WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable based hydrogen

  1. Renewable based hydrogen energy projects in remote and island communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, S.; Gillie, M.

    2009-01-01

    Task 18 working group of the International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement has been evaluating and documenting experiences with renewable based hydrogen energy projects in remote and island communities in the United Kingdom, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Gran Canaria, Spain and New Zealand. The objective was to examine the lessons learned from existing projects and provide recommendations regarding the effective development of hydrogen systems. In order to accomplish this task, some of the drivers behind the niche markets where hydrogen systems have already been developed, or are in the development stages, were studied in order to determine how these could be expanded and modified to reach new markets. Renewable based hydrogen energy projects for remote and island communities are currently a key niche market. This paper compared various aspects of these projects and discussed the benefits, objectives and barriers facing the development of a hydrogen-based economy

  2. A renewable energy based hydrogen demonstration park in Turkey. HYDEPARK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan, Niluefer; Ersoez, Atilla [TUEBITAK Marmara Research Center Energy Institute, Gebze Kocaeli (Turkey); Cubukcu, Mete [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this national project is to research hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications. Solar and wind energy are utilized to obtain hydrogen via electrolysis, which can either be used in the fuel cell or stored in cylinders for further use. The management of all project work packages was carried by TUeBITAK Marmara Research Center (MRC) Energy Institute (EI) with the support of the collaborators. The aim of this paper is to present the units of the renewable energy based hydrogen demonstration park, which is in the demonstration phase now and share the experimental results. (orig.)

  3. New perspectives on renewable energy systems based on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T. K.; Agbossou, K.; Benard, P.; St-Arnaud, J-M.

    1999-01-01

    Current hydrocarbon-based energy systems, current energy consumption and the push towards the utilization of renewable energy sources, fuelled by global warming and the need to reduce atmospheric pollution are discussed. The consequences of climatic change and the obligation of Annex B countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in terms of the Kyoto Protocols are reviewed. The role that renewable energy sources such as hydrogen, solar and wind energy could play in avoiding the most catastrophic consequences of rapidly growing energy consumption and atmospheric pollution in the face of diminishing conventional fossil fuel resources are examined. The focus is on hydrogen energy as a means of storing and transporting primary energy. Some favorable characteristics of hydrogen is its abundance, the fact that it can be produced utilizing renewable or non-renewable sources, and the further fact that its combustion produces three times more energy per unit of mass than oil, and six times more than coal. The technology of converting hydrogen into energy, storing energy in the form of hydrogen, and its utilization, for example in the stabilization of wind energy by way of electrolytic conversion to hydrogen, are described. Development at Hydro-Quebec's Institute of Research of a hydrogen-based autonomous wind energy system to produce electricity is also discussed. 2 tabs., 11 refs

  4. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, Makoto [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MITI, Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  5. Transportable Hydrogen Research Plant Based on Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel Fernandez; Carlos Madina; Asier Gil de Muro; Jose Angel Alzolab; Iker Marino; Javier Garcia-Tejedor; Juan Carlos Mugica; Inaki Azkkrate; Jose Angel Alzola

    2006-01-01

    Efficiency and cost are nowadays the most important barriers for the penetration of systems based on hydrogen and renewable energies. According to this background, TECNALIA Corporation has started in 2004 the HIDROTEC project: 'Hydrogen Technologies for Renewable Energy Applications'. The ultimate aim of this project is the implementation of a multipurpose demonstration and research plant in order to explore diverse options for sustainable energetic solutions based on hydrogen. The plant is conceived as an independent system that can be easily transported and assembled. Research and demonstration activities can thus be carried out at very different locations, including commercial renewable facilities. Modularity and scalability have also been taken into account for an optimised exploitation. (authors)

  6. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  7. Optimal production of renewable hydrogen based on an efficient energy management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziogou, Chrysovalantou; Ipsakis, Dimitris; Seferlis, Panos; Bezergianni, Stella; Papadopoulou, Simira; Voutetakis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the development of a flexible energy management strategy (EMS) for a renewable hydrogen production unit through water electrolysis with solar power. The electricity flow of the unit is controlled by a smart microgrid and the overall unattended operation is achieved by a supervisory control system. The proposed approach formalizes the knowledge regarding the system operation using a finite-state machine (FSM) which is subsequently combined with a propositional-based logic to describe the transitions among various process states. The operating rules for the integrated system are derived by taking into account both the operating constraints and the interaction effects among the individual subsystems in a systematic way. Optimal control system parameter values are obtained so that a system performance criterion incorporating efficient and economic operation is satisfied. The resulted EMS has been deployed to the industrial automation system that monitors and controls a small-scale experimental solar hydrogen production unit. The overall performance of the proposed EMS in the experimental unit has been evaluated over short-term and long-term operating periods resulting in smooth and efficient hydrogen production. - Highlights: • Development of an energy management strategy based on a finite-state machine and propositional-based reasoning. • Deployment of the energy-aware algorithm to an autonomous renewable hydrogen production unit. • Supervisory control of the electricity flow by a smart microgrid using an industrial automation system. • Unattended operation and remote monitoring incorporating subsystem interactions in a systematic way. • Optimal hydrogen production regardless of the weather conditions through water electrolysis with solar power

  8. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications.

  9. Energy Systems With Renewable Hydrogen Compared to Direct Use of Renewable Energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerfried Jungmeier; Kurt Konighofer; Josef Spitzer; R Haas; A Ajanovic

    2006-01-01

    The current Austrian energy system has a renewable energy share of 20% - 11% hydropower and 9 % biomass - of total primary energy consumption. Whereas a possible future introduction of renewable hydrogen must be seen in the context of current energy policies in Austria e.g. increase of energy efficiency and use of renewable energy, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the research project is a life cycle based comparison of energy systems with renewable hydrogen from hydropower, wind, photovoltaic and biomass compared to the direct use of renewable energy for combined heat and power applications and transportation services. In particular this paper focuses on the main question, if renewable energy should be used directly or indirectly via renewable hydrogen. The assessment is based on a life cycle approach to analyse the energy efficiency, the material demand, the greenhouse gas emissions and economic aspects e.g. energy costs and some qualitative aspects e.g. energy service. The overall comparison of the considered energy systems for transportation service and combined heat and electricity application shows, that renewable hydrogen might be beneficial mainly for transportation services, if the electric vehicle will not be further developed to a feasibly wide-spread application for transportation service in future. For combined heat and electricity production there is no advantage of renewable hydrogen versus the direct use of renewable energy. Conclusions for Austria are therefore: 1) renewable hydrogen is an interesting energy carrier and might play an important role in a future sustainable Austrian energy system; 2) renewable hydrogen applications look most promising in the transportation sector; 3) renewable hydrogen applications will be of low importance for combined heat and electricity applications, as existing technologies for direct use of renewable energy for heat and electricity are well developed and very efficient; 4) In a future '100

  10. Ovonic Renewable Hydrogen (ORH) - low temperature hydrogen production from renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichman, B.; Mays, W.; Strebe, J.; Fetcenko, M.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': ECD has developed a new technology to produce hydrogen from various organic matters. In this technology termed Ovonic Renewable Hydrogen (ORH), base material such as NaOH is used as a reactant to facilitate the reforming of the organic matters to hydrogen gas. This Base-Facilitated Reforming (BFR) process is a one-step process and has number of advantages over the conventional steam reforming and gasification processes including lower operation temperature and lower heat consumption. This paper will describe the ORH process and discuss its technological and economics advantages over the conventional hydrogen production processes. ORH process has been studied and demonstrated on variety of renewable fuels including liquid biofuels and solid biomass materials. Results of these studies will be presented. (author)

  11. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.B.; Chahine, R.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for H 2 for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H 2 as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H 2 production on a massive scale. Increased production of H 2 by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas) which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H 2 from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermo-catalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H 2 , circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H 2 production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H 2 production systems with H 2 purification and storage technologies. These issues are being addressed by H2CAN, a recently launched NSERC funded national strategic network in hydrogen production, purification, storage, infrastructure and safety. (author)

  12. Energy management strategy based on short-term generation scheduling for a renewable microgrid using a hydrogen storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau, Giorgio; Cocco, Daniele; Petrollese, Mario; Knudsen Kær, Søren; Milan, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management strategy for hybrid stand-alone power plant with hydrogen storage. • Optimal scheduling of storage devices to minimize the utilization costs. • A scenario tree method is used to manage uncertainties of weather and load forecasts. • A reduction of operational costs and energy losses is achieved. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel energy management strategy (EMS) to control an isolated microgrid powered by a photovoltaic array and a wind turbine and equipped with two different energy storage systems: electric batteries and a hydrogen production and storage system. In particular, an optimal scheduling of storage devices is carried out to maximize the benefits of available renewable resources by operating the photovoltaic systems and the wind turbine at their maximum power points and by minimizing the overall utilization costs. Unlike conventional EMS based on the state-of-charge (SOC) of batteries, the proposed EMS takes into account the uncertainty due to the intermittent nature of renewable resources and electricity demand. In particular, the uncertainties are evaluated with a stochastic approach through the construction of different scenarios with corresponding probabilities. The EMS is defined by minimizing the utilization costs of the energy storage equipment. The weather conditions recorded in four different weeks between April and December are used as case studies to test the proposed EMS and the results obtained are compared with a conventional EMS based on the state-of-charge of batteries. The results show a reduction of utilization costs of about 15% in comparison to conventional SOC-based EMS and an increase of the average energy storage efficiency

  13. Definition, analysis and experimental investigation of operation modes in hydrogen-renewable-based power plants incorporating hybrid energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, L.; Pino, F.J.; Guerra, J.; Rosa, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A conceptual analysis of operation modes in energy storage plants is presented. • Key Performance Indicators to select operation modes are provided. • The approach has been applied to a laboratory hybrid power plant. • The methodology provides guidance for the operation of hybrid power plants. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with Operating Modes in hybrid renewable energy-based power plants with hydrogen as the intermediate energy storage medium. Six operation modes are defined according to plant topology and the possibility of operating electrolyzer and fuel cell at steady-power or partial load. A methodology for the evaluation of plant performance is presented throughout this paper. The approach includes a set of simulations over a fully validated model, which are run in order to compare the proposed operation modes in various weather conditions. Conclusions are drawn from the simulation stage using a set of Key Performance Indicators defined in this paper. This analysis yields the conclusion that certain modes are more appropriate from technical and practical standpoints when they are implemented in a real plant. From the results of the simulation assessment, selected operating modes are applied to an experimental hydrogen-based pilot plant to illustrate and validate the performance of the proposed operation modes. Experimental results confirmed the simulation study, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode in terms of performance and equipment durability.

  14. Hydrogen energy from renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To asses the economic viability of an integrated energy production system, a multi-stage cash flow analysis framework is utilized. This framework relies on standard cash flow models using an electronic spreadsheet program (Lotus 1-2-3) as the modeling environment. The purpose of the program is to evaluate the life-cycle economics of the various component technologies using common assumptions about the economic and financial environment in which these would operate. A schematic diagram of the multi-stage model is shown in the entire integrated production system. The details of the financial model are explained below. In its most complex form, the integrated system consists of three production stages. The first is the production of electricity. At this first stage, the model can and does accommodate any type of production technology, e.g., wind energy conversion systems, solar thermal devices, and geothermal electricity. The second stage of the model is the production of hydrogen using a specific assumed production methodology. In this case, it is a high-temperature electrolysis facility using production and economic characteristics data provided by the Florida Solar Energy Center. The third stage of the model represents the production of methanol assuming a biomass gasifier technology with operating and economic characteristics data based on studied by Fluor and Southern California Edison. At each stage of the model, there are three components: a data input portion that is used to define the techno-economic characteristics of the technology; the cash flow analysis based on financial assumptions; and an output summary section that reports the economic characteristics of the technology

  15. Renewable solar hydrogen production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a tremendous opportunity to generate large quantities of hydrogen from low grade and economical sources of methane including landfill gas, biogas, flare gas, and coal bed methane. The environmental benefits of generating hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and air contaminant reductions. Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation (SHEC LABS) recently constructed and demonstrated a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) hydrogen generation system that is powered primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors in Tempe, Arizona. The system comprises a solar mirror array, a temperature controlling shutter system, and two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert methane, carbon dioxide, and water into hydrogen. This process has shown that solar hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional hydrogen production. The presentation will provide the following: An overview of the results of the testing conducted in Tempe, Arizona; A look at the design and installation of the scaled-up technology site at a landfill site in Canada; An examination of the economic and environmental benefits of renewable hydrogen production using solar energy

  16. A renewable energy and hydrogen scenario for northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2008-01-01

    renewable energy supply system is demonstrated with the use of the seasonal reservoir-based hydrocomponents in the northern parts of the region. The outcome of the competition between biofuels and hydrogen in the transportation sector is dependent on the development of viable fuel cells and on efficient......A scenario based entirely on renewable energy with possible use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is constructed for a group of North European countries. Temporal simulation of the demand-supply matching is carried out for various system configurations. The role of hydrogen technologies for energy...... of energy trade between the countries, due to the different endowments of different countries with particular renewable energy sources, and to the particular benefit that intermittent energy sources, such as wind and solar, can derive from exchange of power. The establishment of a smoothly functioning...

  17. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  18. Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System (IRHUS) business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This business plan is for a proposed legal entity named IRHUS, Inc. which is to be formed as a subsidiary of Energy Partners, L.C. (EP) of West Palm Beach, Florida. EP is a research and development company specializing in hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and systems. A fuel cell is an engine with no moving parts that takes in hydrogen and produces electricity. The purpose of IRHUS, Inc. is to develop and manufacture a self-sufficient energy system based on the fuel cell and other new technology that produces hydrogen and electricity. The product is called the Integrated renewable Hydrogen utility System (IRHUS). IRHUS, Inc. plans to start limited production of the IRHUS in 2002. The IRHUS is a unique product with an innovative concept in that it provides continuous electrical power in places with no electrical infrastructure, i.e., in remote and island locations. The IRHUS is a zero emissions, self-sufficient, hydrogen fuel generation system that produces electricity on a continuous basis by combining any renewable power source with hydrogen technology. Current plans are to produce a 10 kilowatt IRHUS MP (medium power). Future plans are to design and manufacture IRHUS models to provide power for a variety of power ranges for identified attractive market segments. The technological components of the IRHUS include an electrolyzer, hydrogen and oxygen storage subsystems, fuel cell system, and power control system. The IRHUS product is to be integrated with a variety of renewable energy technologies. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  20. Overview of U.S. programs for hydrogen from renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses US program for hydrogen from renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources include biomass, wind, solar, hydropower, geothermal and ocean waves. Although nuclear power is not considered renewable, a case can be made that it is, but requires recycling of spent fuel. The paper also discusses hydrogen production, storage and delivery. It discusses fuel cells, safety codes and standards and system analysis

  1. Energy, exergy and sustainability analyses of hybrid renewable energy based hydrogen and electricity production and storage systems: Modeling and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hepbasli, Arif

    2013-01-01

    In this study, hybrid renewable energy based hydrogen and electricity production and storage systems are conceptually modeled and analyzed in detail through energy, exergy and sustainability approaches. Several subsystems, namely hybrid geothermal energy-wind turbine-solar photovoltaic (PV) panel, inverter, electrolyzer, hydrogen storage system, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), battery and loading system are considered. Also, a case study, based on hybrid wind–solar renewable energy system, is conducted and its results are presented. In addition, the dead state temperatures are considered as 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C, while the environment temperature is 30 °C. The maximum efficiencies of the wind turbine, solar PV panel, electrolyzer, PEMFC are calculated as 26.15%, 9.06%, 53.55%, and 33.06% through energy analysis, and 71.70%, 9.74%, 53.60%, and 33.02% through exergy analysis, respectively. Also, the overall exergy efficiency, ranging from 5.838% to 5.865%, is directly proportional to the dead state temperature and becomes higher than the corresponding energy efficiency of 3.44% for the entire system. -- Highlights: ► Developing a three-hybrid renewable energy (geothermal–wind–solar)-based system. ► Undertaking a parametric study at various dead state temperatures. ► Investigating the effect of dead state temperatures on exergy efficiency

  2. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  3. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  4. Renewable hydrogen utilisation for the production of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Cifre, P.; Badr, O.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen production is an efficient way of storing renewable energy generated electricity and securing the contribution of renewables in the future electricity supply. The use of this hydrogen for the production of methanol results in a liquid fuel that can be utilised directly with minor changes in the existing infrastructure. To utilise the renewable generated hydrogen for production of renewable methanol, a sustainable carbon source is needed. This carbon can be provided by biomass or CO 2 in the flue gases of fossil fuel-fired power stations, cement factories, fermentation processes and water purification plants. Methanol production pathways via biomass gasification and CO 2 recovery from the flue gasses of a fossil fuel-fired power station have been reviewed in this study. The cost of methanol production from biomass was found to lie in the range of 300-400 EUR/tonne of methanol, and the production cost of CO 2 based methanol was between 500 and 600 EUR/tonne. Despite the higher production costs compared with methanol produced by conventional natural gas reforming (i.e. 100-200 EUR/tonne, aided by the low current price of natural gas), these new processes incorporate environmentally beneficial aspects that have to be taken into account. (author)

  5. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannucci, J.J.; Horgan, S.A.; Eyer, J.M. [Distributed Utility Associates, San Ramon, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This analysis will provide estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies, wind, photovoltaics and solar thermal, are matched to their most viable regional resources. The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which will be instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity will be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for later use. Results are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 10% of electric load). For each renewable technology national and regional totals will be developed for maximum hydrogen production per year and ranges of hydrogen storage capacity needed in each year (hydroelectric case excluded). The sensitivity of the answers to the fraction of peak load to be served and the land area dedicated for renewable resources are investigated. These analyses can serve as a starting point for projecting the market opportunity for hydrogen storage and distribution technologies. Sensitivities will be performed for hydrogen production, conversion. and storage efficiencies representing current and near-term hydrogen technologies.

  6. Improving long-term operation of power sources in off-grid hybrid systems based on renewable energy, hydrogen and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two novel hourly energy supervisory controls (ESC) for improving long-term operation of off-grid hybrid systems (HS) integrating renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels), hydrogen system (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer) and battery. The first ESC tries to improve the power supplied by the HS and the power stored in the battery and/or in the hydrogen tank, whereas the second one tries to minimize the number of needed elements (batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers) throughout the expected life of the HS (25 years). Moreover, in both ESC, the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and the hydrogen tank level are controlled and maintained between optimum operating margins. Finally, a comparative study between the controls is carried out by models of the commercially available components used in the HS under study in this work. These ESC are also compared with a third ESC, already published by the authors, and based on reducing the utilization costs of the energy storage devices. The comparative study proves the right performance of the ESC and their differences.

  7. Renewable energy for hydrogen production and sustainable urban mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briguglio, N.; Andaloro, L.; Ferraro, M.; Di Blasi, A.; Dispenza, G.; Antonucci, V.; Matteucci, F.; Breedveld, L.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the number of power plants based on renewable energy (RWE) has been increasing and hydrogen as an energy carrier has become a suitable medium-to-long term storage solution as well as a ''fuel'' for FCEV's because of its CO 2 -free potential. In this context, the aim of the present study is to carry out both an economic and environmental analysis of a start-up RWE plant using a simulation code developed in previous work and a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The plant will be located in the South of Italy (Puglia) and will consist of different RWE sources (Wind Power, Photovoltaic, Biomass). RWE will be used to produce hydrogen from an electrolyzer, which will feed a fleet of buses using different fuels (methane, hydrogen, or a mixture of these). In particular, a wind turbine of 850 kW will feed a hydrogen production plant and a biomass plant will produce methane. Preliminary studies have shown that it is possible to obtain hydrogen at a competitive cost (DOE target) and that components (wind turbine, electrolyzer, vessel, etc.) influence the final price. In addition, LCA results have permitted a comparison of different minibuses using either fossil fuels or renewable energy sources. (author)

  8. Renewable energy for hydrogen production and sustainable urban mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briguglio, N.; Andaloro, L.; Ferraro, M.; Di Blasi, A.; Dispenza, G.; Antonucci, V. [Istituto di Tecnologie avanzate per l' Energia ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' Salita S, Lucia sopra Contesse, 5, 98126 Messina (Italy); Matteucci, F. [TRE SpA Tozzi Renewable Energy, Via Zuccherificio, 10, 48100 Mezzano (RA) (Italy); Breedveld, L. [2B Via della Chiesa Campocroce, 4, 31021 Mogliano Veneto (TV) (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    In recent years, the number of power plants based on renewable energy (RWE) has been increasing and hydrogen as an energy carrier has become a suitable medium-to-long term storage solution as well as a ''fuel'' for FCEV's because of its CO{sub 2}-free potential. In this context, the aim of the present study is to carry out both an economic and environmental analysis of a start-up RWE plant using a simulation code developed in previous work and a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The plant will be located in the South of Italy (Puglia) and will consist of different RWE sources (Wind Power, Photovoltaic, Biomass). RWE will be used to produce hydrogen from an electrolyzer, which will feed a fleet of buses using different fuels (methane, hydrogen, or a mixture of these). In particular, a wind turbine of 850 kW will feed a hydrogen production plant and a biomass plant will produce methane. Preliminary studies have shown that it is possible to obtain hydrogen at a competitive cost (DOE target) and that components (wind turbine, electrolyzer, vessel, etc.) influence the final price. In addition, LCA results have permitted a comparison of different minibuses using either fossil fuels or renewable energy sources. (author)

  9. Hydrogen from renewable resources - the hundred year commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade interest in a potential 'Hydrogen Economy' has increased and is now discussed in main stream literature and political debates. This is largely due to the promise that fuel cell technology, which uses a hydrogen-rich gas, has shown. Though hydrogen can be produced from a number of sources, it is steam reforming of natural gas that has gained a substantial support base, and is seen as an important bridge to a sustainable hydrogen production from renewable energy. What this paper examines is the synergy that exists now between hydrogen from renewable resources and the inception of the fuel cell market. It argues that although the natural gas pathway will be necessary for the short to medium term, there should not be a complete dominance of the production route. The paper also brings together a number of policy documents from the EU and argues that what is needed from the level of the EU is a long term, binding commitment to ensure that the natural gas pathway does not become locked in. (author)

  10. Renewable carbohydrates are a potential high-density hydrogen carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Biological Systems Engineering Department, 210-A Seitz Hall, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The possibility of using renewable biomass carbohydrates as a potential high-density hydrogen carrier is discussed here. Gravimetric density of polysaccharides is 14.8 H{sub 2} mass% where water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H{sub 2} mass% without water recycling; volumetric densities of polysaccharides are >100 kg of H{sup 2}/m{sup 3}. Renewable carbohydrates (e.g., cellulosic materials and starch) are less expensive based on GJ than are other hydrogen carriers, such as hydrocarbons, biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, and ammonia. Biotransformation of carbohydrates to hydrogen by cell-free synthetic (enzymatic) pathway biotransformation (SyPaB) has numerous advantages, such as high product yield (12 H{sub 2}/glucose unit), 100% selectivity, high energy conversion efficiency (122%, based on combustion energy), high-purity hydrogen generated, mild reaction conditions, low-cost of bioreactor, few safety concerns, and nearly no toxicity hazards. Although SyPaB may suffer from current low reaction rates, numerous approaches for accelerating hydrogen production rates are proposed and discussed. Potential applications of carbohydrate-based hydrogen/electricity generation would include hydrogen bioreactors, home-size electricity generators, sugar batteries for portable electronics, sugar-powered passenger vehicles, and so on. Developments in thermostable enzymes as standardized building blocks for cell-free SyPaB projects, use of stable and low-cost biomimetic NAD cofactors, and accelerating reaction rates are among the top research and development priorities. International collaborations are urgently needed to solve the above obstacles within a short time. (author)

  11. Hydrogen, fuel cells and renewable energy integration in islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D.; Foradini, F.; Hart, D.

    2002-01-01

    Remote areas such as islands rely on costly and highly polluting diesel and heavy fuel oil for their electricity supply. This paper explored the opportunities for exploiting economically and environmentally viable renewable energy sources, in particular hydrogen storage, on such islands. In particular, this study focused on addressing the challenge of matching energy supply with demand and with technical issues regarding weak grids that are hindered with high steady state voltage levels and voltage fluctuations. The main technical characteristics of integrated renewable energy and hydrogen systems were determined by modelling a case study for the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The paper referred to the challenges regarding the technical and economic viability of such systems and their contribution to the economic development of remote communities. It was noted that energy storage plays an important role in addressing supply and demand issues by offering a way to control voltage and using surplus electricity at times of low load. Electrical energy can be stored in the form of potential or chemical energy. New decentralized generation technologies have also played a role in improving the energy efficiency of renewable energy sources. The feasibility of using hydrogen for energy storage was examined with particular reference to fuel-cell based energy supply in isolated island communities. 4 refs., 5 figs

  12. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  13. Real-time integration of optimal generation scheduling with MPC for the energy management of a renewable hydrogen-based microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrollese, Mario; Valverde, Luis; Cocco, Daniele; Cau, Giorgio; Guerra, José

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management strategy for a renewable hydrogen-based microgrid. • Integration of optimal generation scheduling with a model predictive control. • Experimental tests are carried out simulating typical summer and winter days. • Effective improvement in performance and reduction in microgrid operating cost are achieved. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel control strategy for the optimal management of microgrids with high penetration of renewable energy sources and different energy storage systems. The control strategy is based on the integration of optimal generation scheduling with a model predictive control in order to achieve both long and short-term optimal planning. In particular, long-term optimization of the various microgrid components is obtained by the adoption of an optimal generation scheduling, in which a statistical approach is used to take into account weather and load forecasting uncertainties. The real-time management of the microgrid is instead entrusted to a model predictive controller, which has the important feature of using the results obtained by the optimal generation scheduling. The proposed control strategy was tested in a laboratory-scale microgrid present at the University of Seville, which is composed of an electronic power source that emulates a photovoltaic system, a battery bank and a hydrogen production and storage system. Two different experimental tests that simulate a summer and a winter day were carried out over a 24-h period to verify the reliability and performance enhancement of the control system. Results show an effective improvement in performance in terms of reduction of the microgrid operating cost and greater involvement of the hydrogen storage system for the maintenance of a spinning reserve in batteries.

  14. Hydro Solar 21- A building energetic demand providing system based on renewable energies and hydrogen; Hydro Solar 21- Energias renovables e hidrogeno para el abastecimiento energetico de un edificio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renilla Collado, R.; Ortega Izquierdo, M.

    2008-07-01

    Hydro Solar 21 is an energy innovation Project carried out in Burgos City to develop an energy production system based on renewable energies to satisfy light and air condition requirements of a restored building. Nocturnal light demand is satisfied with hydrogen consumption in fuel cells. This hydrogen is produced with an energy renewable system made up of two wind turbine generators and a photovoltaic system. The air conditioning demand is satisfied with an adsorption solar system which produces cold water using thermal solar energy. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Hydrogen research and development in Hawaii: Hawaii natural energy institute's hydrogen from renewable resources research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.R.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Takahashi, P.K.; Jensen, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Hawaii, an energy-vulnerable state, has launched a Renewable Resources Research Program, focusing on hydrogen production and storage; the main tasks of this effort are: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen through the use of coated silicon electrodes; solar conversion and the production of hydrogen with cyanobacteria; improved hydrogen storage through the use of nonclassical poly-hydride metal complexes. 10 refs

  16. The Design of a Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure for London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parissis, O.; Bauen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a least cost hydrogen infrastructure is key to the introduction of hydrogen fuel in road transport. This paper presents a generic framework for modelling the development of a renewable hydrogen infrastructure that can be applied to different cases and geographical regions. The model was designed by means of mixed integer linear programming and developed in MATLAB. It was applied to the case of London aiming to examine the possibilities of developing a renewable hydrogen infrastructure within a 50 years time horizon. The results presented here are preliminary results from a study looking at the least cost solutions to supplying hydrogen produced exclusively from renewable energy resources to large urban centres. (authors)

  17. Hydrogen from renewable sources. Current and future constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falchetta, M.; Galli, S.

    2001-01-01

    Using renewable energy sources to produce hydrogen as an energy vector could assure a fully sustainable renewable energy system with zero emissions. Many conversion technologies (in particular water electrolysis) are already available and proven, but are still far from being economically competitive [it

  18. Comparison of the renewable transportation fuels, liquid hydrogen and methanol, with gasoline - energetic and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, M.; Staiss, F.; Bandi, A.; Weimer, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the renewable energy vectors liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) and methanol generated from atmospheric CO 2 are compared with the conventional crude oil-gasoline system. Both renewable concepts, liquid hydrogen and methanol, lead to a drastic CO 2 reduction compared to the fossil-based system. The comparison between the LH 2 and methanol vector for the transport sector shows nearly the same fuel cost and energy efficiency but strong infrastructure advantages for methanol. (author)

  19. Energy management strategy based on short-term generation scheduling for a renewable microgrid using a hydrogen storage system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cau, Giorgo; Cocco, Daniele; Petrollese, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel energy management strategy (EMS) to control an isolated microgrid powered by a photovoltaic array and a wind turbine and equipped with two different energy storage systems: electric batteries and a hydrogen production and storage system. In particular, an optimal...

  20. Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Węcel, Daniel; Dubiel, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined. - Highlights: • The efficiency characteristics of PEM electrolyzer are determined. • Generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency are proposed. • Method of choice of electrolyser nominal power for Power-to-Gas system was proposed. • Development of Power-to-Gas systems requires implementation of support mechanisms.

  1. Study the feasibility of hydrogen assisted renewable power for off-grid communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.H.; Fleetwood, M.; Roberston, R.; Nielsen, N.

    2004-01-01

    Most Renewable energy sources lack the controllability and availability of conventional fossil fuel-based energy sources and therefore cannot meet load requirements of a community without a backup or storage system. The advances of hydrogen technologies enable these renewable energy options to supply power to remote communities relying on independent sources of electrical and other energy. The hydrogen assisted renewable power (HARP) concept promises to make renewable energy more practical and mainstream through the use of hydrogen based electrical generation systems. The study herein is the first of a multiphase project to investigate the benefits of HARP as an environmentally friendly replacement for diesel in the supply of electricity to off-grid communities and analyse its feasibility and suitability as a back-up power supply. A small-scale pilot project was selected and this study assesses the major elements of a plant required to integrate electrical generation system, hydrogen storage and hydrogen generation into a renewable energy generation system. Based on the available renewable energy profiles, a simulation model was developed to assist in selecting, integrating, and evaluating various configurations and operational scenarios. This paper describes the components of the proposed HARP system as well as its cost, benefits and opportunities for other applications. (author)

  2. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO{sub 2}-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market

  3. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO 2 -emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market. The

  4. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  5. Autonomous hydrogen power plants with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.; Izosimov, D.B.; Tumanov, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    One studies the principles to design independent hydrogen power plants (IHPP) operating on renewable energy sources and the approaches to design a pilot IHP plant. One worded tasks of mathematical simulation and of calculations to substantiate the optimal configuration of the mentioned plants depending on the ambient conditions of operation and on peculiar features of a consumer [ru

  6. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +∞) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases

  7. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, David B.; Chahine, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for H 2 for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H 2 as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H 2 production on a massive scale. Increased production of H 2 by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas), which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H 2 from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermocatalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H 2 , circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H 2 production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H 2 production systems with H 2 purification and storage technologies. (author)

  8. Feasibility of hydrogen from renewable energy in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, B.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' There is an abundance of renewable resources in the Canadian Arctic. Despite that diesel is still the conventional source used by homes and businesses for their electrical and space heating needs. Electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen using renewable resources is under investigation. A techno-economic feasibility has been conducted for hybrid systems including wind turbine, photovoltaic system, electrolyser and fuel cells. Different scenarios have been considered for meeting the needs of a small, remote community in the Arctic. Results will be presented indicating the most cost-effective Wind-PV-Electrolyser-Fuel Cell system for combined heat and power. (author)

  9. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, G.; Milbrandt, A.

    2014-07-01

    This analysis updates and expands upon previous biogas studies to include total potential and net availability of methane in raw biogas with respect to competing demands and includes a resource assessment of four sources of biogas: (1) wastewater treatment plants, including domestic and a new assessment of industrial sources; (2) landfills; (3) animal manure; and (4) a new assessment of industrial, institutional, and commercial sources. The results of the biogas resource assessment are used to estimate the potential production of renewable hydrogen from biogas as well as the fuel cell electric vehicles that the produced hydrogen might support.

  10. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  11. New Horizons for Hydrogen: Producing Hydrogen from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    Recent events have reminded us of the critical need to transition from crude oil, coal, and natural gas toward sustainable and domestic sources of energy. One reason is we need to strengthen our economy. In 2008 we saw the price of oil reach a record $93 per barrel. With higher oil prices, growing demand for gasoline, and increasing oil imports, an average of $235 billion per year, has left the United States economy to pay for foreign oil since 2005, or $1.2 trillion between 2005 and 2009. From a consumer perspective, this trend is seen with an average gasoline price of $2.50 per gallon since 2005, compared to an average of $1.60 between 1990 and 2004 (after adjusting for inflation). In addition to economic impacts, continued reliance on fossil fuels increases greenhouse gas emissions that may cause climate change, health impacts from air pollution, and the risk of disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Energy efficiency in the form of more efficient vehicles and buildings can help to reduce some of these impacts. However, over the long term we must shift from fossil resources to sustainable and renewable energy sources.

  12. Hydrogen production via catalytic processing of renewable feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Ali T-Raissi

    2006-01-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) and biogas can potentially become important feedstocks for renewable hydrogen production. The objectives of this work were: (1) to develop a catalytic process for direct reforming of CH 4 -CO 2 gaseous mixture mimicking LFG, (2) perform thermodynamic analysis of the reforming process using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (3) determine operational conditions for auto-thermal (or thermo-neutral) reforming of a model CH 4 -CO 2 feedstock, and (4) fabricate and test a bench-scale hydrogen production unit. Experimental data obtained from catalytic reformation of the CH 4 -CO 2 and CH 4 -CO 2 -O 2 gaseous mixtures using Ni-catalyst were in a good agreement with the simulation results. It was demonstrated that catalytic reforming of LFG-mimicking gas produced hydrogen with the purity of 99.9 vol.%. (authors)

  13. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  14. Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Astiaso Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical, hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by means of the electrolysis of water which does not produce any toxic or climate-relevant emission. This paper aims to pinpoint the potential uses of renewable hydrogen storage systems in Europe, analysing current and potential locations, regulatory framework, governments’ outlooks, economic issues, and available renewable energy amounts. The expert opinion survey, already used in many research articles on different topics including energy, has been selected as an effective method to produce realistic results. The obtained results highlight strategies and actions to optimize the storage of hydrogen produced by renewables to face varying electricity demand and generation-driven fluctuations reducing the negative effects of the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix of European Countries.

  15. Renewable hydrogen production via thermochemical/electrochemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Andrea [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babiniec, Sean Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    A coupled electrochemical/thermochemical cycle was investigated to produce hydrogen from renewable resources. Like a conventional thermochemical cycle, this cycle leverages chemical energy stored in a thermochemical working material that is reduced thermally by solar energy. However, in this concept, the stored chemical energy only needs to be partially, but not fully, capable of splitting steam to produce hydrogen. To complete the process, a proton-conducting membrane is driven to separate hydrogen as it is produced, thus shifting the thermodynamics toward further hydrogen production. This novel coupled-cycle concept provides several benefits. First, the required oxidation enthalpy of the reversible thermochemical material is reduced, enabling the process to occur at lower temperatures. Second, removing the requirement for spontaneous steam-splitting widens the scope of materials compositions, allowing for less expensive/more abundant elements to be used. Lastly, thermodynamics calculations suggest that this concept can potentially reach higher efficiencies than photovoltaic-to-electrolysis hydrogen production methods. This Exploratory Express LDRD involved assessing the practical feasibility of the proposed coupled cycle. A test stand was designed and constructed and proton-conducting membranes were synthesized. While the full proof of concept was not achieved, the individual components of the experiment were validated and new capabilities that can be leveraged by a variety of programs were developed.

  16. Renewable energy carriers: Hydrogen or liquid air/nitrogen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Chen Haisheng; Zhang Xinjing; Tan Chunqing; Ding Yulong

    2010-01-01

    The world's energy demand is met mainly by the fossil fuels today. The use of such fuels, however, causes serious environmental issues, including global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. A sustainable solution to the issues is to replace the fossil fuels with renewable ones. Implementing such a solution, however, requires overcoming a number of technological barriers including low energy density, intermittent supply and mobility of the renewable energy sources. A potential approach to overcoming these barriers is to use an appropriate energy carrier, which can store, transport and distribute energy. The work to be reported in this paper aims to assess and compare a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen, with a physical energy carrier, liquid air/nitrogen, and discuss potential applications of the physical carrier. The ocean energy is used as an example of the renewable energy sources in the work. The assessment and comparison are carried out in terms of the overall efficiency, including production, storage/transportation and energy extraction. The environmental impact, waste heat recovery and safety issues are also considered. It is found that the physical energy carrier may be a better alternative to the chemical energy carrier under some circumstances, particularly when there are waste heat sources.

  17. Evaluation tool for selection and optimisation of hydrogen demonstration projects. Application to a decentralized renewable hydrogen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracht, M.; De Groot, A.; Gregoire Padro, C.E.; Schucan, T.H.; Skolnik, E.

    1998-06-01

    As part of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, an evaluation tool to assist in the design, operation and optimisation of hydrogen demonstration facilities is under development. Using commercially available flowsheet simulation software (ASPEN- Plus) as the integrating platform, this tool is designed to provide system developers with a comprehensive data base or library of component models and an integrating platform through which these models may be linked. By combining several energy system components a conceptual design of a integrated hydrogen energy system can be made. As a part of the tool and connected to the library are design guidelines which can help finding the optimal configuration in the design process. The component categories considered include: production, storage, transport, distribution and end use. Many component models have already been included in the initial test platform. The use of the tool will be illustrated by presenting the results of a specific sample system that has been designed and assessed with use of the tool. The system considered is a decentralized renewable hydrogen system in which the hydrogen is produced by biomass gasification or pyrolysis, the produced hydrogen is transported through a pipeline or with a tank truck. The storage options that are considered are liquid hydrogen and compressed gas. The hydrogen is dispensed through a refueling station. Several options for integration are conceivable; i.e. storage of the hydrogen can take place centrally or district heat of a gasification unit can be used to generate electricity for liquefaction, etc. With use of the tool several configurations with different components and various integration options have been examined. Both the results of the modeling effort and an assessment of the evaluation tool will be presented. 5 refs

  18. Wave power integration with a renewable hydrogen energy system. Paper no. IGEC-1-085

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Germain, L.; Wild, P.; Rowe, A.

    2005-01-01

    In British Columbia, approximately 90% of the electricity generated comes from hydroelectric facilities while another abundant and renewable resource, ocean wave energy, is not being utilized at all. Technologies exist that can capture and convert wave energy but there are few studies examining systemic integration of wave energy devices. This work examines the potential to use wave energy as an input into a hydrogen-based renewable energy system. A model of an oscillating water column (OWC) was developed as a module within TRNSYS where it can be coupled to other existing hydrogen-specific components such as an electrolyser, storage device, and fuel cell. The OWC model accounts for device geometry, dynamics, and generator efficiency. For this particular study, wave profiles generated from hourly average data for a location on the west coast of Vancouver Island are used as a resource input. An analysis of the potential to utilise wave energy is carried out with an emphasis on overall system efficiency and resulting device scaling. The results of the integration of wave energy with other renewable energy inputs into a hydrogen-based system are used to make recommendations regarding technical feasibility of wave power projects on Vancouver Island. (author)

  19. Storage of Renewable Energy by Reduction of CO2 with Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Mauron, Philippe; Kato, Shunsuke; Callini, Elsa; Holzer, Marco; Huang, Jianmei

    2015-01-01

    The main difference between the past energy economy during the industrialization period which was mainly based on mining of fossil fuels, e.g. coal, oil and methane and the future energy economy based on renewable energy is the requirement for storage of the energy fluxes. Renewable energy, except biomass, appears in time- and location-dependent energy fluxes as heat or electricity upon conversion. Storage and transport of energy requires a high energy density and has to be realized in a closed materials cycle. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines, is a closed cycle. However, the hydrogen density in a storage system is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which limits the energy density to about half of the energy density in fossil fuels. Introducing CO(2) into the cycle and storing hydrogen by the reduction of CO(2) to hydrocarbons allows renewable energy to be converted into synthetic fuels with the same energy density as fossil fuels. The resulting cycle is a closed cycle (CO(2) neutral) if CO(2) is extracted from the atmosphere. Today's technology allows CO(2) to be reduced either by the Sabatier reaction to methane, by the reversed water gas shift reaction to CO and further reduction of CO by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to hydrocarbons or over methanol to gasoline. The overall process can only be realized on a very large scale, because the large number of by-products of FTS requires the use of a refinery. Therefore, a well-controlled reaction to a specific product is required for the efficient conversion of renewable energy (electricity) into an easy to store liquid hydrocarbon (fuel). In order to realize a closed hydrocarbon cycle the two major challenges are to extract CO(2) from the atmosphere close to the thermodynamic limit and to reduce CO(2) with hydrogen in a controlled reaction to a specific hydrocarbon. Nanomaterials with

  20. The environmental aspect of using renewables for hydrogen production compared to a fossil based system : A specific case study for a remote application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, P.; Padro, C.G.; Glockner, R.; Ulleberg, O.

