WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable b20 biodiesel

  1. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  2. Biodiesel presence in the source zone hinders aromatic hydrocarbons attenuation in a B20-contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Débora Toledo; Lazzarin, Helen Simone Chiaranda; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Fernandes, Marilda; do Rosário, Mário; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2016-10-01

    The behavior of biodiesel blend spills have received limited attention in spite of the increasing and widespread introduction of biodiesel to the transportation fuel matrix. In this work, a controlled field release of biodiesel B20 (100 L of 20:80 v/v soybean biodiesel and diesel) was monitored over 6.2 years to assess the behavior and natural attenuation of constituents of major concern (e.g., BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)) in a sandy aquifer material. Biodiesel was preferentially biodegraded compared to diesel aromatic compounds with a concomitant increase in acetate, methane (near saturation limit (≈ 22 mg L- 1)) and dissolved BTEX and PAH concentrations in the source zone during the first 1.5 to 2.0 years after the release. Benzene and benzo(a)pyrene concentrations remained above regulatory limits in the source zone until the end of the experiment (6.2 years after the release). Compared to a previous adjacent 100-L release of ethanol-amended gasoline, biodiesel/diesel blend release resulted in a shorter BTEX plume, but with higher residual dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations near the source zone. This was attributed to greater persistence of viscous (and less mobile) biodiesel than the highly-soluble and mobile ethanol in the source zone. This persistence of biodiesel/diesel NAPL at the source zone slowed BTEX and PAH biodegradation (by the establishment of an anaerobic zone) but reduced the plume length by reducing mobility. This is the first field study to assess biodiesel/diesel blend (B20) behavior in groundwater and its effects on the biodegradation and plume length of priority groundwater pollutants.

  3. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  4. Quadratic Prediction Models for the Performance Comparison of a Marine Engine Fuelled with Biodiesels B5 and B20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chedthawut Poompipatpong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Thailand’s renewable energy development plan, biodiesel is one of the interesting alternative energies. In this research, biodiesels B5 and B20 are tested in a marine engine. The experimental results are then compared by using three different techniques including (1 the conventional technique, (2 average of the point-to-point comparisons, and (3 a comparison by using quadratic prediction models. This research aims to present the procedures of these techniques in-depth. The results show that the comparison by using quadratic prediction models can accurately predict ample amounts of results and make the comparison more logical. The results are compatible with those of the conventional technique, while the average of the point-to-point comparisons shows diverse results. These results are also explained on the fuel property basis, confirming that the quadratic prediction model and the conventional technique are practical, but the average of the point-to-point comparison technique presents an inaccurate result. The benefit of this research shows that the quadratic prediction model is more flexible for future science and engineering experimental design, thus reducing cost and time usage. The details of the calculation, results, and discussion are presented in the paper.

  5. Quantification of animal fat biodiesel in soybean biodiesel and B20 diesel blends using near infrared spectroscopy and synergy interval support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, Paulo Roberto; Alves, Júlio Cesar L; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2014-02-01

    In this work, multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) and support vector regression (SVR) using the whole spectrum and variable selection by synergy interval (siPLS and siSVR) were applied to NIR spectra for the determination of animal fat biodiesel content in soybean biodiesel and B20 diesel blends. For all models, prediction errors, bias test for systematic errors and permutation test for trends in the residuals were calculated. The siSVR produced significantly lower prediction errors compared to the full spectrum methods and siPLS, with a root mean squares error (RMSEP) of 0.18%(w/w) (concentration range: 0.00%-69.00%(w/w)) in the soybean biodiesel blend and 0.10%(w/w) in the B20 diesel (concentration range: 0.00%-13.80%(w/w)). Additionally, in the models for the determination of animal fat biodiesel in blends with soybean diesel, PLS and SVR showed evidence of systematic errors, and PLS/siPLS presented trends in residuals based on the permutation test. For the B20 diesel, PLS presented evidence of systematic errors, and siPLS presented trends in the residuals.

  6. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  7. Capability of a selected bacterial consortium for degrading diesel/biodiesel blends (B20): enzyme and biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Derrossi; Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; Bücker, Francielle; Salamoni, Sabrina Pinto; Andreazza, Robson; De Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Bento, Fátima Menezes

    2012-01-01

    The search for alternative sources of energy, such as biodiesel, has been stimulated, since this biofuel is highly susceptible for biodegradation and has low toxicity, thus, reducing the impact in ecosystems. The objective of this study was to select a bacterial consortium with potential for degrading diesel/biodiesel blends (B20) obtained from areas contaminated with hydrocarbons/esters. In order to evaluate the biodegrability of the blend, six enzyme assays were conducted: alkane hydroxylase, Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, Protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase, ρ-NPA hydrolysis (esterase), and release of fatty acids through titration (lipase), with estimative of total protein and biosurfactant production (surface tension measurement and emulsifying index E(24)). The best results obtained allowed the selection of four bacteria isolates (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) for compiling a consortium, which will be used for bioaugmentation strategies in soils contaminated with these fuels. This consortium exhibited high potential for biodegradation of biodiesel, and might be an efficient alternative for cleaning up these contaminated environments.

  8. An experimental study on usage of plastic oil and B20 algae biodiesel blend as substitute fuel to diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesha, D K; Kumara, G Prema; Lalsaheb; Mohammed, Aamir V T; Mohammad, Haseeb A; Kasma, Mufteeb Ain

    2016-05-01

    Usage of plastics has been ever increasing and now poses a tremendous threat to the environment. Millions of tons of plastics are produced annually worldwide, and the waste products have become a common feature at overflowing bins and landfills. The process of converting waste plastic into value-added fuels finds a feasible solution for recycling of plastics. Thus, two universal problems such as problems of waste plastic management and problems of fuel shortage are being tackled simultaneously. Converting waste plastics into fuel holds great promise for both the environmental and economic scenarios. In order to carry out the study on plastic wastes, the pyrolysis process was used. Pyrolysis runs without oxygen and in high temperature of about 250-300 °C. The fuel obtained from plastics is blended with B20 algae oil, which is a biodiesel obtained from microalgae. For conducting the various experiments, a 10-HP single-cylinder four-stroke direct-injection water-cooled diesel engine is employed. The engine is made to run at 1500 rpm and the load is varied gradually from 0 to 100 %. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are observed. The BTE was observed to be higher with respect to diesel for plastic-biodiesel blend and biodiesel blend by 15.7 and 12.9 %, respectively, at full load. For plastic-biodiesel blend, the emission of UBHC and CO decreases with a slight increase in NO x as compared to diesel. It reveals that fuel properties are comparable with petroleum products. Also, the process of converting plastic waste to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste.

  9. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera; Grant, Georgene; Patil, Prafulla; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  10. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Aishah Salleh; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Partha chowdhury; Mohd Naqiuddin

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO...

  11. Lowering USAF Diesel Engine NOx Emissions With Utilizing B20 Biodiesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    6.5L engine. Table 2. IS0 8178 Weighted Average B20 Emission Deviations from DF-2 Certification Fuel 6.5L HMMWV Engine UHC CO NOx CO2 Smoke g/hp-hr g/hp...manifold CO2. Most data was obtained in triplicate runs. The UHC , CO, NOx, and Smoke emission values were similar to values reported in the...Base Timing (0) and Base EGR (0%) UHC [g/kWh] CO [g/kWh] CO2 [g/kWh] NOx [g/kWh] Smoke [AVL] BSFC [g/kWh] EGR Target [%] EGR Target [%] EGR Target

  12. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO2-enriched air can be converted to oily substances. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution and future crisis due to a shortage of energy sources. This study was undertaken to know the proper transesterification, amount of biodiesel production (ester and physical properties of biodiesel. In this study we used common species Oedogonium and Spirogyra to compare the amount of biodiesel production. Algal oil and biodiesel (ester production was higher in Oedogonium than Spirogyra sp. However, biomass (after oil extraction was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. Sediments (glycerine, water and pigments was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. There was no difference of pH between Spirogyra and Oedogonium sp. These results indicate that biodiesel can be produced from both species and Oedogonium is better source than Spirogyra sp.

  13. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Algae Biodiesel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  14. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Oilseed Crop Biodiesel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  15. Exposures to Emissions from Combustion of Biodiesel Fuels (B100/B20) Elicit Differential Responses in Redox-Sensitive Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with higher risk for cardiopulmonary diseases but mechanisms for the effects remain unknown. Combustion of biodiesel fuels (BD) is associated with lower emission of PM but the health consequences of exposure to exhaust fr...

  16. Assessment of microbial communities associated with fermentative-methanogenic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater contaminated with a biodiesel blend (B20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Débora Toledo; da Silva, Márcio Luís Busi; Nossa, Carlos Wolfgang; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-09-01

    A controlled field experiment was conducted to assess the potential for fermentative-methanogenic biostimulation (by ammonium-acetate injection) to enhance biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in groundwater contaminated with biodiesel B20 (20:80 v/v soybean biodiesel and diesel). Changes in microbial community structure were assessed by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA analyses. BTEX and PAH removal began 0.7 year following the release, concomitantly with the increase in the relative abundance of Desulfitobacterium and Geobacter spp. (from 5 to 52.7 % and 15.8 to 37.3 % of total Bacteria 16S rRNA, respectively), which are known to anaerobically degrade hydrocarbons. The accumulation of anaerobic metabolites acetate and hydrogen that could hinder the thermodynamic feasibility of BTEX and PAH biotransformations under fermentative/methanogenic conditions was apparently alleviated by the growing predominance of Methanosarcina. This suggests the importance of microbial population shifts that enrich microorganisms capable of interacting syntrophically to enhance the feasibility of fermentative-methanogenic bioremediation of biodiesel blend releases.

  17. U.S. Army and Department of Defense Experience with the Use of B20 and other Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    used biodiesel in the U.S. has been methyl esters of soybean oil which tends to have the highest amount of unsaturation, which can autoxidize to form...support for land-based air and ground forces in all theaters (overseas and CONUS) shall be accomplished using a single kerosene -based fuel, in...and turbine engines will be designed to perform acceptably using kerosene -type turbine fuels such as JP-8 or JP-5, distillate fuels such as diesel fuel

  18. Biostimulation of anaerobic BTEX biodegradation under fermentative methanogenic conditions at source-zone groundwater contaminated with a biodiesel blend (B20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Débora Toledo; da Silva, Márcio Luis Busi; Chiaranda, Helen Simone; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2013-06-01

    Field experiments were conducted to assess the potential for anaerobic biostimulation to enhance BTEX biodegradation under fermentative methanogenic conditions in groundwater impacted by a biodiesel blend (B20, consisting of 20 % v/v biodiesel and 80 % v/v diesel). B20 (100 L) was released at each of two plots through an area of 1 m(2) that was excavated down to the water table, 1.6 m below ground surface. One release was biostimulated with ammonium acetate, which was added weekly through injection wells near the source zone over 15 months. The other release was not biostimulated and served as a baseline control simulating natural attenuation. Ammonium acetate addition stimulated the development of strongly anaerobic conditions, as indicated by near-saturation methane concentrations. BTEX removal began within 8 months in the biostimulated source zone, but not in the natural attenuation control, where BTEX concentrations were still increasing (due to source dissolution) 2 years after the release. Phylogenetic analysis using quantitative PCR indicated an increase in concentration and relative abundance of Archaea (Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota), Geobacteraceae (Geobacter and Pelobacter spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfuromusa, and Desulfuromonas) in the biostimulated plot relative to the control. Apparently, biostimulation fortuitously enhanced the growth of putative anaerobic BTEX degraders and associated commensal microorganisms that consume acetate and H2, and enhance the thermodynamic feasibility of BTEX fermentation. This is the first field study to suggest that anaerobic-methanogenic biostimulation could enhance source zone bioremediation of groundwater aquifers impacted by biodiesel blends.

  19. Renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from biodiesel waste glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Zichun; Williams, Paul T; Huang, Jun

    2013-09-25

    In this report, we introduce a novel and commercially viable method to recover renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from waste glycerol produced in the biodiesel process. Gas-phase catalytic reforming converts glycerol to clean hydrogen fuel and by replacing the problematical coke formed on the catalyst with high value carbon nanotubes, added value can be realised. Additional benefits of around 2.8 kg CNTs from the reforming of 1 tonne of glycerol and the production of 500 Nm(3) H2 could have a considerable impact on the economics of glycerol utilization. Thereby, the contribution of this research will be a significant step forward in solving a current major technical and economic challenge faced by the biofuels industry.

  20. Oilseeds for use in biodiesel and drop-in renewable jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseeds, primarily soybean and canola, are currently used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oilseeds can also be used to produce drop-in renewable jet fuel and diesel products. While soybean and canola are the most common oilseed crops used for renewable fuel production in the U.S., many othe...

  1. Development of next generation biodiesel technology. Catalytic deoxygenation of renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snaare, M.

    2006-07-01

    New sustainable solutions for energy production have to be found in the near future to satisfy the rapid increase of the global energy consumption. One highly functional source of energy is diesel fuel, which can be produced from renewable raw materials and can therefore be regarded as a potential sustainable alternative for the fossil fuels in future. In this study, a novel catalytic biodiesel production technology from triglyceride containing vegetable oils and animal fats was investigated. Natural oils and fats were heterogeneously deoxygenated by selectively removing the carboxyl group (decarboxylation or decarbonylation) in the triglyceride structure, forming a diesel-like linear hydrocarbon. Catalyst screening was performed in a semi-batch reactor with dispersed metal catalysts and stearic acid as model compound, in order to obtain the most promising metal-support combination for deoxygenation. The experiments were carried out at elevated temperatures (270-360 deg C) and pressures (1-40 bar), typically under inert (Ar, N{sub 2} and He) or hydrogen atmosphere and in a solvent. Palladium and platinum on active carbon support were proven to be the most promising catalysts for the deoxygenation of stearic acid. In particular, a commercial 5 % Pd on activated carbon was highly active and selective. To study the relationship between the reaction activities and catalysts physical-chemical properties, a range of Pd/C catalysts was synthesized at the laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and evaluated. Selective deoxygenation was successfully achieved over the Pd on activated carbon catalyst with a large variety of renewable feedstocks, such as different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid esters and triglycerides. Moreover, the most essential reaction parameters were investigated and optimized. A deoxygenation mechanism was proposed and discussed. The mechanism was further evaluated and confirmed by kinetic modeling. The kinetic model gave an excellent fit

  2. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putzig, Mollie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  3. Uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment of biodiesel versus diesel: global warming and non-renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty information is essential for the proper use of life cycle assessment and environmental assessments in decision making. To investigate the uncertainties of biodiesel and determine the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel, an explicit analytical approach based on the Taylor series expansion for lognormal distribution was applied in the present study. A biodiesel case study demonstrates the probability that biodiesel has a lower global warming and non-renewable energy score than diesel, that is 92.3% and 93.1%, respectively. The results indicate the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel based on the global warming and non-renewable energy scores.

  4. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Waste Vegetable Oil Biodiesel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  5. Catalyst technology for biofuel production: Conversion of renewable lipids into biojet and biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharff Yves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable lipids based biofuels are an important tool to address issues raised by policies put in place in order to reduce the dependence of transportation sector on fossil fuels and to promote the development of non-food based, sustainable and eco-friendly fuels. This paper presents the main features of the heterogeneous catalysis technologies Axens has developed for the production of biofuels from renewable lipids: the first by transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl esters or biodiesel and the second by hydrotreating to produce isoparaffinic hydroprocessed ester and fatty acids, high blending rate drop-in diesel and jet biofuels.

  6. The effects of B0, B20 and B100 soy biodiesel exhaust on aconitine-induced cardiac arrhythmia in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Diesel exhaust (DE) has been shown to increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Although biodiesel has been proposed as a "safer" alternative to diesel, it is still uncertain whether it actually poses less threat.OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that exposure to pure or 20% so...

  7. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ < 0.1) for all fuels over the FTP cycle. Aerosol emitted during filter regeneration is significantly more CCN active and hygroscopic; average κ values range from 0.242 to 0.439 and are as high as 0.843. Regardless of fuel, the current classification of "fresh" tailpipe emissions as nonhygroscopic remains true during nonregeneration operation. However, aftertreatment technologies such as DPF, will produce significantly more hygroscopic particles during regeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant enhancement of hygroscopic materials emitted during DPF regeneration of on-road diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  8. Renewable fuels from agricultural sources - ethanol, biodiesel, biogas; Foernybara drivmedel fraan jordbruket - etanol, biodiesel, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolke, Camilla L.; Einarson, Elin; Ekloef, Patrik

    2011-07-01

    In this report we give a status report of the biofuels market. We describe some of the issues which are linked to environmental and land use. We also explain why different actors reach different assessments regarding the greenhouse gas emissions, land use and food security. Biofuels have been highlighted as a way to reduce the transport sector large emissions of greenhouse gases and thus as a climate measure. But when several countries have increased their production and consumption and set targets for bio-renewable fuels the biofuels impact has been questioned. Are emissions really reduced? What happens to the direct and indirect land use? How does the production of more biofuels affect the security in food production?

  9. Biodiesel Basics (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This Spanish-language fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  10. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarianto Indrawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can increase the security of energy supply. One of the abundant renewable energy resources in Indonesia is palm oil. This study analyses the utilization of palm biodiesel for Indonesian power generation sector in the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI system. Two scenarios were created by projecting the demand and environmental impact as well as GHG emissions reduction over the next 25 years. The first scenario subjects on current energy policy, while the second scenario is to substitute of fossil fuel which is still used in the JAMALI power generation system. Effect of palm biodiesel on emission of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Volatile Organic Compounds were estimated for each scenario. An externality analysis to complete the environmental analysis was conducted and resource analysis of palm oil plantation based biodiesel was also estimated. Finally, the economics feasibility of palm biodiesel in the power generation sector was analyzed.

  11. Mont-Tremblant biodiesel project : feasibility study; Projet biodiesel Mont-Tremblant : etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagace, C. [Groupe Sine Nomine, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lamy, V.; Lapointe, L.; Pilon, B. [CEGEP de Saint-Jerome, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada). Inst. du transport avance du Quebec, ITAQ

    2008-08-15

    The growing interest in biodiesel can be attributed to concerns regarding climate change, environmental protection and sustainable development. Biodiesel produced from biomass is a renewable energy source that can replace fossil fuels and help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The City of Mont-Tremblant commissioned a pilot study to determine the feasibility of integrating 20 per cent biodiesel (B20) in city fleet vehicles and school buses. The study focused on the use of biodiesel fuel under winter conditions. The fleet vehicles were analyzed and various strategies for integrating biodiesel mixtures by type and concentration were proposed. The feasibility study also investigated different types of petrodiesel such as Nordic type, seasonal type and kerosene. The effects of an electrical thermal management system were also investigated along with the use of additives. Various laboratory tests were performed in a controlled climate chamber to validate potential solutions. Finally, the study measured the impacts of likely solutions, and proposed 4 different scenarios for the use of biodiesel for the region of Mont-Tremblant. The study showed that it is possible to use B20 year-round, provided that certain conditions are met. The pilot project will also evaluate changes to storage infrastructure that may be needed for storing B20 in winter. 5 tabs., 10 figs., 2 appendices.

  12. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  13. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a renewable resource for activated carbon. Application to environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Stepping into the new globalized and paradigm shifted era, a huge revolution has been undergone by the oil palm industry. From a humble source of the edible oil, today oil palm has demonstrated a wide variety of uses, almost by every part of its plant. With the price of the crude petroleum hitting record height every other day, the feasibility of palm oil and oil palm biomass as renewable substitutes for the production of biodiesel has been proposed. Lately, its development has received various criticisms, mainly hinges on the huge generation of solid residues which are currently no profitable use. In view of the aforementioned reason, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of oil palm industry, its fundamental background studies, propagation and industrial applications. Moreover, the recent developments on the preparation of activated carbons from oil palm waste, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expansion of oil palm waste in the field of adsorption science represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental conservation. (author)

  14. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  15. Interdependencies between fossil fuel and renewable energy markets. The German biodiesel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, Stefan; Bruemmer, Bernard; Ihle, Rico

    2010-12-15

    With this paper, we provide the first quantitative investigation of vertical price transmission in the biodiesel supply chain in Germany with the focus on the developments during the food crisis and the impact of subsidized US biodiesel exports. With the strong promotion of the production and use of biodiesel during the first half of the past decade, the German biodiesel market became the largest national biodiesel market worldwide. This analysis utilizes prices of rapeseed oil, soya oil, biodiesel and crude oil over a sample period covering the rapid growth of the German demand in 2002 until its decline in 2009. The effects of both the market development and different policies on price transmission are analyzed in detail. Due to the numerous changes in the market, a regime-dependent Markov-switching vector error correction model is applied. The results indicate that regimes with differing error-correction behavior govern the transmission process among the various prices. Evidence was found for a strong impact of crude oil price on biodiesel prices, and of biodiesel prices on rapeseed oil prices. However, in both cases, the price adjustment behavior is found to be regime dependent, and the regime occurrence in both market segments shows similar patterns. In relation to crude oil a weak adjustment of biodiesel prices is found to be dominating in the phase of market expansion. This changed from 2007 on when stronger error-correction is found, reflected by a stronger role of the crude oil price developments. In the relationship of biodiesel to the vegetable oils, most of the growth period was dominated by a regime characterized by weak price adjustments. From 2007 on, past own price changes and past changes in soya oil prices had a strong impact particularly on rapeseed oil prices. The biodiesel price development was less important. Reasons for this are substantial changes in the market structure. The biodiesel market developed as an insulated market; biodiesel was

  16. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  17. Towards Understanding Environmental/Health Risks of Renewable Diesel (Biodiesel, Non- ester Diesel) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2007-12-01

    Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines offer considerable benefits as they provide so-called "sustainable" alternatives to mined fossil fuels, reduce the nation's dependence on imported petroleum, and have the potential to reduce harmful pollutants and exhaust emissions. This has been long recognized: the first appearance and demonstration of an oil based diesel fuel was at the Paris Exhibition in 1900. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required 75 percent of new federal/state vehicles to accomodate alternative fuels. Modern concerns and overpopulation have dramatically raised the current interest. However, since these are relatively new fuels, the risks and uncertainties associated with environmental and human health effects are as yet unaddressed. As required by Section 43830.8 California Health and Safety Code before adopting new fuel specifications the California Air Resources Board (CARB) is required to prepare a relative "multimedia" evaluation of new fuels, not only with regard to engine performance and emission requirements but also with consideration of health and environmental criteria involving airborne toxics and associated health risks, ozone formation potential, hazardous waste generation and management and surface and groundwater contamination resulting from production, distribution, and use. The assessment is relative to a standard reference fuel. As a preliminary to multimedia risk assessment of biodiesel, we report here on: a brief history of biodiesel; production of biodiesel, fuel quality, and feedstocks used; key properties of six different feedstocks for possible large scale biodiesel production; and California's production challenges. Priority characteristics that pertain to environmental fate and transport and human health are described. The longer-term objective of this study is an overall relative examination of the environmental and health effects of biodiesel within the context of a multimedia assessment.

  18. Economic screening of renewable energy technologies: Incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel as applied to waste water scum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Ma, Huan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-12-01

    In the U.S., the total amount of municipal solid waste is continuously rising each year. Millions of tons of solid waste and scum are produced annually that require safe and environmentally sound disposal. The availability of a zero-cost energy source like municipal waste scum is ideal for several types of renewable energy technologies. However, the way the energy is produced, distributed and valued also contributes to the overall process sustainability. An economic screening method was developed to compare the potential energy and economic value of three waste-to-energy technologies; incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel. A St. Paul, MN wastewater treatment facility producing 3175 "wet" kilograms of scum per day was used as a basis of the comparison. After applying all theoretically available subsidies, scum to biodiesel was shown to have the greatest economic potential, valued between $491,949 and $610,624/year. The incineration of scum yielded the greatest reclaimed energy potential at 29billion kilojoules/year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodiesel: Paving the Way for DoD’s Renewable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    addressing users concerns: 1. Stability of the biodiesel 2. Accelerated deterioration during high temperature storage 3. Vehicle operation and fuel ...Demonstration Plan • Established Laboratory Fuel Analysis Contract • Began Collecting Data at 4 DoD Sites: – 29 Palms – July 2009 – NSWC Crane – August 2009...Concern #3: Vehicle operation and fuel properties in low temperatures) – 29 Palms (Humvees) • Both Test and Control Vehicles have trouble starting

  20. Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Wang, Michael; Bloyd, Cary; Putsche, Vicky

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

  1. Evaluation of the impacts of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on NO(x) emissions for CARB diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam; Johnson, Kent C; Okamoto, Robert A; Mitchell, Alexander; Pullman, Marcie; Durbin, Thomas D

    2012-08-21

    The impact of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from heavy-duty engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel. Two heavy-duty engines, a 2006 engine with no exhaust aftertreatment, and a 2007 engine with a diesel particle filter (DPF), were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy- and animal-based biodiesels, a hydrotreated renewable diesel, and a gas to liquid (GTL) fuel were evaluated at blend levels from 5 to 100%. NO(x) emissions consistently increased with increasing biodiesel blend level, while increasing renewable diesel and GTL blends showed NO(x) emissions reductions with blend level. NO(x) increases ranged from 1.5% to 6.9% for B20, 6.4% to 18.2% for B50, and 14.1% to 47.1% for B100. The soy-biodiesel showed higher NO(x) emissions increases compared to the animal-biodiesel. NO(x) emissions neutrality with the CARB diesel was achieved by blending GTL or renewable diesel fuels with various levels of biodiesel or by using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). It appears that the impact of biodiesel on NO(x) emissions might be a more important consideration when blended with CARB diesel or similar fuels, and that some form of NO(x) mitigation might be needed for biodiesel blends with such fuels.

  2. Sustainability of sunflower cultivation for biodiesel production in central Italy according to the Renewable Energy Directive methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energies as alternative to fossil fuels has value from different points of view and has effects at environmental, social and economic level. These aspects are often connected to each other and together define the overall sustainability of bioenergy. At European level, the Directive 2009/28/EC gives the basic criteria for the estimation of sustainability of biofuels and indicates a minimum threshold of 35% of greenhouse gas saving for a biofuel in order to be considered sustainable. The Directive gives the possibility to identify standard regional values for the cultivation steps that could be utilized for the certification. This paper aims to give a contribution to the definition of these values considering the RED methodology applied to the sunflower cropped in central Italy which is characterized by a hilly landscape and not-irrigated crops. To determine input and output of sunflower cultivation in the central Italy, the results of PROBIO project, carried out by the Authors, were used. The sustainability of biodiesel produced from sunflower grown in central Italy is variable and depends on the nitrogen input and seasonal climatic conditions that affect the yields. The greenhouse gases savings of the Italian chain is 40% in average, greater than the required 35% and would be possible to assign this value as standard to the biofuel chain biodiesel from sunflower cultivated in central Italy. Using an averaged regional standard value guards against the possibility of considering unsustainable harvesting in unfavourable years and seeing it overestimated in the favourable ones.

  3. Research advance of renewable energy micro - biodiesel%新能源微生物柴油的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冲; 康静; 简在荣; 李领川; 刘艳丽

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is a regenerative resources of fuel. At present, countries around the world are setting off biodiesel exploitation and utilization. With the development of biodiesel industry, the shortage of raw materials is the bottleneck of scale. The cheap renewable resources, such as lignocellulosic biowastes, agricultural products processing wastes, industrial wastes and effluent can be utilized to produce micro -biodiesel by oleaginous microorganism. Compared with the traditional biodiesel, the micro -biodiesel is not affected by season, climate and land resources, and is easy to be produced in a continuous large -scale. The research status, development tendency and the processing technology of micro - biodiesel at home and abroad were introduced. The sources and characteristics of raw materials of micro - biodiesel in China were elaborated. Some counter-measures were put forward according to the problems existing in micro - biodiesel industrialization.%生物柴油是一种来源广泛的可再生燃料资源,目前在世界各国正掀起开发利用生物柴油资源的热潮,但在生物柴油产业发展过程中,原料不足成为规模化的瓶颈.产油微生物可直接利用秸秆类农林废弃物、农副产品加工废弃物、工业废物及废水等廉价再生资源经发酵转化为微生物柴油.相对于传统的生物柴油,其优点是不受季节气候及土地资源的影响,易于大规模连续化生产.对国内外微生物柴油的研究现状、发展趋势及制备工艺进行了介绍,对我国微生物柴油的原料来源及特性进行了阐述,指出微生物柴油产业化发展所存在的问题,提出了相应的解决对策.

  4. Estimating the Size of the Renewable Energy Generators in an Isolated Solar-Biodiesel Microgrid with Lead-Acid Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAMA Alin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, fossil fuel decline, expensive power grid extensions focused the attention of scientist in developing electrical power systems that use as primary resources renewable energy generators. Romania has a high renewable energy potential and presents interest in developing renewable energy microgrids using: solar energy, wind energy, biomass Hydro, etc. The paper presents a method of estimating the size of the renewable energy generators in an isolated solar-biodiesel microgrid with lead-acid battery storage. The mathematical model is first presented and then an algorithm is developed to give an estimation of the size of the microgrid. The microgrid is installed in the region of Oradea, Romania. The results are validated through comparison with existing sizing software programs like: PV*Sol and PVSyst.

  5. Investigation of Atomization and Combustion Performance of Renewable Biofuels and the Effects of Ethanol Blending in Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Adam Gregory

    This thesis presents results from an experimental investigation of the macroscopic and microscopic atomization and combustion behavior of B99 biodiesel, ethanol, B99-ethanol blends, methanol, and an F-76-Algae biodiesel blend. In addition, conventional F-76 and Diesel #2 sprays were characterized as a base case to compare with. The physical properties and chemical composition of each fuel were measured in order to characterize and predict atomization performance. A variety of B99-ethanol fuel blends were used which demonstrate a tradeoff between lower density, surface tension, and viscosity with a decrease in the air to liquid ratio. A plain jet air-blast atomizer was used for both non-reacting and reacting tests. The flow rates for the alternative fuels were set by matching the power input provided by the baseline fossil fuels in order to simulate use as a drop in replacement. For this study, phase Doppler interferometry is employed to gain information on drop size, SMD, velocity, and volume flux distribution across the spray plume. A high speed camera is used to gather high speed cinematography of the sprays for observing breakup characteristics and providing additional insight. Reacting flow tests captured NOx, CO, and UHC emissions along with high speed footage used to predict soot levels based on flame luminosity. The results illustrate how the fuel type impacts the atomization and spray characteristics. The air-blast atomizer resulted in similar atomization performance among the DF2, F-76, and the F-76/Algae blend. While methanol and ethanol are not suitable candidates for this air-blast configuration and B99 produces significantly larger droplets, the addition of ethanol decreased drop sizes for all B99-ethanol blends by approximately 5 microns. In regards to reacting conditions, increased ethanol blending to B99 consistently lowered NOx emissions while decreasing combustion efficiency. Overall, lower NOx and CO emissions were achieved with the fuel blends

  6. Steam reforming of biodiesel by-product to make renewable hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinn, Matthew; Kendall, Kevin; Mallon, Christian; Andrews, James

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the viability of steam reforming the combined glycerol and water by-product streams of a biodiesel plant. A platinum alumina catalyst was used to optimise the operating conditions for glycerol steam reforming and mass spectroscopy was chosen to measure reformer gas yield. The problem is that glycerol steam reforming is relatively untested even with pure glycerol and the by-product quality may be too poor. The strategy was therefore to optimise the process using pure glycerol and compare the performance with by-product glycerol. To test catalyst degradation caused by carbon deposition, a Solid Oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was used as a separate reformer and electrical performance was measured to indicate carbon deposition. This is the first time a SOFC has been run on glycerol. The results showed that thermodynamic theory can be used to predict reformer performance. At high temperatures high gas yield can be reached (almost 100%) and selectivities of 70% (dry basis) obtained. The optimum conditions for glycerol reforming were 860 degrees C temperature (maximum tested), 0.12 mols/min glycerol flow per kg of catalyst and 2.5 steam/carbon ratio. Reforming catalysts lasted for several days of continuous operation with minimal degradation, 0.4% of feed deposited. By-product glycerol performed slightly worse with a lower yield and more carbon deposition, 2% of feed. The results show that glycerol steam reforming is a viable alternative use for glycerol and potentially a better option than purification.

  7. Catalysis in biodiesel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A substantial industry has grown in recent years to achieve the industrial scale production of biodiesel, a renewable replacement for petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The prevalent technology for biodiesel production at this time involves use of the long known single-use catalysts sodium hydroxide (o...

  8. Biodiesel from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Aullón Alcaine, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In this project we will travel back in time to the nineteenth century to discover the inventor of the diesel engine, Rudolf Diesel, and his renewable fuel vision that is only now being realized. Biodiesel has received considerable attention in recent years as it is biodegradable, renewable and non-toxic fuel. It emits less gaseous pollutants than conventional diesel fuel, and can work directly in diesel engines with no required modifications. The most common way to produce biodiesel is by tra...

  9. Supercritical Synthesis of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vaultier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs for biodiesel synthesis.

  10. Finding synergies in fuels properties for the design of renewable fuels--hydroxylated biodiesel effects on butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukjit, E; Herreros, J M; Piaszyk, J; Dearn, K D; Tsolakis, A

    2013-04-02

    This article describes the effects of hydroxylated biodiesel (castor oil methyl ester - COME) on the properties, combustion, and emissions of butanol-diesel blends used within compression ignition engines. The study was conducted to investigate the influence of COME as a means of increasing the butanol concentration in a stable butanol-diesel blend. Tests were compared with baseline experiments using rapeseed methyl esters (RME). A clear benefit in terms of the trade-off between NOX and soot emissions with respect to ULSD and biodiesel-diesel blends with the same oxygen content was obtained from the combination of biodiesel and butanol, while there was no penalty in regulated gaseous carbonaceous emissions. From the comparison between the biodiesel fuels used in this work, COME improved some of the properties (for example lubricity, density and viscosity) of butanol-diesel blends with respect to RME. The existence of hydroxyl group in COME also reduced further soot emissions and decreased soot activation energy.

  11. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  12. Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine Running with a Range of Biodiesel Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belachew Tesfa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, alternative fuels are being investigated in detail for application in compression ignition (CI engines resulting in exciting potential opportunities to increase energy security and reduce gas emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biodiesel types and biodiesel fraction on the emission characteristics of a CI engine. The experimental work was carried out on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI and turbocharged diesel engine by using biodiesel made from waste oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil and comparing them to normal diesel. The fuels used in the analyses are B10, B20, B50, B100 and neat diesel. The engine was operated over a range of engine speeds. Based on the measured parameters, detailed analyses were carried out on major regulated emissions such as NOx, CO, CO2, and THC. It has been seen that the biodiesel types (sources do not result in any significant differences in emissions. The results also clearly indicate that the engine running with biodiesel and blends have higher NOx emission by up to 20%. However, the emissions of the CI engine running on neat biodiesel (B100 were reduced by up to 15%, 40% and 30% for CO, CO2 and THC emissions respectively, as compared to diesel fuel at various operating conditions.

  13. Biodiesel versus diesel: a pilot study comparing exhaust exposures for employees at a rural municipal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traviss, Nora; Thelen, Brett Amy; Ingalls, Jaime Kathryn; Treadwell, Melinda Dawn

    2010-09-01

    Many organizations interested in renewable, domestic energy have switched from petroleum diesel to biodiesel blends for use in transportation and heavy-duty equipment. Although considerable evidence exists on the negative health effects of petroleum diesel exhaust exposures in occupational settings, there has been little research examining biodiesel exposures. Working collaboratively with a local municipality, concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and other air toxics were measured at a recycling facility in southwestern New Hampshire while heavy equipment operated first on petroleum diesel and then on a B20 blend (20% soy-based biodiesel/80% petroleum diesel). This pilot study used a combination of established industrial hygiene and environmental air monitoring methods to estimate occupational exposure profiles to PM and air toxics from combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel. Results indicate that B20 use dramatically reduces work area respirable particle, PM2.5 (PM blend. Overall, this study suggests that biodiesel blends reduce worker exposure to and health risk from petroleum diesel exhaust, but additional exposure research is recommended.

  14. Experimental Investigation Of Biogas-Biodiesel Dual Fuel Combustion In A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha D. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt at achieving diesel fuel equivalent performance from diesel engines with maximum substitution of diesel with renewable fuels. In this context the study has been designed to analyze the influence of B20 algae biodiesel as a pilot fuel in a biodiesel biogas dual fuel engine, and results are compared to those of biodiesel and diesel operation at identical engine settings. Experiments were performed at various loads from 0 to 100 % of maximum load at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. In general, B20 algae biodiesel is compatible with diesel in terms of performance and combustion characteristics. Dual fuel mode operation displays lower thermal efficiency and higher fuel consumption than for other fuel modes of the test run across the range of engine loads. Dual fuel mode displayed lower emissions of NOx and Smoke opacity while HC and CO concentrations were considerably higher as compared to other fuels. In dual fuel mode peak pressure and heat release rate were slightly higher compared to diesel and biodiesel mode of operation for all engine loads.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory considers the use of biodiesel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlin, M. K. (Marla K.)

    2002-01-01

    A new EPA-approved alternative fuel, called biodiesel, may soon be used at Los Alamos National Laboratory in everything from diesel trucks to laboratory equipment. Biodiesel transforms vegetable oils into a renewable, cleaner energy source that can be used in any machinery that uses diesel fuel. For the past couple years, the Laboratory has been exploring the possibility of switching over to soybean-based biodiesel. This change could lead to many health and environmental benefits, as well as help reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil. Biodiesel is a clean, renewable diesel fuel substitute made from soybean and other vegetable oil crops, as well as from recycled cooking oils. A chemical process breaks down the vegetable oil into a usable form. Vegetable oil has a chain of about 18 carbons and ordinary diesel has about 12 or 13 carbons. The process breaks the carbon chains of the vegetable oil and separates out the glycerin (a fatty substance used in creams and soaps). The co-product of glycerin can be used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies, as well as many other markets. Once the chains are shortened and the glycerin is removed from the oil, the remaining liquid is similar to petroleum diesel fuel. It can be burned in pure form or in a blend of any proportion with petroleum diesel. To be considered an alternative fuel source by the EPA, the blend must be at least 20 percent biodiesel (B20). According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), biodiesel is America's fastest growing alternative fuel.

  16. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2010-02-15

    The increasing industrialization and modernization of the world has to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Economic development in developing countries has led to huge increase in the energy demand. In India, the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% per annum. The crude oil demand of the country is met by import of about 80%. Thus the energy security has become a key issue for the nation as a whole. Petroleum-based fuels are limited. The finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these reserves are facing foreign exchange crises, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence it is necessary to look forward for alternative fuels, which can be produced from feedstocks available within the country. Biodiesel, an ecofriendly and renewable fuel substitute for diesel has been getting the attention of researchers/scientists of all over the world. The R and D has indicated that up to B20, there is no need of modification and little work is available related to suitability and sustainability of biodiesel production from Jatropha as non-edible oil sources. In addition, the use of vegetable oil as fuel is less polluting than petroleum fuels. The basic problem with biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation resulting in the increase in viscosity of biodiesel with respect to time which in turn leads to piston sticking, gum formation and fuel atomization problems. The report is an attempt to present the prevailing fossil fuel scenario with respect to petroleum diesel, fuel properties of biodiesel resources for biodiesel production, processes for its production, purification, etc. Lastly, an introduction of stability of biodiesel will also be presented. (author)

  17. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  18. Sustainability of renewable fuel infrastructure: a screening LCA case study of anticorrosive graphene oxide epoxy liners in steel tanks for the storage of biodiesel and its blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoor, Govinda; Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Koratkar, Nikhil; Tysklind, Mats

    2017-02-22

    Biodiesel is a widely used fuel that meets the renewable fuel standards developed under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. However, biodiesel is known to pose a series of abiotic and biotic corrosion risks to storage tanks. A typical practice (incumbent system) used to protect the tanks from these risks include (i) coating the interior surface of the tank with a solvent-free epoxy (SFE) liner, and (ii) adding a biocide to the tank. Herein, we present a screening-level life-cycle assessment study to compare the environmental performance of a graphene oxide (GO)-epoxy (GOE) liner with the incumbent system. TRACI was used as an impact assessment tool to model the midpoint environmental impacts in ten categories: global warming potential (GWP, kg CO2 eq.); acidification potential (AP, kg SO2 eq.); potential human health damage impacts due to carcinogens (HH-CP, CTUh) and non-carcinogens (HH-NCP, CTUh); potential respiratory effects (REP, kg PM2.5 eq.); eutrophication potential (EP, kg N eq.); ozone depletion potential (ODP kg CFC-11 eq.); ecotoxicity potential (ETXP, CTUe); smog formation potential (SFP kg O3 eq.) and fossil fuel depletion potential (FFDP MJ surplus). The equivalent functional unit of the LCA study was designed to protect 30 m(2) of the interior surface (unalloyed steel sheet) of a 10 000 liter biodiesel tank against abiotic and biotic corrosion during its service life of 20 years. Overall, this LCA study highlights the improved environmental performance for the GOE liner compared to the incumbent system, whereby the GOE liner showed 91% lower impacts in ODP impact category, 59% smaller in REP, 62% smaller in AP, 67-69% smaller in GWP and HH-CP, 72-76% smaller in EP, SFP, and FFDP, and 81-83% smaller ETXP and HH-NCP category results. The scenario analysis study revealed that these potential impacts change by less than 15% when the GOE liners are functionalized with silanized-GO nanosheets or GO-reinforced polyvinyl carbazole to improve the antimicrobial

  19. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower

  20. Production and analysis of bio-diesel from non-edible oils. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, A.; Chinnusamy, T.R.; Krishnan, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637215, Tamil Nadu (India); Umarani, C. [Department of Chemistry, Government Arts College, Salem (India); Subramanian, R. [Department of Automobile Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India); Neduzchezhain, N. [Sabbatical, Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS, Pilani, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-05-15

    Bio-diesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and it is derived from renewable resources, bio degradable and non-toxic in nature. Several bio-diesel production methods have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali catalyst gives high level of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl ester in short reaction time. The process of transesterification is affected by the reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature, purity of reactants free fatty acids and water content of oils or fats. In this work, an attempt has been made on review of bio-diesel production, methods of analyzing, bio-diesel standard, resources available, process developed performance in internal combustion engines, teardown analysis of bio-diesel B20 operated vehicle, recommendation for development of bio-fuels, environmental considerations, economic aspects and advantages. The technical tools and process for monitoring the transesterification reaction like TLC, GC, HPLC, GPC, {sup 1}H NMR and NIR have also been summarized in this paper. (author)

  1. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    OpenAIRE

    Natarianto Indrawan; Muhammad Ery Wijaya

    2011-01-01

    Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can ...

