowledged negative impacts of fossil fuels, both on human health and on potential climate change, it is of interest to compare the impacts of low carbon alternative energy sources such as nuclear energy, hydropower, solar, wind and biomass. In this paper, we review the literature in order to summarise the impacts of the different technologies in terms of their materials and energy requirements, their emissions during operation, their health effects during operation, the accident risks, and the associated waste streams. We follow up these comparisons with some more anecdotal evidence on selected impacts that are either particularly topical or are important but less commonly addressed. These include impacts of wind turbines on persons and on bird life, the underestimated problems with biomass, and concerns about biodiversity reduction. Finally we address the public attitudes towards both renewable energy technologies and to nuclear power. The conclusion is drawn that energy policies of many countries are perhaps more strongly influenced by public and political perceptions of available technologies than they are by rational assessment of the actual benefits and drawbacks. Policy recommendations follow from this conclusion. - Highlights: •Given the acknowledged hazards of fossil fuels, it is important to compare the impacts of low-carbon alternatives. •This report reviews published data to compare nuclear with hydro, wind, solar and biomass electricity production. •Environmental impacts and risks to humans are compared. •Specific impacts of wind turbines on bird populations are examined. •Conclusions and recommendations for future energy choices are presented.

  5. Status and development perspectives for renewable energies. A focus on electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document proposes data tables and figures to present the situation of the electricity production mix in 2010 and the shares of renewable energies (wind, photovoltaic, hydroelectric, biomass energies) in this mix for France, Germany and Spain. These data concern electricity production, avoided greenhouse gas emissions, electric heating consumption, installed power, number of sites, so on

  6. Promotion of electricity from renewable energy in Europe post 2020. The economic benefits of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2013-08-15

    In Europe, the availability of renewable energies, especially from sun and wind, differs significantly across regions. Consequently, cooperation in the deployment of renewable energy among European countries potentially yields substantial efficiency gains. However, in order to achieve the 2020 renewable energy targets for electricity, Member States of the European Union almost purely rely on domestic production. For the period after 2020, a European renewable energy target has not yet been defined, but decarbonization pathways outlined in the Roadmap of the European Commission include renewable energy shares of electricity generation to be 50-60% by 2030. Therefore, we analyze the benefits of cooperation compared to continuing with national renewable energy support after 2020. We use a large-scale dynamic investment and dispatch model of the European electricity system and find that compared to a 2030 CO{sub 2}-only target (-40% compared to 1990 emission levels), electricity system costs increase by 5 to 7% when a European-wide renewable energy target for electricity generation (of around 55%) is additionally implemented. However, these additional costs are lower by 41 to 45% compared to the additional electricity system costs which would arise if the renewable energy target was reached through national support systems (without cooperation). Furthermore, we find that the cooperation gains (i.e., the cost reduction achieved by cooperation) are quite robust: They decrease only slightly when interconnectors are not further extended (compared to today) and depend only slightly on assumptions about investment cost developments of renewable energy technologies. With regard to the practical implementation of cooperation, however, unclear administrative issues and questions concerning the fair sharing of costs and benefits between the Member States represent major obstacles that need to be tackled in order to reach renewable energy targets at the lowest costs possible.

  7. Using renewables to hedge against future electricity industry uncertainties—An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vithayasrichareon, Peerapat; Riesz, Jenny; MacGill, Iain F.

    2015-01-01

    A generation portfolio modelling was employed to assess the expected costs, cost risk and emissions of different generation portfolios in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) under highly uncertain gas prices, carbon pricing policy and electricity demand. Outcomes were modelled for 396 possible generation portfolios, each with 10,000 simulations of possible fuel and carbon prices and electricity demands. In 2030, the lowest expected cost generation portfolio includes 60% renewable energy. Increasing the renewable proportion to 75% slightly increased expected cost (by $0.2/MWh), but significantly decreased the standard deviation of cost (representing the cost risk). Increasing the renewable proportion from the present 15% to 75% by 2030 is found to decrease expected wholesale electricity costs by $17/MWh. Fossil-fuel intensive portfolios have substantial cost risk associated with high uncertainty in future gas and carbon prices. Renewables can effectively mitigate cost risk associated with gas and carbon price uncertainty. This is found to be robust to a wide range of carbon pricing assumptions. This modelling suggests that policy mechanisms to promote an increase in renewable generation towards a level of 75% by 2030 would minimise costs to consumers, and mitigate the risk of extreme electricity prices due to uncertain gas and carbon prices. - Highlights: • A generation portfolio with 75% renewables in 2030 is the most optimal in terms of cost, cost risk and emissions. • Investment in CCGT is undesirable compared to renewables given the cost risk due to gas and carbon price uncertainties. • Renewables can hedge against extreme electricity prices caused by high and uncertain carbon and gas prices. • Existing coal-fired plants still play a key role by moving into a peaking role to complement variable renewables. • Policy mechanisms to promote renewable generation are important

  8. Renewable electricity market developments in the European Union. Final Report of the ADMIRE REBUS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; Daniels, B.W.; De Noord, M.; De Vries, H.J.; De Zoeten - Dartenset, C.; Skytte, K.; Meibom, P.; Lescot, D.; Hoffmann, T.; Stronzik, M.; Gual, M.; Del Rio, P.; Hernandez, F.

    2003-10-01

    Which countries offer the best markets for renewables? Are present support policies sufficient to meet the EU (European Union) renewables target for 2010? Which renewable technologies will have the largest growth in the present decade? The ADMIRE REBUS project has addressed these questions by giving an outlook on the future of electricity from renewable energy sources. The ADMIRE REBUS project team has analysed the market barriers, support policies and potentials for renewable electricity production in Europe. For these analyses a new tool was developed that simulates the development of the European renewable electricity market under different policy scenarios. The report starts with describing the approach and key assumptions used in the analysis. Next, an overview is provided of EU legislation and different support policies for renewable energy. After a brief overview of the different challenges that an investor faces when investing in renewable energy technologies with respect to lead times, risks and transaction costs, several policy scenarios for the future are discussed. Next, the report presents ADMIRE REBUS model analyses of different policy strategies for meeting the targets stated in the EU Renewables Directive. The report continues the analysis of model results with presenting prospects for individual technologies and market prices under different scenarios. Next, case studies are presented for four different EU Member States. The analysis results are put into perspective by a sensitivity analysis. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are formulated based on the above

  9. Governmental policy and prospect in electricity production from renewables in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katinas, Vladislovas; Markevicius, Antanas; Erlickyte, Regina; Marciukaitis, Mantas

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania, the generation of electricity is based on the nuclear energy and on the fossil fuels. After the decommissioning of Ignalina nuclear power plant in 2009, the Lithuanian Power Plant and other thermal plants will become the major sources of electricity. Consequently, the Lithuanian power sector must focus on the implementation of renewable energy projects, penetration of new technologies and on consideration of the future opportunities for renewables, and Government policy for promoting this kind of energy. Production of electricity from renewable energy is based on hydro, biomass and wind energy resources in Lithuania. Due to the typical climatic condition in Lithuania the solar photovoltaics and geothermal energy are not used for power sector. Moreover, the further development of hydropower plants is limited by environmental restrictions, therefore priority is given to wind energy development and installation of new biomass power plants. According to the requirements set out in the Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market [Official Journal L283, 33-40, 27 October 2001], 7% of gross consumption of electricity will be generated from renewable energy by 2010 in Lithuania. The aim of this paper is to show the estimation of the maximum renewable power penetration in the Lithuanian electricity sector and possible environmental impact

  10. Storage- and grid expansion needs in a European electricity-supply-system with a high share of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Tjark; Cai, Zhuang [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), E.ON ERC; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); Alvarez, Ricardo; Awater, Philipp; Moser, Albert [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Chair and Inst. of Power Systems and Power Economics (IAEW); Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); Leuthold, Matthias; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), E.ON ERC; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The transformation of the European electricity supply system to fully supply from renewable energy sources (RES), which is associated with the German ''Energiewende'', brings up the question how RES could be optimally allocated throughout Europe in order to minimize the total generation costs. For this task, an optimization tool based on a genetic algorithm was developed. The tool is able to optimize the capacity and allocation of RES, storage system and transmission network in a given energy system in order to get minimal overall economic costs. Exemplary results for the EUMENA region (Europe, Middle East and North Africa) show an optimal RES installed capacity of 2913 MW (Wind and PV),a storage capacity of 325 TWh and the installation of an HVDC overlay-grid with 1,140,000 GWkm transmission capacity. If such a system was realized, costs of 11.9 Eurocent per consumed Kilowatt-hour would occur.

  11. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  12. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  13. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  14. High temperature heat capacities and electrical conductivities of boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Tsuneo; Arita, Yuri; Naito, Keiji; Imai, Hisashi

    1991-01-01

    The heat capacities and the electrical conductivities of B x C(x=3, 4, 5) were measured by means of direct heating pulse calorimetry in the temperature range from 300 to 1500 K. The heat capacities of B x C increased with increasing x value. This increase in the heat capacity is probably related to the change of the lattice vibration mode originated from the reduction of the stiffness of the intericosahedral chain accompanied with a change from C-B-C to C-B-B chains. A linear relationship between the logarithm of σT (σ is the electrical conductivity and T is the absolute temperature) of B x C and the reciprocal temperature was observed, indicating the presence of small polaron hopping as the predominant conduction mechanism. The electrical conductivity of B x C also increased with increasing x value (from 4 to 5) due to an increase of the polaron hopping of holes between carbon atoms at geometrically nonequivalent sites, since these nonequivalent sites of carbon atoms were considered to increase in either B 11 C icosahedra or in icosahedral chains with increasing x. The electrical conductivity of B 3 C was higher than that of B 4 C, which is probably due to the precipitation of high-conducting carbon. The thermal conductivity and the thermodynamic quantities of B 4 C were also determined precisely from the heat capacity value. (orig.)

  15. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  16. Balancing renewable electricity. Energy storage, demand side management, and network extension from an interdisciplinary perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie zur Erforschung von Folgen Wissenschaftlich-Technischer Entwicklungen GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany); Paal, Boris P.; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO{sub 2} emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the technical system for balancing electricity over Europe is sketched. Looking at the challenges of a future energy system a mix of complementary technologies will prospectively become prevalent. In order to foster the needed innovation processes adequately, several funding mechanisms and legal regulations should be adapted. The authors give recommendations to handle major challenges in the development of the technical infrastructure, for the design of market conditions and for specific support of the application of balancing technologies. (orig.)

  17. Integrating High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy into Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As more variable renewable energy is integrated into electric power systems, there are a range of challenges and solutions to accommodating very high penetration levels. This presentation highlights some of the recent research in this area.

  18. Modelling renewable energy resource and the electricity network (East Midlands region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, P.A.; Ma, T.

    2002-07-01

    The UK Government's targets for renewable generation and combined heat and power (CHP) are expected to result in a significant growth in embedded generation. This report describes the results of a study of the capability of the electricity distribution network in the East Midlands to accept embedded generation. Detailed network studies were performed for two sample networks: one representing an urban network (Leicester) and one representing a rural network (Boston). The 132 kV networks of the grid groups covering these areas were also studied. This included an examination of the connection points from major 132 kV busbars at grid supply points down to 11 kV primary substations. Power system studies were performed to identify the constraints and capabilities of the existing network, These studies included load flow to examine voltage profile and overloading, fault level analysis and transient studies to examine generator and network stability following faults on the network and voltage step change due to generator tripping. Space network capacity for the region was identified and used to assess the ability to accommodate regional targets for renewables and CHP. The study also examined constraining factors and potential solutions, including four improvement scenarios.

  19. Emergence of a phase transition for the required amount of storage in highly renewable electricity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    -up of the required amount of storage, with renewable penetration being the control parameter and average relative storage filling level being the order parameter. A singularity appears for the required storage energy capacity at a renewable penetration determined by the parameters of the storage. For an ideal...... storage with no roundtrip losses the transition occurs at 100% renewable penetration. Moreover, the required storage energy capacity is strongly enhanced by temporal correlations on the synoptic weather time scale. A Markov process is proposed, which reproduces these findings....

  20. Basic concepts for designing renewable electricity support aiming at a full-scale transition by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Lauber, Volkmar

    2009-01-01

    Renewable electricity supply is a crucial factor in the realization of a low-carbon energy economy. The understanding is growing that a full turn-over of the electricity sectors by 2050 is an elementary condition for avoiding global average temperature increase beyond 2 C. This article adopts such full transition as Europe's target when designing renewable energy policy. An immediate corollary is that phasing-in unprecedented energy efficiency and renewable generation must be paralleled by phasing-out non-sustainable fossil fuel and nuclear power technologies. The double phasing programme assigns novel meaning to nearby target settings for renewable power as share of total power consumption. It requires organizing in the medium term EU-wide markets for green power, a highly demanding task in the present context of poorly functional markets in brown power. The EU Commission's 2007/2008 proposals of expanding tradable certificates markets were not based on solid analysis of past experiences and future necessities. The keystone of sound policies on renewable electricity development is a detailed scientific differentiation and qualification of renewable electricity sources and technologies, for measuring the huge diversity in the field. We provide but structuring concepts about such qualification, because implementation requires extensive research resources. Support for renewable electricity development is organized via feed-in prices or premiums, and via quota obligations connected to tradable green certificates. Green certificates are dependent on physical generated renewable power, but separable and no joint products. Contrary to conventional wisdom we argue their separation in cost analysis but firm linking during trade. A few graphs illustrate the importance of assigning qualities to different renewable power sources/technologies. Feed-in systems based on an acceptable qualification perform generally better than certificate markets imposing uniform approaches on a

  1. CrxOS maintains the self-renewal capacity of murine embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Ryota; Yamasaki, Tokiwa; Nagai, Yoko; Wu, Jinzhan; Kajiho, Hiroaki; Yokoi, Tadashi; Noda, Eiichiro; Nishina, Sachiko; Niwa, Hitoshi; Azuma, Noriyuki; Katada, Toshiaki; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells maintain pluripotency by self-renewal. Several homeoproteins, including Oct3/4 and Nanog, are known to be key factors in maintaining the self-renewal capacity of ES cells. However, other genes required for the mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Here we report the identification by in silico analysis of a homeobox-containing gene, CrxOS, that is specifically expressed in murine ES cells and is essential for their self-renewal. ES cells mainly express the short isoform of endogenous CrxOS. Using a polyoma-based episomal expression system, we demonstrate that overexpression of the CrxOS short isoform is sufficient for maintaining the undifferentiated morphology of ES cells and stimulating their proliferation. Finally, using RNA interference, we show that CrxOS is essential for the self-renewal of ES cells, and provisionally identify foxD3 as a downstream target gene of CrxOS. To our knowledge, ours is the first delineation of the physiological role of CrxOS in ES cells.

  2. Information Support of Optimal Control of Modes of Electric Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Gryniewicz-Jaworska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide necessary quality of electric energy and reliable supply and reduce environmental contamination as a result of energy units operation, renewable sources of energy (RSE, in particular solar electric stations (SES, wind electric stations (WES and small hydropower stations (SHES are intensively developed. The paper considers the conditions of optimality of renewable sources of energy (RSE functioning in electric systems, controllability of which is limited by the impact of non-stable weather conditions. The influence of control system information support on the efficiency of RSE usage is shown.

  3. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gorham, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  4. Optimizing the Level of Renewable Electric R&D Expenditures Using Real Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Owens, B.

    2003-02-01

    One of the primary objectives of the United States' federal non-hydro renewable electric R&D program is to promote the development of technologies that have the potential to provide consumers with stable and secure energy supplies. In order to quantify the benefits provided by continued federal renewable electric R&D, this paper uses ''real option'' pricing techniques to estimate the value of renewable electric technologies in the face of uncertain fossil fuel prices. Within the real options analysis framework, the current value of expected future supply from renewable electric technologies, net of federal R&D expenditures, is estimated to be $30.6 billion. Of this value, 86% can be attributed to past federal R&D efforts, and 14% can be attributed to future federal R&D efforts, assuming continued federal R&D funding at $300 million/year. In addition, real options analysis shows that the value of renewable electric technologies increases as current and future R&D funding levels increase. This indicates that the current level of federal renewable electric R&D funding is sub-optimal low.

  5. A cost-efficient expansion of renewable energy sources in the European electricity system. An integrated modelling approach with a particular emphasis on diurnal and seasonal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golling, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    This thesis determines a cost-efficient expansion of electricity generated by renewable energy sources (RES-E) in the European power generation system. It is an integrated modelling approach with a particular emphasis on diurnal and seasonal patterns of renewable energy sources (RES). An integrated modelling approach optimizes the overall European electricity system while comprising fossil, nuclear, and renewable generation as well as storage capacities. The integrated model approach corresponds to a situation in which renewable generation is subject to electricity price signals. In sensitivity scenarios cases of the integrated model approach are compared to situations in which renewable generation is granted priority feed-in and is decoupled from electricity price signals. In addition, the role of different flexibility options, which can be provided by storage capacities and grid expansion are scrutinized. The methodology of the thesis consists of two parts. First, it develops an integrative model approach by extending an existing European electricity model only comprising conventional power generating technologies. Second, an appropriate representation of intermittent RES for electricity market models is established by the determination of corresponding typedays. The typeday modelling takes the spatial correlation of RES and the correlation between wind and solar power into account. Moreover, the typeday modelling captures average dispatch-relevant, diurnal and seasonal RES characteristics such as the level, the variance, and the gradient. The scenario analysis shows that separate developments of renewable and conventional technologies imply several inefficiencies. These increase with higher RES-E penetration. Inefficiencies such as an increased wind power curtailment, an augmented capital turnover, or a higher cumulative installed power generating capacity are revealed and quantified.