    2002-01-01

    Under the umbrella of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement Annex 13 : Design and optimization of Integrated Systems, a number of studies are currently being conducted, touching on modeling, economics, and environmental consequences of hydrogen fuels. The use of hydrogen as a fuel in buses on a remote island of the coast of Norway is the topic of one such study, which represents a joint effort between the United States and Norway. The study involved the examination of two comparative systems, namely (1) hydrogen via wind/electrolysis and (2) hydrogen produced from steam methane reforming (SMR). The two systems were described and a comparative analysis performed of the life cycle assessments results, such as resource requirement, air emissions, fossil energy consumption and others. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Multiscale Mathematics for Biomass Conversion to Renewable Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plechac, Petr [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Vlachos, Dionisios [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Katsoulakis, Markos [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    2013-09-05

    The overall objective of this project is to develop multiscale models for understanding and eventually designing complex processes for renewables. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first attempt at modeling complex reacting systems, whose performance relies on underlying multiscale mathematics. Our specific application lies at the heart of biofuels initiatives of DOE and entails modeling of catalytic systems, to enable economic, environmentally benign, and efficient conversion of biomass into either hydrogen or valuable chemicals. Specific goals include: (i) Development of rigorous spatio-temporal coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) mathematics and simulation for microscopic processes encountered in biomass transformation. (ii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links stochastic simulation to a deterministic partial differential equation (PDE) model for an entire reactor. (iii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links KMC simulation with quantum density functional theory (DFT) calculations. (iv) Development of parallelization of models of (i)-(iii) to take advantage of Petaflop computing and enable real world applications of complex, multiscale models. In this NCE period, we continued addressing these objectives and completed the proposed work. Main initiatives, key results, and activities are outlined.

  2. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  3. Hydrogen and renewable energy sources integrated system for greenhouse heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.

  4. Hydrogen production by catalytic processing of renewable methane-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Biomass-derived methane-rich gases such as landfill gas (LFG), biogas and digester gas are promising renewable resources for near-future production of hydrogen. The technical and economical feasibility of hydrogen production via catalytic reforming of LFG and other methane-rich gases is evaluated in this paper. The thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and experimental measurements of reformation of methane-rich CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures over Ni-based catalyst were conducted. The problems associated with the catalyst deactivation due to carbon lay down and effects of steam and oxygen on the process sustainability were explored. Two technological approaches distinguished by the mode of heat input to the endothermic process (i.e., external vs autothermal) were modeled using AspenPlus trademark chemical process simulator and validated experimentally. A 5 kW{sub th} pilot unit for hydrogen production from LFG-mimicking CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixture was fabricated and operated. A preliminary techno-economic assessment indicates that the liquid hydrogen production costs are in the range of 3.00-7.00 per kilogram depending upon the plant capacity, the process heat input option and whether or not carbon sequestration is included in the process. (author)

  5. An examination of isolated, stationary, hydrogen power systems supplied by renewables: component and system issues and criteria necessary for successful worldwide deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G. D. [Energy and Environmental Engineering Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The premise of this paper is that remote, stationary power systems, based on indigenous renewable energy sources, are an ideal market entry opportunity for hydrogen, but that the deployment of isolated power systems relying on hydrogen as the energy storage medium requires complex and comprehensive planning and design considerations to provide for successful market entry strategies and appropriate systems engineering. Accordingly, this paper sets out to discuss the criteria and the framework necessary to determine how to successfully deploy any specific system or to plan a global marketing strategy. Details of the indigenous intermittent energy sources (wind turbines, solar photovoltaic, micro-hydroelectric, etc), primary power-to-hydrogen conversion systems, hydrogen storage methods, and hydrogen-to-electricity conversion systems (hydrogen-internal combustion engine generator set, hydrogen fuel cells) are described, along with the criteria for technically and commercially successful deployment of any renewable utility power system that employs energy storage.2 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Analysis of an Improved Solar-Powered Hydrogen Generation System for Sustained Renewable Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    hydrogen gas by electrolysis. In LT Aviles’ design , distilled water was collected from the ambient air using Peltier dehumidifiers, manufactured by...Figure 13 shows the shelfing along with the entire system. Figure 13. Reconfigured Hydrogen Production Facility Because the system was designed for...POWERED HYDROGEN GENERATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINED RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION by Sen Feng Yu December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson Co

  7. Energy–exergy and economic analyses of a hybrid solar–hydrogen renewable energy system in Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ender; Tari, Ilker

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Uninterrupted energy in an emergency blackout situation. • System modeling of a solar–hydrogen based hybrid renewable energy system. • A comprehensive thermodynamical analysis. • Levelized cost of electricity analysis for a project lifetime of 25 years. - Abstract: A hybrid (Solar–Hydrogen) stand-alone renewable energy system that consists of photovoltaic panels (PV), Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, PEM based electrolyzers and hydrogen storage is investigated by developing a complete model of the system using TRNSYS. The PV panels are mounted on a tiltable platform to improve the performance of the system by monthly adjustments of the tilt angle. The total area of the PV panels is 300 m 2 , the PEM fuel cell capacity is 5 kW, and the hydrogen storage is at 55 bars pressure and with 45 m 3 capacity. The main goal of this study is to verify that the system meets the electrical power demand of the emergency room without experiencing a shortage for a complete year in an emergency blackout situation. For this purpose, after modeling the system, energy and exergy analyses for the hydrogen cycle of the system for a complete year are performed, and the energy and exergy efficiencies are found as 4.06% and 4.25%, respectively. Furthermore, an economic analysis is performed for a project lifetime of 25 years based on Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCE), and the LCE is calculated as 0.626 $/kWh.

  8. Sizing Hydrogen Energy Storage in Consideration of Demand Response in Highly Renewable Generation Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From an environment perspective, the increased penetration of wind and solar generation in power systems is remarkable. However, as the intermittent renewable generation briskly grows, electrical grids are experiencing significant discrepancies between supply and demand as a result of limited system flexibility. This paper investigates the optimal sizing and control of the hydrogen energy storage system for increased utilization of renewable generation. Using a Finnish case study, a mathematical model is presented to investigate the optimal storage capacity in a renewable power system. In addition, the impact of demand response for domestic storage space heating in terms of the optimal sizing of energy storage is discussed. Finally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to observe the impact of a small share of controllable baseload production as well as the oversizing of renewable generation in terms of required hydrogen storage size.

  9. WEB-BASED DATABASE ON RENEWAL TECHNOLOGIES ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As U.S. utilities continue to shore up their aging infrastructure, renewal needs now represent over 43% of annual expenditures compared to new construction for drinking water distribution and wastewater collection systems (Underground Construction [UC], 2016). An increased understanding of renewal options will ultimately assist drinking water utilities in reducing water loss and help wastewater utilities to address infiltration and inflow issues in a cost-effective manner. It will also help to extend the service lives of both drinking water and wastewater mains. This research effort involved collecting case studies on the use of various trenchless pipeline renewal methods and providing the information in an online searchable database. The overall objective was to further support technology transfer and information sharing regarding emerging and innovative renewal technologies for water and wastewater mains. The result of this research is a Web-based, searchable database that utility personnel can use to obtain technology performance and cost data, as well as case study references. The renewal case studies include: technologies used; the conditions under which the technology was implemented; costs; lessons learned; and utility contact information. The online database also features a data mining tool for automated review of the technologies selected and cost data. Based on a review of the case study results and industry data, several findings are presented on tren

  10. Renewable Hydrogen for Carbon-Free Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hammond, Steven W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wipke, Keith B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cader, T. [Hewlett Packard Enterprise

    2017-11-28

    NREL, in collaboration with Hewlett Packard Enterprise, has developed a system model for simulating both grid-tied and island microgrid power for hydrogen production and data center operation (assumed at 50 MW, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week).

  11. Production of hydrogen from renewable resources and its effectiveness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 16 (2012), s. 11563-11578 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrogen production * biological processes * conventional methods Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.548, year: 2012

  12. Prospects for using multi-walled carbon nanotubes formed from renewable feedstock in hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanoactivation of amorphous carbon synthesized from renewable feedstock promotes formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and the best results were obtained using the feedstock of sphagnum moss. It is shown that the carbon nanotubes formed from different plant feedstock have a high sorption capacity with respect to hydrogen. (author)

  13. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  14. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  15. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  16. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  17. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  18. Hydrogen production by renewable energies. Final report of the integrated research program 4.1; Production d'hydrogene par des energies renouvelables. Rapport final du programme de recherche integree 4.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this PRI is to study and to develop methods of hydrogen production based on the renewable energies, without greenhouse gases emission in order to implement clean processes in the framework of a sustainable development. Two approaches are proposed. The first one uses microorganisms in condition of hydrogen production (micro-algae). The second one is based on the bio-mimetism approaches aiming to reproduce artificially the biological mechanisms of the photosynthesis leading to water decomposition. (A.L.B.)

  19. Polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, C.; Periaswami, G.; Mathews, C.K.; Shankar, P.

    1993-01-01

    A polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor has been developed for measuring hydrogen in argon. Polyvinyl alcohol-phosphoric acid serves as the solid electrolyte for proton conduction. The electrolyte is sandwiched between two palladium films. Short circuit current between the film at room temperature is measured and is found to be linearly dependant on hydrogen concentration in argon to which one side of the film is exposed. The other side is exposed to air. The response time of the sensor is found to be improved on application of a D.C. potential of 200 mV in series. The sensitivity of the sensor is in ppm range. This may be sufficient for monitoring cover gas hydrogen in FBTR. Work is underway to improve the long-term stability of the sensor. (author)

  20. Compressor-less Hydrogen Transmission Pipelines Deliver Large-scale Stranded Renewable Energy at Competitive Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W Leighty; J Holloway; R Merer; B Somerday; C San Marchi; G Keith; D White

    2006-01-01

    We assume a transmission-constrained world, where large new wind plants and other renewable energies must pay all transmission costs for delivering their energy to distant markets. We modeled a 1,000 MW (1 GW) (name plate) wind plant in the large wind resource of the North America Great Plains, delivering exclusively hydrogen fuel, via a new gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline, to an urban market at least 300 km distant. All renewable electric energy output would be converted, at the source, to hydrogen, via 100 bar output electrolyzers, directly feeding the GH2 transmission pipeline without costly compressor stations at inlet or at midline. The new GH2 pipeline is an alternative to new electric transmission lines. We investigate whether the pipeline would provide valuable energy storage. We present a simple model by which we estimate the cost of wind-source hydrogen fuel delivered to the distant city gate in year 2010, at GW scale. Ammonia, synthetic hydrocarbons, and other substances may also be attractive renewable-source energy carriers, storage media, and fuels; they are not considered in this paper. (authors)

  1. From water to water, hydrogen as a renewable energy vector for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The most important property of hydrogen is that it is the cleanest fuel. Its combustion produces only water and a small amount of NO x . No acid rain, no greenhouse effect, no ozone layer depletion, no particulates aerosols. It seems then ideally suited for the conversion to renewable energy. Hydrogen has now established it self as a clean choice for an environmentally compatible energy system. It can provide a sustainable future for building, industrial and transport sectors of human activities. On average, it has about 20-30% higher combustion efficiency than fossil fuels and can produce electricity directly in fuel cells. In combination with solar PV- and hydro-electrolysis, it is compatible with land area requirements on a worldwide basis. If fossil fuels combustion environmental damage is taken into account, the hydrogen energy system is already cost effective. The question is thus no longer , but, and soon, will hydrogen energy become a practical solution to sustainable energy development. (Author)

  2. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  3. Potential of producing renewable hydrogen from livestock animal waste. Paper no. IGEC-1-143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen economy and fuel cell technology have become increasingly recognized as means for maintaining a sustainable energy supply as well as a sustainable environment. Simultaneously, solutions are being sought to effectively manage the animal wastes from livestock farming of cattle, cow, hog, and poultry to ensure an environmentally sustainable method of food production. This discussion examines the potential of producing hydrogen from livestock waste on a scale that can effectively solve a waste management problem for the livestock industry and provide significant quantities of renewable hydrogen to the clean energy industry. The green energy derived from animal waste is considered to be carbon-neutral because animal feed is largely grown from photosynthesis of carbon dioxide. Electricity and heat thus generated will offset those generated from fossil fuels and can be rewarded with greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. Two groups of well proven technologies: biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion (AD), and thermochemical processes such as gasification are considered in this paper. A theoretical analysis of the potential of reforming the biogas and syngas from these reactions has been conducted using mathematical models of AD, gasification, steam reforming and water-gas shift reactions, and the results indicate that significant quantities of renewable hydrogen can be generated to fuel clean energy technologies such as the fuel cell. Practical considerations are presented to complement the theoretical analysis and future research directions are also discussed. (author)

  4. Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly-Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash

    2007-01-01

    Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 and CH 4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the

  5. One million ton of hydrogen is the key piece in the Danish renewable energy puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandal, Rune Duban; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    Designing a 100 % renewable energy system (RES) for Denmark, the availability of a sustainable biomass resource potential is found to be a limiting factor. The biomass demand derives from specific needs in the system, i.e. 1) storable fuel for energy for balancing fluctuating power production, 2...... storage, i.e. storing wind power through electrolysis and further reaction of hydrogen to hydrocarbons with carbon feedstock from biomass. This involves biomass gasification and hydrogenation of the syngas or hydrogenation of recycled CO2. The advantage of hydro storage is a superior energy efficiency......) carbon feedstock for materials and chemicals and 3) energy dense fuels for the more demanding branches of the transportation sector such as aviation, ship freight and long distance road transportation. The challenge of balancing electricity over different timeslots comprise a short term balancing...

  6. The Economic Potential of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Producing Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis are publishing that address the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). This report discusses an analysis of the economic potential of a tightly coupled N-R HES that produces electricity and hydrogen. Both low and high temperature electrolysis options are considered in the analysis. Low-temperature electrolysis requires only electricity to convert water to hydrogen. High temperature electrolysis requires less electricity because it uses both electricity and heat to provide the energy necessary to electrolyze water. The study finds that, to be profitable, the examined high-temperature electrosis and low-temperature electrosis N-R HES configurations that produce hydrogen require higher electricity prices, more electricity price volatility, higher natural gas prices, or higher capacity payments than the reference case values of these parameters considered in this analysis.

  7. Renewable hydrogen production by catalytic steam reforming of peanut shells pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.J.; Chornet, E.; Czernik, S.; Feik, C.; French, R.; Phillips, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Abedi, J.; Yeboah, Y.D. [Clark Atlanta Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Day, D.; Howard, J. [Scientific Carbons Inc., Blakely, GA (United States); McGee, D. [Enviro-Tech Enterprises Inc., Matthews, NC (United States); Realff, M.J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A project was initiated to determine the feasibility of producing hydrogen from agricultural wastes at a cost comparable to methane-reforming technologies. It is possible that hydrogen can be produced cost competitively with natural gas reforming by integrating hydrogen production with existing waste product utilization processes. This report presents initial results of an engineering demonstration project involving the development of a steam reforming process by a team of government, industrial and academic organizations working at the thermochemical facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The process is to be used on the gaseous byproducts from a process for making activated carbon from densified peanut shells. The reactor is interfaced with a 20 kg/hour fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis system and takes advantage of process chemical analysis and computer control and monitoring capacity. The reactor will be tested on the pyrolysis vapors produced in the activated carbon process. The final phase of the project will look at the production of hydrogen through the conversion of residual CO to H{sub 2} over a shift catalyst and separating hydrogen from CO{sub 2} using pressure swing adsorption. The purified oxygen will be mixed with natural gas and used for transportation purposes. The study demonstrates the potential impact of hydrogen and bioenergy on the economic development and diversification of rural areas. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one

  9. Hybrid hydrogen-battery systems for renewable off-grid telecom power

    OpenAIRE

    Scamman, D.; Newborough, M.; Bustamante, H.

    2015-01-01

    Off-grid hybrid systems, based on the integration of hydrogen technologies (electrolysers, hydrogen stores and fuel cells) with battery and wind/solar power technologies, are proposed for satisfying the continuous power demands of telecom remote base stations. A model was developed to investigate the preferred role for electrolytic hydrogen within a hybrid system; the analysis focused on powering a 1 kW telecom load in three locations of distinct wind and solar resource availability. When com...

  10. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  11. Multiscale Mathematics for Biomass Conversion to Renewable Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsoulakis, Markos [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2014-08-09

    Our two key accomplishments in the first three years were towards the development of, (1) a mathematically rigorous and at the same time computationally flexible framework for parallelization of Kinetic Monte Carlo methods, and its implementation on GPUs, and (2) spatial multilevel coarse-graining methods for Monte Carlo sampling and molecular simulation. A common underlying theme in both these lines of our work is the development of numerical methods which are at the same time both computationally efficient and reliable, the latter in the sense that they provide controlled-error approximations for coarse observables of the simulated molecular systems. Finally, our key accomplishment in the last year of the grant is that we started developing (3) pathwise information theory-based and goal-oriented sensitivity analysis and parameter identification methods for complex high-dimensional dynamics and in particular of nonequilibrium extended (high-dimensional) systems. We discuss these three research directions in some detail below, along with the related publications.

  12. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development requires us to find new energy sources instead of fossil fuels. One possibility is the hydrogen fuel cell, which uses significantly more efficient than the current combustion engines. The task of the hydrogen is clean, carbon-free renewable energy sources to choose in the future by growing degree. Hungary can play a role in the renewable energy sources of biomass as a renewable biomass annually mass of about 350 to 360 million tons. The biomass is only a very small proportion of fossil turn carbonaceous materials substitution, while we may utilize alternative energy sources as well. To the hydrogen production from biomass, the first step of the chemical transformations of chemical bonds are broken, which is always activation energy investment needs. The methanol and ethanol by fermentation from different agricultural products is relatively easy to produce, so these can be regarded as renewable energy carriers of. The ethanol can be used directly, and used in several places in the world are mixed with the petrol additive. This method is the disadvantage that the anhydrous alcohol is to be used in the combustion process in the engine more undesired by-products may be formed, and the fuel efficiency of the engine is significantly lower than the efficiency of the fuel cells. More useful to produce hydrogen from the alcohol and is used in a fuel cell electric power generation. Particularly attractive option for the so-called on-board reforming of alcohols, that happens immediately when the vehicle hydrogen production. It does not need a large tank of hydrogen, because the hydrogen produced would be directly to the fuel cell. The H2 tank limit use of its high cost, the significant loss evaporation, the rare-station network, production capacity and service background and lack of opportunity to refuel problems. These can be overcome, if the hydrogen in the vehicle is prepared. As volume even 700 bar only about half the H2 pressure gas can be stored

  13. Proposal for a Northeast Asian Hydrogen Highway: From a Natural-gas-based to a Hydrogen-based Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuhiko O Hashi; Masaru Hirata; William C Leighty; D Eng

    2006-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, East Siberia and Sakhalin are rich in natural gas (NG). The environmental protection and energy security of the Northeast Asian region requires constructing an energy infrastructure network that can transport and distribute NG throughout the region in the near term, and renewable-source gaseous hydrogen (GH2) in the long term. We have promoted the construction of an NG pipeline network, the principal component of the energy infrastructure essential to our evolution toward a hydrogen-based society, through the Northeast Asia Natural Gas and Pipeline Forum (NAGPF). Our ultimate goal is a clean and sustainable society based on renewable energy sources, wherein hydrogen is produced from the vast potential of renewable energy in Siberia and China. The hydrogen thus produced would be transmitted through the pipeline network, progressively replacing NG as it is depleted. Over three-quarters of commercially exploitable hydroelectric power (hydro) resources of all Russia is in East Siberia. The areas from Kamchatka through the Kurilskiye Islands (called the Chishima Islands, in Japan) to Sakhalin is a world-class wind energy resource. West China has huge potential for solar energy. (authors)

  14. An energy self-sufficient public building using integrated renewable sources and hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, C.; Nucara, A.; Pietrafesa, M.; Pudano, A.

    2013-01-01

    The control of the use of fossil fuels, major cause of greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, in present days represents one of Governments' main challenges; particularly, a significant energy consumption is observed in buildings and might be significantly reduced through sustainable design, increased energy efficiency and use of renewable sources. At the moment, the widespread use of renewable energy in buildings is limited by its intrinsic discontinuity: consequently integration of plants with energy storage systems could represent an efficient solution to the problem. Within this frame, hydrogen has shown to be particularly fit in order to be used as an energetic carrier. In this aim, in the paper an energetic, economic and environmental analysis of two different configurations of a self-sufficient system for energy production from renewable sources in buildings is presented. In particular, in the first configuration energy production is carried out by means of photovoltaic systems, whereas in the second one a combination of photovoltaic panels and wind generators is used. In both configurations, hydrogen is used as an energy carrier, in order to store energy, and fuel cells guarantee its energetic reconversion. The analysis carried out shows that, although dimensioned as a stand-alone configuration, the system can today be realized only taking advantage from the incentivizing fares applied to grid-connected systems, that are likely to be suspended in the next future. In such case, it represents an interesting investment, with capital returns in about 15 years. As concerns economic sustainability, in fact, the analysis shows that the cost of the energy unit stored in hydrogen volumes, due to the not very high efficiency of the process, presently results greater than that of directly used one. Moreover, also the starting fund of the system proves to be very high, showing an additional cost with respect to systems lacking of energy storage equal to about 50

  15. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  16. An overview of renewable hydrogen production from thermochemical process of oil palm solid waste in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Ganjehkaviri, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 40% of energy demand of Malaysia could be supplied by thermochemical process of PSR. • SCWG of PSR is preferable thermochemical process due to char and tar elimination. • Potential of H 2 production from SCWG of PSR is 1.05 × 10 10 kgH 2 per year in Malaysia. • Highly moisturized PSR could be used in hydrogen production by SCWG process. - Abstract: Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for the future of the world due to its tremendous capability of pollution reduction. Hydrogen utilization is free of toxic gases formation as well as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. Hydrogen production can be implemented using a wide variety of resources including fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable and sustainable energy (RSE). Amongst various RSE resources, biomass has great capacity to be employed for renewable hydrogen production. Hydrogen production from palm solid residue (PSR) via thermochemical process is a perfect candidate for waste-to-well strategy in palm oil mills in Malaysia. In this paper, various characteristics of hydrogen production from thermochemical process of PSR includes pyrolysis and gasification are reviewed. The annual oil palm fruits production in Malaysia is approximately 100 million tonnes which the solid waste of the fruits is capable to generate around 1.05 × 10 10 kgH 2 (1.26 EJ) via supercritical water gasification (SCWG) process. The ratio of energy output to energy input of SCWG process of PSR is about 6.56 which demonstrates the priority of SCWG to transform the energy of PSR into a high energy end product. The high moisture of PSR which is the most important barrier for its direct combustion, emerges as an advantage in thermochemical reactions and highly moisturized PSR (even more than 50%) is utilized directly in SCWG without application of any high cost drying process. Implementation of appropriate strategies could lead Malaysia to supply about 40% of its annual energy demand by hydrogen yield from

  17. Renewable Energy and Hydrogen System Concepts for Remote Communities in the West Nordic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein; Moerkved, Andreas

    2008-02-25

    In 2003 the Nordic Council of Ministers granted the funding for the first of several studies on renewable energy and hydrogen (RE/H2) energy systems for remote communities in the West Nordic region. The objective with this report is to summarize the main findings from Phase II and III of the West Nordic project. The island Nolsoy, Faroe Islands, was selected as a case study. The main conclusion is that it makes sense to design a wind/diesel-system with thermal storage, both from a techno-economical and environmental point of view. Such systems can have close to 100% local utilization of the wind energy, and can cover up to 75% of the total annual electricity demand and 35% of the annual heat demand at a cost of energy around 0.07 - 0.09 euro/kWh. The introduction of a hydrogen system is technically feasible, but doubles the overall investment costs

  18. Bridging the European Wind Energy Market and a Future Renewable Hydrogen-Inclusive Economy. A Dynamic Techno-economic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.; Peteves, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The study establishes the link between the growing wind market and the emerging hydrogen market of the European Union, in a so-called 'wind-hydrogen strategy'. It considers specifically the diversion of wind electricity, as a wind power control mechanism in high wind penetration situations, for the production of renewable electrolytic hydrogen - a potentially important component of a renewable hydrogen-inclusive economy. The analysis examines the long-term competitiveness of a wind-hydrogen strategy via cost-benefit assessment. It indicates the duration and extent to which (financial) support, if any, would need to be provided in support of such a strategy, and the influence over time of certain key factors on the outcome

  19. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  20. Hydrogen energy based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    A concept to produce hydrogen of an energy carrier using nuclear energy was proposed since 1970s, and a number of process based on thermochemical method has been investigated after petroleum shock. As this method is used high temperature based on nuclear reactors, these researches are mainly carried out as a part of application of high temperature reactors, which has been carried out at an aim of the high temperature reactor application in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. On October, 2000, the 'First International Conference for Information Exchange on Hydrogen Production based on Nuclear Energy' was held by auspice of OECD/NEA, where hydrogen energy at energy view in the 21st Century, technology on hydrogen production using nuclear energy, and so on, were published. This commentary was summarized surveys and researches on hydrogen production using nuclear energy carried out by the Nuclear Hydrogen Research Group established on January, 2001 for one year. They contains, views on energy and hydrogen/nuclear energy, hydrogen production using nuclear energy and already finished researches, methods of hydrogen production using nuclear energy and their present conditions, concepts on production plants of nuclear hydrogen, resources on nuclear hydrogen production and effect on global environment, requests from market and acceptability of society, and its future process. (G.K.)

  1. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  2. Energy modeling and analysis for optimal grid integration of large-scale variable renewables using hydrogen storage in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Otsuki, Takashi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although the extensive introduction of VRs (variable renewables) will play an essential role to resolve energy and environmental issues in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident, its large-scale integration would pose a technical challenge in the grid management; as one of technical countermeasures, hydrogen storage receives much attention, as well as rechargeable battery, for controlling the intermittency of VR power output. For properly planning renewable energy policies, energy system modeling is important to quantify and qualitatively understand its potential benefits and impacts. This paper analyzes the optimal grid integration of large-scale VRs using hydrogen storage in Japan by developing a high time-resolution optimal power generation mix model. Simulation results suggest that the installation of hydrogen storage is promoted by both its cost reduction and CO 2 regulation policy. In addition, hydrogen storage turns out to be suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. Finally, through a sensitivity analysis of rechargeable battery cost, hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery; the cost of both technologies should be more elaborately recognized for formulating effective energy policies to integrate massive VRs into the country's power system in an economical manner. - Highlights: • Authors analyze hydrogen storage coupled with VRs (variable renewables). • Simulation analysis is done by developing an optimal power generation mix model. • Hydrogen storage installation is promoted by its cost decline and CO 2 regulation. • Hydrogen storage is suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. • Hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery

  3. Application of Liquid Hydrogen with SMES for Efficient Use of Renewable Energy in the Energy Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that generally frequency instability problems occur due to abrupt variations in load demand growth and power variations generated by different renewable energy sources (RESs, the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES may become crucial due to its rapid response features. In this paper, liquid hydrogen with SMES (LIQHYSMES is proposed to play a role in the future energy internet in terms of its combination of the SMES and the liquid hydrogen storage unit, which can help to overcome the capacity limit and high investment cost disadvantages of SMES. The generalized predictive control (GPC algorithm is presented to be appreciatively used to eliminate the frequency deviations of the isolated micro energy grid including the LIQHYSMES and RESs. A benchmark micro energy grid with distributed generators (DGs, electrical vehicle (EV stations, smart loads and a LIQHYSMES unit is modeled in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the proposed GPC strategy can reschedule the active power output of each component to maintain the stability of the grid. In addition, in order to improve the performance of the SMES, a detailed optimization design of the superconducting coil is conducted, and the optimized SMES unit can offer better technical advantages in damping the frequency fluctuations.

  4. A nuclear based hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Tamm, G.; Kunze, J.

    2005-01-01

    Exhausting demands are being imposed upon the world's ability to extract and deliver oil to the nations demanding fluid fossil fuels. This paper analyzes these issues and concludes that there must be no delay in beginning the development of the 'hydrogen economy' using nuclear energy as the primary energy source to provide both the fluid fuel and electrical power required in the 21st century. Nuclear energy is the only proven technology that is abundant and available worldwide to provide the primary energy needed to produce adequate hydrogen fluid fuel supplies to replace oil. Most importantly, this energy transition can be accomplished in an economical and technically proven manner while lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, a similar application of using wind and solar to produce hydrogen instead of electricity for the grid can pave the way for the much larger production scales of nuclear plants producing both electricity and hydrogen. (authors)

  5. Market Mechanism Design for Renewable Energy based on Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Bo, Wang; Jichun, Liu; Wenjiao, Zai; Pingliang, Zeng; Haobo, Shi

    2018-02-01

    Generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is an efficient market means for transforming supply structure of electric power into sustainable development pattern. But the trading is hampered by the output fluctuations of renewable energy and the cost differences between renewable energy and thermal power at present. In this paper, the external environmental cost (EEC) is defined and the EEC is introduced into the generation cost. At same time, the incentive functions of renewable energy and low-emission thermal power are designed, which are decreasing functions of EEC. On these bases, for the market risks caused by the random variability of EEC, the decision-making model of generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is constructed according to the risk theory. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are verified by simulation results.

  6. Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ... the local population and resources to do that which the governments had failed to do. ... country with a view to reducing poverty and developmental imbalance in Nigeria.

  7. Hydrogen from renewable energy: A pilot plant for thermal production and mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgis, L.; Santarelli, M.; Calì, M.

    In the mainframe of a research contract, a feasibility pre-design study of a hydrogen-fuelled Laboratory-Village has been carried out: the goals are the design and the simulation of a demonstration plant based on hydrogen as primary fuel. The hydrogen is produced by electrolysis, from electric power produced by a mix of hydroelectric and solar photovoltaic plants. The plant will be located in a small remote village in Valle d'Aosta (Italy). This country has large water availability from glaciers and mountains, so electricity production from fluent water hydroelectric plants is abundant and cheap. Therefore, the production of hydrogen during the night (instead of selling the electricity to the grid at very low prices) could become a good economic choice, and hydrogen could be a competitive local fuel in term of costs, if compared to oil or gas. The H 2 will be produced and stored, and used to feed a hydrogen vehicle and for thermal purposes (heating requirement of three buildings), allowing a real field test (Village-Laboratory). Due to the high level of pressure requested for H 2 storage on-board in the vehicle, the choice has been the experimental test of a prototype laboratory-scale high-pressure PEM electrolyzer: a test laboratory has been designed, to investigate the energy savings related to this technology. In the paper, the description of the dynamic simulation of the plant (developed with TRNSYS) together with a detailed design and an economic analysis (proving the technical and economical feasibility of the installation) has been carried out. Moreover, the design of the high-pressure PEM electrolyzer is described.

  8. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    . In addition, another characteristic of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks is that many alternative technologies and possible routes exist, resulting in many possible process flowsheets. The challenge for process engineers is then to choose between possible process routes and alternative technologies...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic......One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...

  9. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  10. An examination of the criteria necessary for successful worldwide deployment of isolated, renewable hydrogen stationary power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambach, G. D.; Snyder, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down rationale and methods for using hydrogen as an energy carrier in isolated, stationary power systems. Such an examination can be useful because it provides a framework for detailed research on subsystems and helps clarify why, when and where large-scale hydrogen use would be beneficial. It also helps define the pathway for an evolving hydrogen stationary power market worldwide. Remote, stationary power systems are an ideal market entry opportunity for hydrogen. For example, if it is sufficiently difficult for conventional fuels to reach a community, and indigenous renewable sources are present, then on-site clean energy production becomes economically competitive. Relying heavily on intermittent sources of energy requires an energy carrier system that is efficient over long periods of time. In addition, the energy carrier must not defeat the reasons for initially switching to the clean sources of energy, and must be economically feasible. Hydrogen is an elegant solution to all of these needs. Choices exist for the methods of producing hydrogen, storing and transporting it, and converting it back to useful energy. There is considerable debate about how best to increase the use of renewable hydrogen because it is not yet economically competitive with conventional energy carriers in most applications. The deployment of isolated power systems relying on hydrogen as the energy storage medium requires complex and comprehensive planning and design considerations to provide successful market entry strategies as well as appropriate system engineering. This paper will discuss the criteria and framework necessary to determine how to successfully deploy any specific system or to plan a global marketing strategy. (author)

  11. China could satisfied her energy demand by her domestic resource of renewable and hydrogen energy and with her favorite condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao De You

    2006-01-01

    Paper described recent situation and the reason of oils consumed increasing rapidly and the activity for searching oil around the world wide and proposed some suggestion for rapid development and commercialization of hydrogen energy system in China with her domestic resources. China could satisfy the energy demand with her domestic resources of renewable energies and depending on her domestic scientific and technology and personal resources etc. It could Clean up the misunderstanding of other country and worried about the oil price increasing. (author)

  12. Harvesting and redistributing renewable energy: on the role of gas and electricity grids to overcome intermittency through the generation and storage of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Dennis; Leach, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    If intermittent renewable energy technologies such as those based on solar, wind, wave and tidal resources are eventually to supply significant shares of total energy supplies, it is crucial that the energy storage problem is solved. There are several (long-recognised) possibilities ahead including compressed air, pumped storage, further developments in batteries, regenerable fuel cells, 'super-capacitors' and so forth. But one that is being revisited extensively by industry and research establishments is the production and storage of hydrogen from electricity at off-peak times, and in times when there would be a surplus of renewable energy, for reuse in the electricity, gas and transport markets; short-term and even seasonal and longer-term storage is technically feasible with this option. This paper looks at the costs of the option both in the near-term and the long-term relative to the current costs of electricity and natural gas supplies. While the costs of hydrogen would necessarily be greater than those of natural gas (though not disruptively so), when used in conjunction with emerging technologies for decentralised generation and combined heat and power there is scope for appreciable economies in electricity supply. A lot will depend on innovation at the systems level, and on how we operate our electricity and gas grids and regulate our electricity and gas industries. We have also suggested that we now need to experiment more, at the commercial level, and in the laboratories, with the hydrogen option

  13. High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions For The Grid Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Screnci, A.

    One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they still represent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is today achievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs. Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has been emerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU.

  14. Management of a power system based on renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronay Karoly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article main purpose is to highlight the main advantage of the hardware and software implementation for an energy management system based on renewable energy sources. By using implemented and dedicated hardware and software the evolution of energy production and consumption can be monitored. The advantages of such system are highlighted by the results obtained from experimental simulations. An experimental model for the power system based on renewable energy sources was implemented, where the actual status of the system in different situations when the equipments change their own statuses can be shown.

  15. Scoping study into community-based renewable energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This scoping study has been carried out by the Centre for Sustainable Energy (CSE), a charity which promotes energy efficiency and renewable energy. CSE have used their involvement in the development of the Energy Club (the first energy service company for householders in the UK) and the Bristol Environment and Energy Trust (a cross-sector organisation initiating environmental projects) as the basis of the study. This study is the first phase of a long term project to set up two small-scale renewable energy schemes to demonstrate the benefits of a community based approach. Specific objectives of the study were: to identify, quantify and cost, renewable energy resources for interested community organisations; to evaluate two routes for developing community based projects - Environment Trusts and Energy Clubs'; to organise a seminar with the objective of bringing together community interest groups with experts in renewable energy; to identify two communities with viable renewable projects for the next phase - full feasibility studies/pilot projects. (author)

  16. Microinstallations Based on Renewable Energy Sources in the Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzak, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on the status and prognoses of the use of microinstallations based on renewable energy sources to supply heat and power. The technologies that have been important in Europe and Poland for microgeneration of electricity include photovoltaic systems, micro wind turbines and co-generation systems. Solar collectors, heat pumps and biomass have also been used to generate heat. Microinstallations for renewable energy sources represent the initial point and the foundation for the development of micro networks, intelligent networks and the whole prosumer energy sector.

  17. Relative economic incentives for hydrogen from nuclear, renewable, and fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorensek, Maximilian B.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because ''free'' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen. (author)

  18. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles : Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power

  19. Likelihood based inference for partially observed renewal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Maria Nicolette Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with inference for renewal processes on the real line that are observed in a broken interval. For such processes, the classic history-based approach cannot be used. Instead, we adapt tools from sequential spatial point process theory to propose a Monte Carlo maximum

  20. Assessment of hydrogen storage systems as a means of integrating electricity from renewable energies; Bewertung von Wasserstoffspeichersystemen zur Integration von Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, Julia; Genoese, Fabio; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Hydrogen storage is a possible option for an improved integration of renewable energies into the electricity supply system. Similarly to other technical storage options it is faced with the challenge of having to be economically viable. Compared with other storage media hydrogen has the virtue of being versatile. This has a significant impact on assessments of its profitability.

  1. Aqueous-Phase Reforming of Renewable Polyols for Production of Hydrogen using Platinum Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boga, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to fuel the energy needs of a more sustainable society. As hydrogen is not found in nature in any appreciable quantities, this energy carrier needs to be produced from a primary energy source. Biomass can serve as a source for sustainable hydrogen production. In principle,

  2. The safe operation zone of the spark ignition engine working with dual renewable supplemented fuels (hydrogen+ethyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2001-04-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NOx emission while increasing the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. An equation has been derived from experimental data to specify the least quantity of ethyl alcohol blended with gasoline and satisfying constant NOx emission when hydrogen is added. A chart limiting the safe operation zone of the engine fueled with dual renewable supplemented fuel, (hydrogen and ethyl alcohol) has been produced. The safe zone provides lower NOx and CO emission, lower s.f.c. and higher brake power compared to an equivalent gasoline engine. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  3. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Algal-Based Renewable Energy for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsen, Christian [Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    To help in the overall evaluation of the potential for growing algal biomass in high productivity systems, we conducted a study that evaluated water from geothermal sources and cultivated mixed consortia from hot springs in Nevada, we evaluated their growth at moderately high varying temperatures and then evaluated potential manipulations that could possibly increase their biomass and oleaginous production. Studies were conducted at scales ranging from the laboratory benchtop to raceways in field settings. Mixed consortia were readily grown at all scales and growth could be maintained in Nevada year round. Moderate productivities were attained even during the shoulder seasons- where temperature control was maintained by hot water and seasonally cold temperatures when there was still plentiful solar radiation. The results enhance the prospects for economic feasibility of developing algal based industries in areas with geothermal energy or even other large alternative sources of heat that are not being used for other purposes. The public may benefit from such development as a means for economic development as well as development of industries for alternative energy and products that do not rely on fossil fuels.

  5. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH 3 BH 3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H 2 , and ammonia triborane NH 3 B 3 H 7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H 2 , were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H 2 -release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H 2 -release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H 2 -release, the tunability of both their H 2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These

  6. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-04-21

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also

  7. A New Optimization Strategy to Improve Design of Hydrogen Network Based Formulation of Hydrogen Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. S. Birjandi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a shortcut model for formulating hydrogen consumers in hydrogen network based on inlet/outlet flow rate and inlet/outlet hydrogen purity. The formulation procedure is obtained using nonlinear regression of industrial data and represents the relationship between the flow rate and purity of outlet and inlet streams. The proposed model can estimate outlet flow rate and purity of hydrogen by changing inlet flow rate and purity of hydrogen. The shortcut model is used to achieve optimal operation of consumers and it optimizes hydrogen network design.