  2. Missouri Soybean Association Biodiesel Demonstration Project: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Dale [Missouri Soybean Association, Jefferson City, MO (United States); Hamilton, Jill [Sustainable Energy Strategies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-10-27

    The Missouri Soybean Association (MSA) and the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) partnered together to implement the MSA Biodiesel Demonstration project under a United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant. The goal of this project was to provide decision makers and fleet managers with information that could lead to the increased use of domestically produced renewable fuels and could reduce the harmful impacts of school bus diesel exhaust on children. This project was initiated in September 2004 and completed in April 2011. The project carried out a broad range of activities organized under four areas: 1. Petroleum and related industry education program for fuel suppliers; 2. Fleet evaluation program using B20 with a Missouri school district; 3. Outreach and awareness campaign for school district fleet managers; and 4. Support of ongoing B20 Fleet Evaluation Team (FET) data collection efforts with existing school districts. Technical support to the biodiesel industry was also provided through NBB’s Troubleshooting Hotline. The hotline program was established in 2008 to troubleshoot fuel quality issues and help facilitate smooth implementation of the RFS and is described in greater detail under Milestone A.1 - Promote Instruction and Guidance on Best Practices. As a result of this project’s efforts, MSA and NBB were able to successfully reach out to and support a broad spectrum of biodiesel users in Missouri and New England. The MSA Biodiesel Demonstration was funded through a FY2004 Renewable Energy Resources Congressional earmark. The initial focus of this project was to test and evaluate biodiesel blends coupled with diesel oxidation catalysts as an emissions reduction technology for school bus fleets in the United States. The project was designed to verify emissions reductions using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols, then document – with school bus fleet experience – the viability of utilizing B20 blends. The fleet experience was expected to

  3. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  4. Effective utilization of B20 blend with diethyl ether and ethanol as oxygenated additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadrasta-Satya Vara-Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent times' fatty acid methyl ester popularly called as biodiesel has become more prominent alternate fuel for compression ignition engines based on a single fuel concept. Since, use of neat biodiesel on a large scale is raising certain difficulties and is being adopted in a blended form with petro-diesel fuel and B20 blend has become standardized. However, the HC and NOx emissions of B20 are still on the higher side. Present work aims at experimental evaluation of a single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine by adopting various proportions of ethanol and diethyl ether blends in order to improve performance and emission characteristics of B20 blend. Besides employing different amounts of ethanol and diethyl ether, simultaneous influence of injector nozzle hole size and fuel injection pressure are also investigated to arrive at an optimum configuration. Brake specific fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions values are lower with B20 and DEE 5 whereas B20 with DEE15 yielded lower NOx emissions. It is observed that addition of oxygenates have improved the combustion process and lower emissions are obtained. The present investigation revealed that blends with oxygenated additives having higher Cetane rating are superior to neat blend.

  5. Comparative Toxicity of Soy Biodiesel and Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity from combustion of 100% soy-based biodiesel (B100) was compared to that of petrodiesel (B0) or a 20% biodiesel / 80% petrodiesel mix (B20) in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic Balb/cJ mice. Exhaust from combustion of B0, B20, or B100 was diluted to target conce...

  6. Effect of antioxidants on emission of biodiesel%抗氧化剂对生物柴油排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠; 吴婧; 毛功平; 瞿磊; 王飞; 胡慧慧

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning alternative fuel produced from renewable resources, such as vegetable oils or animal fats. Therefore, biodiesels are becoming increasingly important due to their ease in adaptation. Biodiesel also contributes to slowing up the depletion of fossil resources and reducing the emissions from the transport sector, both environmental benefits and prospect in energy security. Biodiesels with higher unsaturated esters content with a higher tendency to lose stability through degradation are susceptible to oxidative degradation due to autoxidation in the presence of oxygen. Antioxidant addition is a prospective solution to the problem of improving the oxidation stability of biodiesel. Biodiesel contains a lot of unsaturated fats monoester, which will generate short chain alkenes, alkynes under high temperature cracking reaction. The concentration of H has a great influence on the decomposition path of unsaturated fat monoester and the breakdown products in the process of reaction. The mechanism of adding antioxidant includes that H is supplied by the phenol hydroxyl (OH) end the transmission of free radical chain reaction. Also the phenol hydroxyl-supplied H promotes the reduction reaction and inhibits oxidation reaction. As a result, addition of antioxidants to biodiesel could promote the reductive reactions and inhibit the oxidative reactions, which could increase the emission of soot, HC and CO but decrease NOX emission.The aim of the present study is to investigate engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using oxidative stabilized biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel used in the study was prepared from waste edible oils. It’s an experimental investigation of the effect of antioxidant addition to biodiesel on emission characteristics. In this experiment, mark rosemary and tea polyphenol as K1 and K2. Add 8‰of K1 and K2 into the diesel blend (B20) respectively, and mark the 2 kinds of blending fuel as K1B20 and K2B20. Test

  7. Aerobic Biodegradation Kinetics And Mineralization Of Six Petrodiesel/Soybean-Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerobic biodegradation kinetics and mineralization of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100), where B100 is 100% biodiesel, were investigated by acclimated cultures. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of biodiesel were found to undergo ...

  8. Aerobic Biodegradation Kinetics And Mineralization Of Six Petrodiesel/Soybean-Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerobic biodegradation kinetics and mineralization of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100), where B100 is 100% biodiesel, were investigated by acclimated cultures. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of biodiesel were found to undergo ...

  9. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  10. CHARACTERISATION OF BIODIESEL DERIVED FROM WASTE COTTON SEED OIL AND WASTE MUSTARD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demand increases and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. Properties of waste oil (cotton seed oil and mustard oil have been compared with the properties of petro-diesel, showing a comparable regimefor satisfactory optimized blend which is to be selected for the better performance of a C.I. engine with biodiesel. The work presented in this paper is the study of characteristics of biodiesel prepared from vegetable oils (waste cotton seed oil and waste mustard oil.The characteristics of biodiesel are to be checked at different blends (B10, B15, B20 and select the optimum blend based on these characteristics. The characteristics include free fatty acid value, density, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point and pour point, carbon residue content and ash residue content. Different fuel properties of the cotton methyl ester and mustard methyl ester were also measured. Results show that the properties of methyl ester of cotton seed were more suitable as compared to properties of mustard methyl ester.

  11. Partitioning Behavior of Petrodiesel/Biodiesel Blends in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning behavior of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100, where B100 is 100% unblended biodiesel) in water was investigated at various oil loads by the 10-fold dilution method. Five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C20 n

  12. Partitioning Behavior of Petrodiesel/Biodiesel Blends in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning behavior of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100, where B100 is 100% unblended biodiesel) in water was investigated at various oil loads by the 10-fold dilution method. Five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C20 n

  13. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples.

  14. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  15. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  16. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed.

  17. Novel process integration for biodiesel blend in membrane reactive divided wall (MRDW column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhre Vandana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a novel process integration for biodiesel blend in the Membrane assisted Reactive Divided Wall Distillation (MRDW column. Biodiesel is a green fuel and grade of biodiesel blend is B20 (% which consist of 20% biodiesel and rest 80% commercial diesel. Instead of commercial diesel, Tertiary Amyl Ethyl Ether (TAEE was used as an environment friendly fuel for blending biodiesel. Biodiesel and TAEE were synthesized in a pilot scale reactive distillation column. Dual reactive distillation and MRDW were simulated using aspen plus. B20 (% limit calculation was performed using feed flow rates of both TAEE and biodiesel. MRDW was compared with dual reactive distillation column and it was observed that MRDW is comparatively cost effective and suitable in terms of improved heat integration and flow pattern.

  18. Motor gerador ciclo diesel sob cinco proporções de biodiesel com óleo diesel Engine-generator diesel cycle under five proportions of biodiesel and diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J. da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de fontes alternativas de energia ao óleo diesel mineral, como o biodiesel, com origem renovável, é importante para o meio-ambiente e diversificação da matriz energética. Neste estudo foram levantados o consumo específico de combustível, o valor calórico do combustível e a eficiência do conjunto motor gerador da marca BRANCO em função de cargas resistivas, sob as seguintes proporções volumétricas entre o óleo diesel mineral com biodiesel: 0% (B0, 20% (B20, 40% (B40, 60% (B60 e 100% de biodiesel (B100. Para o ensaio utilizou-se motor de 7,36 kW, com gerador elétrico acoplado de 5,5 kW. As cargas utilizadas, 0,5 kW; 1,0 kW; 1,5 kW e 2,0 kW foram elevadas até 5,0 kW, oriundas de um dinamômetro de cargas resistentes. Assim, o desempenho do conjunto para cargas abaixo de 1,5 kW mostrou-se menor, pelo maior consumo específico de combustível (CEC, e redução na eficiência do conjunto motor gerador para a faixa de potência. Para as proporções de biodiesel B40, B60 e B100 os resultados descreveram redução no valor calórico e aumento do CEC. Portanto, realizando comparação das proporções de biodiesel com o óleo diesel, a proporção B20 substitui parcialmente o óleo diesel, sem perdas significativas do desempenho do motor gerador.The study of mineral diesel alternatives, such as biodiesel, a renewable fuel, is important for the environment and to diversify energy sources. This study evaluated an engine-generator BRANCO brand. Specific fuel consumption, calorific value and the overall efficiency as a function of the system load was measured, using diesel oil and biodiesel blends. The biodiesel proportions in the composition were 0% (B0, 20% (B20, 40% (B40, 60% (B60, and 100% (B100. The engine that was used during the test has a power of 7.36 kW, and the electric generator was 5.5 kW. The group was submitted to resistive loading, in the range: 0.5 kW, 1.0 kW, 1.5 kW; growing up to 5.0 kW. The results have shown

  19. Physico-Chemical Properties of Bio-diesel from Wild Grape Seeds Oil and Petro-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Kaisan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The swiftly depleting conventional fossil fuel resources and increasing environmental distress has considerably popped up research curiosity in renewable energy fuel for internal combustion engines. Accordingly, in this research work, biodiesel from wild grape seed (Lannea Microcarpa was blended with petro-diesel in a ratio of 5:95, 10:90, 15:85 and 20:80 and pure fossil diesel designated B5, B10, B15, B20 and B0 respectively. The physico chemical properties of the biodiesel/petro diesel blends were determined. The properties are specific gravity, viscosity, flash point, calorific value, sulphur content, copper strip corrosion, colour, diesel index, cetane number, and cloud point. It was observed that, 9 out of the 10 properties determined conform to ASTM standards except for the colour which was dark brown for the oil and biodiesel, and brown for the automotive gasoline oil. The specific gravity and viscosity increase with percentage increase of biodiesel in the blends. The sulphur content, calorific values, cetane number and diesel index decrease with increase in the percentage biodiesel from the blends. The colour of the samples does not conform to the ASTM standards. All the samples have the best ASTM value for copper strip corrosion and as such, they could be run in any diesel engine without any fear of corrosion tendencies. Whence, Wild Grape seed biodiesel is physically okay, chemically stable, environmentally friendly and economically viable for use in compression ignition engine as a blend to partly replace the automotive gasoline oil.

  20. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  1. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and...

  2. Innovative Canadian Process Technology For Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Sangat; Norton, Kevin

    2010-09-15

    The need for increasing renewable and alternative energy in the global energy mix has been well recognized by Governments and major scientific forums to reduce climate change impact for this living planet. Biodiesel has very high potential for GHG emission reduction. An innovative process developed in Canada provides solution to mitigate the feedstock, yield and quality issues impacting the industry. The Biox process uses a continuous process which reduces reaction times, provides > 99% yield of high quality biodiesel product. The process is feedstock flexible and can use cheaper higher FFA feedstock providing a sustainable approach for biodiesel production.

  3. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Mohite; Sudhir Kumar; Sagar Maji

    2016-01-01

    Fossil fuel resources are being depleted day by day and its use affects the environment adversely. Renewable energy is one of the alternate for sustainable development and biodiesel is one of the suitable alternate which can replace the diesel. The major hurdles in the successful commercialization of biodiesel are high feedstock cost and conversion technology to reduce viscosity. The choice of raw material and biodiesel production method must depend upon techno-economical view. There are some...

  4. Combustion and Performance Characteristics of CI Engine Running with Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfa, Belachew; Mishra, Rakesh; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on the effects of biodiesel types, biodiesel fraction and physical properties on the combustion and performance characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine. The experimental work was conducted on a four-cylinder, four -stroke, direct injection (DI) and turbocharg...

  5. Producción de biodiesel asistida por ultrasonidos

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Bastante, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The continuous increase of fossil fuel prices has raised interest in searching for new forms of energy to power internal combustion engines. Among the most promising options is biodiesel. According to ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials Standard) specifications, biodiesel is described as monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipids such as vegetable oils or animal fats used in ignition engines. The process leading to biodiesel is called ...

  6. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  7. Quantitative Investigations of Biodiesel Fuel Using Infrared Spectroscopy: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment for Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Andrew P.; Pomeroy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel has gained attention in recent years as a renewable fuel source due to its reduced greenhouse gas and particulate emissions, and it can be produced within the United States. A laboratory experiment designed for students in an upper-division undergraduate laboratory is described to study biodiesel production and biodiesel mixing with…

  8. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  9. Quantitative Investigations of Biodiesel Fuel Using Infrared Spectroscopy: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment for Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Andrew P.; Pomeroy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel has gained attention in recent years as a renewable fuel source due to its reduced greenhouse gas and particulate emissions, and it can be produced within the United States. A laboratory experiment designed for students in an upper-division undergraduate laboratory is described to study biodiesel production and biodiesel mixing with…

  10. Biochemical responses in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi) after short-term exposure to diesel oil, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lílian; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Oliveira, Thiago Yukio Kikuchi; da Rosa, Joel Maurício Correa; Felício, Andréia Arantes; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2013-09-01

    Biodiesel fuel is gradually replacing petroleum-based diesel oil use. Despite the biodiesel being considered friendlier to the environment, little is known about its effects in aquatic organisms. In this work we evaluated whether biodiesel exposure can affect oxidative stress parameters and biotransformation enzymes in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, Loricariidae), a South American endemic species. Thus, fish were exposed for 2 and 7d to 0.01mLL(-1) and 0.1mLL(-1) of pure diesel, pure biodiesel (B100) and blends of diesel with 5% (B5) and 20% (B20) biodiesel. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) levels and the activities of the enzymes glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in liver and gills. Also, DNA damage (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) levels in gills and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in liver were assessed. Pure diesel, B5 and B20 blends changed most of the enzymes tested and in some cases, B5 and B20 induced a higher enzyme activity than pure diesel. Antioxidant system activation in P. anisitsi was effective to counteract reactive oxygen species effects, since DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were maintained at basal levels after all treatments. However, fish gills exposed to B20 and B100 presented increased lipid peroxidation. Despite biodiesel being more biodegradable fuel that emits less greenhouse gases, the increased lipid peroxidation showed that biofuel and its blends also represent hazards to aquatic biota.

  11. Investigation on used oil and engine components of vehicles road test using twenty percent Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (B20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihwan Haryono, Muhammad Ma’ruf, Hari Setiapraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government has mandated to utilize biodiesel at the Indonesian market with blend ratio of 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel (B20. This policy bring car manufacturers concerning in using B20 effect on the engine life time. To evaluate the effect of using B20 on engine components, vehicles road test has been done along 40,000 KM. The test was using three brands of vehicles, in which each brand was composed of two identical vehicles fuelled by B20 FAME fuel and pure diesel fuel (B0 (solar. During the road test at certain intervals in accordance with the manufacturer's maintenance recommendations, the vehicles lubricating oil replacement and other routine maintenance were required. At the completion of the test all test vehicles to be dismantled and the engine components inspected. The test results show that the most parameter of used oil lubricants still in the limits. Likewise, the condition of the vehicles engine components did not show significant difference between using the pure diesel or B20.

  12. Water Consumption Estimates of the Biodiesel Process in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, biodiesel has been widely used in the US and around the world. Along with the rapid development of the biodiesel industry, its potential impact on water resources should also be evaluated. This study investigates water consumption f...

  13. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  14. Lipids from yeasts and fungi: Tomorrow's source of Biodiesel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new transport fuels from renewable resources, biodiesel from microbial lipids comes into view. We have evaluated the lipid yield and energy use of a process for production of biodiesel from agricultural waste using lipid-accumulating yeast and fungi. We included different

  15. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  16. Water Consumption Estimates of the Biodiesel Process in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, biodiesel has been widely used in the US and around the world. Along with the rapid development of the biodiesel industry, its potential impact on water resources should also be evaluated. This study investigates water consumption f...

  17. Biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mono-alkyl esters, most commonly the methyl esters, of vegetable oils, animal fats or other materials consisting mainly of triacylglycerols, often referred to as biodiesel, are an alternative to conventional petrodiesel for use in compression-ignition engines. The fatty acid esters that thus com...

  18. Profitability and sustainability of small - medium scale palm biodiesel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Maharani Dewi; Kismanto, Agus; Raksodewanto, Agus; Peryoga, Yoga

    2017-06-01

    The mandatory of biodiesel application at 20% blending (B20) has been started since January 2016. It creates huge market for biodiesel industry. To build large-scale biodiesel plant (> 100,000 tons/year) is most favorable for biodiesel producers since it can give lower production cost. This cost becomes a challenge for small - medium scale biodiesel plants. However, current biodiesel plants in Indonesia are located mainly in Java and Sumatra, which then distribute biodiesel around Indonesia so that there is an additional cost for transportation from area to area. This factor becomes an opportunity for the small - medium scale biodiesel plants to compete with the large one. This paper discusses the profitability of small - medium scale biodiesel plants conducted on a capacity of 50 tons/day using CPO and its derivatives. The study was conducted by performing economic analysis between scenarios of biodiesel plant that using raw material of stearin, PFAD, and multi feedstock. Comparison on the feasibility of scenarios was also conducted on the effect of transportation cost and selling price. The economic assessment shows that profitability is highly affected by raw material price so that it is important to secure the source of raw materials and consider a multi-feedstock type for small - medium scale biodiesel plants to become a sustainable plant. It was concluded that the small - medium scale biodiesel plants will be profitable and sustainable if they are connected to palm oil mill, have a captive market, and are located minimally 200 km from other biodiesel plants. The use of multi feedstock could increase IRR from 18.68 % to 56.52 %.

  19. Production and application of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Saha, M.; Mustafi, N. N.; Sarker, M. R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel has been identified as an alternative and promising fuel source to reduce the dependency on conventional fossil fuel in particular diesel. In this work, waste cooking oil (WCO) of restaurants is considered to produce biodiesel. A well-established transesterification reaction by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol (CH3OH) methods are applied to obtain biodiesel. In the catalytic transesterification process, biodiesel and glycerine are simultaneously produced. The impact of temperature, methanol/WCO molar ratio and sodium hydroxide concentration on the biodiesel formation were analysed and presented. It was found that the optimum 95% of biodiesel was obtained when methanol/WCO molar ratio was 1:6 under 873 K temperature with the presence of 0.2% NaOH as a catalyst. The waste cooking oil blend proportions were 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and named as bio-diesel blends B-10, B-15, B-20, and B-25, respectively. Quality of biodiesel was examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others were also investigated. A four-stroke single cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine was operated using in both pure form and as a diesel blend to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and others were measured. It was measured that the amount of CO2 increases and CO decreases both for pure diesel and biodiesel blends with increasing engine load. However, for same load, a higher emission of CO2 from biodiesel blends was recorded than pure diesel.

  20. Studying and optimizing the biodiesel production from mastic oil aided by ultrasonic using response surface method

    OpenAIRE

    B Hosseinzdeh Samani; E Fayyazi; B. Ghobadian; Rostami, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biodiesel is a promising renewable substitute source of fuel produced from tree born oils, vegetable based oils, fats of animals and even waste cooking oil, has been identified as one of the key solutions for the alarming global twin problems of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. One of the sources for biodiesel production is mastic which is often grown in mountains. Its kernel contains 55% oil which makes it as a valuable renewable resource for biodiesel pro...

  1. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of diesel and biodiesel exhaust extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract reports the results of studies assessing the relative DNA damage potential of extracts of exhaust particles resulting from the combustion of petroleum diesel, biodiesel, and petroleum diesel-biodiesel blends. Results indicate that the commercially available B20 petr...

  2. Soy Biodiesel Emissions Have Reduced Inflammatory Effects Compared to Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity of exhaust from combustion of petroleum diesel (BO), soy-based biodiesel (B100), or a 20% biodiesel/80% petrodiesel mix (B20) was compared in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Fuel emissions were diluted to target fine particulate matter (PM2.5) conrentrat...

  3. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure.

  4. Combustion Chemistry of Biodiesel for the Use in Urban Transport Buses: Experiment and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvarborna, Hamid

    Biofuels, such as biodiesel, offer benefits as a possible alternative to conventional fuels due to their fuel source sustainability and their reduced environmental impact. Before they can be used, it is essential to understand their combustion chemistry and emission characterizations due to a number of issues associated with them (e.g., high emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx), lower heating value than diesel, etc.). During this study, emission characterizations of different biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B50, and B100) were measured on three different feedstocks (soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO)) with various characteristics, while an ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was used as base fuel at low-temperature combustion (LTC). A laboratory combustion chamber was used to analyze soot formation, NOx emissions, while real engine emissions were measured for further investigation on PM and NOx emissions. For further study, carbon emissions (CO, CO 2, and CH4) were also measured to understand their relations with feedstocks' type. The emissions were correlated with fuel's characteristics, especially unsaturation degree (number of double bonds in methyl esters) and chain length (oxygen-to-carbon ratio). The experimental results obtained from laboratory experiments were confirmed by field experiments (real engines) collected from Toledo area regional transit authority (TARTA) buses. Combustion analysis results showed that the neat biodiesel fuels had longer ignition delays and lower ignition temperatures compared to ULSD at the tested condition. The results showed that biodiesel containing more unsaturated fatty acids emitted higher levels of NOx compared to biodiesel with more saturated fatty acids. A paired t-test on fuels showed that neat biodiesel fuels had significant reduction in the formation of NOx compared with ULSD. In another part of this study, biodiesel fuel with a high degree of unsaturation and high portion of long chains of

  5. Performance evaluation of a direct injection engine using different blends of soybeans methyl biodiesel; Avaliacao do desempenho de um motor de injecao direta utlizando diferentes misturas de biodiesel metilico de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietiedt, G.H.; Schlosser, J.F.; Uhry, D.; Casali, A.L.; Ribas, R.L. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)], email: gustavoheller@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The diesel fuel is used widely in the country and the world. However, growing environmental awareness leads to a larger demand for renewable energy resources. The pioneering in the use of ethanol makes Brazil also consolidate itself in the use of the biodiesel in larger scales, in replacement or as a blend with mineral diesel. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the use of soybeans methyl biodiesel blends and diesel in an ignition compression engine with fuel direct injection. The tests were performed on a dynamometer bench, using the blends B10, B20 and B100 in comparison to the commercial diesel (B5). The engine performance was analyzed by tractor power take off (PTO) for each fuel, and the best results obtained for the power and the specific fuel consumption, respectively, were: B5 (44,62 kW; 234,87 g/kW.h{sup -1}); B10 (44,73 kW; 233,78 g/kW.h{sup -1}); B20 (44,40 kW; 236,20 g/kW.h{sup -1}) e B100 (43,40 kW; 263,63 g/kW.h{sup -1}). The best performance happened on the use of B5 and B10 fuel, without significant differences between these blends. The B100 fuel showed significant differences compared to the other fuels. (author)

  6. A Comparative Characteristic Study of Jatropha and Cardanol Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhenthi, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Muthuraman, R. K.; Vivek, P.; Parthiban, A.

    2017-03-01

    The demand in fuel needs and the depleting fossil fuels raised the need towards bio-fuels. The emerging trend in research field is highly focused on biodiesel production and their characteristic analysis. Since pollution is a major threat to the environment, emission parameter analyses are much important to be concentrated. As the entire world contains plenty of biofuels, it is necessary to explore them for its efficiency and analyze their parameters. In this experimental work jatropha and cashew nut shell biodiesel (Cardanol) was extracted and they were blended with diesel. The characteristics of jatropha and cardanol biodiesel were studied in the DI diesel engine by varying the load at the same speed. In brief, this experimental analysis is carried out to compare the emission characteristics between Jatropha biodiesel at 20% (B20) and 40% (B40) and Cardanol biodiesel blends at 20% (C20) and 40% (C40).

  7. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  8. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  9. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Lumley, T.C.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2007-07-01

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  10. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    fixation of man country life, the excellent and varied climatic conditions and several types of terrain become the country, with extensive workable areas, stand out in the world scenery if considering its great potentiality on generation of alternative fuels. The environmental preservation, important subject nowadays, makes that the human being work in searches for the development of alternative energies, mainly those originating from renewable and biodegradable sources of sustantable character. Taking in consideration those searches, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of a diesel engine working in different moments with mineral diesel and mixtures of mineral diesel and biodiesel in the equivalent proportions B2 (98% mineral diesel and 2%biodiesel, B5 (95% mineral diesel and 5%biodiesel, B20 (80% mineral diesel and 20%biodiesel, and, finally, B100 (100% biodiesel. The rehearsal was accomplished in the dependences of the Engineering Department at UFLA - Federal University of Lavras, in Lavras, Minas Gerais, in July, 2005. For the accomplishment of the rehearsals it, was used an engine cycle diesel of a tractor VALMET 85 id, of 58,2kW (78 cv, following it methodology established by the norm NBR 5484 of ABNT (1985, that refers to the rehearsal dynamometric of engines cycle Otto and Diesel being proceeded. One noticed ended that the potency of the motor when using biodiesel was lower than one when using mineral diesel. One observed that, in some rotations, the mixtures B5 and B20 presented the same potency or even higher, in some situations, than the one when if using mineral diesel. The best thermal efficiency of the motor was verified in the rotation of 540 rpm of equivalent TDP to 1720 rpm of the motor.

  11. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of biodiesel from pests attacked corn oil; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica do biodiesel de oleo de milho danificado por pragas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabia M.; Correa, Paulo C.; Martins, Marcio A.; Santos, Silmara B.; Damian, Amanda D. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: copace@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br, syllmara@vicosa.ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The biodiesel is a renewable energy source alternative to fossil fuels. The biodiesel synthesis can be made by many types of triglycerides transesterification, it is possible to use this biofuel in vehicles if it has the quality required from Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP). Searching an application for pests attacked corn, there is feasibility technical for the biodiesel production from this corn oil. The biodiesel synthesis was made through ethyl transesterification process with alkaline catalyst using ethanol. The biodiesel physical-chemical characterization was performed using ANP methods. (author)

  13. Biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock: from strains to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yangmin; Jiang, Mulan

    2011-07-01

    Due to negative environmental influence and limited availability, petroleum-derived fuels need to be replaced by renewable biofuels. Biodiesel has attracted intensive attention as an important biofuel. Microalgae have numerous advantages for biodiesel production over many terrestrial plants. There are a series of consecutive processes for biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock, including selection of adequate microalgal strains, mass culture, cell harvesting, oil extraction and transesterification. To reduce the overall production cost, technology development and process optimization are necessary. Genetic engineering also plays an important role in manipulating lipid biosynthesis in microalgae. Many approaches, such as sequestering carbon dioxide from industrial plants for the carbon source, using wastewater for the nutrient supply, and maximizing the values of by-products, have shown a potential for cost reduction. This review provides a brief overview of the process of biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock. The methods associated with this process (e.g. lipid determination, mass culture, oil extraction) are also compared and discussed.

  14. Acute aqueous toxicities of diesel-biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Ho, N.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Harrison, S. [Science Applications International Corp., SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2008-07-01

    The renewed interest in biodiesels as a new transportation fuel was discussed. Although there are several advantages to using biodiesels, their environmental behaviours and effects need to be evaluated along with the risks associated with their use, such as accidental releases of these biodiesels to the environment. The wide variability of biodiesels may result in different toxicological impacts, depending on the fuel feedstock. This study evaluated the aqueous effects of biodiesels from several commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesel. Since most of the commercial uses of these products are currently focused on road-use, this study focused on the effects of these fuels in fresh-water. Biodiesels derived from soy, canola and waste restaurant oil feedstocks were used in the study. The acute toxicities of these biodiesels and biodiesel/petroleum diesel fuel blends were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, notably rainbow trout, the water flea, and a luminescent bacterium. The correlations between acute toxicity, water accommodated fractions (WAF) concentrations and fuel property data were examined. The study revealed that biodiesel is significantly less acutely toxic than petroleum diesels in potential ecological impacts. However, the biodiesel-diesel blends were found to be more acutely toxic than a linear dilution model predicts. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Study on Emission and Performance of Diesel Engine Using Castor Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2014-01-01

    performance of diesel engine using the castor biodiesel and its blend with diesel from 0% to 40% by volume. The acid-based catalyzed transesterification system was used to produce castor biodiesel and the highest yield of 82.5% was obtained under the optimized condition. The FTIR spectrum of castor biodiesel indicates the presence of C=O and C–O functional groups, which is due to the ester compound in biodiesel. The smoke emission test revealed that B40 (biodiesel blend with 40% biodiesel and 60% diesel had the least black smoke compared to the conventional diesel. Diesel engine performance test indicated that the specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blend was increased sufficiently when the blending ratio was optimized. Thus, the reduction in exhaust emissions and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of caster seed oil (B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution.

  16. Analyses of extracted biodiesel and petroleum diesel exhaust particle and the effects on endothelial cell toxicity and antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is a renewable energy source and is readily substituted in diesel engines. Combustion of biodiesel is cleaner due to the efficiency of the fuel to completely combust. Biodiesel combustion emissions contain less CO, PAHs, aldehydes, and particulate matter (PM) mas...

  17. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long...

  18. Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

  19. The Current Status of Biodiesel Production Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alamsyah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is addressed to the name of fuel which consist of mono-alkyl ester that made from renewable and biodegradable resources, such as oils from plants (vegetable oils, waste or used cooking oil, and animal fats. Such oils or fats are chemically reacted with alcohols or methanol In producing chernical compounds called fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and these reactions are called transesterification and esterification. Glycerol, used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry is produced from biodiesel production as a by-product. Researches on biodiesel as an alternative petroleum diesel have been done for more than 20 years. Transesterification reaction can be acid-catalyzed, alkali-catatyzed, or enzyme-catalyzed. Commercially biodiesel is processed by transesterification with alkali catalyst. This process, however, requires refining of products and recovery of catalysts, Such biodiesel production accelerates researches on biodiesel to obtain simpler methods, better quality. and minimum production cost. Besides the catalytic production for biodiesel, there is a method for biodiesel production namely non-catalytic production. Non-catalytic transesterification method was developed since catalytic tranestertfification still has two main problems assoclated With long reaction time and complicated purification. The first problem occurres because of the two phase nature of vegetable oil/methanol mixture, and the last problem is due to purification of catalyst and glycerol. The application of catalytic tranestertfication method leads to condition of high biodiesel production cost and high energy consumption. This paper provides information of biodiesel production progress namely catalytic tranestertfification (acid, alkali, and enzymatic tranesterfification, and non-catalytic tranesterification (at sub-critical­-supercritical temperature under pressurized conditions. It was found that every method of biodiesel production still has advantages and

  20. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  1. Processing Coconut Fiber and Shell to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Aulia Novita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on research conducted, liquid smoke coming from the husk and coconut shell containing 58-70% Methyl Ester as biodiesel-forming compounds. Then conducted research for the manufacture of methyl esters of liquid smoke based on differences in their boiling points. The purpose of this research is the development of tools producing liquid smoke, liquid smoke processing into biodiesel, biodiesel testing with the diesel engine and the determination of the proper blending between biodiesel. The method used in this study is a phase of making tools, raw material preparation, testing tools  for liquid smoke production, purification, separation of methyl esters and methyl esters testing by blending in diesel engines. Obtained from research conducted work capacity device of liquid smoke 1:22 kg / hour with a yield of 32.17%. Performance test  by blending biodiesel B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 and B100 with a 6.5 HP engine capable of running a diesel engine with performance that is not much different, more smoke clear, odorless and lighter engine speed.

  2. Perspectives of microbial oils for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Du, Wei; Liu, Dehua

    2008-10-01

    Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits, and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Generally speaking, biodiesel is prepared through transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with short chain alcohols. However, the lack of oil feedstocks limits the large-scale development of biodiesel to some extent. Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of microbial, oils and it has been found that many microorganisms, such as algae, yeast, bacteria, and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under some special cultivation conditions. Compared to other plant oils, microbial oils have many advantages, such as short life cycle, less labor required, less affection by venue, season and climate, and easier to scale up. With the rapid expansion of biodiesel, microbial oils might become one of potential oil feedstocks for biodiesel production in the future, though there are many works associated with microorganisms producing oils need to be carried out further. This review is covering the related research about different oleaginous microorganisms producing oils, and the prospects of such microbial oils used for biodiesel production are also discussed.

  3. BACTERIAL COMMUNITY DYNAMICS AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY BIODIESEL AND DIESEL/BIODIESEL BLENDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, G I; Junior, C S; Oliva, T C; Subtil, D F; Matsushita, L Y; Chaves, A L; Lutterbach, M T; Sérvulo, E F; Agathos, S N; Stenuit, B

    2015-01-01

    The gradual introduction of biodiesel in the Brazilian energy landscape has primarily occurred through its blending with conventional petroleum diesel (e.g., B20 (20% biodiesel) and B5 (5% biodiesel) formulations). Because B20 and lower-level blends generally do not require engine modifications, their use as transportation fuel is increasing in the Brazilian distribution networks. However, the environmental fate of low-level biodiesel blends and pure biodiesel (B100) is poorly understood and the ecotoxicological-safety endpoints of biodiesel-contaminated environments are unknown. Using laboratory microcosms consisting of closed reactor columns filled with clay loam soil contaminated with pure biodiesel (EXPB100) and a low-level blend (EXPB5) (10% w/v), this study presents soil ecotoxicity assessement and dynamics of culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Most-probable-number (MPN) procedures for enumeration of bacteria, dehydrogenase assays and soil ecotoxicological tests using Eisenia fetida have been performed at different column depths over the course of incubation. After 60 days of incubation, the ecotoxicity of EXPB100-derived samples showed a decrease from 63% of mortality to 0% while EXPB5-derived samples exhibited a reduction from 100% to 53% and 90% on the top and at the bottom of the reactor column, respectively. The dehydrogenase activity of samples from EXPB100 and EXPB5 increased significantly compared to pristine soil after 60 days of incubation. Growth of aerobic bacterial biomass was only observed on the top of the reactor column while the anaerobic bacteria exhibited significant growth at different column depths in EXPB100 and EXPB5. These preliminary results suggest the involvement of soil indigenous microbiota in the biodegradation of biodiesel and blends. However, GC-FID analyses for quantification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons and targeted sequencing of 16S rRNA tags using illumina platforms will provide important

  4. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards.

  5. Production of Biodiesel by Enzymatic Transesterification: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The research on the production of biodiesel has increased significantly in recent years because of the need for an alternative fuel which endows with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Plant oils, animal fats, microalgal oils and waste products such as animal rendering, fish processing waste and cooking oils have been employed as feedstocks for biodiesel production. In order to design an economically and environmentally sustainable biodiesel production process, a proper understanding of the factors affecting the process and their relative importance is necessary. Approach: A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of biodiesel production was carried out. Traditionally biodiesel has been produced using either acid or base catalysts. The multi-step purification of end products, wastewater treatment and energy demand of the conventional process has lead to search for alternative option for production of biodiesel. The use the enzyme lipase as a biocatalyst for the transesterification reaction step in biodiesel production has been extensively investigated. Lipase is produced by all living organisms and can be used intracellularly or extracellularly. Conclusion: To date, the most popular microbes used for their lipases have been filamentous fungi and recombinant bacteria. A summary of lipases used in transesterification and their optimum operating conditions is provided. In addition to the choice of lipase employed, factors which make the transesterification process feasible and ready for commercialization are: enzyme modification, the selection of feedstock and alcohol, use of common solvents, pretreatment of the lipase, alcohol to oil molar ratio, water activity/content and reaction temperature. Optimization of these parameters is necessary in order to reduce the cost of biodiesel production. Use of no/low cost waste materials as feedstocks will have double environmental benefits by reducing the

  6. Use of Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.

  7. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Sia, S.Y.; Fazal, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 C, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature. (author)

  8. 15 CFR 8b.20 - Admission and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission and recruitment. 8b.20... Secondary Education § 8b.20 Admission and recruitment. (a) General. Qualified handicapped may not, on the basis of handicap, be denied admission or be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment by...

  9. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... disclosure requirements of the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), is information referred to in 18...

  10. Biodiesel and its properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a bio-based alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It consists mainly of the fatty acid esters of vegetable oils or other triacylglycerol feedstocks. This chapter provides a background on biodiesel as well as an overview of biodiesel production, analysis, and pr...

  11. Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid, enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods for possible consideration of research. Conclusion: Concerning the importance of this vegetable oil, the contribution of palm oil towards diminution of fossil fuel, possible methods for the production of biodiesel and the opportunity for the futures is very much important.

  12. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications. This study investigates the influence of biodiesel blend on the characteristics of residual and distillate marine fuels. Adequate correlation equations are applied to calculate the fuel properties of the blended marine fuels with biodiesel. Residual marine fuel RMA has inferior fuel ch...

  13. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Yang Yu; Liang-Yu Huang; I-Ching Kuan; Shiow-Ling Lee

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipa...

  14. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  15. Market penetration of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk, Bruce A. McCarl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel #2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG was used to predict market penetration of biodiesel, given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and carbon dioxide equivalent prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, diesel fuel prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel industry. The higher the diesel fuel prices, the more biodiesel is produced. However, given the most favorable circumstances, the maximum biodiesel market penetration is 9% in 2030 with a wholesale diesel price of $4 per gallon. Second, the two dominant sources of biodiesel are from corn and soybeans. Sources like tallow and yellow grease are more limited, because they are byproducts of other industries. Third, GHG prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel prices, because biodiesel is quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on biodiesel production, and increase market penetration at least an additional 3%.