  6. Assessing the strength and effectiveness of renewable electricity feed-in tariffs in European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenner, Steffen; Groba, Felix; Indvik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, feed-in tariffs (FIT) have emerged as one of the most popular policies for supporting renewable electricity (RES-E) generation. A few studies have assessed the effectiveness of RES-E policies, but most ignore policy design features and market characteristics (e.g. electricity price and production cost) that influence policy strength. We employ 1992–2008 panel data to conduct the first econometric analysis of the effectiveness of FIT policies in promoting solar photovoltaic (PV) and onshore wind power development in 26 European Union countries. We develop a new indicator for FIT strength that captures variability in tariff size, contract duration, digression rate, and electricity price and production cost to estimate the resulting return on investment. We regress this indicator on added RES-E capacity using a fixed effects specification and find that FIT policies have driven solar PV development in the EU. However, this effect is overstated without controlling for country characteristics and is concealed without accounting for policy design. We do not find robust evidence that FIT policies have driven wind power development. Overall, we show that the interaction of policy design, electricity price, and electricity production cost is a more important determinant of RES-E development than policy enactment alone. - Highlights: ► This is the first econometric study of feed-in tariff (FIT) efficacy in Europe. ► We test the impact of FIT's on photovoltaic (PV) and wind power from 1992 to 2008. ► We calculate country- and year-specific return on investment provided by each FIT. ► FIT policies increased PV installations by ∼0.5% per ROI percentage point. ► Policy design, market traits, and ROI are more important factors than policy alone.

  7. The role of PV electricity generation in fully renewable energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Peter, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy supply will be based on renewable energies and it must use available resources efficiently. Earlier or later the energy supply will rely completely on renewable sources. A solar energy system that provides a reliable energy supply throughout the year includes the consistent use of local renewable energy sources (e.g. PV) wherever possible. Using Japan as a example it was shown that the vision of a full renewable energy supply, even with high shares of domestic sources is possible. Detailed simulations of such a system show that the PV systems play an important role delivering electricity at peak demand times. (authors)

  8. Modeling water resources as a constraint in electricity capacity expansion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Cohen, S.; Tidwell, V. C.; Woldeyesus, T.; Martinez, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, the electric power sector is the largest withdrawer of freshwater in the nation. The primary demand for water from the electricity sector is for thermoelectric power plant cooling. Areas likely to see the largest near-term growth in population and energy usage, the Southwest and the Southeast, are also facing freshwater scarcity and have experienced water-related power reliability issues in the past decade. Lack of water may become a barrier for new conventionally-cooled power plants, and alternative cooling systems will impact technology cost and performance. Although water is integral to electricity generation, it has long been neglected as a constraint in future electricity system projections. Assessing the impact of water resource scarcity on energy infrastructure development is critical, both for conventional and renewable energy technologies. Efficiently utilizing all water types, including wastewater and brackish sources, or utilizing dry-cooling technologies, will be essential for transitioning to a low-carbon electricity system. This work provides the first demonstration of a national electric system capacity expansion model that incorporates water resources as a constraint on the current and future U.S. electricity system. The Regional Electricity Deployment System (ReEDS) model was enhanced to represent multiple cooling technology types and limited water resource availability in its optimization of electricity sector capacity expansion to 2050. The ReEDS model has high geographic and temporal resolution, making it a suitable model for incorporating water resources, which are inherently seasonal and watershed-specific. Cooling system technologies were assigned varying costs (capital, operations and maintenance), and performance parameters, reflecting inherent tradeoffs in water impacts and operating characteristics. Water rights supply curves were developed for each of the power balancing regions in ReEDS. Supply curves include costs

  9. 2016 barometer of electric renewable energies in France - Observ'ER 7. issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigneur, Vincent Jacques le; Lescot, Diane; Courtel, Julien; Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette; Tuille, Frederic; David, Romain; L'escale, Charlotte de; Baratte, Lucie; Guillier, Alice; Pintat, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, this publication proposes a rather detailed overview of the status and development (production and location, employment, sector turnover, market and tariffs) of the different electricity-producing renewable energies: wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydraulic energy, solid biomass, biogas, renewable urban wastes, geothermal energy, sea energy, thermodynamic solar energy). It also proposes a regional overview of these different electricity-producing renewable sectors, of the regional climate-air-energy schemes and regional wind schemes. A focus is proposed on each French region

  10. The 2013 barometer of electric renewable energies in France - 4. issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebard, Alain; Civel, Yves-Bruno; Lescot, Diane; Richard, Aude; Houot, Geraldine; Talpin, Juliette; Tuille, Frederic; Augereau, Laurence; David, Romain; Bernard, Cecile; Baratte, Lucie; Guichard, Marie Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, this publication proposes a rather detailed overview of the status and development (production and location, employment, sector turnover, market and tariffs) of the different electricity-producing renewable energies: wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydraulic energy, solid biomass, biogas, renewable urban wastes, geothermal energy, sea energy, thermodynamic solar energy). It also proposes a regional overview of these different electricity-producing renewable sectors, of the regional climate-air-energy schemes and regional wind schemes. A focus is proposed on each French region

  11. The effectiveness of Renewable Portfolio Standard banding and carve-outs in supporting high-cost types of renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) are renewable electricity (RES-E) subsidy mechanisms in which governments mandate how much RES-E should be generated and markets determine the cost of the subsidy needed to generate the RES-E. Two modifications of the RPS that can help support high-cost types of RES-E are banding, where governments mandate higher multiples of RPS tradable certificates for high-cost types of RES-E, and carve-outs, where governments prescribe parts of a RPS target that can be met only by a particular type, or types, of RES-E. This paper analyses the design and generation performance of banding, as used in the UK, with some reference to Italy; and carve-outs, as used in the USA. To date, there is insufficient experience of either device to reach firm conclusions about their generation effectiveness. However, there is early, tentative evidence that banding is successful at supporting high-cost types of RES-E in the UK. Carve-outs are not being fully exploited in US states that use a RPS mechanism, and Italy is using banding in a fairly insignificant way. Though both devices have different design strengths and weaknesses, and either could be adapted to specific RPS markets, banding is probably the better device for supporting high-cost RES-E. - Highlights: → I analysed three countries that use either Renewable Portfolio Standards banding or carve-outs. → I assess whether banding or carve-outs have diversified renewable electricity generation. → There's insufficient banding/carve-out experience to reach firm diversification conclusions. → There's early evidence that the UK banding is diversifying its renewable electricity.

  12. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear ...

  13. Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage

  14. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  15. A comparative analysis of renewable electricity support mechanisms for Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [National University of Singapore, Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluates the applicability of eight renewable electricity policy mechanisms for Southeast Asian electricity markets. It begins by describing the methodology behind 90 research interviews of stakeholders in the electricity industry. It then outlines four justifications given by respondents for government intervention to support renewables in Southeast Asia: unpriced negative externalities, counteracting subsidies for conventional energy sources, the public goods aspect of renewable energy, and the presence of non-technical barriers. The article develops an analytical framework to evaluate renewable portfolio standards, green power programs, public research and development expenditures, systems benefits charges, investment tax credits, production tax credits, tendering, and feed-in tariffs in Southeast Asia. It assesses each of these mechanisms according to the criteria of efficacy, cost effectiveness, dynamic efficiency, equity, and fiscal responsibility. The study concludes that one mechanism, feed-in tariffs, is both the most preferred by respondents and the only one that meets all criteria. (author)

  16. A comparative analysis of renewable electricity support mechanisms for Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the applicability of eight renewable electricity policy mechanisms for Southeast Asian electricity markets. It begins by describing the methodology behind 90 research interviews of stakeholders in the electricity industry. It then outlines four justifications given by respondents for government intervention to support renewables in Southeast Asia: unpriced negative externalities, counteracting subsidies for conventional energy sources, the public goods aspect of renewable energy, and the presence of non-technical barriers. The article develops an analytical framework to evaluate renewable portfolio standards, green power programs, public research and development expenditures, systems benefits charges, investment tax credits, production tax credits, tendering, and feed-in tariffs in Southeast Asia. It assesses each of these mechanisms according to the criteria of efficacy, cost effectiveness, dynamic efficiency, equity, and fiscal responsibility. The study concludes that one mechanism, feed-in tariffs, is both the most preferred by respondents and the only one that meets all criteria. (author)

  17. Transmission Needs In A Fully Renewable Pan-European Electricity System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Rolando A.; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Becker, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    capacities lead to a non-linear increase of balancing needs. A good compromise turns out to be a capacity layout, which is a factor 5 larger than today’s one. On average each country will only be able to import / export 40% of its residual demand / renewable excess generation....

  18. Impacts of High Variable Renewable Energy Futures on Wholesale Electricity Prices, and on Electric-Sector Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Seel, J; Mills, AD; Wiser, RH

    2018-01-01

    Increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy (VRE) can affect wholesale electricity price patterns and make them meaningfully different from past, traditional price patterns. Many long-lasting decisions for supply- and demand-side electricity infrastructure and programs are based on historical observations or assume a business-as-usual future with low shares of VRE. Our motivating question is whether certain electric-sector decisions that are made based on assumptions reflecting low V...

  19. Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje; Škrlec, Davor

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported...... by a central energy storage system (ESS), consisting of a battery and a fuel cell. The optimization is carried out as a robust mixed-integer linear program (RMILP), and results in different optimal solutions, depending on budgets of uncertainty, each of which yields different RES and storage capacities...

  20. The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators. Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-09-15

    A consensus has long existed within the electric utility sector of the United States that renewable electricity generators such as wind and solar are unreliable and intermittent to a degree that they will never be able to contribute significantly to electric utility supply or provide baseload power. This paper asks three interconnected questions: (1) What do energy experts really think about renewables in the United States?; (2) To what degree are conventional baseload units reliable?; (3) Is intermittency a justifiable reason to reject renewable electricity resources? To provide at least a few answers, the author conducted 62 formal, semi-structured interviews at 45 different institutions including electric utilities, regulatory agencies, interest groups, energy systems manufacturers, nonprofit organizations, energy consulting firms, universities, national laboratories, and state institutions in the United States. In addition, an extensive literature review of government reports, technical briefs, and journal articles was conducted to understand how other countries have dealt with (or failed to deal with) the intermittent nature of renewable resources around the world. It was concluded that the intermittency of renewables can be predicted, managed, and mitigated, and that the current technical barriers are mainly due to the social, political, and practical inertia of the traditional electricity generation system. (author)

  1. Nuclear Energy and Renewables interaction: System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cometto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of the OECD/NEA study 'Nuclear Energy and Renewables: System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems'. It addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a 'generator pays' principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly de-carbonised electricity systems

  2. The impact of renewable energy on electricity prices in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert

    Electricity markets may become more sensitive to weather conditions because of a higher penetration of renewable energy sources and climatic changes. We investigate whether weather conditions had a growing influence on the average daily day-ahead price in the Dutch electricity market in the period

  3. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on European Cross-Border Electricity Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; De Vries, L.J.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    The estimated growth of Europe’s electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The

  4. Can British Columbia Achieve Electricity Self-Sufficiency and Meet its Renewable Portfolio Standard?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.; Wong, L.

    2012-01-01

    British Columbia’s energy policy is at a crossroads; the province has set a goal of electricity self-sufficiency, a 93% renewable portfolio standard and provincial natural gas strategy that could increase electricity consumption by 2,500-3,800 MW. To ascertain the reality of BC’s supply position, we

  5. Barriers to Investment in Utility-scale Variable Renewable Electricity (VRE) Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Harmsen, R.; Crijns-Graus, W.; Worrell, E.

    To effectively mitigate climate change, variable renewable electricity (VRE) is expected to substitute a great share of current fossil-fired electricity generation. However, VRE investments can be obstructed by many barriers, endangering the amount of investments needed in order to be consistent

  6. 75 FR 54618 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-84-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, California Public Utilities Commission; Notice of Complaint...

  7. 75 FR 66744 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-84-001] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, California Public Utilities Commission; Notice of Amended...

  8. Reliability payments to generation capacity in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Pringles, Rolando; Larisson, Carlos; Garcés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Electric power is a critical input to modern economies. Generation adequacy and security of supply in power systems running under competition are currently topics of high concern for consumers, regulators and governments. In a market setting, generation investments and adequacy can only be achieved by an appropriate regulatory framework that sets efficient remuneration to power capacity. Theoretically, energy-only electricity markets are efficient and no additional mechanism is needed. Nonetheless, the energy-only market design suffers from serious drawbacks. Therefore, jointly with the evolution of electricity markets, many remunerating mechanisms for generation capacity have been proposed. Explicit capacity payment was the first remunerating approach implemented and perhaps still the most applied. However, this price-based regulation has been applied no without severe difficulties and criticism. In this paper, a new reliability payment mechanism is envisioned. Capacity of each generating unit is paid according to its effective contribution to overall system reliability. The proposed scheme has many attractive features and preserves the theoretical efficiency properties of energy-only markets. Fairness, incentive compatibility, market power mitigation and settlement rules are investigated in this work. The article also examines the requirements for system data and models in order to implement the proposed capacity mechanism. A numerical example on a real hydrothermal system serves for illustrating the practicability of the proposed approach and the resulting reliability payments to the generation units. - Highlights: • A new approach for remunerating supply reliability provided by generation units is proposed. • The contribution of each generating unit to lessen power shortfalls is determined by simulations. • Efficiency, fairness and incentive compatibility of the proposed reliability payment are assessed

  9. Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

  10. Hedging Mexico's Electricity Bets : The Case for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Farchy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Few investors will risk putting all of their money into a single asset based on a 30-year forecast, yet narrowly-interpreted least-cost energy planning has often done just that. In Mexico, regulatory policies have hindered adoption of renewable energy (RE) and other diversified power options that could reduce portfolio risk. Against this backdrop, this note illustrates the country's growin...

  11. Analysis of incentivation policies for renewable-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisi, M.; Mattucci, A.; Cicolin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Subsidization policies for renewable energy sources can give a positive help in order to achieve higher security of supply and better ecosystem preservation. Their effectiveness can be improved with new application mechanisms and supporting them with policies to foster local acceptability, stability of rules and the growth of innovative national industries [it

  12. Electricity generation: regulatory mechanisms to incentive renewable alternative energy sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao; Silva, E.P. da

    2005-01-01

    The dissemination of renewable alternative energy sources for electricity generation has always being done through regulatory mechanisms, created and managed by the government of each country. Since these sources are more costly to generate, they have received incentives in response to worldwide environmental concerns, above all with regard to the reduction of CO 2 emissions. In Brazil, the electricity generation from renewable alternative sources is experiencing a new phase of growth. Until a short time ago, environmental appeal was the strongest incentive to these sources in Brazil but it was insufficient to attain its objective. With the electricity crisis and the rationing imposed in 2001, another important factor gained awareness: the need to diversify energy sources. Within this context, this work has the objective of analyzing the regulatory mechanisms recently developed to stimulate electricity generation from renewable alternative energy sources in Brazil by following the experience of other countries such as the United States, United Kingdom and Germany

  13. Renewable energies and their effect on electricity prices: the case of the German nuclear phase-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comtesse, Daniel; Schroeer, Sebastian

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the price effects of the market integration of renewable energies. Previous related studies describe a so-called 'merit order-effect', implying that decreasing electricity prices are caused by an increasing share of renewable energies. However, this is a static effect resulting from the assumption that the existing power plant fleet remains constant. Our contribution is to analyze the long-run price effect of the substitution of renewable energies for existing technologies like nuclear power, coal or gas. This aspect is relevant, since more and more countries increase the share of renewable energies in order to substitute fossil or nuclear power plants. Higher market shares of renewable energies are caused both by their increasing competitiveness and by political actions such as national targets or promotion schemes. Background and Stylized facts Since renewable energies usually have a lower marginal price of electricity generation - which determines the electricity prices at spot markets - their addition to an established power plant fleet consisting of nuclear, coal, lignite and gas power plants leads to lower electricity prices. However, the long-run price effect when fossil or nuclear power plants are substituted remains ambiguous. This is due to the fact that, if compared to fossil and nuclear fuels, renewable energies are characterized by three specific features: firstly, they lack the ability to secure base load. Secondly, they produce energy which is extremely volatile. Thirdly, their marginal costs of production are close to zero. These characteristics are caused by the high dependency of renewable energies on weather conditions. As electricity generation and consumption must happen simultaneously (electricity storage does not pay off yet), power plants with low base load capacity need back-up capacities. Given the actual technological state of the art, these back-up capacities must be fossil or nuclear power

  14. Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    , the prices at which the electric drive vehicles become of interest to the power system are found. Smart charge, including the opportunity to discharge (vehicle-to-grid) is used in all scenarios. Analyses show that the marginal benefits decrease the larger the battery. For very high battery prices, large......The increase in fluctuating power production requires an increase in flexibility in the system as well. Flexibility can be found in generation technologies with fast response times or in storage options. In the transport sector, the proportion of electric drive vehicles is expected to increase over...... the next decade or two. These vehicles can provide some of the flexibility needed in the power system, in terms of both flexible demand and electricity storage. However, what are the batteries worth to the power system? And does the value depend on battery capacity? This article presents an analysis...

  15. How to sell renewable electricity. Interactions of the intraday and day-ahead market under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Obermueller, Frank

    2016-04-15

    Uncertainty about renewable production increases the importance of sequential short-term trading in electricity markets. We consider a two-stage market where conventional and renewable producers compete in order to satisfy the demand of consumers. The trading in the first stage takes place under uncertainty about production levels of renewable producers, which can be associated with trading in the day-ahead market. In the second stage, which we consider as the intraday market, uncertainty about the production levels is resolved. Our model is able to capture different levels of flexibility for conventional producers as well as different levels of competition for renewable producers. We find that it is optimal for renewable producers to sell less than the expected production in the day-ahead market. In situations with high renewable production it is even profitable for renewable producers to withhold quantities in the intraday market. However, for an increasing number of renewable producers, the optimal quantity tends towards the expected production level. More competition as well as a more flexible power plant fleet lead to an increase in overall welfare, which can even be further increased by delaying the gate-closure of the day-ahead market or by improving the quality of renewable production forecasts.