  8. Thermochemical hydrogen production based on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Brown, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual design studies have been carried out on an integrated fusion/chemical plant system using a Tandem Mirror Reactor fusion energy source to drive the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Water-Splitting Cycle and produce hydrogen as a future feedstock for synthetic fuels. Blanket design studies for the Tandem Mirror Reactor show that several design alternatives are available for providing heat at sufficiently high temperatures to drive the General Atomic Cycle. The concept of a Joule-boosted decomposer is introduced in one of the systems investigated to provide heat electrically for the highest temperature step in the cycle (the SO 3 decomposition step), and thus lower blanket design requirements and costs. Flowsheeting and conceptual process designs have been developed for a complete fusion-driven hydrogen plant, and the information has been used to develop a plot plan for the plant and to estimate hydrogen production costs. Both public and private utility financing approaches have been used to obtain hydrogen production costs of $12-14/GJ based on July 1980 dollars

  9. S.1269: This Act may be cited as the Renewable Hydrogen Energy Research and Development Act of 1991, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 11, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The bill would require the Secretary of Energy to expedite the development of hydrogen derived from renewable energy sources as an alternative energy system for residential, industrial, utility, and motor vehicle use. The purposes of this bill are to reduce the US dependence on imported oil; accelerate the development of renewable hydrogen; accelerate research and development programs on components of a renewable hydrogen energy system; reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, acid rain, precursors to smog, and other air pollution; and establish industry and government cost shared projects to speed the development of renewable hydrogen energy systems

  10. Green technology for conversion of renewable hydrocarbon based on plasma-catalytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirchyk, Igor; Nedybaliuk, Oleg; Chernyak, Valeriy; Demchina, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    The ability to convert renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals is one of the most important steps on our path to green technology and sustainable development. However, the complex composition of biomass poses a major problem for established conversion technologies. The high temperature of thermochemical biomass conversion often leads to the appearance of undesirable byproducts and waste. The catalytic conversion has reduced yield and feedstock range. Plasma-catalytic reforming technology opens a new path for biomass conversion by replacing feedstock-specific catalysts with free radicals generated in the plasma. We studied the plasma-catalytic conversion of several renewable hydrocarbons using the air plasma created by rotating gliding discharge. We found that plasma-catalytic hydrocarbon conversion can be conducted at significantly lower temperatures (500 K) than during the thermochemical ( 1000 K) and catalytic (800 K) conversion. By using gas chromatography, we determined conversion products and found that conversion efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion reaches over 85%. We used obtained data to determine the energy yield of hydrogen in case of plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol and compared it with other plasma-based hydrogen-generating systems.

  11. New ternary intermetallics, based magnesium, for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefere, J.G.

    2009-05-01

    The use of fossil fuels (non-renewable energy) is responsible for increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the considered alternatives, hydrogen is seen as the most attractive energy vector. The storage in intermetallics makes it possible to obtain mass and volume capacities (e.g. 140 g/L) higher than those obtained by liquid form or under pressure (respectively 71 and 40 g/L). We have synthesised Mg and Rare Earth based compounds (RE = Y, Ce and Gd), derived from the cubic Laves phases AB2. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied (hydrogenation, electrochemistry, magnetism,...). The conditions of sorption (P and T) are particularly favorable (i.e. absorption at room temperature and atmospheric pressure). Besides, to improve the sorption kinetics of metallic magnesium, the compounds developed previously were used as catalysts. Thus, GdMgNi4 was milled with magnesium and the speeds of absorption and desorption of the mixture are found higher than those obtained for the composites Mg+Ni or Mg+V, which are reference systems. A theoretical approach (DFT) was used to model the electronic structure of the ternary compounds (i.e. REMgNi4) and thus to predict or confirm the experimental results. (authors)

  12. Analytic Methods for Benchmarking Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Saur, Genevieve; Ramsden, Todd; Eichman, Joshua

    2015-05-28

    This presentation summarizes NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis work in three areas: resource potential, greenhouse gas emissions and cost of delivered energy, and influence of auxiliary revenue streams. NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis projects focus on low-­carbon and economic transportation and stationary fuel cell applications. Analysis tools developed by the lab provide insight into the degree to which bridging markets can strengthen the business case for fuel cell applications.

  13. All-Vanadium Dual Circuit Redox Flow Battery for Renewable Hydrogen Generation and Desulfurisation

    OpenAIRE

    Peljo, Pekka Eero; Vrubel, Heron; Amstutz, Veronique; Pandard, Justine; Morgado, Joana; Santasalo-Aarnio, Annukka; Lloyd, David; Gumy, Frederic; Dennison, C R; Toghill, Kathryn; Girault, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    An all-vanadium dual circuit redox flow battery is an electrochemical energy storage system capable to function as a conventional battery, but also to produce hydrogen and perform desulfurization when surplus of electricity is available by chemical discharge of the battery electrolytes. The hydrogen reactor chemically discharging the negative electrolyte has been designed and scaled up to kW scale, while different options to discharge the positive electrolyte have been evaluated, including ox...

  14. Maximizing renewable hydrogen production from biomass in a bio/catalytic refinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westermann, Peter; Jørgensen, Betina; Lange, L.

    2007-01-01

    Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary for photo......Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary...

  15. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    combinations have been investigated for the production of hydrogen from biomass carbohydrate. Chemical catalysis approaches include pyrolysis [19...temperature. High fructose corn syrup, low-cost sucrose replacement, is made by stabilized glucose isomerase, which can work at ~60 °C for even about two...gasoline, vegetable oil vs. biodiesel, corn kernels vs. ethanol [31,109]. Given a price of $0.18/kg carbohydrate (i.e., $10.6/GJ) [2,44], the hydrogen

  16. Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is emerging beyond its conventional role as an additive component for gasoline production, chemical and fertilizer manufacture, and food production to become a promising fuel for transportation and stationary power. Hydrogen offers a potentially unmatched ability to deliver a de-carbonized energy system, thereby addressing global climate change concerns, while simultaneously improving local air quality and reducing dependence on imported fossil fuels. This "trifecta" of potential ben...

  17. Catalysis and Downsizing in Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianding Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-based materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage due to the low cost, high hydrogen storage capacity and abundant resources of magnesium for the realization of a hydrogen society. However, the sluggish kinetics and strong stability of the metal-hydrogen bonding of Mg-based materials hinder their application, especially for onboard storage. Many researchers are devoted to overcoming these challenges by numerous methods. Here, this review summarizes some advances in the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials related to downsizing and catalysis. In particular, the focus is on how downsizing and catalysts affect the hydrogen storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Finally, the future development and applications of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials is discussed.

  18. Market stimulation of renewable-based power generation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Rena; Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the types of renewable-based power generation technologies available in Australia that have the capacity to contribute to the growth of the renewable energy sector and then suggest what type of economic incentive instruments could be applied in order to stimulate investment in that sector. Currently in Australia there are hydro, wind, bioenergy, solar, geothermal and ocean technologies being used to produce renewable power. Of these all except hydro power has large amounts of potentially useful resources. In the cases of wind, bioenergy, solar, and geothermal, the technology is mature enough to be immediately deployed in large-scale. However, only in the cases of wind and bioenergy the costs and return on investments are proven to be viable in the current market. What is required on all fronts is an improved return on investments. Within the current electricity market competition with fossil-fuel based power is very difficult considering the ample supply of coal available in Australia and the heavy subsidies it receives. To become more competitive with electricity generated from coal-fired power plants, a feed-in tariff scheme could be implemented, and subsidies to the coal industry should be reduced if not removed. Another aspect impeding the growth of certain renewable power technologies is the high capital cost. This issue could be addressed with direct subsidies or tax exemptions, or aiding with easier access of finance options. However for particular industries such as wind and solar, it would be a further benefit if some effort is made to encourage component manufacturing within Australia. For technologies that require further technical development, funding towards R and D or pilot projects, and support for international collaboration projects would accelerate their path to deployment. It is critical that the Australian government continues to be a leader. In addition to the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) and an

  19. Hydrogen-based industry from remote excess hydroelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, N.; Rogner, H.-H.; Scott, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines synergies, opportunities and barriers associated with hydrogen and excess hydro-electricity in remote areas. The work is based on a case study that examined the techno-economic feasibility of a new hydrogen-based industry using surplus/off-peak generating capacity of the Taltson Dam and Generating Station in the Northwest Territories, Canada. After evaluating the amount and cost of hydrogen that could be produced from the excess capacity, the study investigates three hydrogen utilization scenarios: (1) merchant liquid or compressed hydrogen, (2) hydrogen as a chemical feedstock for the production of hydrogen peroxide, (3) methanol production from biomass, oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen peroxide production is the most promising and attractive strategy in the Fort Smith context. The study also illustrates patterns that recur in isolated sites throughout the world. (Author)

  20. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential...... for these renewable alcohols, together with other primary renewable building blocks, has been highlighted in the introductory chapter. While the first chapter covers the general potential of a renewable chemical industry, the other chapters deal with particular possibilities. It is shown how ethanol and glycerol can...... be converted into hydrogen by steam reforming over nickel or ruthenium based catalysts. This process could be important in a future hydrogen society, where hydrogen can be utilized in high efficiency fuel cells. Hydrogen produced from biofeedstocks can also be used directly in the chemical industry, where...

  1. Hydrogen from renewable energy - Photovoltaic/water electrolysis as an exemplary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprafka, R. J.; Tison, R. R.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted for a NASA Kennedy Space Center liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen production facility using solar cell arrays as the power source for electrolysis. The 100 MW output of the facility would be split into 67.6 and 32 MW portions for electrolysis and liquefaction, respectively. The solar cell array would cover 1.65 sq miles, and would be made up of 249 modular 400-kW arrays. Hydrogen and oxygen are generated at either dispersed or centralized water electrolyzers. The yearly hydrogen output is projected to be 5.76 million lbs, with 8 times that much oxygen; these fuel volumes can support approximately 18 Space Shuttle launches/year.

  2. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...... to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relocate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby improve the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by advanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing...

  3. Production of Renewable Hydrogen from Glycerol Steam Reforming over Bimetallic Ni-(Cu,Co,Cr Catalysts Supported on SBA-15 Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Carrero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol steam reforming (GSR is a promising alternative to obtain renewable hydrogen and help the economics of the biodiesel industry. Nickel-based catalysts are typically used in reforming reactions. However, the choice of the catalyst greatly influences the process, so the development of bimetallic catalysts is a research topic of relevant interest. In this work, the effect of adding Cu, Co, and Cr to the formulation of Ni/SBA-15 catalysts for hydrogen production by GSR has been studied, looking for an enhancement of its catalytic performance. Bimetallic Ni-M/SBA-15 (M: Co, Cu, Cr samples were prepared by incipient wetness co-impregnation to reach 15 wt % of Ni and 4 wt % of the second metal. Catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, N2-physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA, and tested in GSR at 600 °C and atmospheric pressure. The addition of Cu, Co, and Cr to the Ni/SBA-15 catalyst helped to form smaller crystallites of the Ni phase, this effect being more pronounced in the case of the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 sample. This catalyst also showed a reduction profile shifted towards higher temperatures, indicating stronger metal-support interaction. As a consequence, the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 catalyst exhibited the best performance in GSR in terms of glycerol conversion and hydrogen production. Additionally, Ni-Cr/SBA-15 achieved a drastic reduction in coke formation compared to the Ni/SBA-15 material.

  4. Electrochemical hydrogen isotope sensor based on solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor of hydrogen isotopes based on solid electrolytes for determining the hydrogen isotope ratios and/or total hydrogen pressures in gases has been developed. This paper describes the methodology of the hydrogen isotope sensing together with experimental results. When hydrogen isotope gases are introduced to an electrochemical cell using a proton-conducting electrolyte (hydrogen isotope cell), the electromotive force (EMF) of the cell agrees with that theoretically estimated. The EMF signals can be used for the determination of the hydrogen isotope ratio in gases if the total hydrogen pressure is predetermined. By supplementary use of an oxide ion conductor cell, both the ratio and total pressure of the hydrogen isotopes can be simultaneously determined. (author)

  5. Renewable hydrogen generation from a dual-circuit redox flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Amstutz, Veronique; Toghill, Kathryn Ellen; Powlesland, Francis; Vrubel, Heron; Comninellis, Christos; Hu, Xile; Girault, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are particularly well suited for storing the intermittent excess supply of renewable electricity; so-called “junk” electricity. Conventional RFBs are charged and discharged electrochemically, with electricity stored as chemical energy in the electrolytes. In the RFB system reported here, the electrolytes are conventionally charged but are then chemically discharged over catalytic beds in separate external circuits. The catalytic reaction of particular interest gene...

  6. Renewable Hydrogen-Economically Viable: Integration into the U.S. Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Peters, Mike; Muratori, Matteo; Gearhart, Chris

    2018-03-01

    The U.S. transportation sector is expected to meet numerous goals in differing applications. These goals address security, safety, fuel source, emissions reductions, advanced mobility models, and improvements in quality and accessibility. Solutions to meeting these goals include a variety of alternative-fuel technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, synthetic fuels, and biofuels, as well as modifying how current transportation systems are used and integrating new systems, such as storing renewable energy. Overall, there are many combinations of problems, objectives, and solutions.

  7. Renewable Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production: The Second Generation (Part B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-20

    SUBJECT TERMS Biohydrogen, biofuels, cyanobacteria, photosynthesis, fermentation , transcription profiling, metabolic engineering, TCA cycle...transcription regulators, including RbcR, Fur, and ChlR, were identified and characterized, and a global model of the transcription network was...enhance hydrogen production. These data have recently been analyzed to produce a global transcription network model for this cyanobacterium [17]. At

  8. Overview of the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Bush, Brian; Penev, Michael

    2015-05-12

    This presentation provides an introduction to the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) and includes an overview of each of the three versions of H2FAST: the Web tool, the Excel spreadsheet version, and the beta version of the H2FAST Business Case Scenario tool.

  9. Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc

    2015-04-21

    This presentation describes the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool, H2FAST, and provides an overview of each of the three H2FAST formats: the H2FAST web tool, the H2FAST Excel spreadsheet, and the H2FAST Business Case Scenario (BCS) tool. Examples are presented to illustrate the types of questions that H2FAST can help answer.

  10. Hydrogenation properties and microstructure of Ti-Mn-based alloys for hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masachika; Nakamura, Jin; Akiba, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Ti-Mn-based AB 2 -type alloys which are suitable for a hybrid hydrogen storage vessel have been synthesized and evaluated hydrogenation properties. As the third element V was added to Ti-Mn binary alloys. All the alloys synthesized in this work mainly consist of the C14 Laves and BCC phase. In the case of Ti0.5V0.5Mn alloy, the amounts of hydrogen absorption was 1.8 wt.% at 243 K under the atmosphere of 7 MPa H 2 , and the hydrogen desorption pressure was in the range of 0.2-0.4 MPa at 243 K. The hydrogen capacity of this alloy did not saturate under 7 MPa H 2 and seems to increase with hydrogen pressure up to 35 MPa that is estimated working pressure of the hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

  11. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  12. Study on the hydrogen demand in China based on system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tao; Ji, Jie; Chen, Ming-qi

    2010-01-01

    Reasonable estimation of hydrogen energy and other renewable energy demand of China's medium and long-term energy is of great significance for China's medium and long-term energy plan. Therefore, based on both China's future economic development and relative economic theory and system dynamics theory, this article analyzes qualitatively the internal factors and external factors of hydrogen energy demand system, and makes the state high and low two assumptions about China's medium and long-term hydrogen demand according to the different speed of China's economic development. After the system dynamic model setting up export and operation, the output shows the data changes of the total hydrogen demand and the four kinds of hydrogen demand. According to the analysis of the output, two conclusions are concluded: The secondary industry, not the tertiary industry (mainly the transportation), should be firstly satisfied by the hydrogen R and D and support of Government policy. Change of Chinese hydrogen demand scale, on basis of its economic growth, can not be effective explained through Chinese economic growth rate, and other influencing factor and mechanism should be probed deeply. (author)

  13. Green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide using geothermal energy and/or hydro power in Iceland or excess renewable electricity in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, Marco; Benders, Reinerus; Visser, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to

  14. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,; Dongmei, [Boulder, CO; Medlin, J William [Boulder, CO; McDaniel, Anthony H [Livermore, CA; Bastasz, Robert J [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  15. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of hydrogen fuel cell and solar photovoltaic hybrid renewable energy system for academic research building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anand; Baredar, Prashant; Gupta, Bhupendra

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A HFC and SPV HRES for stand-alone applications is proposed. • The FC program computes the optimum cost of HRES components. • HOMER pro software to calculate the optimum performance of HRES. - Abstract: A hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) and solar photovoltaic (SPV) hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) for stand-alone applications is proposed. This system arrangement of a hydrogen tank, battery, and an electrolyzer are used as like the energy storage. The economic viability of using HRES power to supply the electrical load demand of academic research building located at 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitudes, India is examined. The fuzzy logic program computes the optimum value of capital and replacement cost of the components, which is then utilized in HOMER pro software to calculate the optimum performance of HRES. The results shows the HFC and battery bank are the most significant modules of the HRES to meet load demand at late night and early morning hours. The AC primary load consuming 20712.63 kWh/year out of total power generation of HRES which is 24570.72 kWh/year. The excess of electricity produced by HRES is 791.7709 kWh/year with the optimized cost of energy, unmet electrical load and capacity shortage of 0%.

  16. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  17. Power control based on particle swarm optimization of grid-connected inverter for hybrid renewable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Triviño, Pablo; Gil-Mena, Antonio José; Llorens-Iborra, Francisco; García-Vázquez, Carlos Andrés; Fernández-Ramírez, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three PSO-based PI controllers for a grid-connected inverter were presented. • Two online PSO-based PI controllers were compared with an offline PSO-tuned PI. • The HRES and the inverter were evaluated under power changes and grid voltage sags. • Online ITAE-based PSO reduced ITAE (current THD) by 15.24% (5.32%) versus offline one. - Abstract: This paper is focused on the study of particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based PI controllers for the power control of a grid-connected inverter supplied from a hybrid renewable energy system. It is composed of two renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic – PV – solar panels) and two energy storage systems (battery and hydrogen system, integrated by fuel cell and electrolyzer). Three PSO-based PI controllers are implemented: (1) conventional PI controller with offline tuning by PSO algorithm based on the integral time absolute error (ITAE) index; (2) PI controllers with online self-tuning by PSO algorithm based on the error; and (3) PI controllers with online self-tuning by PSO algorithm based on the ITAE index. To evaluate and compare the three controllers, the hybrid renewable energy system and the grid-connected inverter are simulated under changes in the active and reactive power values, as well as under a grid voltage sag. The results show that the online PSO-based PI controllers that optimize the ITAE index achieves the best response

  18. Sensitivity of encapsulated diamond-protein transistor renewed by low temperature hydrogen plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krátká, Marie; Neykova, Neda; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 1598-1608 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * solution-gated field-effect transistor * low temperature hydrogen termination * proteins * encapsulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013 http://www.electrochemsci.org/list13.htm#current

  19. Renewable hydrogen: carbon formation on Ni and Ru catalysts during ethanol steam-reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Sehested, J.

    2007-01-01

    for the production of hydrogen is investigated, along with quantitative and qualitative determinations of carbon formation on the catalysts by TPO and TEM experiments. A Ru/ MgAl2O4 catalyst, a Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst as well as Ag-and K-promoted Ni/ MgAl2O4 catalysts were studied. The operating temperature was between...... addition was a rapid deactivation of the catalyst due to an enhanced gum carbon formation on the Ni crystals. Contrary to this, the effect of K addition was a prolonged resistance against carbon formation and therefore against deactivation. The Ru catalyst operates better than all the Ni catalysts...

  20. Palladium coated fibre Bragg grating based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Kishore, S.; Elumalai, V.; Krishnan, R.; Babu Rao, C.; Dash, Sitaram; Murali, N.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of steam generator leaks in fast nuclear reactors is carried out by monitoring hydrogen in argon cover-gas. Hydrogen released during sodium cleaning of fast reactor components is required to be monitored. Hydrogen sensors with good sensitivity, stability and response time are required for all the above applications. We report a new type of hydrogen sensor with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) coated with palladium thin film which is used to detect the leak of hydrogen gas in the Steam Generator (SG) module of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). If water leaks into sodium, it results in sodium-water reaction. In this reaction hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are formed. Due to the explosive risk of hydrogen system, hydrogen sensors are of great interest in this case. It is known that hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air once its concentration exceeds beyond the explosion limit of four percent. The advantages of FBG based hydrogen sensor over the other hydrogen sensors are its inherent property of safety from sparking, immunity to ambient electromagnetic interference. The sensing mechanism in this device is based on mechanical strain that is induced in the palladium coating when it absorbs hydrogen. This process physically stretches the grating and causes the grating period and grating's refractive index, to change. The Bragg wavelength shift is directly proportional to the strain induced and can be directly related to the percentage of hydrogen exposure. The online monitoring of palladium thin film coating on FBG is carried out and recorded the wavelength change and strain induced on the FBG. A hydrogen sensor set up have been fabricated which consists of SS vessel of capacity 10 litres, provided with pressure gauge, Argon filling line with a valve, Hydrogen injection line with flange, a vent line with valve and Hydrogen sensor fixing point. The Palladium coated FBG based Hydrogen sensor is tested in this experimental facility in the exposure of hydrogen in

  1. Sensitive Capacitive-type Hydrogen Sensor Based on Ni Thin Film in Different Hydrogen Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Ghobad Behzadi; Aval, Leila Fekri; Eslami, Shahnaz

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen sensors are micro/nano-structure that are used to locate hydrogen leaks. They are considered to have fast response/recovery time and long lifetime as compared to conventional gas sensors. In this paper, fabrication of sensitive capacitive-type hydrogen gas sensor based on Ni thin film has been investigated. The C-V curves of the sensor in different hydrogen concentrations have been reported. Dry oxidation was done in thermal chemical vapor deposition furnace (TCVD). For oxidation time of 5 min, the oxide thickness was 15 nm and for oxidation time 10 min, it was 20 nm. The Ni thin film as a catalytic metal was deposited on the oxide film using electron gun deposition. Two MOS sensors were compared with different oxide film thickness and different hydrogen concentrations. The highest response of the two MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 87.5% and 65.4% respectively. The fast response times for MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 8 s and 21 s, respectively. By increasing the hydrogen concentration from 1% to 4%, the response time for MOS sensor (20nm oxide thickness), was decreased from 28s to 21s. The recovery time was inversely increased from 237s to 360s. The experimental results showed that the MOS sensor based on Ni thin film had a quick response and a high sensitivity.

  2. A renewables-based South African energy system?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available in electricity mix from 75 to 50% by 2025 That's a reduction by 140 TWh/yr of nuclear power generation, which is the same amount of energy produced by 10 Koebergs This energy will be replaced by renewables This emphasises again the recently achieved cost...-competitiveness of renewableshttp://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NP-French- energy-transition-bill-adopted-2307155.html 8Agenda International context Renewables in South Africa Extreme renewables scenarios 9Integrated Resource Plan 2010 (IRP 2010): Plan of the power generation mix...

  3. 78 FR 28214 - Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1348-000] Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1734-000] Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-28-000] Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  6. Estimation of the hydrogen flux from a PEM electrolyzer, based in the solar irradiation measured in Zacatecas Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duron-Torres, S.M.; Villagrana-Munoz, L.E.; Garcia-Saldivar, V.M.; Escalante-Garcia, I.L. [Univ. Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas; Arriaga-Hurtado, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Pedro Escobedo (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The current cost of obtaining hydrogen from electrolyzers is higher than the cost of producing fossil fuels. However, with advances in technology and greater use of alternative energy sources, the cost of electrolytic hydrogen production may decrease to the point of being competitive. This study calculated how much hydrogen can be produced in a typical polymer exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer. Local solar irradiation measurements were carried out from November 2007 to April 2008 at the Campus Siglo 21 Solarimetric Station at Zacatecas University in Mexico. The mean irradiation measured was 6.6 kW-h per m{sup 2}. Based on the solar data obtained at the station, the hydrogen produced by a typical solar-hydrogen (SH) system was evaluated. The study showed that an important quantity of hydrogen as an energy vector could be obtained from solar radiation. April was determined to be the month of maximum hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen production was in November. The data obtained during this study can be used to evaluate the solar renewable energy resource expressed as hydrogen production. 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  7. Optical hydrogen sensors based on metal-hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaman, M.; Westerwaal, R.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.

    2012-06-01

    For many hydrogen related applications it is preferred to use optical hydrogen sensors above electrical systems. Optical sensors reduce the risk of ignition by spark formation and are less sensitive to electrical interference. Currently palladium and palladium alloys are used for most hydrogen sensors since they are well known for their hydrogen dissociation and absorption properties at relatively low temperatures. The disadvantages of palladium in sensors are the low optical response upon hydrogen loading, the cross sensitivity for oxygen and carbon, the limited detection range and the formation of micro-cracks after some hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles. In contrast to Pd, we find that the use of magnesium or rear earth bases metal-hydrides in optical hydrogen sensors allow tuning of the detection levels over a broad pressure range, while maintaining a high optical response. We demonstrate a stable detection layer for detecting hydrogen below 10% of the lower explosion limit in an oxygen rich environment. This detection layer is deposited at the bare end of a glass fiber as a micro-mirror and is covered with a thin layer of palladium. The palladium layer promotes the hydrogen uptake at room temperature and acts as a hydrogen selective membrane. To protect the sensor for a long time in air a final layer of a hydrophobic fluorine based coating is applied. Such a sensor can be used for example as safety detector in automotive applications. We find that this type of fiber optic hydrogen sensor is also suitable for hydrogen detection in liquids. As example we demonstrate a sensor for detecting a broad range of concentrations in transformer oil. Such a sensor can signal a warning when sparks inside a high voltage power transformer decompose the transformer oil over a long period.

  8. Using renewables and the co-production of hydrogen and electricity from CCS-equipped IGCC facilities, as a stepping stone towards the early development of a hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseldonckx, Dries; D'haeseleer, William

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, specific cases for the interaction between the future electricity-generation mix and a newly-developing hydrogen-production infrastructure is modelled with the model E-simulate. Namely, flexible integrated-gasification combined-cycle units (IGCC) are capable of producing both electricity and hydrogen in different ratios. When these units are part of the electricity-generation mix and when they are not operating at full load, they could be used to produce a certain amount of hydrogen, avoiding the costly installation of new IGCC units for hydrogen production. The same goes for the massive introduction of renewable energies (especially wind), possibly generating excess electricity from time to time, which could then perhaps be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically. However, although contra-intuitive, the interaction between both 'systems' turns out to be almost negligible. Firstly, it is shown that it is more beneficial to use IGCC facilities to produce hydrogen with, rather than (excess) wind-generated electricity due to the necessary electrolyser investment costs. But even flexible IGCC facilities do not seem to contribute substantially to the early development of a hydrogen economy. Namely, in most scenarios - which are combinations of a wide range of fuel prices and carbon taxes - one primary-energy carrier (natural gas or coal) seems to be dominant, pushing the other, and the corresponding technologies such as reformers or IGCCs, out of the market. (author)

  9. Passivity Enhancement in Renewable Energy Source Based Power Plant With Paralleled Grid-Connected VSIs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Harmonic instability is threatening the operation of renewable energy based power plants where multiple gridconnected VSIs are connected in parallel. To analyze and improve the stability of the grid-connected VSIs, the real part of the output admittance of the VSIs is first investigated......-connected VSIs can improve the stability of the renewable power plant....

  10. Renewing membership in three community-based health insurance schemes in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Panda (Pradeep); A. Chakraborty (Arpita); W.A. Raza (Wameq); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow renewal rate is a key challenge facing the sustainability of Community-based Health Insurance (CBHI) schemes. While there is a large literature on initial enrolment into such schemes, there is limited evidence on the factors that impede renewal. This paper uses longitudinal data to

  11. Profit-based conventional resource scheduling with renewable energy penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. Srikanth; Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-08-01

    Technological breakthroughs in renewable energy technologies (RETs) enabled them to attain grid parity thereby making them potential contenders for existing conventional resources. To examine the market participation of RETs, this paper formulates a scheduling problem accommodating energy market participation of wind- and solar-independent power producers (IPPs) treating both conventional and RETs as identical entities. Furthermore, constraints pertaining to penetration and curtailments of RETs are restructured. Additionally, an appropriate objective function for profit incurred by conventional resource IPPs through reserve market participation as a function of renewable energy curtailment is also proposed. The proposed concept is simulated with a test system comprising 10 conventional generation units in conjunction with solar photovoltaic (SPV) and wind energy generators (WEG). The simulation results indicate that renewable energy integration and its curtailment limits influence the market participation or scheduling strategies of conventional resources in both energy and reserve markets. Furthermore, load and reliability parameters are also affected.

  12. Optimal investment paths for future renewable based energy systems - Using the optimisation model Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Meibom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    that with an oil price at 100 $/barrel, a CO2 price at40 €/ton and the assumed penetration of hydrogen in the transport sector, it is economically optimal to cover more than 95% of the primary energy consumption for electricity and district heat by renewables in 2050. When the transport sector is converted......: A model for analyses of the electricity and CHP markets in the Baltic Sea Region. 〈www.Balmorel.com〉; 2001. [1

  13. Simulation of a stand-alone renewable hydrogen system for residential supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hervello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La simulación por ordenador es un primer paso lógico previo a la realización de un proyecto de una construcción física además de ser una herramienta para el diseño de redes de energía. Los sistemas combinados son una solución para mejorar la disponibilidad de la energía suministrada con medios renovables. El principal inconveniente de las fuentes de energías renovables es su naturaleza altamente estacional, con grandes variaciones en el tiempo que pueden impedir el uso como base de consumo y limitar las horas de máxima demanda. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar simulaciones para comprobar la autosuficiencia energética de una vivienda unifamiliar en base a energías renovables (eólica, solar-fotovoltaica utilizando como medio de almacenamiento un sistema híbrido de baterías e hidrógeno. Para ello se ha utilizado el programa Simulink®-Matlab® teniendo en cuenta los datos meteorológicos proporcionados por METEO-Galicia. El modelo puede ser aplicado para determinar la viabilidad de implementar una red energética en regiones específicas, y predecir el flujo de energía y el comportamiento del sistema durante todo el año.

  14. Market-based support schemes for renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union set ambitious goals regarding the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and the majority of European governments have implemented policies stimulating investments in such technologies. Support schemes differ in many aspects, not only in their effectivity and

  15. Probabilistic energy management of a renewable microgrid with hydrogen storage using self-adaptive charge search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Golestaneh, Faranak; Shafiei, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Micro Grids (MGs) are clusters of the DER (Distributed Energy Resource) units and loads which can operate in both grid-connected and island modes. This paper addresses a probabilistic cost optimization scheme under uncertain environment for the MGs with several multiple Distributed Generation (DG) units. The purpose of the proposed approach is to make decisions regarding to optimizing the production of the DG units and power exchange with the upstream network for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. A PEMFCPP (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel cell power plant) is considered as a prime mover of the CHP system. An electrochemical model for representation and performance of the PEMFC is applied. In order to best use of the FCPP, hydrogen production and storage management are carried out. An economic model is organized to calculate the operation cost of the MG based on the electrochemical model of the PEMFC and hydrogen storage. The proposed optimization scheme comprises a self-adaptive Charged System Search (CSS) linked to the 2m + 1 point estimate method. The 2m + 1 point estimate method is employed to cover the uncertainty in the following data: the hourly market tariffs, electrical and thermal load demands, available output power of the PhotoVoltaic (PV) and Wind Turbines (WT) units, fuel prices, hydrogen selling price, operation temperature of the FC and pressure of the reactant gases of FC. The Self-adaptive CSS (SCSS) is organized based on the CSS algorithm and is upgraded by some modification approaches, mainly a self-adaptive reformation approach. In the proposed reformation method, two updating approaches are considered. Each particle based on the ability of those approaches to find optimal solutions in the past iterations, chooses one of them to improve its solution. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified on a multiple-DG MG in the grid-connected mode. -- Highlights: ► Consider the effect of Hydrogen produced by PEMFC on MGs. ► Combines

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar-based multi-generation system with hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Murat; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a renewable-based multi-generation energy production system which produces a number of outputs, such as power, heating, cooling, hot water, hydrogen and oxygen is conducted. This solar-based multi-generation system consists of four main sub-systems: Rankine cycle, organic Rankine cycle, absorption cooling and heating, and hydrogen production and utilization. Exergy destruction ratios and rates, power or heat transfer rates, energy and exergy efficiencies of the system components are carried out. Some parametric studies are performed in order to examine the effects of varying operating conditions (e.g., reference temperature, direct solar radiation and receiver temperature) on the exergy efficiencies of the sub-systems as well as the whole system. The solar-based multi-generation system which has an exergy efficiency of 57.35%, is obtained to be higher than using these sub-systems separately. The evaluation of the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction for the sub-systems and the overall system show that the parabolic dish collectors have the highest exergy destruction rate among constituent parts of the solar-based multi-generation system, due to high temperature difference between the working fluid and collector receivers. -- Highlights: ► Development of a new multi-generation system for solar-based hydrogen production. ► Investigation of exergy efficiencies and destructions in each process of the system. ► Evaluation of varying operating conditions on the exergy destruction and efficiency

  17. Tool for optimal design and operation of hydrogen storage based autonomous energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberschachtsiek, B.; Lemken, D. [ZBT - Duisburg (Germany); Stark, M.; Krost, G. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Decentralized small scale electricity generation based on renewable energy sources usually necessitates decoupling of volatile power generation and consumption by means of energy storage. Hydrogen has proven as an eligible storage medium for mid- and long-term range, which - when indicated - can be reasonably complemented by accumulator short term storage. The selection of appropriate system components - sources, storage devices and the appertaining peripherals - is a demanding task which affords a high degree of freedom but, on the other hand, has to account for various operational dependencies and restrictions of system components, as well as for conduct of load and generation. An innovative tool facilitates the configuration and dimensioning of renewable energy based power supply systems with hydrogen storage paths, and allows for applying appropriate operation strategies. This tool accounts for the characteristics and performances of relevant power sources, loads, and types of energy storage, and also regards safety rules the energy system has to comply with. In particular, the tool is addressing small, detached and autonomous supply systems. (orig.)

  18. Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. S. Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.

  19. Web based system for renewable energy sources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtrakov, Stanko; Ivanov, Lachezar South

    2011-01-01

    The RES A ssess software is developed to assist in the preliminary assessment of potential renewable energy projects. The first release includes water pumping solar systems, passive solar systems, wind, and geothermal energy and biomass. The program guides the users in the design of their systems, by providing initial estimates. By changing the system’s parameters, users are able to quickly screen an effective technology and system size depending on load, climatic conditions, and season of use. This paper describes scope of models (radiation, wind, geothermal, heat transfer) used to predict energy production from energy resource systems, climatic variables and system parameters and software technology for realising the project. Keywords: Energy projects, Renewable energy, Web system

  20. Renewal processes based on generalized Mittag-Leffler waiting times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Dexter O.; Polito, Federico

    2013-03-01

    The fractional Poisson process has recently attracted experts from several fields of study. Its natural generalization of the ordinary Poisson process made the model more appealing for real-world applications. In this paper, we generalized the standard and fractional Poisson processes through the waiting time distribution, and showed their relations to an integral operator with a generalized Mittag-Leffler function in the kernel. The waiting times of the proposed renewal processes have the generalized Mittag-Leffler and stretched-squashed Mittag-Leffler distributions. Note that the generalizations naturally provide greater flexibility in modeling real-life renewal processes. Algorithms to simulate sample paths and to estimate the model parameters are derived. Note also that these procedures are necessary to make these models more usable in practice. State probabilities and other qualitative or quantitative features of the models are also discussed.

  1. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  2. Indonesia - Green Prosperity: Community-Based Off-Grid Renewable Energy Grant Portfolio

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Taken as a whole, this evaluation aims, to the extent possible, to validate the program logic underlying the portfolio of community-based off-grid renewable energy...

  3. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  4. Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Brayton, Daniel [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jorgensen, Scott W. [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.; Hou, Peter [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.

    2017-03-24

    The objectives of this project were: 1) optimize a hydrogen storage media based on LOC/homogeneous pincer catalyst (carried out at Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC) and 2) develop space, mass and energy efficient tank and reactor system to house and release hydrogen from the media (carried out at General Motor Research Center).

  5. Development of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-Based Hydrogen Purifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Dewberry, Ross H.; McCurry, Bryan D.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-based Hydrogen Purifier (MRSHP). This unique microwave powered technology was developed for the purification of a hydrogen stream produced by the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA). The PPA is a hydrogen recovery (from methane) post processor for NASA's Sabatier-based carbon dioxide reduction process. Embodied in the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), currently aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Sabatier reaction employs hydrogen to catalytically recover oxygen, in the form of water, from respiratory carbon dioxide produced by the crew. This same approach is base-lined for future service in the Air Revitalization system on extended missions into deep space where resupply is not practical. Accordingly, manned exploration to Mars may only become feasible with further closure of the air loop as afforded by the greater hydrogen recovery permitted by the PPA with subsequent hydrogen purification. By utilizing the well-known high sorbate loading capacity of molecular sieve 13x, coupled with microwave dielectric heating phenomenon, MRSHP technology is employed as a regenerative filter for a contaminated hydrogen gas stream. By design, freshly regenerated molecular sieve 13x contained in the MRSHP will remove contaminants from the effluent of a 1-CM scale PPA for several hours prior to breakthrough. By reversing flow and pulling a relative vacuum the MRSHP prototype then uses 2.45 GHz microwave power, applied through a novel coaxial antenna array, to rapidly heat the sorbent bed and drive off the contaminants in a short duration vacuum/thermal contaminant desorption step. Finally, following rapid cooling via room temperature cold plates, the MRSHP is again ready to serve as a hydrogen filter.

  6. Hydrogen from Biomass for Urban Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, William

    2008-02-18

    The objective of this project was to develop a method, at the pilot scale, for the economical production of hydrogen from peanut shells. During the project period a pilot scale process, based on the bench scale process developed at NREL (National Renewable Energy Lab), was developed and successfully operated to produce hydrogen from peanut shells. The technoeconomic analysis of the process suggests that the production of hydrogen via this method is cost-competitive with conventional means of hydrogen production.

  7. The renewable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses renewable energy sources as an alternative to a fossil fuel based economy. The topics discussed in the chapter include the historic aspects and current status of use of renewable energy, status of the renewable energy industry, market barriers to renewable energy, research and development and commercialization of renewable energy, the environmental and social costs associated with renewable energy, valuing future costs and benefits of energy use, and the potential market of renewable energy

  8. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Nur Hamidah Abdul; Heng, Lee Yook; Hashim, Uda

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a biosensor utilizing modified titania, TiO2 particles using aminopropyl-triethoxy-silane, (APTS) for developing hydrogen peroxide biosensor is presented. The surface of Ti-APTS particles is used as a support for hemoglobin immobilization via covalent bonding. The performance of the biosensor is determined by differential pulse voltammetry. The linear response was observed at the reduction current of redox mediator probe [FeCN6]3-/4- at potential between 0.22 V to 0.24 V. The preliminary result for electrochemistry study on this modified electrode is reported. The preliminary linear range is obtained from 1×10-2 M to 1×10-8 M.

  9. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  10. Application of fuel cell and electrolyzer as hydrogen energy storage system in energy management of electricity energy retailer in the presence of the renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Zare, Kazem; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity retailer determines selling price to consumers in the smart grids. • Real-time pricing is determined in comparison with fixed and time-of-use pricing. • Hydrogen storage systems and plug-in electric vehicles are used for energy sources. • Optimal charging and discharging power of electrolyser and fuel cell is determined. • Optimal charging and discharging power of plug-in electric vehicles is determined. - Abstract: The plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems containing electrolyzer, stored hydrogen tanks and fuel cell as energy storage systems can bring various flexibilities to the energy management problem. In this paper, selling price determination and energy management problem of an electricity retailer in the smart grid under uncertainties have been proposed. Multiple energy procurement sources containing pool market, bilateral contracts, distributed generation units, renewable energy sources (photovoltaic system and wind turbine), plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems are considered. The scenario-based stochastic method is used for uncertainty modeling of pool market prices, consumer demand, temperature, irradiation and wind speed. In the proposed model, the selling price is determined and compared by the retailer in the smart grid in three cases containing fixed pricing, time-of-use pricing and real-time pricing. It is shown that the selling price determination based on real-time pricing and flexibilities of plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems leads to higher expected profit. The proposed model is formulated as mixed-integer linear programming that can be solved under General Algebraic Modeling System. To validate the proposed model, three types of selling price determination under four case studies are utilized and the results are compared.

  11. Dynamic pricing based on a cloud computing framework to support the integration of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Thankappan Nair; Ashok Sankar

    2014-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method usi...

  12. A grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of hydrogen technologiess in Life Cycle Sustainability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...... the issue of uncertainty. The proposed methodology allows multi-person to participate in the decision-making process and to give linguistic evaluation on the weights of the criteria and the performance of the alternative technologies. In this paper, twelve hydrogen production technologies have been assessed...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....

  13. Development of a 15 K hydrogen-based sorption cooler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Johannes Faas; Holland, Herman J.; Meijer, R.J.; Linder, M.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2010-01-01

    At the University of Twente, a 15 K hydrogen-based sorption cooler is under development, which has no moving parts and, therefore, is essentially vibration-free. Moreover, it has the potential of a very long life. Although the cooler may operate standalone, it is designed to precool a helium-based

  14. 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-29

    The 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  15. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2015 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  16. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Tian, Tian

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  17. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  18. More Exact Approaches to Modernization and Renewal of the Manufacturing Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqib Daneshjo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalized development strategies in industry are currently focused on developing intelligent manufacturing concepts called Industry 4.0. Companies around the world will be forced to adopt this concept, especially in terms of maintaining competitiveness. One of the most serious obstacles of developing the concept of intelligent production is physical and moral obsolescence of the manufacturing base in general. Despite the fact that companies have historically renewed their manufacturing base, automated and robotized manufacturing processes and systems, nowadays highly current question of determining the form and timing of further modernization and renewal of the manufacturing base for intelligent production purposes. The authors present a model to determine optimal time to start upgrading and renewing the production base based on formulating and comparing costs of means of production throughout their lifecycle, including consideration of their moral obsolescence.