  16. Market penetration of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R. [Department of Economics, Orbita 3, Suleyman Demirel University, Almaty, 050043 (Kazakhstan); McCarl, Bruce A. [Department of Agricultural Economics, 2124 TAMU, Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel number 2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG was used to predict market penetration of biodiesel, given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and carbon dioxide equivalent prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, diesel fuel prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel industry. The higher the diesel fuel prices, the more biodiesel is produced. However, given the most favorable circumstances, the maximum biodiesel market penetration is 9% in 2030 with a wholesale diesel price of $4 per gallon. Second, the two dominant sources of biodiesel are from corn and soybeans. Sources like tallow and yellow grease are more limited, because they are byproducts of other industries. Third, GHG prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel prices, because biodiesel is quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on biodiesel production, and increase market penetration at least an additional 3%.

  17. The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M., E-mail: jmarchetti@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Camino La Carrindanga km 7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of the mayor economic parameters for biodiesel production. {yields} Variations of profitability of a biodiesel plant due to changes in the market scenarios. {yields} Comparison of economic indicators of a biodiesel production facility when market variables are modified. - Abstract: Biodiesel appears as one of the possible alternative renewable fuels to substitute diesel fuel derived from petroleum. Several researches have been done on the technical aspects of biodiesel production in an attempt to develop a better and cleaner alternative to the conventional process. Economic studies have been carried out to have a better understanding of the high costs and benefits of different technologies in the biodiesel industry. In this work it is studied the effect of the most important economic variables of a biodiesel production process over the general economy of a conventional plant which employs sodium methoxide as catalyst. It has been analyzed the effect of the oil price, the amount of free fatty acid, the biodiesel price, the cost of the glycerin, the effect due to the modification on the methanol price, the washing water price, and several others. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases.

  18. Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusuf, N.N.A.N. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kamarudin, S.K., E-mail: ctie@eng.ukm.m [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaakub, Z. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Various method for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil were reviewed. {yields} Such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. {yields} The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. {yields} Finally, the economics of biodiesel production was discussed using Malaysia as a case study. -- Abstract: The finite nature of fossil fuels necessitates consideration of alternative fuels from renewable sources. The term biofuel refers to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, biodiesel and biohydrogen. Biodiesel, defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. Here, we review the various methods for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil, such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. Finally, we analyze the economics of biodiesel production using Malaysia as a case study.

  19. Environmental accounting of biodiesel from soybeans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, T.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    As nonrenewable energy sources are depleted globally new sources of energy are becoming necessary. One option that has been explored in recent years is biodiesel production using agricultural products such as soybeans. The emergy accounting method gives value to environmental flows of energy and it quantifies the total amount of energy that has gone in to a product. Also, it provides an inventory of inputs and outputs that can be used to analyze what, if any, types of changes can be made to specific processes within the production as well as improvements in the efficiency of the system as a whole in order to increase the viability of biodiesel as a fuel source. This evaluation uses the concept of emergy to quantify the costs and returns of biodiesel production. This study showed that, currently in the typical production system in the US, biodiesel is not competitive to fossil fuel sources regarding energy providing. But, considering the depletion of the latter source it may become part of source for society. For biodiesel from soybean oil to become more energetically competitive the agricultural production has to be improved since it demands more than 80% of the used resources. Within the soybean production, topsoil loss was responsible for more than 40% which also negatively affects the renewability of this energy source. (author)

  20. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  1. Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Response after Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is an advanced fuel produced from renewable domestic sources. The broad uses of BD in different industries including mining may lead to potential health effects. We hypothesized that the toxicity of biodiesel exhaust (BDE) is dependent at least on three major mecha...

  2. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  3. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-01-01

      Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications...

  4. Experiments on combustion and emission particulate size distribution characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with methanol-blending biodiesel fuel%甲醇-调合生物柴油燃烧及排放微粒粒径分布特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜家益; 李俊; 张登攀; 赵小明; 吴培振; 袁银男

    2016-01-01

    . Burning diesel mixed with methanol could improve combustion and reduce the emissions of particles, but the physicochemical properties of diesel and methanol are greatly different, and they are mutually immiscible. Generally, forming micro-emulsion fuels by mixing them with cosolvent is the most efficient way. At present, a series of achievements have been gained at home and abroad, but the researches about using the mixture of methanol and biodiesel are still few, especially about the size distribution of fine particles. As a kind of green renewable energy, biodiesel can improve the emission characteristics of engine; also, it could contribute to the formation of methanol-blending biodiesel micro-emulsion fuel. With the use of combustion analyzer and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer 3090 spectrometer, the combustion process and the particulate number concentration distribution characteristics were studied with a diesel engine fuelled with methanol-blending biodiesel micro-emulsion fuel. Results showed that compared to the engine fuelled with blending biodiesel B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel in volume fraction), the in-cylinder pressure, pressure rise rate and heat release rate curves for the engine fuelled with methanol-blending biodiesel micro-emulsion fuel were obviously retarded, and the maximum pressure rise rate and heat release rate increased; the particle presented nuclei mode and the size was mostly between 6 and 22 nm at low load, and the total number of nuclei mode particles showed that the B20 fuel was the most, followed by B20M5 (95% B20 and 5% methanol in volume fraction), B20M10 (90% B20 and 10% methanol in volume fraction) and B20M15 (85% B20 and 15% methanol in volume fraction) in order; at high load, the particulate number concentration distribution was unimodal with the size between 6 and 275 nm, the particle morphology was accumulation mode, and the peak of particulate size distribution was around 100 nm. The total particle numbers of nuclei mode

  5. [Biodiesel-fuel: content, production, producers, contemporary biotechnology (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilova, E P; Sergeeva, Ia E; Ivashechkin, A A

    2010-01-01

    The necessity of expanding studies on producing renewable biofuel is reviewed. Special attention is given to biodiesel, the history of its creation, and its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with diesel-fuel. The main part of the review is devoted to an analysis of diesel biofuel on the basis of bacterial lipids, filamentous fungi, yeasts, plants, photo- and heterotrophic algae. Biodiesel on the basis of filamentous fungi is studied in detail and the possibility of creation of the most perspective biotechnology using these producers is grounded. The contemporary state of biotechnology in Russia is discussed in connection with the development of energetics based on renewable biofuels.

  6. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  7. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  8. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-07-15

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions.

  9. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  10. Biodiesel at TRANSPETRO; Biodiesel na TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Machado, Tupinamba da Conceicao S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    TRANSPETRO took the challenge, in early 2007, to design and install in less than one year, the systems of injection of Biodiesel in its Distribution Bases with loading truck. The basics premises, adopted for the development of the project, were based on the criteria of safety, operational reliability and to complying with legal deadline. These points guided the actions of Coordinating with two goals: Ensure the injection of Biodiesel according to time by law and the future flexibility of the system. Two to three sets were installed in each Distribution Base, respecting the characteristics of the market and the distance from centers producers of Biodiesel. TRANSPETRO was one of the first companies in Brazil using cutting-edge technology in injection of this product through the use of digital valves in the control of flow of the product. Sum up the storage capacity of Biodiesel the first and second phase of the project, TRANSPETRO will provide 8 to 10 days' stock of Biodiesel to its customers based on the injection of 5% to Diesel Oil. The Project Biodiesel at TRANSPETRO was differentiated by working in teams, the strategy for deployment and the modular aspect with focus on future demand. (author)

  11. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Identifying Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran D. Ristovski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, biodiesel produced from oilseed crops and animal fat is receiving much attention as a renewable and sustainable alternative for automobile engine fuels, and particularly petroleum diesel. However, current biodiesel production is heavily dependent on edible oil feedstocks which are unlikely to be sustainable in the longer term due to the rising food prices and the concerns about automobile engine durability. Therefore, there is an urgent need for researchers to identify and develop sustainable biodiesel feedstocks which overcome the disadvantages of current ones. On the other hand, artificial neural network (ANN modeling has been successfully used in recent years to gain new knowledge in various disciplines. The main goal of this article is to review recent literatures and assess the state of the art on the use of ANN as a modeling tool for future generation biodiesel feedstocks. Biodiesel feedstocks, production processes, chemical compositions, standards, physio-chemical properties and in-use performance are discussed. Limitations of current biodiesel feedstocks over future generation biodiesel feedstock have been identified. The application of ANN in modeling key biodiesel quality parameters and combustion performance in automobile engines is also discussed. This review has determined that ANN modeling has a high potential to contribute to the development of renewable energy systems by accelerating biodiesel research.

  12. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  13. Prospects of biodiesel production from microalgae in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shakeel A.; Hussain, Mir Z.; Prasad, S. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rashmi; Banerjee, U.C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Biotechnology), National Institute of Pharmaceutical and Education Research (NIPER), Sector 67, Phase X, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali 160062, Punjab (India)

    2009-12-15

    Energy is essential and vital for development, and the global economy literally runs on energy. The use of fossil fuels as energy is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and also due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment. Renewable and carbon neutral biodiesel are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel demand is constantly increasing as the reservoir of fossil fuel are depleting. Unfortunately biodiesel produced from oil crop, waste cooking oil and animal fats are not able to replace fossil fuel. The viability of the first generation biofuels production is however questionable because of the conflict with food supply. Production of biodiesel using microalgae biomass appears to be a viable alternative. The oil productivity of many microalgae exceeds the best producing oil crops. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms which convert sunlight, water and CO{sub 2} to sugars, from which macromolecules, such as lipids and triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be obtained. These TAGs are the promising and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Microalgal biorefinery approach can be used to reduce the cost of making microalgal biodiesel. Microalgal-based carbon sequestration technologies cover the cost of carbon capture and sequestration. The present paper is an attempt to review the potential of microalgal biodiesel in comparison to the agricultural crops and its prospects in India. (author)

  14. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has been used as a source of heat for the transesterification reaction. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for microwave heating of the reactants. The time taken for biodiesel production using microwave irradiation was 1 min. The fuel property analysis shows that the properties of jatropha oil biodiesel satisfy the biodiesel standards, and are close to the fossil diesel standards. From this work, it is concluded that biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation, with a significant reduction in production time.

  15. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Liaquat, A.M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Husnawan, M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Syiah Kuala, Jl. S. Abd. Rauf No. 7, Darussalam - Banda Aceh (Indonesia)

    2011-01-15

    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (author)

  16. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Font de Mora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO is one of the most sustainable solutions to replace conventional fossil fuels in the transport sector. It can achieve greenhouse gas savings up to 88% and at the same time reducing the disposal of a polluting waste. In addition, it does not provoke potential negative impacts that conventional biofuels may eventually cause linked to the use of arable land. For this reason, most policy frameworks favor its consumption. This is the case of the EU policy that double-counters the use of residue and waste use to achieve the renewable energy target in the transport sector. According to different sources, biodiesel produced from UCO could replace around 1.5%–1.8% of the EU-27 diesel consumption. This paper presents an in-depth thermoeconomic analysis of the UCO biodiesel life cycle to understand its cost formation process. It calculates the ExROI value (exergy return on investment and renewability factor, and it demonstrates that thermoeconomics is a useful tool to assess life cycles of renewable energy systems. It also shows that UCO life cycle biodiesel production is more sustainable than biodiesel produced from vegetable oils.

  17. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  18. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: Revealing facts and benefits for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Kian Fei; Tan, Kok Tat; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-11-15

    Similarity between the properties of biodiesel and petroleum-derived diesel has made the former one of the most promising alternatives to a renewable and sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. In Malaysia, palm oil can be a suitable feedstock for the production of biodiesel due to its abundant availability and low production cost. However, not many assessments have been carried out regarding the impacts of palm biodiesel on the environment. Hence, in this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for palm biodiesel in order to investigate and validate the popular belief that palm biodiesel is a green and sustainable fuel. The LCA study was divided into three main stages, namely agricultural activities, oil milling and transesterification process for the production of biodiesel. For each stage, the energy balance and green house gas assessments were presented and discussed. These are important data for the techno-economical and environmental feasibility evaluation of palm biodiesel. The results obtained for palm biodiesel were then compared with rapeseed biodiesel. From this study, it was found that the utilization of palm biodiesel would generate an energy yield ratio of 3.53 (output energy/input energy), indicating a net positive energy generated and ensuring its sustainability. The energy ratio for palm biodiesel was found to be more than double that of rapeseed biodiesel which was estimated to be only 1.44, thereby indicating that palm oil would be a more sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production as compared to rapeseed oil. Moreover, combustion of palm biodiesel was found to be more environment-friendly than petroleum-derived-diesel as a significant 38% reduction of CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved per liter combusted. (author)

  19. Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Kelapa Menggunakan Microwave : Penggunaan Katalis KOH dengan Konsentrasi Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gus Ali Nur Rohman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pembuatan methyl ester (biodiesel dari minyak kelapa dengan katalis KOH dengan bantuan gelombang mikro (microwave di latar belakangi oleh adanya krisis energi sehingga memerlukan metode baru untuk membuat renewable energy dalam hal ini adalah biodiesel. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mempelajari proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan metode radiasi microwave, pengaruh konsentrasi katalis KOH, pengaruh daya, waktu pemanasan yang digunakan terhadap yield dan viskositas biodiesel yang dihasilkan. Pembuatan methyl ester (biodiesel dari minyak kelapa dilakukan dengan perbandingan mol minyak : metanol = 1 : 9. Biodiesel yang dihasilkan kemudian dianalisa dengan uji viskositas, uji flash point, dan uji gas chromatography (GC. Yield optimum pada pembuatan methyl ester dari minyak kelapa dengan metode microwave-assisted transesterification untuk katalis KOH adalah konsentrasi 0,5% dengan daya 400 watt dan waktu reaksi 4 menit.

  20. A novel microalgal lipid extraction method using biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Can; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2017-02-01

    Although microalgae are considered promising renewable sources of biodiesel, the high cost of the downstream process is a significant obstacle in large-scale biodiesel production. In this study, a novel approach for microalgal biodiesel production was developed by using the biodiesel as an extractant. First, wet microalgae with 70% water content were incubated with a mixture of biodiesel/methanol and penetration of the mixture through the cell membrane and swelling of the lipids contained in microalgae was confirmed. Significant increases of lipid droplets were observed by confocal microscopy. Second, the swelled lipid droplets in microalgae were squeezed out using mechanical stress across the cell membrane and washed with methanol. The lipid extraction efficiency reached 68%. This process does not require drying of microalgae or solvent recovery, which the most energy-intensive step in solvent-based biodiesel production.

  1. Improvement of engine emissions with conventional diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Akhter, Md Shamim; Zaglul Shahadat, Mhia Md

    2006-02-01

    In this report combustion and exhaust emissions with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends have been investigated. In the investigation, firstly biodiesel from non-edible neem oil has been made by esterification. Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is chemically known as mono-alkyl fatty acid ester. It is renewable in nature and is derived from plant oils including vegetable oils. BDF is non-toxic, biodegradable, recycled resource and essentially free from sulfur and carcinogenic benzene. In the second phase of this investigation, experiment has been conducted with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends in a four stroke naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Compared with conventional diesel fuel, diesel-biodiesel blends showed lower carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. However, compared with the diesel fuel, NOx emission with diesel-biodiesel blends was slightly reduced when EGR was applied.

  2. Study about the particularities of biodiesel in Brazil; Estudo sobre as particularidades do biodiesel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcia Franca Ribeiro Fernandes dos [Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Peixoto, Jose Antonio Assuncao; Souza, Cristina Gomes de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The environmental concern associated with the impending shortage of oil, which is pressing to raise the price of the barrel, has forced governments and society to seek alternatives that will replace the use of fossil fuels. The biodiesel, in particular, has been set up as an alternative energy by it of fuel come from renewable sources, and less polluting the environment. In this context, the objective of this article is to present some features of the production of biodiesel in Brazil, identifying the characteristics of the main oil used, as well as regional motivations for the use of biodiesel in Brazil. The methodology adopted in this study was exploratory in nature based on a literature search and documentary from a survey of information available in literature. The main results, the article points out that: unlike alcohol, which is in sugar cane their ideal raw material, biodiesel is still in a stage of intensive research and development in order to identify the most appropriate its oil production - with emphasis on soybean and castor bean, and the motivations for regional use of biodiesel are different for the Brazilian regions. The study aims to contribute to the discussion on the subject, emphasizing that technological research should be directed taking into consideration the conditions and needs of Brazil. (author)

  3. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  4. Biodegradation of diesel/biodiesel blends in saturated sand microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisiecki, Piotr; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Szulc, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the biodegradation extent of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions in saturated sandy microcosm spiked with diesel/biodiesel blends (D, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, B60, B70, B80, B90 and B100, where D is commercial petroleum diesel fuel and B...... is commercial biodiesel blend) augmented with a bacterial consortium of petroleum degraders. The biodegradation kinetics for blends were evaluated based on measuring the amount of emitted CO2 after 578 days. Subsequently, the residual aromatic and aliphatic fractions were separated and determined by employing...... GC-FID and GC _ GC–TOF-MS. Additionally, the influence of biodiesel-amendment on the community dynamics was assessed based on the results of real-time PCR analyzes. Our results suggest that the biodegradation extents of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon were uninfluenced by the addition...

  5. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office's (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  6. Cetane Number of Biodiesel from Karaya Oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wasfi, Bayan

    2017-04-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel alternative to petroleum Diesel, biodiesel has similar characteristic but with lesser exhaust emission. In this study, transesterification of Karaya oil is examined experimentally using a batch reactor at 100-140°C and 5 bar in subcritical methanol conditions, residence time from 10 to 20 minutes, using a mass ratio 6 methanol-to-vegetable oil. Methanol is used for alcoholysis and sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. Experiments varied the temperature and pressure, observing the effect on the yield and reaction time. In addition, biodiesel from corn oil was created and compared to biodiesel from karaya oil. Kinetic model proposed. The model estimates the concentration of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and methyl esters during the reaction. The experiments are carried out at temperatures of 100°C and above. The conversion rate and composition of methyl esters produced from vegetable oils are determined by Gas Chromatography Analysis. It was found that the higher the temperature, the higher reaction rate. Highest yield is 97% at T=140°C achieved in 13 minutes, whereas at T=100°C yield is 68% in the same time interval. Ignition Quality Test (IQT) was utilized for determination of the ignition delay time (IDT) inside a combustion chamber. From the IDT cetane number CN inferred. In case of corn oil biodiesel, the IDT = 3.5 mS, leading to a CN = 58. Whereas karaya oil biodiesel showed IDT = 2.4 mS, leading to a CN = 97. The produced methyl esters were also characterized by measurements of viscosity (υ), density (ρ), flash point (FP) and heat of combustion (HC). The following properties observed: For corn biodiesel, υ = 8.8 mPa-s, ρ = 0.863 g/cm3, FP = 168.8 °C, and HC = 38 MJ/kg. For karaya biodiesel, υ = 10 mPa-s, ρ = 0.877 g/cm3, FP = 158.2 °C, and HC = 39 MJ/kg.

  7. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  8. Low-Cost feedstock conversion to biodiesel via ultrasound technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Babajide, O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have...

  9. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Karmee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-02-18

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  11. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  12. Recent trends, opportunities and challenges of biodiesel in Malaysia: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Steven; Teong, Lee Keat [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-04-15

    Energy supply and its security issues have been the topic of interest lately. With growing environmental awareness about the negative implications brought by excessive usage of fossil fuels, the race for finding alternative energy as their substitutions is getting heated up. For now, renewable energy from biodiesel has been touted as one of the most promising substitutions for petroleum-derived diesel. Combustion of biodiesel as fuel is more environment-friendly while retaining most of the positive engine properties of petroleum-derived diesel. Production of biodiesel is also a proven technology with established commercialization activities. The huge potential of biodiesel coupled with the abundance of palm oil which is one of the most cost-effective feedstocks for biodiesel is responsible for the pledging of Malaysia to become the leading producer of high quality biodiesel in the region. Currently, total approved installed capacity of biodiesel production in Malaysia equals to almost 92% of the world biodiesel production output in 2008. While Malaysia does indeed possessed materials, technologies and marketing superiority to vie for that position, many more challenges are still awaiting. The price restriction, provisions controversy, escalating non-tariff trade barriers and negligible public support need to be addressed appropriately. In this review, Malaysia's previous and current position in global biodiesel market, its future potential towards the prominent leading biodiesel status and major disrupting obstacles are being discussed. The feasibility of utilizing algae as the up-and-coming biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia is also under scrutiny. Lastly, several recommendations on the roles played by three major forces in Malaysia's biodiesel industry are presented to tackle the shortcomings in achieving the coveted status by Malaysia. It is hope that Malaysia's progress in biodiesel industry will not only benefit itself but rather as the role model

  13. BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK NYAMPLUNG TEROZONISASI MELALUI ESTERIFIKASI DAN TRANSESTERIFIKASI DENGAN BANTUAN GELOMBANG ULTRASONIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Haryono

    2016-10-01

      Fuel from petroleum is the most dominant source of energy used and is non-renewable. This causes the reduction in fossil fuel reserves. It encourages the development of alternative renewable fuels such as biodiesel. The purpose of this study was to synthesize biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil through esterification and transesterification process with the help of ozonation and ultrasonic waves. Ozonation is performed for 30 minutes, while the transesterification reaction is aided by ultrasonic wave frequency variation 28 and 35 kHz respectively for 30 minutes. The results showed that the use of ultrasonic waves with frequency of 35 kHz in the transesterification reaction to the ozonized Calophyllum inophyllum oil from esterification reaction produced biodiesel relatively accordance with the standards of biodiesel Indonesia. Biodiesel produced in these conditions have the acid value of 0.70 mgKOH/g biodiesel, iodine number 50.34 g I2/100 g, the flash point of 122.4°C, cetana numbers of 102.5, density of 0.9088 g/cm3, and a viscosity of 9.5 cSt. Biodiesel yield that obtained from the best synthesis condition is 77.0%.   Keywords:   biodiesel, Calophyllum inophyllum oil, ozonation, transesterification, ultrasonic.

  14. Effect of poultry fat oil biodiesel on tractor engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bavafa

    2016-04-01

    (Fig.3. Its measuring range is 37-1537 ml min-1. Results and Discussion: The engine performance was evaluated in terms of engine power, engine torque and specific fuel consumption at different engine speeds. The variation of engine torques with B5, B10, B15, B20 and diesel fuel are presented in Fig. 4. The engine torque for biodiesel blends was more than that by diesel fuel only. The mean engine torques for B5, B10, B15 and B20 were 2.5%, 2.8%, 3%, and 3.5% higher than that by only diesel, respectively. This is due to the better combustion of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. The variation of engine powers with B5, B10, B15, B20 and diesel fuel are presented in Fig. 5. The engine powers for biodiesel blends were more than that by diesel fuel. The mean engine powers for B5, B10, B15 and B20 were higher than that by diesel by 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, and 4%, respectively. This is because of good combustion of biodiesel resulted from higher oxygen content. The mean specific fuel consumptions for B5, B10, B15 and B20 were higher than diesel fuel about 4.1%, 7%, 8.8%, and 2%, respectively (Fig. 8. The density of biodiesel was higher than that of diesel fuel, which means the same fuel consumption on volume basis results in higher specific fuel consumption in case of biodiesel. Conclusions: The values of viscosity, density and flash point of poultry fat oil biodiesel were found to be closely matched with ASTM D-6751 standard specifications. Viscosity and density of biodiesel were found more than those for diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel was found to be lower than that of diesel. Poultry fat oil biodiesel cannot be used as a neat diesel fuel in cold weather conditions due to its relatively low cloud point. Preheating and lowering freezing point is required to eliminate this problem. The engine performance with poultry fat oil biodiesel and its blends are comparable with those of pure diesel fuel. Results indicated that B20 blend had the best performance and the lowest

  15. Impact of Various Compression Ratio on the Compression Ignition Engine with Diesel and Jatropha Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaganesan, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Ruban, M.

    2017-03-01

    The present experimental investigation evaluates the effects of using blends of diesel fuel with 20% concentration of Methyl Ester of Jatropha biodiesel blended with various compression ratio. Both the diesel and biodiesel fuel blend was injected at 23º BTDC to the combustion chamber. The experiment was carried out with three different compression ratio. Biodiesel was extracted from Jatropha oil, 20% (B20) concentration is found to be best blend ratio from the earlier experimental study. The engine was maintained at various compression ratio i.e., 17.5, 16.5 and 15.5 respectively. The main objective is to obtain minimum specific fuel consumption, better efficiency and lesser Emission with different compression ratio. The results concluded that full load show an increase in efficiency when compared with diesel, highest efficiency is obtained with B20MEOJBA with compression ratio 17.5. It is noted that there is an increase in thermal efficiency as the blend ratio increases. Biodiesel blend has performance closer to diesel, but emission is reduced in all blends of B20MEOJBA compared to diesel. Thus this work focuses on the best compression ratio and suitability of biodiesel blends in diesel engine as an alternate fuel.

  16. Effects of concentration and temperature on tribological properties of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xing Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For tribologists, continuing challenges in engine design include reduced emissions and increased operating temperatures. Regulating the sulfur content in diesel fuel is expected to reduce the lubricity of these fuels, which may result in increased wear and damage of fuel injection systems in diesel engines. However, the use of biodiesel improves lubricity and cetane number requirements, particularly in ultra-low sulfur petro-diesel. In this study, the effect of temperature on the tribological properties of palm biodiesel was investigated using a wear machine. Palm biodiesel was used as a lubricating additive to petro-diesel at six concentrations of 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, and 100%, and these biodiesel blends were named as B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, and B100, respectively. The tribological experiments were performed using the ball-on-ring method. Tests were conducted at 30°C, 60°C, 90°C, and 120°C, under a normal load of 50 N for 2 h and at a speed of 500 r/min. The wear scar diameter and the worn surface of tribopairs were studied and analyzed. According to the wear experimental results, the addition of a small amount of palm biodiesel to petroleum diesel can bring about a considerable reduction in the wear and friction under boundary lubrication. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature.

  17. BIODIESELS AS A FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Babić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As of July 1st 2013. the Republic of Croatia will be a member of the European Union, which will primarily bring necessary harmonisation of ecological standards and requirements. Biodiesel, as a renewable source of energy, can be produced from algae, vegetable oil, and animal fats, and thus it is biodegradable. Biodiesel in Croatia is mainly produced from oilseed rape which, as an agricultural plant, has an increasing share in the past three years and records positive trends. This paper analyses the trend of production in the Republic of Croatia, and compares it with the production and consumption of fossil fuels. On the grounds of Croatia’s favourable agriculture-related climatic characteristics, in particular in the region of Slavonija and Baranja, more intense exploitation of farm land under the cultures intended for biodiesel production can be organised aiming at bumper yield and production. Croatia has already harmonised its standards of production of biodiesel, and by 2020 the consumption of biodiesel is bound to reach 20%. The data used in this paper are obtained from the sources available by Croatian Institute of Statistics, Market Information System in Agriculture, as well as Eurostat, and the rest used here are translated from the sources in the English language. The reviewed are the surfaces planted with oilseed rape in the period between 2007. and 2011., an average yield, and overall production. On the grounds of available information, the calculations of the quantity of bio fuel to be consumed in Croatia by 2020. and the percentage of the land surfaces planted with oilseed rape have been made.

  18. Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Babajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels to renewable sources (biofuels. This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications.

  19. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  20. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  1. Biodiesel from lignocellulosic biomass--prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Abu

    2012-11-01

    Biodiesel can be a potential alternative to petroleum diesel, but its high production cost has impeded its commercialization in most parts of the world. One of the main drivers for the generation and use of biodiesel is energy security, because this fuel can be produced from locally available resources, thereby reducing the dependence on imported oil. Many countries are now trying to produce biodiesel from plant or vegetable oils. However, the consumption of large amounts of vegetable oils for biodiesel production could result in a shortage in edible oils and cause food prices to soar. Alternatively, the use of animal fat, used frying oils, and waste oils from restaurants as feedstock could be a good strategy to reduce the cost. However, these limited resources might not meet the increasing demand for clean, renewable fuels. Therefore, recent research has been focused the use of residual materials as renewable feedstock in order to lower the cost of producing biodiesel. Microbial oils or single cell oils (SCOs), produced by oleaginous microorganisms have been studied as promising alternatives to vegetable or seed oils. Various types of agro-industrial residues have been suggested as prospective nutritional sources for microbial cultures. Since the most abundant residue from agricultural crops is lignocellulosic biomass (LCB), this byproduct has been given top-priority consideration as a source of biomass for producing biodiesel. But the biological transformation of lignocellulosic materials is complicated due to their crystalline structure. So, pretreatment is required before they can be converted into fermentable sugar. This article compares and scrutinizes the extent to which various microbes can accumulate high levels of lipids as functions of the starting materials and the fermentation conditions. Also, the obstacles associated with the use of LCB are described, along with a potentially viable approach for overcoming the obstacles that currently preclude the

  2. Diesel and biodiesel exhaust particle effects on rat alveolar machrophages with in vitro exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted in vitro exposures of Wistar rat alveolar macrophages (AM) to compare and contrast the toxicity of particulate matter (PM) produced in combustion of biodiesel blend (B20) and petroleum diesel (PDEP). The PM contain detectable levels of transition metals and ions howe...

  3. Diesel and biodiesel exhaust particle effects on rat alveolar machrophages with in vitro exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted in vitro exposures of Wistar rat alveolar macrophages (AM) to compare and contrast the toxicity of particulate matter (PM) produced in combustion of biodiesel blend (B20) and petroleum diesel (PDEP). The PM contain detectable levels of transition metals and ions howe...

  4. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications. This study investigates the influence of biodiesel blend on the characteristics of residual and distillate marine fuels. Adequate correlation equations are applied to calculate the fuel properties of the blended marine fuels with biodiesel. Residual marine fuel RMA has inferior fuel characteristics compared with distillate marine fuel DMA and biodiesel. The flash point of marine fuel RMA could be increased by 20% if blended with 20 vol% biodiesel. The sulfur content of residual marine fuel could meet the requirement of the 2008 MARPOL Annex VI Amendment by blending it with 23.0 vol% biodiesel. In addition, the kinematic viscosity of residual marine fuel could be reduced by 12.9% and the carbon residue by 23.6% if 20 vol% and 25 vol% biodiesel are used, respectively. Residual marine fuel blended with 20 vol% biodiesel decreases its lower heating value by 1.9%. Moreover, the fuel properties of residual marine fuel are found to improve more significantly with biodiesel blending than those of distillate marine fuel.

  5. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mohite

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel resources are being depleted day by day and its use affects the environment adversely. Renewable energy is one of the alternate for sustainable development and biodiesel is one of the suitable alternate which can replace the diesel. The major hurdles in the successful commercialization of biodiesel are high feedstock cost and conversion technology to reduce viscosity. The choice of raw material and biodiesel production method must depend upon techno-economical view. There are some specific regions for different types of oil availability. It is therefore required to produce biodiesel from the mixture of oils to fulfill the requirements of energy demand in a particular country according to its suitability and availability of feedstock. Karanja and Linseed crops  are abundantly available in India. Biodiesel was produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils by alkaline transesterification. In this experimental study, biodiesel blends of 10%, 20% and 30% were used with diesel in a diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm with varying brake powers (loads from 0.5 kW to 3.5kW to evaluate brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption,  brake specific energy consumption, exhaust gas temperature, mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, air fuel ratio and smoke opacity. They were compared with diesel and found satisfactory. BTE was found to be  28.76% for B10 at 3.5kW load.  Smoke opacity was also found to be reduced with all blends. Smoke opacity was found to be reduced up to 10.23% for B10 biodiesel blend as compared to that of diesel at 3.5kW. Experimental investigation  has revealed that  biodiesel produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils can be successfully used in diesel engines without any engine modification  and B10 was found to be an optimum biodiesel blend in terms of brake thermal efficiency. Article History: Received April 14th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted

  6. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Biodiesel Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedi...

  7. Potency of Microalgae as Biodiesel Source in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Within 20 years, Indonesia should find another energy alternative to substitute current fossil oil. Current use of renewable energy is only 5% and need to be improved up to 17% of our energy mix program. Even though, most of the area in Indonesia is covered by sea, however the utilization of microalgae as biofuel production is still limited. The biodiesel from current sources (Jatropha, palm oil, and sorghum is still not able to cover all the needs if the fossil oil cannot be explored anymore. In this paper, the potency of microalgae in Indonesia was analysed as the new potential of energy (biodiesel sources.

  8. Potency of Microalgae as Biodiesel Source in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within 20 years, Indonesia should find another energy alternative to substitutecurrent fossil oil. Current use of renewable energy is only 5% and need to be improved up to 17%of our energy mix program. Even though, most of the area in Indonesia is covered by sea, howeverthe utilization of microalgae as biofuel production is still limited. The biodiesel from currentsources (Jatropha, palm oil, and sorghum is still not able to cover all the needs if the fossil oilcannot be explored anymore. In this paper, the potency of microalgae in Indonesia was analysed asthe new potential of energy (biodiesel sources.

  9. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  10. Business management for biodiesel producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerpen, Jon Van [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The material in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about the biodiesel and liquid fuels industry, biodiesel start-up issues, legal and regulatory issues, and operational concerns.

  11. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2009-03-01

    With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

  12. Aerosols and criteria gases in an underground mine that uses FAME biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Janisko, Samuel J; Cauda, Emanuele G; Patts, Larry D; Hummer, Jon A; Westover, Charles; Terrillion, Troy

    2014-10-01

    The contribution of heavy-duty haulage trucks to the concentrations of aerosols and criteria gases in underground mine air and the physical properties of those aerosols were assessed for three fuel blends made with fatty acid methyl esters biodiesel and petroleum-based ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD). The contributions of blends with 20, 50, and 57% of biodiesel as well as neat ULSD were assessed using a 30-ton truck operated over a simulated production cycle in an isolated zone of an operating underground metal mine. When fueled with the B20 (blend of biodiesel with ULSD with 20% of biodiesel content), B50 (blend of biodiesel with ULSD with 50% of biodiesel content), and B57 (blend of biodiesel with ULSD with 57% of biodiesel content) blends in place of ULSD, the truck's contribution to mass concentrations of elemental and total carbon was reduced by 20, 50, and 61%, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that the aerosols produced by the engine fueled with these blends were characterized by smaller median electrical mobility diameter and lower peak concentrations than the aerosols produced by the same engine fueled with ULSD. The use of the blends resulted in number concentrations of aerosols that were 13-29% lower than those when ULSD was used. Depending on the content of biodiesel in the blends, the average reductions in the surface area concentrations of aerosol which could be deposited in the alveolar region of the lung (as measured by a nanoparticle surface area monitor) ranged between 6 and 37%. The use of blends also resulted in slight but measurable reductions in CO emissions, as well as an increase in NOX emissions. All of the above changes in concentrations and physical properties were found to be correlated with the proportion of biodiesel in the blends.

  13. Will Improved Palm Oil Yields suffice to the Development of Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in indonesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Palmén, Carl; Silveira, Semida; Khatiwada, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    By the expansion of oil palm plantations, Indonesia has become a world leading producer of crude palm oil. However, Indonesia has also been largely criticized due to issues of land use change and deforestation. The country now promotes the use of palm oil for biodiesel production as part of policies to achieve renewable energy targets. Currently yields on palm oil plantations are far from optimal. Do new policies promoting biodiesel production address the issue of yields properly? This study ...

  14. Extraction of oil from microalgae for biodiesel production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ronald; Danquah, Michael K; Webley, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase of CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere combined with depleted supplies of fossil fuels has led to an increased commercial interest in renewable fuels. Due to their high biomass productivity, rapid lipid accumulation, and ability to survive in saline water, microalgae have been identified as promising feedstocks for industrial-scale production of carbon-neutral biodiesel. This study examines the principles involved in lipid extraction from microalgal cells, a crucial downstream processing step in the production of microalgal biodiesel. We analyze the different technological options currently available for laboratory-scale microalgal lipid extraction, with a primary focus on the prospect of organic solvent and supercritical fluid extraction. The study also provides an assessment of recent breakthroughs in this rapidly developing field and reports on the suitability of microalgal lipid compositions for biodiesel conversion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Producing biodiesel from yellow greases with high free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrani Mahacine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel replacement fuel that is manufactured from vegetable oils recycled cooking greases and oils or animal fats. Biodiesel offers many advantages because it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and suitable for sensitive environments. It can also be used in most diesel equipments with no or only minor modifications. These yellow greases contain great quantities of free fatty acids which form soaps in the presence of alkaline catalyst. Pretreatments of the raw material with acid catalysts are necessary to avoid the soap formation. The transesterification of yellow greases is supplemented in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The greatest production of biodiesel corresponds to molar flows of 4.985 kmol.hr-1 of methyl oleate, and 4.658 kmol.hr-1 of methyl butyrate.

  16. Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Macadamia Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the prospects of biodiesel production from macadamia oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The biodiesel was produced using conventional transesterification process using the base catalyst (KOH. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emission of 5% (B5 and 20% (B20 macadamia biodiesel fuel at different engine speeds and full load condition. It was found that the characteristics of biodiesel are within the limit of specified standards American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 and comparable to diesel fuel. This study also found that the blending of macadamia biodiesel–diesel fuel significantly improves the fuel properties including viscosity, density (D, heating value and oxidation stability (OS. Engine performance results indicated that macadamia biodiesel fuel sample reduces brake power (BP and increases brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC while emission results indicated that it reduces the average carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and particulate matter (PM emissions except nitrogen oxides (NOx than diesel fuel. Finally, it can be concluded that macadamia oil can be a possible source for biodiesel production and up to 20% macadamia biodiesel can be used as a fuel in diesel engines without modifications.

  17. Structure and Stability of B20N20 Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔小英; 武海顺

    2005-01-01

    B3LYP/6-31G* density functional theory calculations have been carried out on the structure and stability of ten B20N20 clusters. It was found that two new proposed isomers with two octagons, twelve hexagons, eight squares in Cab and C2 symmetry were more stable than the isomer with sixteen hexagons and six squares in C2 symmetry which was previously deemed to the most stable by 79.5 and 13.8 kJ/mol respectively. The isomer with two decagons in S10 symmetry is much higher in energy than the most stable structure in C4h symmetry by 637.2 kJ/mol.

  18. Emission Characteristics of CI Engine by using Palm BioDiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.shai sundaram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns and energy crisis of the world has led to the search of alternate to the fossil fuel. FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester is environment friendly, alternative, and non-toxic, safe; biodegradable has a high flash point and is also termed as Bio-Diesel. The growing economic risk of relying primarily on fossil fuels with limited reserves and Increasing prices has increased the interest on alternative energy sources. Clean and renewable biofuels have been touted as the answer to the issue of diminishing fossil fuels. INDIA the largest producer of palm oil has committed to focus interest on biofuels, namely palm biodiesel. Since palm oil has a high fossil energy balance, it is a key source of raw material for biodiesel production. This paper presents palm biodiesel as an alternative source of green renewable energy through a survey conducted from previously researched findings. In this experimental study testing of emission characteristics and performances test of palm Bio-diesel at various ratios form (B25%, B 50%, B75%, B100% of Bio-diesel. As we compared with fossil fuel (diesel and palm bio-diesel on base of various emission elements (CO, CO2, NOx, O2, and HC.

  19. Synergetic sustainability enhancement via current biofuel infrastructure: waste-to-energy concept for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-03-19

    The concept of waste-to-energy (WtE) with regards to the utilization of byproducts from the bioethanol industry (e.g., distiller's dried grain with solubles: DDGS) was employed to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, which would be an initiative stage of a biorefinery due to the conjunction between bioethanol and biodiesel. For example, DDGS is a strong candidate for use as a biodiesel feedstock due to the tremendous amount that is regularly generated. On the basis of an estimation of possible lipid recovery from DDGS, ∼30% of the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010 could be supported by the total DDGS generation in the same year. Considering the future expansion of the bioethanol industry up to 2020, the possible lipid recovery from DDGS would provide more than 6 times the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010. In order to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, the transformation of lipid extracted from DDGS into fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via a noncatalytic transesterification reaction under ambient pressure was investigated in this work. The newly introduced method reported here enables the combination of the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides into a single step. This was achieved in the presence of a porous material (i.e., charcoal), and the optimal conditions for transformation into biodiesel via this noncatalytic method were assessed at the fundamental level.

  20. Lipase-catalyzed process for biodiesel production: protein engineering and lipase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun Tae; Qi, Feng; Yuan, Chongli; Zhao, Xuebing; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Liu, Dehua; Varma, Arvind

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is an environment-friendly and renewable fuel produced by transesterification of various feedstocks. Although the lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production has many advantages over the conventional alkali catalyzed process, its industrial applications have been limited by high-cost and low-stability of lipase enzymes. This review provides a general overview of the recent advances in lipase engineering, including both protein modification and production. Recent advances in biotechnology such as in protein engineering, recombinant methods and metabolic engineering have been employed but are yet to impact lipase engineering for cost-effective production of biodiesel. A summary of the current challenges and perspectives for potential solutions are also provided.