  16. The impact of competitive bidding on the market prospects for renewable electric technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B G

    1993-09-01

    This report examines issues regarding the ability of renewable-energy-based generation projects to compete fossil-fuel-based projects in competitive bidding solicitations. State and utility bidding results revealed that on a relative basis, utilities contract for less renewable-energy-based capacity under competitive bidding than under past methods of qualifying facility contracting. It was concluded that renewables are not being chosen more often under competitive bidding because it emphasizes price and operating considerations over other attributes of renewables, such as environmental considerations, fuel diversity, and fuel price stability. Examples are given of bidding approaches used by some states and utilities that have resulted in renewables-based projects winning generation bids. In addition, the appendix summarizes, by state, competitive bidding activities and results for supply-side solicitations that were open to all fuels and technologies.

  17. Transmission grid requirements with scattered and flutuating renewable electricity sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2002-01-01

    Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses......, it is determined that if scattered load balancing is introduced, electricity transit is enabled to a higher degree than if central load balancing is maintained....

  18. Electricity Prices, Large-Scale Renewable Integration, and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kyritsis, Evangelos; Andersson, Jonas; Serletis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of intermittent solar and wind power generation on electricity price formation in Germany. We use daily data from 2010 to 2015, a period with profound modifications in the German electricity market, the most notable being the rapid integration of photovoltaic and wind power sources, as well as the phasing out of nuclear energy. In the context of a GARCH-in-Mean model, we show that both solar and wind power Granger cause electricity prices, that solar power ...

  19. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy in the Iberian Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño, Edgar; Pereira, Adelino J. C.; Machado Ferreira, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Market and system operators face new challenges as more renewable energy sources are added. The driving factors in this trend are mainly associated with environmental benefits of the renewable generation and climate change mitigation, as well as the reduction of the dependency of conventional...... and external energy source. If integrated in large scale, the nondispatchable nature of intermittent resources imposes some technical and economic challenges on the operation of power systems. Particularly, market dynamics and prices could be influenced by such integrations. Over the last years, the generation...... mix of Spain and Portugal has undergone a dramatic change, driven by new environmental policies and financial incentives. In this regard, wind has become one of the most popular alternative sources of energy, bringing new challenges from the operational and structural point of view. This trend has...

  20. Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.; Bird, L.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable electricity has accelerated as a consequence of state and federal policies and the growth of voluntary green power purchase markets, along with the generally improving economics of renewable energy development. This paper reports on a preliminary examination of the supply and demand balance for renewable electricity in the United States, with a focus on renewable energy projects that meet the generally accepted definition of "new" for voluntary market purposes, i.e., projects installed on or after January 1, 1997. After estimating current supply and demand, this paper presents projections of the supply and demand balance out to 2010 and describe a number of key market uncertainties.

  1. Panorama of renewable electricity on June 30, 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    This publication proposes a detailed overview of the development of renewable energies in France by the end of June 2016. It first proposes a global overview of important events (legal and regulatory aspects, bidding), an analysis of the evolution of various aspects (installed power and connected fleet, regional distribution of installations, queue and connections with respect to national and regional objectives, production and balance between supply and demand, some key data in Europe), and figures and tables to illustrate various aspects of production and consumption. The same approach is proposed to address the different sub-sectors: wind energy (with a focus on floating offshore wind energy), solar energy, hydroelectricity, and bio-energies, with, for each type of energy, a focus on technology and some peculiarities. The last part addresses the S3REnR (regional schemes of connection to networks of renewable energy), a planning tool for the connection of renewable energies to the grid. Some highlights and key data regarding the implementation of these schemes are given, as well as an assessment of connections realised within the frame of these schemes. Some addition information are provided for a better follow-up of these schemes

  2. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  3. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  4. Cost effects of international trade in meeting EU renewable electricity targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The European market for renewable electricity received a major stimulus from the adoption of the Directive on the Promotion of Renewable Electricity. The Directive specifies the indicative targets for electricity supply from renewable energy sources (RES-E) to be reached in European Union (EU) Member States in the year 2010. It also requires Member States to certify the origin of their renewable electricity production. This article presents a first EU-wide quantitative evaluation of the effects of meeting the targets, using an EU-wide system for tradable green certificates (TGC). We calculate the equilibrium price of green certificates and identify which countries are likely to export or import certificates. Cost advantages of participating in such an EU-wide trading scheme are determined for each of the Member States. Moreover, we identify which choice of technologies results in meeting targets at least costs. Results are obtained from a model that quantifies the effects of achieving the RES-E targets in the EU with and without trade. The article provides a brief insight in this model as well as the methodology that was used to specify cost potential curves for renewable electricity in each of the 15 EU Member States. Model calculations show that within the EU-wide TGC system, the total production costs of the last option needed to satisfy the overall EU RES-E target equals 9.2 eurocent/kWh. Assuming that the production price of electricity on the European power market would equal 3 eurocent/kWh in the year 2010, the indicative green certificate price equals 6.2 eurocent/kWh. We conclude that implementation of an EU-wide TGC system is a cost-efficient way of stimulating renewable electricity supply

  5. The path to clean energy: direct coupling of nuclear and renewable technologies for thermal and electrical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Nuclear Fuel Performance and Design; Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Process and Decision Systems; Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can significantly reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both clean energy generation sources and hydrocarbon resources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean nuclear and renewable energy generation sources. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing energy (thermal or electrical) where it is needed, when it is needed. For the purposes of this work, the hybrid system would integrate two or more energy resources to generate two or more products, one of which must be an energy commodity, such as electricity or transportation fuel. This definition requires coupling of subsystems ‘‘behind’’ the electrical transmission bus, where energy flows are dynamically apportioned as necessary to meet demand and the system has a single connection to the grid that provides dispatchable electricity as required while capital intensive generation assets operate at full capacity. Development of integrated energy systems for an “energy park” must carefully consider the intended location and the associated regional resources, traditional industrial processes, energy delivery infrastructure, and markets to identify viable region-specific system configurations. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of regional hybrid energy system design, development and application of dynamic analysis tools to assess technical and economic performance, and

  6. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    , we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven...... to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecastingof renewable power generation....

  7. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  8. Essays on investment planning in electricity generating capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Jorge

    In the first part of this study we develop and analyze two mathematical models that incorporate a time changing demand for electricity and uncertainty of input prices. The first model highlights the shortcomings in assuming a constant plant utilization under uncertainty of input prices and the effects of such assumption on the optimal investment in electricity generating capacity in a simple two period model. The second model presents sufficient restrictions to the optimal investment in electricity generating capacity problem to allow for a recursive solution. The necessary restrictions are extremely limiting to the extend that we found a solution for very simple scenarios. In our opinion, the problem is better handled in a case by case basis rather than under a general dynamic framework. Following the spirit of our conclusions of the first part of our study, in the second part we provide a methodology to simulate long-term natural gas prices, we analyze the investment prospects of nuclear and natural gas generating capacity in Mexico and provide a constraint approach for the optimal generation of hydroelectric plants in the Mexican hydroelectric system. These three problems belong to the solution of the optimal investment in electricity generating capacity in Mexico. To simulate the uncertainty of natural gas prices, we assume that natural gas prices are the sum of two stochastic processes: short-term and long-term variability. We characterize the short-term variability of natural gas prices using an Exponential General Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (EGARCH) model. The uncertainty of the long-term variability of natural gas prices is based on the long-term natural gas prices scenarios of the National Energy Modeling System of the Energy Information Administration. Equipped with a methodology to simulate long-term natural gas prices, we investigate the investment prospects of nuclear and natural gas generating capacity in Mexico using the levelized

  9. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  10. Modeling the power of renewable energy sources in the context of classical electricity system transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Kasperowicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many regions, not only in the Europe, introduce plans for the modernization of energy systems so that in a few or several years most of the demand for electricity was being able to cover using renewable energy sources. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility of estimation of appropriate power supply based on the renewable energy sources in the context of the whole energy system in the annual balance, taking into account the technical and the economic optimization strategies. The article presents also the simplified structure of the 100% renewable energy system supported by energy storage systems and the production of synthetic fuels.

  11. Analysis and perspectives of the government programs to promote the renewable electricity generation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, B.J.; Rodriguez, V.; Bermann, C.

    2007-01-01

    Government programs to encourage renewable electricity production in Brazil are analyzed in order to evaluate aims and identify problems in the execution of such programs in order to provide ideas to channel them. In terms of methodology, the analysis is based in a chronologic study of the programs, in order to establish whether or not renewable energy policies have been linked. The paper concludes that already-executed programs and those in progress have deficiencies that hinder the achievement of their goals; therefore diversification policies for renewable energy will not be achieved in the foreseen timeframe. Therefore, certain policy changes are proposed

  12. Assessment and evolution of renewable energy policy: the transition of the Latin-American electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersalli, German

    2017-01-01

    The transition to a more sustainable energy system requires a much faster development of new and renewable energy technologies for electricity generation (RENe). Thus, involving new challenges in the regulation of electricity sector. Additionally, a stronger commitment by emerging and developing countries for a deeper decarbonization trajectory, calls for the strengthening of renewable energy policies. Such policies include designing regulatory instruments that are better adapted for their specific economic and institutional needs. This thesis deals with the evaluation and the redesign of policies that encourage the diffusion of RENe in the context of Latin America's countries. To this end, we first use Environmental Economics theory to analyse the different regulatory instruments available, characterize them and to propose evaluation criteria based on a thorough review of the literature. We then carry out a panel data econometric study, to identify the determining factors of investments in regards to new RENe production capacity; and in particular, to measure the effectiveness of such policies. In a third phase, we mobilize the evolutionary theory of technological change to analyse the process of policy implementation, the existing barriers and the obtained results. This analysis is based on three case studies in the electricity sector of Chile, Brazil and Argentina. And finally, we focus on the challenges related to the massive deployment of RENe in Latin America by 2030-2040: the integration of intermittent energy sources, the access to financing and the industrial challenge. Our research shows that the evolution of the economic and institutional context encourages a dynamic which conditions public policy choices as well as their performance. We therefore propose the basis of an analytical framework for the design and assessment of ambitious long-term promoting policies. These policies must be integrated into a multidimensional and coherent project for the

  13. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  14. Harmonization of renewable electricity feed-in laws in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Miquel; David Tabara, J.; Oschmann, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the harmonization of feed-in laws in the European Union as a support mechanism for the promotion of renewable electricity. In particular, it proposes a methodology for harmonization based on a feed-in law with a modular and transparent premium for renewable electricity producers. This premium considers technology costs, some grid services, political incentives and national priorities. The proposed approach includes flexibility mechanisms to update and revise premiums, to avoid windfall profits for producers, and to share technology innovation benefits with electricity consumers while maintaining incentives for innovation. Our approach is based on the review of the main features of the German and Spanish feed-in laws, and takes into account other necessary considerations for harmonization, such as grid access, funding, definitions and standards, ownership of rights derived from renewables, and exceptions for small non-commercial producers and energy-intensive industries. (author)

  15. Latin American electricity markets and renewable energy sources: The Argentinean and Chilean cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, C.; Recalde, M.

    2010-01-01

    From the mid eighties on, most of Latin American Countries reformed their energy systems. The impact of these reforms over electricity markets was different in each case. However, in the majority of these cases there was a shift to private participation, instead of State, and a convergence of electricity systems to hydro and thermal technologies. This is the case of Argentina and Chile. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation of renewable energies in Chilean and Argentinean electric markets and the potential to increase their share in total energy supply. To this purpose, we firstly study electricity deregulation process and its current situation. Secondly, we analyze renewable energy share in these electricity systems comparatively to worldwide situation. Finally, we briefly present the policy instruments used in each country. (author)

  16. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürkan, Gül; Langestraat, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of certificates. We analyze these two different renewable obligation policies in a mathematical representation of an electricity market with random availabilities of renewable generation outputs and random electricity demand. We also present another, alternative, banding policy. We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three obligation policies. We carry out a simulation study via sampling. A key finding is that the UK banding policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met, hence potentially resulting in more pollution. Our alternative provides a way to make sure that the target is met while supporting less established technologies, but it comes with a significantly higher consumer price. Furthermore, as an undesirable side effect, we observe that a cost reduction in a technology with a high banding (namely offshore wind) leads to more CO 2 emissions under the UK banding policy and to higher consumer prices under the alternative banding policy. - Highlights: • We model and analyze three renewable obligation policies in a mathematical framework. • We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three policies. • We carry out a simulation study via sampling. • The UK policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met. • Cost reductions can lead to more pollution or higher prices under banding policies

  17. Essays on the efficient integration of renewable energies into electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermueller, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The dissertation ''Essay on the Efficient Integration of Renewable Energies into Electricity Markets'' consists of five research articles which shed light on the efficient integration of renewable energies into electricity markets. A major share of renewable energies has characteristics which differ from classical conventional generation technologies. The uncertain weather-dependent characteristics in combination with almost-zero marginal generation costs raise new challenges to some parts of the electricity system. On the other side, the promotion of renewable energies seems promising to achieve the Energy Transition targets and reduce Germany's CO 2 -emissions. This becomes relevant in the light of the 2015 UN Climate Change Conference which negotiated the Paris Agreement to tackle climate change, e.g. by the restriction of global warming to a maximum of 2 C, and translate to CO 2 -reduction efforts, especially for the carbon-dioxide intense electricity sectors. The five research papers focusing on different aspects and potential inefficiencies of the renewable energy market integration. The focus can roughly be separated into temporal and regional efficiency examinations. The temporal efficiency is subject to paper 1, paper 2 and paper 3. The regional efficiency is subject to paper 5 which is based on the preliminary findings and the generated dataset in paper 4.

  18. Essays on the efficient integration of renewable energies into electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermueller, Frank

    2018-01-09

    The dissertation ''Essay on the Efficient Integration of Renewable Energies into Electricity Markets'' consists of five research articles which shed light on the efficient integration of renewable energies into electricity markets. A major share of renewable energies has characteristics which differ from classical conventional generation technologies. The uncertain weather-dependent characteristics in combination with almost-zero marginal generation costs raise new challenges to some parts of the electricity system. On the other side, the promotion of renewable energies seems promising to achieve the Energy Transition targets and reduce Germany's CO{sub 2}-emissions. This becomes relevant in the light of the 2015 UN Climate Change Conference which negotiated the Paris Agreement to tackle climate change, e.g. by the restriction of global warming to a maximum of 2 C, and translate to CO{sub 2}-reduction efforts, especially for the carbon-dioxide intense electricity sectors. The five research papers focusing on different aspects and potential inefficiencies of the renewable energy market integration. The focus can roughly be separated into temporal and regional efficiency examinations. The temporal efficiency is subject to paper 1, paper 2 and paper 3. The regional efficiency is subject to paper 5 which is based on the preliminary findings and the generated dataset in paper 4.

  19. Transmission capacities and competition in Western European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The integration of national electricity markets into a single European one is expected to reduce the ability of dominant players to exercise market power. This paper investigates whether or not existing transmission capacities of cross-border interconnectors are sufficient to achieve this result and create vigorous competition in the market. A model with two decision levels is used. On the first level profit maximizing generators play Cournot game against each other. On the last level the system operator clears the market and determines flows in the network to maximize social welfare subject to a set of physical constraints. As each strategic generator anticipates her impact on equilibrium prices and congestion in the system, her optimization problem is subject to equilibrium constraints from the system operator's problem. The analysis demonstrates that interconnector capacities in Western Europe are insufficient for integration alone to reduce the exercise of market power. I compare several possible competition-enhancing policies: expansion of interconnectors and different scenarios of national markets’ restructuring. I show that although increase of line capacity is a useful tool to stimulate competition in an integrated market, it is not a substitute for the restructuring of large players. - Highlights: •The ability of integration to reduce market power depends on transmission capacities. •In the model firms compete in quantities, know their impact on prices and congestion. •In Western Europe integration will not diminish market power. •Line extension stimulates competition but is not a substitute for the regulation.

  20. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  1. Possibilities of electricity generation from solar and other renewable resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasdemiroglu, E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper begins by reviewing the conventional power generation in the country. Increasing power demand due to rapid industrialization as well as the environmental consequences of power generation will be discussed. The potential of renewable energy resources including solar, biomass, wind, and wave and their role in the power generation will be pointed out. Among the strong alternatives are thermal power plants, and rural electricity production by photovoltaic and by small wind machines. Finally, the technical economic difficulties in adapting renewable electricity generation systems for the conditions of the country will be discussed. (Author) 22 refs

  2. Ontario's intertie capacity and electricity trade in the interconnected system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, S.