  19. CO2-based hydrogen storage - Hydrogen generation from formaldehyde/water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincado, Monica; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Prechtl, Martin H. G.

    2018-04-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the simplest and most significant industrially produced aldehyde. The global demand is about 30 megatons annually. Industrially it is produced by oxidation of methanol under energy intensive conditions. More recently, new fields of application for the use of formaldehyde and its derivatives as, i.e. cross-linker for resins or disinfectant, have been suggested. Dialkoxymethane has been envisioned as a combustion fuel for conventional engines or aqueous formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde may act as a liquid organic hydrogen carrier molecule (LOHC) for hydrogen generation to be used for hydrogen fuel cells. For the realization of these processes, it requires less energy-intensive technologies for the synthesis of formaldehyde. This overview summarizes the recent developments in low-temperature reductive synthesis of formaldehyde and its derivatives and low-temperature formaldehyde reforming. These aspects are important for the future demands on modern societies' energy management, in the form of a methanol and hydrogen economy, and the required formaldehyde feedstock for the manufacture of many formaldehyde-based daily products.

  20. On the comparison of stochastic model predictive control strategies applied to a hydrogen-based microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, P.; Valverde, L.; Maestre, J. M.; Ocampo-Martinez, C.; Bordons, C.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a performance comparison among three well-known stochastic model predictive control approaches, namely, multi-scenario, tree-based, and chance-constrained model predictive control is presented. To this end, three predictive controllers have been designed and implemented in a real renewable-hydrogen-based microgrid. The experimental set-up includes a PEM electrolyzer, lead-acid batteries, and a PEM fuel cell as main equipment. The real experimental results show significant differences from the plant components, mainly in terms of use of energy, for each implemented technique. Effectiveness, performance, advantages, and disadvantages of these techniques are extensively discussed and analyzed to give some valid criteria when selecting an appropriate stochastic predictive controller.

  1. Associations - Communities - Residents. Building together a citizen-based project of renewable energies - Methodological guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramard, Dominique; Fleury, Laurianne; Peyret, Albert; Ghesquiere, Christine; Kauber, Markus; Jourdain, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    This guide first outlines the challenges and stakes of citizen-based renewable energies: example of a necessary energy transition in Brittany, interest of a local production of renewable energies, examples in other European countries, and emergence of a citizen-based energy movement in France. The second part presents the four main phases of such a project (diagnosis, development, construction, and exploitation), the main issues to be addressed, and the main steps of a citizen-based renewable energy project (technical, legal and financial, and citizen-related aspects during the different phases). The third part describes how to elaborate a citizen-based project: by addressing the project dimensions, by defining a legal specification, by performing a provisional business model, by choosing an appropriate legal structure, by creating a project company, and by mobilizing local actors). The last part addresses how to finance the project: by building up own funds, by asking banks for support, and by citizen participation to investment

  2. Harvesting energy: Place and local entrepreneurship in community-based renewable energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Süsser, Diana; Döring, Martin; Ratter, Beate M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Transition towards a renewable energy supply initiates a physical (re)shaping of places and a social transformation of communities into renewable energy communities. Although socio-cultural challenges of energy transition have been recognised (), understandings about socio-geographic places of energy transition and their underlying social processes and structures are insufficiently studied and often remain underestimated. To close this gap, we theoretically and empirically analysed the multifaceted interplay between place, local entrepreneurship and ‘community renewable energy’. Our study is based on an analysis of regional documents and policy reports, and on qualitative interviews undertaken with inhabitants in the case-study municipality of Reußenköge (Germany). Our findings reveal two important aspects: Firstly, people's individual and shared place meanings which materialised in social, physical, historical and climate-related place-attachments and meanings of contested and innovative place are important ingredients bearing an impact on processes of adopting or rejecting renewables. Secondly, differentiated characteristics of entrepreneurs, namely grounded, collaborative, innovative, change-making, economic, communicating, networking and political aspects, appeared to be relevant for the acceptance and support in community-based renewable energy projects. Our findings reveal that energy policies, funding schemes and administrative structures should recognise local socio-geographic important elements in the context of a sustained and decentralised energy transition. - Highlights: • Places are resources of experiences, creativity and innovation for community renewables. • Energy policies should recognise place-based approaches to grassroots community energy actions. • A located view of multifaceted entrepreneurship is relevant to support community renewable energy. • Supportive funding schemes should empower community-based concepts.

  3. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  4. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  5. Supramolecular materials based on hydrogen-bonded polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, Gerrit; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, Olli; Binder, W

    2007-01-01

    Combining supramolecular principles with block copolymer self-assembly offers unique possibilities to create materials with responsive and/or tunable properties. The present chapter focuses on supramolecular materials based on hydrogen bonding and (block co-) polymers. Several cases will be

  6. A 100% renewable electricity mix? Analyses and optimisations. Testing the boundaries of renewable energy-based electricity development in metropolitan France by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubilly, Anne-Laure; Fournie, Laurent; Chiche, Alice; Faure, Nathalie; Bardet, Regis; Alais, Jean-Christophe; Girard, Robin; Bossavy, Arthur; Le Gars, Loic; Biau, Jean-Baptiste; Piqueras, Ugo; Peyrusse, Colombe

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, ADEME published its energy and climate scenarios for the period 2030 to 2050, suggesting possible avenues to achieve a four-fold reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050 by cutting energy consumption by half and deploying renewable energy sources for electricity generation on a substantial scale. Both of these objectives were the basis for targets set by the President of France and subsequently adopted by Parliament in the Energy Transition Law to promote green growth. With this new study, ADEME submits an exploratory scientific prospective study. Questions of balance between production and demand and cost efficiency of renewable-based electricity mixes are investigated through an advanced optimisation. The electricity mixes are theoretical: they are created from scratch and do not take into account the current situation or the path needed to achieve a 100% renewable-based electricity system. It aims at highlighting the technical measures to be implemented (strengthening grids, load shedding and storage) to support a policy of growth in renewable electricity technologies. It is also be used to identify the key factors for developing renewable technologies at lower cost such as lower costs of technologies, demand-side management, development of flexibility, support of R and D of least-mature technologies and the social acceptance of renewable electricity installations. (authors)

  7. Renewable fibers and bio-based materials for packaging applications - A review of recent developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Caisa; Bras, Julien; Mondragon, Inaki

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the state-of-the-art of material derived from the forest sector with respect to its potential for use in the packaging industry. Some innovative approaches are highlighted. The aim is to cover recent developments and key challenges for successful introduction of renewable...... materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material...

  8. A knowledge-based approach to the design of integrated renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakumar, R.; Abouzahr, I. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Engineering Energy Lab.); Ashenayi, K. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Integrated Renewable Energy Systems (IRES) utilize two or more renewable energy resources and end-use technologies to supply a variety of energy needs, often in a stand-alone mode. A knowledge-based design approach that minimizes the total capital cost at a pre-selected reliability level is presented. The reliability level is quantified by the loss of power supply probability (LPSP). The procedure includes some resource-need matching based on economics, the quality of energy needed, and the characteristics of the resource. A detailed example is presented in this paper and discussed to illustrate the usefullness of the design approach.

  9. International Data Base for the U.S. Renewable Energy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1986-05-01

    The International Data Base for the US Renewable Energy Industry was developed to provide the US renewable energy industry with background data for identifying and analyzing promising foreign market opportunities for their products and services. Specifically, the data base provides the following information for 161 developed and developing countries: (1) General Country Data--consisting of general energy indicators; (2) Energy Demand Data--covering commercial primary energy consumption; (3) Energy Resource Data--identifying annual average insolation, wind power, and river flow data; (4) Power System Data--indicating a wide range of electrical parameters; and (5) Business Data--including currency and credit worthiness data.

  10. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Jason S. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Grace, Robert C. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Rickerson, Wilson H. [Meister Consultants Group, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  11. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  12. Alternative transportation fuels in the USA: government hydrogen vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The linkage between natural gas-based transportation and hydrogen-based transportation strategies, two clean burning gaseous fuels, provides a strong policy rationale for increased government sponsorship of hydrogen vehicle research and demonstration programs. Existing federal and state government hydrogen vehicle projects are discussed in this paper: research at the NREL, alternate-fueled buses, Renewable Hydrogen for the State of Hawaii program, New York state alternative transportation fuels program, Colorado program. 9 refs

  13. Renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. The objective of this paper is to review the use of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and peroxides as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odor...

  14. Is the hydrogen production from biomass technology really sustainable? Answer by Life Cycle Emergy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainability performance of biomass-based hydrogen is in debate. This study aims at using Emergy Theory to investigate the sustainability hydrogen production from corn stalks by supercritical water gasification, all the inputs including renewable resources, non-renewable resources, purchased...

  15. Croatia's rural areas - renewable energy based electricity generation for isolated grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protic Sonja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Western Balkan states face the consequences of the Yugoslavian war, which left hometowns with dilapidated electricity grid connections, a high average age of power plant capacities and low integration of renewable energy sources, grid bottlenecks and a lack of competition. In order to supply all households with electricity, UNDP Croatia did a research on decentralized supply systems based on renewable energy sources. Decentralized supply systems offer cheaper electricity connections and provide faster support to rural development. This paper proposes a developed methodology to financially compare isolated grid solutions that primarily use renewable energies to an extension of the public electricity network to small regions in Croatia. Isolated grid supply proves to be very often a preferable option. Furthermore, it points out the lack of a reliable evaluation of non-monetizable aspects and promotes a new interdisciplinary approach.

  16. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    The long-term well-being of the nation and maintenance of a sustainable leadership position in agriculture, forestry, and manufacturing, clearly depend on current and near-term support of multidisciplinary research for the development of a reliable renewable resource base. This document sets a roadmap and priorities for that research. America needs leadership that will continue to recognize, support, and move rapidly to meet the need to expand the use of sustainable renewable resources. This roadmap has highlighted potential ways for progress and has identified goals in specific components of the system. Achieving success with these goals will provide the opportunity to hit the vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable resource use by 2020.

  17. The technology roadmap for plant/crop-based renewable resources 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    1999-02-22

    The long-term well-being of the nation and maintenance of a sustainable leadership position in agriculture, forestry, and manufacturing, clearly depend on current and near-term support of multidisciplinary research for the development of a reliable renewable resource base. This document sets a roadmap and priorities for that research. America needs leadership that will continue to recognize, support, and move rapidly to meet the need to expand the use of sustainable renewable resources. This roadmap has highlighted potential ways for progress and has identified goals in specific components of the system. Achieving success with these goals will provide the opportunity to hit the vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable resource use by 2020.

  18. A Switched-Capacitor Based High Conversion Ratio Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Yin, Zhijian; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    A high step-up switched-capacitor based converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter features high conversion ratio, low voltage stress and continuous input current, which makes it very suitable for renewable energy applications like photovoltaic systems. More importantly...... voltage gain, low voltage stress on the switches, continuous input current, and relatively high efficiency....

  19. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully

  20. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  1. Cardboard Based Packaging Materials as Renewable Thermal Insulation of Buildings: Thermal and Life Cycle Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Čekon, Miroslav; Struhala, Karel; Slávik, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Cardboard based packaging components represent a material with a significant potential of renewable exploitation in buildings. This study presents the results of thermal and environmental analysis of existing packaging materials compared with standard conventional thermal insulations. Experimental measurements were performed to identify the thermal performance of studied cardboard packaging materials. Real-size samples were experimentally tested in laboratory measurements. The thermal resi...

  2. Estimation of Hydrogen-Exchange Protection Factors from MD Simulation Based on Amide Hydrogen Bonding Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Hee; Venable, John D.; Steckler, Caitlin; Cellitti, Susan E.; Lesley, Scott A.; Spraggon, Glen; Brock, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) studies have provided critical insight into our understanding of protein folding, structure and dynamics. More recently, Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) has become a widely applicable tool for HX studies. The interpretation of the wealth of data generated by HX-MS experiments as well as other HX methods would greatly benefit from the availability of exchange predictions derived from structures or models for comparison with experiment. Most reported computational HX modeling studies have employed solvent-accessible-surface-area based metrics in attempts to interpret HX data on the basis of structures or models. In this study, a computational HX-MS prediction method based on classification of the amide hydrogen bonding modes mimicking the local unfolding model is demonstrated. Analysis of the NH bonding configurations from Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation snapshots is used to determine partitioning over bonded and non-bonded NH states and is directly mapped into a protection factor (PF) using a logistics growth function. Predicted PFs are then used for calculating deuteration values of peptides and compared with experimental data. Hydrogen exchange MS data for Fatty acid synthase thioesterase (FAS-TE) collected for a range of pHs and temperatures was used for detailed evaluation of the approach. High correlation between prediction and experiment for observable fragment peptides is observed in the FAS-TE and additional benchmarking systems that included various apo/holo proteins for which literature data were available. In addition, it is shown that HX modeling can improve experimental resolution through decomposition of in-exchange curves into rate classes, which correlate with prediction from MD. Successful rate class decompositions provide further evidence that the presented approach captures the underlying physical processes correctly at the single residue level. This assessment is further strengthened in a comparison of

  3. Development of an operation strategy for hydrogen production using solar PV energy based on fluid dynamic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amores Ernesto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline water electrolysis powered by renewable energy sources is one of the most promising strategies for environmentally friendly hydrogen production. However, wind and solar energy sources are highly dependent on weather conditions. As a result, power fluctuations affect the electrolyzer and cause several negative effects. Considering these limiting effects which reduce the water electrolysis efficiency, a novel operation strategy is proposed in this study. It is based on pumping the electrolyte according to the current density supplied by a solar PV module, in order to achieve the suitable fluid dynamics conditions in an electrolysis cell. To this aim, a mathematical model including the influence of electrode-membrane distance, temperature and electrolyte flow rate has been developed and used as optimization tool. The obtained results confirm the convenience of the selected strategy, especially when the electrolyzer is powered by renewable energies.

  4. Hydrogen-based energy storage unit for stand alone PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.

    2006-12-01

    Stand alone systems supplied only by a photovoltaic generator need an energy storage unit to be fully self sufficient. Lead acid batteries are commonly used to store energy because of their low cost, despite several operational constraints. A hydrogen-based energy storage unit (HESU) could be another candidate, including an electrolyser, a fuel cell and a hydrogen tank. However many efforts still need to be carried out for this technology to reach an industrial stage. In particular, market outlets must be clearly identified. The study of small stationary applications (few kW) is performed by numerical simulations. A simulator is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. It is mainly composed of a photovoltaic field and a storage unit (lead acid batteries, HESU, or hybrid storage HESU/batteries). The system component sizing is achieved in order to ensure the complete system autonomy over a whole year of operation. The simulator is tested with 160 load profiles (1 kW as a yearly mean value) and three locations (Algeria, France and Norway). Two coefficients are set in order to quantify the correlation between the power consumption of the end user and the renewable resource availability at both daily and yearly scales. Among the tested cases, a limit value of the yearly correlation coefficient came out, enabling to recommend the use of the most adapted storage to a considered case. There are cases for which using HESU instead of lead acid batteries can increase the system efficiency, decrease the size of the photovoltaic field and improve the exploitation of the renewable resource. In addition, hybridization of HESU with batteries always leads to system enhancements regarding its sizing and performance, with an efficiency increase by 10 to 40 % depending on the considered location. The good agreement between the simulation data and field data gathered on real systems enabled the validation of the models used in this study. (author)

  5. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Boyi [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Zhu, Yong, E-mail: y.zhu@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Dao, Dzung Viet [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2017-06-15

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  6. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Boyi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  7. High sensitivity hydrogen sensors based on GaN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Grym, Jan; Žďánský, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), s. 1661-1663 ISSN 1610-1642. [16th International Semiconducting and Insulating Materials Conference (SIMC-XVI). Stockholm, 19.06.2011-23.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10021 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Pt nanoparticles * Graphite based Schottky diodes * Hydrogen sensor * GaN Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. Overview of Light Hydrogen-Based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.

    This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions, and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading.

  9. A Renewed Focus on Strengths-Based Assessment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, Emma; Henley, Laura

    2016-01-01

    School-based practitioners are often called upon to provide assessment and recommendations for struggling students. These assessments often open doors to specialised services or interventions and provide opportunities for students to build competencies in areas of need. However, these assessments often fail to highlight the abilities of these…

  10. Carbohydrate-based renewable biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, and novel liamocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  11. Renewal Strategy and Community Based Organisations in Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    organisations in the study areas and Community-Based Poverty Reduction. Programme ... regions or areas. In Nigeria, for ... industries in the growing and developing urban areas. ..... Security network is also provided by the community. To ..... Development Efforts in Nigeria: Case Study of Anambra and Oyo State, NISER.

  12. Microfiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensor base on co-sputtered Pd/Ni composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaopeng; Yang, Minghong; Dai, Jixiang; Cheng, Cheng; Yuan, Yinqian

    2015-07-01

    A novel hydrogen sensor based on Pd/Ni co-sputtered coating on micro fiber Bragg grating (MFBG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The microfiber is stretched uniformly and the Bragg grating is directly inscribed on the microfiber without hydrogen loading using 193 nm ArF excimer laser and a phase mask. Palladium and nickel coatings are co-sputtered on the micro fiber Bragg grating for hydrogen sensing. The MFBG hydrogen sensors are characterized concerning their response to the hydrogen, ambient temperature and ambient refractive index, respectively. The performance of the proposed MFBG hydrogen sensor is obviously enhanced, especially when compared to standard FBG hydrogen sensors.

  13. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2311-000] Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  14. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1875-000] AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. 77 FR 2718 - CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-775-000] CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an...

  16. Renewable Molecular Flasks with NADH Models: Combination of Light-Driven Proton Reduction and Biomimetic Hydrogenation of Benzoxazinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Wei, Jianwei; Lu, Junhua; He, Cheng; Duan, Chunying

    2017-07-17

    Using small molecules with defined pockets to catalyze chemical transformations resulted in attractive catalytic syntheses that echo the remarkable properties of enzymes. By modulating the active site of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) model in a redox-active molecular flask, we combined biomimetic hydrogenation with in situ regeneration of the active site in a one-pot transformation using light as a clean energy source. This molecular flask facilitates the encapsulation of benzoxazinones for biomimetic hydrogenation of the substrates within the inner space of the flask using the active sites of the NADH models. The redox-active metal centers provide an active hydrogen source by light-driven proton reduction outside the pocket, allowing the in situ regeneration of the NADH models under irradiation. This new synthetic platform, which offers control over the location of the redox events, provides a regenerating system that exhibits high selectivity and efficiency and is extendable to benzoxazinone and quinoxalinone systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Renewable resources-based approach to biantennary glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Mojtaba; Salman, Abbas Abdulameer; Goh, Ean Wai; Heidelberg, Thorsten; Hussen, Rusnah Syahila Duali

    2018-01-31

    A new synthesis approach towards biantennary lipids of Guerbet glycoside type was developed based on oleic acid as sustainable resource. Functionalization of the double bond provided access to primary alcohols with α-branched C 19 -skeleton. Formulation studies with corresponding lactosides indicated formation of vesicles with high assembly stability. A relatively narrow bimodal size distribution of the latter, which turns into a narrow unimodal distribution of small vesicles upon addition of an ionic cosurfactant, suggests potential for a vesicular drug delivery system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen gas sample environment for TOSCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibble, Mark G; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J; Goodway, Chris M; Evans, Beth E; Kirichek, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The idea of using hydrogen as a fuel has gained immense popularity over many years. Hydrogen is abundant, can be produced from renewable resources and is not a greenhouse gas. However development of hydrogen based technology is impossible without understanding of physical and chemical processes that involve hydrogen sometime in extreme conditions such as high pressure or low and high temperatures. Neutron spectroscopy allows measurement of a hydrogen atom motion in variety of samples. Here we describe and discuss a sample environment kit developed for hydrogen gas experiment in a broad range of pressure up to 7 kbar and temperatures from 4 K to 473 K. We also describe para-hydrogen rig which produces para-hydrogen gas required for studying the rotational line of molecular hydrogen

  19. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  20. Using net energy output as the base to develop renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw Daigee; Hung Mingfeng; Lin Yihao

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase energy security, production of renewable energies has been highly promoted by governments around the world in recent years. The typical base of various policy instruments used for this purpose is gross energy output of renewable energy. However, we show that basing policy instruments on gross energy output will result in problems associated with energy waste, economic inefficiency, and negative environmental effects. We recommend using net energy output as the base to apply price or quantity measures because it is net energy output, not gross energy output, which contributes to energy security. The promotion of gross energy output does not guarantee a positive amount of net energy output. By basing policy instruments on net energy output, energy security can be enhanced and the above mentioned problems can be avoided.

  1. A State-Based Approach to Building a Liquid National Market for Renewable Energy Certificates: The REC-EX Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berendt, Christopher B.

    2006-01-01

    RECs are the currency driving the growth of renewable energy markets and the sale of RECs from renewable energy generation projects could promise a predictable return. But the existing REC markets in the U.S. sorely lack the liquidity needed to make good on that promise. The author proposes a Renewable Energy Certificate Exchange program rooted in the construction of a national trading platform for RECs in tandem with the execution of a new agreement among the states with REC-based renewable portfolio standards. (author)

  2. Carbon Reduction Measures-Based LCA of Prefabricated Temporary Housing with Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporary housing plays an important role in providing secure, hygienic, private, and comfortable shelter in the aftermath of disaster (such as flood, fire, earthquake, etc.. Additionally, temporary housing can also be used as a sustainable form of on-site residences for construction workers. While most of the building components used in temporary housing can be manufactured in a plant, prefabrication technology improves the production efficiency of temporary housing; furthermore, integrated renewable energy systems, for example, solar photovoltaic (PV system, offer benefits for temporary housing operations. In order to assess the environmental impacts of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems, this study first divides the life cycle of temporary housing into six stages, and then establishes a life cycle assessment (LCA model for each stage. Furthermore, with the aim of reducing the environmental impacts, life cycle carbon reduction measures are proposed for each stage of temporary housing. The proposed methodology is demonstrated using a case study in China. Based on the proposed carbon reduction measures, the LCA of a prefabricated temporary housing case study building equipped with renewable energy systems indicates a carbon emissions intensity of 35.7 kg/m2·per year, as well as a reduction in material embodied emissions of 18%, assembly emissions of 17.5%, and operational emissions of 91.5%. This research proposes a carbon reduction-driven LCA of temporary housing and contributes to promoting sustainable development of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems.

  3. Environmental impacts of renewable energy. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based analysis of cumulative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoden, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The energy transition and thus turning away from fossil fuels and nuclear energy sources is based on an increased expansion of renewable energies. This expansion mainly take place in nature and the landscape, which conflicts with the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act concerning scenery or the consequences of monoculture cultivation of energy crops. What happens, however, if more than one type of renewables occur compressed in a landscape that is investigated in this work. Result from cumulative effects are extended conflict with the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act or possibly have positive effects can be seen? A ''cumulative effect'' is defined as an additive-synergistic overall effect of all a protected interest of respective impact factors. These arise from one or more projects / plans and influence from a variety of ways. As part of the investigations carried out it is clear that extended conflicts may arise in relation to the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act by cumulative effects of renewable energies. To prevent these conflicts, policies and regulations in the context of spatial planning is necessary to enable a focusing of spatial planning for a sustainable expansion of renewable energy. [de

  4. Public perceptions of opportunities for community-based renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.C.; Simmons, E.A.; Convery, I.; Weatherall, A.

    2008-01-01

    It now widely acknowledged that the UK needs to increase renewable energy capacity and it has been claimed that community-based renewable energy projects, with high levels of public participation, are more likely to be accepted by the public than top-down development of large-scale schemes and may bring additional benefits such as increased engagement with sustainable energy issues. However, little research has investigated public expectations of how people would like to participate in such projects and why. The aim of this study was to explore one rural community's response to a proposed sustainable energy project. A questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews provided quantitative and qualitative data. There was widespread support for local generation and use of renewable energy, with respondents expecting benefits from a project in terms of increased community spirit and conservation of natural resources. However, desire for active involvement was lower and residents viewed themselves participating as consultees, rather than project leaders. We suggest community renewable energy projects are likely to gain public acceptance but are unlikely to become widespread without greater institutional support

  5. Hydrogen-based energy storage unit for stand alone PV systems; L'hydrogene electrolytique comme moyen de stockage d'electricite pour systemes photovoltaiques isoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, J

    2006-12-15

    Stand alone systems supplied only by a photovoltaic generator need an energy storage unit to be fully self sufficient. Lead acid batteries are commonly used to store energy because of their low cost, despite several operational constraints. A hydrogen-based energy storage unit (HESU) could be another candidate, including an electrolyser, a fuel cell and a hydrogen tank. However many efforts still need to be carried out for this technology to reach an industrial stage. In particular, market outlets must be clearly identified. The study of small stationary applications (few kW) is performed by numerical simulations. A simulator is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. It is mainly composed of a photovoltaic field and a storage unit (lead acid batteries, HESU, or hybrid storage HESU/batteries). The system component sizing is achieved in order to ensure the complete system autonomy over a whole year of operation. The simulator is tested with 160 load profiles (1 kW as a yearly mean value) and three locations (Algeria, France and Norway). Two coefficients are set in order to quantify the correlation between the power consumption of the end user and the renewable resource availability at both daily and yearly scales. Among the tested cases, a limit value of the yearly correlation coefficient came out, enabling to recommend the use of the most adapted storage to a considered case. There are cases for which using HESU instead of lead acid batteries can increase the system efficiency, decrease the size of the photovoltaic field and improve the exploitation of the renewable resource. In addition, hybridization of HESU with batteries always leads to system enhancements regarding its sizing and performance, with an efficiency increase by 10 to 40 % depending on the considered location. The good agreement between the simulation data and field data gathered on real systems enabled the validation of the models used in this study. (author)

  6. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  7. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-10-07

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  8. Technical Potential Assessment for the Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Process: A GIS-Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based energy resource and technical potential assessments identify areas capable of supporting high levels of renewable energy (RE) development as part of a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning process. This document expands on the REZ Process to aid practitioners in conducting GIS-based RE resource and technical potential assessments. The REZ process is an approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure that connects REZs - geographic areas that have high-quality RE resources, suitable topography and land-use designations, and demonstrated developer interest - to the power system. The REZ process helps to increase the share of solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other resources while also maintaining reliability and economics.

  9. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  10. [Applications of self-renewing coatings to improved vacuum materials, hydrogen permeation barriers and sputter-resistant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The phenomena of Gibbsian segregation, radiation-induced segregation and radiation-induced precipitation modify the surface composition and properties of alloys and compounds. In some cases, the change in properties is both substantial and useful, the most notable example being that of stainless steel. When surface-modifying phenomena are investigated as a class, a number of additional materials emerge as candidates for study, having potential applications in a number of technologically important areas. These materials are predicted to produce self-sustaining coatings which provide hydrogen permeation barriers, low-sticking and stimulated desorption coefficients for vacuum applications, and low-Z, sputtering-resistant surfaces for fusion applications. Several examples of each type of material are presented, along with a discussion of the experimental verification of their properties and the status of the corresponding applications development program

  11. A bio-inspired molecular water oxidation catalyst for renewable hydrogen generation: an examination of salt effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Robin; Rotstein, Miriam; Koo, Annette; Dismukes, G. Charles; Swiegers, Gerhard F.; Spiccia, Leone

    2009-08-01

    Most transport fuels are derived from fossil fuels, generate greenhouse gases, and consume significant amounts of water in the extraction, purification, and/or burning processes. The generation of hydrogen using solar energy to split water, ideally from abundant water sources such as sea water or other non-potable sources, could potentially provide an unlimited, clean fuel for the future. Solar, electrochemical water splitting typically combines a photoanode at which water oxidation occurs, with a cathode for proton reduction to hydrogen. In recent work, we have found that a bioinspired tetra-manganese cluster catalyzes water oxidation at relatively low overpotentials (0.38 V) when doped into a Nafion proton conduction membrane deposited on a suitable electrode surface, and illuminated with visible light. We report here that this assembly is active in aqueous and organic electrolyte solutions containing a range of different salts in varying concentrations. Similar photocurrents were obtained using electrolytes containing 0.0 - 0.5 M sodium sulfate, sodium perchlorate or sodium chloride. A slight decline in photocurrent was observed for sodium perchlorate but only at and above 5.0 M concentration. In acetonitrile and acetone solutions containing 10% water, increasing the electrolyte concentration was found to result in leaching of the catalytic species from the membrane and a decrease in photocurrent. Leaching was not observed when the system was tested in an ionic liquid containing water, however, a lower photocurrent was generated than observed in aqueous electrolyte. We conclude that immersion of the membrane in an aqueous solution containing an electrolyte concentration of 0.05 - 0.5M represent good conditions for operation for the cubium/Nafion catalytic system.

  12. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook

    2010-12-31

    evaluate a wider range of conditions and address some of the uncertainties that exist in the evaluation of hydrogen emissions. A simplified global hydrogen cycle model that simulates hydrogen dynamics in the troposphere and stratosphere was developed. A Monte Carlo framework was developed to address hydrogen uptake variability for different types of ecosystems. Findings 1.Converting vehicles worldwide in 2050 to SHFCVs at 90% penetration in developed countries and 45% penetration in other countries is expected to reduce NOx, CO, CO2, CH4, some other organic gases, ozone, PAN, black carbon, and other particle components in the troposphere, but may increase some other organic gases, depending on emissions. Conversion to SHFCVs is also expected to cool the troposphere and warm the stratosphere, but to a lesser extent than WHFCVs. Finally, SHFCVs are expected to increase UTLS ozone while decreasing upper stratospheric ozone, but to a lesser extent than WHFCVs. 2.The predicted criteria pollutant concentrations from the GATOR-GCMOM simulations indicated that near-surface annual mean concentrations in the US are likely to increase from the 2000 base case to the 2050 A1B base case for CO2 and ozone due to the increased economic activity, but to decrease for CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 due to improved pollution control equipment and energy efficiencies. The shift to SHFCVs in 2050 was predicted to result in decreased concentrations for all the criteria pollutants, except for SO2 and PM10. The higher predicted concentrations for SO2 and PM10 were attributed to increased emissions using the steam-reforming method to generate H2. If renewable methods such as wind-based electrolysis were used to generate H2, the emissions of SO2 and PM10 would be lower. 3.The effects on air quality, human health, ecosystem, and building structures were quantified by comparing the GATOR-GCMOM model output and accepted health and ecosystem effects levels and ambient air quality criteria. Shifting to HFCVs is

  13. Hydrogen embrittlement considerations in niobium-base alloys for application in the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.T.; Hull, A.B.; Loomis, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ITER divertor will be subjected to hydrogen from aqueous corrosion by the coolant and by transfer from the plasma. Global hydrogen concentrations are one factor in assessing hydrogen embrittlement but local concentrations affected by source fluxes and thermotransport in thermal gradients are more important considerations. Global hydrogen concentrations is some corrosion- tested alloys will be presented and interpreted. The degradation of mechanical properties of Nb-base alloys due to hydrogen is a complex function of temperature, hydrogen concentration, stresses and alloy composition. The known tendencies for embrittlement and hydride formation in Nb alloys are reviewed

  14. Dynamic pricing based on a cloud computing framework to support the integration of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Thankappan Nair

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method using real-time data based on a cloud computing framework is proposed to address the aforementioned issues. The case study indicates that the dynamic pricing captures the variation of energy flow in the household. The dynamic renewable factor introduced in the model supports consumer oriented pricing. A new method is presented in this study to determine the appropriate level of photovoltaic (PV penetration in the distribution system based on voltage stability aspect. The load flow study result for the electric grid in Kerala, India, indicates that the overvoltage caused by various PV penetration levels up to 33% is within the voltage limits defined for distribution feeders. The result justifies the selected level of penetration.

  15. Release of hydrogen isotopes from carbon based fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the annealing behavior of hydrogen isotopes in carbon based materials. Also, the density of the material and structural changes after thermal treatment and ion irradiation are examined. The study of hydrogen diffusion in diamondlike carbon films revealed an activation energy of 2.0 eV, while the deuterium diffusion, due to better measuring sensitivity, is found to be concentration dependent with the effective diffusion coefficient becoming smaller with decreasing deuterium concentration. To explain the experimentally observed profiles, a model according to which atomic deuterium diffuses and deuterium in clusters is immobile is developed. The concentration of immobile D was assumed to be an analytical function of the total D concentration. To describe the annealing behavior of D incorporated in diamondlike carbon films during the deposition process, a model taking into account diffusion of free D and thermal detrapping and trapping of D was developed. The difference in the analysis explains the disagreement of activation energy (1.5 ± 0.2 eV) with the value of 2,9± 0.1 eV obtained for D implanted samples earlier. The same model was applied to describe the experimental profiles in Si doped diamondlike carbon films. Si affects the retention of D in diamondlike carbon films. The amount of D depends on Si content in the co-deposited but not implanted samples. Besides, Si incorporation into carbon coating decreases to some extent the graphitization of the films and leads to formation of a structure which is stable under thermal treatment and ion irradiation. Hydrogen migration in the hydrogen and methane co-deposited films was also studied. In samples produced in methane atmosphere and annealed at different temperatures, the hydrogen concentration level decreases in the bulk, with more pronounced release at the surface region. In the case of coatings deposited by a methane ion beam, the H level also decreases with increasing

  16. Comparative costs of hydrogen produced from photovoltaic electrolysis and from photoelectrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The need for hydrogen produced from renewable energy sources is the key element to the world's large-scale usage of hydrogen and to the hydrogen economy envisioned by the World Hydrogen Energy Association. Renewables-produced hydrogen is also the most technically difficult problem to be solved. Hydrogen will never achieve large-scale usage until it can be competitively produced from renewable energy. One of the important questions that has to be addressed is: What are the economics of present and expected future technologies that will be used to produce hydrogen from renewables? The objective of this study is to give an answer to this question by determining the cost of hydrogen (in U.S.$/MBtu) from competing renewable production technologies. It should be noted that the costs and efficiencies assumed in this paper are assumptions of the author, and that the values are expected to be achieved after additional research on photoelectrochemical process technologies. The cost analysis performed is for three types of hydrogen (H 2 ) produced from five different types of renewable processes: photovoltaic (PV) electrolysis, three photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes and higher temperature electrolysis (HTE). The costs and efficiencies for PV, PEC and HTE processes are established for present day, and for expected costs and efficiencies 10 years into the future. A second objective of this analysis is to set base case costs of PV electrolysis. For any other renewable process, the costs for PV electrolysis, which is existing technology, sets the numbers which the other processes must better. (author)

  17. Ruled-based control of off-grid desalination powered by renewable energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Serna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rule-based control is presented for desalination plants operating under variable, renewable power availability. This control algorithm is based on two sets of rules: first, a list that prioritizes the reverse osmosis (RO units of the plant is created, based on the current state and the expected water demand; secondly, the available energy is then dispatched to these units following this prioritized list. The selected strategy is tested on a specific case study: a reverse osmosis plant designed for the production of desalinated water powered by wind and wave energy. Simulation results illustrate the correct performance of the plant under this control.

  18. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  19. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H.; Farmer, Thomas J.; Hunt, Andrew J.; Sherwood, James

    2015-01-01

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents. PMID:26225963

  20. Incentive-based Financial Support Scheme for Immature Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2015-01-01

    Most of today’s renewable energy systems rely heavily on investments as well as public financial support. This support is often given by means of a higher sales price for each kWh produced, i.e. feed-in tariffs (FITs), green certificates or Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs), or by a fixed...... amount, being a percentage of the construction costs of the facility. All these ways of financing have different downsides. The feed-in tariff based kWh prices have some incentives to improve the technology, but enables infeasible solutions to stay financially supported even while R&D is in status quo....... The fixed amount only helps with installation costs, which should not be an issue once the technology is sufficiently feasible. This means that the current ways of granting financial support all lack incentives for increasing production or decreasing construction costs. This paper presents a unique scheme...

  1. Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.

    2006-01-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy

  2. Map of decentralised energy potential based on renewable energy sources in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D. R.; Ban, M.; Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Republic of Croatia is almost completely electrified there are still regions where electricity network is not in place or network capacity is insufficient. These regions usually include areas of special state care (underdeveloped, war-affected or depopulated areas), islands, and mountainous areas. However, they often have good renewable energy potential. Decentralised energy generation based on renewable energy sources (wind power, hydropower, solar energy, biomass) has potential to ensure energy supply to users in remote and often isolated rural areas (off-grid applications). Such applications will primarily be related to tourism business in mountainous, rural and island/coastal regions. Also, agriculture, wood-processing and food-processing industries will potentially be interested in application of decentralised energy generation systems, most likely those using biomass as fuel (for example cogeneration facilities, connected on-grid).(author)

  3. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat......- and electricity supply of typical urban communities is possible and can be implemented in a cost-efficient way, if the energy planning is done systematically and in coherence with urban planning....

  4. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities......, as responsible entities for physical planning, can hold a key role in transforming energy systems towards carbon-neutrality, based on renewable energies. The implementation should be approached at community scale, which has advantages compared to only focusing on buildings or cities. But community energy...... planning can be a complex and time-consuming process. Many municipalities hesitate to initiate such a process, because of missing guidelines and uncertainty about possible energy potentials. Case studies help to understand applied methodologies and could show available energy potentials in different local...

  5. Renewable energy-based electricity for rural social and economic development in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a project whose goals include the establishment of a pilot renewable energy-based rural energy services enterprise to serve communities in the Mamprusi East District, focused on: economically productive activities; community services; household non-thermal energy. The program also seeks to establish the technical, economic, financial, institutional, and socio-cultural requirements for sustainability, to demonstrate bankability and financial sustainability, as a pre-investment prelude to commercial growth of such projects, and to establish technical, financial, and service performance standards for private sector rural energy service companies. This project is being implemented now because the government is undergoing structural reform, including privatization of the power sector, there is active foreign capital available for international development, and the government and people are committed to and able to pay for renewable energy services.

  6. Hydrogen-Based Energy Conservation System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and many others often rely on delivery of cryogenic hydrogen to meet their facility needs. NASA's Stennis Space Center is one of the largest users of hydrogen,...

  7. The potential of organic polymer-based hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Peter M; Butler, Anna; Selbie, James; Mahmood, Khalid; McKeown, Neil B; Ghanem, Bader; Msayib, Kadhum; Book, David; Walton, Allan

    2007-04-21

    The challenge of storing hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric density for automotive applications has prompted investigations into the potential of cryo-adsorption on the internal surface area of microporous organic polymers. A range of Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIMs) has been studied, the best PIM to date (a network-PIM incorporating a triptycene subunit) taking up 2.7% H(2) by mass at 10 bar/77 K. HyperCrosslinked Polymers (HCPs) also show promising performance as H(2) storage materials, particularly at pressures >10 bar. The N(2) and H(2) adsorption behaviour at 77 K of six PIMs and a HCP are compared. Surface areas based on Langmuir plots of H(2) adsorption at high pressure are shown to provide a useful guide to hydrogen capacity, but Langmuir plots based on low pressure data underestimate the potential H(2) uptake. The micropore distribution influences the form of the H(2) isotherm, a higher concentration of ultramicropores (pore size <0.7 nm) being associated with enhanced low pressure adsorption.

  8. ''Green'' path from fossil-based to hydrogen economy: An overview of carbon-neutral technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim Z. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States); Veziroglu, T. Nejat [Clean Energy Research Institute, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    While the dominant role of hydrogen in a sustainable energy future is widely accepted, the strategies for the transition from fossil-based to hydrogen economy are still actively debated. This paper emphasizes the role of carbon-neutral technologies and fuels during the transition period. To satisfy the world's growing appetite for energy and keep our planet healthy, at least 10 TW (or terawatt) of carbon-free power has to be produced by mid-century. Three prominent options discussed in the literature include: decarbonization of fossil energy, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. These options are analyzed in this paper with a special emphasis on the role of hydrogen as a carbon-free energy carrier. In particular, the authors compare various fossil decarbonization strategies and evaluate the potential of nuclear and renewable energy resources to meet the 10 TW target. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies for production of carbon-free energy carriers and transportation fuels, and the assessment of their commercial potential is provided. It is shown that neither of these three options alone could provide 10 TW of carbon-neutral power without major changes in the existing infrastructure, and/or technological breakthroughs in many areas, and/or a considerable environmental risk. The authors propose a scenario for the transition from current fossil-based to hydrogen economy that includes two key elements: (i) changing the fossil decarbonization strategy from one based on CO{sub 2} sequestration to one that involves sequestration and/or utilization of solid carbon, and (ii) producing carbon-neutral synthetic fuels from bio-carbon and hydrogen generated from water using carbon-free sources (nuclear, solar, wind, geothermal). This strategy would allow taking advantage of the existing fuel infrastructure without an adverse environmental impact, and it would secure a smooth carbon-neutral transition from fossil-based to future hydrogen economy. (author)

  9. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  10. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  11. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  12. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  13. Analysis of a Hydrogen Isotope separation process based on a continuous hydrogen-water exchange on column Transitions of Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodor, I.