  1. Operational performance of agricultural tractor in function of interior and metropolitano diesel mixture in mamona biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabile, Rubens Andre [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Lopes, Afonso; Toledo, Anderson de; Reis, Gustavo Naves dos; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DER/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    The great demand for energy sources by production systems allied to scarcity of fossil fuels has motivated the development and production of biodiesel, this is a fuel produced from renewable sources. Given that, the objective of this study was to compare the operating performance of an agricultural tractor, operating with interior and metropolitano diesel mixed to mamona biodiesel, in seven proportions. The tests were conducted in the Departamento de Engenharia Rural of UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. The results showed that the kind of diesel did influence fuel consumption, and diesel metropolitano showed best quality. It was also observed that as biodiesel proportion increased, fuel consumption increased as well. (author)

  2. Biodiesel II: A new concept of biodiesel production - transesterification with supercritical methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that might be used as a pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated (about 60% and also, in a lower quantity, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3, as well as some amounts of undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in the research and industrial production of biodiesel (palm-oil, sunflower-oil, soybean-oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of the biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as Directives of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article (Chem. Ind. 58 (2004. The second part focused on some new concepts and the future development of technology for biodiesel production based on the use of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions. A literature review, as well as original results based on the transesterification of animal fats, plant oil and used plant oil were discussed. Obtained results were compared with the traditional concept of transesterification based on base or acid catalysis. Experimental investigations of transesterification with supercritical methanol were performed in a 2 dm3 autoclave at 140 bar pressure and at 300°C with molar ratio of methanol to triglycerides of about 41. The degree of esterification strongly depends on the density of supercritical methanol and on the possibility of reaction occurring in one phase.

  3. Biodiesel: its reality and perspectives on national energy policy; O biodiesel: sua realidade e perspectivas diante da politica energetica nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbay, Samuel Max; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the current context, the national energy politics has passed for excellent changes. With the world-wide crisis of the oil in a scarcity perspective and the pressures politics around the global heating, the energy politics has strengthen each time more to promote the use of energies renewed, especially in the automotive sector. This change of position brings new configurations to the national energy matrix and res-position the country as supplying of energy for the world. As it has detached of these politics, are the initiatives of attainment of clean and renewable fuel a matrix from biodiesel. Ahead of this situation, he is objective of the present work to analyze the available mechanisms in the picture of the national energy politics for the introduction of energies you renewed in the fuel sector by means of the program of biodiesel. In this direction, in the first part of the article is analyzed legal aspect that subsidizes the national energy politics and the mechanisms of introduction of energies you renewed in the automotive sector. In the second part the norms are analyzed that configure the national program of biodiesel and its paper in the global set of the component legal measures of the national energy politics. (author)

  4. Effects of fossil diesel and biodiesel blends on the performances and emissions of agricultural tractor engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth in the energy consumption has conditioned the need for discovering the alternative energy resources which would be adapted to the existing engine constructions and which would satisfy the additional criteria related to the renewability, ecology and reliability of use. Introduction of biodiesel has been the focus of attention over the last ten years. The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of biodiesel on the performances and exhaust gas emissions of medium power agricultural tractor engines (37-66 kW. The reason for the selection of this category is that those types of tractors are most frequently used in agriculture. In this research biodiesel produced from sunflower oil was blended with fossil diesel. Biodiesel, fossil diesel and fossil diesel blends with 15, 25, 50 and 75%v/v biodiesel were tested for their influence on the engine performances and emissions. The testing was performed on a four-cylinder diesel engine with 48 kW rated power. The experimental research on the engine performances was conducted in compliance with OECD test CODE 2, and the exhaust gas emissions were tested according to the ISO 8178-4, C1. The use of biodiesel and fossil diesel blends reduced the engine power with the increase of biodiesel share in the blend. However, the exception was the blend with 15%v/v biodiesel which induced a slight increase in the engine power. Depending on the share of biodiesel in the blend all blends fuels showed increased specific fuel consumption compared to the fossil diesel. Thermal efficiency increased as a result of more complete combustion of biodiesel and fossil diesel blends. The exhaust gas emissions implied that the addition of biodiesel reduced the content of CO2 and CO, as well as the temperature of exhaust gases, but it increased the emission of NOx.

  5. Experimental assessment of non-edible candlenut biodiesel and its blend characteristics as diesel engine fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdadul, H K; Zulkifli, N W M; Masjuki, H H; Kalam, M A; Kamruzzaman, M; Rashed, M M; Rashedul, H K; Alwi, Azham

    2017-01-01

    Exploring new renewable energy sources as a substitute of petroleum reserves is necessary due to fulfilling the oncoming energy needs for industry and transportation systems. In this quest, a lot of research is going on to expose different kinds of new biodiesel sources. The non-edible oil from candlenut possesses the potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The present study aims to produce biodiesel from crude candlenut oil by using two-step transesterification process, and 10%, 20%, and 30% of biodiesel were mixed with diesel fuel as test blends for engine testing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were performed and analyzed to characterize the biodiesel. Also, the fuel properties of biodiesel and its blends were measured and compared with the specified standards. The thermal stability of the fuel blends was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scan calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Engine characteristics were measured in a Yanmar TF120M single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Biodiesel produced from candlenut oil contained 15% free fatty acid (FFA), and two-step esterification and transesterification were used. FTIR and GC remarked the biodiesels' existing functional groups and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition. The thermal analysis of the biodiesel blends certified about the blends' stability regarding thermal degradation, melting and crystallization temperature, oxidative temperature, and storage stability. The brake power (BP), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the biodiesel blends decreased slightly with an increasing pattern of nitric oxide (NO) emission. However, the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxides (CO) of biodiesel blends were found decreased.

  6. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, Teresa L.; McCormick, Robert L.; Christensen, Earl D.; Fioroni, Gina; Moriarty, Kristi; Yanowitz, Janet

    2016-11-08

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

  7. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  8. A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Wu, Xuan; Leung, M.K.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-04-15

    Biodiesel is a low-emissions diesel substitute fuel made from renewable resources and waste lipid. The most common way to produce biodiesel is through transesterification, especially alkali-catalyzed transesterification. When the raw materials (oils or fats) have a high percentage of free fatty acids or water, the alkali catalyst will react with the free fatty acids to form soaps. The water can hydrolyze the triglycerides into diglycerides and form more free fatty acids. Both of the above reactions are undesirable and reduce the yield of the biodiesel product. In this situation, the acidic materials should be pre-treated to inhibit the saponification reaction. This paper reviews the different approaches of reducing free fatty acids in the raw oil and refinement of crude biodiesel that are adopted in the industry. The main factors affecting the yield of biodiesel, i.e. alcohol quantity, reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, are discussed. This paper also described other new processes of biodiesel production. For instance, the Biox co-solvent process converts triglycerides to esters through the selection of inert co-solvents that generates a one-phase oil-rich system. The non-catalytic supercritical methanol process is advantageous in terms of shorter reaction time and lesser purification steps but requires high temperature and pressure. For the in situ biodiesel process, the oilseeds are treated directly with methanol in which the catalyst has been preciously dissolved at ambient temperatures and pressure to perform the transesterification of oils in the oilseeds. This process, however, cannot handle waste cooking oils and animal fats. (author)

  9. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  10. Renewable energy source use in Brazil; Utilizacao de energia renovavel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Joseph; Rosa, Fabio, e-mails: jnewman@winrock.org.br, e-mail: fabrosa@terra.com.br

    2003-08-15

    This article evaluates the programs (PROINFA and CCC) developed by the State to deploy a policy of using renewable energy sources in Brazil, highlighting the biodiesel, which should be inserted in its energy matrix.

  11. Conversion of lipid from food waste to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Linardi, Darwin; Lee, Jisoo; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-07-01

    Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems are encouraging research on alternative fuels of renewable sources. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to be used as a substitute to the petroleum based diesel fuels. However, the cost of biodiesel production is high and is attributed mainly to the feedstock used which leads to the investigation of low cost feedstocks that are economically feasible. In this paper, we report on the utilization of lipid obtained from food waste as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid from food waste was transesterified with methanol using base and lipase as catalysts. The maximum biodiesel yield was 100% for the base (KOH) catalyzed transesterification at 1:10M ratio of lipid to methanol in 2h at 60°C. Novozyme-435 yielded a 90% FAME conversion at 40°C and 1:5 lipid to methanol molar ratio in 24h. Lipid obtained from fungal hydrolysis of food waste is found to be a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  12. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development of solid catalysts and its catalytic activity are reviewed. Solid catalysts are able to perform trans-esterification and esterification reactions simultaneously and able to convert low quality oils with high amount of Free Fatty Acids. The parameters that effect the production of biodiesel are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th April 2012, Revised: 24th October 2012, Accepted: 24th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Mat, R.A. Samsudin, M. Mohamed, A. Johari, (2012. Solid Catalysts and Their Application in Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 142-149. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149 ] | View in 

  13. Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-lwayzy, Saddam H.; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

    2012-09-01

    Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

  14. Evaluation and enhancement of cold flow properties of palm oil and its biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Verma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cold flow properties are the main issue to regular usage of Palm biodiesel as alternative fuel to diesel. The inferior cold flow property of biodiesel causes gum formation and crystallization of fuel particles which can be enhanced by winterization, blending and addition of cold flow improvers. The objective of this study is to improve cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from palm oil. Blending and using of cold flow improver were adopted among various methods to enhance the cold flow properties. Results of the study show that with B20 blend of biodiesel using petroleum diesel and kerosene has significant improvement of the cold flow properties. Diesel improves CP and PP by 57.61% and 78.57% whereas kerosene improves CP and PP by 62.94% and 85.78% respectively for B20 blend. Ethanol had remarkable impact as 20% addition improves CP and PP by 60.48% and 63.96% respectively. The investigation concludes that PE80 is recommended as a fuel for engine operation under low temperature regions. For improving the cold flow properties, addition of cold flow improver is best method to attain the desired values of cold flow properties for biodiesel.

  15. Storage tank materials for biodiesel blends; the analysis of fuel property changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah Leily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel stability is one of major problem in biodiesel application. Some of the physical properties of biodiesel are commonly changed during storage. The change in physico-chemical properties is strongly correlated to the stability of the fuel. This study is objected to observe the potential materials for biodiesel storage. The test was conducted in three kinds of tank materials, such as glass, HDPE, and stainless steel. The fuel properties are monitored in 12 weeks, while the sample was analyzed every week. Biodiesel used is palm oil based. The storage tanks were placed in a confined indoor space with range of temperature 27–34 °C. The relative humidity and sunshine duration on the location was also evaluated. The observed properties of the fuel blends were density, viscosity and water content. During 12 weeks of storage, the average density of B20 was changed very slightly in all tanks, while the viscosity was tend to increase sharply, especially in polimerics tank. Water content of B20 was increased by the increase of storage time especially in HDPE tank. In short period of storage, the biodiesel blends is found more stable in glass tank due to its versatility to prohibit oxidation, degradation, and its chemical resistance.

  16. The National program of the production and use of biodiesel and strategic environmental assessment; O Programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel e a avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Victor Rafael Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzes the use of biodiesel in Brazil under the applied perspective of this renewable fuel in the environmental assessment in the productive chain. It inwards the appearance of biodiesel, its evolution in Brazil and in the world, the structured regulatory framework, beyond these points this work also gives a main focus on the advent of National Program of Production and Usage of Biodiesel (NPPUB - originally PNPUB) and on the defined productive arrangement. It scrutinizes the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and delimits the pivotal hindrances to the development of biodiesel production sector, claiming to point out all the possible and viable scenarios, profiting the economic development of this activity in harmony with the urgent need to implement Environmentally Safe projects. (author)

  17. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  18. Performance Evaluation of a Small-Scale Turbojet Engine Running on Palm Oil Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abu Talib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental and simulated performance of an Armfield CM4 turbojet engine was investigated for palm oil methyl ester biodiesel (PME and its blends with conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The volumetric blends of PME with Jet A-1 are 20, 50, 70, and 100% (B20, B50, B70, and B100. Fuel heating values (FHV of each fuel mixture were obtained by calorimetric analysis. The experimental tests included performance tests for Jet A-1 and B20, while the performances of B50 to B100 were simulated using GasTurb 11 analytical software. In terms of maximum measured thrust, Jet A-1 yielded the highest value of 216 N, decreasing by 0.77%, 4%, 8%, and 12% with B20, B50, B70, and B100. It was found that B20 produced comparable results compared to the benchmark Jet A-1 tests, particularly with thrust and thermal efficiency. Slight performance penalties occurred due to the lower energy content of the biodiesel blends. The efficiency of the combustor improved with the addition of biodiesel while the other component efficiencies remained collectively consistent. This research shows that, at least for larger gas turbines, PME is suitable for use as an additive to Jet A-1 within 50% blends.

  19. Why Teach about Biodiesel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that study of biodiesel as a healthier alternative to petroleum diesel be included in the curriculum. Suggests that teachers will play a critical role during the transition away from fossil fuel technologies. Provides background information and web-based resources. (DLH)

  20. Analysis of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a biogenic alternative to diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced by a transesterification reaction from materials consisting largely of triacylglycerols such as vegetable and other plant oils, animal fats, used cooking oils, and “alternative” feedstocks such as algal oils. T...

  1. Temperature effects on particulate emissions from DPF-equipped diesel trucks operating on conventional and biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two diesel trucks equipped with a particulate filter (DPF) were tested at two ambient temperatures (70oF and 20oF), fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel (B20)) and operating loads (a heavy and light weight). The test procedure included three driving cycles, a cold ...

  2. Soy biodiesel and petrodiesel emissions differ in size, chemical composition and stimulation of inflammatory responses in cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Naomi K; Li, Muyao; Poynter, Matthew E; Palmer, Brian C; Parker, Erin; Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the biological effects of biodiesel exhaust emissions exists due to variation in methods of exhaust generation and biological models used to assess responses. Because studies in cells do not necessarily reflect the integrated response of a whole animal, experiments were conducted in two human cell lines representing bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages and female mice using identical particle suspensions of raw exhaust generated by a Volkswagen light-duty diesel engine using petrodiesel (B0) and a biodiesel blend (B20: 20% soy biodiesel/80% B0 by volume). Tailpipe particle emissions measurement showed B0 generated two times more particle mass, larger ultrafine particle number distribution modes, and particles of more nonpolar organic composition than the B20 fuel. Biological assays (inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress biomarkers) demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) generated by combustion of the two fuels induced different responses in in vitro and in vivo models. Concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; Interferon-gamma-induced Protein 10, IP-10; Granulocyte-stimulating factor, G-CSF) in the medium of B20-treated cells and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice exposed to B20 were ∼20-30% higher than control or B0 PM, suggesting that addition of biodiesel to diesel fuels will reduce PM emissions but not necessarily adverse health outcomes.

  3. Soy Biodiesel and Petrodiesel Emissions Differ in Size, Chemical Composition and Stimulation of Inflammatory Responses in Cells and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Li, Muyao; Poynter, Matthew E.; Palmer, Brian C.; Parker, Erin; Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the biological effects of biodiesel exhaust emissions exists due to variation in methods of exhaust generation and biological models used to assess responses. Because studies in cells do not necessarily reflect the integrated response of a whole animal, experiments were conducted in two human cell lines representing bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages and female mice using identical particle suspensions of raw exhaust generated by a Volkswagen light-duty diesel engine using petrodiesel (B0) and a biodiesel blend (B20: 20% soy biodiesel/80% B0 by volume). Tailpipe particle emissions measurement showed B0 generated two times more particle mass, larger ultrafine particle number distribution modes, and particles of more nonpolar organic composition than the B20 fuel. Biological assays (inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress biomarkers) demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) generated by combustion of the two fuels induced different responses in in vitro and in vivo models. Concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; Interferon-gamma-induced Protein 10, IP-10; Granulocyte-stimulating factor, G-CSF) in the medium of B20-treated cells and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice exposed to B20 were ~20–30% higher than control or B0 PM, suggesting that addition of biodiesel to diesel fuels will reduce PM emissions but not necessarily adverse health outcomes. PMID:24053625

  4. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15

    production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. Bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol due to its lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion. Thus, to be a viable alternative, a bio-fuel firstly should be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. In this aspect, larger quantity supplies of cellulose biomass are likely viable alternatives. U. S. Congress has introduced an initiative and subsequently rolled into the basic energy package, which encourages the production of fuel from purely renewable resources, biomass. Secondly, a bio-fuel should also provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits and be economically competitive. In this aspect, bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol. The commonwealth of Kentucky is fortunate to have a diverse and abundant supply of renewable energy resources. Both Kentucky Governor Beshear in the energy plan for Kentucky "Intelligent Energy Choices for Kentucky's Future", and Kentucky Renewable Energy Consortium, outlined strategies on developing energy in renewable, sustainable and efficient ways. Smart utilization of diversified renewable energy resources using advanced technologies developed by Kentucky public universities, and promotion of these technologies to the market place by collaboration between universities and private industry, are specially encouraged. Thus, the initially question answering Governor's strategic plan is if there is any economical way to make utilization of larger quantities of cellulose and hemicellulose for production of bio-fuels, especially bio-diesel. There are some possible options of commercially available technologies to convert cellulose based biomass energy to bio-fuels. Cellulose based biomass can be firstly gasified to obtain synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}), which is followed up by being converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuels or oxygenate

  5. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  6. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  7. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K

    2011-02-01

    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production.

  8. Renewable jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microwave irradiation biodiesel processing of waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motasemi, Farough; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-06-01

    Major part of the world's total energy output is generated from fossil fuels, consequently its consumption has been continuously increased which accelerates the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and also increases the price of these valuable limited resources. Biodiesel is a renewable, non-toxic and biodegradable diesel fuel which it can be the best environmentally friendly and easily attainable alternative for fossil fuels. The costs of feedstock and production process are two important factors which are particularly against large-scale biodiesel production. This study is intended to optimize three critical reaction parameters including intensity of mixing, microwave exit power and reaction time from the transesterification of waste cooking oil by using microwave irradiation in an attempt to reduce the production cost of biodiesel. To arrest the reaction, similar quantities of methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1) and potassium hydroxide (2% wt) as the catalyst were used. The results showed that the best yield percentage (95%) was obtained using 300W microwave exit power, 300 rpm stirrer speed (intensity of mixing) and 78°C for 5 min. It was observed that increasing the intensity of mixing greatly ameliorates the yield percentage of biodiesel (up to 17%). Moreover, the results demonstrate that increasing the reaction time in the low microwave exit power (100W) improves the yield percentage of biodiesel, while it has a negative effect on the conversion yield in the higher microwave exit power (300W). From the obtained results it was clear that FAME was within the standards of biodiesel fuel.

  10. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  11. Bio-gasification of post transesterified microalgae residues: A route to improving overall process renewabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    Using results from experiments and process modelling tools, a renewability assessment was carried out for the use of the conventional and in-situ transesterification processes for a large scale microalgae biodiesel production. In a present day scenario, all the transesterification processes were...... shown to be non-renewable. The process renewability of biodiesel production from microalgae was found to significantly improve with the use of renewable electricity, reacting alcohols from biomass fermentation and process heating and biomass drying using heat from wood pellet combustion or heat pump...... technology. The anaerobic digestion of the microalgae residues to generate methane from was further seen to lead to positive renewabilities for the considered microalgae-biodiesel processes....

  12. Penggunaan Katalis NaOH dalam Proses Transesterifikasi Minyak Kemiri menjadi Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mulana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on biodiesel production from hazelnut oil by transesterification process using NaOH catalyst was one of the efforts for renewable energy research. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of NaOH catalyst and the ratio of hazelnut oil to methanol on the production of biodiesel via transesterification process. The transesterification process was carried out in a stirred reactor equipped by a condenser with speed of 200 rpm, temperature of 60°C and the operating time of 90 minutes. The results indicated that biodiesel could be produced from hazelnut oil through transesterification process with the highest yield of 81.7% that was obtained on the use of 2% wt. of NaOH catalyst and the mole ratio of oil to methanol of 1:9. Viscosity, density, and acid number of biodiesel obtained in this study met the Indonesia National Standard for biodiesel as SNI 04-7182-2006, therefore hazelnut oil produced biodiesel could potentially be an alternative diesel fuel. Keywords: hazelnut oil, biodiesel, transesterification, NaOH catalyst

  13. Using the GREET model to analyze algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Christopher

    There is a growing interest in renewable, carbon-neutral biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. A life-cycle analysis is conducted in this study to determine the viability of using algae as a feedstock for biodiesel. The method involves assessing energy use, fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions using a simulation developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The energy and emissions of algae-derived biodiesel are compared to those of soybean biodiesel, corn ethanol, conventional gasoline, and low-sulfur diesel. Results show that there are sizeable greenhouse gas emission benefits attributed to the production of both types of biodiesel as compared to petroleum fuels. Energy expenditures are much larger when producing algae biodiesel than compared to the other four fuels. The alternative scenario of growing algae at a wastewater treatment plant is also evaluated and is proven to reduce fossil fuel consumption by 17%. The results suggest that producing biodiesel from algae, while not yet competitive regarding energy use, does have many benefits and is worthy of further research and development.

  14. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  15. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizo Edwin Gumba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of alternative energy is primarily catalyzed by the negative environmental impacts and energy depletion caused by the excessive usage of fossil fuels. Biodiesel has emerged as a promising substitute to petrodiesel because it is biodegradable, less toxic, and reduces greenhouse gas emission. Apart from that, biodiesel can be used as blending component or direct replacements for diesel fuel in automotive engines. A diverse range of methods have been reported for the conversion of renewable feedstocks (vegetable oil or animal fat into biodiesel with transesterification being the most preferred method. Nevertheless, the cost of producing biodiesel is higher compared to fossil fuel, thus impeding its commercialization potentials. The limited source of reliable feedstock and the underdeveloped biodiesel production route have prevented the full-scale commercialization of biodiesel in many parts of the world. In a recent development, a new technology that incorporates monoliths as support matrices for enzyme immobilization in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 for continuous biodiesel production has been proposed to solve the problem. The potential of SC-CO2 system to be applied in enzymatic reactors is not well documented and hence the purpose of this review is to highlight the previous studies conducted as well as the future direction of this technology.

  16. Performance and emissions of an engine fuelled with a biodiesel fuel produced from animal fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil reserves which are located around the world are declining day by day, so new alternative energy sources must be invented for engines of internal combustion and compression ignition, so biodiesel that is an alternative fuel source for diesel engines and it is a renewable energy resource. Biodiesel is a fuel made from vegetable oils, animals’ fats and waste oils. In this study, physical and chemical properties of biodiesel were analyzed and matched to the diesel fuel. In the experimental study, biodiesel was made from animal fats and compared to diesel fuel. Its effects on engine performance and emissions are studied. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injected diesel engine with air cooling system are used as test equipment in different cycles. After the experimental study, it is concluded that the reduction of the emissions of CO and HC as biodiesel has the advantage of emission output. Environmentalist property of biodiesel is the most important characteristic of it. But the sight of engine performance diesel fuel has more advantage to biodiesel fuel.

  17. Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Egyed, Marika; Taylor, Brett; Chen, Jack; Samaali, Mehrez; Davignon, Didier; Morneau, Gilles

    2013-11-19

    Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time.

  18. Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 43522 - Notice of Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of fuel pathways such as ethanol from corn starch or biodiesel from soybean oil our reference case... transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel... assumed that the co- product glycerin would displace residual oil as a fuel source on an energy...

  20. Evaluation of fuel properties for microalgae Spirulina platensis bio-diesel and its blends with Egyptian petro-diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalga Spirulina platensis has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Egyptian petro-diesel. Blends of microalgae biodiesel and petro-diesel (B2, B5, B10 and B20 were prepared on a volume basis and their physico–chemical characteristics have been also studied. The obtained results showed that; with the increase of biodiesel concentration in the blends; the viscosity, density, total acid number, initial boiling point, calorific value, flash point, cetane number and diesel index increase. While the pour point, cloud point, carbon residue and sulfur, ash and water contents decrease. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.

  1. Ultrasound assisted direct transesterification of algae for biodiesel production : Analysis of emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Manickam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the algae-for-fuel concept has gained renewed interest with energy prices fluctuating widely. Due to some restrictions over the oil extraction from algae, direct transesterification may be considered as a good alternative. In this study, to improve the performance of direct transesterification, ultrasound induction was carried out. A sonicator probe was used to induce the direct transesterification of Cladophora fracta, a freshwater macro alga, which contains 14% lipid on dry biomass basis. Due to ultrasonication about 25% increased biodiesel yields were obtained and the biodiesel thus prepared was analyzed for emission characteristics. The analysis results showed that Cladophora biodiesel emits 18 mg/L of CO whereas petroleum diesel emits 50 mg/L. Similarly, the emission of NOx and particulate matter also were reduced to a considerable level. The Cladophora is a suitable source of biodiesel by ultrasound assisted direct transesterification in industrial level in the future.

  2. Ultrasonication Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using CuO: Mg Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rintu; Jose, Sony; Joyprabu, H.; Johnson, I.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly and alternative fuel used in the diesel engine. The present work was carried out at constant operational conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1, catalyst concentration 0.25%, 30 minute reaction time and the reaction temperature at 60°C. Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of sunflower oil (SFO) with methanol, using CuO: Mgas nanocatalyst. This nanocatalyst was prepared by quick precipitation method. The biodiesel yield of 71.78% was achieved under reaction condition. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The FAME conversion yield up to 82.83 % could be obtained under the operating conditions.

  3. Spray formation of biodiesel-water in air-assisted atomizer using Schlieren photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirnordin, S. H.; Khalid, A.; Sapit, A.; Salleh, H.; Razali, A.; Fawzi, M.

    2016-11-01

    Biodiesels are attractive renewable energy sources, particularly for industrial boiler and burner operators. However, biodiesels produce higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions compared with diesel. Although water-emulsified fuels can lower NOx emissions by reducing flame temperature, its influence on atomization needs to be investigated further. This study investigates the effects of water on spray formation in air-assisted atomizers. The Schlieren method was used to capture the spray images in terms of tip penetration, spray angle, and spray area. The experiment used palm oil biodiesel at different blending ratios (B5, B10, and B15) and water contents (0vol%-15vol%). Results show that water content in the fuel increases the spray penetration and area but reduces the spray angle because of the changes in fuel properties. Therefore, biodiesel-water application is applicable to burner systems.

  4. Does Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas Represent a Sustainable Alternative Energy Source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Ovando-Medina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Various government agencies around the world have proposed vegetable oils and their conversion to biodiesel as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Due to its adaptability to marginal soils and environments, the cultivation of Jatropha curcas is frequently mentioned as the best option for producing biodiesel. In the present work the current situation of proven and potential reserves of fossil fuel, and the production and consumption model for the same are analyzed, in order to later review the sustainability of the production process which begins with the cultivation of J. curcas, and culminates with the consumption of biodiesel. A review of the following topics is proposed in order to improve the sustainability of the process: areas destined for cultivation, use of external (chemical inputs in cultivation, processes for converting the vegetable oil to biodiesel, and, above all, the location for ultimate consumption of the biofuel.

  5. Social and environmental advantages of palm oil biodiesel in Brazil; Vantagens socioambientais do biodiesel de palma no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Lucas Rueda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The production of biodiesel has seen a fast growth in Brazil during the last years, making the country one of the top producers in the world. This growth is explained by the mandatory blendings of biodiesel in conventional diesel. This article is about how the biodiesel industry developed having soy oil as the main feedstock and how the big oilseed crushers have taken the main role in the industry, with family farmers, the original beneficiaries of the program, having a marginal role. If the scenario of B10 or B20 in 2020 is verified, then it is going to use so much soy oil that it will interfere in another uses of soy, like exportation. Besides that, the article criticizes the failure of the social aspect of the program, arguing that the objective of integration of family farmers has failed, and that the numbers are not worse only because the action of the government, through PETROBRAS. Then it is presented the palm oil as a alternative to share the role of main feedstock with the soy oil, because palm has a bigger production of vegetal oil per hectare than most oilseeds, is capable of a bigger reduction in green house gas emissions than soy oil, the fact that Brazil has plenty of land available to plant palm, without the necessity of deforestation and that this process can bring development to family farmers in the north of the country. The article ends with the summary of the main projects of palm production for biodiesel, like the ones from PETROBRAS, Vale and Oleoplan, and how these are going to be the main determinants of the success or failure of the palm oil as an alternative to the biodiesel sector. (author)

  6. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...... droplets within the reaction media, where continuous stirring operations are applied to improve mass transfer and thus reaction rates. In all other cases, there is a heterogeneous alcohol phase in equilibrium with the ester phase under equilibrium conditions. The immiscibility and/or miscibility drawbacks...

  7. Production of biodiesel from microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Bojana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of third generation feedstocs for the production of biodiesel. One of the most promising sources of oil for biodiesel production are microalgae. They are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic organisms, with permanently increasing industrial application in the production of not only chemicals and nutritional supplements but also biodiesel. Biodiesel productivity per hectare of cultivation area can be up to 100 times higher for microalgae than for oil crops. Also, microalgae can grow in a variety of environments that are often unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Microalgae oil content varies in different species and can reach up to 77% of dry biomass, while the oil productivity by the phototrophic cultivation of microalgae is up to 122 mg/l/d. Variations of the growth conditions and the implementation of the genetic engineering can induce the changes in the composition and productivity of microalgal oil. Biodiesel from microalgae can be produced in two ways: by transesterification of oil extracted from biomass or by direct transesterification of algal biomass (so called in situ transesterification. This paper reviews the curent status of microalgae used for the production of biodiesel including their isolation, cultivation, harvesting and conversion to biodiesel. Because of high oil productivity, microalgae will play a significant role in future biodiesel production. The advantages of using microalgae as a source for biofuel production are increased efficiency and reduced cost of production. Also, microalgae do not require a lot of space for growing and do not have a negative impact on the global food and water supplies. Disadvantages of using microalgae are more difficult separation of biomass and the need for further research to develop standardized methods for microalgae cultivation and biodiesel production. Currently, microalgae are not yet sustainable option for the commercial

  8. An experimental study on thermal stability of biodiesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiying

    Biodiesel fuel, as renewable energy, has been used in conventional diesel engines in pure form or as biodiesel/diesel blends for many years. However, thermal stability of biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends has been minimally explored. Aimed to shorten this gap, thermal stability of biodiesel is investigated at high temperatures. In this study, batch thermal stressing experiments of biodiesel fuel were performed in stainless steel coils at specific temperature and residence time range from 250 to 425 °C and 3 to 63 minutes, respectively. Evidence of different pathways of biodiesel fuel degradation is demonstrated chromatographically. It was found that biodiesel was stable at 275 °C for a residence time of 8 minutes or below, but the cis-trans isomerization reaction was observed at 28 minutes. Along with isomerization, polymerization also took place at 300 °C at 63 minutes. Small molecular weight products were detected at 350 °C at 33 minutes resulting from pyrolysis reactions and at 360 °C for 33 minutes or above, gaseous products were produced. The formed isomers and dimers were not stable, further decomposition of these compounds was observed at high temperatures. These three main reactions and the temperature ranges in which they occurred are: isomerization, 275--400 °C; polymerization (Diels-Alder reaction), 300--425 °C; pyrolysis reaction, ≥350 °C. The longer residence time and higher temperature resulted in greater decomposition. As the temperature increased to 425 °C, the colorless biodiesel became brownish. After 8 minutes, almost 84% of the original fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) disappeared, indicating significant fuel decomposition. A kinetic study was also carried out subsequently to gain better insight into the biodiesel thermal decomposition. A three-lump model was proposed to describe the decomposition mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a reversible first-order reaction kinetic model for the global biodiesel decomposition was shown to

  9. Biodiesel Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    toxic replacement is most often made from soybean oil through a process called transesterfication, whereby it is mixed with methanol to produce both soy...vegeta b le oils or animal fats , for use in compression-ignition (diesel) engines. This specification is For pure (100%) biodiesel prior to use or...field testing, provided no safety concerns or major issues are discovered. The BUSL engines and fuel system will be prepared and modified to ensure

  10. Characterization of particle size distribution from diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel blends and paraffinic fuel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Chia-Fon; Fang, Tiegang

    Biodiesels are promoted as alternative fuels and their applications in diesel engines have been investigated by many researchers. However, the particle size distribution emitted from heavy-duty diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel blended with premium diesel fuel and paraffinic fuel blended with palm-biodiesel has seldom been addressed. Thus, five test fuels were used in this work to study the particle size distribution: D100 (premium diesel fuel), B100 (100% palm-biodiesel), B20 (20 vol% palm-biodiesel+80 vol% D100), BP9505 (95 vol% paraffinic fuel+5 vol% palm-biodiesel) and BP8020 (80 vol% paraffinic fuel+20 vol% palm-biodiesel). A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) equipped with aluminum filters was used to collect size-resolved samples. Experimental results indicated that palm-biodiesel blends and paraffinic fuel blends could improve combustion efficiency in diesel engines, but pure palm-biodiesel could cause incomplete combustion. Adding palm-biodiesel to diesel fuel would slightly increase particles with diameter matter of BP9505 and BP8020 existed in coarse particles (diameter: 2.5-10 μm). Energy efficiency also increases significantly by 12.3-15.1% with the introduction of paraffinic fuel blends into the engine. Nevertheless, paraffinic fuel blends also reduce the emission of particulate matters by 36.0-38.4%. Carbon monoxide was decreased by 36.8-48.5%. Total hydrocarbon is 39.6-41.7% less than diesel fuel combustion. Nitrogen oxides emission is about 5% lower for paraffinic fuel. These results show that paraffinic fuel can be very competitive and replaced diesel fuels in the future.

  11. A study on production of biodiesel using a novel solid oxide catalyst derived from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Samrat; Ray, Srimanta

    2016-05-01

    The issues of energy security, dwindling supply and inflating price of fossil fuel have shifted the global focus towards fuel of renewable origin. Biodiesel, having renewable origin, has exhibited great potential as substitute for fossil fuels. The most common route of biodiesel production is through transesterification of vegetable oil in presence of homogeneous acid or base or solid oxide catalyst. But, the economics of biodiesel is not competitive with respect to fossil fuel due to high cost of production. The vegetable oil waste is a potential alternative for biodiesel production, particularly when disposal of used vegetable oil has been restricted in several countries. The present study evaluates the efficacy of a low-cost solid oxide catalyst derived from eggshell (a food waste) in transesterification of vegetable oil and simulated waste vegetable oil (SWVO). The impact of thermal treatment of vegetable oil (to simulate frying operation) on transesterification using eggshell-derived solid oxide catalyst (ESSO catalyst) was also evaluated along with the effect of varying reaction parameters. The study reported that around 90 % biodiesel yield was obtained with vegetable oil at methanol/oil molar ratio of 18:1 in 3 h reaction time using 10 % ESSO catalyst. The biodiesel produced with ESSO catalyst from SWVO, thermally treated at 150 °C for 24 h, was found to conform with the biodiesel standard, but the yield was 5 % lower compared to that of the untreated oil. The utilization of waste vegetable oil along with waste eggshell as catalyst is significant for improving the overall economics of the biodiesel in the current market. The utilization of waste for societal benefit with the essence of sustainable development is the novelty of this work.

  12. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Marine Microalgae Isochrysis galbana, Pavlova lutheri, Dunaliella salina and Measurement of its Viscosity and Density

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sujin Jeba Kumar; C.K. Balavigneswaran; K.P. Srinivasakumar

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel derives from transesterification of fats and oils. It is renewable and non-toxic ecofriendly fuel with less CO2 and NO2 emissions. Microalgae are known to contain more lipid content than macroalgae and most other oil crops. In this study, we extracted biodiesel from three microalgae Isochrysis galbana, Pavlova lutheri, Dunaliella salina and also measured the density and viscosity of biofuel obtained from these microalgae. Pavlova lutheri yielded more oil than the other two...

  13. Fuel properties and precipitate formation at low temperature in soy-, cottonseed-, and poultry fat-based biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiying Tang; Steven O. Salley; K.Y. Simon Ng [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2008-10-15

    The formation of precipitates in biodiesel blends may have serious implications for diesel engine fuel delivery systems. Precipitates were observed in Soybean oil (SBO-), cottonseed oil (CSO-), and poultry fat (PF-) based biodiesel blends after storage at 4{sup o}C. CSO- and PF-based biodiesel had a lower mass of precipitates observed than the SBO-based. Moreover, different rates of precipitate formation were observed for the B20 versus the B100. These suggested that the formation of precipitate during cold temperature storage was dependent on the feedstock and blend concentration. The solvency effects of biodiesel blends were more pronounced at low temperature than at room temperature leading to a higher amount of precipitates formed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) chromatograms indicated that steryl glucosides are the major cause of precipitate formation in SBO-based biodiesel; while for PF-based biodiesel, the precipitates are due to mono-glycerides. However, the precipitates from CSO-based biodiesel are due to both steryl glucosides and mono-glycerides. 45 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Predicting various biodiesel fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several essential fuel properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the properties of the fatty esters which are its main components. These include cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, and cold flow which are contained in almost all biodiesel standards but also other propert...

  15. The State High Biodiesel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasley, Paul L.; Van Der Sluys, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Through a collaborative project in Pennsylvania, high school students developed a method for converting batches of their cafeteria's waste fryer oil into biodiesel using a 190 L (50 gal) reactor. While the biodiesel is used to supplement the school district's heating and transportation energy needs, the byproduct--glycerol--is used to make hand…

  16. Biodiesel lubricity and other properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an “alternative” diesel fuel that is becoming accepted in a steadily growing number of countries worldwide. Since the source of biodiesel varies with the location, and other sources such as recycled oils are continuousl...

  17. LIFE CYCLE COSTING DAN EKSTERNALITAS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK SAWIT DAN MINYAK ALGA DI INDONESIA (Life Cycle Costing and Externities of Palm and Algal Biodiesel in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Dwi Santoso

    2014-10-01

    perannya dalam mitigasi GRK yang turut memperbesar peluang sebagai bahan utama biodiesel di masa depan.   ABSTRACT The high cost of biodiesel production was to be an obstacle conversion to biodiesel fuel including Indonesia due to anticipate the energy crisis. The high cost of production due to the variable cost of production has not fully comparable reflect the overall potential contained in biodiesel. Potential biodiesel belonging to the commodity nature of the environment such as renewable biomass, low in land use, and environmentally friendly should be included in the calculation in order to obtain an objective comparison of the calculations.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding commodities to the structure of the production cost of biodiesel between palm oil and algal oil. Estimated value of the commodity by the method of benefit transfer method shows the value used is the approach gains willingness to pay (WTP. Environmental commodity values referenced from the calculation software Environmental Priority Strategy (EPS version 2000. For the case of Indonesia, the commodity value of the elasticity was infered EPS basis of comparison of income per capita of Sweden and Indonesia.The results stated that the analysis of life cycle costing (LCC applied by adding variable externalities can provide detailed information about the composition of biodiesel production costs and can be used as a method to get a total picture of the most competitive production costs from several sources. The analysis also concluded that the externality variables also affect the total cost of biodiesel production by up to 14%. Profitability analysis stated that the algal biomass for biodiesel production more secure and sustainable than palm biomass due to technical and non-technical constraints on the production of algal biomass more easier to treat but it also advantages role in GHG mitigation that helped widen the opportunities as the main ingredient of biodiesel in the futur

  18. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  19. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  20. Marketing Risk Management of Palm Oil Based Biodiesel Agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Udayana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is fuel generates from vegetable oils that have properties similar to diesel oil. The advantages of biodiesel compared to diesel is an environmentally friendly fuel because it produces much lower emissions (sulfur free, low smoke number in accordance with global issues, higher cetane number (> 57 so that the combustion efficiency is better than diesel, lubrication properties of the piston engine; biodegradable, a renewable energy because it is made from natural materials, and improve the independence of fuel supply because it can be produced locally. The purpose of this research is to design the risk management decision support system for agro-industry development biodiesel of oil palm-based. Determination of objectives and risk management strategies using the used to obtain an alternative value in the aspect of marketing. This research resulted in a decision support system that is useful to help decision makers in addressing the risk of agro-bio-diesel. Risk management model is designed in a decision support system  (DSS, can be used by industrial users and investors in the field of biodiesel. DSS software development using Microsoft Visual Basic Version 6.0 consists of three main components namely database management system, knowledge base management system and model base management system. Model base management system consists of risk marketing analysis.