    2002-01-01

    Hydro One's capacity of existing interconnections were described. The Ontario utility is within reach of about 320 GW electricity markets in neighbouring Quebec, New York, Michigan, Minnesota, and Manitoba. It is also within reach of 50 million customers, and 30 per cent of total U.S. energy consumption. The author emphasized the need for expanded interties and new interconnections. The status of new interconnections was described along with the rules regarding electric power import, export and wheeling. It was noted that compared to the United States, Canada has a higher proportion of clean hydro and nuclear power plants in its mix of power generation. Markets across North America are adopting electricity restructuring and open competition. However, the transmission grids were not designed to support market-driven electricity trading. Most transmission grids were built when utilities were tightly regulated and provided service only within their assigned regions. The current energy infrastructure is not equipped for large-scale swapping of power in competitive markets. It was also noted that growth in US power flows is outpacing transmission investment. This paper addressed the issue of license requirements, transmitter proposals for regulated investments, and non-rate base transmitter investments. It was concluded that while market rules are flexible enough to encourage inter-jurisdictional trade, the rules have to facilitate and encourage transmission investment. 8 figs

  3. Nuclear Energy and Renewables. System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems - Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a 'generator pays' principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly de-carbonised electricity systems. (authors)

  4. Solar set asides and renewable electricity certificates: Early lessons from North Carolina's experience with its renewable portfolio standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, Chip; Carley, Sanya

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the market developments in North Carolina's solar energy industry following the state's adoption of a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). It first reviews how solar renewable electricity certificates (SRECs) are intended to act as a support mechanism for the installation and financing of solar power in North Carolina's RPS compliance market. The paper then analyzes why SRECs have not precipitated growth in the solar industry thus far. Instead of attracting a diversity of solar installation and SREC trading businesses to create a competitive market to North Carolina, the RPS has only enabled a few large solar power producers to compete with utility companies to finance, install, and operate solar generating systems. A comparison between the SREC markets in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey reveals that transparency in prices and volumes of SRECs, limits on utility company self-ownership of solar generators, and more aggressive solar set-aside targets are required to create a competitive market environment that will attract a sustainable and growing solar industry. - Highlights: ► Assesses developments in NC's solar industry from renewable portfolio standard. ► Comparisons between the SREC markets in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. ► Transparency in prices and limits on utility self-ownership are necessary. ► More aggressive solar set-aside targets would also help develop the solar market.

  5. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies and required subsidies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Lin, Boqiang

    2014-01-01

    The development and utilization of renewable energy (RE), a strategic choice for energy structural adjustment, is an important measure of carbon emissions reduction in China. High cost is a main restriction element for large-scale development of RE, and accurate cost estimation of renewable power generation is urgently necessary. This is the first systemic study on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of RE in China. Results indicate that feed-in-tariff (FIT) of RE should be improved and dynamically adjusted based on the LCOE to provide a better support of the development of RE. The current FIT in China can only cover the LCOE of wind (onshore) and solar photovoltaic energy (PV) at a discount rate of 5%. Subsidies to renewables-based electricity generation, except biomass energy, still need to be increased at higher discount rates. Main conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) Government policy should focus on solving the financing problem of RE projects because fixed capital investment exerts considerable influence over the LCOE; and (2) the problem of high cost could be solved by providing subsidies in the short term and more importantly, by reforming electricity price in the mid-and long-term to make the RE competitive. - Highlights: • Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies is systemically studied. • Renewable power generation costs are estimated based on data of 17 power plants. • Required subsidies for renewable power generation are calculated. • Electricity price reform is the long-term strategy for solving problem of high cost

  6. Panorama of renewable electricity as at 31 March 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication proposes a detailed overview of the development of renewable energies in France by the end of March 2017. It first proposes a global overview of important events (legal and regulatory aspects, bidding), an analysis of the evolution of various aspects (installed power and connected fleet, regional distribution of installations, queue and connections with respect to national and regional objectives, production and balance between supply and demand, some key data in Europe), and figures and tables to illustrate various aspects of production and consumption. The same approach is proposed to address the different sub-sectors: wind energy, solar energy, hydroelectricity, and bio-energies, with, for each type of energy, a focus on technology and some peculiarities

  7. Funding renewable electricity as part of the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coguic, R.; Gromard, Ch. de

    2009-01-01

    Factors related to energy and the climate are now weighing down on the economies of both developed and emerging lands. All countries are urged to advance quickly toward systems that save energy and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Energy and climate issues are a major concern in countries to the south and east of the Mediterranean. Given their growth rates, ranging from 6% to 8%, their demand for energy is rising twice as fast as Europe's while their production - dependent for 99% on fossil fuels - is vulnerable owing to the volatility of (rising) oil prices. To cope with this situation, these Mediterranean lands are forced to intensify their policies for controlling energy: efficiency must be combined with savings, and with renewable sources of energy as well as a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. (authors)

  8. The Impact of Intermittent Renewable Production and Market Coupling on the Convergence of French and German Electricity Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Le Pen, Yannick; Phan, Sebastien; Boureau, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Interconnecting two adjacent areas of electricity production generates benefits in combined consumer surplus and welfare by allowing electricity to flow from the low cost area to the high cost area. It will lower prices in the high cost area, raise them in the low cost area and will thus have prices in the two areas converge. With unconstrained interconnection capacity, price convergence is, of course, complete and the two areas are merged into a single area. With constrained interconnection capacity, the challenge for transport system operators (TSOs) and market operators is using the available capacity in an optimal manner. This was the logic behind the 'market coupling' mechanism installed by European power market operators in November 2009 in the Central Western Europe (CWE) electricity market, of which France and Germany constitute by far the two largest members. Market coupling aims at optimising welfare by ensuring that buyers and sellers exchange electricity at the best possible price taking into account the combined order books all power exchanges involved as well as the available transfer capacities between different bidding zones. By doing so, interconnection capacity is allocated to those who value it most. As predicted by theory and common sense, electricity prices in France and Germany converged substantially in 2010 and 2011 in the wake of market coupling with substantive increases of consumer surplus. These benefits accrued in both areas. In first approximation, France exports base-load power, while Germany exports peak-load power, thus exporting and importing at different times of the day. However since 2012, electricity prices between France and Germany diverged, a process that accelerated during 2013. The hypothesis this paper is exploring is that this divergence is due to the significant production of variable renewables (wind and solar PV) in Germany, which tends to cluster during certain hours. Typically, solar production around noontime

  9. Electric generating capacity planning: A nonlinear programming approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakin, M.Z.; McFarland, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear programming approach for long-range generating capacity expansion planning in electrical power systems. The objective in the model is the minimization of total cost consisting of investment cost plus generation cost for a multi-year planning horizon. Reliability constraints are imposed by using standard and practical reserve margin requirements. State equations representing the dynamic aspect of the problem are included. The electricity demand (load) and plant availabilities are treated as random variables, and the method of cumulants is used to calculate the expected energy generated by each plant in each year of the planning horizon. The resulting model has a (highly) nonlinear objective function and linear constraints. The planning model is solved over the multiyear planning horizon instead of decomposing it into one-year period problems. This approach helps the utility decision maker to carry out extensive sensitivity analysis easily. A case study example is provided using EPRI test data. Relationships among the reserve margin, total cost and surplus energy generating capacity over the planning horizon are explored by analyzing the model.

  10. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  11. Analysing the impact of renewable electricity support schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz de Miera, Gonzalo [Department of Public Economics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); del Rio Gonzalez, Pablo [Institute for Public Policies, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Vizcaino, Ignacio [Iberdrola, C/Tomas Redondo, 1, Madrid 28033 (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    It is sometimes argued that renewables are 'expensive'. However, although it is generally true that the private costs of renewable electricity generation are certainly above those of conventional electricity, that statement fails to consider the social benefits provided by electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), including environmental and socioeconomic ones. This paper empirically analyses an additional albeit usually neglected benefit: the reduction in the wholesale price of electricity as a result of more RES-E generation being fed into the grid. The case of wind generation in Spain shows that this reduction is greater than the increase in the costs for the consumers arising from the RES-E support scheme (the feed-in tariffs), which are charged to the final consumer. Therefore, a net reduction in the retail electricity price results, which is positive from a consumer point of view. This provides an additional argument for RES-E support and contradicts one of the usual arguments against RES-E deployment: the excessive burden on the consumer. (author)

  12. Analysing the impact of renewable electricity support schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenz de Miera, Gonzalo; Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del; Vizcaino, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    It is sometimes argued that renewables are 'expensive'. However, although it is generally true that the private costs of renewable electricity generation are certainly above those of conventional electricity, that statement fails to consider the social benefits provided by electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), including environmental and socioeconomic ones. This paper empirically analyses an additional albeit usually neglected benefit: the reduction in the wholesale price of electricity as a result of more RES-E generation being fed into the grid. The case of wind generation in Spain shows that this reduction is greater than the increase in the costs for the consumers arising from the RES-E support scheme (the feed-in tariffs), which are charged to the final consumer. Therefore, a net reduction in the retail electricity price results, which is positive from a consumer point of view. This provides an additional argument for RES-E support and contradicts one of the usual arguments against RES-E deployment: the excessive burden on the consumer

  13. Prices and costs of irregularity in renewable resources in the liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.

    2004-01-01

    The problems raised by incorporating irregular production are of a technical nature (risk of non-availability during peak demand, the requirements for additional reserves) but the electricity markets methods of operation impose economic penalties, which greatly exceed these additional technical costs. In this document, the authors examine the nature of the technical problems posed by irregularity of production and the additional costs resulting from this, and then analyse the origins of the economic penalties that the operation of liberalized electricity markets impose, taking in particular the example of the British market, the New Energy Trading Arrangement (NETA). It would appear that the markets' operating rules may conflict, in certain cases, with the targets for promoting electricity generation from renewable resources. Two types of solutions can therefore be envisaged: a set of rules to limit the impact on irregular production or collective handling of the adjustment to production from renewable resources as already exists in the Nordic electricity markets. (authors)

  14. Renewable energy to produce electricity; Nuevas fuentes de energia para producir electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-05-01

    There are several new energy sources to produce electricity. One of them is the wind energy, which has reached huge commercialization in worldwide. There are in Mexico some zones with high speed wind, which can be used in a short term. This has been proved by the wind pilot power plant of La Venta, Oaxaca, where production costs of US 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) have been obtained. These costs are among the lowest in the world. By the other hand, among the main uses of solar energy, including both thermal and photovoltaic techniques, the biggest thermo-solar utility, with 350 megawatts (MW) of capacity, is remarkable. This is the plant located in the Mojave Desert, California, USA. In Mexico there is big potential, which can make an important contribution to supplies of electricity. Biomass is another important renewable source, particularly the use of solid municipal waste, the livestock and the wood waste. Finally, other alternate technique is represented by the fuel cells, though it is not properly renewable. However, considering its modular and low environmental impact characteristics, it can get a wide commercial development in the next decade. [Espanol] Existen diversas fuentes nuevas de energia para generar electricidad. Entre ellas, la energia eolica es una de las tecnologias alternas que mayor comercializacion ha alcanzado a nivel mundial. Mexico posee zonas con vientos de velocidades altas en las que su aplicacion puede ser inmediata, como lo prueba la experiencia obtenida con la central piloto de La Venta, Oaxaca, en donde se han alcanzado costos de produccion de 4.3 centavos de dolar por kilowatt-hora (kWh), de los mas bajos a nivel internacional. Por otra parte, entre las principales aplicaciones de la energia solar, en sus tecnologias termica y fotovoltaica, destaca el mayor de los aprovechamientos termosolares, con 350 megawatts de capacidad (MW), localizado en el desierto de Mojave, en California, EUA. En Mexico hay un gran potencial

  15. Market Power and Investment in Renewable Electricity Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Rune Ramsdal; Misir, Nihat

    while incurring lower investment costs. We additionally find that highly convex investment cost greatly diminishes the impact of market power on the investment decisions. Furthermore, for both the strategic firm and the social planner, fixed baseload generation is preferable during low installed...... approach to evaluate the investment decisions. In our paper we do not only focus on the differences in costs for different technologies but also on the differences in operation of those technologies and how those differences impact the optimal investment decisions. In our model, the one-time investment...... decision requires the determination of demand shock trigger level, choice of technology and level of optimal capacity. We specifically investigate how the investment triggers, optimal capacities and technology choices change with the changes to the investment cost function, demand uncertainty and the level...

  16. Renewable and nuclear energy contribution to the electric systems of developed and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1994-01-01

    Economically, the nuclear energy is favourable. The investments to realize in the energy field are substantial. The environmental quality implements the renewable energies which must be more efficient. Energy control frames the largest managing margin for the future energy and for the relations between energy and environment. Few countries can control their nuclear surety. Nowadays, in the developing countries, electrical energy needs are very weak, so the interconnection to the network is not necessary and the access price to electricity is very high

  17. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  18. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Italy: the costs of the System Inefficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES) is a high European Union (E U) priority for several reasons, including the security and diversification of energy supply, environmental protection and social and economic cohesion. The Eu Council's decision of 9 March 2007 points towards increasing renewable penetration to 20% of total primary energy supply by 2020 (binding target). There are both costs and benefits associated with the achievement of such an ambitious target. For renewable technologies, the industrial cost is often higher compared to other energy sources. however, due to learning curve effects and market diffusion, technology related costs are coming down considerably. In some cases, when the external costs are taken into account by the price system, renewable can now be close to competitive with fossil fuels. With particular reference to renewable electricity in Italy, its development is often hampered by burdensome and time consuming authorisation procedures with the consequence of a high mortality rate for the investments in the sector, leading to increased costs for the project management. Therefore, in these projects an important cost factor is the high cost of capital due to risk. The analysis of the various renewables' support mechanisms currently in place in the E U shows that some types of incentive have proven to be more efficient than others in reducing the risk perception of investors and financing institutions, therefore making projects less expensive by reducing the cost of capital (both debt and equity). Therefore the focus here is on the electricity generation costs of some renewable technologies and on the costs related to the additional risk perceived by investors/lenders in the sector. The authors estimate the additional cost of capital which investors pay when operating in a risky environment. Some policy indications are finally given to reduce the non-technology related costs for a faster and more efficient growth

  19. Empowering Variable Renewables - Options for Flexible Electricity Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Hugo [Renewable Energy Unit, International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    A flexible electricity system is one that can respond reliably, and rapidly, to large fluctuations in supply and demand. Flexibility is already present in all power systems, in order to manage fluctuations in demand, and it is crucial for high performance and economic and reliable operation. This paper looks at measures to increase flexibility. but careful cost/benefit analysis is essential, and specific national and regional circumstances will influence the choice of option(s).

  20. Challenges and prospects of electricity production from renewable energy sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad; Sucic, Boris; Pusnik, Matevz

    2014-01-01

    Development of the utilisation of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency represents the main policy for sustainable development. The overall target of the European Union Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewables (RES) is to achieve at least a 20% share of energy from renewables in the gross final energy consumption in 2020. The mandatory national target for Slovenia is a 25% share of energy from RES in the gross final consumption. The share of RES in the gross final energy consumption in Slovenia was 18.8% in 2011 and the share of electricity production from RES was 30.8% in the gross electricity consumption. Electricity production from photovoltaics (PV) and biogas plants in agriculture has been growing fast after the adoption of the new supportive decree for electricity from RES in 2009. The very fast growth of PV plants has caused a problem for financing electricity from RES. Similar effects have been also recorded in the biogas sector, which represents a threat to food production. The state of the art, targets and challenges of electricity production from RES in Slovenia are described in the paper. - Highlights: • Slovenia's RES policy, regulatory frameworks and incentives are described. • The most important development challenges of the RES-E sector are discussed. • RES-E policy priorities need to be reassessed in view of recent global trends. • Responsible policy making and implementation follow-up are necessary

  1. Willingness to Pay for Renewable Electricity: A Review of Utility Market Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.

    1999-09-09

    As competition in the electric utility industry has become more widespread and federal legislation deregulating the utility industry more likely, utilities have become more concerned about actions they can take to help ensure the loyalty of their customers. National polls have, for 20 years, found majority preferences for renewable energy over other energy sources. This issue brief compiles and analyzes recent market research conducted by utility companies on customer interest in and willingness to pay for renewable electricity. Findings in the areas examined in this review are: Customers are favorable toward renewable sources of electricity, although they know little about them; Solar and wind are the most favored sources of electricity generation; Majorities of 52% to nearly 100% of residential customers said they were willing to pay at least a modest amount more per month on their electric bills for green power; their responses follow a predictable curve showing that percentages willing to pay more decline as cost increases. The residential market for green pricing is approximately 2% near program rollout at a $5/month price increment, and should increase slowly but steadily over time; Customers may view with favor, and be more willing to purchase electricity from, utilities that provide green power.

  2. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a

  3. Modeling of Flexibility in Electricity Demand and Supply for Renewables Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Rumph, F.J.; Konsman, M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources is increasing due to national and international regulations. Such energy sources are less predictable than most of the classical energy production systems, like coal and nuclear power plants. This causes a challenge for balancing the electricity system. A

  4. Planning Under Uncertainty for Aggregated Electric Vehicle Charging with Renewable Energy Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.; Kaminka, Gal A.; Fox, Maria; Bouquet, Paolo; Hüllermeier, Eyke; Dignum, Virginia; Dignum, Frank; van Harmelen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy sources introduce uncertainty regarding generated power in smart grids. For instance, power that is generated by wind turbines is time-varying and dependent on the weather. Electric vehicles will become increasingly important in the development of smart grids with a high penetration

  5. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  6. 76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ..., open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small irrigation power, municipal solid waste, qualified hydropower production, marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy have not been determined for... electricity produced from closed-loop biomass, open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small...

  7. 75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small irrigation power, municipal solid waste, qualified hydropower production, marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy have not been determined for... electricity produced from closed-loop biomass, open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small...

  8. State-level renewable electricity policies and reductions in carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Monica; Munch, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of renewable electricity policies has been adopted at the state level in the United States, but to date there has been no large-scale, empirical assessment of the effect of these policies on carbon emissions. Such an assessment is important because scholars have pointed out that increases in renewable electricity will not necessarily lead to declines in carbon emissions. We examine the effects of a range of policies across 39 states. We find significant and robust decreases in carbon emissions associated with the introduction of public benefit funds, a form of “carbon tax” adopted by 19 states to date. Our aim in this paper is not to provide a final judgment on these policies, many of which may not have been in place long enough to show strong effects, but to shift the attention of the research community away from proximate measures such as increases in clean electricity generation and onto measurement of lower carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We ask whether state-level renewable electricity policies in the United States have succeeded in lowering carbon emissions. ► We examine net metering, retail choice, fuel generation disclosure, mandatory green power options, public benefit funds, and renewable portfolio standards. ► The introduction of public benefit funds, a kind of carbon tax, is associated with decreases in carbon emissions.