    1988-01-01

    The analysed system consists of two plane-parallel walls, a water film flows down a wall, a catalyst layer is disposed on the other, a water vapour-hydrogen mixture moves up between the walls. A mathematical treatment is presented which permits to calculate the overall transfer coefficients and other parameters of practical interest from the local differential equations. (author)

  14. Hydrogen Sensors Using Nitride-Based Semiconductor Diodes: The Role of Metal/Semiconductor Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Irokawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I review my recent results in investigating hydrogen sensors using nitride-based semiconductor diodes, focusing on the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with the devices. Firstly, effects of interfacial modification in the devices on hydrogen detection sensitivity are discussed. Surface defects of GaN under Schottky electrodes do not play a critical role in hydrogen sensing characteristics. However, dielectric layers inserted in metal/semiconductor interfaces are found to cause dramatic changes in hydrogen sensing performance, implying that chemical selectivity to hydrogen could be realized. The capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristics reveal that the work function change in the Schottky metal is not responsible mechanism for hydrogen sensitivity. The interface between the metal and the semiconductor plays a critical role in the interaction of hydrogen with semiconductor devises. Secondly, low-frequency C-V characterization is employed to investigate the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with diodes. As a result, it is suggested that the formation of a metal/semiconductor interfacial polarization could be attributed to hydrogen-related dipoles. In addition, using low-frequency C-V characterization leads to clear detection of 100 ppm hydrogen even at room temperature where it is hard to detect hydrogen by using conventional current-voltage (I-V characterization, suggesting that low-frequency C-V method would be effective in detecting very low hydrogen concentrations.

  15. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i

  16. Energy Cooperation in Ultradense Network Powered by Renewable Energy Based on Cluster and Learning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Duo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method about renewable energy cooperation among small base stations (SBSs is proposed, which is for maximizing the energy efficiency in ultradense network (UDN. In UDN each SBS is equipped with energy harvesting (EH unit, and the energy arrival times are modeled as a Poisson counting process. Firstly, SBSs of large traffic demands are selected as the clustering centers, and then all SBSs are clustered using dynamic k-means algorithm. Secondly, SBSs coordinate their renewable energy within each formed cluster. The process of energy cooperation among SBSs is considered as Markov decision process. Q-learning algorithm is utilized to optimize energy cooperation. In the algorithm there are four different actions and their corresponding reward functions. Q-learning explores the action as much as possible and predicts better action by calculating reward. In addition, ε greedy policy is used to ensure the algorithm convergence. Finally, simulation results show that the new method reduces data dimension and improves calculation speed, which furthermore improves the utilization of renewable energy and promotes the performance of UDN. Through online optimization, the proposed method can significantly improve the energy utilization rate and data transmission rate.

  17. Electricity system based on 100% renewable energy for India and SAARC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gulagi

    Full Text Available The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand, and showed the system cost decreased by 5% and total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS alternatives. One of the limitations of this study is the cost of land for installation of renewables which is not included in the LCOE calculations, but regarded as a minor contribution.

  18. Electricity system based on 100% renewable energy for India and SAARC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulagi, Ashish; Choudhary, Piyush; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand, and showed the system cost decreased by 5% and total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives. One of the limitations of this study is the cost of land for installation of renewables which is not included in the LCOE calculations, but regarded as a minor contribution.

  19. VHTR-based Nuclear Hydrogen Plant Analysis for Hydrogen Production with SI, HyS, and HTSE Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Youngjoon; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Minhwan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, analyses of material and heat balances on the SI, HyS, and HTSE processes coupled to a Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) were performed. The hydrogen production efficiency including the thermal to electric energy ratio demanded from each process is found and the normalized evaluation results obtained from three processes are compared to each other. The currently technological issues to maintain the long term continuous operation of each process will be discussed at the conference site. VHTR-based nuclear hydrogen plant analysis for hydrogen production with SI, HyS, and HTSE facilities has been carried out to determine the thermal efficiency. It is evident that the thermal to electrical energy ratio demanded from each hydrogen production process is an important parameter to select the adequate process for hydrogen production. To improve the hydrogen production efficiency in the SI process coupled to the VHTR without electrical power generation, the demand of electrical energy in the SI process should be minimized by eliminating an electrodialysis step to break through the azeotrope of the HI/I_2/H_2O ternary aqueous solution

  20. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  1. Realisable scenarios for a future electricity supply based 100% on renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czisch, G.; Giebel, G.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the resource and climate problems, it seems obvious that we must transform our energy system into one using only renewable energies. But questions arise how such a system should be structured, which techniques should be used and, of course, how costly it might be. These questions were the focus of a study which investigated the cost optimum of a future renewable electricity supply for Europe and its closer Asian and African neighbourhood. The resulting scenarios are based on a broad data basis of the electricity consumption and for renewable energies. A linear optimisation determines the best system configuration and temporal dispatch of all components. The outcome of the scenarios can be considered as being a scientific breakthrough since it proves that a totally renewable electricity supply is possible even with current technology and at the same time is affordable for our national economies. In the conservative base case scenario, wind power would dominate the production spread over the better wind areas within the whole supply area, connected with the demand centres via HVDC transmission. The transmission system, furthermore, powerfully integrates the existing storage hydropower to provide for backup co-equally assisted by biomass power and supported by solar thermal electricity. The main results of the different scenarios can be summarized as follows: 1) A totally renewable electricity supply for Europe and its neighbourhood is possible and affordable. 2) Electricity import from non-European neighbour countries can be a very valuable and substantial component of a future supply. 3) Smoothing effects by the use of sources at locations in different climate zones improve the security of the supply and reduce the costs. 4) A large-scale co-operation of many different countries opens up for the possibility to combine the goals of development policy and climate politics in a multilateral win-win strategy. To aid implementation, an international extension

  2. Demonstration of Security Benefits of Renewable Generation at FE Warren Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, William M.; Myers, Kurt; Seifert, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Report detailing field demonstration of security benefits of renewable generation at FE Warren Air Force Base. The 2006 National Defense Appropriations Act directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to coordinate the testing of a wind turbine (new to the U.S. market) at an Air Force installation as a follow on to analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laborabory (PNNL) as part of the 2005 DOD Renewable Assessment. The earlier study simulated the performance of renewable power produced from wind turbines, solar photovoltaics and geothermal energy as part of a Base-wide energy security solution. The simulation concluded that integration of renewable generating resources with emergency generators, typically diesel-fired, could significantly enhance energy security and extend power supplies during prolonged commercial grid power outages. A simulation is insufficient to convince skeptics of the reliability of renewable resources, especially those that produce power only intermittently, like wind and solar. Therefore, Congress requested a field demonstration be performed using a wind turbine because wind power is the most erratic of all renewable resources. Following this direction, the Air Force identified a site for the wind turbine demonstration and contracted with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and PNNL to conduct the demonstration and implement other provisions in the appropriation bill. INL identified a wind turbine that met the legislative requirements (the Gamesa G-80), and with the support of PNNL and the Air Force, selected FE Warren Air Force Base for the demonstration. FE Warren has an excellent wind resource and was already a host to two wind turbines and could accommodate a third. The G-80 is rated at 2 MWs versus the two existing 660 kW turbines, consequently wind production would more than double. Procurement, siting, and acceptance testing of the new turbine was completed in early 2010. The field test was conducted in late April 2010

  3. Improved Mg-based alloys for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, K.; Ming, L.; Stetson, N.T.; Evans, J. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The overall objective of this on-going work is to develop low temperature alloys capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen, allowing greater than for 2 wt.% at the system level which is required by most applications. Surface modification of Mg can be used to improve its H-sorption kinetics. The authors show here that the same Mg-transition metal-based multi-component alloy when prepared by melt-spinning results in a more homogeneous materials with a higher plateau pressure as compared to preparing the material by mechanical grinding. They have also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg{sub 50}Al{sub 45}Zn{sub 5} results in a sample having a higher plateau pressure.

  4. A rechargeable hydrogen battery based on Ru catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Fan; Rommel, Susanne; Eversfield, Philipp; Muller, Keven; Klemm, Elias; Thiel, Werner R; Plietker, Bernd

    2014-07-01

    Apart from energy generation, the storage and liberation of energy are among the major problems in establishing a sustainable energy supply chain. Herein we report the development of a rechargeable H2 battery which is based on the principle of the Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid (charging process) and the Ru-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid to CO2 and H2 (discharging process). Both processes are driven by the same catalyst at elevated temperature either under pressure (charging process) or pressure-free conditions (discharging process). Up to five charging-discharging cycles were performed without decrease of storage capacity. The resulting CO2/H2 mixture is free of CO and can be employed directly in fuel-cell technology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A simplified physics-based model for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Dougal, Roger A.; Weidner, John W.; Gao, Lijun

    This paper presents a simplified model of a nickel hydrogen battery based on a first approximation. The battery is assumed uniform throughout. The reversible potential is considered primarily due to one-electron transfer redox reaction of nickel hydroxide and nickel oxyhydroxide. The non-ideality due to phase reactions is characterized by the two-parameter activity coefficients. The overcharge process is characterized by the oxygen reaction. The overpotentials are lumped to a tunable resistive drop to fit particular battery designs. The model is implemented in the Virtual Test Bed environment, and the characteristics of the battery are simulated and in good agreement with the experimental data within the normal operating regime. The model can be used for battery dynamic simulation and design in a satellite power system, an example of which is given.

  6. GIS-Based Planning and Modeling for Renewable Energy: Challenges and Future Research Avenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Resch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the face of the broad political call for an “energy turnaround”, we are currently witnessing three essential trends with regard to energy infrastructure planning, energy generation and storage: from planned production towards fluctuating production on the basis of renewable energy sources, from centralized generation towards decentralized generation and from expensive energy carriers towards cost-free energy carriers. These changes necessitate considerable modifications of the energy infrastructure. Even though most of these modifications are inherently motivated by geospatial questions and challenges, the integration of energy system models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS is still in its infancy. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of previous approaches in using GIS in renewable energy-related projects, extracts distinct challenges from these previous efforts and, finally, defines a set of core future research avenues for GIS-based energy infrastructure planning with a focus on the use of renewable energy. These future research avenues comprise the availability base data and their “geospatial awareness”, the development of a generic and unified data model, the usage of volunteered geographic information (VGI and crowdsourced data in analysis processes, the integration of 3D building models and 3D data analysis, the incorporation of network topologies into GIS, the harmonization of the heterogeneous views on aggregation issues in the fields of energy and GIS, fine-grained energy demand estimation from freely-available data sources, decentralized storage facility planning, the investigation of GIS-based public participation mechanisms, the transition from purely structural to operational planning, data privacy aspects and, finally, the development of a new dynamic power market design.

  7. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  8. Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with renewable and environmental friendly resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Sani Wan Nik; Noraini Ali

    2000-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally acceptable hydraulic fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA using vegetable oils as base stocks for innovative additive packages. While many of the differences in using vegetable based stocks in place of mineral oils have been adapted to by straightforward formulating changes, the oxidation stability of vegetable-based stock is still a challenging area. This work initiates the investigation in Malaysia in the use of environmentally friendly resource to replace partially the petroleum based hydraulic fluid. The study concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. (Author)

  9. Optimal Sizing and Performance Evaluation of a Renewable Energy Based Microgrid in Future Seaports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baizura Binti Ahamad, Nor; Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal design and specifies the dimension, energy planning and evaluates the performance of a microgrid to supply the electricity to the load by using integrated microgrid. The integrated system consists of PV, wind turbine and a battery for grid-connected. This paper also...... analyzes the performance of the designed system based on seaport located in Copenhagen, Denmark as a case study. The analysis is performed by using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software which includes optimization and sensitivity analysis result. The simulation result indicates...... that the implementation of microgrid technologies would be a convenient solution to supply the electricity to the load application (shipboard)...

  10. Optimal Sizing and Performance Evaluation of a Renewable Energy Based Microgrid in Future Seaports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baizura Binti Ahamad, Nor; Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal design and specifies the dimension, energy planning and evaluates the performance of a microgrid to supply the electricity to the load by using integrated microgrid. The integrated system consists of PV, wind turbine and a battery for grid-connected. This paper also...... analyzes the performance of the designed system based on seaport located in Copenhagen, Denmark as a case study. The analysis is performed by using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software which includes optimization and sensitivity analysis result. The simulation result indicates...

  11. Renewable energy selection Matrix based on multi-attribute analysis for fish preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Clavijo, Lili Tatiana; Prías-Caicedo, Omar Fredy; Sierra-Vargas, Fabio Emiro

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the application of the methodology of multi attribute utility theory validated by a matrix system established by researchers, to identify the best alternative of energy supply to 10 kwe in the generation of ice for preservation of fish in coastal and rural areas of the Chocó. The comparison between the potentials of different renewable energy sources and diesel, natural gas and propane fuels took place, based on economic, technological, environmental and social criteria, being validated by experts and the community on field work. It was concluded that the best alternative is diesel followed by biomass. (author)

  12. Proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    The amended ''Directives concerning common rules for the internal markets in electricity and natural gas'', adopted in June 2003, organizes the future framework of electricity and gas, making all European consumers eligible, from 2004 onwards and at the latest by 2007 for the domestic sector, as well as integrating some components related to general interest services. Energie-Cites gives in this document its opinion and its expectations concerning this proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  13. An Assessment of Hydrogen as a Means to Implement the United States Navy’s Renewable Energy Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    China Lake. The 270 megawatt geothermal power plant “provides on average 1.4 million megawatt-hours of electricity to the California power grid...22  3.  GEOTHERMAL POWER ......................................................... 23  4.  BIOMASS...4 Wind Power 5 - 22 Ocean Power (Tidal) 14 Solar (PV) 30 Geothermal 20 -50 Fossil-Based 150 Nuclear 4000 Table 1. Alternative Energy Sources

  14. Scenarios of hydrogen production from wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, Mario

    2010-09-15

    Since almost total amount of hydrogen is currently being produced from natural gas, other ways of cleaner and 'more renewable' production should be made feasible in order to make benchmarks for total 'hydrogen economy'. Hydrogen production from wind power combined with electrolysis imposes as one possible framework for new economy development. In this paper various wind-to-hydrogen scenarios were calculated. Cash flows of asset based project financing were used as decision making tool. Most important parameters were identified and strategies for further research and development and resource allocation are suggested.

  15. GIS-Based Approach for Municipal Renewable Energy Planning to Support Post-Earthquake Revitalization: A Japanese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianna Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a regional-level study conducted in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan (Wang et al., 2014 [1], this paper presents an approach for municipal renewable energy planning and its experimental application in a Japanese municipality using a Geographic Information System (GIS. The proposed approach is comprised of local issue identification, renewable energy potential evaluation and visualization, site comparison and scenario analysis. GIS was used to analyze and visualize solar, wind and biomass (forest and agriculture residue potential within Kawamata Town, Fukushima, Japan. According to local conditions, all potential sites were coded and then compared based on different criteria, such as solar radiation, wind speed, slope and land uses, among others. In the scenario analysis section, two scenarios, “renewable energy prioritized” and ”evacuation area prioritized”, were adopted and compared. The scenarios are altered in terms of placement and the number of renewable energy facilities inside and outside evacuation areas within the town. The results generated through the proposed approach can provide information on local potentials of renewable energy resources, as well as renewable energy development alternatives at the municipal level. They can be used in the interactive dialogue for the municipal renewable energy planning process, to help to fulfill the municipality’s post-earthquake energy developmental vision.

  16. Advances of zeolite based membrane for hydrogen production via water gas shift reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen is considered as a promising energy vector which can be obtained from various renewable sources. However, an efficient hydrogen production technology is still challenging. One technology to produce hydrogen with very high capacity with low cost is through water gas shift (WGS) reaction. Water gas shift reaction is an equilibrium reaction that produces hydrogen from syngas mixture by the introduction of steam. Conventional WGS reaction employs two or more reactors in series with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given volume of catalyst. Membrane reactor as new technology can cope several drawbacks of conventional reactor by removing reaction product and the reaction will favour towards product formation. Zeolite has properties namely high temperature, chemical resistant, and low price makes it suitable for membrane reactor applications. Moreover, it has been employed for years as hydrogen selective layer. This review paper is focusing on the development of membrane reactor for efficient water gas shift reaction to produce high purity hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Development of membrane reactor is discussed further related to its modification towards efficient reaction and separation from WGS reaction mixture. Moreover, zeolite framework suitable for WGS membrane reactor will be discussed more deeply.

  17. Developing Demand-Response Based Solutions for Hawaii’s 100% Renewable Energy Target

    OpenAIRE

    Kansal, Rachit

    2017-01-01

    The State of Hawaii has set a target to achieve a 100% Renewables by 2045. Due to the State’s high electricity prices and dependence on imported oil, renewables are seen as an environmental and economic solution to the problem. While the state has seen substantial renewables growth in the last few years, a truly transformative system is needed to push for a fully renewable future. This system would be likely to include Demand Response (DR) capability, Distributed Energy Reso...

  18. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  19. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  20. Applications of the use of the renewable energies, solar power and wind power, for the securing of hydrogen, as power supply of the fuel cells; Obtencion de hidrogeno, a partir de la electrolisis del agua mediante energias renovables almacenamiento y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, J. J.; Martin, I.; Aperribay, V.; San Martin, J. I.; Arrieta, J. M.; Zuazua, J.; Romero, E.

    2004-07-01

    The object of the presented communication is to show the applications of the use of the renewable energies, particularly the solar power and the wind power, for the securing of hydrogen, as power supply of the fuel cells. The electrical energy produced in the solar badges and in the windpowers is, principally, injected into the electrical networks, for his transport, distribution and consumption, if the network the demand. The novel aspect is, that if the network does not demand potency, this one is transformed into hydrogen at the same photovoltaic station or into the base of the tower of the windpower and, later, stored to feed the fuel cells, not producing to him any type of element pollutant, since the residual element is the water. (Author)

  1. Renewable Acrylonitrile Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Todd R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorotnikov, Vassili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Rongming [University of Colorado; Gill, Ryan T. [University of Colorado; Gilhespy, Michelle [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Skoufa, Zinovia [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Watson, Michael J. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Fruchey, O. Stanley [MATRIC; Cywar, Robin M. [Formerly NREL

    2017-12-08

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a petroleum-derived compound used in resins, polymers, acrylics, and carbon fiber. We present a process for renewable ACN production using 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), which can be produced microbially from sugars. The process achieves ACN molar yields exceeding 90% from ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl 3-HP) via dehydration and nitrilation with ammonia over an inexpensive titanium dioxide solid acid catalyst. We further describe an integrated process modeled at scale that is based on this chemistry and achieves near-quantitative ACN yields (98 +/- 2%) from ethyl acrylate. This endothermic approach eliminates runaway reaction hazards and achieves higher yields than the standard propylene ammoxidation process. Avoidance of hydrogen cyanide as a by-product also improves process safety and mitigates product handling requirements.

  2. The role of CFD combustion modeling in hydrogen safety management-II: Validation based on homogeneous hydrogen-air experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiah, Pratap, E-mail: sathiah@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Haren, Steven van, E-mail: vanharen@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Komen, Ed, E-mail: komen@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Roekaerts, Dirk, E-mail: d.j.e.m.roekaerts@tudelft.nl [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of hydrogen deflagration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dynamic grid adaptation method is proposed to resolve turbulent flame brush thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The predictions obtained using this method is in good agreement with the static grid method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TFC model results are in good agreement with large-scale homogeneous hydrogen-air experiments. - Abstract: During a severe accident in a PWR, large quantities of hydrogen can be generated and released into the containment. The generated hydrogen, when mixed with air, can lead to hydrogen combustion. The dynamic pressure loads resulting from hydrogen combustion can be detrimental to the structural integrity of the reactor safety systems and the reactor containment. Therefore, accurate prediction of these pressure loads is an important safety issue. In a previous article, we presented a CFD based method to determine these pressure loads. This CFD method is based on the application of a turbulent flame speed closure combustion model. The validation analyses in our previous paper demonstrated that it is of utmost importance to apply successive mesh and time step refinement in order to get reliable results. In this article, we first determined to what extent the required computational effort required for our CFD approach can be reduced by the application of adaptive mesh refinement, while maintaining the accuracy requirements. Experiments performed within a small fan stirred explosion bomb were used for this purpose. It could be concluded that adaptive grid adaptation is a reliable and efficient method for usage in hydrogen deflagration analyses. For the two-dimensional validation analyses, the application of dynamic grid adaptation resulted in a reduction of the required computational effort by about one order of magnitude. In a second step, the considered CFD approach including adaptive

  3. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2006-10-01

    In FY 2004 and 2005, NREL developed a proposed minimal infrastructure to support nationwide deployment of hydrogen vehicles by offering infrastructure scenarios that facilitated interstate travel. This report identifies key metropolitan areas and regions on which to focus infrastructure efforts during the early hydrogen transition.

  4. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  5. Catalytic hydrogenation using complexes of base metals with tridentate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Susan K.; Zhang, Guoqi; Vasudevan, Kalyan V.

    2017-02-14

    Complexes of cobalt and nickel with tridentate ligand PNHP.sup.R are effective for hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds. Cobalt complex [(PNHP.sup.Cy)Co(CH.sub.2SiMe.sub.3)]BAr.sup.F.sub.4 (PNHP.sup.Cy=bis[2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethyl]amine, BAr.sup.F.sub.4=B(3,5-(CF.sub.3).sub.2C.sub.6H.sub.3).sub.4)) was prepared and used with hydrogen for hydrogenation of alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, and imines under mild conditions (25-60.degree. C., 1-4 atm H.sub.2). Nickel complex [(PNHP.sup.Cy)Ni(H)]BPh.sub.4 was used for hydrogenation of styrene and 1-octene under mild conditions. (PNP.sup.Cy)Ni(H) was used for hydrogenating alkenes.

  6. Catalytic hydrogenation using complexes of base metals with tridentate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Kalyan V.; Zhang, Guoqi; Hanson, Susan K.

    2016-09-06

    Complexes of cobalt and nickel with tridentate ligand PNHP.sup.R are effective for hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds. Cobalt complex [(PNHP.sup.Cy)Co(CH.sub.2SiMe.sub.3)]BAr.sup.F.sub.4 (PNHP.sup.Cy=bis[2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethyl]amine, BAr.sup.F.sub.4=B(3,5-(CF.sub.3).sub.2C.sub.6H.sub.3).sub.4)) was prepared and used with hydrogen for hydrogenation of alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, and imines under mild conditions (25-60.degree. C., 1-4 atm H.sub.2). Nickel complex [(PNHP.sup.Cy)Ni(H)]BPh.sub.4 was used for hydrogenation of styrene and 1-octene under mild conditions. (PNP.sup.Cy)Ni(H) was used for hydrogenating alkenes.

  7. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Meiners, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA. Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40% and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  8. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA.Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40 and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well-being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  9. Hydrogen energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morovic, T.; Pilhar, R.; Witt, B.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of different energy systems from the economic point of view has to be based on data showing all relevant costs incurred and benefits drawn by the society from the use of such energy systems, i.e. internal costs and benefits visible to the energy consumer as prices paid for power supplied, as well as external costs and benefits. External costs or benefits of energy systems cover among other items employment or wage standard effects, energy-induced environmental impacts, public expenditure for pollution abatement and mitigation of risks and effects of accidents, and the user costs connected with the exploitation of reserves, which are not rated high enough to really reflect and demonstrate the factor of depletion of non-renewable energy sources, as e.g. fossil reserves. Damage to the natural and social environment induced by anthropogenous air pollutants up to about 90% counts among external costs of energy conversion and utilisation. Such damage is considered to be the main factor of external energy costs, while the external benefits of energy systems currently are rated to be relatively unsignificant. This means that an internalisation of external costs would drive up current prices of non-renewable energy sources, which in turn would boost up the economics of renewable energy sources, and the hydrogen produced with their energy. Other advantages attributed to most of the renewable energy sources and to hydrogen energy systems are better environmental compatibility, and no user costs. (orig.) [de

  10. Hydrogen gains further momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    As first industrial production projects should become a reality in the next few years, hydrogen as a source of energy will find important applications with mobility, which momentum is rapid and irresistible. Next steps will be the (large capacity) storage of hydrogen associated to power-to-gas systems and the generalization of renewable energies. This document presents 5 articles, which themes are: Description and explanation of the process of hydrogen production; Presentation of the H2V project for the construction, in Normandy, of the first operational industrial hydrogen production plant using electric power 100 pc generated by renewable energies; The conversion of electric power from renewable energies through hydrogen storage and fuel cells for buildings applications (Sylfen project); The development of a reversible fuel cell at Mines-Paris Tech University, that will be adapted to the storage of renewable electric power; Hydrogen as a lever for the development of zero-emission vehicles, from trucks to cars and bicycles

  11. Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress '99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2000-01-01

    The congress discussed the following subjects, 1. The role of renewable energy in the next millenium; 2. Challenges in the commercialization of renewable energy; 3. The role and agenda for renewable energy towards sustainable development. Topics covered in the technical session were biomass conversion; solar thermal technologies and systems; solar photovoltaic s; renewable energy economics, financing and policy; renewable energy education; climate and the environment; energy and architecture; energy management; wind and hydro technologies and systems; hydrogen and fuel cell

  12. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  13. Solar driven technologies for hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medojević Milovan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the production of hydrogen based on renewable energy sources, without doubt, is an important aspect to be taken into account when considering the potential of this gas, where as particularly interesting technologies stand out the ones which are based on the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen. The goal of this paper provides basic technological trajectories, with the possibility of combining, for solar driven hydrogen production, such as: electrochemical, photochemical and thermochemical process. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of those technologies from a technical as well as economic point of view. In addition, the paper aims to draw attention to the fact that the generation of hydrogen using renewable energy should be imposed as a logical and proper way to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy.

  14. The hydrogen issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  15. Assessment of MHR-based hydrogen energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Matthew; Shenoy, Arkal; Schultz, Kenneth; Brown, Lloyd; Besenbruch, Gottfried; Handa, Norihiko; Das, Jadu

    2004-01-01

    Process heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor can be used to drive a set of chemical reactions, with the net result of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. For example, process heat at temperatures in the range 850degC to 950degC can drive the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical process to produce hydrogen with high efficiency. The SI process produces highly pure hydrogen and oxygen, with formation, decomposition, regeneration, and recycle of the intermediate chemical reagents and low-temperature heat as the only waste product. Electricity can also be used directly to split water, using conventional, low-temperature electrolysis (LTE). Hydrogen can also be produced with hybrid processes that use both process heat and electricity to generate hydrogen. An example of a hybrid process is high-temperature electrolysis (HTE), in which process heat is used to generate steam, which is then supplied to an electrolyzer to generate hydrogen. This process is of interest because the efficiency of electrolysis increases with temperature. Because of its high-temperature capability, advanced of development relative to other high-temperature reactor concepts, and passive-safety features, the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) is well suited for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy. In this paper we investigate concepts for coupling the MHR to the SI process, LTE, and HTE. These concepts are referred to as the H2-MHR. (author)

  16. Renewable-based low-temperature district heating for existing buildings in various stages of refurbishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Denmark is aiming for a fossil-free heating sector for buildings by 2035. Judging by the national heating plan, this will be achieved mainly by a further spread of DH (district heating) based on the renewable heat sources. To make the most cost-effective use of these sources, the DH supply...... and, for 98% of the year, to below 60 °C. However for the temperatures below 60 °C a low-temperature DH substation is required for DHW (domestic hot water) heating. This research shows that renewable sources of heat can be integrated into the DH system without problems and contribute to the fossil...... temperature should be as low as possible. We used IDA–ICE software to simulate a typical Danish single-family house from the 1970s connected to DH at three different stages of envelope and space heating system refurbishment. We wanted to investigate how low the DH supply temperature can be without reducing...

  17. Analysis of potency and development of renewable energy based on agricultural biomass waste in Jambi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devita, W. H.; Fauzi, A. M.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has the big potency of biomass. The source of biomass energy is scattered all over the country. The big potential in concentrated scale is on the island of Sumatera. Jambi province which is located in Sumatra Island has the potency of biomass energy due to a huge area for estate crop and agriculture. The Indonesian government had issued several policies which put a higher priority on the utilization of renewable energy. This study aimed to identify the conditions and distribution of biomass waste potential in Jambi province. The potential biomass waste in Jambi province was 27,407,183 tons per year which dominated of oil palm residue (46.16%), rice husk and straw (3.52%), replanting rubberwood (50.32%). The total power generated from biomass waste was 129 GWhth per year which is consisted of palm oil residue (56 GWhth per year), rice husk and straw (3.22 GWhth per year), rubberwood (70.56 GWhth per year). Based on the potential of biomass waste, then the province of Jambi could obtain supplies of renewable energy from waste biomass with electricity generated amount to 32.34 GWhe per year.

  18. Distributed Renewable Generation and Storage System Sizing Based on Smart Dispatch of Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Atia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the contribution of independent owners (IOs operating within microgrids (MGs toward green power generation in deregulated energy markets. An optimization scheme is introduced for sizing distributed renewable generation (DRG and a distributed energy storage system (DESS based on a novel energy management system (EMS that accounts for demand response (DR, DESS dispatch and performance degradation, dynamic pricing environments, power distribution loss and irregular renewable generation. The proposed EMS utilizes an iterative Newton-Raphson linear programming algorithm that schedules resources in order to minimize the objective function, to deal with the complicated nonlinear nature of the problem and to enable efficient long-term assessments. The EMS is used to evaluate candidate solutions that are generated by a genetic algorithm (GA to determine the optimal combination of DRG and DESS. A case study for IEEE 34-bus distribution MG in Okinawa, Japan, is used for testing the algorithm and analyzing the potential for IO/MG investments and their strategies.

  19. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  20. Identification of linearised RMS-voltage dip patterns based on clustering in renewable plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Sánchez, Tania; Gómez-Lázaro, Emilio; Muljadi, Edward; Kessler, Mathieu; Muñoz-Benavente, Irene; Molina-García, Angel

    2018-03-27

    Generation units connected to the grid are currently required to meet low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) requirements. In most developed countries, these requirements also apply to renewable sources, mainly wind power plants and photovoltaic installations connected to the grid. This study proposes an alternative characterisation solution to classify and visualise a large number of collected events in light of current limits and requirements. The authors' approach is based on linearised root-mean-square-(RMS)-voltage trajectories, taking into account LRVT requirements, and a clustering process to identify the most likely pattern trajectories. The proposed solution gives extensive information on an event's severity by providing a simple but complete visualisation of the linearised RMS-voltage patterns. In addition, these patterns are compared to current LVRT requirements to determine similarities or discrepancies. A large number of collected events can then be automatically classified and visualised for comparative purposes. Real disturbances collected from renewable sources in Spain are used to assess the proposed solution. Extensive results and discussions are also included in this study.

  1. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    fuels produced with coal-, gas- and biomass-to-liquid (xTL) technologies. However, a number of articles use the term beyond this definition. Results for the term electrofuel gave a similar outcome, as it was not clear which processes were used for the fuel production. In some cases, both synthetic...... of this article is to identify and review these terms to avoid any potential misuse. An integrative review of terminology has been made. This review did not differentiate the articles in terms of the methodologies applied, but had the main objective to identify the terminology used and its definition. The results...... confirm that the term synthetic fuel is used generically in the majority of articles, without providing information about the production process of the fuel or differentiating between fossil-based and renewable-based synthetic fuels. The majority of the articles use the term synthetic fuel to describe...

  2. Boron-nitrogen based hydrides and reactive composites for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lars H.; Ley, Morten B.; Lee, Young-Su

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen forms chemical compounds with most other elements and forms a variety of different chemical bonds. This fascinating chemistry of hydrogen has continuously provided new materials and composites with new prospects for rational design and the tailoring of properties. This review highlights...... a range of new boron and nitrogen based hydrides and illustrates how hydrogen release and uptake properties can be improved. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  3. Measurement and Theory of Hydrogen Bonding Contribution to Isosteric DNA Base Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Khakshoor, Omid; Wheeler, Steven E.; Houk, K. N.; Kool, Eric T.

    2012-01-01

    We address the recent debate surrounding the ability of 2,4-difluorotoluene (F), a low-polarity mimic of thymine (T), to form a hydrogen-bonded complex with adenine in DNA. The hydrogen bonding ability of F has been characterized as small to zero in various experimental studies, and moderate to small in computational studies. However, recent X-ray crystallographic studies of difluorotoluene in DNA/RNA have indicated, based on interatomic distances, possible hydrogen bonding interactions betwe...

  4. Promoting STEM to Young Students by Renewable Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecen, Recayi; Humston, Jill L.; Yildiz, Faruk

    2012-01-01

    The Math-Science-Engineering Technology in Iowa on Applied Renewable Energy Areas (MSETI-AREA) projects are aimed at providing area school teachers with an applied mathematics and science curriculum package based on photovoltaic (PV) power, wind power, human power and hydrogen fuel-cell fundamentals. The MSETI-AREA project has established a…

  5. Renewable energy production - A business for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report is the result of a study performed in 2002. Main objectives of the study were: Is there a potential for growth for the Swedish companies active in the business of renewable energy? Can these companies develop into internationally competitive industries? The areas studied are: Biofuels, Bio-based transportation fuels, Wastes, Small scale hydro power, Wind power, Solar cells and Hydrogen

  6. Special document: which energies for tomorrow? Fossil, renewable, nuclear, hydrogen energies; the CEA of Saclay at the heart of the research; energy, greenhouse effect, climate; Dossier special: quelles energies pour demain? Energies fossiles, renouvelables, nucleaires, hydrogene; le Centre CEA de Saclay au coeur de la recherche; energie, effet de serre, climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-04-01

    The Cea devotes many research programs in the energy domain and especially in the development of new energetic solutions: hydrogen program, photovoltaic program, energy conservation domain and improvement of energy production systems. In this framework, this document presents synthetical information on the France situation in the world energy space and on the Cea Saclay researches. The energy policy and the electric power in France, the fossil energies, the nuclear energy, the renewable energies, the hydrogen and the fuel cell, the greenhouse effect and the climatology are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Synchrophasor Sensing and Processing based Smart Grid Security Assessment for Renewable Energy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huaiguang

    With the evolution of energy and power systems, the emerging Smart Grid (SG) is mainly featured by distributed renewable energy generations, demand-response control and huge amount of heterogeneous data sources. Widely distributed synchrophasor sensors, such as phasor measurement units (PMUs) and fault disturbance recorders (FDRs), can record multi-modal signals, for power system situational awareness and renewable energy integration. An effective and economical approach is proposed for wide-area security assessment. This approach is based on wavelet analysis for detecting and locating the short-term and long-term faults in SG, using voltage signals collected by distributed synchrophasor sensors. A data-driven approach for fault detection, identification and location is proposed and studied. This approach is based on matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) using Gaussian atom dictionary, hidden Markov model (HMM) of real-time frequency and voltage variation features, and fault contour maps generated by machine learning algorithms in SG systems. In addition, considering the economic issues, the placement optimization of distributed synchrophasor sensors is studied to reduce the number of the sensors without affecting the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, because the natural hazards is a critical issue for power system security, this approach is studied under different types of faults caused by natural hazards. A fast steady-state approach is proposed for voltage security of power systems with a wind power plant connected. The impedance matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. Based on the impedance matrix, locations in SG can be identified, where cause the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plants point of interconnection. Furthermore, because this dynamic voltage security assessment method relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations, the proposed approach

  8. Metal-mediated DNA base pairing: alternatives to hydrogen-bonded Watson-Crick base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Yusuke; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2012-12-18

    With its capacity to store and transfer the genetic information within a sequence of monomers, DNA forms its central role in chemical evolution through replication and amplification. This elegant behavior is largely based on highly specific molecular recognition between nucleobases through the specific hydrogen bonds in the Watson-Crick base pairing system. While the native base pairs have been amazingly sophisticated through the long history of evolution, synthetic chemists have devoted considerable efforts to create alternative base pairing systems in recent decades. Most of these new systems were designed based on the shape complementarity of the pairs or the rearrangement of hydrogen-bonding patterns. We wondered whether metal coordination could serve as an alternative driving force for DNA base pairing and why hydrogen bonding was selected on Earth in the course of molecular evolution. Therefore, we envisioned an alternative design strategy: we replaced hydrogen bonding with another important scheme in biological systems, metal-coordination bonding. In this Account, we provide an overview of the chemistry of metal-mediated base pairing including basic concepts, molecular design, characteristic structures and properties, and possible applications of DNA-based molecular systems. We describe several examples of artificial metal-mediated base pairs, such as Cu(2+)-mediated hydroxypyridone base pair, H-Cu(2+)-H (where H denotes a hydroxypyridone-bearing nucleoside), developed by us and other researchers. To design the metallo-base pairs we carefully chose appropriate combinations of ligand-bearing nucleosides and metal ions. As expected from their stronger bonding through metal coordination, DNA duplexes possessing metallo-base pairs exhibited higher thermal stability than natural hydrogen-bonded DNAs. Furthermore, we could also use metal-mediated base pairs to construct or induce other high-order structures. These features could lead to metal-responsive functional

  9. Perspectives of a hydrogen-based energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakainski, M.

    1989-06-01

    In view of the depletion of fossil fuel resources, and of their environmental effects, research is going on worldwide to find alternative energy sources. Hydrogen has been raising high hopes in recent years and has made a career as a candidate substitute for fossil fuels. There is hydropower or solar energy for electrolytic production of hydrogen which by a catalytic, environmentally friendly process is re-convertable into water. Experimental facilities exist for testing the hydrogen technology, but it is too early now to give any prognosis on the data of technical maturity and commercial feasibility of the technology. The et team invited some experts for a discussion on the pros and cons of hydrogen technology, and on questions such as siting of installations, infrastructure, and economics. (orig./UA).

  10. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  11. Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion of Carbon and Stainless Steel Alloys Immersed in Mixtures of Renewable Fuel Sources and Tested Under Co-processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely András

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with modern regulations and directives, the use of renewable biomass materials as precursors for the production of fuels for transportation purposes is to be strictly followed. Even though, there are problems related to processing, storage and handling in wide range of subsequent uses, since there must be a limit to the ratio of biofuels mixed with mineral raw materials. As a key factor with regards to these biomass sources pose a great risk of causing multiple forms of corrosion both to metallic and non-metallic structural materials. To assess the degree of corrosion risk to a variety of engineering alloys like low-carbon and stainless steels widely used as structural metals, this work is dedicated to investigating corrosion rates of economically reasonable engineering steel alloys in mixtures of raw gas oil and renewable biomass fuel sources under typical co-processing conditions. To model a desulphurising refining process, corrosion tests were carried out with raw mineral gasoline and its mixture with used cooking oil and animal waste lard in relative quantities of 10% (g/g. Co-processing was simulated by batch-reactor laboratory experiments. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 200 and 300ºC and a pressure in the gas phase of 90 bar containing 2% (m3/m3 hydrogen sulphide. The time span of individual tests were varied between 1 and 21 days so that we can conclude about changes in the reaction rates against time exposure of and extrapolate for longer periods of exposure. Initial and integral corrosion rates were defined by a weight loss method on standard size of coupons of all sorts of steel alloys. Corrosion rates of carbon steels indicated a linear increase with temperature and little variation with composition of the biomass fuel sources. Apparent activation energies over the first 24-hour period remained moderate, varying between 35.5 and 50.3 kJ mol−1. Scales developed on carbon steels at higher

  12. Microcontroller based instrumentation for heater control circuit of tin oxide based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premalatha, S.; Krithika, P.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Ramanarayanan, R.R.; Prabhu, E.; Jayaraman, V.; Parthasarathy, R.