  1. Dual bioimprinting of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase for synthesis of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Mukherjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of biodiesel as an alternative to non-renewable sources of energy has become an attractive option in recent years. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel by transesterification of fats/oils with an alcohol is a much more sustainable route than the chemical method. However, cost effectiveness of the enzymatic route is a major barrier in its commercialization. In this work, a high activity biocatalyst design of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase is made by dually bioimprinting it with substrate and a surfactant (which is believed to open up the lid covering the active site of the lipase during precipitation of the lipase in organic solvent. When the lipase was bioimprinted with only the surfactants, 28 U of the enzyme/g of oil could yield 99% biodiesel from soybean oil in about 4 h. However, when dually bioimprinted even very low enzyme load 1.4 U/g of oil, yielded 99% biodiesel within 48 h.

  2. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wali, W A; Hassan, K H; Cullen, J D; Al-Shamma' a, A I; Shaw, A; Wylie, S R, E-mail: w.wali@2009.ljmu.ac.uk [Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies Institute (BEST), School of the Built Environment, Faculty of Technology and Environment Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  3. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, W. A.; Hassan, K. H.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.; Wylie, S. R.

    2011-08-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  4. A Review of Microwave-Assisted Reactions for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomanbhay, Saifuddin; Ong, Mei Yin

    2017-01-01

    The conversion of biomass into chemicals and biofuels is an active research area as trends move to replace fossil fuels with renewable resources due to society’s increased concern towards sustainability. In this context, microwave processing has emerged as a tool in organic synthesis and plays an important role in developing a more sustainable world. Integration of processing methods with microwave irradiation has resulted in a great reduction in the time required for many processes, while the reaction efficiencies have been increased markedly. Microwave processing produces a higher yield with a cleaner profile in comparison to other methods. The microwave processing is reported to be a better heating method than the conventional methods due to its unique thermal and non-thermal effects. This paper provides an insight into the theoretical aspects of microwave irradiation practices and highlights the importance of microwave processing. The potential of the microwave technology to accomplish superior outcomes over the conventional methods in biodiesel production is presented. A green process for biodiesel production using a non-catalytic method is still new and very costly because of the supercritical condition requirement. Hence, non-catalytic biodiesel conversion under ambient pressure using microwave technology must be developed, as the energy utilization for microwave-based biodiesel synthesis is reported to be lower and cost-effective. PMID:28952536

  5. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÇANAKÇI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that can be produced from renewable feed stocks such as vegetable oil and animal fats. These feed stocks are reacted with an alcohol to produce alkyl monoesters. The obtained ester can be used in conventional diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel, especially if produced from highly unsaturated oils, oxidizes more rapidly than diesel fuel. This paper reports the results of accelerated oxidation tests on biodiesel. These tests show the impact of time, oxygen flow rate, temperature, metals, and feedstock type on the rate of oxidation. Blending with diesel fuel and the addition of antioxidants are also explored. The data indicate that without antioxidants, biodiesel will oxidize very quickly at temperatures typical of diesel engines. This oxidation results in increases in peroxide value, acid value, and viscosity. While the peroxide value generally reaches a plateau of about 350 meq O2/kg, the acid value and viscosity increase monotonically as oxidation proceeds.

  6. Corrosion characteristics of copper and leaded bronze in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Ann, L.J.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel has become more attractive as alternative fuel for automobiles because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable sources. However, corrosion of metals in biodiesel is one of the concerns related to biodiesel compatibility issues. This study aims to characterize the corrosion behavior of commercial pure copper and leaded bronze commonly encountered in the automotive fuel system in diesel engine. Static immersion tests in B0, B50 and B100 fuels were carried out at room temperature for 2640 h. Similar immersion tests in B0, B100 and B100 (oxidized) fuels were also conducted at 60 C for 840 h. At the end of the test, corrosion behavior was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes in surface morphology. Fuels were analyzed by using TAN analyzer, FTIR, MOA (multi-element oil analyzer) to investigate acid concentration, oxidation level with water content and corrosive impurities respectively. Results showed that under the experimental conditions, pure copper was more susceptible to corrosion in biodiesel as compared to leaded bronze. (author)

  7. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  8. Effect of Biodiesel on Diesel Engine Nitrogen Oxide and Other Regulated Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    process of base - catalyzed transesterification at low temperature (150°F), low pressure (20 pounds per sq in [psi]) and with a high conversion...4 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Emission impacts of B20 for Soybean- Based Biodiesel Added to an Average Base ...Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base for making the arrangements to supply most of the diesel engines tested in this project. Camp Pendleton was able

  9. Extended exergy accounting applied to biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talens Peiro, L. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q-ETSE, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Villalba Mendez, G.; Gabarrell i Durany, X. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q-ETSE, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Edifici Q, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E- 08193, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Sciubba, E. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Roma 1 ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Via Eudossiana 18, I-00184 Roma (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    When evaluating the production of renewable energies such as biofuels, it is necessary to include in the assessment the resource inputs, capital, labor investment and environmental remediation costs. Extended Exergy Accounting (EEA) is a system analysis method that calculates, on the basis of detailed mass and exergy balances, the total amount of primary exergy resources necessary to obtain a product or service. The conceptual novelty of EEA is represented by the fact that it also includes externalities (capital, labor and environmental impact) measured in homogeneous units (Joules). As an illustration of EEA, we assess and compare the production of 1 ton of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCOME) and rapeseed crops (RME). The extended exergy ''content'' of UCOME and RME are 51.90 GJ and 77.05 GJ respectively. The production of UCOME uses 25.15 GJ less resources (materials and energy) and requires lower total investments and environmental remediation costs than that of RME. On the other hand, UCOME requires 35% more workhours. In summary, the extended exergy of UCOME is about 1.5 the extended exergy content of RME. Thus, we can conclude that biodiesel production from UCO is less resource use intensive than the production from RME. (author)

  10. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  11. Combustion Heat Release Rate Comparison of Algae Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel to F-76 in a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    by different names— Hydroprocessed or Hydrotreated Renewable Diesel or simply Renewable Diesel. For the purpose of this paper, it will be called...However, unlike first-generation biodiesel, the hydrotreating process used to create HRD removes oxygen from the chemical makeup of the fuel...resulting in a pure hydrocarbon fuel which eliminates the problems mentioned above with biodiesel. The hydrotreating process is already utilized by

  12. Obtaining biodiesel from oils mixtures of corn and cotton; Obtencao de biodiesel a partir da mistura dos oleos de milho e algodao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lionete Nunes de; Santos, Jose Carlos Oliveira; Carvalho, Maria Wilma Nunes Cordeiro [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Dantas, Manoel Barbosa; Rosenhaim, Raul; Sousa, Antonio Gouveia [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Most of the world energy consumption derives from oil, coal and natural gas. The shortage of the energy sources, especially the energy from fossil fuels, and moreover the impossibility of its renovation has motivated the development of technologies that allow for the usage of renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is biodegradable, renewable and it obeys the cycle of carbon. It is defined as a blend of mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from renewable sources, as vegetable oils and animal fats. It is obtained by means of a transesterification process, in which the transformation of triglycerides into smaller molecules of fatty acid esters takes place, and it displays physical and chemical characteristics similar to the ones of a fossil fuel-derived diesel oil. This work presents the attainment of biodiesel from the mixture of oils of corn and cotton, utilizing the homogeneous potassium hydroxide catalyst (KOH). The biodiesel was characterized on the basis of physico-chemical properties, of infrared spectroscopy (IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and thermogravimetry (TG). In thermogravimetric analyses, it was observed that the biodiesel presented an initial decomposition temperature of lower than that of oil, demonstrating be more volatile and bringing up the diesel. (author)

  13. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Monica; da Silva, Elson Santos; Andersen, Silvia L F; Abrahão, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.

  14. Evaluation of solvent system for the enzymatic synthesis of ethanol-based biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasaruddin, Ricca Rahman; Alam, Md Zahangir; Jami, Mohammed Saedi

    2014-02-01

    A green technology of biodiesel production focuses on the use of enzymes as the catalyst. In enzymatic biodiesel synthesis, suitable solvent system is very essential to reduce the inhibition effects of the solvent to the enzymes. This study produced ethanol-based biodiesel from a low-cost sludge palm oil (SPO) using locally-produced Candida cylindracea lipase from fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) based medium. The optimum levels of ethanol-to-SPO molar ratio and enzyme loading were found to be 4:1 and 10 U/25 g of SPO respectively with 54.4% w/w SPO yield of biodiesel and 21.7% conversion of free fatty acid (FFA) into biodiesel. Addition of tert-butanol at 2:1 tert-butanol-to-SPO molar ratio into the ethanol-solvent system increased the yield of biodiesel to 71.6% w/w SPO and conversion of FFA into biodiesel to 28.8%. The SPO and ethanol have promising potential for the production of renewable biodiesel using enzymatic-catalyzed esterification and transesterification.

  15. Exergy analysis applied to biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talens, Laura; Villalba, Gara [SosteniPra UAB-IRTA. Environmental Science and Technology Institute (ICTA), Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPra UAB-IRTA. Environmental Science and Technology Institute ICTA, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    In our aim to decrease the consumption of materials and energy and promote the use of renewable resources, such as biofuels, rises the need to measure materials and energy fluxes. This paper suggests the use of Exergy Flow Analysis (ExFA) as an environmental assessment tool to account wastes and emissions, determine the exergetic efficiency, compare substitutes and other types of energy sources: all useful in defining environmental and economical policies for resource use. In order to illustrate how ExFA is used, it is applied to the process of biodiesel production. The results show that the production process has a low exergy loss (492 MJ). The exergy loss is reduced by using potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid as process catalysts and it can be further minimised by improving the quality of the used cooking oil. (author)

  16. 75 FR 26025 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Technologies for Renewable Fuel Pathways The final RFS2 rule includes two corn ethanol pathways in Table 1 of..., or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities affected by this... products merchant wholesalers. Industry 424710 5171 Petroleum bulk stations and terminals. Industry...

  17. Microalgae Isolation and Selection for Prospective Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer M. Schenk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from microalgae is being widely developed at different scales as a potential source of renewable energy with both economic and environmental benefits. Although many microalgae species have been identified and isolated for lipid production, there is currently no consensus as to which species provide the highest productivity. Different species are expected to function best at different aquatic, geographical and climatic conditions. In addition, other value-added products are now being considered for commercial production which necessitates the selection of the most capable algae strains suitable for multiple-product algae biorefineries. Here we present and review practical issues of several simple and robust methods for microalgae isolation and selection for traits that maybe most relevant for commercial biodiesel production. A combination of conventional and modern techniques is likely to be the most efficient route from isolation to large-scale cultivation.

  18. Er biodiesel en god ide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick

    2007-01-01

    Biodiesel opfattes som en grøn miljøvenlig teknologi. Men har dette 'grønne' alternativ til konventionel diesel en skjult bagside af medaljen? Og kan det være, at man i stedet for at få et bedre miljø, medvirker til øgede miljøpåvirkninger i form af emissioner og naturødelæggelse, når man skifter...... til biodiesel? I artiklen belyses nogle af de mest sejlivede myter omkring biodiesel. Udgivelsesdato: Januar...

  19. Interfacial reaction using particle-immobilized reagents in a fluidized reactor. Determination of glycerol in biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishov, Andrey, E-mail: andrey.shishov.rus@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, RU–198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zabrodin, Andrey; Moskvin, Leonid [Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, RU–198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Andruch, Vasil [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of P.J. Šafárik, SK-04154 Košice (Slovakia); Bulatov, Andrey [Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, RU–198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    A novel fluidized beads strategy for utilization of particle-immobilized reagents in flow analysis was developed in this study. The performance of the suggested strategy was demonstrated by the determination of glycerol in biodiesel. This analytical task was used as a proof-of-concept example. The method is based on on-line extraction of glycerol from biodiesel into aqueous stationary phase of extraction-chromatographic column, followed by elution and spectrophotometric determination in the form of copper glycerate formed in a fluidized reactor of stepwise injection system. The floating of cation exchange resin Dowex{sup ®} 50WX4, saturated with Cu(II) ions in liquid phase, was accomplished by air-bubbling. The linear range was from 100 to 1000 mg kg{sup −1}, and the limit of detection, calculated as 3s of a blank test (n = 5), was found to be 30 mg kg{sup −1}. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biodiesel and biodiesel-blend (B 20) samples. - Highlights: • Novel fluidized beds strategy for utilization of particle-immobilized reagents. • First application of fluidized beds condition in SWIA. • Novel approach based on interfacial formation of copper glycerate. • Automated method for glycerol determination in biodiesel.

  20. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  1. Biodiesel production from marine cyanobacteria cultured in plate and tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, B Karpanai; Revathi, M; Piriya, P Sobana; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Prabhu, D Immuanual Gilwax; Vennison, S John

    2013-03-01

    Carbon (neutral) based renewable liquid biofuels are alternative to petroleum derived transport fuels that contribute to global warming and are of a limited availability. Microalgae based biofuels are considered as promising source of energy. Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. were studied for the possibility of biodiesel production in different media such as ASNIII, sea water enrichment medium and BG11. The sea water enrichment medium was found superior in enhancing the growth rate of these microalgae. Nitrogen depletion has less effect in total chlorophyll a content, at the same time the lipid content was increased in both Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. by 1.4 and 1.2 % respectively. Increase in salinity from 0.5-1.0 M also showed an increase in the lipid content to 2.0 and 0.8 % in these strains; but a salinity of 1.5 M has a total inhibitory effect in the growth. The total biomass yield was comparatively higher in tubular LED photobioreactor than the fluorescent flat plated photobioreactor. Lipid extraction was obtained maximum at 60 degrees C in 1:10 sample: solvent ratio. GC-MS analysis of biodiesel showed high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 4.86 %) than saturated fatty acid (SFA; 4.10 %). Biodiesel production was found maximum in Synechococcus sp. than Lyngbya sp. The viscosity of the biodiesel was closely related to conventional diesel. The results strongly suggest that marine microalgae could be used as a renewable energy source for biodiesel production.

  2. Production and Testing of Coconut Oil Biodiesel Fuel and its Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J ALAMU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have successfully worked on generating energy from different alternative sources including solar and biological sources such as the conversion of trapped energy from sunlight to electricity and conversion of some renewable agricultural products to fuel. This work considers the use of coconut oil for the production of alternative renewable and environmental friendly biodiesel fuel as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Test quantities of coconut oil biodiesel were produced through transesterification reaction using 100g coconut oil, 20.0% ethanol (wt% coconut oil, 0.8% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 65°C reaction temperature and 120 min. reaction time. The experiment was carried out three times and average results evaluated. Low yield of the biodiesel (10.4% was obtained. The coconut oil biodiesel produced was subsequently blended with petroleum diesel and characterized as alternative diesel fuel through some ASTM standard fuel tests. The products were further evaluated by comparing specific gravity and viscosity of the biodiesel blend, the raw coconut oil and conventional petroleum diesel.

  3. Performance analysis of a biodiesel fuelled diesel engine with the effect of alumina coated piston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one of the best alternative fuels to Diesel engine among other sources due to having potential to reduce emissions. Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable and environment friendly fuel in nature. The advantages of biodiesel are lower exhaust gas emissions and its biodegradability and renewability compared with petroleum-based diesel fuel. The energy of the biodiesel can be released more efficiently with the concept of semi adiabatic (thermal barrier coated piston engine. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection Diesel engine using 25% biodiesel blend (rubber seed oil methyl ester as fuel with thermal barrier coated piston. Initially the piston crown was coated with alumina (Al2O3 of thickness of 300 micron (0.3 mm by plasma coating method. The results revealed that the brake thermal efficiency was increased by 4% and brake specific fuel consumption was decreased by 9% for B25 with coated piston compared to un-coated piston with diesel. The smoke, CO, and HC emissions were also decreased for B25 blend with coated piston compared with the uncoated piton engine. The combustion characteristics such as peak pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate were increased and the ignition delay was decreased for B25 blend for the coated piston compared with diesel fuel.

  4. International biodiesel markets. Developments in production and trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, P. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The global biodiesel market has shown an exponential growth in production and trade across the past decade. Nowadays, more biodiesel than ever before is sourced from abroad and procurement areas - especially of large scale producers and traders - span the globe. While this trend is bound to continue, markets and trade developments are still strongly linked to support and trade policies. Furthermore, the biodiesel industry is strongly linked to other sectors (agriculture and mineral oil industry in particular) and faces significant market disturbances some of which have led to various inefficiencies in the past. Due to the pace of this market development, a methodological assessment and understanding of the numerous influencing factors was needed to reduce uncertainties and risks for those involved. A recently published analysis by Ecofys and the Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, provided such an analysis. It evaluates how the interaction of domestic policies steered global trade streams towards different markets, in particular in connection to underlying trade policies and additional market forces, over the past decade. It provides robust data on international production and trade volumes which have already served as input to the recently published Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This market brochure was commissioned by UFOP to build upon the methodologies and findings of Lamers et al. and to provide a picture of the global biodiesel market in 2010/2011. It is structured in six sections: an overview of global production volumes (Section 2); developments of EU (Section 3) and other world (Section 4) markets and (trade) policies; global net trade volumes (Section 5); vegetable oil trade patterns and their link to biodiesel trade (Section 6); Conclusions and Outlook (Section 7)

  5. Superstructure-based Design and Optimization of Batch Biodiesel Production Using Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuh, M. Z.; Nasir, N. F.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel as a fuel comprised of mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oil and animal fat. Biodiesel production is complex process which need systematic design and optimization. However, no case study using the process system engineering (PSE) elements which are superstructure optimization of batch process, it involves complex problems and uses mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP). The PSE offers a solution to complex engineering system by enabling the use of viable tools and techniques to better manage and comprehend the complexity of the system. This study is aimed to apply the PSE tools for the simulation of biodiesel process and optimization and to develop mathematical models for component of the plant for case A, B, C by using published kinetic data. Secondly, to determine economic analysis for biodiesel production, focusing on heterogeneous catalyst. Finally, the objective of this study is to develop the superstructure for biodiesel production by using heterogeneous catalyst. The mathematical models are developed by the superstructure and solving the resulting mixed integer non-linear model and estimation economic analysis by using MATLAB software. The results of the optimization process with the objective function of minimizing the annual production cost by batch process from case C is 23.2587 million USD. Overall, the implementation a study of process system engineering (PSE) has optimized the process of modelling, design and cost estimation. By optimizing the process, it results in solving the complex production and processing of biodiesel by batch.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Ying; Yan Yunjun [School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2008-03-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable biological resources. During the process of biodiesel production, lipase-catalyzed transesterification is a crucial step. However, current techniques using methanol as acyl acceptor have lower enzymatic activity; this limits the application of such techniques in large-scale biodiesel production. Furthermore, the lipid feedstock of currently available techniques is limited. In this paper, the technique of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of five different oils for biodiesel production with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor was investigated, and the transesterification reaction conditions were optimized. The operation stability of lipase under the obtained optimal conditions was further examined. The results showed that under optimal transesterification conditions, both plant oils and animal fats led to high yields of methyl ester: cotton-seed oil, 98%; rape-seed oil, 95%; soybean oil, 91%; tea-seed oil, 92%; and lard, 95%. Crude and refined cotton-seed oil or lard made no significant difference in yields of methyl ester. No loss of enzymatic activity was detected for lipase after being repeatedly used for 40 cycles (ca. 800 h), which indicates that the operational stability of lipase was fairly good under these conditions. Our results suggest that cotton-seed oil, rape-seed oil and lard might substitute soybean oil as suitable lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. Our results also show that our technique is fit for various lipid feedstocks both from plants and animals, and presents a very promising way for the large-scale biodiesel production. (orig.)

  7. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Anand, R B

    2015-11-01

    Renewable energy plays a predominant role in solving the current energy requirement problems and biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to tide over the energy crisis and conserve fossil fuels. The present work investigates an eco-friendly substitute for the replacement of fossil fuels and the experiments are designed to determine the effects of a catalyst in the biodiesel production processes. Pongamia pinnata oil was utilized to produce the biodiesel by using catalysts namely KOH and NaOH and the properties of the fuel were found by using Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur (CHNS) elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) Spectroscopy and the thermophysical properties were compared with those of neat diesel. In continuation, the working characteristics of the biodiesel and biodiesel-water emulsions were accomplished in a four stroke compression ignition engine and the results were compared to those of neat diesel. It was found that the exhaust emission characteristics like brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbons (BSHC) and smoke opacity were better for neat biodiesel (except brake specific nitric oxide BSNO) than those of neat diesel.

  8. Obtention and characterization of biodiesel; Obtencao e caracterizacao do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leonidas B.O. dos; Caitano, Moises; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Mothe, Cheila G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an ester resulting from the transesterification reaction of an alcohol and an oil obtained from biomass. The products of the transesterification are an ester and the glycerol. The biodiesel and the petroleum commercial diesel have similar properties, and they can be mixed and used in diesel motors. The use of biodiesel will allow a better exploration of the energetic potential of our cultures. The biodiesel has some advantages compared to others combustibles, such as adaptability to usual diesel motors and non-generation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} compounds. Many experiments with biodiesel have been made in Brazil since the 70's. This work made samples of biodiesel by transesterification batch reactions to many blends of soybean oil and residual fry oil, at room temperature, using mechanical mixture or magnetic agitation by a magnetic stirrer, using as catalysts sodium methoxide and potassium hydroxide. For each obtained sample tests to determine the Acidity Index (ABNT-MB-74), Saponification Index (ABNT-MB-75), Iodine Wijz Index (ABNT-MB- 77), thermal analysis by DTA and TG (TA Instruments SDT 2960, 30 to 800 deg C, 10 deg C/min at nitrogen atmosphere) and rheological test (Haake RS 150 Rheo Stress rheometer) were done. (author)

  9. Lipases as biocatalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohu; Niehus, Xochitl; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    The global shortages of fossil fuels, significant increase in the price of crude oil, and increased environmental concerns have stimulated the rapid growth in biodiesel production. Biodiesel is generally produced through transesterification reaction catalyzed either chemically or enzymatically. Enzymatic transesterification draws high attention because that process shows certain advantages over the chemical catalysis of transesterification and it is "greener." This paper reviews the current status of biodiesel production with lipase-biocatalysis approach, including sources of lipases, kinetics, and reaction mechanism of biodiesel production using lipases, and lipase immobilization techniques. Factors affecting biodiesel production and economic feasibility of biodiesel production using lipases are also covered.

  10. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  11. A study of performance and emission characteristics of computerized CI engine with composite biodiesel blends as fuel at various injection pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogish, H.; Chandarshekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    Transesterified vegetable oils are becoming increasingly important as alternative fuels for diesel engines due to several advantages. Biodiesel is a renewable, inexhaustible and green fuel. This paper presents the various properties of the oils derived from Jatropha and Pongamia, their mixes and biodiesels derived from the mixes. An innovative lab scale reactor was designed and developed for biodiesel production from mixed vegetable oils and used for the study of optimization of biodiesel yield [1]. Also, the analysis of data of experimental investigations carried out on a 3.75 kW computerized CI engine at injection pressures of 160 and 180 bar with methyl esters of mixed Jatropha and Pongamia in various proportions are also presented. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel blends was found to be higher than that of petrodiesel at various loading conditions. In case of Composite biodiesel blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and the amount of composite biodiesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 213 °C for biodiesel among the five loading conditions. When petrodiesel was used the exhaust gas temperature was observed to be 220 °C. The CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the biodiesel blends were lower than that of petrodiesel.

  12. Verf en biodiesel uit algen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooibroek, H.

    2009-01-01

    Met algen kun je niet alleen biodiesel en groene coatings produceren, maar ook iets doen aan het mestoverschot en de uitstoot van kooldioxide. In Delfzijl zijn kweekvijvers geopend om de technologie hiervoor te ontwikkelen

  13. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  14. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during

  15. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants.

  16. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, D. W.; Lance, M. J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Toops, T. J.

    2017-02-27

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na+K and 5 ppm Ca+Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  17. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, Daniel W [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Mccormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Toops, Todd J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  18. Value-added uses for crude glycerol--a byproduct of biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fangxia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodiesel is a promising alternative, and renewable, fuel. As its production increases, so does production of the principle co-product, crude glycerol. The effective utilization of crude glycerol will contribute to the viability of biodiesel. In this review, composition and quality factors of crude glycerol are discussed. The value-added utilization opportunities of crude glycerol are reviewed. The majority of crude glycerol is used as feedstock for production of other value-added chemicals, followed by animal feeds.

  19. Algae oil: a sustainable renewable fuel of future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Patel, Jay; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  20. Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable Fuel of Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monford Paul Abishek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  1. Controls and measurements of KU engine test cells for biodiesel, SynGas, and assisted biodiesel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    This thesis is comprised of three unique data acquisition and controls (CDAQ) projects. Each of these projects differs from each other; however, they all include the concept of testing renewable or future fuel sources. The projects were the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main responsibility of the author was to implement, develop and test CDAQ systems for the projects. For the Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, this thesis includes a report that summarizes the analysis and solution of building a controls and data acquisition system for this setup. It describes the purpose of the sensors selected along with their placement throughout the system. Moreover, it includes an explanation of the planned data collection system, along with two models describing the reforming process useful for system control. For the Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, the responsibility was to implement the CDAQ system for data collection. This project comprised a variety of different sensors that are being used collect the combustion characteristics of different biodiesel formulations. This project is currently being used by other graduates in order to complete their projects for subsequent publication. For the Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture, the author developed a reformate injection system to test different hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures as combustion augmentation. Hydrogen combustion has certain limiting factors, such as pre-ignition in spark ignition engines and inability to work as a singular fuel in compression ignition engines. To offset these issues, a dual-fuel methodology is utilized by injecting a hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture into the intake stream of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel. While carbon monoxide does degrade some of the

  2. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  3. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Brown, Andrew [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Nalin, Marcelo [LAVIE - Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Penteado Neto, Renato A. [Vehicle Emissions Laboratory, Institute of Technology for Development (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de [Analytical Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N. [Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Pauliquevis, Theotonio [Department of Natural and Earth Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema (Brazil); Godoi, Ana Flavia L. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP{sup ESR}) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP{sup ESR} results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm{sup −1} and 1600 cm{sup −1} indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of

  4. Microalgae: An Alternative Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. A. Saifullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients.

  5. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedia...

  6. Impact of Biodiesel Blends and Di-Ethyl-Ether on the Cold Starting Performance of a Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Clenci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiesel fuel in compression ignition engines has the potential to reduce CO2, which can lead to a reduction in global warming and environmental hazards. Biodiesel is an attractive fuel, as it is made from renewable resources. Many studies have been conducted to assess the impact of biodiesel use on engine performances. Most of them were carried out in positive temperature conditions. A major drawback associated with the use of biodiesel, however, is its poor cold flow properties, which have a direct influence on the cold starting performance of the engine. Since diesel engine behavior at negative temperatures is an important quality criterion of the engine’s operation, one goal of this paper is to assess the starting performance at −20 °C of a common automotive compression ignition engine, fueled with different blends of fossil diesel fuel and biodiesel. Results showed that increasing the biodiesel blend ratio generated a great deterioration in engine startability. Another goal of this study was to determine the biodiesel blend ratio limit at which the engine would not start at −20 °C and, subsequently, to investigate the impact of Di-Ethyl-Ether (DEE injection into the intake duct on the engine’s startability, which was found to be recovered.

  7. Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seed for Biodiesel Production: Effect of Moisture Content of Jatropha Seed and Co-solvent Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dani Supardan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one among the promising renewable fuels, holding various advantages compared with fossil fuel. In this study, reactive extraction of jatropha seed for biodiesel production was investigated. The effect of moisture content of jatropha seeds and cosolvent concentration was examined to determine the best performance of the biodiesel production yield. The co-solvent used is hexane. Design of experiments (DOE was used to study the effect of moisture content of jatropha seed and co-solvent of hexane concentration on the yield of biodiesel. Generally, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and co-solvent concentration affected biodiesel production yield. The experimental result also shows that the transesterification rate was improved when compared to the system without co-solvents. It was found that the production of biodiesel achieved an optimum level of 68.3% biodiesel yield at the following reaction conditions, i.e. moisture content of jatropha seed of 1% and hexane to oil ratio of 6.9 (w/w.

  8. FTIR Detection of Unregulated Emissions from a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Fuel%生物柴油发动机非常规排放的FTIR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丕强; 胡志远; 楼狄明

    2012-01-01

    采用傅里叶变换红外光谱FTIR,研究了汽车发动机燃用生物柴油的非常规排放物.所用燃料分别为纯柴油、纯生物柴油、生物柴油掺混比为20%的B20混合燃料.结果表明,该机燃用纯柴油和B320燃油的甲醛排放差别不大,纯生物柴油的甲醛排放则明显高于柴油.燃用B20燃油的乙醛排放略低于纯柴油;纯生物柴油的乙醛排放在中低负荷低于纯柴油,在高负荷时高于柴油及B20燃油.燃用B20燃油和纯生物柴油的丙酮排放要高于柴油,但排放量均较低.随着生物柴油掺混比例的增加,发动机甲苯和二氧化硫均呈逐渐下降趋势,纯生物柴油的二氧化硫排放大幅降低.燃用生物柴油后,发动机的二氧化碳排放有所降低,表明了生物柴油有利于温室气体的控制.%Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification. The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2H4O), acetone (C3H6O) , toluene (C7H8) , sulfur dioxide (SO2) , and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the

  9. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian; Asokan Guruprasath; Marta Vivar; Skryabin Igor; Karuppian Srithar

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD) and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD) are taken for the experimental analysis. Ex...

  10. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B; Silva, Thiago O B; Ingberman, Aline B G; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A; de Marchi, Mary Rosa R; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP(ESR)) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP(ESR) results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100cm(-1) and 1600cm(-1) indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Susana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides present in animal fat or vegetable oils, by displacing glycerine with a low molar mass alcohol. This resulting ester mixture has physico-chemical properties similar to those of petroleum diesel. This paper reviews the synthetic paths that lead to biodiesel by means of the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils. Although methyl esters are at present the only ones produced at industrial scale, the use of ethanol, which can also be obtained from renewable resources, has been considered, since it would generate a cleaner and more biocompatible fuel.El biodiésel se produce mediante la transesterificación de triglicéridos, presentes en grasas animales o aceites vegetales, en un proceso en el que un alcohol de bajo peso molecular desplaza a la glicerina. La mezcla de esteres así resultante posee unas propiedades físico-químicas similares a las del diésel procedente de petróleo. En este artículo se revisan las vías de síntesis de biodiésel mediante la transesterificación catalítica de aceites vegetales. Aunque actualmente a escala industrial solo se producen ésteres metílicos, también se ha considerado el uso de etanol, ya que éste se obtiene también de fuentes renovables, generando así un combustible más limpio y biocompatible.

  12. Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus as a potential source for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Shovon; Mallick, Nirupama [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal (India). Agricultural and Food Engineering Dept.

    2009-08-15

    Biodiesel from microalgae seems to be the only renewable biofuel that has the potential to completely replace the petroleum-derived transport fuels. Therefore, improving lipid content of microalgal strains could be a cost-effective second generation feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid accumulation in Scenedesmus obliquus was studied under various culture conditions. The most significant increase in lipid reached 43% of dry cell weight (dcw), which was recorded under N-deficiency (against 12.7% under control condition). Under P-deficiency and thiosulphate supplementation the lipid content also increased up to 30% (dcw). Application of response surface methodology in combination with central composite rotary design (CCRD) resulted in a lipid yield of 61.3% (against 58.3% obtained experimentally) at 0.04, 0.03, and 1.0 g l{sup -1} of nitrate, phosphate, and sodium thiosulphate, respectively for time culture of 8 days. Scenedesmus cells pre-grown in glucose (1.5%)-supplemented N 11 medium when subjected to the above optimized condition, the lipid accumulation was boosted up to 2.16 g l{sup -1}, the value {proportional_to}40-fold higher with respect to the control condition. The presence of palmitate and oleate as the major constituents makes S. obliquus biomass a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. (orig.)

  13. Smoke opacity in agricultural tractor in function of interior and metropolitano diesel mixture in mamona biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabile, Rubens Andre [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Lopes, Afonso; Camara, Felipe Thomas da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DER/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    The great demand for energy sources by production systems allied to scarcity of fossil fuels has motivated the development and production of biodiesel, which is a fuel produced from renewable sources. Given that, the aim of this study was to compare smoke opacity of an agricultural tractor engine, working with metropolitano and interior diesel mixed to mamona biodiesel, in seven proportions. The tests were conducted in the Departamento de Engenharia Rural of UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. The results showed that the diesel type did influence opacity of smoke, and metropolitano diesel showed best quality. It was also observed that, as biodiesel proportion increased, smoke opacity decreased until B75, turning to increase to B100. (author)

  14. Life cycle GHG emissions from microalgal biodiesel--a CA-GREET model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woertz, Ian C; Benemann, John R; Du, Niu; Unnasch, Stefan; Mendola, Dominick; Mitchell, B Greg; Lundquist, Tryg J

    2014-06-03

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) focused on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of microalgal biodiesel was carried out based on a detailed engineering and economic analysis. This LCA applies the methodology of the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (CA LCFS) and uses life cycle inventory (LCI) data for process inputs, based on the California-Modified Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (CA GREET) model. Based on detailed mass and energy balances, calculated GHG emissions from this algal biodiesel system are 70% lower than those of conventional diesel fuel, meeting the minimum 50% GHG reduction requirements under the EPA RFS2 and 60% for the European Union Renewable Energy Directive. This LCA study provides a guide to the research and development objectives that must be achieved to meet both economic and environmental goals for microalgae biodiesel production.

  15. First performance assessment of blends of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean biodiesel with kerosene as fuel for domestic purposes in rural-Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quansah E., K. Preko, L. K. Amekudzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance assessments of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean based biodiesel were carried out to investigate their potential use as conventional substitute for kerosene for domestic purposes in rural- Ghana. The assessments were done by comparing some of the combustion characteristics of blends of the biodiesel with kerosene. The blends were categorised as B100 (100% biodiesel, B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% kerosene, B60 (60% biodiesel and 40% kerosene, B40 (40% biodiesel and 60% kerosene, B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% kerosene and B0 (pure kerosene. The results showed that the calorific values of the B100s were less than that of the B0 and decreasing in the order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. The wick wastage results for both the B100s and B0, revealed higher rates in the WTL than the BB even though the BB recorded low fuel consumption rates than the WTL for both B100s and B0. Similarly, the luminous intensity test with the B100s showed low values in WTL than the BB in a decreasing order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. However, B0 recorded higher luminous intensity values that were quite comparable in both WTL and BB.

  16. First performance assessment of blends of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean biodiesel with kerosene as fuel for domestic purposes in rural-Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quansah, E.; Preko, K.; Amekudzi, L.K. [Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah, University of Science and Technology (KNUST), University Post Office, PMB Kumasi (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Performance assessments of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean based biodiesel were carried out to investigate their potential use as conventional substitute for kerosene for domestic purposes in rural- Ghana. The assessments were done by comparing some of the combustion characteristics of blends of the biodiesel with kerosene. The blends were categorised as B100 (100% biodiesel), B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% kerosene), B60 (60% biodiesel and 40% kerosene), B40 (40% biodiesel and 60% kerosene), B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% kerosene) and B0 (pure kerosene). The results showed that the calorific values of the B100s were less than that of the B0 and decreasing in the order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. The wick wastage results for both the B100s and B0, revealed higher rates in the WTL than the BB even though the BB recorded low fuel consumption rates than the WTL for both B100s and B0. Similarly, the luminous intensity test with the B100s showed low values in WTL than the BB in a decreasing order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. However, B0 recorded higher luminous intensity values that were quite comparable in both WTL and BB.

  17. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  18. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-04-01

    An accelerated durability test method determined the potential impact of biodiesel ash impurities, including engine testing with multiple diesel particulate filter substrate types, as well as diesel oxidation catalyst and selective catalyst reduction catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of a DPF after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in thermal shock resistance. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher hydrocarbon slip and a reduction in NO2 formation. The SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging. The SCR catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF and exposed to B20 exhaust suffered a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. The results of this study suggest that long-term operation with B20 at the current specification limits for alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities will adversely impact the performance of DOC, DPF and SCR systems.

  19. Experimental combustion analysis of a hsdi diesel engine fuelled with palm oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN AGUDELO; ELKIN GUTIÉRREZ; PEDRO BENJUMEA

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively). To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant po...

  20. Experimental evaluation of C.I. engine performance using diesel blended with Jatropha biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar, Alok Chaube, Shashi Kumar Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Costlier and depleting fossil fuels are prompting researchers to use edible as well as non-edible vegetable oils as promising alternative to petro-diesel. The higher viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping, atomization and spray characteristics. The improper mixing of vegetable oils with air leads to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible and animal fat. The main feedstock for biodiesel production can be non-edible oil obtained from Jatropha curcas plant. Jatropha curcas plant can be cultivated on different terrains in India under extreme climatic conditions. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or as a blend with petro-diesel in different proportions. It is being used in CI engines because it has properties similar to petro-diesel. The aim of this paper is to analyze suitability of petro-diesel blended with biodiesel in varying proportions in CI engines. For this purpose, a stationary single-cylinder four-stroke CI engine was tested with diesel blended with Jatropha biodiesel in 0%, 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 100%. Comparative measures of specific fuel consumption (SFC, brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO2, CO, O2, NOX have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of comparable brake thermal efficiency and SFC with lower emissions (HC, CO2, CO was observed with B20 fuel compared to petro-diesel. Volumetric efficiency showed almost no variation for all the blends. Important observations related to noise and vibrations during testing have also been discussed.

  1. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... comment on EPA's analyses of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel...

  2. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... types of biofuel shows that biodiesel and renewable diesel produced from palm oil have estimated... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil...

  3. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel-Diesel Blends Containing 5% Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Sayin Kul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, energy and exergy analysis were performed for a single cylinder, water-cooled diesel engine using biodiesel, diesel and bioethanol blends. Each experiment was performed at twelve different engine speeds between 1000 and 3000 rev/min at intervals of 200 rev/min for four different fuel blends. The fuel blends, prepared by mixing biodiesel and diesel in different proportions fuel with 5% bioethanol, are identified as D92B3E5 (92% diesel, 3% biodiesel and 5% bioethanol, D85B10E5 (85% diesel, 10% biodiesel and 5% bioethanol, D80B15E5(80% diesel, 15% biodiesel and 5% bioethanol and D75B20E5 (75% diesel, 20% biodiesel and 5% bioethanol. The effect of blends on energy and exergy analysis was investigated for the different engine speeds and all the results were compared with effect of D100 reference fuel. The maximum thermal efficiencies obtained were 31.42% at 1500 rev/min for D100 and 31.42%, 28.68%, 28.1%, 28% and 27.18% at 1400 rev/min, respectively, for D92B3E5, D85B10E5, D80B15E5, D75B20E5. Maximum exergetic efficiencies were also obtained as 29.38%, 26.8%, 26.33%, 26.15% and 25.38%, respectively, for the abovementioned fuels. As a result of our analyses, it was determined that D100 fuel has a slightly higher thermal and exergetic efficiency than other fuel blends and all the results are quite close to each other.

  4. Studying the effect of compression ratio on an engine fueled with waste oil produced biodiesel/diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL_Kassaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wasted cooking oil from restaurants was used to produce neat (pure biodiesel through transesterification, and then used to prepare biodiesel/diesel blends. The effect of blending ratio and compression ratio on a diesel engine performance has been investigated. Emission and combustion characteristics was studded when the engine operated using the different blends (B10, B20, B30, and B50 and normal diesel fuel (B0 as well as when varying the compression ratio from 14 to 16 to 18. The result shows that the engine torque for all blends increases as the compression ratio increases. The bsfc for all blends decreases as the compression ratio increases and at all compression ratios bsfc remains higher for the higher blends as the biodiesel percent increase. The change of compression ratio from 14 to 18 resulted in, 18.39%, 27.48%, 18.5%, and 19.82% increase in brake thermal efficiency in case of B10, B20, B30, and B50 respectively. On an average, the CO2 emission increased by 14.28%, the HC emission reduced by 52%, CO emission reduced by 37.5% and NOx emission increased by 36.84% when compression ratio was increased from 14 to 18. In spite of the slightly higher viscosity and lower volatility of biodiesel, the ignition delay seems to be lower for biodiesel than for diesel. On average, the delay period decreased by 13.95% when compression ratio was increased from 14 to 18. From this study, increasing the compression ratio had more benefits with biodiesel than that with pure diesel.