  9. Cost-optimal electricity systems with increasing renewable energy penetration for islands across the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; van Velzen, Leonore

    2018-01-01

    Cost-optimal electricity system configurations with increasing renewable energy penetration were determined in this article for six islands of different geographies, sizes and contexts, utilizing photovoltaic energy, wind energy, pumped hydro storage and battery storage. The results of the

  10. Transmission topologies for the integration of renewable power into the electricity systems of North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    A cost-minimizing electricity market model was used to explore optimized infrastructures for the integration of renewable energies in interconnected North African power systems until 2030. The results show that the five countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt could together achieve significant economic benefits, reaching up to €3.4 billion, if they increase power system integration, build interconnectors and cooperate on joint utilization of their generation assets. Net electricity exports out of North Africa to Europe or Eastern Mediterranean regions, however, were not observed in the regime of integrated electricity markets until 2030, and could only be realized by much higher levels of renewable energy penetration than currently foreseen by North African governments. - Highlights: • Market model to optimize North Africa's generation and transmission infrastructures until 2030. • Simulations consider existing interconnectors, power plant inventories, as well as national renewable goals. • Savings of up to €3.4 billion can be realized by more cooperation and integrated system planning. • No electricity exports to Europe in a competitive market framework, except for very high renewable penetrations

  11. Has renewable energy induced competitive behavior in the Spanish electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Espinosa, Maria Paz; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Recent energy policy has favored a massive introduction of Renewable Energy Sources on electricity markets, which has greatly impacted their performance. First, the electricity price has decreased as a consequence of the so-called merit-order effect. Another relevant effect is associated to the intermittent nature of Renewable Energy, which has increased the cost of ancillary services. A third and important aspect, less addressed in the literature, is the induced change in the strategic behavior of the conventional electricity producers. In principle, the entry of new generators in a concentrated market would make it more competitive and change the strategic behavior of the incumbents. We test this hypothesis for the Spanish wholesale market. While we find no significant change in behavior for Nuclear, Hydropower and Coal, a change is observed in Combined Cycle bidding strategies after the entry of renewable generators. Our analysis shows that the massive entry of Renewable Energy Sources made other generators' behavior more competitive in the short run, but the effect was not persistent. - Highlights: • The indirect effects of RES affect prices in electricity markets. • RES induced little change in Nuclear, Coal and Hydropower generation. • Combined Cycle bidding strategies have evolved to adapt to the introduction of RES. • RES made Combined Cycle's behavior more competitive in the short run. • The competitive effect induced by RES is not persistent in the long run.

  12. National Renewable Policies in an International Electricity Market : A Socio-Technical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iychettira, K.K.

    2018-01-01

    The current regulatory framework under which the support schemes for Renewable energy sources specifically for electricity (RES-E) operate, is provided for by the Directive 2009/28/EC. It sets a 20% target for energy consumption, while relying on legally binding, national targets until 2020. The

  13. 77 FR 25538 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production... Reference Prices for Calendar Year 2012; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a publication of inflation adjustment factors and reference prices for calendar year 2012 as...

  14. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  15. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina; Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin; Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  16. 90–100% renewable electricity for the South West Interconnected System of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bin; Blakers, Andrew; Stocks, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly increasing penetration of renewables, primarily wind and photovoltaics (PV), is causing a move away from fossil fuel in the Australian electric power industry. This study focuses on the South West Interconnected System in Western Australia. Several high (90% and 100%) renewables penetration scenarios have been modelled, comprising wind and PV supplemented with a small amount of biogas, and compared with a “like-for-like” fossil-fuel replacement scenario. Short-term off-river (closed cycle) pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is utilised in some simulations as a large-scale conventional storage technology. The scenarios are examined by using a chronological dispatch model. An important feature of the modelling is that only technologies that have been already deployed on a large scale (>150 gigawatts) are utilised. This includes wind, PV and PHES. The modelling results demonstrate that 90–100% penetration by wind and PV electricity is compatible with a balanced grid. With the integration of off-river PHES, 90% renewables penetration is able to provide low-carbon electricity at competitive prices. Pumped hydro also facilitates a 100% renewables scenario which produces zero greenhouse gas emissions with attractive electricity prices. A sensitivity analysis shows the most important factors in the system cost are discount rate and wind turbine cost. - Highlights: • Short-term off-river pumped hydro energy storage (STORES). • 90–100% renewables for a large-scale self-contained power system. • PV and wind serves 80–90% of the total energy. • 90% renewables system costs $116 ($103)/MWh using 2016 (2030) prices.

  17. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one

  18. The Shortest Path Problems in Battery-Electric Vehicle Dispatching with Battery Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minfang Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles play a key role for developing an eco-sustainable transport system. One critical component of an electric vehicle is its battery, which can be quickly charged or exchanged before it runs out. The problem of electric vehicle dispatching falls into the category of the shortest path problem with resource renewal. In this paper, we study the shortest path problems in (1 electric transit bus scheduling and (2 electric truck routing with time windows. In these applications, a fully-charged battery allows running a limited operational distance, and the battery before depletion needs to be quickly charged or exchanged with a fully-charged one at a battery management facility. The limited distance and battery renewal result in a shortest path problem with resource renewal. We develop a label-correcting algorithm with state space relaxation to find optimal solutions. In the computational experiments, real-world road geometry data are used to generate realistic travel distances, and other types of data are obtained from the real world or randomly generated. The computational results show that the label-correcting algorithm performs very well.

  19. Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley; Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

  20. Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing. Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

  1. Decompositions of injection patterns for nodal flow allocation in renewable electricity networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Tranberg, Bo; Hempel, Sabrina; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The large-scale integration of fluctuating renewable power generation represents a challenge to the technical and economical design of a sustainable future electricity system. In this context, the increasing significance of long-range power transmission calls for innovative methods to understand the emerging complex flow patterns and to integrate price signals about the respective infrastructure needs into the energy market design. We introduce a decomposition method of injection patterns. Contrary to standard flow tracing approaches, it provides nodal allocations of link flows and costs in electricity networks by decomposing the network injection pattern into market-inspired elementary import/export building blocks. We apply the new approach to a simplified data-driven model of a European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation.

  2. Economic analysis for the electricity production in isolated areas in Cuba using different renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Salas, Joel; Moreno Figueredo, Conrado; Briesemeister, Ludwig; Arzola, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Despite the effort and commitment of the Cuban government in more of 50 year, there are houses without electricity in remote areas of the Electricity Network. These houses or communities have the promise and commitment of the local and national authorities to help them in improve his life quality. How the houses and communities are remote of the electricity network, the cost to extend the network is considerably high. For that reason, the use of renewable sources in these areas is an acceptable proposal. This article does an analysis to obtain different configurations depending to the number of houses. It do a proposal with the use of the Hydrothermal Carbonization process in the cases where is not feasible introduce different renewable source; a technology new in Cuba, and advantageous taking into consideration the kind of biomass that exist in Cuba. The study of the chemical process of the Hydrothermal Carbonization with the Cuban biomass should be further researched. (full text)

  3. Analyze the economic and environmental viability in distributed generation of electric power from renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantim Neto, Humberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper brings a brief of economical and social environmental analysis about distributed electric's energy generation, based on a comparison to centralized generation. The motivation of the proposed analysis has its origin on a reflection about politics and scheming directed to Brazilian's energy sector. This study has renewable energy resources as setting, represented for Belo Monte generation's plant and undertaking registered on the Reservation's Energy Auction 2010. The study took into account economics and technical aspects, whereas the viability analysis was formed from benefits got from different forms of electric's generation. The conclusions of this shows that distributed electric's energy generation may have economics and socio environment benefits over centralized generation. (author)

  4. Proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    The amended ''Directives concerning common rules for the internal markets in electricity and natural gas'', adopted in June 2003, organizes the future framework of electricity and gas, making all European consumers eligible, from 2004 onwards and at the latest by 2007 for the domestic sector, as well as integrating some components related to general interest services. Energie-Cites gives in this document its opinion and its expectations concerning this proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  5. The UK's Levy Control Framework for renewable electricity support: Effects and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate over price vs. quantity approaches to supporting the deployment of renewable electricity technologies. In the context of a recent shift from quantity to price-based support, the UK has also introduced a new form of budgetary framework, the Levy Control Framework (LCF). The introduction of the LCF has been very important for investors but has received relatively little attention in the academic literature. The paper gives an overview of the LCF, explores its effects on renewables policy, on consumers and on investor confidence arguing that an unintended consequence of its introduction has been to increase uncertainty, through interactions with underlying support mechanisms. A number of problems with the current scope and design of the LCF are noted. It is argued that the LCF is best understood as aimed at avoiding a political backlash against renewable support policy in a context where the benefits of such policy are concentrated economically and socially. The paper concludes by placing the LCF within a wider context of a shift towards greater budgetary control over renewable energy support policy across European countries. - Highlights: • Gives an description of the Levy Control Framework. • Analyses the effects of the LCF on UK renewable policy. • Reviews possible purposes of the LCF. • Evaluates the effects of the LCF on consumers and investors. • Places the LCF in context of greater cost control over renewables across the EU.

  6. The resource curse: Analysis of the applicability to the large-scale export of electricity from renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The “resource curse” has been analyzed extensively in the context of non-renewable resources such as oil and gas. More recently commentators have expressed concerns that also renewable electricity exports can have adverse economic impacts on exporting countries. My paper analyzes to what extent the resource curse applies in the case of large-scale renewable electricity exports. I develop a “comprehensive model” that integrates previous works and provides a consolidated view of how non-renewable resource abundance impacts economic growth. Deploying this model I analyze through case studies on Laos, Mongolia, and the MENA region to what extent exporters of renewable electricity run into the danger of the resource curse. I find that renewable electricity exports avoid some disadvantages of non-renewable resource exports including (i) shocks after resource depletion; (ii) macroeconomic fluctuations; and (iii) competition for a fixed amount of resources. Nevertheless, renewable electricity exports bear some of the same risks as conventional resource exports including (i) crowding-out of the manufacturing sector; (ii) incentives for corruption; and (iii) reduced government accountability. I conclude with recommendations for managing such risks. - Highlights: ► Study analyzes whether the resource curse applies to renewable electricity export. ► I develop a “comprehensive model of the resource curse” and use cases for the analysis. ► Renewable electricity export avoids some disadvantages compared to other resources. ► Renewable electricity bears some of the same risks as conventional resources. ► Study concludes with recommendations for managing such risks

  7. Congestion patterns of electric vehicles with limited battery capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect. A mathematical programming model is proposed for the path-based SUE traffic assignment where the path cost is the sum of the corresponding link costs and a path specific out-of-energy penalty. We then apply the convergent Lagrangian dual method to transform the original problem into a concave maximization problem and develop a customized gradient projection algorithm to solve it. A column generation procedure is incorporated to generate the path set. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and the solution algorithm. PMID:29543875

  8. Congestion patterns of electric vehicles with limited battery capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wentao; Ramezani, Mohsen; An, Kun; Kim, Inhi

    2018-01-01

    The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect. A mathematical programming model is proposed for the path-based SUE traffic assignment where the path cost is the sum of the corresponding link costs and a path specific out-of-energy penalty. We then apply the convergent Lagrangian dual method to transform the original problem into a concave maximization problem and develop a customized gradient projection algorithm to solve it. A column generation procedure is incorporated to generate the path set. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and the solution algorithm.

  9. Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Jacobs, D. [International Energy Transition (IET), Boston, MA (United States); Rickerson, W. [Meister Consultants Group, Boston, MA (United States); Healey, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A number of policies have been used historically in order to stimulate the growth of the renewable electricity sector. This paper examines four of these policy instruments: competitive tendering, sometimes called renewable electricity auctions, feed-in tariffs, net metering and net billing, and tradable renewable energy certificates. In recent years, however, a number of changes to both market circumstances and to policy priorities have resulted in numerous policy innovations, including the emergence of policy hybrids. With no common language for these evolving policy mechanisms, policymakers have generally continued to use the same traditional policy labels, occasionally generating confusion as many of these new policies no longer look, or act, like their traditional predecessors. In reviewing these changes, this paper makes two separate but related claims: first, policy labels themselves are breaking down and evolving. As a result, policy comparisons that rely on the conventional labels may no longer be appropriate, or advisable. Second, as policymakers continue to adapt, we are in effect witnessing the emergence of the next generation of renewable electricity policies, a change that could have significant impacts on investment, as well as on market growth in both developed and developing countries.

  10. A review of electric cable aging effects and monitoring programs for plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    As commercial nuclear power plants approach the end of their original license period, some utilities are considering the possibility of license renewal. The requirements for applying for license renewal are specified in the License Renewal Rule, which is in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR54). Among the requirements specified in the rule is the performance of an Integrated Plant Assessment (IPA) which identifies and lists structures and components subject to an aging management review. The intent of this requirement is to ensure that aging degradation will not adversely affect plant safety during the license renewal period. The aging management review includes an identification of the aging effects and monitoring programs for components within the scope of the rule. Among the components within the scope are electric cables since they are passive, long-lived components that are not replaced on a periodic basis. This paper examines the aging causes and effects of electric cables, along with the programs that are typically used to ensure that proper aging management practices are in place to monitor and mitigate the effects of aging on electric cables

  11. The promotion in Romania of electricity from renewable energy sources - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciulescu, Georgeta; Popescu, Mihaela; Caracasian, Lusine; Anton, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the present situation and prospects of electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Romania. The following subject matters are addressed: Legal framework; - Regulatory framework; - Ministry of Economy and Commerce - competence and responsibilities; - ANRE - competence and responsibilities; - Targets by 2010; - Benefits of Electricity from RES; - Costs, by technology, for E-RES; - Renewable support mechanisms; - RES, technical and economical potential for Romania; - Sensitivity Analysis. In conclusion, one stresses that the existing legal and regulatory framework which sets up responsibilities and dead lines regarding the promotion of E-RES and it's access on the market: - ensures a transparent, nondiscriminatory and objective treatment for the E-RES producers; - gives some facilities concerning the authorization process and ensures the take over of the electricity produced from renewable sources to the national grid; -sets up state aids granting conditions for investments and operation of the renewable energy sources; - requires some improvements regarding the financial support for promoting E-RES, guarantee of origin and trade. Depending on the chosen support scheme, the institutional framework will be developed in order to comply with the legal requirements and dead-lines. The technologies for E-RES generation will be implemented depending on: - the RES potential; - the commercial maturity of the technology, i.e. the technologies implied in hydro, wind, biomass, solar, waves and tide energy generation

  12. Comparing the innovation effects of support schemes for renewable electricity technologies: A function of innovation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Bleda, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative assessment of the innovation effects of instruments which support the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies with a functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. The paper provides a link between two major streams of the literature: the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. We show that, when a functional perspective is adopted, feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other policy instruments (quotas with tradable green certificates and tendering), although they still need to be complemented with other instruments, most importantly, direct R and D support. Furthermore, those innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of the instruments chosen. - Highlights: ► A comparison of the innovation effects of instruments for the diffusion of renewable technologies. ► A functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. ► A link between the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. ► Feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other instruments. ► Innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of instruments.

  13. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.; Díaz Lobera, I.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of the electric power supply chain. Moreover, large scale energy storage systems can act as renewable energy integrators by smoothing the variability. Compressed air energy storage is one such technology. This paper examines the impacts of a compressed air energy storage facility in a pool based wholesale electricity market in a power system with a large renewable energy portfolio

  14. Prospect and policy of palm oil mill effluents for future electricity in east kalimantan (utilization of pome as renewable energy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aipassa, M. I.; Kristiningrum, R.; Tarukan, V. Y.

    2018-04-01

    East Kalimantan economy for four decades was mainly based on natural resources extraction and dominated by primary sectorwith the six highest GDP in 2013. But, the contribution of oil and gas were decreasing production due to the absence of new wells.One of the mission was create natural resources and renewable energy based economic people oriented. The Goverment of EK Province chose a strategy of socio-economic transformation based on renewable natural resources. This strategy has been applied in the regional development plan by mainstreaming climate change issues. Data related to energy source and its potential, remote rural electrification, bioenergy feedstock, etc including from the Palm Oil company was collected and subsequently analized in line with the EK Governor Letter. Currently (2014) available of Biogas-Pome as bioenergy feedstock is 162 million m3year-1, where as currently utilized is only 22 millionm3year-1. Power demand supply status in January 2015 indicated as available capacity is 467 MW where the peak demand is 444 MW. About 22% of households without electricity are difficult to be electrified without breakthrough efforts. About 215 thousand households are un-electrified, with more power need about 150 MW in total capacity. As business opportunity, high demand for rural electrification, particularly in Kutai Kartanegera, Kutai Timur, Kutai Barat, Berau and Paser.

  15. Environmental Impacts of Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies: A Life Cycle Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Garvin

    2016-01-13

    All energy systems impact the environment. Much has been learned about these environmental impacts from decades of research. Through systematic reviews, meta-analysis and original research, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been building knowledge about environmental impacts of both renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies. Evidence for greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use will be reviewed mostly from the perspective of life cycle assessment. Impacts from oil and natural gas systems will be highlighted. Areas of uncertainty and challenge will be discussed as suggestions for future research, as well as career opportunities in this field.

  16. Techno-economical parameters of renewable electricity options in 2008. Draft recommendation for financial gap calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; Stienstra, G.J.; Lensink, S.M.; Pfeiffer, E.A.; Cleijne, H.

    2007-02-01

    The results of a study on the financial gaps of renewable energy production technologies are presented. These financial gaps form the basis for determining the level of so-called MEP-subsidies (feed-in tariffs) for different renewable electricity sources and technologies. This report contains a recommendation on the financial gaps for projects in the Netherlands which are planned to be finalized in 2008. Although the report is based on careful research, the results have not been presented to stakeholders for consultation [nl

  17. Analysis of policy options and implementation measures promoting electricity from renewable biomass in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.