    2015-01-01

    A thin film sensor based on tin oxide developed in IGCAR is used to monitor very low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 2 ppm to 80 ppm). The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate and necessary electrical leads are taken out. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350°C. The sensor output (voltage signal) varies with H 2 concentration. In fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium is used as coolant. The sensor is used to detect water/steam leak in secondary sodium circuit. During the start up of the reactor, steam leak into sodium circuit generates hydrogen gas as a product that doesn't dissolve in sodium, but escapes to the surge tank containing argon i.e. in cover gas plenum of sodium circuit. On-line monitoring of hydrogen in cover gas is done to detect an event of water/steam leakage. The focus of this project is on the instrumentation pertaining to the temperature control for the sensor heater. The tin oxide based hydrogen sensor is embedded in a substrate which consists of a platinum heater, essentially a resistor. There is no provision of embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to the physical constraints, without which maintaining a constant heater temperature is a complex task

  13. Renewable-based heat supply of multi-apartment buildings with varied heat demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the cost and primary energy use to heat an existing multi-apartment building in Sweden, before and after deep energy efficiency renovation, with different types of renewable-based systems. District heating systems of different scales as well as local heat production based on bioelectric boilers, ground-source bioelectric heat pumps and wood pellet boilers with or without solar heating are considered. The annual energy demand of the building, calculated hour by hour, with and without energy efficiency improvements, are matched against the renewable-based heat supply options by techno-economic modeling to minimize cost for each considered heat supply option. The results show that the availability of heating technologies at the building site and the scale of the building's heat demand influence the cost and the primary energy efficiency of the heating options. District heat from large-scale systems is cost efficient for the building without energy-efficiency improvement, whereas electric heat pumps and wood pellet boilers are more cost efficient when implementing energy-efficiency improvement. However, the cost difference is small between these alternatives and sensitive to the size of building. Large-scale district heating with cogeneration of power is most primary energy efficient while heat pumps and medium-scale district heating are nearly as efficient. - Highlights: • Heating technologies influence costs and primary energy use of a building. • Large-scale district heating with cogeneration of power is primary energy efficient. • Large-scale district heating is cost efficient for buildings with large heat demand. • Heat pumps and pellet boilers are cost competitive in energy-efficient buildings.

  14. A biosensor for hydrogen peroxide detection based on electronic properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory has been used to study the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the electronic properties of single walled carbon nanotubes. The metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes have been considered in the presence of different number of hydrogen peroxide. The results indicate that hydrogen peroxide has no significant effect on the metallic nanotube and these nanotubes remain to be metallic. In contrast, the electronic properties of the semiconducting nanotubes are so sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. The energy band gap of these nanotubes is decreased by increasing the number of hydrogen peroxide. The electronic sensivity of the carbon nanotubes to hydrogen peroxide opens new insights into developing biosensors based on the single walled carbon nanotubes.

  15. Hydrogen production by methane reforming based on micro-gap discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N N; Wang, M X; Liu, K Y; Bai, M D

    2013-01-01

    Based on micro-gap strong ionization discharge, this paper presents a study of hydrogen production by methane reforming at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without catalyst. Influence rules of conversion of methane and production of hydrogen were studied by changing discharge power and feed gas flow rate. Results show that when the discharge power was about 341 W, the discharge gap was 0.47 mm and the flow rate of feed gas was 100 mL min −1 , the conversion of methane and yield of hydrogen reached optimization. The conversion rate of methane and the highest yield of hydrogen were 68.14 % and 51.34 %, respectively.

  16. Palladium configuration dependence of hydrogen detection sensitivity based on graphene FET for breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuri; Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-04-01

    We have succeeded in fabricating a hydrogen gas sensor based on palladium-modified graphene field-effect transistors (FETs). The negative-voltage shift in the transfer characteristics was observed with exposure to hydrogen gas, which was explained by the change in work function. The hydrogen concentration dependence of the voltage shift was investigated using graphene FETs with palladium deposited by three different evaporation processes. The results indicate that the hydrogen detection sensitivity of the palladium-modified graphene FETs is strongly dependent on the palladium configuration. Therefore, the palladium-modified graphene FET is a candidate for breath analysis.

  17. Assessment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systemsfor nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB.These systems...... entail production of electricity and usable thermal energy (heat and/or cooling) to cover the energy demands of residential buildings, high energy efficiency levels and proximity of the energy source to the building. The concept of cogeneration is not new but the interest in smallscale cogeneration...... technologies based on renewable energy sources has increased tremendously in the last decade. A significant amount of experimental and modelling research has recently been presented on emerging technologies. In this paper, four main technologies are assessed: Fuel Cells (FC), Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T), solar...

  18. Phase Change Material Based Accumulation Panels in Combination with Renewable Energy Sources and Thermoelectric Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skovajsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern materials and technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the design and usage of a special accumulation device, which is composed of thermal panels based on phase change materials (PCMs. The thermal panels have an integrated tube heat exchanger and heating foils. The technology can be used as a passive or active system for heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology”, so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic (PV panels, solar thermal collectors and heat pumps. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermoelectric coolers. In the research, measurements of the different operating modes were made, and the results are presented in the text. The measurement approves that the technology improves the thermal capacity of the building, and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling.

  19. The waterfront windmill project and TREC's windshare model for community-based renewables development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.

    2002-01-01

    Plans have been developed for building two wind turbines on Toronto's waterfront, on the grounds of the exhibition for the project called Waterfront Windmill Project. The electricity generated by each individual turbine, 1,400,000 kilowatt hours per year, could meet the needs of 250 four-person homes. This project represents an emissions-free power generation, and the energy will be distributed to the hydropower grid of the City of Toronto. The requirement for nuclear and coal-generated energy will therefore be reduced while reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The creation of an urban-based community-owned turbine fits well with the policy of the Toronto Renewable Energy Coop, which is committed to working with the marketplace. The lower cost to the consumer of the market deregulation coal generated energy is a concern. figs

  20. Microwave-Assisted Syntheses in Recyclable Ionic Liquids: Photoresists Based on Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Charlotte; Luef, Klaus P; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Stadler, Alexander; Grassl, Bruno; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Wiesbrock, Frank

    2015-10-26

    The copoly(2-oxazoline) pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be synthesized from the cationic ring-opening copolymerization of 2-nonyl-2-oxazoline NonOx and 2-dec-9'-enyl-2-oxazoline Dc(=) Ox in the ionic liquid n-hexyl methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under microwave irradiation in 250 g/batch quantities. The polymer precipitates upon cooling, enabling easy recovery of the polymer and the ionic liquid. Both monomers can be obtained from fatty acids from renewable resources. pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be used as polymer in a photoresist (resolution of 1 μm) based on UV-induced thiol-ene reactions. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. Solar-based rural electrification policy design: The Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) model in Fiji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornan, M. [Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program, The Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, Acton ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Solar photovoltaic technologies have for some time been promoted as a cost effective means of rural electrification in developing countries. However, institutional structures resulting in poor maintenance have adversely affected the sustainability of past solar projects. In Fiji, the Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) program is the latest attempt to promote solar-based rural electrification in a fee-for-service model, aiming to remove the high upfront capital costs associated with solar technologies and using a public-private sector partnership for maintenance. This paper assesses the program using survey and interview data. Major flaws are identified, relating to incorrect treatment of principal-agent problems, information asymmetries, motivational problems, and resourcing of government agencies. General lessons for fee-for-service solar home system models emerge, including that incentives for stakeholders must take centre stage in designing and administering such programs, and that active government support and ownership are required to make programs sustainable. (author)

  2. The Evaluation of the Cognitive Learning Process of the Renewed Bloom Taxonomy Using a Web Based Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the Web Based Expert System (WBES) which provides analyses and reports based on the cognitive processes of Renewed Bloom Taxonomy (RBT), and to put forward the impact of the supportive education provided in line with these reports, on the academic achievement and mastery learning state of the students. The study…

  3. Performance of various density functionals for the hydrogen bonds in DNA base pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijst, T.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of seven popular density functionals (B3LYP, BLYP, BP86, mPW, OPBE, PBE, PW91) for describing the geometry and stability of the hydrogen bonds in DNA base pairs. For the gas-phase situation, the hydrogen-bond lengths and strengths in the DNA pairs have been

  4. Eye readable metal hydride based hydrogen tape sensor for health applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, P.; Radeva, T.; Westerwaal, R.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.

    Using the change in the intrinsic optical properties of YMg-based thin films upon exposure to hydrogen, we observe the presence of hydrogen at concentrations as low as 20 ppm just by a change in color. The eye-visible color change circumvents the use of any electronics in this device, thereby making

  5. A Theme-Based Course: Hydrogen as the Fuel of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Kelly, Matthew; Paritsky, Leonid; Wagner, Julia

    2009-01-01

    A theme-based course focusing on the potential role of hydrogen as a future fuel is described. Numerous topics included in typical introductory courses can be directly related to the issue of hydrogen energy. Beginning topics include Avogadro's number, the mole, atomic mass, gas laws, and the role of electrons in chemical transformations. Reaction…

  6. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  7. The Italian hydrogen programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffaele Vellone

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen could become an important option in the new millennium. It provides the potential for a sustainable energy system as it can be used to meet most energy needs without harming the environment. In fact, hydrogen has the potential for contributing to the reduction of climate-changing emissions and other air pollutants as it exhibits clean combustion with no carbon or sulphur oxide emissions and very low nitrogen oxide emissions. Furthermore, it is capable of direct conversion to electricity in systems such as fuel cells without generating pollution. However, widespread use of hydrogen is not feasible today because of economic and technological barriers. In Italy, there is an ongoing national programme to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This programme aims to promote, in an organic frame, a series of actions regarding the whole hydrogen cycle. It foresees the development of technologies in the areas of production, storage, transport and utilisation. Research addresses the development of technologies for separation and sequestration of CO 2 , The programme is shared by public organisations (research institutions and universities) and national industry (oil companies, electric and gas utilities and research institutions). Hydrogen can be used as a fuel, with significant advantages, both for electric energy generation/ co-generation (thermo-dynamic cycles and fuel cells) and transportation (internal combustion engine and fuel cells). One focus of research will be the development of fuel cell technologies. Fuel cells possess all necessary characteristics to be a key technology in a future economy based on hydrogen. During the initial phase of the project, hydrogen will be derived from fossil sources (natural gas), and in the second phase it will be generated from renewable electricity or nuclear energy. The presentation will provide a review of the hydrogen programme and highlight future goals. (author)

  8. What are the environmental benefits of electric vehicles? A life cycle based comparison of electric vehicles with biofuels, hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmeier, Gerfried; Canella, Lorenza; Beermann, Martin; Pucker, Johanna; Koenighofer, Kurt [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-06-01

    The Renewable Energy Directive aims reaching a share of 10% of renewable fuels in Europe in 2020. These renewable fuels are transportation biofuels, renewable electricity and renewable hydrogen. In most European countries transportation biofuels are already on the transportation fuel market in significant shares, e.g. in Austria 7% by blending bioethanol to gasoline and biodiesel to diesel. Electric vehicles can significantly contribute towards creating a sustainable, intelligent mobility and intelligent transportation systems. They can open new business opportunities for the transportation engineering sector and electricity companies. But the broad market introduction of electric vehicles is only justified due to a significant improvement of the environmental impact compared to conventional vehicles. This means that in addition to highly efficient electric vehicles and renewable electricity, the overall environmental impact in the life cycle - from building the vehicles and the battery to recycling at the end of its useful life - has to be limited to an absolute minimum. There is international consensus that the environmental effects of electric vehicles (and all other fuel options) can only be analysed on the basis of life cycle assessment (LCA) including the production, operation and the end of life treatment of the vehicles. The LCA results for different environmental effects e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy consumption, eutrophication will be presented in comparison to other fuels e.g. transportation biofuels, gasoline, natural gas and the key factors to maximize the environmental benefits will be presented. The presented results are mainly based on a national research projects. These results are currently compared and discussed with international research activities within the International Energy Agency (lEA) in the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) in Task 19 ''Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles

  9. Hail hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.

    1996-01-01

    After years of being scorned and maligned, hydrogen is finding favor in environmental and process applications. There is enormous demand for the industrial gas from petroleum refiners, who need in creasing amounts of hydrogen to remove sulfur and other contaminants from crude oil. In pulp and paper mills, hydrogen is turning up as hydrogen peroxide, displacing bleaching agents based on chlorine. Now, new technologies for making hydrogen have the industry abuzz. With better capabilities of being generated onsite at higher purity levels, recycled and reused, hydrogen is being prepped for a range of applications, from waste reduction to purification of Nylon 6 and hydrogenation of specialty chemicals. The paper discusses the strong market demand for hydrogen, easier routes being developed for hydrogen production, and the use of hydrogen in the future

  10. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  11. Seasonal storage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuß, M.; Grube, T.; Robinius, M.; Preuster, P.; Wasserscheid, P.; Stolten, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Techno-economic model of future hydrogen supply chains. •Implementation of liquid organic hydrogen carriers into a hydrogen mobility analysis. •Consideration of large-scale seasonal storage for fluctuating renewable hydrogen production. •Implementation of different technologies for hydrogen storage and transportation. -- Abstract: A viable hydrogen infrastructure is one of the main challenges for fuel cells in mobile applications. Several studies have investigated the most cost-efficient hydrogen supply chain structure, with a focus on hydrogen transportation. However, supply chain models based on hydrogen produced by electrolysis require additional seasonal hydrogen storage capacity to close the gap between fluctuation in renewable generation from surplus electricity and fuelling station demand. To address this issue, we developed a model that draws on and extends approaches in the literature with respect to long-term storage. Thus, we analyse Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) and show their potential impact on future hydrogen mobility. We demonstrate that LOHC-based pathways are highly promising especially for smaller-scale hydrogen demand and if storage in salt caverns remains uncompetitive, but emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than other gaseous or hydrogen ones. Liquid hydrogen as a seasonal storage medium offers no advantage compared to LOHC or cavern storage since lower electricity prices for flexible operation cannot balance the investment costs of liquefaction plants. A well-to-wheel analysis indicates that all investigated pathways have less than 30% GHG-emissions compared to conventional fossil fuel pathways within a European framework.

  12. Ultrapure hydrogen thermal compressor based on metal hydrides for fuel cells and hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasan, V.; Biris, A.; Coldea, I.; Lupu, D.; Misan, I.; Popeneciu, G.; Ardelean, O.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hydrogen economy, efficient compressors are indispensable elements in the storage, transport and distribution of the produced hydrogen. Energetic efficient technologies can contribute to H 2 pipelines transport to the point of use and to distribute H 2 by refuelling stations. Characteristic for metal hydrides systems is the wide area of possibilities to absorb hydrogen at low pressure from any source of hydrogen, to store and deliver it hydrogen at high pressure (compression ratio more than 30). On the basis of innovative concepts and advanced materials for H 2 storage/compression (and fast thermal transfer), a fast mass (H 2 ) and heat transfer unit will be developed suitable to be integrated in a 3 stage thermal compressor. Metal hydrides used for a three stage hydrogen compression system must have different equilibrium pressures, namely: for stage 1, low pressure H 2 absorption and resistant to poisoning with impurities of hydrogen, for stage 2, medium pressure H 2 absorption and for stage 3, high pressure hydrogen delivery (120 bar). In the case of compression device based on metallic hydrides the most important properties are the hydrogen absorption/desorption rate, a smaller process enthalpy and a great structural stability on long term hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. These properties require metal hydrides with large differences between the hydrogen absorption and desorption pressures at equilibrium, within a rather small temperature range. The main goal of this work is to search and develop metal hydride integrated systems for hydrogen purification, storage and compression. After a careful screening three hydrogen absorbing alloys will be selected. After selection, the work up of the alloys composition on the bases of detailed solid state studies, new multi-component alloys will be developed, with suitable thermodynamic and kinetic properties for a hydrogen compressor. The results of the study are the following: new types of hydrogen

  13. Diffusion of hydrogen interstitials in Zr based AB2 and mischmetal based AB5 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, N; Ravi, N; Ramaprabhu, S

    2005-01-01

    The Zr based AB 2 alloys ZrMnFe 0.5 Ni 0.5 , ZrMnFe 0.5 Co 0.5 and mischmetal (Mm) based AB 5 alloy MmNi 3.5 Al 0.5 Fe 0.5 Co 0.5 have been prepared and characterized by means of powder x-ray diffractograms. The hydrogen absorption kinetics of these alloys have been studied in the temperature and pressure ranges 450-650 0 C and 10-100 mbar respectively with a maximum H to host alloy formula unit ratio of 0.01, using a pressure reduction technique. The diffusion coefficient of the hydrogen interstitials has been determined from hydrogen absorption kinetics experiments. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the alloy content has been discussed. For Mm based MmNi 3.5 Al 0.5 Fe 0.5 Co 0.5 alloy, the diffusion coefficient is about an order of magnitude higher than that of the Zr based alloys

  14. Biological hydrogen formation by thermophilic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielen, A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) is an important chemical commodity. It is used in many industrial processes and is applicable as a fuel. However, present production processes are predominantly based on non-renewable resources. In a biological H2 (bioH2) production

  15. Sol-Gel Based Polybenzimidazole Membranes for Hydrogen Pumping Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benicewicz, Brian C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Eisman, Glenn A. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Kumar, S. K. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Greenbaum, S. G. [Hunter College, New York, NY (United States). Department of Physics

    2014-02-26

    Electrochemical hydrogen pumping using a high temperature (>100°C) PBI membrane was demonstrated under non-humidified and humidified conditions at ambient pressures. Relatively low voltages were required to operate the pump over a wide range of hydrogen flow rates. The advantages of the high temperature capability were shown by operating the pump on reformate feed gas mixtures containing various amounts of CO and CO2. Gas purity measurements on the cathode gas product were conducted and significant reductions in gas impurities were detected. The applicability of the PBI membrane for electrochemical hydrogen pumping and its durability under typical operating conditions was established with tests that lasted for nearly 4000 hours.

  16. Hydrogen-plasticity interactions in nickel and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.

    2004-03-01

    We evaluate the different contributions of the hydrogen-dislocation interactions to the plasticity of fcc materials in order to feed predictive models of stress corrosion cracking. Static strain ageing experiments are used to quantify the hardening contribution of solute drag by dislocations to the flow stress. We demonstrate the role of hydrogen transport by dislocations on the fracture mechanism. We model the influence of the screening of the elastic field of dislocations by hydrogen on elementary plasticity mechanisms and we conclude that the decrease of the cross slip ability arises from the combined action of elastic and core effects. The testing of single crystals shows that the major effect is on the cross slip mechanism. Tensile tests on polycrystals enlighten the diversity of macroscopic responses observed in alloys. (author)

  17. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Peterson, M.; Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Photon driven, direct conversion systems consist of a light absorber and a water splitting catalyst as a monolithic system; water is split directly upon illumination. This one-step process eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyzer. These configurations require only the piping necessary for transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline. This work is focused on multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices for production of hydrogen directly using sunlight and water. Two types of multijunction cells, one consisting of a-Si triple junctions and the other GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs homojunctions, were studied for the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen from an aqueous electrolyte solution. To catalyze the water decomposition process, the illuminated surface of the device was modified either by addition of platinum colloids or by coating with ruthenium dioxide. These colloids have been characterized by gel electrophoresis.

  18. Single step fabrication method of fullerene/TiO2 composite photocatalyst for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, Jong Min; Cho, Sung Oh

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternative energy sources. Fossil fuel, which is the most widely used energy source, has two defects. One is CO 2 emission causing global warming. The other is exhaustion. On the other hand, hydrogen emits no CO 2 and can be produced by splitting water which is renewable and easily obtainable source. However, about 95% of hydrogen is derived from fossil fuel. It limits the merits of hydrogen. Hydrogen from fossil fuel is not a renewable energy anymore. To maximize the merits of hydrogen, renewability and no CO 2 emission, unconventional hydrogen production methods without using fossil fuel are required. Photocatalytic water-splitting is one of the unconventional hydrogen production methods. Photocatalytic water-splitting that uses hole/electron pairs of semiconductor is expectable way to produce clean and renewable hydrogen from solar energy. TiO 2 is the semiconductor material which has been most widely used as photocatalyst. TiO 2 shows high photocatalytic reactivity and stability in water. However, its wide band gap only absorbs UV light which is only 5% of sun light. To enhance the visible light responsibility, composition with fullerene based materials has been investigated. 1-2 Methano-fullerene carboxylic acid (FCA) is one of the fullerene based materials. We tried to fabricate FCA/TiO 2 composite using UV assisted single step method. The method not only simplified the fabrication procedures, but enhanced hydrogen production rate

  19. Cost Evaluation with G4-ECONS Program for SI based Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-ho; Lee, Ki-young; Kim, Yong-wan

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary hydrogen is production is primarily based on fossil fuels, which is not considered as environments friendly and economically efficient. To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution reducing the release of carbon dioxide. Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The economic assessment was performed for nuclear hydrogen production plant consisting of VHTR coupled with SI cycle. For the study, G4-ECONS developed by EMWG of GIF was appropriately modified to calculate the LUHC, assuming 36 months of plant construction time, 5 % of annual interest rate and 12.6 % of fixed charge rate. In G4-ECONS program, LUHC is calculated by the following formula; LUHC = (Annualized TCIC + Annualized O-M Cost + Annualized Fuel Cycle Cost + Annualized D-D Cost) / Annual Hydrogen Production Rate

  20. Nanocrystalline Porous Hydrogen Storage Based on Vanadium and Titanium Nitrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goncharov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes results of our study of the application of ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD technology for creation of nanoporous thin-film structures that can absorb more than 6 wt.% of hydrogen. Data of mathematical modeling are presented highlighting the structure formation and component creation of the films during their deposition at the time of simultaneous bombardment by mixed beam of nitrogen and helium ions with energy of 30 keV. Results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that VNx films consist of 150–200 nm particles, boundaries of which contain nanopores of 10–15 nm diameters. Particles themselves consist of randomly oriented 10–20 nm nanograins. Grain boundaries also contain nanopores (3–8 nm. Examination of the absorption characteristics of VNx, TiNx, and (V,TiNx films showed that the amount of absorbed hydrogen depends very little on the chemical composition of films, but it is determined by the structure pore. The amount of absorbed hydrogen at 0.3 MPa and 20°C is 6-7 wt.%, whereas the bulk of hydrogen is accumulated in the grain boundaries and pores. Films begin to release hydrogen even at 50°C, and it is desorbed completely at the temperature range of 50–250°C. It was found that the electrical resistance of films during the hydrogen desorption increases 104 times.

  1. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  2. Renewable energy: GIS-based mapping and modelling of potentials and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Schardinger, Ingrid.; Gadocha, Sabine; Zocher, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide demand of energy is growing and will continue to do so for the next decades to come. IEA has estimated that global primary energy demand will increase by 40 - 50% from 2003 to 2030 (IEA, 2005) depending on the fact whether currently contemplated energy policies directed towards energy-saving and fuel-diversification will be effectuated. The demand for Renewable Energy (RE) is undenied but clear figures and spatially disaggregated potentials for the various energy carriers are very rare. Renewable Energies are expected to reduce pressures on the environment and CO2 production. In several studies in Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony) and Austria we studied the current and future pattern of energy production and consumption. In this paper we summarize and benchmark different RE carriers, namely wind, biomass (forest and non-forest, geothermal, solar and hydro power. We demonstrate that GIS-based scalable and flexible information delivery sheds new light on the prevailing metaphor of GIS as a processing engine serving needs of users more on demand rather than through ‘maps on stock'. We compare our finding with those of several energy related EU-FP7 projects in Europe where we have been involved - namely GEOBENE, REACCESS, ENERGEO - and demonstrate that more and more spatial data will become available together with tools that allow experts to do their own analyses and to communicate their results in ways which policy makers and the public can readily understand and use as a basis for their own actions. Geoportals in combination with standardised geoprocessing today supports the older vision of an automated presentation of data on maps, and - if user privileges are given - facilities to interactively manipulate these maps. We conclude that the most critical factor in modelling energy supply and demand remain the economic valuation of goods and services, especially the forecast of future end consumer energy costs.

  3. Microgrid planning based on fuzzy interval prediction models of renewable resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, R.; Sáez, D.; Marín, L.G.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Cordon, O.

    2016-01-01

    Microgrids are sustainable solutions for electrification of rural zones that can make use of their local renewable resources. In this paper, we propose a new method for microgrid planning which includes the effect of the uncertainties of the renewable resources explicitly. Fuzzy interval models are

  4. Towards a European renewable-based energy system enabled by smart grid: status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the future energy framework of the European Union. The European Union will reach a 20% share of renewable energy in total energy consumption and increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020. Smart grids will be the backbone of the future electricity networ...

  5. Hydrogen Induced Intergranular Cracking of Nickel-Base Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    alloys are discussed. Experimental The steel used in the present investigation is a fully bainitic 2 1/4 Cr-lMo pressure vessel steel , ASTM A542 Class 3...Appendix A describes recent experiments performed in order to study the influence of plastic deformation on hydrogen transport in a 214 Cr-lMo steel (8...PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN 2 1/4 Cr-lMo STEEL M. Kurkela, G.S. Frankel, and R.M. Latanision Department of Materials Science and

  6. Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchoel Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5 layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures.

  7. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hydrogen bond disruption in DNA base pairs from (14)C transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Michel; Carter, Damien J; Uberuaga, Blas P; Stanek, Christopher R; Mancera, Ricardo L; Marks, Nigel A

    2014-09-04

    Recent ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have shown that radioactive carbon does not normally fragment DNA bases when it decays. Motivated by this finding, density functional theory and Bader analysis have been used to quantify the effect of C → N transmutation on hydrogen bonding in DNA base pairs. We find that (14)C decay has the potential to significantly alter hydrogen bonds in a variety of ways including direct proton shuttling (thymine and cytosine), thermally activated proton shuttling (guanine), and hydrogen bond breaking (cytosine). Transmutation substantially modifies both the absolute and relative strengths of the hydrogen bonding pattern, and in two instances (adenine and cytosine), the density at the critical point indicates development of mild covalent character. Since hydrogen bonding is an important component of Watson-Crick pairing, these (14)C-induced modifications, while infrequent, may trigger errors in DNA transcription and replication.

  9. Thermogravimetric measurement of hydrogen storage in carbon-based materials: promise and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, F.E.; Wicke, B.G.; Olk, C.H.; Tibbetts, G.G.; Meisner, G.P.; Meyer, M.S.; Herbst, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    We have used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to measure the hydrogen absorption capacity of a variety of carbon-based storage materials, including Li- and K-intercalated graphite and Li-doped multi-wall nanotubes. The TGA uses weight gain/loss as a function of time and temperature to monitor hydrogen absorption/desorption in flowing hydrogen gas. Creating and maintaining a contaminant-free atmosphere is critical to the accurate TGA measurement of hydrogen absorption in carbon-based materials; even low concentrations of impurity gases such as O 2 or H 2 O are sufficient to masquerade as hydrogen absorption. We will discuss examples of this effect relevant to recent reports of hydrogen storage appearing in the literature. The precautions required are non-trivial. In our TGA, for instance, about 16% of the original atmosphere remains after a two-hour purge; at least 15 hours is required to fully purge the apparatus. Furthermore, we cover the TGA with a protective atmosphere enclosure during sample loading to minimize the introduction of impurity gases. With these precautions it is possible to unambiguously measure hydrogen storage. For example, we have determined the hydrogen absorption capacity of our K-intercalated graphite samples to be 1.3 wt% total hydrogen absorption above 50 o C, of which 0.2 wt% can be reproducibly recovered with temperature cycling. With due care, TGA measurements provide complementary information to that obtained from standard pressure techniques for measuring hydrogen sorption, which rely on measuring the loss of gas pressure in a known volume. Taken together, TGA and pressure measurements provide a powerful combination for determining verifiable hydrogen storage capacity. (author)

  10. Lanthanides-based graphene catalysts for high performance hydrogen evolution and oxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.S.; Sami, Abdul; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile, scalable in-situ synthesis of lanthanide (La, Eu, Yb) doped graphene frameworks. • Efficient electrocatalytic performance towards HER and ORR. • Eu-Gr hybrid shows HER performance; onset & overpotential (81 & 160 mV), & Tafel slope (52 mV dec −1 ). • Eu-Gr exhibits superior activity of ORR; onset potential (0.92 V), electron transfer number (4.03). • Excellent long-term stability in HER and ORR, comparable to those of commercial Pt/C catalysts. - Abstract: The design of efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has received enormous consideration due to their effectiveness in modern renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells, electrolyzers, and metal–air batteries. Herein, we present a facile method to fabricate lanthanides (L = La, Eu, Yb)-doped graphene materials as catalyst for the HER and ORR that show desirable electrocatalytic activities as well as long-term stability. The Eu-graphene hybrid has showed unbeatable HER performance such as small values of onset potential (81 mV), overpotential (160 mV), and Tafel slope (52 mV dec −1 ), along with a high exchange current density (7.55 × 10 −6 A cm −2 ). The L-graphenes also exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for ORR, including small Tafel slopes (96, 66, and 105 mV dec −1 for La-Gr, Eu-Gr, and Yb-Gr, respectively), positive onset potential (∼0.83–0.92 V), high electron transfer numbers (∼3.84–4.03), and excellent enduring strength, analogous to those of viable Pt/C catalysts. The excellent electrocatalytic performance is attributed to the synergistic effect of abundant edges and doping sites, high electrical conductivity, large active surface areas and fast charge transfer; which renders lanthanide-based graphene hybrids as potentially great candidate for energy conversion systems.

  11. Three-Phase Short-Circuit Current Calculation of Power Systems with High Penetration of VSC-Based Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niancheng Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-circuit current level of power grid will be increased with high penetration of VSC-based renewable energy, and a strong coupling between transient fault process and control strategy will change the fault features. The full current expression of VSC-based renewable energy was obtained according to transient characteristics of short-circuit current. Furtherly, by analyzing the closed-loop transfer function model of controller and current source characteristics presented in steady state during a fault, equivalent circuits of VSC-based renewable energy of fault transient state and steady state were proposed, respectively. Then the correctness of the theory was verified by experimental tests. In addition, for power grid with VSC-based renewable energy, superposition theorem was used to calculate AC component and DC component of short-circuit current, respectively, then the peak value of short-circuit current was evaluated effectively. The calculated results could be used for grid planning and design, short-circuit current management as well as adjustment of relay protection. Based on comparing calculation and simulation results of 6-node 500 kV Huainan power grid and 35-node 220 kV Huaisu power grid, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified.

  12. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  13. Compatibility between vandium-base alloys and flowing lithium: Partitioning of hydrogen at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.B.; Chopra, O.K.; Loomis, B.; Smith, D.

    1989-12-01

    A major concern in fusion reactor design is possible hydrogen-isotope-induced embrittlement of structural alloys in the neutron environment expected in these reactors. Hydrogen fractionation occurs between lithium and various refractory metals according to a temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, K H , that is defined as the ration of the hydrogen concentration in the metallic specimen to that in the liquid lithium. In the present work, K H was determined for pure vanadium and several binary and ternary alloys, and the commercial Vanstar 7. Hydrogen distribution studies were performed in an austenitic steel forced-circulation lithium loop. Equilibrium concentrations of hydrogen in vanadium-base alloys exposed to flowing lithium at temperatures of 350 to 550 degree C were measured by inert gas fusion techniques and residual gas analysis. Thermodynamic calculations are consistent with the effect of chromium and titanium in the alloys on the resultant hydrogen fractionation. Experimental and calculated results indicate that K H values are very low; i.e., the hydrogen concentrations in the lithium-equilibrated vanadium-base alloy specimens are about two orders of magnitude lower than those in the lithium. Because of this low distribution coefficient, embrittlement of vanadium alloys by hydrogen in lithium would not be expected. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Multi objective optimization of performance parameters of a single cylinder diesel engine running with hydrogen using a Taguchi-fuzzy based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Probir Kumar; Deb, Madhujit; Banerjee, Rahul; Majumder, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues and rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels are the major concerns over the past two decades to search for alternative fuels. Among various alternatives hydrogen is a long-term renewable and least polluting fuel. Its clean burning capability helps to meet the stern emission norms. Full substitution of diesel with hydrogen may not be convenient for the time being but employing of hydrogen in a diesel engine in dual fuel mode is possible. In this experimental investigation a TMI (timed manifold injection) system has been developed using ECU (electronic control unit) with varying injection strategy to deliver hydrogen on to the intake manifold. Through adopting this technique in the existing diesel engine a momentous improvement in performance and combustion parameters has been observed. The study also attempts to explain the application of the fuzzy logic based Taguchi analysis to optimize the performance parameters i.e. BSEC (Brake specific energy consumption), Vol. Eff. (Volumetric efficiency) and BTHE (brake thermal efficiency) for the different hydrogen injection strategies. - Highlights: • A timed manifold injection system has been developed which enhances the BTHE by 31.74% at full load conditions. • Use of hydrogen-diesel dual fuel of BSEC was reduced by a maximum of 68.98% at full load condition compared to diesel. • Τhe Vol. Eff. reduced by 73.14% in dual fuel mode as compared to 77.23% at full load condition with base diesel. • A fuzzy based Taguchi's parameter design technique has been involved in multi objective optimization for prediction. • Predicted optimum combination improved BTHE and Vol. Eff. by 24.04% and 72.87% respectively and reduced BSEC by 59.03%

  15. Oxide characterization and hydrogen behaviors of Zr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Kwon, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Oh, S. J.; Yim, B. J.; Son, S. B.; Yun, S. P.

    2006-03-01

    The work scope and contents of the research are as follows : basic properties of zirconium alloys, hydrogen pick-up mechanism of zirconium alloy, effects of hydride on the corrosion behaviors of zirconium alloys, estimation on stress of oxide layer in the zirconium alloy, microstructure and characteristic of oxide in pre-hydrided zirconium alloys

  16. Non Isolated and Non-Inverting Cockcroft Walton Multiplier Based Hybrid 2Nx Interleaved Boost Converter For Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padamanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In this paper hybrid non isolated and non-invertingCockcroft-Walton multiplier based 2Nx InterleavedBoost converter (2Nx IBC) for renewable energy applications is presented. The presented hybrid boost converter topology is derived from non-inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC......) and inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC). In renewable energy applications, generated voltage needs to be stepped up with high conversion ratio using a DC-DC converter at voltage levels as per the application requirement. The advantages of the presentedtopology of interleaved converter are high...

  17. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  18. Solution-chemical route to generalized synthesis of metal germanate nanowires with room-temperature, light-driven hydrogenation activity of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Wenguang; Yan, Shicheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2014-01-06

    A facile solution-chemical route was developed for the generalized preparation of a family of highly uniform metal germanate nanowires on a large scale. This route is based on the use of hydrazine monohydrate/H2O as a mixed solvent under solvothermal conditions. Hydrazine has multiple effects on the generation of the nanowires: as an alkali solvent, a coordination agent, and crystal anisotropic growth director. Different-percentage cobalt-doped Cd2Ge2O6 nanowires were also successfully obtained through the addition of Co(OAc)2·4H2O to the initial reaction mixture for future investigation of the magnetic properties of these nanowires. The considerably negative conduction band level of the Cd2Ge2O6 nanowire offers a high driving force for photogenerated electron transfer to CO2 under UV-vis illumination, which facilitates CO2 photocatalytic reduction to a renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor at room temperature.

  19. Hawaii hydrogen energy economy: production and distribution of hydrogen and oxygen in the district of north Kohala, the Big Island of Hawaii: a global prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows how a community which is totally oil dependent can be transformed into a hydrogen fuel based economy by using the concept of setting hydrogen zones, with the use of off-peak hydro-electrical power and renewable energies. An existing hydro-electric plant in Hawaii could serve as a local prototype. 2 figs

  20. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  1. Transient stability improvement: a review and comparison of conventional and renewable-based techniques for preventive and emergency control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.

    2017-01-01

    increases the voltage setpoint of the units in order to increase the synchronizing power, is reported. Regarding renewable energy source based emergency control, low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability including voltage support is a well established method. Nevertheless, it is also highlighted that high...

  2. 75 FR 80487 - Paradise Solar Urban Renewal, L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2365-000] Paradise...-referenced proceeding of Paradise Solar Urban Renewal, L.L.C.'s application for market-based rate authority... electronic submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http...

  3. HySA infrastructure center of competence: A strategic collaboration platform for renewable hydrogen production and storage for fuel cell telecom applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bessarabov, D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Science and Technology of South Africa developed the National Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies (HFCT) Research, Development and Innovation Strategy. The National Strategy was branded Hydrogen South Africa (HySA). HySA has been...

  4. Development of technical marginal conditions for the application of hydrogen as storage for renewable energies. Short version of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Due to the present experiences gained in pilot projects and by the application of hydrogen in the industry it can be expected that an equivalent safety standard will be achieved for a manifold application of hydrogen as energy carrier as e.g. in the case of natural gas or liquid gas. A decentral generation and storage of hydrogen in detached houses is not recommended in conurbation because of necessary structural measurements and safety requirements. Small supply networks on the level of municipalities shall be erected instead. The use of hydrogen in the traffic seems to be useful in utility vehicles (e.g. buses) because the vehicle construction is more suitable for a safe integration of the tank system than in case of a car. The regulation shall be extended for a broader use of hydrogen and contain minimum requirements for the equipment and design of each application in terms of safety technology. (orig./MM) [de

  5. Corrosion resistance of cement brick on an organo-mineral base in a hydrogen sulfide medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapov, A G; Belousov, G A; Pustovalov, V I; Skorikov, B M

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of strength tests of cement brick made of different types of cement as a function of the composition of the mixing liquid and storage conditions. It is established that cement brick made of cement on a cinder base mixed in hydrogen sulfide water possesses the highest corrosive resistance to hydrogen sulfide attack. A marked increase in corrosion resistance is observed in cement brick on an organo-mineral base. Results of industrial tests of organo-mineral grouting mortar in a hydrogen sulfide medium are demonstrated.

  6. Development and Improvement of Devices for Hydrogen Generation and Oxidation in Water Detritiation Facility Based on CECE Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenkevich, M.; Andreev, B.; Magomedbekov, E.; Park, Yu.; Sakharovsky, Yu.; Perevezentsev, A.

    2005-01-01

    Water detritiation facility based on CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) technology needs an electrolyser for water conversion to hydrogen. Use of a conventional alkali electrolyser requires a very deep purification of hydrogen stream from alkali prior to injection to LPCE (Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange) column. In some applications conversion of detritiated hydrogen back into water is required. This is usually performed via hydrogen catalytic oxidation in a recombiner. This paper presents results of study to improve hydrogen and oxygen purification for alkali electrolysers and develop a hydrogen recombiner based on use of hydrophobic catalyst

  7. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1990-01-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  8. Thermodynamic Tuning of Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Lu, Yanshan; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mg-based hydrides are one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, slow kinetics and stable thermodynamics hinder their practical application. In contrast to the substantial progress in the enhancement of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamic tuning is still a great challenge for Mg-based alloys. At present, the main strategies to alter the thermodynamics of Mg/MgH2 are alloying, nanostructuring, and changing the reaction pathway. Using these approaches, thermodynamic tuning has been achieved to some extent, but it is still far from that required for practical application. In this article, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Based on the current progress, finding reversible systems with high hydrogen capacity and effectively tailored reaction enthalpy offers a promising route for tuning the thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys. PMID:28788353

  9. Optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yina; Zhao, Chunliu; Xu, Ben; Wang, Dongning; Yang, Minghong

    2018-05-01

    An optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect has been proposed and achieved. The proposed sensor, which total length is ∼594 μm, is composed of a segment of large mode area fiber (LMAF) and a segment of hollow-core fiber (HCF). The proposed sensor is coated with the Pt-loaded WO3/SiO2 powder which will result in the increase of local temperature of the sensor head when exposed to hydrogen atmosphere. Thus the hydrogen sensor can be achieved by monitoring the change of resonant envelope wavelength. The hydrogen sensitivity is -1.04 nm/% within the range of 0 % -2.4 % which is greatly improved because of the vernier effect. The response time is ∼80 s. Due to its compact configuration, the proposed sensor provides a feasible and miniature structure to achieve detection of hydrogen.

  10. Exclusive Hydrogen Generation by Electrocatalysts Coated with an Amorphous Chromium-Based Layer Achieving Efficient Overall Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Qureshi, Muhammad

    2017-08-08

    Successful conversion of renewable energy to useful chemicals requires efficient devices that can electrocatalyze or photocatalyze redox reactions, e.g., overall water splitting. Excellent electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), such as Pt, can also cause other side-reactions, including the water-forming back-reaction from H2 and O2 products. A Cr-based amorphous layer coated on catalysts can work as a successful surface modifier that avoids the back-reaction, but its capabilities and limitations toward other species have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the Cr-based layer on Pt from perspectives of both electrocatalysis and photocatalysis using redox-active molecules/ions (O2, ferricyanide, IO3–, S2O82–, H2O2, and CO gas). Our systematic study revealed that utilization of the Cr-based layer realized an exclusive cathodic reaction only to HER, even in the presence of the aforementioned reactive species, suggesting that Cr-based layers work as membranes, as well as corrosion and poison inhibition layers. However, the Cr-based layer experienced self-oxidation and dissolved into the aqueous phase when a strong oxidizing agent or low pH was present. Presented herein are fundamental and critical aspects of the Cr-based modifier, which is essential for the successful and practical development of solar fuel production systems.