  5. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  6. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  7. Proinflammatory effects of diesel exhaust particles from moderate blend concentrations of 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel in BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells-The FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuland, Tonje S; Refsnes, Magne; Magnusson, Pål; Oczkowski, Michał; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Kruszewski, Marcin; Mruk, Remigiusz; Myhre, Oddvar; Lankoff, Anna; Øvrevik, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel fuel fuels are introduced at an increasing extent as a more carbon-neutral alternative to reduce CO2-emissions, compared to conventional diesel fuel. In the present study we have investigated the impact of increasing the use of 1st generation fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel from current 7% blend (B7) to 20% blend (B20), or by increasing the biodiesel content by adding 2nd generation hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) based biodiesel (SHB; Synthetic Hydrocarbon Biofuel) on toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in an in vitro system. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 4 and 20h to DEP from B7, B20 and SHB at different concentrations, and examined for effects on gene expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), CXCL8 (IL-8), CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The results show that both B20 and SHB were more potent inducers of IL-6 expression compared to B7. Only B20 induced statistically significant increases in CXCL8 expression. By comparison the rank order of potency to induce CYP1A1 was SHB>B7>B20. No statistically significant difference were observed form HO-1 expression, suggesting that the differences in cytokine responses were not due to oxidative stress. The results show that even moderate increases in biodiesel blends, from 7% to 20%, may increase the proinflammatory potential of emitted DEP in BEAS-2B cells. This effect was observed for both addition of 1st generation FAME and 2nd generation HVO biodiesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  9. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  10. Recent trends in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Tabatabaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article fully discusses the recent trends in the production of one the most attractive types of biofuels, i.e., biodiesel.with a focus on the existing obstacles for its large scale production. Moreover, recent innovations/improvements under three categories of upstream, mainstream, and downstream processes are also presented. Upstream strategies are mainly focused on seeking more sustainable oil feedstocks and/or enhancing the quality of waste-oriented ones. The mainstream strategies section highlights the numerous attempts made to enhance agitation efficiency including chemical and/or mechanical strategies. Finally, the innovative downstream strategies basically dealing with 1 separation of biodiesel and glycerin, 2 purification of biodiesel and glycerin, and 3 improving the characteristics of the produced fuel, are comprehensively reviewed.

  11. Biodiesel production : process and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O biodiesel (ésteres) é um combustível que pode ser produzido a partir de óleos vegetais, gorduras animais e óleo de origem microbiana (algas, fungos e bactérias). As matérias-primas são convertidas em biodiesel por meio de uma reação química envolvendo álcool e catalisador. Esta reação é chamada de transesterificação ou etanólise, caso o álcool for o etanol. Neste trabalho, foi realizada a produção de biodiesel utilizando os seguintes sistemas: reator em batelada, processo de destila...

  12. Assessment of financial risk in renewable biodiesel firms

    OpenAIRE

    Vahlström, Tobias; Cavka, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transport sector is expected to increase substantially over the coming decades. The uncertainty in the forecasts are relatively high regarding the size of the increase but reports from the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) points to an increase of 56 percent between 2010 and 2040 (IEO2013, 2013, p. 9). World Energy Council forecasts an increase between 30 and 85 percent, depending on the impact of various factors such as market regulation, population growth,...

  13. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  14. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  15. OPTIMASI VARIABEL YANG PALING BERPENGARUH PADA PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK BIJI RANDU DENGAN PROSES TRANSESTERIFIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudzofar Sofyan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [Title: Biodiesel Production from Kapok Seed Oil with KOH Catalyst Using Two Steps Transesterification Process] Biodiesel is one of diesel fuel alternative made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. One of the natural ingredients that can be used as a material in the production of biodiesel is kapok seed. The existence of relatively abundant raw materials is a great opportunity to be developed into alternative energy options which developed on a commercial scale. Biodiesel from kapok seed oil can be made through a two-stage transesterification reaction which helped by using a base catalyst. This research aims to characterize the kapok seed oil, determine the most influential variables between temperature, the ratio of methanol-oil, and time against yield by the factorial design method, optimization variables that most influence on yield, and characterize the biodiesel. Two-stage transesterification process using KOH as the catalyst with changing variables: temperature, methanol-oil ratio, and time. The result showed that kapok seed oil has FFA content: 17.97% and a saponification number: 172.55 mgKOH/g. Most influential variable is the variable of time. At the variable optimization of time, the result were optimally obtained at the 105th minutes with yield: 77.39%. The characterization results of biodiesel’s product show from seven parameters of testing, four parameters are required in accordance with SNI.

  16. Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, M.M.; Lee, K.T.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-11-15

    Biodiesel has high potential as a new and renewable energy source in the future, as a substitution fuel for petroleum-derived diesel and can be used in existing diesel engine without modification. Currently, more than 95% of the world biodiesel is produced from edible oil which is easily available on large scale from the agricultural industry. However, continuous and large-scale production of biodiesel from edible oil without proper planning may cause negative impact to the world, such as depletion of food supply leading to economic imbalance. A possible solution to overcome this problem is to use non-edible oil or waste edible oil (WEO). In this context, the next question that comes in mind would be if the use of non-edible oil overcomes the short-comings of using edible oil. Apart from that, if WEO were to be used, is it sufficient to meet the demand of biodiesel. All these issues will be addressed in this paper by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of using edible oil vs. non-edible vs. WEO as feedstock for biodiesel production. The discussion will cover various aspects ranging from oil composition, oil yield, economics, cultivation requirements, land availability and also the resources availability. Finally, a proposed solution will be presented. (author)

  17. Potential land for plantation of Jatropha curcas as feedstocks for biodiesel in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a renewable energy,biofuel has attracted great attention in China and the rest of world.Concerned with the national food security,China recently has shifted its biofuel development priority from grain-based to non-grain-based biofuels,including forest-based biodiesel,since 2007.Jatropha curcas is one of major biodiesel feedstocks.However,there is rising debate on availability of land for expanding Jatropha curcas areas.The overall goal of this paper is to evaluate potential land for Jatropha curcas used as feedstock for biodiesel in China.Based on remote sensing data on land use,data on meteorological,soil and land slope,and suitable environment for Jatropha curcas plantation,this study uses Agro Ecological Zone method and considers social-economic constraints to evaluate potential suitable land for Jatropha curcas plantation in China’s major Jatropha curcas production region,Southwest China.The results show that while there are some potential lands to expand Jatropha curcas areas,amount of these lands will hardly meet the government’s target for Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels development in the future.China may need to reconsider its long-term targets on the development of Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels.

  18. Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ijaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 °C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 °C, fire point 125 °C, cloud point −10 °C and pour point −20 °C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion.

  19. Biodiesel Production using Heterogeneous Catalyst in CSTR: Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keong, L. S.; Patle, D. S.; Shukor, S. R.; Ahmad, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has emerged as a potential replacement for petroleum-based diesels. Heterogeneous catalyst has become the focus of researches in biodiesel production with the intention to overcome problems associated with homogeneous catalyzed processes. The simulation of heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel production has not been thoroughly studied. Hence, a simulation of carbon-based solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production from waste oil with high FFA content (50 weight%) was developed in the present work to study the feasibility and potential of the simulated process. The simulated process produces biodiesel through simultaneous transesterification and esterification with the consideration of reaction kinetics. The developed simulation is feasible and capable to produce 2.81kmol/hr of FAME meeting the international standard (EN 14214). Yields of 68.61% and 97.19% are achieved for transesterification and esterification respectively. Sensitivity analyses of FFA composition in waste oil, methanol to oil ratio, reactor pressure and temperature towards FAME yield from both reactions were carried out. Optimization of reactor temperature was done to maximize FAME products.

  20. Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60% and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3 in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in research and the industrial production of biodiesel (palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article. The second part focuses on some new concepts for the future development of technology for biodiesel production, based on the application of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions or the use of lipases as an alternative catalyst for this reaction.

  1. Potential of waste frying oil as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Syed M Raza [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)], e-mail: chemicalraza@gmail.com; Wani, Omar Bashir; Athar, Moina [Dept. of Petroleum Studies, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)

    2012-11-01

    To face the challenges of climbing Petroleum demand and of climate changes related to Carbon dioxide emissions, interest grows in sustainable fuels made from organic matter. World production of bio fuels has experienced phenomenal growth. The search for alternatives to petroleum based fuel has led to the development of fuels from various renewable sources, including feed stocks, such as fats and oils. Several kinds of fuels can be derived from these feed stocks. One of them is biodiesel, which is mono alkyl esters of vegetables oils and animal fats and produced by transesterification of oil and fats with alcohols in the presence of acid, alkali or enzyme base catalysts. The main hurdle in using the biodiesel is its cost which is mainly the cost of virgin oil. In India every year Millions of liters of waste frying oil are discarded into the sewage system which adds cost to its treatment and add up to the pollution of ground water. This paper proposed the production of Bio-diesel from the very same waste frying oil. The production of Bio-diesel from this waste frying oil offers economic, social, environmental and health benefits. The Bio-diesel produced finds the same use as the conventional diesel but this happens to be cost effective.

  2. An estimation of the willingness to pay for biodiesel: a pilot study of diesel consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathmanathan Sivashankar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka’s energy policy presumes that the country will be meeting 20% of its energy requirements by non-conventional renewable energy resources by 2020. This study attempts to assess diesel vehicle owners’ willingness to pay (WTP for Jatropha biodiesel and the factors affecting their decisions. The Contingent valuation method (CVM was used to elicit the WTP for the non-marketed biodiesel, which leads to a hypothetical allocation. For diesel vehicle users, a single bid approach was used at Rs.121/= per litre (€ 0.83. The study was carried out in Kandy region among diesel vehicle users. The factors affecting WTP were estimated using probit regression and WTP was estimated using nonparametric estimation techniques. The mean WTP for biodiesel by the diesel vehicle users was Rs.109 per litre (€ 0.74 for lower bound levels. The median WTP was Rs.124/= per litre (€ 0.85. Elderly respondents with higher education are less likely to pay for biodiesel in both samples. Married respondents with higher income are more likely to pay higher prices for biodiesel.

  3. Response surface methodology assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using encapsulated mixed enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Sirajunnisa Abdul; Duraiarasan, Surendhiran

    2016-01-01

    In the recent scenario, consumption of petroleum fuels has increased to greater height which has led to deforestation and decline in fossil fuels. In order to tackle the perilous situation, alternative fuel has to be generated. Biofuels play a vital role in substituting the diesel fuels as they are renewable and ecofriendly. Biodiesel, often referred to as green fuel, could be a potential replacement as it could be synthesized from varied substrates, advantageous being the microalgae in several ways. The present investigation was dealt with the interesterification of waste cooking oil using immobilised lipase from mixed cultures for biodiesel production. In order to standardize the production for a scale up process, the parameters necessary for interesterification had been optimized using the statistical tool, Central Composite Design - Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions required to generate biodiesel were 2 g enzyme load, 1:12 oil to methyl acetate ratio, 60 h reaction time and 35 °C temperature, yielding a maximum of 93.61% biodiesel. The immobilised lipase beads remain stable without any changes in their function and structure even after 20 cycles which made this study, less cost intensive. In conclusion, the study revealed that the cooking oil, a residue of many dining centers, left as waste product, can be used as a potential raw material for the production of ecofriendly and cost effective biofuel, the biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Kuwornoo, Julius C. Ahiekpor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 oC.

  5. A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-05-01

    This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

  6. Combined iron and sulfate reduction biostimulation as a novel approach to enhance BTEX and PAH source-zone biodegradation in biodiesel blend-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliana B; Ramos, Débora T; Larose, Catherine; Fernandes, Marilda; Lazzarin, Helen S C; Vogel, Timothy M; Corseuil, Henry X

    2017-03-15

    The use of biodiesel as a transportation fuel and its growing mandatory blending percentage in diesel increase the likelihood of contaminating groundwater with diesel/biodiesel blends. A 100L-field experiment with B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel, v/v) was conducted to assess the potential for the combined biostimulation of iron and sulfate reducing bacteria to enhance BTEX and PAH biodegradation in a diesel/biodiesel blend-contaminated groundwater. A B20 field experiment under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) was used as a baseline control. Ammonium acetate and a low-cost and sustainable product recovered from acid mine drainage treatment were used to stimulate iron and sulfate-reducing conditions. As a result, benzene and naphthalene concentrations (maximum concentrations were 28.1μgL(-1) and 10.0μgL(-1), respectively) remained lower than the MNA experiment (maximum concentrations were 974.7μgL(-1) and 121.3μgL(-1), respectively) over the whole experiment. Geochemical changes were chronologically consistent with the temporal change of the predominance of Geobacter and GOUTA19 which might be the key players responsible for the rapid attenuation of benzene and naphthalene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first field experiment to demonstrate the potential for the combined iron and sulfate biostimulation to enhance B20 source-zone biodegradation.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  8. Interfacial reaction using particle-immobilized reagents in a fluidized reactor. Determination of glycerol in biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishov, Andrey; Zabrodin, Andrey; Moskvin, Leonid; Andruch, Vasil; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-03-31

    A novel fluidized beads strategy for utilization of particle-immobilized reagents in flow analysis was developed in this study. The performance of the suggested strategy was demonstrated by the determination of glycerol in biodiesel. This analytical task was used as a proof-of-concept example. The method is based on on-line extraction of glycerol from biodiesel into aqueous stationary phase of extraction-chromatographic column, followed by elution and spectrophotometric determination in the form of copper glycerate formed in a fluidized reactor of stepwise injection system. The floating of cation exchange resin Dowex(®) 50WX4, saturated with Cu(II) ions in liquid phase, was accomplished by air-bubbling. The linear range was from 100 to 1000 mg kg(-1), and the limit of detection, calculated as 3s of a blank test (n = 5), was found to be 30 mg kg(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biodiesel and biodiesel-blend (B 20) samples.

  9. Climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2014-12-16

    Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.

  10. A comparative analysis of in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particles from combustion of 1st- and 2nd-generation biodiesel fuels in relation to their physicochemical properties-the FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankoff, Anna; Brzoska, Kamil; Czarnocka, Joanna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Lisowska, Halina; Mruk, Remigiusz; Øvrevik, Johan; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Zuberek, Mariusz; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2017-07-03

    Biodiesels represent more carbon-neutral fuels and are introduced at an increasing extent to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. However, the potential impact of different types and blend concentrations of biodiesel on the toxicity of diesel engine emissions are still relatively scarce and to some extent contradictory. The objective of the present work was to compare the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from combustion of two 1st-generation fuels: 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; B7) and 20% FAME (B20) and a 2nd-generation 20% FAME/HVO (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel (SHB)) fuel. Our findings indicate that particulate emissions of each type of biodiesel fuel induce cytotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as cell death (apoptosis or necrosis), decreased protein concentrations, intracellular ROS production, as well as increased expression of antioxidant genes and genes coding for DNA damage-response proteins. The different biodiesel blend percentages and biodiesel feedstocks led to marked differences in chemical composition of the emitted DEP. The different DEPs also displayed statistically significant differences in cytotoxicity in A549 and BEAS-2B cells, but the magnitude of these variations was limited. Overall, it seems that increasing biodiesel blend concentrations from the current 7 to 20% FAME, or substituting 1st-generation FAME biodiesel with 2nd-generation HVO biodiesel (at least below 20% blends), affects the in vitro toxicity of the emitted DEP to some extent, but the biological significance of this may be moderate.

  11. Study on Carbonyl Emissions of Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruina Li; Zhong Wang; Guangju Xu

    2017-01-01

      Biodiesel is a kind of high-quality alternative fuel of diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend were used in a single cylinder diesel engine to study the carbonyl emissions...

  12. [Progress and prospect of biodiesel industry in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zeng, Jing; Du, Wei; Liu, Dehua

    2015-06-01

    The development of biodiesel and production feedstock in China was introduced, and the biodiesel production technologies as well as corresponding representative enterprises were reviewed. In addition, the development prospect of biodiesel industry in China was addressed.

  13. Relative quantitative PCR to assess bacterial community dynamics during biodegradation of diesel and biodiesel fuels under various aeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyplik, Paweł; Schmidt, Marcin; Szulc, Alicja; Marecik, Roman; Lisiecki, Piotr; Heipieper, Hermann J; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Vainshtein, Mikhail; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2011-03-01

    The degradation of diesel fuel, B20 blend and biodiesel in liquid cultures by a seven-member bacterial consortium was compared under conditions with full aeration or with limited aeration with nitrate added as main electron acceptor. Community dynamics was assessed employing real-time PCR and the ddCt method for relative quantification. Biodegradation rates increased with increasing biodiesel content, but were significantly reduced under conditions with nitrate. Despite large variations in biodegradation rates, magnitude changes in population numbers were typically observed only from zero to one order, regardless the type of fuel and electron acceptor. Only Comamonadaceae and Variovorax sp. distinctly preferred aerobic conditions, and during aerobic growth showed suppression as fuel contained more biodiesel. Thus, the consortium is relatively stable and most of the degraders can shift their metabolism from hydrocarbons to biodiesel. The stability of the consortium is of interest in the context of biodiesel-mediated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  15. Biodiesel production using heterogenous catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAG) to produce biodiesel is based on the homogenous catalyst method using strong base such as hydroxides or methoxides. However, this method results in a number of problems: (1) acid pre-treatment is required of feedstocks high in free fatty ac...

  16. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use in Corps of Engineers Floating Plant Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 11 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use...Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use in Corps of Engineers Floating Plant Operations Michael Tubman and Timothy Welp Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory...sensitive emissions, increase use of renewable energy, and reduce the use of fossil fuels was conducted with funding from the U.S. Army Corps of

  17. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing two main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data. The ....... Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  18. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanopa, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing multiple main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data........ Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  19. Peningkatan Kinerja Mesin Diesel dengan Produksi Biodiesel dari Kelapa (Coconut Nufera dan Unjuk Kinerjanya Berbasis Transesterifikasi dengan Sistim Injeksi Langsung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Sisbudi Harsono

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. Use of biodiesel especially from CPO has not been popularly used either for transportation nor for industrial fuel, while in foreign countries, it has been used for transportation fuel even just be blended. As the available of fosil fuel ten to decrease, the use of a renewable fuel biodiesel will be promising. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of amall diesel engine using biodiesel as fuel source. Performance test of small diesel engine using biodiesel was conducted in the laboratory by using engine dynamometer. The results shown that mixing 30% of biodiesel and 70% fosil fuel (petro diesel gave the best performance among other percentage mixture. Mixing 30% of biodiesel and 70% fosil fuel gave maximum power 5.36 HP at 2190 rpm and maximum torque 1.748 Nm. Its lower comparing than pure petro diesel that gave 5.41 HP at 2200 rpm and maximum torque 1.761 Nm. The gas emission was also evaluated simultaneously. The results shown that the mixing 30%: 70% produced low carbon monoxide (CO and low hydrocarbon (HC than petro diesel.

  20. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  1. Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  2. Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Jitendra N.; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global concern about adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust. In the current study, parametric investigations were carried out using a CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection) diesel engine operated at different loads at two different engine speeds (1800 and 2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to collect and measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend collected on a 47 mm quartz substrate. The collected PM (particulate matter) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For both diesel and biodiesel, BSOF results showed decreasing levels with increasing engine load. B20 showed higher BSOF as compared to those measured with diesel. The concentration of different trace metals analyzed also showed decreasing trends with increasing engine loads. In addition, real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out on the primary engine exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. Analysis of OC/EC data suggested that the ratio of OC to EC decreases with corresponding increase in engine load for both fuels. A peak in PAH concentration was observed at 60% engine load at 1800 rpm and 20% engine load at 2400 rpm engine speeds almost identical for both kinds of fuels. Comparison of chemical components of PM emitted from this CRDI engine provides new insight in terms of PM toxicity for B20 vis-a-vis diesel.

  3. Characterization of Palm Oil as Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorey, Neeraj; Ghosh, Shankha; Srivastava, Priyank; Kumar, Vivek

    2017-08-01

    The various sources of energy from which mechanical energy is obtained are non-renewable and are thus considered to be unsustainable. These sources include the various fossil fuels like the petroleum, coal and the natural gas. The burning of fossil fuels led to the production of the greenhouse gases increasing the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. The adverse effects are the global warming and the ozone layer depletion. In a nation like India, where consumable oils are still transported in, it is advantageous to investigate the likelihood of utilising such non-palatable oils as a part of CI motors which are not by and by used as cooking oil. Palm oil (otherwise called dendê oil, from Portuguese) is a consumable vegetable oil got from the monocarp (ruddy mash) of the product of the oil palms. The major objective is to provide a cheap and effective alternative to diesel. This paper is an exploration of the capability of the palm oil as a practical, modest and effective hotspot for the generation of biodiesel. the paper is based on the characterisation of palm oil compare to diesel.

  4. New regulatory landmark for biodiesel use; Novo marco regulatorio para usos de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rosangela Moreira de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Biodiesel Production and Use of Biodiesel - PNPB, made possible the insert of Biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix. The National Agency of the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP was responsible to create the outline regulatory that established the rules for entrance and commercialization of this new fuel in the country. This work seeks to present the effects of the implantation of the new relative rules to the biodiesel use. (author)

  5. Chemical alternative to the energetic use of biodiesel; Chemische Alternativen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S; Ruesch genannt Klaas, M.; Harperscheid, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie und Technologie der Fette - H.P. Kaufmann-Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Biodiesel is environment-friendly, but much more costly to produce than `normal` diesel fuel. Higher economic efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel as a chemical feedstock instead. Tenside and polymers offer a wide range of applications. (orig) [Deutsch] Biodiesel ist ein umweltfreundlicher Kraftstoff, jedoch in der Herstellung deutlich teurer als Mineraloel-Dieselkraftstoff. Eine signifikant hoehere Wertschoepfung koennte errreicht werden, wenn Biodiesel nicht im Kraftstoffsektor, sondern als chemischer Rohstoff verwendet wird. Tenside und Polymere sind hierbei grossvolumige Einsatzbereiche. (orig)

  6. Potential effects of using biodiesel in road-traffic on air quality over the Porto urban area, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabel; Monteiro, Alexandra; Lopes, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the impacts of biodiesel blends use in road-traffic on air quality. In this frame, the air quality numerical modelling system WRF-EURAD was applied over Portugal and the Porto urban area, forced by two emission scenarios (including CO, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and benzene): a reference scenario, without biofuels, and a scenario where a B20 fuel (20% biodiesel/80% diesel, v/v) is used by the diesel vehicle fleet. Regarding carbonyl compounds, emission scenarios pointed out that B20 fuel can promote an increase of 20% on formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein emissions, leading to increments on equivalent ozone production. On the other hand, through the air quality modelling exercise, it was verified that the use of B20 helps in controlling air pollution, improving CO and NO2 concentrations in urban airshed in about 20% and 10%, respectively, taking into account a regional simulation grid. However, according to the urban scale simulation, NO2 levels can increase in about 1%, due to the use of B20, over the Porto urban area. For the remaining studied pollutants, namely PM10 and PM2.5, mean concentrations will be reduced all over the territory, however in a negligible amount of <1%.

  7. Performance and combustion analysis of Mahua biodiesel on a single cylinder compression ignition engine using electronic fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Anandkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, experiment is carried out on a 1500 rpm constant speed single cylinder Diesel engine. The test is carried out with Neat diesel, neat biodiesel, and blend B20. The engine considered was run with electronic fuel injection system supported by common rail direct injection to obtain high atomization and effective air utilization inside the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine in terms of break thermal efficiency and brake specific energy consumption was found and compared. The B20 blend shows 1.11% decrease in break thermal efficiency and 3.35% increase in brake specific energy consumption than diesel. The combustion characteristics found are in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate and compared for peak pressure load to understand the nature of combustion process. For each fuel test run, the maximum peak pressure is observed at part load condition. The rate of change of pressure and heat release rate of diesel is high compared to pure biodiesel and B20 blend. The diffusion combustion is observed to be predominant in case of B100 than B20 and Neat diesel.

  8. Effect of mixture of alcohols on biodiesel properties which produced from waste cooking oils and compare combustion performance and emissions of biodiesels with petrodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansourpoor Mojtaba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the petroleum price and environmental problems have been driving forces to findalternative and renewable energy resources. Biodiesel has attracted the attention of many researchersdue to various advantages associated with its usages. Several aspects including the type of catalyst,molar ratio of alcohol to oil, temperature, purity of reactants and free fatty acid content have mainlyinfluence on transesterification. In this work, waste cooking oils and two types of alcohols with differentmolar ratio of methanol to ethanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst were used as materials. Effect ofalcohol on the physical properties, combustion efficiency and emitted gases of biodiesels were studiedand compared with petrodiesel. Mixture of methanol and ethanol were used for transesterification inorder to optimize solvent property of methanol and rapid equilibrium using methanol. Waste cooking oilis considered as the most suitable material due to its availability and cost-effectiveness. To examine theperformance and emissions of biodiesels, a wet base semi-industrial boiler was used for combustion anda flue-gas analyzer has measured the emitted gases. Finally, physical properties of biodiesels weremeasured in Abadan’s Oil Refinery Laboratory.

  9. Thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Marta M.; Fernandes, Valter J. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Combustiveis, Natal, RN, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59072970 (Brazil); Candeia, Roberlucia A.; Bezerra, Aline F.; Souza, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento Quimica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, Fernando C. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    The castor oil seed has 47-49% of oil. Biodiesel obtained from castor oil has a lower cost compared to the ones obtained from other oils, as due its solvability in alcohol transesterification occurs without heating. The use of biodiesel will allow a reduction on the consumption of petroleum-derived fuels minimizing the harmful effects on the environment. This work wants to provide a thermoanalytical and physical-chemistry characterization of castor oil and biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained with methyl alcohol and characterized through several techniques. Gas chromatography indicated methyl ester content of 97.7%. The volatilization of biodiesel starts and finishes under inferior temperatures than the beginning and final volatilization temperatures of castor oil. Biodiesel data are very close to the volatilization temperatures of conventional diesel. (author)

  10. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, K.S. [ed.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  11. Pseudomonas fluorescens Tn5-B20 mutant RA92 responds to carbon limitation in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.; Veen, van J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Tn5-B20 (lacZ as reporter gene) transcriptional fusion mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens R2f Rpr were screened for their response to carbon limitation. Reporter gene expression was specifically induced by this stress factor in one mutant, designated RA92, and to a lower extent by phosphorus and nit

  12. An ultrasound-assisted system for the optimization of biodiesel production from chicken fat oil using a genetic algorithm and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyazi, E; Ghobadian, B; Najafi, G; Hosseinzadeh, B; Mamat, R; Hosseinzadeh, J

    2015-09-01

    Biodiesel is a green (clean), renewable energy source and is an alternative for diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil or fat. Fats and oils react with alcohol to produce methyl ester, which is generally known as biodiesel. Because vegetable oil and animal fat wastes are cheaper, the tendency to produce biodiesel from these materials is increasing. In this research, the effect of some parameters such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, 8:1), the catalyst concentration (0.75%, 1% and 1.25% w/w) and the time for the transesterification reaction using ultrasonication on the rate of the fatty acids-to-methyl ester (biodiesel) conversion percentage have been studied (3, 6 and 9 min). In biodiesel production from chicken fat, when increasing the catalyst concentration up to 1%, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage was first increased and then decreased. Upon increasing the molar ratio from 4:1 to 6:1 and then to 8:1, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage increased by 21.9% and then 22.8%, respectively. The optimal point is determined by response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithms (GAs). The biodiesel production from chicken fat by ultrasonic waves with a 1% w/w catalyst percentage, 7:1 alcohol-to-oil molar ratio and 9 min reaction time was equal to 94.8%. For biodiesel that was produced by ultrasonic waves under a similar conversion percentage condition compared to the conventional method, the reaction time was decreased by approximately 87.5%. The time reduction for the ultrasonic method compared to the conventional method makes the ultrasonic method superior.

  13. Biodiesel de mamona no diesel interior e metropolitano em trator agrícola Mamona biodiesel in interior and metropolitan diesel in agricultural tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens A. Tabile

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A demanda de recursos energéticos pelos sistemas de produção, aliada à escassez dos combustíveis fósseis, tem motivado a produção do Biodiesel, que é um combustível obtido de fontes renováveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar dois ensaios: o primeiro dinâmico, para avaliar o desempenho operacional utilizando como parâmetro o consumo de combustível, e o segundo, estático, para mensurar a opacidade da fumaça (material particulado do motor de um trator agrícola, operando com diesel metropolitano e interior misturados ao Biodiesel de mamona, em sete proporções. O trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. Os resultados mostraram que o tipo de diesel influenciou no consumo de combustível e na opacidade da fumaça, sendo o diesel metropolitano de melhor qualidade; observou-se, também, que à medida que a proporção de Biodiesel aumentou, o mesmo ocorreu para o consumo de combustível; entretanto, a opacidade da fumaça reduziu com o acréscimo de Biodiesel até B75.The demand for energy resources by production systems allied to scarcity of fossil fuels has driven the production of Biodiesel, a fuel produced from renewable sources. The purpose of this study was realize two tests, the first dynamics to assess the operational performance as a parameter of consumption of fuel, the second static to measure the smoke opacity (particulate material from an engine of a farm tractor, operating with interior and metropolitan diesel mixed with castor beans Biodiesel in seven proportions. The tests were conducted in the Rural Engineering Department of UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. The results showed that the kind of diesel influenced the consumption of fuel and smoke opacity, and the metropolitan diesel showed better quality, it was observed as well that as biodiesel proportion increased, consumption of fuel increased too, however, the opacity of smoke decreased with an increase of Biodiesel by B75.

  14. Correlating Engine NOx Emission with Biodiesel Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, Thangaraja; Mehta, Pramod Shankar

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel composition comprising of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters has a significant influence on its properties and hence the engine performance and emission characteristics. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for composition-property-NOx emission analysis for biodiesel fuels and highlights the pathways responsible for such a relationship. Finally, a procedure and a predictor equation are developed for the assessment of biodiesel NOx emission from its composition details.

  15. Pilot scale biodiesel production from microbial oil of Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 using sugarcane juice: Performance in diesel engine and preliminary economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Dalmas Neto, Carlos José; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; da Costa, Eduardo Scopel Ferreira; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza

    2016-10-21

    A successful pilot-scale process for biodiesel production from microbial oil (Biooil) produced by Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 is presented. Using fed-batch strategy (1000L working volume), a lipid productivity of 0.44g/L.h was obtained using a low-cost medium composed by sugarcane juice and urea. The microbial oil was used for biodiesel production and its performance was evaluated in diesel engine tests, showing very good performance, especially for the blend B20 SCO, when operating at 2500rpm with lower pollutant emissions (CO2 - 220% less; CO - 7-fold less; NOX 50% less and no detectable HC emissions (blends of standard biofuel from soybean oil. A preliminary analysis showed that microbial biodiesel is economically competitive (US$ 0.76/L) when compared to the vegetable biodiesel (US$ 0.81/L). Besides, the yield of biodiesel from microbial oil is higher (4172L/ha of cultivated sugarcane) that represents 6.3-fold the yield of standard biodiesel (661L/ha of cultivated soybean). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (p<0.05) in a BEAS-2B cell line. This study contributes novel data on real-world, nonroad engine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure

  17. Performance of generating group diesel fed with different blends of soybean biodiesel; Desempenho de um grupo gerador diesel alimentado com diferentes misturas de biodiesel de oleo de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Elton Fialho dos; Amaral, Paulo Augusto Pedroso; Cunha, Joao Paulo Barreto; Freitas, Sueli Martins; Queiroz, Helio de Souza [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UNUCET/UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Anapolis], E-mail: bcunha_2@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The replacement of diesel with biofuels or blends with diesel that is the most focused today to supply the shortage of petroleum based fuels. In Brazil the trend that biodiesel be used with regular diesel is increasing. As a result feasibility studies are becoming more necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate use of biodiesel in different concentrations with diesel (B3, B5, B10, B20, B50 and B100) in a generating group diesel. Assays for quantification of the hourly consumption of fuel and emission of noise in different variants of the engine had been carried out. This was conducted through the electrical charge, connected to the generating group, and carried out through the analysis of the degree of Bosch blackening of the gases of exhaustion in the different concentrations. The equations of regression had good correlation with the real data. In conclusion the electric charge applied to the group generator increases proportionately with the time consumption and the emission of noise. However Biodiesel (B100) is different in comparison to other mixtures in the Bosch blackening test, presenting a lesser emission in relation to the other mixtures. (author)

  18. Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil fatty acid ethyl esters Estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de ésteres etílicos de ácidos graxos de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Ap. Ferrari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid esters, derived from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, and its utilization is associated to the substitution of the diesel oil in engines. Depending on the raw material, biodiesel can contain more or less unsaturated fatty acids in its composition, which are susceptible to oxidation reactions accelerated by exposition to oxygen and high temperatures, being able to change into polymerized compounds. The objective of this work was to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel produced by ethanolysis of neutralized, refined, soybean frying oil waste, and partially hydrogenated soybean frying oil waste. The evaluation was conducted by means of the Rancimat® equipment, at temperatures of 100 and 105ºC, with an air flow of 20 L h-1. The fatty acid composition was determined by GC and the iodine value was calculated. It was observed that even though the neutralized, refined and waste frying soybean oils presented close comparable iodine values, biodiesel presented different oxidative stabilities. The biodiesel from neutralized soybean oil presented greater stability, followed by the refined and the frying waste. Due to the natural antioxidants in its composition, the neutralized soybean oil promoted a larger oxidative stability of the produced biodiesel. During the deodorization process, the vegetable oils lose part of these antioxidants, therefore the biodiesel from refined soybean oil presented a reduced stability. The thermal process degrades the antioxidants, thus the biodiesel from frying waste oil resulted in lower stability, the same occuring with the biodiesel from partially hydrogenated waste oil, even though having lower iodine values than the other.Biodiesel consiste em ésteres de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, proveniente de fontes renováveis como óleos vegetais, e sua utilização está associada à substituição do diesel em motores. Dependendo da matéria-prima, o biodiesel

  19. Biodiesel forming reactions using heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijun

    Biodiesel synthesis from biomass provides a means for utilizing effectively renewable resources, a way to convert waste vegetable oils and animal fats to a useful product, a way to recycle carbon dioxide for a combustion fuel, and production of a fuel that is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has a lower emission profile than petroleum-diesel. Free fatty acid (FFA) esterification and triglyceride (TG) transesterification with low molecular weight alcohols constitute the synthetic routes to prepare biodiesel from lipid feedstocks. This project was aimed at developing a better understanding of important fundamental issues involved in heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel forming reactions using mainly model compounds, representing part of on-going efforts to build up a rational base for assay, design, and performance optimization of solid acids/bases in biodiesel synthesis. As FFA esterification proceeds, water is continuously formed as a byproduct and affects reaction rates in a negative manner. Using sulfuric acid (as a catalyst) and acetic acid (as a model compound for FFA), the impact of increasing concentrations of water on acid catalysis was investigated. The order of the water effect on reaction rate was determined to be -0.83. Sulfuric acid lost up to 90% activity as the amount of water present increased. The nature of the negative effect of water on esterification was found to go beyond the scope of reverse hydrolysis and was associated with the diminished acid strength of sulfuric acid as a result of the preferential solvation by water molecules of its catalytic protons. The results indicate that as esterification progresses and byproduct water is produced, deactivation of a Bronsted acid catalyst like H2SO4 occurs. Using a solid composite acid (SAC-13) as an example of heterogeneous catalysts and sulfuric acid as a homogeneous reference, similar reaction inhibition by water was demonstrated for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. This similarity together with

  20. Oxidation stability and risk evaluation of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes oxidation and thermal stability and hazardous possibility of biodiesel by auto-oxidation. As it can be distributed using today’s infrastructure biodisel production has increased especially in the European Union. Biodiesel has many surpassing properties as an automotive fuel. Biodiesel is considered safer than diesel fuel because of the high flash point, but it has oxygen and double bond(s. Fatty acid methyl esters are more sensitive to oxidative degradation than fossil diesel fuel. The ability of producing peroxides is rather high, therefore we should care of handling of biodiesel.

  1. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  2. Study of Biodiesel Emissions and Carbon Mitigation in Gas Turbine Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alalim Altaher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy security and reduction of carbon emissions have accelerated the R&D of the alternative fuels in the transport, heating and power generation sectors in last decade. The heating and power generation sectors are two of the major contributors to carbon dioxide emissions, which are due to the combustion of petroleum fuels. A gas turbine combustor test rig was used to study the combustion and emission characteristics of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME biodiesel. A 140mm diameter atmospheric pressure premixed combustion test rig was used at 600K inlet air temperature and Mach number 0.017. The tests were conducted using pure WME and blend with kerosene. The central fuel injection was used for liquid fuels and wall injection was used for NG (Natural Gas. The exhaust samples for smoke and gaseous emissions (NOx, UHC, CO and CO₂ have been analysed on dry basis and corrected to 15% O₂ over range of different fuel rate. The results showed that the biodiesel had lower CO, UHC emissions and higher NOx emissions than the kerosene. The blend B20 had lowest NOx emissions comparing with pure biodiesel (B100 and B50. The optimum conditions for WME with lowest emissions were identified. The carbon dioxide emissions per 100 megawatts of heat generated for each fuel were calculated. The relative carbon emissions and mitigations by biodiesel were compared. The results can be used to estimate pollutant emissions and carbon reductions by biodiesel in power generation industry and other sectors where gas turbine engines are used.

  3. Agricultural capacity and economic aspects of the main oleaginous with potential for biodiesel production for use in Brazilian transportation sector; Capacidade agricola e aspectos economicos das principais oleaginosas com potencial para producao de biodiesel para uso no setor de transporte brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabieri, Rodrigo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: galbieri@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The Law n. 11.097, of January 13th, 2005, stabilised as mandatory the addition of 2% of biodiesel in the diesel beginning in 2008, increasing this amount to 5% in 2013. Many economics, environmental and social benefits can be reached through this new law. The diversity of raw material that could be used to produce biodiesel is large, mainly to the vegetables oil producer ones. Does the following cultures: palm oil, soy, babacu, peanut, mamona, and sunflower have enough stabilised agriculture areas to supply the goal of B2 and B5? What regarding to future fuel of type B10, B15 and B20? (author)

  4. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Griffin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Capital and operating cost estimates for converting microalgae to oil or biodiesel are compared. These cost comparisons are based on Australian locations, which are expected to fall at the lower end of the cost spectrum in the Asia-Pacific Region and other parts of the world.  It is assumed that microalgae are grown in a concentrated saltwater medium in raceway ponds, then are harvested, dewatered and the oil is extracted and converted to biodiesel by transesterification. The size of the desired pond system affects the number of potential locations due to constraints in resource availability. Cost estimates vary significantly due to differences in the assumed oil productivity, the harvesting equipment and the method of converting residual biomass to electric power. A comparison is made with recent cost estimates from other parts of the world, in which the expected costs of microalgae oil production from a number of publicly available sources lay between 0.34–31.0 USD/L.  The resulting cost estimates of between 1.37—2.66 USD/L are at the lower end of this scale, thereby confirming that Australia has the potential to be a low-cost producer of algal oil and biodiesel in the Asia-Pacific Region.  It was significant that, despite similar assumptions for the microalgae-to-oil process, cost estimates for the final biodiesel or oil price differed by a factor of 2.  This highlights the high degree of uncertainty in such economic predictions. Keywords: Asia-Pacific region; biodiesel; economics; microalgaeThis article is cited as :Griffin, G., Batten, D., Beer, T., & Campbell, P. (2013. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region. International Journal Of Renewable Energy Development (IJRED, 2(3, 105-113. doi:10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113Permalinkhttp://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113

  5. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Gregory W.; Williams, John R.; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  6. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-06-24

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product.

  7. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and

  8. Biodiesel/Cummins CRADA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    nitrile rubber , natural rubber ) that are commonly used for hoses, seals and gaskets, and may degrade them to the point where they fail. Failure can...cloud point (33.5°F for the test fuel). Gelling can be prevented through fuel management (e.g., fuel additives, shifting to a diesel/biodiesel blend ...Engineering CG Coast Guard CNG Compressed Natural Gas CO Carbon monoxide CO2 Carbon dioxide COG Course over ground CRADA Cooperative Research and

  9. Revised CTUIR Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Cox; Thomas Bailor; Theodore Repasky; Lisa Breckenridge

    2005-10-31

    This preliminary assessment of renewable energy resources on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (UIR) has been performed by CTUIR Department of Science and Engineering (DOSE). This analysis focused primarily identifying renewable resources that may be applied on or near the Umatilla Indian Reservation. In addition preliminary technical and economic feasibility of developing renewable energy resources have been prepared and initial land use planning issues identified. Renewable energies examined in the course of the investigation included solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, bioethanol, bio-diesel and bio-pellet fuel. All renewable energy options studied were found to have some potential for the CTUIR. These renewable energy options are environmentally friendly, sustainable, and compliment many of the policy goals of the CTUIR. This report seeks to provide an overall review of renewable energy technologies and applications. It tries to identify existing projects near to the CTUIR and the efforts of the federal government, state government and the private sector in the renewable energy arena. It seeks to provide an understanding of the CTUIR as an energy entity. This report intends to provide general information to assist tribal leadership in making decisions related to energy, specifically renewable energy deve lopment.