    2005-04-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source holds a great potential in responding to energy challenges of the future as well as meeting renewable energy targets set by the European Union. The objective of this study was to analyse various policy options and implementation measures promoting electricity from renewable biomass in the European Union, including new Member States (EU-25). The main political driving force behind this investigation was the RES-E Directive (2001/77/EC). The effectiveness of policy instruments regarding the development of electricity from biomass and biogas in the period of 1990-2002, and the framework conditions, i.e. success and risk factors, for this progress were assessed though a 'five-step approach'. Past development in terms of bioelectricity production and generating capacity was assessed based on statistics of Eurostat and the IEA. Policy instruments promoting bioelectricity and the framework factors on the national level in each EU Member State (excluding Cyprus and Malta) were investigated using the EU and governmental documents, independent evaluations and expert contacts as information sources. It became clear that determination of the effectiveness of policy instruments cannot be separated from the environment these mechanisms are applied to: mapping of the frame conditions for development is essential. Instead of selecting distinct policy instruments, successful Member State/bioelectricity combinations were chosen. The most successful combinations were found to be Germany, United Kingdom, Spain and Finland, whereas examples of unsuccessful measures were found in Greece, Luxembourg and the new Member States. Bioelectricity has clearly benefited from feed-in tariff system in countries like Germany but the use of biomass has essentially increased even without this measure in Sweden and Finland, where favourable taxation and strong links between forestry and power industries are defining factors for positive development. This study

  18. Renewable Energy Jobs. Status, prospects and policies. Biofuels and grid-connected electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, H; Ferroukhi, R [et al.; IRENA Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building Directorate, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-01-15

    Over the past years, interest has grown in the potential for the renewable energy industry to create jobs. Governments are seeking win-win solutions to the dual challenge of high unemployment and climate change. By 2010, USD 51 billion had been pledged to renewables in stimulus packages, and by early 2011 there were 119 countries with some kind of policy target and/or support policy for renewable energy, such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations, favourable tax treatment and public loans or grants, many of which explicitly target job creation as a policy goal. Policy-makers in many countries are now designing renewable energy policies that aim to create new jobs, build industries and benefit particular geographic areas. But how much do we know for certain about the job creation potential for renewable energy? This working paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on five questions: (1) How can jobs in renewable energy be characterised?; (2) How are they shared out across the technology value chain and what skill levels are required?; (3) How many jobs currently exist and where are they in the world?; (4) How many renewable energy jobs could there be in the future?; and (5) What policy frameworks can be used to promote employment benefits from renewable energy? This paper focuses on grid-connected electricity generation technologies and biofuels. Since the employment potential of off-grid applications is large, it will be covered by a forthcoming study by IRENA on job creation in the context of energy access, based on a number of case studies.

  19. Long-term dynamics of investment decisions in electricity markets with variable renewables development and adequacy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In liberalised electricity systems, power markets are expected to ensure the long-term coordination of investments in order to guarantee security of supply, sustainability and competitiveness. In the reference energy-only market, it relies on the ability of power markets - where the hourly price is aligned with the marginal cost of the system - to provide an adequate price-signal for investors. However, in practice, questions have been raised about its ability to trigger investments in Low-Carbon Technologies (LCT) including in particular Renewable Energy Sources of Electricity (RES-E), and its ability to ensure capacity adequacy. After a characterisation of these market failures, this dissertation tackles the two research topics within a methodological framework based on a System Dynamics model developed to simulate private investment decisions in power markets. First, the results show that substituting out-of-market support mechanisms for RES-E by market-based investments helped by the sole implementation of a carbon price appears as a feasible solution to trigger RES-E development providing that there is a political commitment on a high carbon price. Second, it also appears that the energy-only market with price cap is ineffective to ensure capacity adequacy in a context of mature markets with conventional thermal power plants under transition paths which involve a stable electricity demand thank to energy efficiency efforts and the exogenous development of RES-E thanks to support mechanisms in the absence of a high and fixed carbon price. Adding a capacity market or removing the price cap both bring benefits in terms of Loss Of Load Expectation (LOLE) and social welfare. Moreover, considering two various energy transition scenarios and different assumptions about the risk aversion of private investors, the capacity market is identified as the best option for regulators among the considered market designs. (author) [fr

  20. Analysis of environmental impacts of renewable energy on the Moroccan electricity sector: A System Dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentouf, M.; Allouch, M.

    2018-05-01

    Producing electricity at an affordable price while taking into account environmental concerns has become a major challenge in Morocco. Moreover, the technical and financial issues related to renewable electricity plants are still hindering their efficient integration in the country. In fact, the energy sector (both electricity and heat) accounted for more than half of all Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions in the kingdom due to the major reliance on fossil fuels for answering the growing local demand. The key strategies to alleviate this critical situation include the integration of more renewable energies in the total energy mix and the enhancement of energy efficiency measures in different sectors. This paper strives to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon dioxide mitigation in Moroccan electricity sector following the actual and projected strategies and (2) highlight the policy schemes to be taken in order to achieve the ambitious carbon dioxide mitigation targets in the mid-term. A system dynamics model was built in order to simulate different scenarios of carbon dioxide mitigation policies up to 2030. The results shows that the achievement of renewable energies projects by 2030 could save 228.143 MtCO2 between 2020 and 2030 and an additional 18.127 MtCO2 could be avoided in the same period by enhancing energy efficiency measures.

  1. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.

    2003-01-01

    Renewable-energy sources and energy efficiency are important elements in Danish Energy Policy. The implementation of wind power and combined heat- and power-production (CHP) have already led to substantial fuel savings, and both technologies are intended for further expansion in the coming decade. Today, approximately 50% of both Danish electricity and heat demand are produced via CHP, and more than 15% of the electricity demands are produced by wind turbines. However, the electricity production from these technologies is linked to fluctuations either in wind or in heat demands rather than fluctuations in demand for electricity. Consequently, the electricity production exceeds the demand during certain periods and creates a problem of ''surplus production''. This paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving this problem. (author)

  2. The Renewables Influence on Market Splitting: the Iberian Spot Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carvalho Figueiredo; Patrícia Pereira da Silva; Pedro Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the influence of wind power generation on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. We use logit models to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices together with explanatory variables like, wind speed, available transmission capacity and electricity demand. The results show that the probability of market splitting increases with the increase of wind power generation. The European intercon...

  3. Carbon mitigation in the electric power sector under cap-and-trade and renewables policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Van den Bergh, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, CO_2 emissions from the electric power sector and energy intensive industries are capped under a cap-and-trade system (i.e., the EU ETS). When other indirect measures are taken to impact emissions in a specific sector under the cap (such as a push for renewables in the electric power sector), this has implications on the overall allowance price, and on CO_2 emissions both from this specific sector and the other sectors under the cap. The central contribution of this paper is the derivation of impact curves, which describe these interactions, i.e., the impact on allowance price and the shift of emissions across sectors. From a set of detailed simulations of the electric power system operation, a so-called “emission plane” is obtained, from which impact curves can be derived. Focus is on interactions between CO_2 abatement through fuel switching and measures affecting the residual electricity demand (such as deployment of renewables) in the electric power sector, as well as on interactions with other sectors, both in a short-term framework. A case study for Central-Western Europe is presented. The analysis reveals a substantial impact of renewables on CO_2 emissions, and hence on emissions shifts across sectors and/or on the CO_2 price. - Highlights: •CO_2 cap-and-trade interacts with policies targeting one specific sector under cap. •Interaction creates emission displacement and/or impacts CO_2 price. •The central contribution is the derivation of impact curves from the emission plane. •The method is applied to a case study of Central-Western Europe. •The analysis reveals a large impact of renewables on CO_2 displacement and/or price.

  4. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  5. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  6. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  7. Impacts on the biophysical economy and environment of a transition to 100% renewable electricity in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Graham M.; Elliston, Ben; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts on the biophysical economy, employment and environment of a transition scenario to an energy-efficient, 100% renewable electricity (RE) system by 2060, based on wind, solar and biomass technologies, and an introduction of electric vehicles. We employ a CSIRO process-based model of the physical activity of Australia’s economy and environmental resources, the Australian Stocks and Flows Framework. The RE systems are assumed to be manufactured in Australia to identify possible employment benefits. In comparison with the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, on a national scale, the RE scenario has much lower economy-wide net emissions, remaining below contemporary levels and becoming zero in the electricity sector by 2060. Compared with BAU, the RE scenario also has significantly lower industrial water use, somewhat higher materials use, slightly lower unemployment, lower net foreign debt (relative to a GDP proxy) and, resulting from the growth in electric vehicles, reduced oil imports. The GDP per capita growth, based on the physical stocks of capital and labour, is virtually the same in both scenarios. Hence, from the viewpoint of the biophysical economy, there are no major barriers to implementing policies to facilitate the transition to a 100% renewable electricity system for Australia. - Highlights: ► Simulation of a 100% renewable electricity (RE) system in a process-based model. ► The RE scenario achieves zero GHG emissions in the electricity sector by 2060. ► Consumption of secondary materials is higher and more variable in the RE scenario. ► The RE scenario has lower water use, unemployment, foreign debt and oil imports

  8. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 25. Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province 2010-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report is expected to become a reference for government and private sectors in the development of renewable energy in West Nusa Tenggara Province, not only the development of renewable energy for electricity generation, but also for other needs such as fuel for industry and cooking fuel for households. The Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province is a follow-up of the enactment of Presidential Regulation No. 5 Year 2006 concerning National Energy Policy, which the Central Government has set a target utilization of renewable energy by 2025 by 17%. Furthermore, this document contains data and information regarding current utilization of renewable energy, renewable energy potential and development opportunities, target of renewable energy development and action plans necessary to achieve the targets.

  9. The integration of renewable energy in the French electricity system: what challenges for optimization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde; Ruedinger, Andreas; Pescia, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Based on research reports and dialogue through expert seminars organized by IDDRI and Agora Energiewende in 2015, this Working Paper proposes a synthesis of the main challenges for the integration of renewable energies using an analysis of the electricity system and its potential for optimization over different time frames: the potential evolution of electricity systems at the regional and national levels in France between now and 2030; an analysis of the needs and options for flexibility services beyond production systems; the potential for optimization of instruments to encourage short-term integration in line with changes in regulation regarding RES support schemes. Achieving the targets for renewable energy development (RES-E) in France (40% share of the electricity consumption) and in Europe (approximately 50%) by 2030 poses new integration challenges. The successful transformation of the electricity system based on a significant renewable component requires a systemic approach which takes into account: the evolution of demand and supply (for electricity and all energy), the interactions and competition between flexibility options for system stabilization (interconnections, active demand-side management, storage), the development of relevant infrastructure and articulation between the technical system and market design. A forward-looking analysis of electricity systems helps to assess this increase in flexibility requirements while identifying several optimization options to facilitate RES integration, starting with regional coordination. France already has a flexible electricity system, thanks notably to its hydro potential. Even so, its evolution towards 40% RES by 2030 calls for some strategic choices. On the one hand, drawing up a long-term trajectory for the evolution of electricity demand - in terms of volume as well as the nature of needs addressed - seems essential to bring coherence to the evolution of the technology portfolio and to increase the

  10. System effects of nuclear energy and renewables in low-carbon electricity Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Gameron, R.; Cometto, M.

    2012-01-01

    Electricity produced by variable renewable energies significantly affects the economics of dispatchable power generators, in particular those of nuclear power, both in the short run and the long run; the outcome of these competing factors will depend on the amount of variable renewables being introduced, local conditions and the level of carbon prices. An assessment of grid-level system costs (including the costs for grid connection, extension and reinforcement, as well as the added costs for balancing and back-up, but excluding the financial costs of intermittency and the impacts on security of supply, the environment, siting and safety), reveals a considerable difference between those of dispatchable technologies and those of variable renewables. Using a common methodology and a broad array of country-specific data, the grid-level system costs for Finland, France, Germany, the Republic of Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States were calculated for nuclear, coal, gas, onshore wind, offshore wind and solar PV both at 10 pc and 30 pc penetration levels. Variable renewables are creating a market environment in which dispatchable technologies can no longer finance themselves through revenues in 'energy only' wholesale markets; this has serious implications for the security of electricity supplies. Four main policy recommendations are proposed

  11. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  12. Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

    2007-06-01

    The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

  13. Renewable Electric Plant Information System user interface manual: Paradox 7 Runtime for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) is a comprehensive database with detailed information on grid-connected renewable electric plants in the US. The current version, REPiS3 beta, was developed in Paradox for Windows. The user interface (UI) was developed to facilitate easy access to information in the database, without the need to have, or know how to use, Paradox for Windows. The UI is designed to provide quick responses to commonly requested sorts of the database. A quick perusal of this manual will familiarize one with the functions of the UI and will make use of the system easier. There are six parts to this manual: (1) Quick Start: Instructions for Users Familiar with Database Applications; (2) Getting Started: The Installation Process; (3) Choosing the Appropriate Report; (4) Using the User Interface; (5) Troubleshooting; (6) Appendices A and B.

  14. The importance of comprehensiveness in renewable electricity and energy-efficiency policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    Based on extensive research interviews and supplemented with a review of the academic literature, this article assesses the best way to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. It begins by briefly laying out why government intervention is needed, and then details the four most favored policy mechanisms identified by participants: eliminating subsidies for conventional and mature electricity technologies, pricing electricity accurately, passing a national feed-in tariff, and implementing a nationwide systems benefit fund to raise public awareness, protect lower income households, and administer demand side management programs. Drawing mostly from case studies in the United States, the article also discusses why these policy mechanisms must be implemented comprehensively, not individually, if the barriers to renewables and energy efficiency are to be overcome. (author)

  15. The importance of comprehensiveness in renewable electricity and energy-efficiency policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-04-15

    Based on extensive research interviews and supplemented with a review of the academic literature, this article assesses the best way to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. It begins by briefly laying out why government intervention is needed, and then details the four most favored policy mechanisms identified by participants: eliminating subsidies for conventional and mature electricity technologies, pricing electricity accurately, passing a national feed-in tariff, and implementing a nationwide systems benefit fund to raise public awareness, protect lower income households, and administer demand side management programs. Drawing mostly from case studies in the United States, the article also discusses why these policy mechanisms must be implemented comprehensively, not individually, if the barriers to renewables and energy efficiency are to be overcome. (author)

  16. Electric power supply and the influence of changes on renewable sources' utilisation and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    2000-01-01

    Changes expected to occur at the electricity market min the Republic of Croatia will have a considerable influence on the development of renewable sources and on the interest in the rationalisation of electricity consumption. If this area and its significance within the total, not only energy-related but also social relations, is stimulated by the law, the influence will be a positive one. Post-liberalisation experience of developed European countries presented in this paper implies arising problems, which can be partly avoided by means of anticipated legislative alternations. Special attention is paid to the possibility of introducing additional work places through a new market approachz, renewable sources' utilisation and consumption rationalisation. (author)

  17. Ademe et Vous. International Newsletter No. 36, March 2016. A 100% renewable electricity mix?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Valerie; Seguin-Jacques, Catherine; Tappero, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Content: - A 100% renewable electricity mix? Ensuring electricity supply every hour of the year with 80%, or even 100% of renewable energies is technically feasible, according to a prospective study by ADEME. - The Overseas territories on the road to energy autonomy: Island territories suffer the first effects of climate change. As such, they are fully committed to the implementation of the energy and ecological transition. With the support of local partners, ADEME provides guidance and expertise to the overseas authorities. - Taking action in Africa: During the COP21, ADEME showcased its expertise in terms of access to energy in Africa by organising, on 9 December, a side event entirely dedicated to this issue. This was the opportunity to present, alongside its partners, a number of its current, ongoing projects

  18. Optimized Renewable and Sustainable Electricity Generation Systems for Ulleungdo Island in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongsik Yoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government has long been attempting to reduce the nation’s heavy reliance on fossil fuels and increase environmental safety by developing and installing renewable power generation infrastructures and implementing policies for promoting the green growth of Korea’s energy industry. This study focuses on the use of independent renewable power generation systems in the more than 3000 officially affirmed islands off Korea’s coast and proposes a simulated solution to the electricity load demand on Ulleungdo Island that incorporates several energy sources (including solar, batteries, and wind as well as one hydro-electric and two diesel generators. Recommendations based on the simulation results and the limitations of the study are discussed.

  19. Who invests in renewable electricity production? : Empirical evidence and suggestions for further research

    OpenAIRE

    Bergek, Anna; Mignon, Ingrid; Sundberg, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Transforming energy systems to fulfill the needs of a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production (RES-E). Recent literature underlines the need to take a closer look at the composition of the RES-E investor group in order to understand the motives and investment processes of different types of investors. However, existing energy policies generally consider RES-E investments made on a regional or national level, and target investors who evaluate their RES...

  20. Topical problems connected with the German act on electricity from renewable energy sources (StrEG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    The German act (StrEG) intended to enhance the use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation and to promote the relevant technologies raises some problems in connection with constitutional law that still await judicial review by the German Federal Constitutional Court. In addition, doubts as to the lawfulness of provisions of the act have been emerging in connection with EC laws governing the regime of subsidies and state aid. The article here summarizes the current situation. (orig./CB) [de

  1. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, Annika; Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael; Rehn, Alf; Lindahl, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO 2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy

  2. Redesign Electricity Market for the Next Generation Power System of Renewable Energy and Distributed Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic time-series based method to simulate the volatility of intermittent renewable generation and distributed storage devices along timeline. The proposed method can calculate the optimal timeline for different electricity markets and power systems. In practice......, the proposed method is potentially useful for designing market rules and evaluating different design options. Following works is underway on application and simulation of proposed method using the realistic distribution system of Bornholm Island in Denmark....