  11. Exclusive Hydrogen Generation by Electrocatalysts Coated with an Amorphous Chromium-Based Layer Achieving Efficient Overall Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Qureshi, Muhammad; Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Tsiapis, Nikolaos; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Successful conversion of renewable energy to useful chemicals requires efficient devices that can electrocatalyze or photocatalyze redox reactions, e.g., overall water splitting. Excellent electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), such as Pt, can also cause other side-reactions, including the water-forming back-reaction from H2 and O2 products. A Cr-based amorphous layer coated on catalysts can work as a successful surface modifier that avoids the back-reaction, but its capabilities and limitations toward other species have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the Cr-based layer on Pt from perspectives of both electrocatalysis and photocatalysis using redox-active molecules/ions (O2, ferricyanide, IO3–, S2O82–, H2O2, and CO gas). Our systematic study revealed that utilization of the Cr-based layer realized an exclusive cathodic reaction only to HER, even in the presence of the aforementioned reactive species, suggesting that Cr-based layers work as membranes, as well as corrosion and poison inhibition layers. However, the Cr-based layer experienced self-oxidation and dissolved into the aqueous phase when a strong oxidizing agent or low pH was present. Presented herein are fundamental and critical aspects of the Cr-based modifier, which is essential for the successful and practical development of solar fuel production systems.

  12. A GIS-based assessment of coal-based hydrogen infrastructure deployment in the state of Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen infrastructure costs will vary by region as geographic characteristics and feedstocks differ. This paper proposes a method for optimizing regional hydrogen infrastructure deployment by combining detailed spatial data in a geographic information system (GIS) with a technoeconomic model of hydrogen infrastructure components. The method is applied to a case study in Ohio in which coal-based hydrogen infrastructure with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is modeled for two distribution modes at several steady-state hydrogen vehicle market penetration levels. The paper identifies the optimal infrastructure design at each market penetration as well as the costs, CO 2 emissions, and energy use associated with each infrastructure pathway. The results indicate that aggregating infrastructure at the regional-scale yields lower levelized costs of hydrogen than at the city-level at a given market penetration level, and centralized production with pipeline distribution is the favored pathway even at low market penetration. Based upon the hydrogen infrastructure designs evaluated in this paper, coal-based hydrogen production with CCS can significantly reduce transportation-related CO 2 emissions at a relatively low infrastructure cost and levelized fuel cost. (author)

  13. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  14. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  16. Johnson Space Center's Solar and Wind-Based Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, A.; Ewert, M.; Rowlands, J.; Post, K.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas has a Sustainability Partnership team that seeks ways for earth-based sustainability practices to also benefit space exploration research. A renewable energy gathering system was installed in 2007 at the JSC Child Care Center (CCC) which also offers a potential test bed for space exploration power generation and remote monitoring and control concepts. The system comprises: 1) several different types of photovoltaic panels (29 kW), 2) two wind-turbines (3.6 kW total), and 3) one roof-mounted solar thermal water heater and tank. A tie to the JSC local electrical grid was provided to accommodate excess power. The total first year electrical energy production was 53 megawatt-hours. A web-based real-time metering system collects and reports system performance and weather data. Improvements in areas of the CCC that were detected during subsequent energy analyses and some concepts for future efforts are also presented.

  17. A first-principles study of hydrogen storage capacity based on Li-Na-decorated silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhe; Wu, Shujing; Dai, Xianying; Zhao, Tianlong; Hao, Yue

    2018-05-23

    Surface decoration with alkali metal adatoms has been predicted to be promising for silicene to obtain high hydrogen storage capacity. Herein, we performed a detailed study of the hydrogen storage properties of Li and Na co-decorated silicene (Li-Na-decorated silicene) based on first-principles calculations using van der Waals correction. The hydrogen adsorption behaviors, including the adsorption order, the maximum capacity, and the corresponding mechanism were analyzed in detail. Our calculations show that up to three hydrogen molecules can firmly bind to each Li atom and six for each Na atom, respectively. The hydrogen storage capacity is estimated to be as high as 6.65 wt% with a desirable average adsorption energy of 0.29 eV/H2. It is confirmed that both the charge-induced electrostatic interaction and the orbital hybridizations play a great role in hydrogen storage. Our results may enhance our fundamental understanding of the hydrogen storage mechanism, which is of great importance for the practical application of Li-Na-decorated silicene in hydrogen storage.

  18. High temperature cathodic charging of hydrogen in zirconium alloys and iron and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    These investigations lead to the development of a new technique for charging hydrogen into metals and alloys. In this technique a mixture of sulfates and bisulfates of sodium and potassium is kept saturated with water at 250-300degC in an open pyrex glass beaker and electrolysed using platinum anode and the material to be charged as the cathode. Most of the studies were carried out on Zr alloys. It is shown that because of the high hydrogen flux available at the surface and the high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals at these temperatures the materials pick up hydrogen faster and more uniformly than the conventional electrolytic charging at room temperature and high temperature autoclaving in LiOH solutions. Chemical analysis, metallographic examination and XRD studies confirm this. This technique has been used to charge hydrogen into many iron and nickel base austentic alloys, which are very resistant to hydrogen pick up and to H-embrittlement. Since this involved a novel method of electrolysing water, the hydrogen/deuterium isotopic ratio has been studied. At this temperatures the D/H ratio in the evolved hydrogen gas was found to be closer to the value in the liquid water, which means a smaller separation factor. This confirm the earlier observation that separation factor decreases with increase of temperature. (author). 16 refs., 21 fi gs., 6 tabs

  19. Well-to-wheel analysis of renewable transport fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification and hydrogen from concentrated solar energy[Dissertation 17437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.

    2007-07-01

    -to-wheel approach of the study: the supply of the relevant chemical and energetic sources is first presented, followed by the processing to energy carriers, energy transport and distribution and lastly the conversion to useful energy. The study focuses on the gasification and methanation of wood, and hydrogen production using concentrating solar power technologies: the solar thermal ZnO dissociation (STD), the solar carbo-thermic ZnO reduction, which is also an ongoing research project at PSI, and electrolysis using solar thermal electricity, which is the benchmark for the solar thermo-chemical pathways. The fuels are compared to alternative hydrogen production pathways and the standard fuels of today. Chapter D summarizes assumptions for cost calculations of the assessed fuels, again with a focus on concentrating solar power technologies. Results (chapter E) show that a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 70% compared to conventional fuels can be achieved with both the solar and the wood methanation options. Environmental issues for STD are particulate emissions, resource consumption and land use associated with the construction of the steel-based concentrating heliostat field. For SNG, particulate and NO{sub x} emissions in the frame of forestry and plant operation are the main issues. According to the Ecoindicator '99 methodology, the total environmental impact for both STD and SNG is reduced by about 40% compared to an advanced gasoline car. Production and supply costs for STD are about 2.5-3.5 times as high as for steam methane reforming, the standard technology of today, also resulting in a relatively low eco-efficiency. SNG demands about twice the production costs of the conventional fuels gasoline and diesel, but shows a high eco-efficiency because of environmental advantages and the relatively economic car construction. No clearly preferable fuel could be identified. From an ecological point of view, hydrogen produced from hydropower and used in a fuel cell car

  20. Zirconium-Based metal organic framework (Zr-MOF) material with high hydrostability for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Material-based solutions, such as metal organic frameworks (MOFs), continue to attract increasing attention as viable options for hydrogen storage applications. MOFs are widely regarded as promising materials for hydrogen storage due to their high...

  1. Methods and apparatus for hydrogen based biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic process for biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization comprising the use of acidic waste as co-substrate.In this process,H2 and CO2 will be converted to CH4, which will result in lower CO2 content in the biogas. The invention relates to both in situ...... and ex situ methods of biogas upgrading. The invention further relates to a bioreactor comprising hollow fibre membranes....

  2. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  3. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... Renewable materials from home-grown crops trees and agricultural wastes can provide many of the same chemical building blocks-plus others that petrochemicals cannot Despite the expertise and ingenuity of U.S...

  4. Energy management in microgrid based on the multi objective stochastic programming incorporating portable renewable energy resource as demand response option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, Vahid Sohrabi; Jirdehi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Hemmati, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy resources are often known as cost-effective and lucrative resources and have been widely developed due to environmental-economic issues. Renewable energy utilization even in small scale (e.g., microgrid networks) has attracted significant attention. Energy management in microgrid can be carried out based on the generating side management or demand side management. In this paper, portable renewable energy resource are modeled and included in microgrid energy management as a demand response option. Utilizing such resources could supply the load when microgrid cannot serve the demand. This paper addresses energy management and scheduling in microgrid including thermal and electrical loads, renewable energy sources (solar and wind), CHP, conventional energy sources (boiler and micro turbine), energy storage systems (thermal and electrical ones), and portable renewable energy resource (PRER). Operational cost of microgrid and air pollution are considered as objective functions. Uncertainties related to the parameters are incorporated to make a stochastic programming. The proposed problem is expressed as a constrained, multi-objective, linear, and mixed-integer programing. Augmented Epsilon-constraint method is used to solve the problem. Final results and calculations are achieved using GAMS24.1.3/CPLEX12.5.1. Simulation results demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed method in microgrid energy management. - Highlights: • Introducing portable renewable energy resource (PRER) and considering effect of them. • Considering reserve margin and sensitivity analysis for validate robustness. • Multi objective and stochastic management with considering various loads and sources. • Using augmented Epsilon-constraint method to solve multi objective program. • Highly decreasing total cost and pollution with PRER in stochastic state.

  5. Technological Decision to Renewable Energy Usage Biogas for Off-grid Systems Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the energy experiments based on electrochemical researches and the thermodynamic calculations, which are carried out on the hydrogenous fuel with the residual content of methane obtained from biogas selected organic waste. Energy indicators are examined in comparison to electrolysis hydrogen. The use of technical and electro physical indicators together with parameters of the fuel operating allowed assessing energy efficiency the module reformer - fuel cell running on a non-standard hydrogenous fuel. Numerical characteristic the efficiency of workflows fuel system reformer – fuel cell is about 39%. To operate the power installation with a predetermined capacity amount used of hydrogenous fuel is comparable to required electrolysis hydrogen amount. Shown the possibility of creation the systems of power supply based on new hydrogen technologies using renewable energy resources local waste. Confirms the relatively high efficiency the usage of hydrogenous fuel for the tasks of off-grid systems consumption.

  6. Embrittlement of nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base superalloys by exposure to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Five nickel-base alloys (Inconel 718, Udimet 700, Rene 41, Hastelloy X, and TD-NiCr), one cobalt-base alloy (L-605), and an iron-base alloy (A-286) were exposed in hydrogen at 0.1 MN/sq m (15 psi) at several temperatures in the range from 430 to 980 C for as long as 1000 hours. These alloys were embrittled to varying degrees by such exposures in hydrogen. Embrittlement was found to be: (1) sensitive to strain rate, (2) reversible, (3) caused by large concentrations of absorbed hydrogen, and (4) not associated with any detectable microstructural changes in the alloys. These observations are consistent with a mechanism of internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement.

  7. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  8. A diffusion approximation based on renewal processes with applications to strongly biased run–tumble motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2016-01-01

    We consider organisms which use a renewal strategy such as run–tumble when moving in space, for example to perform chemotaxis in chemical gradients. We derive a diffusion approximation for the motion, applying a central limit theorem due to Anscombe for renewal-reward processes; this theorem has ....... The proposed technique for obtaining diffusion approximations is conceptually and computationally simple, and applicable also when statistics of the motion is obtained empirically or through Monte Carlo simulation of the motion....

  9. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...

  10. Hy-NOW. Evaluation of methods and technologies for the production of hydrogen based on biomass. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, Konstantin; Grasemann, Elias; Oehmichen, Katja

    2014-01-01

    to hydrogen. Under consideration of thermodynamic criteria, gasification-based concepts appear advantageous, since they are characterized by smaller losses - especially regarding plants with higher outputs. The gasification-based concept 1 shows specific hydrogen provision costs of 59.0 EUR/GJ H2 (7.1 EUR/kg H2 ). These costs correspond to the fermentation-based concept 3 with provision costs of 54.2 EUR/GJ H2 (6.5 EUR/kg H2 ). With 76.1 EUR/GJ H2 (9.1 EUR/kg H2 ) the gasification-based concept 2 produces about 30 % higher provision costs mostly due to its smaller size. Generally speaking, 30 to 40 % of the provision costs are caused by the distribution of hydrogen. The life cycle assessment shows the major influence of hydrogen distribution on emissions, energy consumption and greenhouse gas mitigation potentials. Here, the use of electric power for hydrogen compression is the central determinant, if reference is made to the German electricity mix. The differences in the life cycle assessments are small where the raw material conversion is concerned. There are, however, differences in the feedstock supply. Residual forest wood is assumed as feedstock for the gasification-based concepts assessed, whereas a substrate containing 60 % energy crops is assumed for the fermentation-based process. Only the gasification-based concepts may fulfill the biofuel emission requirements set for 2017, demanding a greenhouse gas mitigation of 50 %. The fermentation-based concept cannot reach this target under the assumptions made. The specific greenhouse gas emissions amount to approx. 34 gCO 2 -Eq./MJ (4,08 kgCO 2 -Eq./kg H2 resp.) for the gasification-based concepts 1 and 2, and approx. 44 gCO 2 -Eq./MJ (5,28 kgCO 2 - Eq./kg H2 resp.) for the fermentation-based concept 3. With a larger share of renewable energy in the future electricity mix, the greenhouse gas emissions of all three concepts could be lowered substantially.

  11. Hydrogen Infrastructure Testing and Research Facility Video (Text Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    grid integration, continuous code improvement, fuel cell vehicle operation, and renewable hydrogen Systems Integration Facility or ESIF. Research projects including H2FIRST, component testing, hydrogen

  12. Numerical estimation of ultrasonic production of hydrogen: Effect of ideal and real gas based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerboua, Kaouther; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2018-01-01

    Based on two different assumptions regarding the equation describing the state of the gases within an acoustic cavitation bubble, this paper studies the sonochemical production of hydrogen, through two numerical models treating the evolution of a chemical mechanism within a single bubble saturated with oxygen during an oscillation cycle in water. The first approach is built on an ideal gas model, while the second one is founded on Van der Waals equation, and the main objective was to analyze the effect of the considered state equation on the ultrasonic hydrogen production retrieved by simulation under various operating conditions. The obtained results show that even when the second approach gives higher values of temperature, pressure and total free radicals production, yield of hydrogen does not follow the same trend. When comparing the results released by both models regarding hydrogen production, it was noticed that the ratio of the molar amount of hydrogen is frequency and acoustic amplitude dependent. The use of Van der Waals equation leads to higher quantities of hydrogen under low acoustic amplitude and high frequencies, while employing ideal gas law based model gains the upper hand regarding hydrogen production at low frequencies and high acoustic amplitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  14. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites.

  15. A heat transfer correlation based on a surface renewal model for molten core concrete interaction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourniaire, B. . E-mail bruno.tourniaire@cea.fr

    2006-01-01

    The prediction of heat transfer between corium pool and concrete basemat is of particular significance in the framework of the study of PWR's severe accident. Heat transfer directly governs the ablation velocity of concrete in case of molten core concrete interaction (MCCI) and, consequently, the time delay when the reactor cavity may fail. From a restricted hydrodynamic point of view, this issue is related to heat transfer between a heated bubbling pool and a porous wall with gas injection. Several experimental studies have been performed with simulant materials and many correlations have been provided to address this issue. The comparisons of the results of these correlations with the measurements and their extrapolation to reactor materials show that strong discrepancies between the results of these models are obtained which probably means that some phenomena are not well taken into account. The main purpose of this paper is to present an alternative heat transfer model which was originally developed for chemical engineering applications (bubble columns) by Deckwer. A part of this work is devoted to the presentation of this model, which is based on a surface renewal assumption. Comparison of the results of this model with available experimental data in different systems are presented and discussed. These comparisons clearly show that this model can be used to deal with the particular problem of MCCI. The analyses also lead to enrich the original model by taking into account the thermal resistance of the wall: a new formulation of the Deckwer's correlation is finally proposed

  16. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  17. Why hydrogen; Pourquoi l'hydrogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  18. Chemical storage of wind energy by renewable methanol production: Feasibility analysis using a multi-criteria decision matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, Michael; Alhajji, Mahdi; Demirel, Yaşar

    2015-01-01

    This study is for the technoeconomic analysis of an integral facility consisting of wind energy-based electrolytic hydrogen production, bioethanol-based carbon dioxide capture and compression, and direct methanol synthesis. ASPEN Plus was used to simulate the facility producing 97.01 mt (metric tons) methanol/day using 138.37 mt CO_2/day and 18.56 mt H_2/day. A discounted cash flow diagram for the integral facility is used for the economic analysis at various hydrogen production costs and methanol selling prices. The feasibility analysis is based on a multi-criteria decision matrix consisting of economic and sustainability indicators comparing renewable and non-renewable methanol productions. The overall energy efficiency for the renewable methanol is around 58%. Fixation of carbon reduces the CO_2 equivalent emission by around −1.05 CO_2e/kg methanol. The electrolytic hydrogen production cost is the largest contributor to the economics of the integral facility. The feasibility analysis based on multi-criteria shows that renewable methanol production may be feasible. - Highlights: • We simulate renewable methanol production from wind-based hydrogen and CO_2_. • Methanol production can fix 1.05 kg CO_2/kg methanol with an energy efficiency of 58%. • Economic and sustainability metrics are estimated for the integral facility. • We introduce a decision matrix with both economic and sustainability indicators. • Renewable methanol may be feasible versus conventional fossil fuel-based methanol.

  19. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A.B.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experiment...... catalysts based on this. Suited for upper-level high school and first-year university students, this exercise involves using a basic two-cell electrochemical setup to test multiple electrode materials as catalysts at one applied potential, and then constructing a volcano curve with the resulting currents...

  20. Application of hydrogen-plasma technology for property modification of silicon and producing the silicon-based structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.K.; Mazanik, A.V.; Ul'yashin, A.G.; Dzhob, R; Farner, V.R.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of atomic hydrogen on the properties of Czochralski-grown single crystal silicon as well as polycrystalline shaped silicon have been investigated. It was established that the buried defect layers created by high-energy hydrogen or helium ion implantation act as a good getter centers for hydrogen atoms introduced in silicon in the process of hydrogen plasma hydrogenation. Atomic hydrogen was shown to be active as a catalyzer significantly enhancing the rate of thermal donors formation in p-type single crystal silicon. This effect can be used for n-p- and p-n-p-silicon based device structures producing [ru

  1. Embedded system based on PWM control of hydrogen generator with SEPIC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Cheikh; Setiawan, Eko; Habibi, Muhammad Afnan; Hodaka, Ichijo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to design and to produce a micro electrical plant system based on fuel cell for teaching material-embedded systems in technical vocational training center. Based on this, the student can experience generating hydrogen by fuel cells, controlling the rate of hydrogen generation by the duty ration of single-ended primary-inductor converter(SEPIC), drawing the curve rate of hydrogen to duty ratio, generating electrical power by using hydrogen, and calculating the fuel cell efficiency when it is used as electrical energy generator. This project is of great importance insofar as students will need to acquire several skills to be able to realize it such as continuous DC DC conversion and the scientific concept behind the converter, the regulation of systems with integral proportional controllers, the installation of photovoltaic cells, the use of high-tech sensors, microcontroller programming, object-oriented programming, mastery of the fuel cell syste

  2. Development Concept Of Urban Housing Renewal Based On Sustainable Tourism A Case Study Of Kampung Tambak Bayan Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nur Ramadhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban housing renewal is part of urban renewal that aims to make the housing environment more functional and integrated. Urban renewal implementation is necessary through a sustainable development concept approach that include physical social economic and cultural consideration into account. While sustainable tourism can be one of the efforts to support the development of urban economy and maintain the sustainability of sustainable development. Kampungs or informal settlements in Indonesia are potential to be developed as tourism area because each kampung has unique characteristics cultures site ambiences and local wisdom. Although they have many potentials there are still many kampungs that have not developed optimally yet. Therefore this study aims to formulate the development concepts of urban housing renewal based on sustainable tourism using Kampung Tambak Bayan as a case study in order to improving the quality of kampung through tourism approach that can reduce the number of slums as well as improving local citizens prosperity in a sustainable way. The datas are collected through observation questionnaire and documentation. The results of several quantitative and qualitatively descriptive analyses show that efforts to upgrade Kampung Tambak Bayan as a tourism destination can be realized through quality enhancements of physical environment basic infrastructures build tourism facilities stakeholder cooperation the establishment of tourism organization and local community empowerment in order to support the actualization of kampungs tourism.

  3. Prospects for hydrogen in the German energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, J.-F.; Linssen, J.; Walbeck, M.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the paper concerns the current discussion on the contribution of the hydrogen economy to a 'sustainable energy system'. It considers whether advantages for the environmental situation and energy carrier supply can be expected from the already visible future characteristics of hydrogen as a new secondary energy carrier. Possible production paths for hydrogen from hydrocarbon-based, renewable or carbon-reduced/-free primary energy carriers are evaluated with respect to primary energy use and CO 2 emissions from the fuel cycle. Hydrogen has to be packaged by compression or liquefaction, transported by surface vehicles or pipelines, stored and transferred to the end user. Whether generated by electrolysis or by reforming, and even if produced locally at filling stations, the gaseous or liquid hydrogen has to undergo these market processes before it can be used by the customer. In order to provide an idea of possible markets with special emphasis on the German energy sector, a technical systems analysis of possible hydrogen applications is performed for the stationary, mobile and portable sector. Furthermore, different 'business as usual' scenarios are analysed for Germany, Europe and the World concerning end energy use in different sectors. The very small assumed penetration of hydrogen in the analysed scenarios up to the year 2050 indicates that the hydrogen economy is a long-term option. With reference to the assumed supply paths and analysed application possibilities, hydrogen can be an option for clean energy use if hydrogen can be produced with carbon-reduced or -free primary energy carriers like renewable energy or biomass. However, the energetic use of hydrogen competes with the direct use of clean primary energy and/or with the use of electric energy based on renewable primary energy. As a substitution product for other secondary energy carriers hydrogen is therefore under pressure of costs and/or must have advantages in comparison to the use of

  4. Generalized renewal process for repairable systems based on finite Weibull mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veber, B.; Nagode, M.; Fajdiga, M.

    2008-01-01

    Repairable systems can be brought to one of possible states following a repair. These states are: 'as good as new', 'as bad as old' and 'better than old but worse than new'. The probabilistic models traditionally used to estimate the expected number of failures account for the first two states, but they do not properly apply to the last one, which is more realistic in practice. In this paper, a probabilistic model that is applicable to all of the three after-repair states, called generalized renewal process (GRP), is applied. Simplistically, GRP addresses the repair assumption by introducing the concept of virtual age into the stochastic point processes to enable them to represent the full spectrum of repair assumptions. The shape of measured or design life distributions of systems can vary considerably, and therefore frequently cannot be approximated by simple distribution functions. The scope of the paper is to prove that a finite Weibull mixture, with positive component weights only, can be used as underlying distribution of the time to first failure (TTFF) of the GRP model, on condition that the unknown parameters can be estimated. To support the main idea, three examples are presented. In order to estimate the unknown parameters of the GRP model with m-fold Weibull mixture, the EM algorithm is applied. The GRP model with m mixture components distributions is compared to the standard GRP model based on two-parameter Weibull distribution by calculating the expected number of failures. It can be concluded that the suggested GRP model with Weibull mixture with an arbitrary but finite number of components is suitable for predicting failures based on the past performance of the system

  5. A novel method for producing magnesium based hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.; Matthews, J.; Barlow, R.; Almamouri, M.M.; Speight, J.D.; Harris, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional melt casting techniques for producing Mg 2 Ni often result in no stoichiometric compositions due to the excess Mg which is added to the melt in order to counterbalance sublimation during processing. In this work a vapour phase process known as Low Pressure Pack Sublimation (LPPS) has been used to coat Ni substrates with Mg at 460-600 o C producing layers of single phase Mg 2 Ni. Ni substrates coated to date include powder, foils and wire. Using Ni-Fe substrates it has also been demonstrated that Fe can be distributed through the Mg 2 Ni alloy layer which could have a beneficial effect on the hydrogen storage characteristics. The alloy layers formed have been characterised by XRD and SEM equipped with EDX analysis. Hydrogen storage properties have been evaluated using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyser (IGA). LPPS avoids most of the sintering of powder particles during processing which is observed in other vapour phase techniques while producing a stoichiometric composition of Mg 2 Ni. It is also a simple, low cost technique for producing these alloys. (author)

  6. Porous silicon-based direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, T D; Yuksel, S Aydin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the use of Au/porous silicon/Silicon Schottky type structure, as a direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell is demonstrated. The porous silicon filled with hydrochlorid acid was developed as a proton conduction membrane. The Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon cells were fabricated by first creating the porous silicon layer in single-crystalline Si using the anodic etching under illumination and then deposition Au catalyst layer onto the porous silicon. Using 80 mM H2S solution as fuel the open circuit voltage of 0.4 V was obtained and maximum power density of 30 W/m2 at room temperature was achieved. These results demonstrate that the Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell which uses H2S:dH2O solution as fuel and operates at room temperature can be considered as the most promising type of low cost fuel cell for small power-supply units.

  7. PALLADIUM DOPED TIN OXIDE BASED HYDROGEN GAS SENSORS FOR SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, Upendra; Nadig, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is considered to be a hazardous gas since it forms a flammable mixture between 4 to 75% by volume in air. Hence, the safety aspects of handling hydrogen are quite important. For this, ideally, highly selective, fast response, small size, hydrogen sensors are needed. Although sensors based on different technologies may be used, thin-film sensors based on palladium (Pd) are preferred due to their compactness and fast response. They detect hydrogen by monitoring the changes to the electrical, mechanical or optical properties of the films. We report the development of Pd-doped tin-oxide based gas sensors prepared on thin ceramic substrates with screen printed platinum (Pt) contacts and integrated nicrome wire heaters. The sensors are tested for their performances using hydrogen-nitrogen gas mixtures to a maximum of 4%H 2 in N 2 . The sensors detect hydrogen and their response times are less than a few seconds. Also, the sensor performance is not altered by the presence of helium in the test gas mixtures. By the above desired performance characteristics, field trials of these sensors have been undertaken. The paper presents the details of the sensor fabrication, electronic circuits, experimental setup for evaluation and the test results.

  8. Ergodicity of forward times of the renewal process in a block-based inspection model using the delay time concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenbin; Banjevic, Dragan

    2012-01-01

    The delay time concept and the techniques developed for modelling and optimising plant inspection practice have been reported in many papers and case studies. For a system subject to a few major failure modes, component based delay time models have been developed under the assumptions of an age-based inspection policy. An age-based inspection assumes that an inspection is scheduled according to the age of the component, and if there is a failure renewal, the next inspection is always, say τ times, from the time of the failure renewal. This applies to certain cases, particularly important plant items where the time since the last renewal or inspection is a key to schedule the next inspection service. However, in most cases, the inspection service is not scheduled according to the need of a particular component, rather it is scheduled according to a fixed calendar time regardless whether the component being inspected was just renewed or not. This policy is called a block-based inspection which has the advantage of easy planning and is particularly useful for plant items which are part of a larger system to be inspected. If a block-based inspection policy is used, the time to failure since the last inspection prior to the failure for a particular item is a random variable. This time is called the forward time in this paper. To optimise the inspection interval for block-based inspections, the usual criterion functions such as expected cost or down time per unit time depend on the distribution of this forward time. We report in this paper the development of a theoretical proof that a limiting distribution for such a forward time exists if certain conditions are met. We also propose a recursive algorithm for determining such a limiting distribution. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the existence of the limiting distribution.

  9. Renewable energies in the transport sector: Costs and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Alternative fuels based on renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel, bioethanol and hydrogen from RES, have potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, to increase supply security and energy diversity. Transition from a fossil fuels based transport to future sustainable and clean transport is a long term and cost intensive process, especially for hydrogen use in transport. Hydrogen infrastructure is missing and most of hydrogen technologies are still at developing stage.This paper examines the economics of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and hydrogen production from renewable energy sources. The current and future costs of alternative fuels as well as the costs of the provided energy services are analysed in a dynamic framework till the year 2050. The goal is to identify the market chance of alternative fuels in a long term (till 2050). A rapid increase of fuel cell vehicles with hydrogen on the market is not expected before 2030, mainly because the costs of the fuel cells are still very high and because their efficiency, as well as the travelling range, is rather moderate.However, the use of alternative fuels in transport sector is very dependent on the political will. If political preferences, like e.g. zero-emission-vehicles, gain strong relevance this new fuels could accelerate its market penetration significantly

  10. Shifting renewable energy in transport into the next gear. Developing a methodology for taking into account all electricity, hydrogen and methane from renewable sources in the 10% transport target; Hernieuwbare energie in transport naar een hogere versnelling. Ontwikkeling van een methode dat rekening houdt met alle elektriciteit, waterstof en methaan uit hernieuwbare bronnen in de 10% transportdoelsteling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Leguijt, C.; Bennink, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Wentrup, K.; Dreblow, E.; Gruenig, M. [Ecologic Institute, Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, P.; Wurster, R.; Weindorf, W. [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik, Muenchen-Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The European Union has set a 10% target of renewable energy use in the transport sector for 2020 in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED, 2009/28/EC). This directive also defines the associated calculation methodologies, for biofuels and renewable electricity used in transport. Regarding biofuels, only those biofuels can contribute that are actually used in the transport sector. The contribution of electricity from renewable sources is treated somewhat differently, as it is typically taken from the electricity grid, where the exact source of the energy used is not monitored: Member States should use the average share of renewable electricity production in their calculations. The RED required the European Commission to present, if appropriate, a proposal to consider the whole amount of the electricity from renewable sources used to power electric vehicles, as well as a methodology to include the contribution of hydrogen from renewable sources in the transport sector. At the same time, there is the question how biomethane injected into the natural gas grid should be counted towards the transport target if vehicles are filled from that same grid - a similar route to that of electricity use in transport. DG Energy of the Commission needs to be supported in the decision making process related to these three routes: renewable electricity, hydrogen and biomethane use in transport, where distribution is taking place via national grids. The result is a comprehensive report in which different methodological options are designed and assessed, and conclusions are drawn, both for the short to medium term (until 2020) and the longer term (post-2020). In the short term, where the contribution of these routes is still limited, a relatively simple approach will be sufficient, but more sophisticated monitoring methodologies may be needed in the future, depending on the way these routes develop [Dutch] In de Richtlijn Hernieuwbare Energie (RED, 2009/28/EC) heeft de Europese Unie

  11. A proposal for the modular integration of the renewable energy sources, via hydrogen, and the Rankine power cycle; Una propuesta de integracion modular de las fuentes de energia renovables, via hidrogeno, y el ciclo de potencia Rankine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Dirzo, Rafael

    2004-07-01

    This thesis synthesizes the state-of-the-art of the modular integration of the renewable energy sources and the Ranking power cycle. This is possible to obtain due to the development of the hydrogen production technologies and with it the chemical storage of the energies solar, Aeolian (wind) and tidal, among others. The purpose of this thesis is the assessment of hydrogen as fuel, its obtaining through the breaking of the water molecule using the renewable energies and the thermodynamic analysis of two prototypes for its energy conversion into electricity and power, voltage and fixed frequency: the first one at laboratory scale of 800 W and the second one, on industrial scale of 1 GW of power. Included here is the synthesis of the increasing bibliography on the development of the hydrogen technologies and the renewable energies, passing through the mass and energy balance in the power cycles until proposing, at the level of Process Flow Charts of the results of the proposed prototypes. The products show the possibility of constructing and operating the experimental prototype, whereas the thermodynamic analysis suggests that the industrial prototype is viable. The economic analysis of both proposals is part of a doctorate project in process. [Spanish] Esta tesis sintetiza el estado del arte de la integracion modular de las fuentes de energia renovables y el ciclo de potencia Ranking. Esto es posible lograrlo debido al desarrollo de las tecnologias de produccion de hidrogeno y con ello el almacenamiento quimico de las energias solar, eolica y maremotriz, entre otras. Es objetivo de esta tesis la valoracion del hidrogeno como combustible, su obtencion a traves del rompimiento de la molecula del agua utilizando las energias renovables y el analisis termodinamico de dos prototipo para su conversion energetica en electricidad a potencia, voltaje y frecuencia fijos: el primero a escala de laboratorio de 800 W y el segundo, a escala industrial de 1 GW de potencia. Se

  12. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  13. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  14. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  15. Similar goals, divergent motives. The enabling and constraining factors of Russia's capacity-based renewable energy support scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Russian government set its first quantitative renewable energy target at 4.5% of the total electricity produced and consumed by 2020. In 2013, the Government launched its capacity-based renewable energy support scheme (CRESS), however, the expects it will merely add 0.3% to the current 0.67% share of renewables (Ministry of Energy, 2016c). This raises the question what factors might explain this implementation gap. On the basis of field research in Moscow, the article offers an in-depth policy analysis of resource-geographic, financial, institutional and ecologic enabling and constraining factors of Russia's CRESS between 2009 and 2015. To avoid the trap that policy intentions remain on paper, the entire policy cycle – from goal setting to implementation – has been covered. The article concludes that wind energy, which would have contributed the lion's share of new renewable energy capacity, lags behind, jeopardizing the quantitative renewable energy target. The depreciation of the rouble decreased return on investment, and the Local Content Requirement discouraged investors given the lack of Russian wind production facilities. Contrary to resource-geographic and financial expectations, solar projects have been commissioned more accurately, benefitting from access to major business groups and existing production facilities. - Highlights: • The support scheme is focused on the oversupplied integrated electricity market. • The scheme disregards the technical and economic potential in isolated areas. • The solar industry develops at the fastest rate, wind and small hydro lag behind. • Access to business groups and production facilities condition implementation. • The devaluation of the rouble necessitated a revision of the policy design.

  16. Spatio-temporal model based optimization framework to design future hydrogen infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konda, N.V.S.; Shah, N.; Brandon, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    A mixed integer programming (MIP) spatio-temporal model was used to design hydrogen infrastructure networks for the Netherlands. The detailed economic analysis was conducted using a multi-echelon model of the entire hydrogen supply chain, including feed, production, storage, and transmission-distribution systems. The study considered various near-future and commercially available technologies. A multi-period model was used to design evolutionary hydrogen supply networks in coherence with growing demand. A scenario-based analysis was conducted in order to account for uncertainties in future demand. The study showed that competitive hydrogen networks can be designed for any conceivable scenario. It was concluded that the multi-period model presented significant advantages in relation to decision-making over long time-horizons

  17. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hassel, Bart A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the

  18. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Villela Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

  19. ICT Based Performance Evaluation of Primary Frequency Control Support from Renewable Power Plants in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Shahid

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased penetration of Renewable Energy Generation (ReGen plants in future power systems poses several challenges to the stability of the entire system. In future green energy rich power systems, the responsibility for providing ancillary services will be shifted from conventional power plants towards ReGen plants, such as wind and photovoltaic power plants. Frequency control support from the Wind Power Plants (WPPs is one of the crucial ancillary services in order to preserve operational stability in case of grid disturbances. Among other requirements, the ability to provide fast frequency control support from ReGen plants will highly depend on the underlying communication infrastructure that allows an exchange of information between different ReGen plants and the control centers. This paper, therefore, focuses on the evaluation of the impact of communication and the related aspects to provide online frequency control support from ReGen (with special focus on WPP. The performance evaluation is based on an aggregated WPP model that is integrated into a generic power system model. This generic power system model is specifically designed to assess the ancillary services in a relatively simple yet relevant environment. Several case studies with different wind speeds at a particular wind-power penetration level and communication scenarios are considered to evaluate the performance of power system frequency response. The article provides the Transmission System Operator (TSO and other communication engineers insights into the importance and various aspects of communication infrastructure for general service coordination between WPPs and specifically primary frequency control coordination from WPPs in future power systems.

  20. EUROSUNMED. Euro-Mediterranean cooperation on research and training in sun based renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaoui, Abdelilah

    2013-01-01

    Here we present the different aspects of the EUROSUNMED project. The scientific targets of EUROSUNMED are the development of new technologies in three energy field areas, namely photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP) and grid integration (GI), in strong collaboration with research institutes, universities and SMSs from Europe in the north side of the Mediterranean sea and from Morocco and Egypt from the south of the sea. the focus in PV will be on thin film (Si, CZTS) based solar cells and modules while the goal in CSP field is to design and test new heliostats as well as novel solutions for energy storage compatible with these technologies. The project aims at producing components that will be tested under specific conditions of MPC (hot climate, absence of water, etc.). Such investigations are complemented with studies on grid integration of energy sources from PV and CSP in Morocco and Egypt context. Additionally, the consortium envisages training PhD students and post-docs in these interdisciplinary fields (chemistry, physics, materials science) in a close and fruitful collaboration between academic institutions and industry from EU and MPCs. The consortium is well placed around leading academic groups in materials science and engineering devices and equipments for the development of PV and CSP, and also in the promotion of the renewable energies in general. Moreover, technology transfer and research infrastructure development in the targeted areas will be provided. Disseminating the results of the projects will be done through the organization of summer schools and stakeholders involved in the 3 selected energy area and beyond. Another outreach of the project will be the proposal for a roadmap on the technological aspects (research, industry, implementation) of the PV, CSP and grid area as well as on the best practice for the continuation of strong collaboration between the EU and MPCS partners and beyond for mutual interest. (author)

  1. Renewable urea sensor based on a self-assembled polyelectrolyte layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoyang; Guan, Lirui; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2002-03-01

    A renewable urea sensor based on a carboxylic poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-COOH) matrix pH-sensitive membrane has been proposed, in which a positively charged polyelectrolyte layer is first constructed by using a self-assembly technique on the surface of a PVC-COOH membrane, and urease, with negative charges, is then immobilized through electrostatic adsorption onto the PVC-COOH membrane, by controlling the pH of the urease solution below its isoelectric point. The response characteristics of the PVC-COOH pH-sensitive membrane and the effects of experimental conditions have been investigated in detail. Compared with conventional covalent immobilization, the urea sensor made with this self-assembly immobilization shows significant advantage in terms of sensitivity and ease of regeneration. The potential responses of the urea sensor with self-assembly immobilization increase with the urea concentration over the concentration range 10(-5) - 10(-1) mol l(-1), and the detection limit is 0.028 mmol(-1). Moreover, this type of urea sensor can be repeatedly regenerated by using a simple washing treatment with 0.01 mol l(-1) NaOH (containing 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl) and 0.01 mol l(-1) HCl. The urease layers and the polyelectrolyte layers on the PVC-COOH membrane are removed, the potential response of the sensor to urea solutions of different concentrations returns nearly to zero, and another assembly cycle of urease and polyelectrolyte can then be carried out.

  2. Solar Power Satellites: Reconsideration as Renewable Energy Source Based on Novel Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Solar power satellites (SPS) are a solar energy generation mechanism that captures solar energy in space and converts this energy into microwave for transmission to Earth-based rectenna arrays. They offer a constant, high integrated energy density of 200 W/m2 compared to <10 W/m2 for other renewable energy sources. Despite this promise as a clean energy source, SPS have been relegated out of consideration due to their enormous cost and technological challenge. It has been suggested that for solar power satellites to become economically feasible, launch costs must decrease from their current 20,000/kg to <200/kg. Even with the advent of single-stage-to-orbit launchers which propose launch costs dropping to 2,000/kg, this will not be realized. Yet, the advantages of solar power satellites are many including the provision of stable baseload power. Here, I present a novel approach to reduce the specific cost of solar power satellites to 1/kg by leveraging two enabling technologies - in-situ resource utilization of lunar material and 3D printing of this material. Specifically, we demonstrate that electric motors may be constructed from lunar material through 3D printing representing a major step towards the development of self-replicating machines. Such machines have the capacity to build solar power satellites on the Moon, thereby bypassing the launch cost problem. The productive capacity of self-replicating machines favours the adoption of large constellations of small solar power satellites. This opens up additional clean energy options for combating climate change by meeting the demands for future global energy.

  3. Progress on first-principles-based materials design for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Noejung; Choi, Keunsu; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Ok; Ihm, Jisoon

    2012-12-04

    This article briefly summarizes the research activities in the field of hydrogen storage in sorbent materials and reports our recent works and future directions for the design of such materials. Distinct features of sorption-based hydrogen storage methods are described compared with metal hydrides and complex chemical hydrides. We classify the studies of hydrogen sorbent materials in terms of two key technical issues: (i) constructing stable framework structures with high porosity, and (ii) increasing the binding affinity of hydrogen molecules to surfaces beyond the usual van der Waals interaction. The recent development of reticular chemistry is summarized as a means for addressing the first issue. Theoretical studies focus mainly on the second issue and can be grouped into three classes according to the underlying interaction mechanism: electrostatic interactions based on alkaline cations, Kubas interactions with open transition metals, and orbital interactions involving Ca and other nontransitional metals. Hierarchical computational methods to enable the theoretical predictions are explained, from ab initio studies to molecular dynamics simulations using force field parameters. We also discuss the actual delivery amount of stored hydrogen, which depends on the charging and discharging conditions. The usefulness and practical significance of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in increasing the storage capacity are presented as well.