  10. 77 FR 1319 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... process to convert corn cobs into ethanol. In conversations with EPA in July 2011 DDCE indicated that this... fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Potentially regulated categories include: NAICS... organic chemical manufacturing. Industry 424690 5169 Chemical and allied products merchant...

  11. 75 FR 26049 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Technologies for Renewable Fuel Pathways The final RFS2 rule includes two corn ethanol pathways in Table 1 of... fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities affected by this action include... basic organic chemical manufacturers. Industry 424690 5169 Chemical and allied products...

  12. Positive magnetoresistance in Co40Fe40B20/SiO2/Si heterostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Y.

    2016-07-20

    Current-perpendicular-to-plane electronic transport properties and magnetoresistance of amorphous Co40Fe40B20/SiO2/Si heterostructures are investigated systematically. A backward diode-like rectifying behavior was observed due to the formation of a Schottky barrier between Co40Fe40B20 and Si. The junction resistance shows a metal-insulator transition with decreasing temperature in both the forward and reverse ranges. A large positive magnetoresistance (MR) of ∼2300% appears at 200 K. The positive MR can be attributed to the magnetic-field-controlled impact ionization process of carriers. MR shows a temperature-peak-type character under a constant bias current, which is related to the spin-dependent barrier in the Si near the interface. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  13. Origin of the planar Hall effect in nanocrystalline Co60Fe20B20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K M; Freimuth, F; Zhang, H; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y; Bürgler, D E; Schneider, C M

    2011-08-19

    An angle dependent analysis of the planar Hall effect (PHE) in nanocrystalline single-domain Co(60)Fe(20)B(20) thin films is reported. In a combined experimental and theoretical study we show that the transverse resistivity of the PHE is entirely driven by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Our results for Co(60)Fe(20)B(20) obtained from first principles theory in conjunction with a Boltzmann transport model take into account the nanocrystallinity and the presence of 20 at. % boron. The ab initio AMR ratio of 0.12% agrees well with the experimental value of 0.22%. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that the anomalous Hall effect contributes negligibly in the present case.

  14. Corrosion behavior of stainless steel in bio diesel production; Comportamento quanto a corrosao de acos inoxidaveis na producao do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, E.F. de [ArcelorMittal Sao Paulo Servicos, SP (Brazil); Moreira, M.C.; Lebrao, S.M.G. [Centro Universitario do Instituto Maua de Tecnologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: susana.lebrao@maua.br

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel has become more attractive due to the benefits to the environment, mainly because it is a renewable resource. However, the main barrier to biodiesel is it cost. One factor which is charged to marketing is the use of stainless steel throughout the production line, the most used is AISI 304. To evaluate more economical stainless steels, weight loss and stress corrosion tests were performed on samples of AISI 304 and 439 in methanol PS X30% sodium methylate solution, crude soybean oil, glycerol and biodiesel for about two hundred and fifty days. The mass loss was negligible, and there was complete absence of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in all media studied, showing that both alloys are suitable for the manufacture of such equipment. (author)

  15. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Marine Microalgae Isochrysis galbana, Pavlova lutheri, Dunaliella salina and Measurement of its Viscosity and Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sujin Jeba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel derives from transesterification of fats and oils. It is renewable and non-toxic ecofriendly fuel with less CO2 and NO2 emissions. Microalgae are known to contain more lipid content than macroalgae and most other oil crops. In this study, we extracted biodiesel from three microalgae Isochrysis galbana, Pavlova lutheri, Dunaliella salina and also measured the density and viscosity of biofuel obtained from these microalgae. Pavlova lutheri yielded more oil than the other two algae with biomass left over Dunaliella salina was more. The density of biodiesel obtained from these microalgae was between 0.86 g/cm3 and 0.90 g/cm3 with viscosity in the range 3.92 mm2/sec to 4.5 mm2/sec showing high density than the other oils.

  16. Emisiones gaseosas y opacidad del humo de un motor operando con bajas concentraciones de biodiesel de palma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Agudelo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de las prestaciones mecánicas y ambientales de un motor diesel de automoción de 2.5 litros de cilindrada, turboalimentado, montado en banco de ensayos, que utiliza diesel corriente y biodiesel de aceite de palma mezclado al 5, 10 y 20% en volumen. Los ensayos se realizaron a igualdad de energía en el cigüeñal para cada combustible, en cinco grados de carga estacionarios, representativos de las condiciones de operación del vehículo en ciudad. Se obtuvo un incremento en el consumo específico de combustible respecto al diesel corriente en torno a 0.5, 1 y 1.7% al usar B5, B10 y B20 respectivamente. El rendimiento efectivo no sufrió cambios estadísticamente significativos, con lo cual se comprobó que la relación energía suministrada a energía obtenida en el cigüeñal se mantuvo constante independientemente de la mezcla de biodiesel. Las emisiones específicas de THC (gTHC/kWh disminuyeron aproximadamente en la misma proporción que el contenido de biodiesel en la mezcla (5, 10 y 20%, para B5, B10 y B20 respectivamente. Las de CO y la opacidad de humos (% disminuyeron en la misma proporción, correspondiente con la mitad del contenido de biodiesel en la mezcla (2.5, 5 y 10%, para B5, B10 y B20 respectivamente. Las emisiones específicas de NOx incrementaron ligeramente, y alcanzaron un máximo para la mezcla B20 en torno al 3% respecto al diesel corriente. Se presentan los índices de emisión en términos de masa de contaminante por unidad de masa de combustible quemado. Los resultados permiten concluir que el uso del biodiesel de aceite de palma mezclado en concentraciones inferiores al 20% con diesel convencional tiene ventajas ambientales significativas. Desde el punto de vista mecánico, el consumo adicional de combustible se ve apenas ligeramente incrementado sin afectar el rendimiento efectivo del motor.

  17. Disminución de Demanda en Horario Punta (Peak Shaving) Mediante el Uso de un Generador en Sitio, Utilizando Diesel y Biodiesel B20

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Cuevas, Humberto

    2005-01-01

    En la actualidad, la energía eléctrica es un servicio del cuál muy difícilmente podemos prescindir, nos hemos acostumbrado a depender de ella de tal manera que en el momento que no la tenemos se vuelve un problema el realizar nuestras actividades más elementales. Imaginemos por un momento que sÚbitamente una ciudad se queda sin energía eléctrica: los semáforos inoperantes generarían un caos vial, las oficinas sin aire acondicionado y computadoras serían insoportables, las industrias no podría...

  18. Promoting Scientific and Technological Literacy: Teaching Biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilks, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on biodiesel from a socio-critical chemistry teaching approach aimed at improving student participation and decision making. Explores the use of biodiesel (chemically changed vegetable oils), especially in Europe. The unit proved to be successful as students participated enthusiastically and social and scientific goals were…

  19. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  20. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  1. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry.

  2. Lipases Immobilization for Effective Synthesis of Biodiesel Starting from Coffee Waste Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gardossi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized lipases were applied to the enzymatic conversion of oils from spent coffee ground into biodiesel. Two lipases were selected for the study because of their conformational behavior analysed by Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations taking into account that immobilization conditions affect conformational behavior of the lipases and ultimately, their efficiency upon immobilization. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was initially carried out on a model substrate (triolein in order to select the most promising immobilized biocatalysts. The results indicate that oils can be converted quantitatively within hours. The role of the nature of the immobilization support emerged as a key factor affecting reaction rate, most probably because of partition and mass transfer barriers occurring with hydrophilic solid supports. Finally, oil from spent coffee ground was transformed into biodiesel with yields ranging from 55% to 72%. The synthesis is of particular interest in the perspective of developing sustainable processes for the production of bio-fuels from food wastes and renewable materials. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel is carried out under mild conditions, with stoichiometric amounts of substrates (oil and methanol and the removal of free fatty acids is not required.

  3. The Production of Biodiesel and Bio-kerosene from Coconut Oil Using Microwave Assisted Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAIFUDDIN, N.; SITI FAZLILI, A.; KUMARAN, P.; PEI-JUA, N.; PRIATHASHINI, P.

    2016-03-01

    Biofuels including biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is renewable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and low emissions. The raw material used in this work was coconut oil, which contained saturated fatty acids about 90% with high percentage of medium chain (C8-C12), especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of power and NaOH catalyst in transesterification assisted by microwave for production of biofuels (biodiesel and bio-kerosene) derived from coconut oil. The reaction was performed with oil and methanol using mole ratio of 1:6, catalyst concentration of 0.6% with microwave power at 100W, 180W, 300W, 450W, 600W, and 850W. The reaction time was set at of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min. The results showed that microwave could accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel and bio-kerosene using NaOH catalyst. The highest yield of biodiesel was 97.17 %, or 99.05 % conversion at 5 min and 100W microwave power. Meanwhile, the bio-kerosene obtained was 65% after distillation.

  4. Lipases immobilization for effective synthesis of biodiesel starting from coffee waste oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Valerio; Veny, Harumi; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Navarini, Luciano; Ebert, Cynthia; Gardossi, Lucia

    2013-08-13

    Immobilized lipases were applied to the enzymatic conversion of oils from spent coffee ground into biodiesel. Two lipases were selected for the study because of their conformational behavior analysed by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations taking into account that immobilization conditions affect conformational behavior of the lipases and ultimately, their efficiency upon immobilization. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was initially carried out on a model substrate (triolein) in order to select the most promising immobilized biocatalysts. The results indicate that oils can be converted quantitatively within hours. The role of the nature of the immobilization support emerged as a key factor affecting reaction rate, most probably because of partition and mass transfer barriers occurring with hydrophilic solid supports. Finally, oil from spent coffee ground was transformed into biodiesel with yields ranging from 55% to 72%. The synthesis is of particular interest in the perspective of developing sustainable processes for the production of bio-fuels from food wastes and renewable materials. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel is carried out under mild conditions, with stoichiometric amounts of substrates (oil and methanol) and the removal of free fatty acids is not required.

  5. Synthesis of biodiesel from pongamia oil using heterogeneous ion-exchange resin catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N; Selvan, B Karpanai; Vennison, S John

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning renewable substitute fuel for petroleum. Biodiesel could be effectively produced by transesterification reaction of triglycerides of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohols in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Conventionally, biodiesel manufacturing processes employ strong acids or bases as catalysts. But, separation of the catalyst and the by-product glycerol from the product ester is too expensive to justify the product use as an automobile fuel. Hence heterogeneous catalysts are preferred. In this study, transesterification of pongamia oil with ethanol was performed using a solid ion-exchange resin catalyst. It is a macro porous strongly basic anion exchange resin. The process parameters affecting the ethyl ester yield were investigated. The reaction conditions were optimized for the maximum yield of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) of pongamia oil. The properties of FAEE were compared with accepted standards of biodiesel. Engine performance was also studied with pongamia oil diesel blend and engine emission characteristics were observed.

  6. Relation between quality and production cost for pure biodiesel bases on the mixes of raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanaktsidis, C. G.; Spinthiropoulos, K. G.; Guliyev, Fariz; Dimitriou, D.; Euthaltsidou, K.; Tzilantonis, G. T.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays biodiesel has become more attractive because it is made from renewable resources. The main ingredients of industrial biodiesel are rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked. In this study we verify that, the proportion of these components sets the qualitative composition and energy efficiency of the final product. Essential we link the raw materials (rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked) used in the manufacture of industrial biodiesel the proportion of mixes, with the variation of physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced. According to the quantitative analysis we notice that the physiochemical properties which alter the value for example humidity, acidity, while a large number of physicochemical properties do not change their value depending on the ratio of raw materials in each mixture. The analysis of these changes seems that the presence of fat acids is negative for the quality of the mixture. From the analysis of the cost of the final mixtures that lower cost is achieved in the mixture was 10 and the highest cost was in the mixture 3. Based on a study of the cost of the mixtures can determine a basic relation between the quality and the cost of the final product.

  7. Biochemical Modulation of Lipid Pathway in Microalgae Dunaliella sp. for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of renewable sources of energy such as algal biodiesel could turn energy supplies problem around. Studies on a locally isolated strain of Dunaliella sp. showed that the mean lipid content in cultures enriched by 200 mg L−1 myoinositol was raised by around 33% (1.5 times higher than the control. Similarly, higher lipid productivity values were achieved in cultures treated by 100 and 200 mg L−1 myoinositol. Fluorometry analyses (microplate fluorescence and flow cytometry revealed increased oil accumulation in the Nile red-stained algal samples. Moreover, it was predicted that biodiesel produced from myoinositol-treated cells possessed improved oxidative stability, cetane number, and cloud point values. From the genomic point of view, real-time analyses revealed that myoinositol negatively influenced transcript abundance of AccD gene (one of the key genes involved in lipid production pathway due to feedback inhibition and that its positive effect must have been exerted through other genes. The findings of the current research are not to interprete that myoinositol supplementation could answer all the challenges faced in microalgal biodiesel production but instead to show that “there is a there there” for biochemical modulation strategies, which we achieved, increased algal oil quantity and enhanced resultant biodiesel quality.

  8. Biochemical Modulation of Lipid Pathway in Microalgae Dunaliella sp. for Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Ahmad Farhad; Tohidfar, Masoud; Mousavi Derazmahalleh, Seyedeh Mahsa; Sulaiman, Alawi; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of renewable sources of energy such as algal biodiesel could turn energy supplies problem around. Studies on a locally isolated strain of Dunaliella sp. showed that the mean lipid content in cultures enriched by 200 mg L(-1) myoinositol was raised by around 33% (1.5 times higher than the control). Similarly, higher lipid productivity values were achieved in cultures treated by 100 and 200 mg L(-1) myoinositol. Fluorometry analyses (microplate fluorescence and flow cytometry) revealed increased oil accumulation in the Nile red-stained algal samples. Moreover, it was predicted that biodiesel produced from myoinositol-treated cells possessed improved oxidative stability, cetane number, and cloud point values. From the genomic point of view, real-time analyses revealed that myoinositol negatively influenced transcript abundance of AccD gene (one of the key genes involved in lipid production pathway) due to feedback inhibition and that its positive effect must have been exerted through other genes. The findings of the current research are not to interprete that myoinositol supplementation could answer all the challenges faced in microalgal biodiesel production but instead to show that "there is a there there" for biochemical modulation strategies, which we achieved, increased algal oil quantity and enhanced resultant biodiesel quality.

  9. Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Waste Soya bean Cooking Oil by Alkali Trans-esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya Dipak Deshpande*,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, clean-burning, non-toxic, renewable, high-quality, and cheap diesel fuel made primarily from waste vegetable oil which can be used without any alterations in engine design. The paper is concerned with the extraction and quality evaluation of the biodiesel fuels synthesized from waste soya bean cooking oil. Waste soya bean cooking oil had high amount of free fatty acid. Thus, single step transesterification process with the aid of homogeneous catalyst as 1% potassium hydroxide were implemented in this experiment. Methanol was chosen as alcohol solvent. In the transesterification process, the triglycerides in waste cooking oil was reacted with a methanol to form esters and glycerol as by product.The biodiesel were extracted for different oil to methanol ratio as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. The highest biodiesel yield of 76% was obtained at 1:3 volumetric ratio for 60 ºC reaction temperature and 1250 rpm stirring speed. Results show that the optimal methyl ester yield of 90% occurred at methanol: oil volume ratio of 3:1. The product met the ASTM fuel standards for relative density, acid value, relative density, calorific value, flash point and kinematic viscosity.

  10. THE BRAZILIAN BIODIESEL PROGRAM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, these debates led the country to develop new policies and implement a national program for biodiesel use and production (PNPB with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the impacts of PNPB on regional development in Tocantins State, northern Brazil. For this purpose, ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among national and regional stakeholders, as well as specific literature. The preliminary results point out that distribution logistics appears to be a considerable constraint to the success of the PNPB. The concentration of biodiesel industries in the central-west region of the country, and the large distances to deliver biodiesel in the northern Brazil make biodiesel prices non-competitive when compared to fossil diesel. The results also suggest that the PNPB is not succeeding in promoting the integration of family agriculture in the Tocantins state, especially due to the structural difficulty of the agricultural sector, as well as the technical and political shortcomings presented by the mechanism of incentives.

  11. Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min.

  12. Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs. We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram, different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 °C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 ± 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC.

  13. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, S.; Abdullah, N. R.; Mamat, R.; Rashid, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The high demand to replace petroleum fuel makes renewable and sustainable sources such as Palm oil, Jatropha oil and Algae a main focus feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. There are many studies conducted on Palm oil and Jatropha oil, however, the use of Algae as an alternative fuel is still in its infancy. Malaysia already implemented B5 based Palm oil as a feedstock and this biodiesel has been proven safe and can be used without any engine modification. The use of biodiesel produced from these feedstock will also developed domestic economic and provide job opportunities especially in the rural area. In addition, biodiesel has many advantages especially when dealing with the emissions produce as compared to petroleum fuel such as; it can reduce unwanted gases and particulate matter harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. Thus, this paper gathered and examines the most prominent engine emission produced from Palm oil and Jatropha feedstock and also to observe the potential of Algae to be one of the sources of alternative fuel in Malaysia.

  14. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock.

  15. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production.

  16. Process development for scum to biodiesel conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chong-hao; Min, Min; Nie, Yong; Xie, Qing-long; Lu, Qian; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Anderson, Erik; Li, Dong; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A novel process was developed for converting scum, a waste material from wastewater treatment facilities, to biodiesel. Scum is an oily waste that was skimmed from the surface of primary and secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment plants. Currently scum is treated either by anaerobic digestion or landfilling which raised several environmental issues. The newly developed process used a six-step method to convert scum to biodiesel, a higher value product. A combination of acid washing and acid catalyzed esterification was developed to remove soap and impurities while converting free fatty acids to methyl esters. A glycerol washing was used to facilitate the separation of biodiesel and glycerin after base catalyzed transesterification. As a result, 70% of dried and filtered scum was converted to biodiesel which is equivalent to about 134,000 gallon biodiesel per year for the Saint Paul waste water treatment plant in Minnesota.

  17. Impacts of biodiesel production on Croatian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulisic, Biljana [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia). Department for Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency; Mediterranean Agronomic Institute Chania - MAICh, CIHEAM - International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (Greece); Loizou, Efstratios [Technological Education Institute (TEI) of Western Macedonia (Greece). Department of Agricultural Products Marketing and Quality Control; Rozakis, Stelios [Agricultural University of Athens (Greece). Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development; Segon, Velimir [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia). Department for Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to assess the direct and indirect impacts on a national economy from biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) production using input-output (I-O) analysis. Biodiesel development in Croatia is used as a case study. For Croatia, as for many other countries in Europe, biodiesel is a new activity not included in the existing I-O sectoral accounts. For this reason the I-O table has to be modified accordingly before being able to quantify the effect of an exogenous demand for biodiesel. Impacts in terms of output, income and employment lead to the conclusion that biodiesel production could have significant positive net impact on the Croatian economy despite the high level of subsidies for rapeseed growing. (author)

  18. Biodiesel. Una revisión del desempeño mecánico y ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Agudelo S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica de investigaciones relevantes relacionadas con el desempeño mecánico y ambiental de motores diesel, utilizando diversos combustibles, entre ellos el diesel convencional y alquilésteres obtenidos de aceites vegetales (biodiesel. Aunque las tendencias observadas dependen fuertemente del tipo de aceite del que provienen los alquilésteres, se puede concluir que a medida que se incrementa el porcentaje de biodiesel en las mezclas biodiesel–diesel disminuye la potencia y aumenta el consumo de combustible. También disminuyen el CO, Hc, material particulado, hollín y la opacidad de humos. De otro lado, los Nox aumentan o disminuyen dependiendo de la afinación del motor. La potencia disminuye entre 2 y 10% para B30 y B100 respectivamente. El consumo de combustible aumenta entre 10 y 24%, para el biodiesel y sus mezclas, debido al menor poder calorífico del biocombustible comparado con el del diesel convencional. Las emisiones de CO diminuyen de 10 a 50%, hc 12 a 55%, con B30 y B100 respectivamente. La opacidad de humos disminuye entre 0 y 30% y los Sox entre 20 y 100%, debido al escaso contenido de azufre del biodiesel. La reducción «global» de CO2 es de 16 a 78,4% para B20 y B100 respectivamente. La ventaja medioambiental de tipo global del biodiesel es el cierre del ciclo de vida del CO2 (emisión nula, pues las plantas oleaginosas por medio del proceso de fotosíntesis toman este gas y lo transforman en oxígeno.

  19. Perkembangan Proses Pembuatan Biodiesel sebagai Bahan Bakar Nabati (BBN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelianingsih

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As energy dernands increase and fossil fuel reservas are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fluls. A potential diesel fuel substitusi is biodiesel, obtained from fatty acids methyl esters (FAME and produced by the transesterfication reaction of triglyceride or free fatty acid (FFA of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohol, mainly methanol. Most of the currently of alcohol. Although the removal of the excess alcohol can be easily achieved by distillation, however the removal of catlyst and the by-product formed from its reaction with the reactants is complicated while several methode for glycerol purification have been reported. The disadvantages resulting from the use of a catalyst and itsremoval from theproducts can beeliminated if a non-catalytic reaction of the vegetable oils with alcohol can be realized and a simpler and cheaper process can be developed.indonesia has the opportunity to expand oil palm and other plantations such as jatropha curcas (jarak pagarin order to provide sufficient amount of crude oil for development of biodiesel industry.

  20. The effect of EGR rates on NOX and smoke emissions of an IDI diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha biodiesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gomaa, A.J. Alimin, K.A. Kamarudin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of fossil fuels and the worst impact on environmental pollution caused of their burning have led to the search for renewable clean energies. Nowadays, there are many sources of renewable energy. Biodiesel is just one source, but a very important one. Biodiesel has been known as an attractive alternative fuel although biodiesel produced from edible oil is very expensive than conventional diesel. Therefore, the uses of biodiesel produced from non-edible oils are much better option. Currently Jatropha biodiesel (JBD is receiving attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. However, previous studies have reported that combustion of JBD emitted higher nitrogen oxides (NOX, while hydrocarbon (HC and smoke emissions were lower than conventional diesel fuel. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR is one of the techniques being used to reduce NOX emission from diesel engines; because it decreases both flame temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. Some studies succeeded to reduce NOX emission from biodiesel fuelled engines using EGR; but they observed increase in smoke emission with increasing engine load and EGR rate. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of EGR on an indirect injection (IDI diesel engine fuelled with JBD blends in order to reduce NOX and smoke emissions. A 4-cylinder, water-cooled, turbocharged, IDI diesel engine was used for investigation. Smoke, NOX, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated. The results showed that, at 5% EGR with JB5, both NOX and smoke opacity were reduced by 27% and 17% respectively. Furthermore, JB20 along with 10% EGR was also able to reduce both NOX and smoke emission by 36% and 31%, respectively compared to diesel fuel without EGR.

  1. Comparative Study of Biofuel and Biodiesel Blend with Mineral Diesel Using One-Dimensional Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Rafidah; Mamat, Rizalman; Yusof Taib, Mohd

    2012-09-01

    This study is intended to perform one-dimensional simulation for four cylinders diesel engine by using various type of fuels and blend. The testing of biofuels properties conducted according to ASTM standards. The physical properties of the fuel are investigated in chemical laboratory which comprises of flash point, kinematic viscosity, density, cloud & pour point, acid value and moisture content. There are three types of fuels used throughout the study, which are straight vegetable oil (SVO), biodiesel 20% blend (B20) and biodiesel 5% blend (B5). Then, the properties data from the experiment will be used in the simulation GT Power software. Simulation tests have been run with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and volumetric efficiency. The results is use to evaluate and analyze the performance of diesel engine running with the mentioned fuels above. The comparison performances for each fuel have been discussed. There is no significant difference in the engine performance when fueled with B5 and diesel. There is only about one percent lower of B5 and four percent higher of B20 and SVO compare to diesel fuel.

  2. Optimization of Rice bran biodiesel blends on CI engine and investigating its effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprabakar, J.; Dey, Biraj; Dey, Krishanu; Hareesh, Batchu; Anish, M.

    2017-05-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from various plant oils like soybean, sunflower or rice bran. Here the focus is on converting the rice bran oil into bio-diesel which is produced by transesterifying the rice bran oil with a low molecular weight alcohol (methanol) and a non-conventional catalyst (lipase). Using a lipase based catalyst brings down the cost of bio diesel production significantly by reducing the number of washing cycles and its ability to be reused further. Four different blends of B10, B20, B30, B40 and straight diesel are tested in a single cylinder, fourstroke, vertical air cooled Kirloskar Diesel Engine having ignition timing of 23° before Top Dead Centre (TDC). As compared to straight diesel the Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) value for all the blends are higher. The Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) values for most of the blends are less as compared to diesel. Emissions of CO, CO2 and HC for all the blends decreased quite significantly. As a summary, the blend B20 records better performance as well as emission characteristics as compared to diesel.

  3. Energy consumption of an agricultural an agricultural tractor operating in dynamometer using with diesel and chicken oil biodiesel; Consumo energetico de um trator agricola operando em bancada dinamometrica com oleo diesel e biodiesel de oleo de frango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Diego Augusto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], email: dafiorese@yahoo.com.br; Dallmeyer, Arno Udo; Romano, Leonardo Nabaes; Schlosser, Jose Fernando [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of energy use in agricultural machinery is dependent on the efficiency of internal combustion diesel cycle, their genuine propellants. However, some biofuels may offer a better yield due to some peculiar characteristics such distinctions in calorific value. Many studies have demonstrated a better utilization of the energy content when operating with biodiesel and with binary mixtures with diesel oil. In this study, tests were conducted on a dynamometer bench to evaluate the energy consumption of a tractor engine with four cylinders and 53 kW (72 hp), operating with biodiesel and chicken oil mixture with diesel oil. In the tests were evaluated six ratios (B5, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100). The results showed that increasing the proportion of biodiesel was favorable to improve the utilization of the energy content, thus increasing the thermal efficiency of the engine. The best result was obtained with pure biodiesel (B100) with consumption of 395.47 MJ.h{sup -1}and efficiency of 32.35%. On the other hand the witness had the lowest use B5 with 428.20 MJ.h{sup -1} and thermal efficiency of 30.67%. (author)

  4. A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of Jatropha biodiesel production in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Jasvinder; Nanoti, S M; Garg, M O

    2012-04-01

    A life cycle approach was adopted for energy, green house gas (GHG) emissions and renewability assessment for production of 1ton of Jatropha biodiesel. Allocation and displacement approaches were applied for life cycle inventory, process energy and process GHG emission attribution to co-products. The results of process energy and GHG emission analyses revealed that the amount of process energy consumption and GHG emission in the individual stages of the life cycle assessment (LCA) were a strong function of co-product handling and irrigation. The GHG emission reduction with respect to petroleum diesel for generating 1GJ energy varied from 40% to 107% and NER values from 1.4 to 8.0 depending upon the methodology used for energy and emission distribution between product and co-products as well as irrigation applied. However, GHG emission reduction values of 54 and 40 and NER (net energy ratio) values of 1.7 and 1.4 for irrigated and rain-fed scenarios, respectively indicate the eco-friendly nature and renewability of biodiesel even in the worst scenario where total life cycle inventory (LCI), process energy and GHG emission were allocated to biodiesel only. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solar Energy for a Solvent Recovery Stage in a Biodiesel Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development of clean energy have become essential due to the global climate change problem, which is caused largely by fossil fuels burning. Therefore, biodiesel, a renewable and ecofriendly biofuel with less environmental impact than diesel, continues expanding worldwide. The process for biodiesel production involves a significant energy demand, specifically in the methanol recovery stage through a flash separator and a distillation column. Traditionally, the energy required for this process is supplied by fossil fuels. It represents an opportunity for the application of renewable energy. Hence, the current study presents a system of thermal energy storage modeled in TRNSYS® and supported by simulations performed in ASPEN PLUS®. The aim of this research was to supply solar energy for a methanol recovery stage in a biodiesel production process. The results highlighted that it is feasible to meet 91% of the energy demand with an array of 9 parabolic trough collectors. The array obtained from the simulation was 3 in series and 3 in parallel, with a total area of 118.8 m2. It represents an energy saving of 70 MWh per year.

  6. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  7. Impact of physical properties of mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on hydrodynamic characteristics of fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Ivan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternative fuels, originating from renewable sources, is biodiesel fuel, which is introduced in diesel engines without major construction modifications on the engine. Biodiesel fuel, by its physical and chemical properties, is different from diesel fuel. Therefore, it is expected that by the application of a biodiesel fuel, the characteristic parameters of the injection system will change. These parameters have a direct impact on the process of fuel dispersion into the engine cylinder, and mixing with the air, which results in an impact on the quality of the combustion process. Method of preparation of the air-fuel mixture and the quality of the combustion process directly affect the efficiency of the engine and the level of pollutant emissions in the exhaust gas, which today is the most important criterion for assessing the quality of the engine. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of physical properties of a mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on the output characteristics of the fuel injection system. The following parameters are shown: injection pressure, injection rate, the beginning and duration of injection, transformation of potential into kinetic energy of fuel and increase of energy losses in fuel injection system of various mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. For the analysis of the results a self-developed computer program was used to simulate the injection process in the system. Computational results are verified using the experiment, for a few mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. This paper presents the verification results for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel in particular.

  8. The effect of injection timing on energy and exergy analysis of a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Farhadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, due to higher environmental pollution and decreasing fossil fuels many countries make decisions to use renewable fuels and restrict using of fossil fuels. Renewable fuels generally produce from biological sources. Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils, animal fats, or waste frying oils. Considering the differences between diesel and biodiesel fuels, engine condition should be modified based on the fuel or fuel blends to achieve optimum performance. One of the simplest and yet the most widely used models is the thermodynamic model. After verification of the data obtained by model with experimental data it is possible to generalize the extracted data to an unlimited number of functional conditions or unlimited number of fuel types which saves time and reduces costs for experimental engine tests. Using the second law of thermodynamics, it is possible to calculate and analyze the exergy of the engine.4 Materials and Methods In this work, the zero-dimensional model was used to account for internal energy variations, pressure work, heat transfer losses to the solid walls and heat release. The applied assumptions include: The cylinder mixture temperature, pressure and composition were assumed uniform throughout the cylinder. Furthermore, the one-zone thermodynamic model assumes instantaneous mixing between the burned and unburned gases. The cylinder gases were assumed to behave as an ideal gas mixture, Gas properties, include enthalpy, internal energy modeled using polynomial equations associated with temperature. In this research, the equations 1 to 20 were used in Fortran programming language. The results of incylinder pressure obtained by the model were validated by the results of experimental test of OM314 engine. Then the effects of injection timing on Energy and Exergy of the engine were analyzed for B20 fuel. Results and Discussion Comparing the results of the model

  9. The characterization of biodiesel wash water and the potential for microbial remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Anton

    Biodiesel is a fuel produced from vegetable oils or other lipids that can be substituted for petroleum diesel in many internal combustion engines. Substitution of biodiesel for petroleum diesel has the potential to reduce green house gas emissions, decrease dependence on fossil fuels, add value to agriculture products and localize energy production. The production of biodiesel is a straight forward process and the scale of production varies from backyard brewers producing twenty litres at a time, to large industrial operations which produce thousands of litres. Biodiesel production in Ontario will see a great expansion in the next few years. Amendments to the Clean Air Act in 2006 incorporate a mandate that 2 % renewable content be blended into all diesel fuel by 2012. Since biodiesel is the primary fuel blended with petroleum diesel, the production of biodiesel in Canada will need to increase approximately five-fold from today's capacity. Raw biodiesel must be refined and one of the most common approaches is water washing, in which clean water is passed through the biodiesel. Water is an excellent medium for neutralizing residual catalyst, as well as removing residual methanol and glycerol. However, the resulting biodiesel wash water (BWW) is high in organics and cannot be disposed of in municipal waste streams. Biodiesel wash water from several laboratory and industrial biodiesel production facilities was characterized. The lab produced BWW chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were 150,000 +/- 20,000 mg/L and total solids content averaged 11,170 +/- 600 mg/L of which the majority was total dissolved solids. Soap content averaged 7,900 +/- 800 mg/L and a high pH near 10 was commonly seen. The industrial samples had higher levels of COD (754,200 +/- 162,600 mg/L) and solids (328,900 +/- 24,300 mg/L again mostly containing dissolved solids). Soap content was typically 778,100 +/- 306,500 mg/L, and pH ranged from very alkaline (10 +/- 0.4) to very acidic (1.1 +/- 0

  10. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and exergetic life cycle assessment (ELCA) of the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talens Peiro, L. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Lombardi, L. [Dipartamento di Energetica ' ' Sergio Stecco' ' , Universita degli studi di Firenze, Via di Santa Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Villalba Mendez, G.; Gabarrell i Durany, X. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Edifici Q, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The paper assesses the life cycle of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO). Such life cycle involves 4 stages: 1) collection, 2) pre-treatment, 3) delivery and 4) transesterification of UCO. Generally, UCO is collected from restaurants, food industries and recycling centres by authorised companies. Then, UCO is pre-treated to remove solid particles and water to increase its quality. After that, it is charged in cistern trucks and delivered to the biodiesel facility to be then transesterified with methanol to biodiesel. The production of 1 ton of biodiesel is evaluated by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental impact and by an Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA) to account for the exergy input to the system. A detailed list of material and energy inputs is done using data from local companies and completed using Ecoinvent 1.2 database. The results show that the transesterification stage causes 68% of the total environmental impact. The major exergy inputs are uranium and natural gas. If targets set by the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan are achieved, the exergy input for producing biodiesel would be reduced by 8% in the present system and consequently environmental impacts and exergy input reduced up to 36% in 2010. (author)

  11. Comparative study of performance and emissions of a CI engine using biodiesel of microalgae, macroalgae and rice bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprabakar, J.; Karthikeyan, A.; Saikiran, K.; Beemkumar, N.; Joy, Nivin

    2017-05-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and safe fuel to replace conventional petroleum diesel. With high-lubricity and clean-burning ability the biodiesel can be a better fuel component for use in existing diesel engines without any modifications. The aim of this Research was to study the potential use of Macro algae oil, Micro algae oil, Rice Bran oil methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel in diesel engine. B10 and B20 blends of these three types of fuels are prepared by transesterification process. The blends on volume basis were used to test them in a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine to study the performance and emission characteristics of these fuels and compared with neat diesel fuel. Also, the property testing of these biofuels were carried out. The biodiesel blends in this study substantially reduces the emission of unburnt hydro carbons and smoke opacity and increases the emission of NOx emission in exhaust gases. These biodiesel blends were consumed more by the engine during testing than Diesel and the brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency for the blends was identical with the Diesel.

  12. Emissions from diesel versus biodiesel fuel used in a CRDI SUV engine: PM mass and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Jitendra; Gupta, Tarun; Gupta, Sudhir; Agarwal, Avinash K

    2011-07-01

    The diesel tailpipe emissions typically undergo substantial physical and chemical transformations while traveling through the tailpipe, which tend to modify the original characteristics of the diesel exhaust. Most of the health-related attention for diesel exhaust has focused on the carcinogenic potential of inhaled exhaust components, particularly the highly respirable diesel particulate matter (DPM). In the current study, parametric investigations were made using a modern automotive common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) diesel engine operated at different loads at constant engine speed (2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend on a 47-mm quartz substrate. This was followed by chemical analysis of the particulates collected on the substrate for benzene-soluble organic fraction (BSOF) (marker of toxicity). BSOF results showed decrease in its level with increasing engine load for both diesel and biodiesel. In addition, real-time measurements for organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (marker of toxicity) were carried out on the diluted primary exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. PAH concentrations were found to be the maximum at 20% rated engine load for both the fuels. The collected particulates from diesel and biodiesel-blend exhaust were also analyzed for concentration of trace metals (marker of toxicity), which revealed some interesting results.

  13. Performance and Emission Characteristics of an IDI Diesel Engine Fuelled Biodiesel (Rubber Seed Oil and Palm Oil Mix Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ibrahim K.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study crude rubber seed oil and palm oil were mixed at 50: 50 vol.feedstock’s blending methods is motivated by cost reduction and properties enhancement. Biodiesel was produced and thermo physical properties are studied. Blends of B5, B10 and B20 of biodiesel to diesel were prepared. Engine performance (torque, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE and emission (CO, NOx and exhaust gas temperature were evaluated in a 4 cylinder, natural aspirated, indirect injection (IDI diesel engine. The results indicated that at rated engine speed of 2500 rpm torque obtained were 87, 86, 85.3 and 85 Nm for neat diesel, B5, B10 and B20 respectively. Torque in all blends case yield between 0 to 5% lower than neat diesel. BTE were 27.58, 28.52, and 26.45% for B5, B10 and B20 compared to neat diesel 26.99%. At lower blends ratio BSFC was found to be lower and increased proportional to the blends ratio. The CO emission reduced but the exhaust gas temperature and NOx increased as blends ratio increases.

  14. Characterization of beef tallow biodiesel and their mixtures with soybean biodiesel and mineral diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Couto, Marcelo B.; Filho, Miguel Andrade; Assis, Julio C.R.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Souza, Giancarlos S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA, Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Tallow is a raw material for biodiesel production that, due to their highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energy, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. However beef tallow biodiesel have unfavorable properties due the presence of high concentration of saturated fatty esters. One way to overcome these inconveniences is using blending procedures. In this way, blends of beef tallow biodiesel with soybean biodiesel and with conventional mineral diesel fuel were prepared and the quality of the mixtures was monitored with the purpose to study ideal proportions of the fuels. By measurement of the viscosity, density, cold filter plugging point, and flash point, it was demonstrated that tallow biodiesel can be blended with both mineral diesel and soybean biodiesel to improve the characteristics of the blend fuels, over that of the tallow. (author)

  15. Determination of the biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends: a method based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Marisa D; Oliveira, Samuel L; Lima, Sandro M; Andrade, Luis H C; Caires, Anderson R L

    2011-05-01

    Blends of biodiesel and diesel are being used increasingly worldwide because of environmental, economic, and social considerations. Several countries use biodiesel blends with different blending limits. Therefore, it is necessary to develop or improve methods to quantify the biodiesel level in a diesel/biodiesel blend, to ensure compliance with legislation. The optical technique based on the absorption of light in the mid-infrared has been successful for this application. However, this method presents some challenges that must be overcome. In this paper, we propose a novel method, based on fluorescence spectroscopy, to determine the biodiesel content in the diesel/biodiesel blend, which allows in loco measurements by using portable systems. The results showed that this method is both practical and more sensitive than the standard optical method. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  16. Development of a biodiesel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids. The circumstances that led to the significant French biodiesel activity will be examined: the oilseed producers and transformers actions, the partnership with the oil refiners, the government support - regulation and detaxation... The French production units will be described, followed by update scientific results highlighting the advantages of biodiesel: functionality and friendly environmentally impact. The current usage of biodiesel by oil refiners will be described and its future in the oncoming context (fuel specifications, HDI engines and post-treatment discussed.

  17. Formation and dynamics of Skyrmions in B20-type chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Naoya

    2012-02-01

    The topological stable spin texture called a Skyrmion, in which the directions of the spins wrap a sphere, has been attracting much attention as an arena for unconventional magneto-transport effects. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies identify the formation of two-dimensional triangular Skyrmion lattice in B20-type transition-metal monosilicides, such as MnSiootnotetextS. M"uhlbauer et al., Science 323, 915 (2009). and Fe1-xCoxSi.ootnotetextW. M"unzer et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 041203 (2010). In addition, novel transport properties due to its topological spin arrangement, namely the topological Hall effectootnotetextA. Neubauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 186602 (2009). and the current-induced rotation of the Skyrmion latticeootnotetextF. Joneitz et al., Science 330, 1648 (2010). are observed in MnSi. We have provided crucial evidence of the existence of Skyrmions in B20-type compounds by direct real-space observation using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM)ootnotetextX. Z. Yu et al., Nautre 465, 901 (2010).^,ootnotetextX. Z. Yu et al., Nautre Materials 10, 106 (2011). and also found a large topological Hall effect in much wider temperature region in MnGe than other B20-type magnets.ootnotetextN. Kanazawa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 156603 (2011). TEM observation reveals the detailed information on nucleation and fusion processes and topological defects besides the perfect hexagonal arrangement of Skyrmions. Furthermore, we have found that the Skyrmion lattice state is quite stabilized in a thin-plate formed sample with its thickness smaller than the skyrmion lattice constant. The orders of magnitude larger topological Hall effect in MnGe indicates the high-density Skyrmion crystal formation and distinguishable large responses in some novel electromagnetic phenomena. In addition, we have fabricated B20-type thin films where Skyrmions are more stabilized and applied electric current is more easily controlled than in bulk samples. This work

  18. KINETIKA TRANSESTERIFIKASI BIODIESEL JARAK PAGAR

    OpenAIRE

    Buchori Luqman; Budi Sasongko Setia

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel were produced by trans-etherification of castor oil with alcohol in the presence of NaOH catalyst. Thereaction mechanism and model of castor oil trans-etherification isA + 3B C + 3 DA, B, C, and D were castor oil, alcohol, glycerol, and ester. The reaction rate equation was r=-dCA/dt =k1(CA)(CB)3–k2(CC)(CD)3. In this study was used two measurement method of free fat acid as the rest content ofcastor oil with SNI 01-3555-1998 and AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemist). It found tha...