  3. Realisable scenarios for a future electricity supply based 100% on renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czisch, G.; Giebel, G.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the resource and climate problems, it seems obvious that we must transform our energy system into one using only renewable energies. But questions arise how such a system should be structured, which techniques should be used and, of course, how costly it might be. These questions were the focus of a study which investigated the cost optimum of a future renewable electricity supply for Europe and its closer Asian and African neighbourhood. The resulting scenarios are based on a broad data basis of the electricity consumption and for renewable energies. A linear optimisation determines the best system configuration and temporal dispatch of all components. The outcome of the scenarios can be considered as being a scientific breakthrough since it proves that a totally renewable electricity supply is possible even with current technology and at the same time is affordable for our national economies. In the conservative base case scenario, wind power would dominate the production spread over the better wind areas within the whole supply area, connected with the demand centres via HVDC transmission. The transmission system, furthermore, powerfully integrates the existing storage hydropower to provide for backup co-equally assisted by biomass power and supported by solar thermal electricity. The main results of the different scenarios can be summarized as follows: 1) A totally renewable electricity supply for Europe and its neighbourhood is possible and affordable. 2) Electricity import from non-European neighbour countries can be a very valuable and substantial component of a future supply. 3) Smoothing effects by the use of sources at locations in different climate zones improve the security of the supply and reduce the costs. 4) A large-scale co-operation of many different countries opens up for the possibility to combine the goals of development policy and climate politics in a multilateral win-win strategy. To aid implementation, an international extension

  4. Population Dynamics for Renewables in Electricity Markets: A Minority Game View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dominance of fluctuating and intermittent stochastic renewable energy sources (RES) has introduced uncertainty in power systems which in turn, has challenged how electricity market operate. In this context, there has been significant research in developing strategies for RES producers, which...... however typically focuses on the decision process of a single producer, assuming unrealistic access to aspects of information about the power system. This paper analyzes the behavior of an entire population of stochastic producers in an electricity market using as basis a minority game: the El Farol Bar...... problem. We illustrate how uncomplicated strategies based on a adaptive learning rules lead to the coordination among RES producers and a Pareto efficient outcome....

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN ELECTRIC-POWER IN-DUSTRY OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Oleshkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates technical and economic indices (specific capital inputs, construction period, pay-off period, possible economically substantiated generation of electric power of electric power plants using renewable energy sources under climatic conditions ofBelarus. The indices have been compared with the data of nuclear power engineering. The most efficient directions are wind and biomass power engineering. In accordance with its technical and economic and ecological indices the biomass power engineering is more profitable than nuclear, hydro- and solar power engineering.

  6. Marginal abatement cost curve for nitrogen oxides incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Macpherson, Alexander J; Kaufman, Katherine R; Keaveny, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential. In this paper, a U.S. energy system model is used to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) that incorporates both traditional controls and these additional measures. The MACC is decomposed by sector, and the relative cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS and traditional controls are compared. RE/EE/FS are shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone. Furthermore, a portion of RE/EE/FS appear to be cost-competitive with traditional controls. Renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching can be cost-competitive with traditional air pollutant controls for abating air pollutant emissions. The application of renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching is also shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone.

  7. The potential contribution of renewable energy to electricity supply in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnatheer, Othman

    2005-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has enormous oil resources. At the same time, the Kingdom has other resources, notably solar energy that may figure in future supplies of electricity. In the past several years, considerable operational experience has been gained throughout the world in the implementation of renewable energy systems of types that would be relevant to the Kingdom. This paper reviews the nature of this experience and applies it in a quantitative assessment of the costs, savings, and environmental benefits of renewable energy conducted as a part of an electric utility integrated resource planning (IRP) project in the Kingdom. Integrated resource planning is an approach that systematically evaluates potential electricity supply and demand-side resources with the aim of developing a plan that provides energy services to customers at the least societal cost. The analysis summarized in this paper has shown that, when some of the non-market benefits of renewable energy are also included in the assessment of their overall costs and benefits, a supply expansion plan that includes wind and solar resources can provide energy services for the Kingdom at a lower societal cost than a 'Business-as-usual' plan utilizing only fossil-fueled generating resources

  8. The implications of the Kyoto project mechanisms for the deployment of renewable electricity in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P.D.R. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales; Hernandez, F. [IEG CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Gual, M. [Universidad Pablo de olavide, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    EU energy/environmental policy has at least two major and interrelated goals: to increase the percentage of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and to control the emission of GHG cost efficiently. These two goals could be in conflict. This paper explores one aspect of this conflicting relationship, namely the effect that the use of the Kyoto Protocol project mechanisms (CDM/JI project) may have on the deployment of RES-E within EU borders. The main conclusion is that, under certain assumptions (i.e., no mandatory EU RES-E quota), CDM/JI projects might reduce the incentive to deploy RES-E within EU borders because they would allow European power companies to comply with GHG targets in a cheaper way than if they reduced emissions by investing in renewable electricity in Europe. This is problematic, since many benefits from renewable electricity are local and these would be gone. This situation would be different if a mandatory RES-E quota (combined with an EU-wide TGC scheme) was implemented. In this case, the RES-E target would be fulfilled and CDM/JI projects would only affect RES-E deployment exceeding the target. (author)

  9. Political will and collaboration for electric power reform through renewable energy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chineke, Theo Chidiezie; Ezike, Fabian M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, in particular rainfall variability, affects rain-dependent agriculture in Africa. The resulting food shortages, in combination with rising population and lack of access to electricity needed for development, require the governments and people of Africa to consider renewable energy sources. One example that has high potential in Africa is solar energy. Many African governments have begun discussions about renewable energy but tangible results have yet to materialize. This research contributes to the governmental efforts by presenting the solar electricity potentials for some African cities. Using photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS) data, it is clear that there is enough electricity for urban and rural dwellers if there is political will and if the solar panels are mounted at the suggested optimal angles ranging from 8-34 . The solar irradiation at all sites was higher than the typical daily domestic load requirement of 2324 Wh/m 2 in urban and rural areas. We provide a strong rationale for political will, collaboration and transparent energy policies that will ensure that life is enhanced through the use of environmentally-friendly renewable energy technologies such as solar power. (author)

  10. The policy implications of the different interpretations of the cost-effectiveness of renewable electricity support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Cerdá, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of support for renewable electricity is a main criterion to assess the success of policy instruments, together with effectiveness. The costs of support are also a source of significant concern for governments all over the world. However, significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. While some authors define the concept of cost-effectiveness as that which complies with the equimarginality principle, many others, including documents from relevant organisations (European Commission, International Energy Agency, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) define it as “the lowest costs of support”, generally equating it with the minimisation of consumer costs. The aim of this paper is to clarify the differences between both approaches and their policy implications regarding the choice of instruments and design elements. It is shown that they partly overlap and that their policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions. While the former favours technology neutral instruments and design elements, the “minimisation of consumer costs” approach favours instruments and design elements which adjust support levels to the costs of the technologies. - Highlights: • Significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. • Clarify the differences between two main approaches to cost-effectiveness. • Policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions

  11. The implications of the Kyoto project mechanisms for the deployment of renewable electricity in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del; Hernandez, Felix; Gual, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    EU energy/environmental policy has at least two major and interrelated goals: to increase the percentage of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and to control the emission of GHG cost efficiently. These two goals could be in conflict. This paper explores one aspect of this conflicting relationship, namely the effect that the use of the Kyoto Protocol project mechanisms (CDM/JI project) may have on the deployment of RES-E within EU borders. The main conclusion is that, under certain assumptions (i.e., no mandatory EU RES-E quota), CDM/JI projects might reduce the incentive to deploy RES-E within EU borders because they would allow European power companies to comply with GHG targets in a cheaper way than if they reduced emissions by investing in renewable electricity in Europe. This is problematic, since many benefits from renewable electricity are local and these would be gone. This situation would be different if a mandatory RES-E quota (combined with an EU-wide TGC scheme) was implemented. In this case, the RES-E target would be fulfilled and CDM/JI projects would only affect RES-E deployment exceeding the target

  12. Electricity system based on 100% renewable energy for India and SAARC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gulagi

    Full Text Available The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand, and showed the system cost decreased by 5% and total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS alternatives. One of the limitations of this study is the cost of land for installation of renewables which is not included in the LCOE calculations, but regarded as a minor contribution.

  13. Electricity system based on 100% renewable energy for India and SAARC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulagi, Ashish; Choudhary, Piyush; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand, and showed the system cost decreased by 5% and total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives. One of the limitations of this study is the cost of land for installation of renewables which is not included in the LCOE calculations, but regarded as a minor contribution.

  14. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  15. Price Signals from Electricity Markets and Subsidy Schemes for Renewable Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing share of renewable generation itself gives rise to price risks on the electricity markets. Subsidy schemes, in general, additionally distort price signals produced by economic mechanisms of otherwise free markets. In the electricity industry, subsidy schemes, once designed merely to incentivize electricity system decarbonization in its kick-off phase, seem to have grown to such a volume, that they, too, started to profoundly interfere with the whole market structure, and to distort price signals that used to govern long-term development of an adequately structured generation system. This article was made as an attempt to discuss contemporary electricity system policies in relation to RES integration. The economic relations in the sector are growingly influenced, or sometimes even hard-handedly guided, by political institutions, rather than by economic interests of the investors, which may in turn cause considerable problems in achieving ultimate policy goals due to unsustainability of such an economic arrangement.(author)

  16. A renewable electric power and heat autonomous generator; Un generateur autonome d'electricite et de chaleur renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The society ENERGIESTRO developed an electric power and heat generator allowing the electricity and the renewable heat of a little building, without the electric network. The energy source comes from a thermal engine supplied by biofuels. The document presents the technical characteristics and the advantages of this innovation. (A.L.B.)

  17. On the effectiveness of regulatory vs voluntary vs strategies for increasing the share of renewable in electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Reinhard; Huber, Claus; Resch, Gustav; Faber, Thomas [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Energy Economics Group, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-09-01

    The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) has a high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries world-wide. To meeting this objective in recent years a wide variety of deployment strategies and dissemination programmes for RES-E has been launched by quite different organizations and institutions. The core focus of this paper is to extract under which conditions various strategies are effective for substantially boosting RES in the future. Moreover, it is analysed what are the most important regulatory conditions for implementing voluntary (Green Pricing, voluntary green electricity trade) and regulatory (TGC-based quotas, bidding feed-in tariffs) promotion strategies for RES-E. The most important results and conclusions of this analysis are: Regardless which instrument is chosen the careful design of a strategy is of paramount importance; Focus on new capacities: It is of paramount importance that a promotional system does not mix existing (at least fully depreciated) and new capacities. Hence, Green Pricing strategies as well as regulatory approaches should have a strong focus on new capacity; Credibility: To provide confidence among the industry and investors it must be guaranteed by highly credible sources that a strategy survives a certain planning horizon; Feed-in tariffs are an effective instrument if a policy is introduced on a national level and if the rates are optimally designed e.g. using a stepped feed-in tariff; Of high relevance for quotas based on tradable certificates is that the penalty for not purchasing a certificate is higher than the worst case of investment; With respect to voluntary strategies -e.g. Green Power Marketing- the minimum requirement for a label is that it guarantees at least that the proportional increase in total electricity demand is provided by new capacities; With respect to international trading of Green electricity at least one of the following conditions must be fulfilled

  18. Sustainable development business case report : renewable electricity generation : SD business case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This investment report is the first in a series that will be released by Sustainable Development Technology Canada as part of the SD Business Case. It focuses primarily on generating electricity from renewable energy sources and examines 4 primary technology groups or sub-sectors including wind generated electricity; solar PV generated electricity; stationary fuel cell generated electricity; and electricity generated from biological sources. Each sub-sector has been assessed in terms of its market dynamics, technology makeup and conditions, sustainability impacts, and investment risk. A selection of the leading technologies in each technology area are brought forward and rated in terms of their respective investment potential. The report first presents an overview of the SD business case plan. It defines the primary audience of the report, lists the sectors and investment categories to be assessed by the business case and provides some background information on Sustainable Development Technology Canada. The report presents the framework for data collection and analysis and an executive summary of the complete report. It then presents the results of the market assessment report for each of the 4 sectors. This includes demand, infrastructure renewal, environmental commitments, renewable energy value proposition, and future market potential. The section covering the technology assessment report discusses the various technologies and ranks them. The sustainability assessment report section provides an economic, environmental and societal assessment of each sub-sector. Risk assessment is conducted in terms of technology and non-technology related risk. Last, the report presents conclusions and investment priorities. 11 tabs., 7 figs

  19. Modeling and simulation of CO methanation process for renewable electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Er-rbib, Hanaâ; Bouallou, Chakib

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach of converting renewable electricity into methane via syngas (a mixture of CO and H 2 ) and CO methanation is presented. Surplus of electricity is used to electrolyze H 2 O and CO 2 to H 2 and CO by using a SOEC (Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell). Syngas produced is then converted into methane. When high consumption peaks appear, methane is used to produce electricity. The main conversion step in this process is CO methanation. A modeling of catalytic fixed bed methanation reactor and a design of methanation unit composed of multistage adiabatic reactors are carried out using Aspen plus™ software. The model was validated by comparing the simulated results of gas composition (CH 4 , CO, CO 2 and H 2 ) with industrial data. In addition, the effects of recycle ratio on adiabatic reactor stages, outlet temperature, and H 2 and CO conversions are carefully investigated. It is found that for storing 10 MW of renewable electricity, methanation unit is composed of three adiabatic reactors with recycle loop and intermediate cooling at 553 K and 1.5 MPa. The methanation unit generates 3778.6 kg/h of steam at 523.2 K and 1 MPa (13.67 MW). - Highlights: • A catalytic fixed bed reactor of CO methanation was modeled. • The maximum relative error of the methanation reactor model is 12%. • For 10 MW storage of renewable electricity, three adiabatic reactors are required. • The recycle ratio affects the reactor outlet temperature and CO conversion

  20. 76 FR 76153 - Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-12-000] Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), Allco Renewable Energy Limited filed a formal complaint...

  1. Resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Economics of the German Laender, relating to the act obliging electric utilities to purchase electricity generated from renewable energy sources (Stromeinspeisungsgesetz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The Conference of Ministers welcomes the minimum payment for electricity generated from renewable energy sources as defined in the planned act as a suitable incentive to exploit renewable energy sources, but at the same time regrets that the Federal Government still does not give appropriate support in general to enhanced use of these energy sources. The resolution comprises seven statements. (orig./CB) [de

  2. ERK2 suppresses self-renewal capacity of embryonic stem cells, but is not required for multi-lineage commitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Hamilton

    Full Text Available Activation of the FGF-ERK pathway is necessary for naïve mouse embryonic stem (ES cells to exit self-renewal and commit to early differentiated lineages. Here we show that genetic ablation of Erk2, the predominant ERK isozyme expressed in ES cells, results in hyper-phosphorylation of ERK1, but an overall decrease in total ERK activity as judged by substrate phosphorylation and immediate-early gene (IEG induction. Normal induction of this subset of canonical ERK targets, as well as p90RSK phosphorylation, was rescued by transgenic expression of either ERK1 or ERK2 indicating a degree of functional redundancy. In contrast to previously published work, Erk2-null ES cells exhibited no detectable defect in lineage specification to any of the three germ layers when induced to differentiate in either embryoid bodies or in defined neural induction conditions. However, under self-renewing conditions Erk2-null ES cells express increased levels of the pluripotency-associated transcripts, Nanog and Tbx3, a decrease in Nanog-GFP heterogeneity, and exhibit enhanced self-renewal in colony forming assays. Transgenic add-back of ERK2 is capable of restoring normal pluripotent gene expression and self-renewal capacity. We show that ERK2 contributes to the destabilization of ES cell self-renewal by reducing expression of pluripotency genes, such as Nanog, but is not specifically required for the early stages of germ layer specification.

  3. The European renewable energy target for 2030 – An impact assessment of the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, Brigitte; Nahmmacher, Paul; Schmid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The European Union set binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) and the share of renewable energy (RE) in final energy consumption by 2020. The European Council agreed to continue with this strategy through to 2030 by setting a RE target of 27% in addition to a GHG reduction target of 40%. We provide a detailed sectoral impact assessment by analyzing the implications for the electricity sector in terms of economic costs and the regional distribution of investments and shares of electricity generated from renewable energy sources (RES-E). According to the Impact Analysis by the European Commission the 27% RE target corresponds to a RES-E share of 49%. Our model-based sensitivity analysis on underlying technological and institutional assumptions shows that the cost-effective RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. Secondly, we quantify the economic costs of these variants and those which would be incurred with higher shares. The long-term additional costs for higher RES-E shares would be less than 1% of total system costs. The third aspect relates to the regional distribution of EU-wide efforts for upscaling renewables. We point out that delivering high RES-E shares in a cost-effective manner involves considerably different efforts by the Member States. -- Highlights: •A renewable (RES) target of 27% is the cost-effective share for 40% GHG reduction. •For the electricity sector the RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. •Long-term costs for higher RES-E shares are less than 1% of total system costs. •There are large differences in RES deployment and costs between Member States. •A lack of a governance mechanism makes the EU-wide RES target difficult to achieve

  4. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  5. Research and deployment priorities for renewable technologies: Quantifying the importance of various renewable technologies for low cost, high renewable electricity systems in an Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesz, Jenny; Elliston, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify research priorities to enable low cost, high renewable power systems. An evolutionary program optimises the mix of technologies in 100% renewable energy portfolios (RE) in the Australian National Electricity Market. Various technologies are reduced in availability to determine their relative importance for achieving low costs. The single most important factor is found to be the integration of large quantities of wind; therefore wind integration is identified as a research priority. In contrast, photovoltaics are found to “saturate” the system at less than 10% of total energy (in the absence of storage or demand management, installation of further photovoltaics does not contribute significant further value). This indicates that policies to promote utility-scale photovoltaics should be considered in partnership with complementary measures (such as demand side participation and storage). Biofuelled gas turbines are found to be important; a complete absence of bioenergy increases costs by AU$20–30/MWh, and even having only 0.1 TWh per year of bioenergy available reduces average costs by AU$3–4/MWh. Limits on the non-synchronous penetration (NSP) are found to be relatively expensive, suggesting a significant research priority around finding alternative approaches to providing synchronous services, such as inertia. Geothermal and concentrating solar thermal technologies do not appear essential as long as sufficient wind and peaking bioenergy is available. - Highlights: • Photovoltaics saturate early, suggesting they need complementary measures. • Biofuelled gas turbines or another peaking technology are important for low costs. • Limits on the non-synchronous penetration are relatively expensive.