  4. New insights into designing metallacarborane based room temperature hydrogen storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Pankaj Lochan; Singh, Abhishek K

    2013-10-28

    Metallacarboranes are promising towards realizing room temperature hydrogen storage media because of the presence of both transition metal and carbon atoms. In metallacarborane clusters, the transition metal adsorbs hydrogen molecules and carbon can link these clusters to form metal organic framework, which can serve as a complete storage medium. Using first principles density functional calculations, we chalk out the underlying principles of designing an efficient metallacarborane based hydrogen storage media. The storage capacity of hydrogen depends upon the number of available transition metal d-orbitals, number of carbons, and dopant atoms in the cluster. These factors control the amount of charge transfer from metal to the cluster, thereby affecting the number of adsorbed hydrogen molecules. This correlation between the charge transfer and storage capacity is general in nature, and can be applied to designing efficient hydrogen storage systems. Following this strategy, a search for the best metallacarborane was carried out in which Sc based monocarborane was found to be the most promising H2 sorbent material with a 9 wt.% of reversible storage at ambient pressure and temperature.

  5. Wireless Hydrogen Smart Sensor Based on Pt/Graphene-Immobilized Radio-Frequency Identification Tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Oh, Jungkyun; Jun, Jaemoon; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-08-25

    Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus, appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen-gas leak detection and surveillance systems are needed; additionally, the ability to monitor large areas (e.g., cities) via wireless networks is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we introduce a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based wireless smart-sensor system, composed of a Pt-decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO)-immobilized RFID sensor tag and an RFID-reader antenna-connected network analyzer to detect hydrogen gas. The Pt_rGOs, produced using a simple chemical reduction process, were immobilized on an antenna pattern in the sensor tag through spin coating. The resulting Pt_rGO-based RFID sensor tag exhibited a high sensitivity to hydrogen gas at unprecedentedly low concentrations (1 ppm), with wireless communication between the sensor tag and RFID-reader antenna. The wireless sensor tag demonstrated flexibility and a long lifetime due to the strong immobilization of Pt_rGOs on the substrate and battery-independent operation during hydrogen sensing, respectively.

  6. Renewable enthusiasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffin, Tony

    2000-01-01

    A reduction in energy consumption by the energy intensive sectors will be rewarded by a tax credit. The advantages of renewable sources of energy in terms of reducing emissions of carbon dioxide are extolled. The Government will reward the use of renewables through exemption from the Climate Change Levy. Many major companies are now committed to renewables and Shell predict that 50% of world energy will come from renewables by 2050. World-wide there is now 10,000 MW of installed wind power and the annual rate of growth is more than 20%. Other renewables such as biomass, energy from waste, solar power, hydropower, wind power and tidal power are discussed. The Government would like to see 10% of the UK's electricity coming from renewables by 2010. (UK)

  7. CFD simulation of direct contact condensation with ANSYS CFX using surface renewal theory based heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Ceuca, Sabin Cristian; Macian-Juan, Rafael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Different approaches for the calculation of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) using Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTC) based on the Surface Renewal Theory (SRT) are tested using the CFD simulation tool ANSYS CFX. The present work constitutes a preliminary study of the flow patterns and conditions observed using different HTC models. A complex 3D flow pattern will be observed in the CFD simulations as well as a strong coupling between the condensation rate and the two-phase flow dynamics. (orig.)

  8. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Cheon Seok

    2009-09-01

    This book tells of renewable energy giving description of environment problem, market of renewable energy and vision and economics of renewable energy. It also deals with solar light like solar cell, materials performance, system and merit of solar cell, solar thermal power such as solar cooker and solar collector, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy like tidal power and ocean thermal energy conversion, fuel cell and biomass.

  9. A Game Theoretical Approach Based Bidding Strategy Optimization for Power Producers in Power Markets with Renewable Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive electricity market with substantial involvement of renewable electricity, maximizing profits by optimizing bidding strategies is crucial to different power producers including conventional power plants and renewable ones. This paper proposes a game-theoretic bidding optimization method based on bi-level programming, where power producers are at the upper level and utility companies are at the lower level. The competition among the multiple power producers is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which bidding curves are their strategies, while uniform clearing pricing is considered for utility companies represented by an independent system operator. Consequently, based on the formulated game model, the bidding strategies for power producers are optimized for the day-ahead market and the intraday market with considering the properties of renewable energy; and the clearing pricing for the utility companies, with respect to the power quantity from different power producers, is optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, a distributed algorithm is provided to search the solution of the generalized Nash equilibrium. Finally, simulation results were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game-based bi-level optimization approach.

  10. The Renewable Energy Data Explorer: Mapping Our Renewable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    The Renewable Energy (RE) Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based platform that allows users to visualize and analyze renewable energy potential. The RE Data Explorer informs prospecting, integrated planning, and policymaking to enable low emission development.

  11. What drives innovation in renewable energy technology? Evidence based on patent counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jesse

    America's future economic growth and international competitiveness depend on our capacity to innovate, particularly in emerging global markets. This paper analyzes the forces that drive innovation in one such market, renewable energy technologies, utilizing the theory of induced technological innovation. Specifically, this paper operationalizes the determinants of innovation to consist of: 1) private market forces, 2) public policy that influences price and market size, and 3) public policy that catalyzes R&D investment. Analysis is conducted using a negative binomial regression to determine which of the three foundational determinants has the greatest impact on renewable energy innovation. In so doing this paper builds off of work conducted by Johnstone et al. (2010). Innovation is measured using European Patent Office data on a panel of 24 countries spanning the period from 1978-2005. The implications of this study are straightforward; policies, not market forces, are responsible for driving innovation in renewable energy technologies. Market-oriented policies are effective for mature technologies, particularly hydro, and to a lesser extent wind and solar power. R&D-oriented policy is effective for a broader technology set. In short, the United States needs a comprehensive policy environment to support renewable energy innovation; market forces alone will not provide the pace and breadth of innovations needed. That environment can and should be strategically targeted, however, to effectively allocate scare resources.

  12. A market-based investigation of large-scale renewable energy integration in northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciupuliga, A.R.; Gibescu, M.; Pelgrum, E.; vd Meijden, M.A.M.M.; Kling, W.L.; IEEE, xx

    2012-01-01

    A high increase in the installed capacities of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is expected by 2020 and beyond in Europe, and power systems planners and regulators have to make sure that the power systems are designed and operated to make optimal use of the potential of these clean energy sources.

  13. Comparison of renewable fuels based on their land use using energy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, T. J.; Benders, R. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article energy densities of selected renewable fuels are determined. Energy density is defined here as the annual energy production per hectare, taking energy inputs into account. Using 5 scenarios, consisting of 1 set focusing on technical differences and 1 set focusing on geographical

  14. Agent-based model of intermittent renewables : Simulating emerging changes in energy markets in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Viebahn, P.; Richstein, J.C.; Lechtenböhmer, S.; Nebel, A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy transition is taking shape in the German and, to a lesser extent also its neighbouring electricity markets. We have proposed adaptations to an existing model to represent the increasing shares of intermittent renewables, that may alter the structure of the market and the viability of

  15. Towards an energy-autonomous campus: "Blueprint for a distributed, renewables-based interconnected energy system"

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koopman, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s endowment with worldclass solar and wind resources, combined with recent strong cost decreases for solar and wind technologies, makes renewable power generation now a cost-competitive new-build option in the country, and will be one...

  16. Market consultation for the subsidy base of the SDE (Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme) 2010 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensink, S.M.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Faasen, C.J.

    2011-05-01

    ECN and KEMA have advised the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation on the costs of renewable electricity production and green gas. Stakeholders have been consulted about the findings. This document summarizes the main comments received by ECN and KEMA and their responses. [nl

  17. A Modelica based computational model for evaluating a renewable district heating system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, F.F.M.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Schrevel, R.A.M. de

    2014-01-01

    District heating (DH) systems are considered a viable method for mitigating long-term climate change effects, through reduction of CO2 emissions, their high conversion efficiencies and their ability to be integrated with renewable energy sources (RES). The current evolution towards sustainable DH,

  18. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Marta Bourke Calgon Carbon Corporation Joe Bozell National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kyd Brenner Corn Refiners Association Robert Brown Iowa State...Rowe Dow Chemical Company Colin Scanes Iowa State University Tom Schechinger Iron Horse Custom Farming LLC Sharon Shoemaker California Institute of Food

  19. A theoretical study on the mechanism of hydrogen evolution on non-precious partially oxidized nickel-based heterostructures for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinju; Zhou, Gang

    2018-03-28

    It is desirable, yet challenging, to utilize non-precious metals instead of noble-metals as efficient catalysts in the renewable energy manufacturing industry. Using first principles calculations, we study the structural characteristics of partially oxidized nickel-based nanoheterostructures (NiO/Ni NHSs), and the interfacial effects on hydrogen evolution. The origin of the enhanced hydrogen evolution performance is discussed at the microscopic level. This study identifies two types of active sites of the exposed Ni surface available for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). One is the hcp-hollow sites near the perimeter boundary that exhibit a more excellent HER performance than platinum (Pt), and the other the second nearest neighbor fcc-hollow sites away from the boundary that exhibit a similar performance to Pt. The interfacial effects result from the competitive charge transfer between NiO and Ni surfaces in NHSs, and enhance the reactivity of NiO/Ni NHSs by shifting the d-states of surface atoms down in energy. The illumination of the mechanism would be helpful for the design of more efficient and cheap transition metal-based catalysts.

  20. High Density Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Composites with Air Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Dieterich, Mila; Bürger, Inga; Linder, Marc

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In order to combine fluctuating renewable energy sources with the actual demand of electrical energy, storages are essential. The surplus energy can be stored as hydrogen to be used either for mobile use, chemical synthesis or reconversion when needed. One possibility to store the hydrogen gas at high volumetric densities, moderate temperatures and low pressures is based on a chemical reaction with metal hydrides. Such storages must be able to absorb and desorb the hydrogen qu...

  1. Novel remote monitoring platform for RES-hydrogen based smart microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, I.; Calderón, A.J.; Andújar, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A remote monitoring platform is developed to monitor an experimental smart microgrid. • Smart microgrid integrates renewable energy sources (solar and wind) and hydrogen. • The platform is implemented using open-source tool Easy Java/Javascript Simulations. • Remote user accesses online to graphical/numerical information of all components. • Results show proper operation of the SMG and prove effective real-time monitoring. - Abstract: In the context of the future power grids – Smart Grids (SGs) – Smart MicroGrids (SMGs) play a paramount role. These ones are very specific portions of the SGs that deal with integration of small-rated distributed energy and storage resources closer to the loads – chiefly within the distribution domain. Data acquisition and monitoring tasks are vital functions that must be developed at every stage of the grid for a proper operation. This paper presents a remote monitoring platform (RMP) to monitor an experimental SMG. It integrates Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) (solar and wind) and hydrogen to operate in isolated regime. The RMP has been developed using the open-source authoring tool Easy Java/Javascript Simulations (EJsS). The interface has been designed to be intuitive and easy-to-use, providing real-time information of all the involved magnitudes over the network. Scalability, easy development, portability and cost effective are the main features of the proposed framework. The microgrid and the proposed monitoring platform are described and the successful results are reported. The remote user executes a ready-to-use file with low computational requirements and is enabled to graphically and numerically track the SMG behaviour. These results prove the suitability of the RMP as an effective means for continuous visualization of the coordinated energy flows of a real SMG.

  2. Hydrogen from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is generally regarded as the energy carrier of the future. The development of a process for hydrogen production from biomass complies with the policy of the Dutch government to obtain more renewable energy from biomass. This report describes the progress of the BWP II project, phase 2 of

  3. Development of industrial hydrogenating catalyst on rhenium base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakova, G.A.; Bat', I.I.; Rebrova, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    Processes for forming rhenium catalysts on carbon carrier and their catalytic properties in nitrobenzene (NB) reduction were studied. Application of an ammonia preparation to the carbon surface produced impregnated carbon saturated at room temperature with a water solution of the ammonia preparation, taken in a volume equal to the volumetric capacity of the carbon. With one impregnation, 2% rhenium was taken up. Catalysts containing more than 5% rhenium were obtained by impregnating the carbon with heating and use of more concentrated solutions. Catalysts made in this way and dried at 100 0 C had the composition Re 2 OH/carbon/. The most active catalysts were those reduced at 200-250 0 C; higher temperatures, up to 300-500 0 C, decreased the activity. Study of the catalytic properties of the rhenium catalysts in a liquid phase reduction of NB showed that the specific activity of rhenium depends only slightly on the content of the active component in the catalyst and is close to the specific activity of palladium and considerably exceeds that of nickel. Study of the effect of the NB concentration and hydrogen pressure on the activity and stability of the 5% rhenium catalyst indicated that with NB concentrations from 50 to 10% the process takes place at an essentially constant rate; the order of the reaction was close to zero with an apparent activation energy of about 7000 cal/mole. At pressures of 15-200 atm the yield with the 5% catalyst was proportional to the hydrogen pressure. A big advantage of the rhenium catalysts in the reduction of NB is their high selectivity. With a higher activity than palladium and nickel catalysts, 5% rhenium catalyst produces a high operating capacity in a wide range of contact charges, which has considerable significance for industrial use in contact apparatus of the column type. Comparison of the costs of rhenium catalysts and granular carbon carrier with those of nickel, platinum, and palladium showed that 5% rhenium catalyst can

  4. Modelling of hydrogen assisted cracking of nickel-base Alloy X-750 in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Ballinger, R.G.; Hwang, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    A closed-form, semi-empirical, electrochemical model has been developed to rationalize the intergranular corrosion fatigue behavior of alloy X-750 in aqueous electrolytes. The model is based on the assumption that, in the electrolytes investigated and for the microstructures studied, that hydrogen assisted crack growth is the dominant mechanism. Further, it is assumed that the rate of hydrogen reduction is a controlling factor in the magnitude of the environmental component of crack growth. Electrolyte conductivity, dissolution and passivation kinetics of precipitates, grain boundary coverage of precipitates are identified as important environmental and microstructural variables governing the hydrogen reduction rate at the crack tip. The model is compared with experimental data for fatigue crack growth where hydrogen is supplied by external charging and with data where galvanically-generated local hydrogen is responsible for enhanced crack growth. It is shown that predicted results characterize the observed effects of frequency, microstructure, electrolyte conductivity, and stress intensity factor. The agreement between the hydrogen reduction model and measured crack growth rate is believed to support the proposed galvanic corrosion mechanism for the intergranular cracking of alloy X-750 in low temperature water

  5. Hydrogen storage in binary and ternary Mg-based alloys. A comprehensive experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Harrower, C.T.; Haagsma, J.; Zahiri, B.; Luber, E.J.; Ophus, C.; Miltin, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Poirier, E.; Fritzsche, H. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on hydrogen sorption properties of cosputtered 1.5 micrometer thick Mg-based films with Al, Fe and Ti as alloying elements. We show that ternary Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys in particular display remarkable sorption behavior: at 200 C, the films are capable of absorbing 4-6 wt.% hydrogen in seconds, and desorbing in minutes. Furthermore, this sorption behavior is stable for over 100 ab- and desorption cycles for Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys. No degradation in capacity or kinetics is observed. Based on these observations, some general design principles for Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are suggested. For Mg-Fe-Ti, encouraging preliminary results on multilayered systems are also presented. (orig.)

  6. Solvent effects on hydrogen bonds in Watson-Crick, mismatched, and modified DNA base pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poater, Jordi; Swart, Marcel; Guerra, Celia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We have theoretically analyzed a complete series of Watson–Crick and mismatched DNA base pairs, both in gas phase and in solution. Solvation causes a weakening and lengthening of the hydrogen bonds between the DNA bases because of the stabilization of the lone pairs involved in these bonds. We have

  7. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  8. Spheroidal corrections to the spherical and parabolic bases of the hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper introduces the bases of the hydrogen atom and obtains recursion relations that determine the expansion of the spheroidal basis with respect to its parabolic basis. The leading spheroidal corrections to the spherical and parabolic bases are calculated by perturbation theory

  9. Costs and profitability of renewable energies in metropolitan France - ground-based wind energy, biomass, solar photovoltaic. Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    After a general presentation of the framework of support to renewable energies and co-generation (purchasing obligation, tendering, support funding), of the missions of the CRE (Commission for Energy Regulation) within the frame of the purchasing obligation, and of the methodology adopted for this analysis, this document reports an analysis of production costs for three different renewable energy sectors: ground-based wind energy, biomass energy, and solar photovoltaic energy. For each of them, the report recalls the context (conditions of purchasing obligation, winning bid installations, installed fleet in France at the end of 2012), indicates the installations taken into consideration in this study, analyses the installation costs and funding (investment costs, exploitation and maintenance costs, project funding, production costs), and assesses the profitability in terms of capital and for stakeholders

  10. Renewable vs. fossil electricity systems. A cost comparison. Power world 2050. Analysis of renewable, coal and gas-based electricity systems; Erneuerbare vs. fossile Stromsysteme. Ein Kostenvergleich. Stromwelten 2050. Analyse von Erneuerbaren, kohle- und gasbasierten Elektrizitaetssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Patrick; Kleiner, Mara Martha [Agora Energiewende, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, Felix Christian; Heinemann, Christoph [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    The decarbonisation of the energy and, above all, the power system is the core component of any consistent climate protection strategy. For the electricity sector, this means, in the final analysis, the transition from a power supply based on lignite, hard coal, natural gas and other fossil fuels to one (almost) completely based on renewable energies by 2050. The fundamental technical feasibility of such a system, more than 90 percent of which would generate electricity from renewable energies, is no longer disputable today. The explanation for this is the partly rapid technological advances made in recent years, particularly those involving wind (on- and offshore) and solar energy, as well as the foreseeable further developments of central flexibility options (including flexible demand, battery storage and power-to-gas technologies). However, the question of the costs of this new electricity system has not yet been fully resolved. These cost calculations need to take into account, on the one hand, the total costs of an electricity system based on renewable energies and, on the other hand, the comparison to a power system that remains based on fossil fuels. Against this background, the present study provides a numerical analysis of the following questions: What are the technical and cost structures for a power system when 90 percent or more of the electricity is generated from renewable energies in 2050? How do the costs for different storage strategies (batteries vs. power-to-gas) differ? What technical, cost and emission structures result for a hypothetical fossil-based power system in 2050 if the further construction of electricity production plants based on wind and solar energy is immediately abandoned? How do the costs for various fossil-based power systems differ (conventional mix of lignite/hard coal/natural gas power plants vs. an electricity system based purely on natural gas)? For this purpose, a large number of model calculations with different

  11. Strategies for a road transport system based on renewable resources - The case of an import-independent Sweden in 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfeldt, Erik G.; Saxe, Maria; Magnusson, Mimmi; Mohseni, Farzad

    2010-01-01

    When discussing how society can decrease greenhouse gas emissions, the transport sector is often seen as posing one of the most difficult problems. In addition, the transport sector faces problems related to security of supply. The aim of this paper is to present possible strategies for a road transport system based on renewable energy sources and to illustrate how such a system could be designed to avoid dependency on imports, using Sweden as an example. The demand-side strategies considered include measures for decreasing the demand for transport, as well as various technical and non-technical means of improving vehicle fuel economy. On the supply side, biofuels and synthetic fuels produced from renewable electricity are discussed. Calculations are performed to ascertain the possible impact of these measures on the future Swedish road transport sector. The results underline the importance of powerful demand-side measures and show that although biofuels can certainly contribute significantly to an import-independent road transport sector, they are far from enough even in a biomass-rich country like Sweden. Instead, according to this study, fuels based on renewable electricity will have to cover more than half of the road transport sector's energy demand.

  12. Green hypergolic combination: Diethylenetriamine-based fuel and hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongjae; Kwon, Sejin

    2017-08-01

    The present research dealt with the concept of green hypergolic combination to replace the toxic hypergolic combinations. Hydrogen peroxide was selected as a green oxidizer. A novel recipe for the non-toxic hypergolic fuel (Stock 3) was suggested. Sodium borohydride was blended into the mixture of energetic hydrocarbon solvents as an ignition source for hypergolic ignition. The main ingredient of the mixture was diethylenetriamine. By mixing some amount of tetrahydrofuran with diethylenetriamine, the mixture became more flammable and volatile. The mixture of Stock 3 fuel remained stable for four months in the lab scale storability test. Through a simple drop test, the hypergolicity of the green hypergolic combination was verified. Comparing to the toxic hypergolic combination MMH/NTO as the reference, the theoretical performance of the green hypergolic combination would be achieved about 96.7% of the equilibrium specific impulse and about 105.7% of the density specific impulse. The applicability of the green hypergolic combination was successfully confirmed through the static hot-fire tests using 500 N scale hypergolic thruster.

  13. Questioning hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag, Roel; Mazza, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    As an energy carrier, hydrogen is to be compared to electricity, the only widespread and viable alternative. When hydrogen is used to transmit renewable electricity, only 51% can reach the end user due to losses in electrolysis, hydrogen compression, and the fuel cell. In contrast, conventional electric storage technologies allow between 75% and 85% of the original electricity to be delivered. Even when hydrogen is extracted from gasified coal (with carbon sequestration) or from water cracked in high-temperature nuclear reactors, more of the primary energy reaches the end user if a conventional electric process is used instead. Hydrogen performs no better in mobile applications, where electric vehicles that are far closer to commercialization exceed fuel cell vehicles in efficiency, cost and performance. New, carbon-neutral energy can prevent twice the quantity of GHG's by displacing fossil electricity than it can by powering fuel cell vehicles. The same is true for new, natural gas energy. New energy resources should be used to displace high-GHG electric generation, not to manufacture hydrogen

  14. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  15. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  16. A Lyapunov based approach to energy maximization in renewable energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyasere, Erhun

    This dissertation describes the design and implementation of Lyapunov-based control strategies for the maximization of the power captured by renewable energy harnessing technologies such as (i) a variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine, (ii) a variable speed wind turbine coupled to a doubly fed induction generator, and (iii) a solar power generating system charging a constant voltage battery. First, a torque control strategy is presented to maximize wind energy captured in variable speed, variable pitch wind turbines at low to medium wind speeds. The proposed strategy applies control torque to the wind turbine pitch and rotor subsystems to simultaneously control the blade pitch and tip speed ratio, via the rotor angular speed, to an optimum point at which the capture efficiency is maximum. The control method allows for aerodynamic rotor power maximization without exact knowledge of the wind turbine model. A series of numerical results show that the wind turbine can be controlled to achieve maximum energy capture. Next, a control strategy is proposed to maximize the wind energy captured in a variable speed wind turbine, with an internal induction generator, at low to medium wind speeds. The proposed strategy controls the tip speed ratio, via the rotor angular speed, to an optimum point at which the efficiency constant (or power coefficient) is maximal for a particular blade pitch angle and wind speed by using the generator rotor voltage as a control input. This control method allows for aerodynamic rotor power maximization without exact wind turbine model knowledge. Representative numerical results demonstrate that the wind turbine can be controlled to achieve near maximum energy capture. Finally, a power system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) array panel, dc-to-dc switching converter, charging a battery is considered wherein the environmental conditions are time-varying. A backstepping PWM controller is developed to maximize the power of the solar generating

  17. Need for new effect based on large-scale development of renewable energy in Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Grinden, Bjoern; Fuchs, Ida

    2007-02-01

    Changes in the effect balance in Northern Europe between 2005 and 2020 are evaluated. Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany and the Netherlands are the countries included in the analysis. Scenarios from studies conducted in the different countries have been used as starting points. Some scenarios give explicit figures for effect installations, but most only provide estimations on the energy balance. In these cased it has been necessary to estimate how much effect there is behind the energy figures. Utilization time analyses have been employed for this, primarily. Moreover, emphasis has been put on the modelling of wind power's effect contribution, and a method based on the reliability of the production system has been employed, giving an effect varying between 18 and 24 percent in the different scenarios. Also, the need for regulation reserves has been considered. Four scenarios have been outlined along the axes growth in consumption (high/low) and share of renewable energy (high/low). All scenarios show considerable reductions in the effect balance from 2005 to 2020, varying from about 15.000 MW to 22.000 MW. The largest reduction is in Germany, but Sweden too has large reductions in each of the scenarios. The most important underlying causes are the reduction or dismantling of nuclear power and the development of large amounts of wind power, and in Germany also the development of solar power. In Norway too, the effect balance is weakened with the existing scenarios. Here, wind power and small-scale hydroelectric power contribute with relatively much energy, but little effect. The biggest insecurity in the analysis is how much thermal capacity there will be in operation in 2020, especially in Germany. In a system with much wind power, the utilization time for some of the thermal production may be short, and it may be phased out if no support schemes for effect reserves are set up. Thermal capacity as short term backup for wind power will have to compete with

  18. License renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the process of license renewal for nuclear power plants. It explains what is meant by license renewal, the significance of license renewal, and goes over key elements involved in the process of license renewal. Those key elements are NRC requirements embodied in 10 CFR Part 54 (Reactor Safety) and 10 CFR Part 51 (Environmental Issues). In addition Industry Reports must be developed and reviewed. License renewal is essentially the process of applying for a 20 year extension to the original 40 year operating license granted for the plant. This is a very long term process, which involves a lot of preparation, and compliance with regulatory rules and guidelines. In general it is a process which is expected to begin when plants reach an operating lifetime of 20 years. It has provisions for allowing the public to become involved in the review process

  19. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  20. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  1. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  2. Performance of carbon-based hot frit substrates: I, Low pressure helium and hydrogen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, R.; Adams, J.; Svandrlik, J.; Powell, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    The performance of various carbon-based materials in flowing, high-temperature helium and hydrogen is described. These materials which are candidate hot frit substrates for possible application in a PBR include various grades of graphite, carbon-carbon and vitreous carbon. Vitreous carbon showed extremely good performance in helium, while that of the various graphite grades was quite variable and, in some cases, poor. Purified grades performed better than unpurified grades, but in all cases large sample-to-sample variations in weight loss were observed. For carbon-carbon samples, the performance was intermediate. Since the weight loss in these samples was in large measure due to the loss of the densification media, improvements in the performance of carbon-carbon may be possible. With respect to the performance in hydrogen, high weight losses were observed, re-enforcing the need for coating carbon-based materials for service in a flowing hydrogen environment

  3. Effects of under-development and oil-dependency of countries on the formation of renewable energy technologies: A comparative study of hydrogen and fuel cell technology development in Iran and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasiri, Masoud; Ramazani Khorshid-Doust, Reza; Bagheri Moghaddam, Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Countries face many problems for the development of renewable energy technologies. However these problems are not the same for different countries. This paper provides insight into the development of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (HFCT) in Iran (1993–2010), as an alternative for increasing sustainability of energy system in long-term. This is done by applying the Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach and studying the structure and dynamics of seven key processes that affect the formation of HFCT TIS. Thereafter, the pattern of HFCT development in Iran is compared with the Netherlands, using a multi-level perspective. Then, it is shown that under-development and oil-dependency, which are two macro-economic factors at landscape level, can explain the main differences between these countries at regime and niche levels. This means that macro-economic factors cause Iran and the Netherlands to experience different ways for the development of HFCT. - Highlights: • Hydrogen and fuel cell technology development is modeled, using innovation systems. • This technology development in Iran and Netherlands are compared. • The causes of underdevelopment of this technology in Iran are explained

  4. High-Density Renewable Fuels Based on the Selective Dimerization of Pinenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    RJ-5, significant ring strain contributing to a high heat of combustion (Table 1). Bulk agricultural waste products, such as cellulose and lignin , are...compact structures and reactive olefin functionalities, these molecules have sig- nificant potential as feedstocks for high-density renewable fuels.2b,7...potential to have heating values exceeding that of JP-10. Given the favorable potential net heat of combustion for these pinene dimers, reactivity

  5. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for fu...

  6. A quantitative method for selecting renewable energy projects in the mining industry based on sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mining companies sponsor a range of non-core, corporate social responsibility projects to adhere to social and labour plans and environmental management prerequisites that form part of a mining licence application. Some companies go above and beyond such projects, sponsoring initiatives that generate renewable energy through solar power, wind energy, natural gas, etc. The challenge for these companies is to choose between a variety of projects to ensure maximum value, especially in times when...

  7. Optimal Sizing of a Stand-Alone Hybrid Power System Based on Battery/Hydrogen with an Improved Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Dong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A distributed power system with renewable energy sources is very popular in recent years due to the rapid depletion of conventional sources of energy. Reasonable sizing for such power systems could improve the power supply reliability and reduce the annual system cost. The goal of this work is to optimize the size of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic (PV/wind turbine (WT/battery (B/hydrogen system (a hybrid system based on battery and hydrogen (HS-BH for reliable and economic supply. Two objectives that take the minimum annual system cost and maximum system reliability described as the loss of power supply probability (LPSP have been addressed for sizing HS-BH from a more comprehensive perspective, considering the basic demand of load, the profit from hydrogen, which is produced by HS-BH, and an effective energy storage strategy. An improved ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm has been presented to solve the sizing problem of HS-BH. Finally, a simulation experiment has been done to demonstrate the developed results, in which some comparisons have been done to emphasize the advantage of HS-BH with the aid of data from an island of Zhejiang, China.

  8. An experimental study of aluminium electrowinning using a nickel-based hydrogen diffusion anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namboothiri, Sankar; Taylor, Mark P.; Chen, John J.J.; Hyland, Margaret M.; Cooksey, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Measurable depolarisation of the anode potential and formation of water vapour. → Metallic aluminium was found on the spent cathode. → HF emissions can be minimised by conducting the electrolysis at 750 o C. → The nickel based anode surface corroded during electrolysis. → Its application is constrained by the material limitation of the porous anode. - Abstract: Laboratory scale electrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the electrowinning of aluminium using hydrogen diffusion anodes. A potassium-based electrolyte (KF-AlF 3 -Al 2 O 3 ), porous nickel alloy anode and molybdenum disk cathode were used in experiments at 750 o C. Hydrogen gas was supplied to the anode/electrolyte interface through the porous anode. Experiments were conducted in potentiostatic, galvanostatic and galvanodynamic modes. There was a measurable depolarisation of the anode potential and also anode reaction of hydrogen and oxygen ions in the bath to form water vapour was confirmed by the water vapour condensate found at the electrolysis exit gas pipe. Metallic aluminium was found on the spent cathode. The experiments conducted in the galvanodynamic mode suggested that the rate limiter for hydrogen oxidation was the availability of surface hydrogen at the anode/electrolyte interface. The anode surface corroded during electrolysis and impurities were found both in the molten bath and on the cathode.

  9. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Fuel Cell Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Fuel cell research focused on proton exchange membranes (PEM), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Specific technologies included aircraft fuel cell reformers, new and improved electrodes, electrolytes, interconnect, and seals, modeling of fuel cells including CFD coupled with impedance spectroscopy. Research was conducted on new materials and designs for fuel cells, along with using embedded sensors with power management electronics to improve the power density delivered by fuel cells. Fuel cell applications considered were in-space operations, aviation, and ground-based fuel cells such as; powering auxiliary power units (APUs) in aircraft; high power density, long duration power supplies for interplanetary missions (space science probes and planetary rovers); regenerative capabilities for high altitude aircraft; and power supplies for reusable launch vehicles.

  10. Fast and sensitive metronidazole determination by means of voltammetry on renewable amalgam silver based electrode without the preconcentration step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piech Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of cyclic renewable amalgam silver-based electrode (Hg(AgFE for sensitive metronidazole detection by the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV is described. The unique properties of the Hg(AgFE such as the relative large surface area and its fast and very simple renewal were fully utilized for sensitive measurements. Compared with the classical hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE, the renewable Hg(AgFE significantly increases the reduction peak current of metronidazole because of its large surface area. The effects of various factors for the metronidazole determination such as: pulse height and width, step potential, surface area of the working electrode, and basic electrolyte composition are optimized. The obtained calibration graph is linear from 0.1 (17 μg L-1 to 2 μM (342 μg L-1 with correlation coefficient 0.999. For the Hg(AgFE with the surface area of 10.1 mm2 the limit of detection (LOD is 20 nM (3.4 μg L-1. The repeatability of the method at a concentration of the analyte of 0.5 μM (5.6 μg L−1, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD is 2.1 % (n = 7. The proposed method was successfully applied and confirmed by studying recovery of metronidazole from spiked samples.

  11. Hydrogen content, interfacial exchange and hydrogen diffusion in high-temperature protonic conductors based on strontium and barium cerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, G.K.; Kurumchin, Eh.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrogen content and kinetics of the hydrogen exchange in the barium and strontium doped cerates are studied in the reduction atmosphere through the methods of isotope counterbalancing and isotope exchange. The measurements are carried out at 500-840 Deg C and hydrogen pressure of 2.7-16 gPa. It is established, that the hydrogen interfacial exchange proceeds at high velocities through the dissociative-type mechanisms. The effective activation energy of the hydrogen heteroexchange is determined. The coefficient of the hydrogen diffusion in BaCe 0.95 Nd 0.5 O 3-δ is calculated. The hydrogen content per formula unit constituted (0.48±0.05) in the SrCe 0.95 Y 0.05 O 3-δ and (0.60±0.05) in the BaCe 0.95 Nd 0.5 O 3-δ at 550 and 720 Deg C correspondingly and hydrogen pressure of 6.7 gPa [ru

  12. Knowledge-based renewable energy and environmental technology and services.; En kunnskapsbasert fornybar energi- og miljoenaering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenfeld, Leo A.; Espelien, Anne

    2011-07-01

    This report presents a study of the Norwegian industry for renewable energy and environmental technology and services (abbreviated to the REETS-industry). The study is a part of the large research program 'A Knowledge based Norway' organized by the Norwegian School of Management. It is one of 14 industry studies that investigates how knowledge investments and knowledge management contributes to strengthen clusters of industrial activity in Norway. A primary research question in this report concerns whether the Norwegian REETS-industry has sufficient resources and cluster strengths to succeed in international markets and stay competitive over time. For the first time, we present statistics covering all firms in the REETS-industry in Norway. The report contains a thorough mapping of industry activities, in terms of turnover, value added, growth, access to financial capital and human capital, internationalization and last but not least cluster properties in the industry as well as its links to other industries in Norway and abroad. The industry consists of approximately 2200 companies with a total turnover of Nok 151 bn in 2009. Industry value added has grown by 15 percent per year over the last decade and reached Nok 60 bn in 2009. The REETS-industry is now the eighth largest industry in Norway.The REETS-industry contains a large variety of activities and technologies. Consequently, we have divided the industry into four main groups and 11 sub-segments. The main groups are: renewable energy production, environmental technology and services, waste and recycling and finally energy distribution and sales. Since activities are highly heterogeneous, knowledge activities and cluster configurations must be studied at a more detailed level. Norway is a European giant in terms of hydro power production, producing close to 20 percent of such energy in Europe. In Norway, this part of the industry provides 35 percent of the revenues. Consequently, we devote

  13. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  14. Economic Analysis for Nuclear Hydrogen Production System Based on HyS Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Hoon; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2009-01-01

    The current promising base for massive hydrogen production on high temperature environment derives primarily from three sources: the commercial production of chemicals for the sulfur-iodine (SI) process, the development of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and the hybrid method of chemicals and fuel cells. The three kinds of process requires high temperature heat energy over 850∼950 .deg. C for the efficient and economic hydrogen production. One of the clean, economic, and moreover promising heat sources supplied to the process is nuclear plants. The nuclear plants producing high temperature heat energy over 950 .deg. C are well known as Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) which could have two types of prismatic and pebble-bed cores along reactor core shape. In this paper, we report on the Hybrid Sulfur Process (HyS), and the estimated costs for the system which composes of VHTR of prismatic core type and HyS plant. Nuclear hydrogen production system based on HyS process has been configured to optimally use the thermal energy from VHTR and electric energy to produce hydrogen and oxygen from clean water. High temperature thermal energy is transferred to the HyS process by way of intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with associated piping. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs for a system composed of a VHTR with six 600MWth module, a power conversion unit (PCU) and a HyS plant are presented, where the thermal energy produced in two module was converted to electric energy in PCU and then transferred to the electrolysis cells for hydrogen production and circulating units on HyS plant, and the remaining thermal energy was supplied to chemical process on HyS plants. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GT-MHR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4- ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production

  15. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, J.

    1994-01-01

    Renewable energy sources have a small environmental impact and can be easily integrated within existing structures. Moreover, the use of renewable energy sources can contribute to achieve a zero emission of carbon dioxide by 2100, provided an efficient environmental policy during the next 40 years. This includes a correct pricing policy of renewable energy sources with respect to nuclear energy and fossil fuel. The latter energy sources have been favoured in the past. In addition, an open market policy, the restructuring or conversion of existing international energy institutes, and international treaties for the protection of the natural environment are needed in view of achieving the zero carbon dioxide emission objective. (A.S.)

  16. Radiation chemical yields for formation of molecular hydrogen in alcohols based on the cyclohexane ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val'ter, A.I.; Kovalev, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of the general problem of studying the radiolysis mechanism for alcohols based on the cyclohexane ring, we have determined the yields of molecular hydrogen in γ-irradiated cyclohexanol, 1,2-cis- and 1,2-trans-cyclohexanediols, and inositol (cyclohexanehexol). The cyclohexanol and also powders of the polyols were placed into ampuls, deaerated in a vacuum apparatus and irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays at 77 K and 293 K. After irradiation, the samples were heated up to 373 K (the polyol crystals were heated until melting) and the hydrogen evolved from the liquid phase was determined by gas chromatography

  17. [The toxic complications of hydrogen sulfide-based balneotherapy in the spa and health resort practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevich, L S

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review was designed to consider the toxic complications of hydrogen sulfide-based balneotherapy encountered in the spa and health resort practice that should actually be regarded as hydrogen sulfide intoxication taking into consideration that their severity depends on the route through which the toxicant enters the body, its concentration in the therapeutic bath, and the overall duration of balneotherapy. Although such complications rarely occur in everyday practice, they may constitute a threat to the patient's health which implies the necessity of adequate measures for their prevention.

  18. Trace detection of hydrogen peroxide vapor using a carbon-nanotube-based chemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yijiang; Meyyappan, M; Li, Jing

    2011-06-20

    The sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide in the vapor phase is achieved using a nanochemical sensor consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes as the sensing material. The interdigitated electrode-based sensor is constructed using a simple and standard microfabrication approach. The test results indicate a sensing capability of 25 ppm and response and recovery times in seconds. The sensor array consisting of 32 sensor elements with variations in sensing materials is capable of discriminating hydrogen peroxide from water and methanol. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Radiation-chemical yields of molecular hydrogen formation in cyclohexane based alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val'ter, A.I.; Kovalev, G.V.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen radiation-chemical yields in γ-irradiated cyclohexanol, 1.2-cis- and 1.2-trans-cyclohexandiols and inositol are determined within the general problem frameworks of radiolysis mechanism for cyclohexanering-base alcohols. Irradiation was conducted at 77 and 293 K, dose rate - 4 Gy/s. Hydrogen concentration in all irradiated alcohols depends linearly on the dose. Radiation-chemical yields of H 2 and of stabilized radicals, as well, in the irradiated crystalline alcohols are analyzed depending on the irradiation temperature, alcohol molecular structure

  20. Ab initio investigation on hydrogen adsorption capability in Zn and Cu-based metal organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanuwijaya, V. V., E-mail: viny.veronika@gmail.com [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganeca 10 Gd. T.P. Rachmat, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Hidayat, N. N., E-mail: avantgarde.vee@gmail.com; Agusta, M. K., E-mail: kemal@fti.itb.ac.id; Dipojono, H. K., E-mail: dipojono@tf.itb.ac.id

    2015-09-30

    One of the biggest challenge in material technology for hydrogen storage application is to increase hydrogen uptake in room temperature and pressure. As a class of highly porous material, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF) holds great potential with its tunable structure. However, little is known about the effect of metal cluster to its hydrogen storage capability. Investigation on this matter has been carried out carefully on small cluster of Zn and Cu-based MOF using first principles method. The calculation of two distinct building units of MOFs, namely octahedral and paddle-wheel models, have been done with B3LYP density functional method using 6-31G(d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets. From geometry optimization of Zn-based MOF linked by benzene-dicarboxylate (MOF-5), it is found that hydrogen tends to keep distance from metal cluster group and stays above benzene ring. In the other hand, hydrogen molecule prefers to stay atop of the exposed Cu atom in Cu-based MOF system linked by the same linker group (Cu-bdc). Calculated hydrogen binding enthalpies for Zn and Cu octahedral cages at ZnO{sub 3} sites are 1.64kJ/mol and 2.73kJ/mol respectively, while hydrogen binding enthalpies for Zn and Cu paddle-wheel cages calculated on top of metal atoms are found to be at 6.05kJ/mol and 6.10kJ/mol respectively. Major difference between Zn-MOF-5 and Cu-bdc hydrogen uptake performance might be caused by unsaturated metal sites present in Cu-bdc system and the influence of their geometric structures, although a small difference on binding energy in the type of transition metal used is also observed. The comparison between Zn and Cu-based MOF may contribute to a comprehensive understanding of metal clusters and the importance of selecting best transition metal for design and synthesis of metal-organic frameworks.