  19. Biodiesel from mixed culture algae via a wet lipid extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, Ashik; Sims, Ronald C

    2012-08-01

    Microalgae are a source of renewable oil for liquid fuels. However, costs for dewatering/drying, extraction, and processing have limited commercial scale production of biodiesel from algal biomass. A wet lipid extraction procedure was developed that was capable of extracting 79% of transesterifiable lipids from wet algal biomass (84% moisture) via acid and base hydrolysis (90 °C and ambient pressures), and 76% of those extracted lipids were isolated, by further processing, and converted to FAMEs. Furthermore, the procedure was capable of removing chlorophyll contamination of the algal lipid extract through precipitation. In addition, the procedure generated side streams that serve as feedstocks for microbial conversion to additional bioproducts. The capability of the procedure to extract lipids from wet algal biomass, to reduce/remove chlorophyll contamination, to potentially reduce organic solvent demand, and to generate feedstocks for high-value bioproducts presents opportunities to reduce costs of scaling up algal lipid extraction for biodiesel production.

  20. Converting paper mill sludge into neutral lipids by oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus vishniaccii for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Negi, Yuvraj S

    2016-08-01

    Paper mill sludge (PMS) was assessed as cheap renewable lignocellulosic biomass for lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus vishniaccii (MTCC 232). The sonicated paper mill sludge extract (PMSE) exhibited enhanced lipid yield and lipid content 7.8±0.57g/l, 53.40% in comparison to 5.5±0.8g/l, 40.44% glucose synthetic medium, respectively. The accumulated triglycerides (TAG) inside the lipid droplets (LDs) were converted to biodiesel by transesterification and thoroughly characterized using GC-MS technique. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile obtained reveals elevated content of oleic acid followed by palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid with improved oxidative stability related to biodiesel quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Meeting the U.S. renewable fuel standard: a comparison of biofuel pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Y. Menetrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid development. Ethanol primarily derived from corn and biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil and agricultural grains are established sources of renewable transportation fuel. Cellulosic ethanol production is increasing substantially, but at a rate below expectations. If future renewable fuel projections are to be accomplished, additional sources will be needed. Ideally, these sources should be independent of competing feedstock use such as food grains, and require a minimal footprint. Although the uses of algae seem promising, a number of demonstrations have not been economically successful in today‟s market. This paper identifies efforts being conducted on ethanol and biodiesel production and how algae might contribute to the production of biofuel in the United States. Additionally, the feedstock and land requirements of existing biofuel pathways are compared and discussed.

  2. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    The industrial production of biodiesel has had a very turbulent lifetime due to drastic changes in prices of raw materials and fossil fuels as well as regulatory changes and produced amounts of biodiesel. Biodiesel production is carried out by various forms of catalysts, but industrially only...... as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...

  3. Element pollution of exhaust aftertreatment systems by using biodiesel; Elementbelastungen von Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen durch Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Hendrik; Wilharm, Thomas [ASG Analytik-Service Gesellschaft mbH, Neusaess (Germany); Winkler, Markus [DEUTZ AG, Koeln (Germany); Knuth, Hans-Walter

    2012-06-15

    Biodiesel is a particularly attractive fuel for agricultural machinery. However, the introduction of new emission standards has made the use of exhaust gas treatment systems in agricultural vehicles essential. The combination of biodiesel and exhaust gas treatment causes problems, because the biodiesel contains traces of inorganic elements. These turn into ash during the combustion process in the engine, which can result in permanent damage to the components of the exhaust gas treatment system. Deutz and ASG have investigated the impact of current grades of biodiesel on the systems in real-life operation. (orig.)

  4. Prediction of cold flow properties of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Saxena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel being environmentally friendly is fast gaining acceptance in the market as an alternate diesel fuel. But compared to petroleum diesel it has certain limitations and thus it requires further development on economic viability and improvement in its properties to use it as a commercial fuel. The cold flow properties play a major role in the usage of biodiesel commercially as it freezes at cold climatic conditions. In the present study, cold flow properties of various types of biodiesel were estimated by using correlations available in literature. The correlations were evaluated based on the deviation between the predicted value and experimental values of cold flow properties.

  5. A critical review of the applicability of biodiesel and grass biomethane as biofuels to satisfy both biofuel targets and sustainability criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamsiriroj, Thanasit; Murphy, Jerry D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (UCC), Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute (ERI), University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-04-15

    There are numerous ways to assess and compare biofuels. Gross energy per hectare reflects the quantity of product produced per unit of land. Net energy per hectare reflects the parasitic demand associated with the product per hectare. Gross and net energy per hectare are far superior for grass biomethane than rape seed biodiesel. For a biofuel made from residues the descriptor MJGJ{sub fuel}{sup -1} (MJ of biofuel produced per GJ of fossil fuel displaced) is more instructive; this reflects the relative efficiency of the biofuel. Of issue in the assessment is how to deal with co-products, by-products and residues. The allocation methodology allows for a variety of answers to be generated. UCO biodiesel has a good energy balance for any allocation approach; tallow biodiesel has a poor net energy unless credit is given for the co-production of meat and bone meal as a substitute fuel. To be deemed sustainable by the EU Renewable Energy Directive a value of 60% GHG savings is required for facilities built post 2017. A further crucial consideration is: how much fuel can be produced? This study shows that indigenous biodiesel produced in Ireland and grass biomethane may be deemed sustainable but only grass biomethane may produce a significant quantity, potentially satisfying the 10% renewable energy in transport target for 2020 as opposed to only 1.23% in total from all indigenous biodiesel systems. (author)

  6. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and concentration for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2015-06-01

    Ambient oxygen concentration, a key variable directly related to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels in diesel engines, plays a significant role in particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The utilization of biodiesel in diesel engines has been investigated over the last decades for its renewable characteristics and lower emissions compared to diesel. In an earlier work, we demonstrated that the soot temperature and concentration of biodiesel were lower than diesel under regular diesel engine conditions without EGR. Soot concentration was quantified by a parameter called KL factor. As a continuous effort, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and KL factor during biodiesel and diesel spray combustion. The experiment was implemented in a constant volume chamber system, where the ambient oxygen concentration varied from 21 to 10% and the ambient temperature was kept to 1,000 K. A high speed two-color pyrometry technique was used to measure transient soot temperature and the KL factor of the spray flame. The soot temperature of biodiesel is found to be lower than that of diesel under the same conditions, which follows the same trend from our previous results found when the ambient temperature changes to 21% oxygen conditions. A reduction in ambient oxygen concentration generally reduces the soot temperature for both fuels. However, this is a complicated effect on soot processes as the change of oxygen concentration greatly affects the balance between soot formation and oxidation. The KL factor is observed to be the highest at 12% O2 for diesel and 18% O2 for biodiesel, respectively. On the other hand, the 10% O2 condition shows the lowest KL factor for both fuels. These results can provide quantitative experimental evidences to optimize the ambient oxygen concentration for diesel engines using different fuels for better emissions characteristics. © 2014 American Society of

  7. The Brazilian biodiesel program and family farmers: what is the social inclusion reality in the Brazilian savannah?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, some debates led the country to develop new policies and implement the National Biodiesel Use and Production Program (PNPB), with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster rural development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the linkages between family farmers living standard and the adoption of oil seed activity in the Tocantins State, in a region of transition between the Cerrado (Brazili...

  8. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  9. A hybrid multi-criteria decision modeling approach for the best biodiesel blend selection based on ANP-TOPSIS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sakthivel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing demand and depletion of fossil fuels had an adverse impact on environmental pollution. The selection of appropriate source of biodiesel and proper blending of biodiesel plays a major role in alternate energy production. This paper describes an application of hybrid Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM technique for the selection of optimum fuel blend in fish oil biodiesel for the IC engine. The proposed model, Analytical Network Process (ANP is integrated with Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (in Serbian (VIKOR to evaluate the optimum blend. Evaluation of suitable blend is based on the exploratory analysis of the performance, emission and combustion parameters of the single cylinder, constant speed direct injection diesel engine at different load conditions. Here the ANP is used to determine the relative weights of the criteria, whereas TOPSIS and VIKOR are used for obtaining the final ranking of alternative blends. An efficient pair-wise comparison process and ranking of alternatives can be achieved for optimum blend selection through the integration of ANP with TOPSIS and VIKOR. The obtained preference order of the blends for ANP-VIKOR and ANP-TOPSIS are B20 > Diesel > B40 > B60 > B80 > B100 and B20 > B40 > Diesel > B60 > B80 > B100 respectively. Hence by comparing both these methods, B20 is selected as the best blend to operate the internal combustion engines. This paper highlights a new insight into MCDM techniques to evaluate the best fuel blend for the decision makers such as engine manufactures and R& D engineers to meet the fuel economy and emission norms to empower the green revolution.

  10. Metodologia analítica para quantificar o teor de biodiesel na mistura biodiesel: diesel utilizando espectroscopia na região do infravermelho Determination of biodiesel percentage in biodiesel: diesel mixtures using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Lefol Nani Guarieiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered the best substitute for diesel, biodiesel can be blended with diesel in any ratio, bringing lots of environmental, economic and social advantages. Brazilian law Nº 11097/2005, proposes the introduction of biodiesel in to the Brazilian energy matrix, mixed with diesel at a minimum percentage of 2%. For consumers and sellers to be sure that the commercialized mixture of biodiesel:diesel contains the correct percentage, it is necessary to develop analytical methodologies to quantify the amount of biodiesel added. This work presents a fast, low-cost and simple methodology to determine the biodiesel proportion in mixtures of biodiesel:diesel, based on infrared spectroscopy.

  11. Proposition to use 'in natura' vegetable oil and biodiesel from castor oil in thermal power plants; Proposicao de uso de oleo vegetal in natura e biodiesel de mamona em termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, B.F.; Tahan, C.M.V.; Pelegrini, M.A.; Polizel, L.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia; Vandelli, M.V.M. [Termocabo Ltda., Recife, PE (Brazil); Takeno, H.K. [Companhia Energetica de Petrolina (CEP), PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper proposes the adoption of renewable fuels on thermal power plants using diesel or high sulfur fuel oil generator sets. The renewable fuels proposed to partially or fully replace the fossil fuels are castor oil in natura or transesterified (biodiesel). Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on laboratory, establishing the energetic performance of each sample. The results showed that mixtures of bio diesel-fossil fuel offers similar performance when compared to the conventional fuels, allowing its use on thermal power plants in a satisfactory basis. (author)

  12. Desempenho e emissões de um motor-gerador ciclo diesel sob diferentes concentrações de biodiesel de soja Performance and emissions of a diesel engine-generator cycle under different concentrations of soybean biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton F. dos Reis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No cenário atual brasileiro de constantes quedas de energia e iminência de uma crise no setor elétrico, a utilização de grupos geradores tem sido bastante comum no meio rural e os bicombustíveis, como o biodiesel, representam uma opção para diversificação da matriz energética. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso do biodiesel de soja em diferentes concentrações em um motor de ciclo diesel sob diferentes demandas de cargas do motor. Foram utilizadas as concentrações: 5% (B5, 10% (B10, 20% (B20, 50% (B50, 75% (B75 e 100% de biodiesel (B100 em um grupo gerador a diesel, com motor de 5 Hp de quatro tempos, em diferentes condições de operação do motor, por meio de demandas de cargas elétricas: 500, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000 W e desligadas conectadas ao grupo gerador. Foram realizados ensaios para quantificação do consumo horário de combustível e da emissão de gases. As variáveis sofreram influência significativa conforme foram alteradas as cargas elétricas e as misturas de combustível. O uso do biodiesel em concentrações maiores reduz consideravelmente a emissão da maioria dos gases poluentes e se tem praticamente anulada a emissão de enxofre para concentrações acima de 65% de biodiesel.In the current scenario of constant power drops in Brazil and an imminent crisis in the electricity sector, the use of generators and biofuels such as biodiesel has been quite common in rural areas represents an option for diversification of the energy matrix. This study evaluated the use of soybean biodiesel in different concentrations in a diesel engine cycle under different demands of engine loads. Concentrations used were: 5% (B5, 10% (B10, 20% (B20, 50% (B50, 75% (B75 and 100% biodiesel (B100 in a diesel generator with engine of 5 Hp of four-stroke under different operating conditions of the engine, through the demands of electrical loads: 500, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000 W and off connected to the generator. Tests were conducted to quantify

  13. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored.

  14. Enzymatic biodiesel production: Technical and economical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Nielsen, Per; Brask, Jesper; Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented in the literature that enzymatic processing of oils and fats for biodiesel is technically feasible. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process design...... and a lack of available costeffective enzymes. The technology to re-use enzymes has typically proven insufficient for the processes to be competitive. However, literature data documenting the productivity of enzymatic biodiesel together with the development of new immobilization technology indicates...... that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. This work reviews the enzymatic processing of oils and fats into biodiesel with focus on process design and economy....

  15. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... for agriculture and pasture. Thus, a simulation, using linear programming models, was made in order to verify the alternatives of feedstock to produce biodiesel. It was observed that it is possible to decentralize the market, reduce land use, and regionalize production, making better use of the availability...... to identify the driving forces to develop the scenario storylines. This proposition was tested in an in-depth interview with the biodiesel market stakeholders. Based on the findings of the two approaches, the simulations and the interviews, it was possible to obtain future alternatives, where the biodiesel...

  16. ANALYSIS OF COCONUT ETHYL ESTER (BIODIESEL) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANALYSIS OF COCONUT ETHYL ESTER (BIODIESEL) AND FOSSIL DIESEL BLENDING: PROPERTIES AND CORROSION CHARACTERISTICS. ... resulting coconut oil ethyl ester (COEE) was blended with fossil diesel (B0). ... Article Metrics.

  17. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  18. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis) biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Lutz; Max Chavarría; María Laura Arias; Mata-Segreda, Julio F.

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel) by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biod...

  19. Significance of the structural properties of CaO catalyst in the production of biodiesel: An effect on the reduction of greenhouse gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupković Radomir B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the physicochemical properties of a series of CaO catalysts activated at different temperatures on the biodiesel production was investigated. These catalysts show dissimilar yields in the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. We have found significant relationships between structural properties (the type of the pore system, the typical CaO crystal phase and the sizes of crystallites (up to 25 nm, the minimal weight percentage of CaO phase, the total surface basicity and potential existence of two types of basic active sites of CaO prepared and activated by means of thermal treatment at highest temperature and catalytic efficiency. Benefits of this catalyst are short contact time, standard operating temperature and atmospheric conditions, relatively low molar ratios and small catalyst loading. These all together resulted in a very high biodiesel yield of high purity. The properties of different biodiesel (obtained with the use of the prepared CaO catalyst blends with different diesel and biodiesel ratios indicate that the higher the fraction of biodiesel fuel the better the achieved fuel properties according to the EU standards. A significant reduction of CO2 and CO emissions and only a negligible NOx increase occurred when blends with an increased biodiesel portion was used. The use of biodiesel derived blends, and the eventual complete replacement of fossil fuels with biodiesel as a renewable, alternative fuel for diesel engines, would greatly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 172061 i TR 34008

  20. Aging properties and microstructures of Ti-B20 titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Peng; ZHAO Yong-qing; ZHOU Lian

    2006-01-01

    A new metastable beta titanium alloy of Ti-Al-Mo-V-Cr-Fe-Zr-Sn system was designed and named Ti-B20. In order to investigate the aging properties and microstructures of the new alloy subjected to different solution treatments, the tensile and Vickers hardness tests were carried out and the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis were performed. The results show that the new alloy displays rapid aging response, high age strengthening effect and fine deposition. In addition, beta solution results in ultra high age hardening effect with low tensile ductility, whereas excellent combination of aging strength and ductility can be obtained after solution treated below beta transus temperature.

  1. Magnetic and Electric Properties of Amorphous Co40Fe40B20 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Tsung Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available C40Fe40B20 was deposited on a glass substrate to a thickness (tf of between 100 Å and 500 Å. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD indicate that C40Fe40B20 films are in an amorphous state. The plane-view microstructures and grain size distributions of CoFeB thin films are observed under a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM. The thicker CoFeB films have larger grain size distribution than thinner CoFeB films. The saturation magnetization (Ms exhibits a size effect, meaning that Ms increases as tf increases. The magnetic remanence magnetization (Mr of CoFeB thin films are sensitive to thinner CoFeB films, and the refined grain size of thinner CoFeB films can induce ferromagnetic stronger spin exchange-coupling behavior than thicker CoFeB films, resulting in higher remanence. The highest magnetic squareness ratio (Mr/Ms of the CoFeB films occurs at thickness of 100 Å, suggesting the 100 Å of the as-deposited CoFeB film is suitable for magnetic memory application. These results also demonstrate that coercivity (Hc is increased by an increase in the width of the distribution of grain sizes. The electrical resistivity (ρ of such a film is typically higher than normally exceeding 100 μΩ cm, revealing that the amorphous phase dominates. These results are consistent with the XRD results.

  2. Butter as a feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Adawi, Nadia; Berry, William W; Feldman, Elaine; Kasprzyk, Stephen; Ratigan, Brian; Scott, Karen; Landsburg, Emily Bockian

    2010-07-14

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chain-length fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters.

  3. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel

  4. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel an

  5. Optimisation of integrated biodiesel production. Part I. A study of the biodiesel purity and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Gemma; Martínez, Mercedes; Aracil, José

    2007-07-01

    This study consists of the development and optimisation of the potassium hydroxide-catalysed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from sunflower oil. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used. The variables chosen were temperature, initial catalyst concentration by weight of sunflower oil and the methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio, while the responses were biodiesel purity and yield. The initial catalyst concentration is the most important factor, having a positive influence on biodiesel purity, but a negative one on biodiesel yield. Temperature has a significant positive effect on biodiesel purity and a significant negative influence on biodiesel yield. The methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio is only significant for the biodiesel purity, having a positive influence. Second-order models were obtained to predict biodiesel purity and yield as a function of these variables. The best conditions are 25 degrees C, a 1.3%wt for the catalyst concentration and a 6:1 methanol:sunflower oil molar ratio.

  6. Characterization and Effect of Using Mahua Oil Biodiesel as Fuel in Compression Ignition Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Kapilan; T.P.Ashok Babu; R.P.Reddy

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in India, to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. This led to the choice of Mahua Oil (MO) as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel. In this investigation, Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its blend with diesel were used as fuel in a single cylinder, direct injection and com-pression ignition engine. The MOB was prepared from MO by transesterification using methanol and potassium hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the en-gine test analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 blend results in lower CO, HC and smoke emis-sions as compared to diesel. But the B5 and B20 blends results in higher efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or blends of MOB and diesel 035 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engines used in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector.

  7. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive.

  8. 微藻生物柴油的研究进展%Research progress of microalgal biodiesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宗娣; 杨勋; 时杰; 张森; 刘平怀

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is a key principle in natural resource management. Due to negative environmental influence and limited availability, petroleum-derived fuels need to be replaced by renewable biofuels. Therefore, there are vigorous research initiatives aimed at developing alternative renewable and potentially carbon neutral solid, liquid and gaseous biofluels as alternative energy resources. Microalgal biodiesel is the most potential substitute of fossil fuel for numerous specific advantages. Microalgae possess high photosynthetic rate and CO2 capture ability, short growth cycle and non-influence to food supply. In this paper, the progress of microalgal biodiesel techniques was reviewed, including cultivation, harvesting of microalgae and preparation of microalgal biodiesel. It was found that microalgae biodiesel could progressively substitute a significant proportion of the fossil fuels required to meet the growing energy demand. Prospect of microalgal biodiesel technique was put forward at last.%作为化石燃料的替代品,生物柴油具备特殊的优势.微藻是一种CO2固定效率及油脂含量高、生长周期短、不影响食物安全保障的单细胞生物,是生物柴油的理想来源.综述了产油微藻的培养、收获及生物柴油制备等相关技术的发展现状,并提出了发展过程中出现的问题及对策,最后对微藻生物柴油技术的发展前景进行了展望.

  9. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  10. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  11. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel.

  12. Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAZOU Mouaïmine

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... Bio-fuel or biodiesel is ... 1998), the European standard EN14214 (FAME, 2003) and the ... biodiesel and industrial detergent industries (Alonso et al., 2005). ...... product, alkaline wastewater requires treatment, and free.

  13. Process Parameters Optimization of Potential SO42-/ZnO Acid Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the possible renewable energy resources, diesel fuels derived from triglycerides of vegetable oils and animal fats have shown potential as substitutes for petroleum-based diesel fuels. The biodiesel could be produced from vegetable oils over homogeneous catalyst, heterogeneous catalyst, or enzymatic catalyst. In this study, the synthesized SO42-/ZnO catalyst was explored to be used in the heterogeneous biodiesel production by using the vegetable oils and methanol. The study began with the preparation of SO42-/ZnO catalyst followed by the transesterification reaction between vegetable oil with methanol. The independent variables (reaction time and the weight ratio of catalyst/oil were optimized to obtain the optimum biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester yield. The results of this study showed that the acid catalyst SO42-/ZnO was potential to be used as catalyst for biodiesel production through heterogeneous transesterification of vegetable oils. Optimum operating condition for this catalytic reaction was the weight ratio of catalyst/oil of 8:1 and reaction time of 2.6 h with respect to 75.5% yield of methyl ester products. The biodiesel product was also characterized to identify the respected fatty acid methyl ester components. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 23rd October 2012, Revised: 25th November 2012, Accepted: 25th November 2012[How to Cite: I. Istadi, Didi D. Anggoro, Luqman Buchori, Inshani Utami, Roikhatus Solikhah, (2012. Process Parameters Optimization of Potential SO42-/ZnO Acid Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 150-157. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4064.150-157][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4064.150-157 ] | View in 

  14. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  15. Production of Biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. Seed Oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    The acid value of 2.620 mg KOH/g obtained for the crude oil is suitable for biodiesel .... Khalil, A.; Shaikh S.N., and Nudrat Z.R. (2014). Reinforcement of natural ... transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel: Effects of biodiesel on engine ...

  16. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  17. CO{sub 2} reduction cost for bio-diesel, Danish produced bio-diesel based on rape seed; CO{sub 2} reduktionsomkostninger ved biodiesel. Dansk produceret biodiesel pae raps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Kjellingbro, M.; Mogensen, Martin Frank; Kohl, M.

    2006-12-15

    Bio-diesel based on rape seed (RME, Rape Methyl Esther), often referred to as first generation bio-diesel, is a renewable fuel with CO{sub 2} reduction potential. Mixed with conventional diesel it can be used directly in existing diesel engines. The EU target for the use of bio-fuels in the transport sector was 2 % by 2005 and is 5.75 % by 2010. In Denmark, the use of bio-fuels in the transport sector is not viewed as a cost-effective CO{sub 2} reduction measure. This conclusion concerning the cost-effectiveness of bio-fuels was partly based on calculations of the CO2 reduction cost for Danish-produced RME made by the Danish Energy Authority in 2003. At that time the cost was estimated at 360 DKK/tonne CO{sub 2}. Since then some of the assumptions behind the calculations have changed. The overall objective of this report is to update the Danish Energy Authority's study from 2003, taking into account revised assumptions. The report also attempts to examine the uncertainties associated with the calculations by including extended sensitivity analyses. The report draws the following conclusions: 1) The CO{sub 2} reduction cost for Danish produced RME is estimated at 860 DKK/tonne CO{sub 2}, which is significantly higher than the result obtained by the Danish Energy Authority in 2003. 2) The difference from the Danish Energy Authority's original calculations is principally due to a higher rape seed price based on the market price on rape seed. 3) The uncertainty in both estimates is substantial, and there is about 15 % probability of the reduction costs being lower than the target of 180 DKK/tonne CO2 set by the government. (au)

  18. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  19. Oleaginous yeasts for biodiesel: current and future trends in biology and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Garay, Luis A; Sestric, Ryan; Levin, David; Block, David E; German, J Bruce; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2014-11-15

    Production of biodiesel from edible plant oils is quickly expanding worldwide to fill a need for renewable, environmentally-friendly liquid transportation fuels. Due to concerns over use of edible commodities for fuels, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils including microbial oils is being developed. Microalgae biodiesel is approaching commercial viability, but has some inherent limitations such as requirements for sunlight. While yeast oils have been studied for decades, recent years have seen significant developments including discovery of new oleaginous yeast species and strains, greater understanding of the metabolic pathways that determine oleaginicity, optimization of cultivation processes for conversion of various types of waste plant biomass to oil using oleaginous yeasts, and development of strains with enhanced oil production. This review examines aspects of oleaginous yeasts not covered in depth in other recent reviews. Topics include the history of oleaginous yeast research, especially advances in the early 20th century; the phylogenetic diversity of oleaginous species, beyond the few species commonly studied; and physiological characteristics that should be considered when choosing yeast species and strains to be utilized for conversion of a given type of plant biomass to oleochemicals. Standardized terms are proposed for units that describe yeast cell mass and lipid production.

  20. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  1. Role of biodiesel with nanoadditives in port owned trucks and other vehicles for emission reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Atulya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is presently available all over the world and can be produced from several types of biomass. Biodiesel fuels are gaining more and more importance as an attractive alternate fuel in various transport sectors due to their renewable nature and lower pollution impact. However, the ports and the shipping sector are still in the early stage of orientation towards biofuels. In the present work, an experimental investigation on the use of diesterol blend (a mixture of diesel, ethanol with biodiesel with cerium oxide as a nanoadditive (D80JBD15E4S1 + cerium oxide in a compression ignition engine is performed to assess the emission characteristics. The results reveal that the presence of the cerium oxide nanoparticle changes the reaction patterns and heat transfer rate that reduces both the CO and CO2 percentage concentration in the exhaust gas appreciably. Further, the reduction in CO2 emission in the port of Chennai is quantified considering the replacement of neat diesel with those of modified diesel blend in port owned trucks and vehicles.

  2. The potential of biodiesel production from Botryococcus sp. biomass after phycoremediation of domestic and industrial wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, P.; Sunar, N. M.; Matias-Peralta, H. M.; Latiff, A. A. A.; Parjo, U. K.; Embong, Z.; Khalid, A.; Tajudin, S. A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the capability of microalgae, known as Botryococcus sp. for wastewater phycoremediation and potential biodiesel production. The vertical closed photobioreactors (PBR) were employed and supplemented with domestic wastewater (DW) and food industry wastewater (FW) at different batch of study. The cultivation was conducted under natural outdoor condition for 12 days. The results revealed that the removal of pollutant and nutrients presence in both wastewaters with constantly decrease proportionate to the increase in cultivation time. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) were successfully removed up to 84.9%, 69.3% and 93.3%, respectively in DW while 96.1%, 35.5% and 87.2%, respectively in FW. The result on FT-IR analysis of microalgae oil was shown comparable with conventional palm oil based biodiesel in term of IR spectra. This study suggests that Botryococcus sp. has tremendous potential in pollutants removal and biodiesel production for renewable energy development.

  3. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil & Its Evaluation in Compression Ignition Engine Using RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashan Deep Singha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of energy, deterioration of the environment and hunger,these are the three problems the humans are facing in todays era. There is an exponential rise in the demand is arrising for petroleum based energy. This has been followed by problem of depleting conventional petroleum fuels and a hike in price of these fuels, almost on a regular basis. Moreover, these green house emissions are results of petroleum fuels and other forms of pollution in the environment. The rise in the price of the fuel has also been alarming for us to find alternate energy resource.The vegetable oils has proved to be a promising source to obtain fuels for IC engines. Like, biodiesel is biodegradable, non- toxic and renewable fuel. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oil by transesterification with alcohols. The high cost of raw materials and lack of modern technology has led to the commercialization which can optimize the biodiesel yield. A modified engine can lead to better engine performance along with lesser specific fuel consumption. In this thesis, Response Surface Methodology (RSM has been used which has focused on the optimization of biodiesel production, engine performance and exhaust emission parameters.

  4. Green engineering: Green composite material, biodiesel from waste coffee grounds, and polyurethane bio-foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Fu

    In this thesis we developed several ways of producing green materials and energy resources. First, we developed a method to fabricate natural fibers composites, with the purpose to develop green textile/woven composites that could potentially serve as an alternative to materials derived from non-renewable sources. Flax and hemp fabrics were chosen because of their lightweight and exceptional mechanical properties. To make these textile/woven composites withstand moist environments, a commercially available marine resin was utilized as a matrix. The tensile, three-point bending, and edgewise compression strengths of these green textile/woven composites were measured using ASTM protocols. Secondly, we developed a chemical procedure to obtain oil from waste coffee grounds; we did leaching and liquid extractions to get liquid oil from the solid coffee. This coffee oil was used to produce bio-diesel that could be used as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel. Finally, polyurethane Bio-foam formation utilized glycerol that is the by-product from the biodiesel synthesis. A chemical synthesis procedure from the literature was used as the reference system: a triol and isocynate are mixed to produce polyurethane foam. Moreover, we use a similar triol, a by-product from bio-diesel synthesis, to reproduce polyurethane foam.

  5. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil, and water content (w/w of oil were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were 80% and 79%, respectively.

  6. Lipase NS81006 immobilized on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangaraj Baskar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production is being the object of extensive research due to the demerits of chemical based catalytic system. Lipase immobilized on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles has the integrated advantages of traditional immobilized lipase and free lipase for its rather fast reaction rate and easy separation. It has been demonstrated that free lipase NS81006 has potential in catalyzing the alcoholysis of renewable oils for biodiesel preparation. In this study, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with organosilane compounds like (3-aminopropyltriethyloxysilane (APTES and (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane MPTMS were used as carriers for lipase immobilization. Lipase NS81006 was covalently bound to the organosilane-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles by using glutaraldehyde cross-linking reagent. A biodiesel yield of 89% and 81% could be achieved by lipase immobilized on APTES-Fe3O4 and MPTMS-Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles respectively under optimized conditions of oil to methanol molar ratio 1:3 with three step addition of methanol, reaction temperature 45°C and reaction time duration 12 h. The lipases immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles could be recovered easily by external magnetic field for further use.

  7. Optimized production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi-Yang; Huang, Liang-Yu; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Shiow-Ling

    2013-12-11

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively.

  8. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of lard for biodiesel production using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zheng, Hai; Yan, Yunjun

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable biological resources, has become more and more attractive recently. Combined use of two immobilized lipases with complementary position specificity instead of one lipase is a potential way to significantly reduce cost of lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production. In this study, the process of biodiesel production from lard catalyzed by the combined use of Novozym435 (non-specific) and Lipozyme TLIM (1,3-specific) was optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal reaction conditions were 0.04 of amount of lipase/oil (w/w), 0.49 of proportion of Novozym435/total lipases (w/w), 0.55 of quantity of tert-butanol/oil (v/v), 5.12 of quantity of methanol/oil (mol/mol), and 20 h of reaction time, by which 97.2% of methyl ester (ME) yield was attained, very close to the predicted value (97.6%). This optimal reaction condition could be true of other similar reactions with plant and animal oil resources; their ME yield could be higher than 95%. The lipases regenerated by washing with organic solvent after each reaction cycle could be continuously reused for 20 cycles without any loss of activity, exhibiting very high manipulation stability.

  9. Numerical investigation of a bubble-column photo-bioreactor design for biodiesel production from microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, I.H.; Lee, I.B.; Hwang, H.S.; Hong, S.W.; Bitog, J.P.; Kwon, K.S.; Choi, J.S.; Song, S.H. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of). Dept. of Rural Systems Engineering and Research Inst. for Agriculture and Life Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel made from vegetable oil is among the most desirable of renewable energy sources because it can be a substitute for diesel oil. However, biodiesel from soybean or corn can be confronted with a food crisis. Microalgae is a new biodiesel source which contains high oil lipids with a high growth rate, and which also offers value-added products from the residue, such as cosmetics, health functional food or pharmaceuticals. Microalgae are best cultivated in photo-bioreactors (PBRs) where light, nutrients, carbon dioxide and temperature can be controlled. Despite the current availability of PBRs, only a few can be practically used for mass production. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used in this study to design an optimum bubble-column PBR for mass production of microalgae. Multi-phase models including bubble movement, meshes and time step independent tests were considered to develop the 3-dimensional CFD model. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) tests were used to enhance and validate the model. Different types of PBRs were simulated and compared quantitatively with the microalgae's growth model.

  10. The Effects of Climate Change on the Development of Tree Plantations for Biodiesel Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from woody oil plants is a promising form of renewable energy but a combination of tree plantations’ long cultivation time and rapid climate change may put large-scale production at risk. If plantations are located in future-unsuitable places, plantations may fail or yield may be poor, then significant financial, labor, and land resources invested in planting programs will be wasted. Incorporating climate change information into the planning and management of forest-based biodiesel production therefore can increase its chances of success. However, species distribution models, the main tool used to predict the influence of future climate–species distribution modeling, often contain considerable uncertainties. In this study we evaluated how these uncertainties could affect the assessment of climate suitability of the long-term development plans for forest-based biodiesel in China by using Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn as an example. The results showed that only between 59% and 75% of the planned growing areas were projected suitable habitats for the species, depending on the set-up of simulation. Our results showed the necessity for explicitly addressing the uncertainty of species distribution modeling when using it to inform forest-based bioenergy planning. We also recommend the growing area specified in China’s national development plan be modified to lower the risk associated with climate change.

  11. Multi-loop Control System Design for Biodiesel Process using Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patle, Dipesh S.; Z, Ahmad; Rangaiah, G. P.

    2015-06-01

    Biodiesel is one of the promising liquid fuels for future due to its advantages such as renewability and eco-friendliness. This manuscript describes the development of a multi-loop control system design for a comprehensive biodiesel process using waste cooking oil. Method for controlled variable-manipulated variable (CV-MV) pairings are vital for the stable, effective and economical operation of the process. Liquid recycles, product quality requirements and effective inventory control pose tough challenges to the safe operation of the biodiesel process. A simple and easy to apply effective RGA method [Xiong Q, Cai W J and He M J 2005 A practical loop pairing criterion for multivariable processes Journal of Process Control vol. 15 pp 741-747.] is applied to determine CV-MV pairings i.e. control configuration design for the bioprocess. This method uses steady state gain as well as bandwidth information of the process open loop transfer function to determine input-output pairings.

  12. De novo biosynthesis of biodiesel by Escherichia coli in optimized fed-batch cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangkai Duan

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel fuel that can contribute to carbon dioxide emission reduction and energy supply. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters, including fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, and is currently produced through the transesterification reaction of methanol (or ethanol and triacylglycerols (TAGs. TAGs are mainly obtained from oilseed plants and microalgae. A sustainable supply of TAGs is a major bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here we report the de novo biosynthesis of FAEEs from glucose, which can be derived from lignocellulosic biomass, in genetically engineered Escherichia coli by introduction of the ethanol-producing pathway from Zymomonas mobilis, genetic manipulation to increase the pool of fatty acyl-CoA, and heterologous expression of acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi. An optimized fed-batch microbial fermentation of the modified E. coli strain yielded a titer of 922 mg L(-1 FAEEs that consisted primarily of ethyl palmitate, -oleate, -myristate and -palmitoleate.

  13. Direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Harvind K. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Muppaneni, Tapaswy [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Patil, Prafulla D. [American Refining Group, Inc., Bradford, PA (United States); Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cooke, Peter [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Core University Research Resource Lab.; Schaub, Tanner [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Bio Security and Food Safety Center; Deng, Shuguang [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2013-08-06

    This paper presents a single-step, environmentally friendly approach for the direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions. Ethanol was used for the simultaneous extraction and transesterification of lipids in algae to produce fatty acid ethyl esters at supercritical conditions. In this work the effects of process parameters dry algae to ethanol (wt./vol.) ratio (1:6-1:15), reaction temperature (245-270 C), and reaction time (2-30 min.) on the yield of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were studied. 67% conversion was achieved at 265 C and 20 min of reaction time. The calorific value of a purified biodiesel sample produced at optimum conditions was measured to be 43 MJ/kg, which is higher than that of fatty acid methyl esters produced from the same biomass. The purified fatty acid ethyl esters were analyzed using GC-MS and FTIR. TGA analysis of algal biomass and purified FAEE was presented along with TEM images of the biomass captured before and after supercritical ethanol transesterification. This green conversion process has the potential to provide an energy-efficient and economical route for the production of renewable biodiesel production.

  14. Investigation of the effects of renewable diesel fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi

    2015-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate renewable fuels in a compression-ignition internal combustion engine. The focus of this study was the effect of newly developed renewable fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions. Eight fuels were investigated, and they include diesel, jet fuel, a traditional biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester: FAME), and five next generation biofuels. These five fuels were derived using a two-step process: hydrolysis of the oil into fatty acids (if necessary) and then a thermo-catalytic process to remove the oxygen via a decarboxylation reaction. The fuels included a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (DCFA), a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids with varying amounts of H2 used during the deoxygenation process (DCFAH), a continuous deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (CDCFA), fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid (DLA), and a third reaction to isomerize the products of the deoxygenated canola derived fatty acid alkanes (IPCF). Diesel, jet fuel, and biodiesel (FAME) have been used as benchmarks for comparing with the newer renewable fuels. The results of the experiments show slightly lower mechanical efficiency but better brake specific fuel consumption for the new renewable fuels. Results from combustion show shorter ignition delays for most of the renewable (deoxygenated) fuels with the exception of fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid. Combustion results also show lower peak in-cylinder pressures, reduced rate of increase in cylinder pressure, and lower heat release rates for the renewable fuels. Emission results show an increase in hydrocarbon emissions for renewable deoxygenated fuels, but a general decrease in all other emissions including NOx, greenhouse gases, and soot. Results also demonstrate that isomers of the alkanes resulting from the deoxygenation of the canola derived fatty acids could be a potential replacement to conventional fossil diesel and biodiesel based on the

  15. Enzymatisk omestring til produktion af biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2007-01-01

      Biodiesel er i dag sammen med bioethanol et bud på, hvordan transportsektoren kan nedbringe sin netto CO2-emission til atmosfæren og lagrene af fossilt brændstof kan strækkes. På verdensplan forventes der en produktion af biodiesel på 7,9 mio. tons i 2007. Ved den industrielle fremstilling af...... biodiesel benyttes i dag kemiske katalysatorer såsom H2SO4, NaOH, MeONa eller KOH, der efterfølgende fjernes fra den producerede biodiesel med store mængder vand og derved produceres store mængder spildevand. Ved at benytte enzymer i processen kan man reducere mængden af spildevand, der skal renses. Enzymer...... benyttes ikke i de eksisterende processer, men det forventes, at udviklingen af processerne vil øge deres anvendelse i biodieselproduktion. I artiklen præsenteres fordele og ulemper ved anvendelse af enzymer til biodiesel produktion....

  16. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  17. Some Technical Aspects for Sustainable Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Paryanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Brundtland Commission (1987, sustainability means the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations’ abilities to meet their own needs. The term of sustainability has multi-dimensional objectives of social, environmental and economic. Without ignoring the importance of social, environmental, and economical aspects of sustainability, this study will only highlight some technical aspects for sustainable biodiesel production and, of course, the final goal will target the implication of improved social, environmental and economical conditions. Some technical aspects for sustainable biodiesel production cover the multi-discipline activities at the design stage and at the operation stage of biodiesel production plant. The design stage can be divided into conceptual design, basic engineering design and detailed engineering design. At this stage, the design parameters should consider the selection of the type and availability of raw material, biodiesel plant capacity and location, the efficient production process, the availability of utilities and supporting infrastructures, waste (environmental treatment, and raw material and product handling facilities. And during the operation of biodiesel plant, some important technical issues are the production process activities according to the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP, awareness of safety and Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP, scheduled maintenance activity, waste management, product quality control, and further, if possible, efficiency improvement in the production line through R&D activities and technological advances.

  18. Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Handayani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

  19. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  20. A Comparative Study of Almond Biodiesel-Diesel Blends for Diesel Engine in Terms of Performance and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50 with diesel fuel (B0 were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NOx using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.