  6. Investment barriers under a renewable-electricity support scheme: Differences across investor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnerud, Kristin; Holden, Erling

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Norway and Sweden implemented a common market for tradable green certificates to achieve each country's renewable-energy target. This is the first example of a cooperation mechanism that the EU has suggested to improve the cost efficiency of its renewable-energy policies. We asked investors in 446 planned hydropower projects in Norway what type of barriers may prevent their project from being realized under this scheme, and how likely it is that their project will be realized. Based on a regression analysis we find that the responses to these questions vary systematically with investor, project and process characteristics. We find that investors are concerned with capacity barriers imposed on the market because of the short duration and abrupt termination of the subsidy scheme at the end of 2020. Consequently, the cost efficiency of this and similar schemes can be improved by choosing a better design. Moreover, experienced investors and local landowners without previous experience in the energy sector responded differently to these questions. Local landowners were more optimistic, less concerned with capacity barriers and more concerned with economic barriers than experienced investors were. These observations are interesting given the recent emergence of new investors in the renewable energy sector. - Highlights: • Norway and Sweden have implemented a common market for tradable green certificates. • We asked questions on barriers and potential to investors in 446 hydropower projects. • Capacity barriers imposed on the market by the support scheme design are important. • Local landowners are more optimistic than experienced investors are, all else equal. • They focus relatively more on economic barriers and risk and less on capacity barriers

  7. Nuclear Energy and Renewables: System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems : Method comments to a NEA report

    OpenAIRE

    Söder, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) released a new report on 29 November 2012. The study recommends that decision-makers should take full electricity system costs into account in energy choices and that such costs should be internalised according to a “generator pays” principle. The study, entitled Nuclear Energy and Renewables: System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems, addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as ...

  8. Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, T.

    2007-12-14

    This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

  9. The duty of buying electricity from renewable sources and from cogeneration versus purchasing prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piha, M.

    1992-01-01

    Electricity purchase prices are regulated and should not exceed the price at which electricity is purchased from the transmission system belonging to the dominant supplier, viz., the CEZ company. The suitability is discussed of the employed method of average price comparison. Drawbacks of such a comparison lie in the lower reliability of supplies from renewable sources, the necessity of having power reserves available for the case of renewable source failure, power supplies which are economically discriminated in favor of coal fired power plants based on costs which fail to cover simple reproduction, and failure to respect the supply prices in the different tariff classes. In fact, cost and price comparison is only reasonable if it concerns electricity supplies providing the same benefit and having the same or similar parameters and characteristics. Two approaches to the search of an optimum alternative are described, viz. the system approach, respecting the aspects of the complex integrated power system, and the market approach, which is based on the lowest operator's cost of electricity purchase. (J.B.). 1 tab

  10. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  11. RESTRUCTURED ELECTRICITY MARKETS: Three States' Experiences in Adding Generating Capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...., restructured electricity markets by shifting from service provided through a regulated monopoly-the local electric utility-to service provided through open competition among the local utility and its competitors...

  12. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-31

    resources to contribute electric power in the state from 10 Colorado generation development areas (GDAs) that have the capacity for more than 96,000 megawatts (MW) of wind generation and 26,000 MW of solar generation. The SB07-91 Report recognized that only a small fraction of these large capacity opportunities are destined to be developed. As a rough comparison, 13,964 MW of installed nameplate capacity was available in Colorado in 2008. The legislature did not direct the SB07-91 task force to examine several issues that are addressed in the REDI report. These issues include topics such as transmission, regulation, wildlife, land use, permitting, electricity demand, and the roles that different combinations of supply-side resources, demand-side resources, and transmission can play to meet a CO{sub 2} emissions reduction goal. This report, which expands upon research from a wide array of sources, serves as a sequel to the SB07-91 Report. Reports and research on renewable energy and transmission abound. This report builds on the work of many, including professionals who have dedicated their careers to these topics. A bibliography of information resources is provided, along with many citations to the work of others. The REDI Project was designed to present baseline information regarding the current status of Colorado's generation and transmission infrastructure. The report discusses proposals to expand the infrastructure, and identifies opportunities to make further improvements in the state's regulatory and policy environment. The report offers a variety of options for consideration as Colorado seeks pathways to meet the 20 x 20 goal. The primary goal of the report is to foster broader discussion regarding how the 20 x 20 goal interacts with electric resource portfolio choices, particularly the expansion of utility-scale renewable energy and the high-voltage transmission infrastructure. The report also is intended to serve as a resource when identifying

  13. 18 CFR 294.101 - Shortages of electric energy and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... customers; and (ii) It will report any modifications to its contingency plans for accommodating shortages... REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 § 294.101 Shortages of electric energy and capacity. (a) Definition of... customers. (4) If a plan for accommodating any shortages of electric energy or capacity affecting its firm...

  14. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, Hilde; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Sub-Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2008-12-15

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC) based on naturally selected algae and electrochemically active microorganisms in an open system and without addition of instable or toxic mediators. The developed solar-powered PAMFC produced continuously over 100 days renewable biocatalyzed electricity. The sustainable performance of the PAMFC resulted in a maximum current density of 539 mA/m{sup 2} projected anode surface area and a maximum power production of 110 mW/m{sup 2} surface area photobioreactor. The energy recovery of the PAMFC can be increased by optimization of the photobioreactor, by reducing the competition from non-electrochemically active microorganisms, by increasing the electrode surface and establishment of a further-enriched biofilm. Since the objective is to produce net renewable energy with algae, future research should also focus on the development of low energy input PAMFCs. This is because current algae production systems have energy inputs similar to the energy present in the outcoming valuable products. (orig.)

  15. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, David P B T B; Terlouw, Hilde; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-12-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC) based on naturally selected algae and electrochemically active microorganisms in an open system and without addition of instable or toxic mediators. The developed solar-powered PAMFC produced continuously over 100 days renewable biocatalyzed electricity. The sustainable performance of the PAMFC resulted in a maximum current density of 539 mA/m2 projected anode surface area and a maximum power production of 110 mW/m2 surface area photobioreactor. The energy recovery of the PAMFC can be increased by optimization of the photobioreactor, by reducing the competition from non-electrochemically active microorganisms, by increasing the electrode surface and establishment of a further-enriched biofilm. Since the objective is to produce net renewable energy with algae, future research should also focus on the development of low energy input PAMFCs. This is because current algae production systems have energy inputs similar to the energy present in the outcoming valuable products.

  16. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  17. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  18. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  19. A review of existing renewable energy facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Pape-Salmon, A.

    2003-05-01

    This first annual report on renewable energy in the Canadian electricity sector includes records from 629 power plants across Canada. Renewable energy sources include wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 629 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. The majority (64 per cent) of Canada's total installed power capacity comes from renewable energy sources, with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy at almost 98 per cent of its installed electrical capacity. Nearly half of Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 18 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Approximately 80 per cent of the total installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities. Eleven per cent is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, 5 per cent is owned by aluminium companies, and 3 per cent is owned by pulp and paper companies. The rest is owned by diversified electricity generators. It is expected that with the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol interest in renewable energy will grow. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix

  20. Nuclear electric capacity expansion in Mexico: system effects of reactor size and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Abbey, D.S.; Hardie, R.W.; Enriquez, R.P.; Uria, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Mexico's electrical generation capacity could more than double over the next ten years - from about 15 GWe currently to as much as 35 GWe in 1990. While new capacity additions will be predominantly oil-fired in the 1980's, nuclear power will become increasingly important in the 1990's. This study investigated the appropriate size of new, nuclear capacity additions by assessing the implications of installing different size reactors into Mexico's electrical grid. Included in the assessments of reactor sizes are estimates of electrical generation costs and comparisons of the effective load-carrying capability of a 10 GWe nuclear capacity expansion

  1. Optimal Operation of the Integrated Electrical and Heating Systems to Accommodate the Intermittent Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinghua; Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The integration of electrical and heating systems has great potential to enhance the flexibility of power systems to accommodate more renewable power such as the wind and solar. This study was to investigate an optimal way to integrate the energy of both systems in urban areas. The amount of energy...... the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The results showed that coordinated optimization of the energy distribution have significant benefits for reducing wind curtailment, operation cost, and energy losses. The proposed model and methodology could help system operators with decision support in the emerging...... conversion between the electrical system and heating system was optimally decided so that the demand within both systems could be met at the least operational cost. Besides, the best node to join with the electrical system and heating system was chosen by consideration of the energy transmission loss...

  2. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  3. On the legal nature of electricity supply contracts concluded by electricity companies and power stations generating electricity from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Section 2 of the German Act for enhanced use of electricity from renewable energy sources (StEG) defines the obligation to contract but not the contractual obligations, i.e. the conditions of performance of the contract (supply and purchase of electricity and the legal obligations of contractors). The analysis here shows that characterising this mandatory contract required by the act as an agreement of purchase and sale more appropriately describes the legal nature of the contract and the intent of the legislator than other contracts for supply and purchase of electricity, as for instance those concluded by electric utilities and their customers. One specific aspect elaborated by the author is that the StEG does not constitute an obligation to supply on the part of the renewable energy generating power station, so that the power station operator is not obliged to ensure availability of the electricity at any time or in terms of supplies that can be called off by the purchasing utility, whereas the electric utility is obliged by section 2 of the StEG to purchase the contractual amounts from the generating station. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Customer-economics of residential photovoltaic systems (Part 1): The impact of high renewable energy penetrations on electricity bill savings with net metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Given the uncertainty in future retail rates and the inherent links between rates and the customer–economics of behind-the-meter PV, there is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. In this article, we first use a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under two potential electricity market scenarios, including a reference and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, we develop retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV is estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. We find that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of high renewables on customer economics of solar. • We model three types of residential retail electricity rates. • Based on the rates, we calculate the bill savings from photovoltaic (PV) generation. • High renewables penetration can lead to lower bill savings with time-varying rates. • There is substantial uncertainty in the future bill savings from residential PV

  5. Report on the renewal of the hydro-electric concessions; Rapport sur le renouvellement des concessions hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    The administrative procedures of the renewable of the hydro-electric concessions in France is a real problem, leading to too long time of the case files examination. This mission aimed to identify the technical and financial criteria on which the decision maker will base his choice to give the concessions renewal. This report exposes the evaluation and the recommendations of the mission. The first part establishes an evaluation of the situation of the hydro-electric concessions and the today renewal procedures. The second part presents a analysis of this situation and the recommendations. The last part brings the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  6. Temporal and Spatial Explicit Modelling of Renewable Energy Systems : Modelling variable renewable energy systems to address climate change mitigation and universal electricity access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeyringer, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Two major global challenges climate change mitigation and universal electricity access, can be addressed by large scale deployment of renewable energy sources (Alstone et al., 2015). Around 60% of greenhouse gas emissions originate from energy generation and 90% of CO2 emissions are caused by fossil

  7. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  8. Towards improved policy processes for promoting innovation in renewable electricity technologies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Pearson, P.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses recent, current and potential future relations between policy processes and substantive outcomes in UK low carbon innovation policy, focussing on policies relating to renewable electricity generation technologies. It examines the development of policy processes relating to the adoption and implementation of the Renewables Obligation and how these may affect the current and likely future success of the Obligation in promoting low carbon innovation. It examines the new policy and institutional processes put in place in the 2003 Energy White Paper and argues that these are unlikely to provide the strategic long-term framework needed to realise the ambitious goals for UK energy policy set out in the White Paper. Finally, it outlines some suggestions for further development of policy processes to facilitate improved delivery of these goals, based on guiding principles for sustainable innovation policy processes, developed by the authors and their colleagues

  9. Renewable portfolio standard and certificates trading on the Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drillsch, J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the Dutch distribution companies signed a voluntary agreement to reduce CO 2 emissions. As one element of the agreement a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) for the electricity distribution companies with certificates trading was introduced (green label system). The analysis reveals that the total volume of the obligation (3%) can be considered as modest. In addition, it seems more appropriate to replace the distribution companies' current monopoly for the issuing of the certificates by an independent institution. A flexibility mechanism (e.g., a certificates' banking system), which prevents high volatilities in the certificates' market price, and a clear sanction mechanism is needed. A drawback of the current Dutch system is the discriminatory financing of the RPS, which is only provided by MAP tariff customers. Nevertheless, the Dutch RPS may induce an efficient allocation of financial means to support renewable energies. It provides valuable experiences in the functioning of the new system, from which other countries may gain. (author)

  10. Renewable energies in electricity generation for reduction of greenhouse gases in Mexico 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Martínez, Manuel

    2002-02-01

    This study presents 4 scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the historic path of Mexico's energy policy. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The fourth scenario takes into account the present- and medium-term use of natural-gas technologies that the energy reform has produced, but after 2007 a high and feasible participation of renewable sources of energy is considered. The 4 scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG).

  11. Vulnerability to terrorist attacks in European electricity decarbonisation scenarios: Comparing renewable electricity imports to gas imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilliestam, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The decarbonised future European electricity system must remain secure: reliable electricity supply is a prerequisite for the functioning of modern society. Scenarios like Desertec, which partially rely on solar power imports from the Middle East and North Africa, may be attractive for decarbonisation, but raise concerns about terrorists interrupting supply by attacking the long, unprotected transmission lines in the Sahara. In this paper, I develop new methods and assess the European vulnerability to terrorist attacks in the Desertec scenario. I compare this to the vulnerability of today's system and a decarbonisation scenario in which Europe relies on gas imports for electricity generation. I show that the vulnerability of both gas and electricity imports is low, but electricity imports are more vulnerable than gas imports, due to their technical characteristics. Gas outages (and, potentially, resulting blackouts) are the very unlikely consequence even of very high-number attacks against the gas import system, whereas short blackouts are the potential consequence of a few attacks against the import electricity lines. As the impacts of all except extreme attacks are limited, terrorists cannot attack energy infrastructure and cause spectacular, fear-creating outages. Both gas and electricity import infrastructure are thus unattractive and unlikely terrorist targets. - Highlights: • A comparison of terrorism risks of importing solar power and gas for power generation. • Both scenarios show low vulnerability to terrorist attacks. • Within low vulnerabilities, gas imports are less vulnerable than electricity imports. • Causing spectacular, large and long outages is very difficult for attacker. • The attractiveness of gas and power import infrastructure as terrorist target is low

  12. Capacity Market Design: Motivation and Challenges in Alberta’s Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    David Brown

    2018-01-01

    Alberta’s electricity market is currently undergoing a period of substantial transition. The province should proceed with caution as it switches from an energy-only electricity market to a capacity market by 2021. Many other jurisdictions have already made the changeover and Alberta can learn from their experiences in order to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls that can arise with the deployment of a capacity market.There were growing concerns that the existing electricity market structure wo...

  13. Consequences of the feed-in management for the marketing of electric power from renewable energies. Are limited generators financially shut-down according to paragraph 13 par. 4 EnWG; Folgen des Einspeisemanagements fuer die Vermarktung von Strom aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Werden zwangsweise abgeregelte Erzeuger nach paragraph 13 Abs. 4 EnWG bilanziell glattgestellt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetebier, Jan [Bundesnetzagentur, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    With the expansion of renewable energies, the network capacities on windy and sunny days are becoming scarce. If the capacities are not sufficient in order to accommodate all the electricity, conventional power plants and subordinately plants for the power generation from renewable plants have to be closed. What are the consequences of a compulsory curtailment for the marketing of the electric power? This question basically raised for conventional power plants as well as supply remunerated and directly exploited renewable energy plants. From this perspective, the author of this contribution reports on the impact on the stock marketing of the supply remunerated electric power from renewable energy sources according to the balancing mechanism of the Renewable Energy Law.

  14. Guaranteeing the implementation of guarantees of origin: Creating a fair mechanism for renewable electricity generation and trade in europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houwing; Michiel; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2005-01-01

    With the Renewables Directive (2001/77/EC) the EU has obliged its Member States to implement the Guarantees of Origin (GO) policy instrument into their national renewable electricity support schemes. Compared to formerly existing policy instruments as tradable green certificates, GOs can in a Union broad quota obligation scheme, for example, prove to be of major value in arriving at a more transparent and efficient way of trading renewable electricity. This paper gives an overview of the most important hurdles still to be addressed, mainly being double counting issues and policy interactions. When more clarity is given from the Commission in the future and when more EU Member States implement GOs beyond the minimum requirements, international trading of renewable electricity can become truly feasible. (Author)

  15. Distributed Energy Generation Systems Based on Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Blending: New Business Models for Economic Incentives, Electricity Market Design and Regulatory Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangon, Joseph

    Expansion of distributed energy resources (DERs) including solar photovoltaics, small- and medium-sized wind farms, gas-fired distributed generation, demand-side management, and energy storage poses significant complications to the design, operation, business model, and regulation of electricity systems. Using statistical regression analysis, this dissertation assesses if increased use of natural gas results in reduced renewable energy capacity, and if natural gas growth is correlated with increased or decreased non-fossil renewable fuels demand. System Generalized Method of Moments (System GMM) estimation of the dynamic relationship was performed on the indicators in the econometric model for the ten states with the