WorldWideScience

Sample records for renegotiation justifications developed

  1. Debt Covenant Renegotiation and Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona

    This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiation outside corporate distress on firms. We study a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment reduces the agency cost of debt because...... it induces a firm value maximizing investment financing policy and mitigates the overinvestment problem. Incorporating renegotiation outside corporate distress is crucial to explain empirical occurrence patterns of debt renegotiation, the impact of debt renegotiation on corporate securities, and the relation...

  2. The Renegotiation-Proofness Principle and Costly Renegotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Brennan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We study contracting and costly renegotiation in settings of complete, but unverifiable information, using the mechanism-design approach. We show how renegotiation activity is best modeled in the fundamentals of the mechanism-design framework, so that noncontractibility of renegotiation amounts to a constraint on the problem. We formalize and clarify the Renegotiation-Proofness Principle (RPP, which states that any state-contingent payoff vector that is implementable in an environment with renegotiation can also be implemented by a mechanism in which renegotiation does not occur in equilibrium. We observe that the RPP is not valid in some settings. However, we prove a general monotonicity result that confirms the RPP’s message about renegotiation opportunities having negative consequences. Our monotonicity theorem states that, as the costs of renegotiation increase, the set of implementable state-contingent payoffs becomes larger.

  3. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  4. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  5. Renegotiation Perfection in Infinite Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C. Jamison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamic structure of equilibria in game theory. Allowing players in a game the opportunity to renegotiate, or switch to a feasible and Pareto superior equilibrium, can lead to welfare gains. However, in an extensive-form game this can also make it more difficult to enforce punishment strategies, leading to the question of which equilibria are feasible after all. This paper attempts to resolve that question by presenting the first definition of renegotiation-proofness in general games. This new concept, the renegotiation perfect set, satisfies five axioms. The first three axioms—namely Rationality, Consistency, and Internal Stability—characterize weakly renegotiation-proof sets. There is a natural generalized tournament defined on the class of all WRP sets, and the final two axioms—External Stability and Optimality—pick a unique “winner” from this tournament. The tournament solution concept employed, termed the catalog, is based on Dutta’s minimal covering set and can be applied to many settings other than renegotiation. It is shown that the renegotiation perfection concept is an extension of the standard renegotiation-proof definition for finite games, introduced by (Benoit and Krishna 1993, and that it captures the notion of a strongly renegotiation-proof equilibrium as defined by (Farrell and Maskin 1989.

  6. Contract Renegotiation and Organizational Design

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Poitevin

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the implications of non-commitment for organizational design. An organizational form must trade-off between the coordination benefits associated with the centralization of information and its associated costs in terms of renegotiation. The analysis makes precise what these benefits and costs are. First, I characterize renegotiation-proof allocations for organizational forms that differ in the amount of decentralization that they support. Second, I compare these different or...

  7. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  8. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  9. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  10. Validating justifications in preschool girls' and boys' friendship group talk: implications for linguistic and socio-cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyratzis, Amy; Ross, Tamara Shuqum; Koymen, S Bahar

    2010-01-01

    Children are believed to construct their causal theories through talk and interaction, but with the exception of a few studies, little or nothing is known about how young children justify and build theories of the world together with same-age peers through naturally occurring interaction, Children's sensitivity to when a pair or group of interlocutors who interact frequently together feel that a justification is needed, is an index of developing pragmatic competence (Goetz & Shatz, 1999) and may be influenced by interactive goals and gender identity positioning. Studies suggest that salient contexts for justifications for young children are disagreement and control (e.g. Veneziano & Sinclair, 1995) but researchers have been less recognizant of 'situations in which partners verbally assist in the construction of justifications as a means to maintain contact or create solidarity' (Goetz & Shatz, 1999: 722) as contexts for justifications. The present study examined the spontaneously produced justification constructions in the naturally occurring free play of five friendship groups of preschool-aged children (aged from 3 ; 6 to 5 ; 4), in terms of the motivating context of the justification, marking of the causal relationship with a connective, and causal theories accessed in the talk. Partner expansion (validating justifications) was a salient motivating context for justifications, especially in the talk of friendship groups of girls, and seemed to privilege greater marking of the causal relationship with a connective and less arbitrary reasoning. One group of girls varied their use of validating justifications depending on the theme of play. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of use of validating justifications for children's causal theory building with peers, linguistic development, and pragmatic development.

  11. A justification for semantic training in data curation frameworks development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Branch, B. D.; Wegner, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the complex data curation activities involving proper data access, data use optimization and data rescue, opportunities exist where underlying skills in semantics may play a crucial role in data curation professionals ranging from data scientists, to informaticists, to librarians. Here, We provide a conceptualization of semantics use in the education data curation framework (EDCF) [1] under development by Purdue University and endorsed by the GLOBE program [2] for further development and application. Our work shows that a comprehensive data science training includes both spatial and non-spatial data, where both categories are promoted by standard efforts of organizations such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), as well as organizations such as the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) that share knowledge and propagate best practices in applications. Outside the context of EDCF, semantics training may be same critical to such data scientists, informaticists or librarians in other types of data curation activity. Past works by the authors have suggested that such data science should augment an ontological literacy where data science may become sustainable as a discipline. As more datasets are being published as open data [3] and made linked to each other, i.e., in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) format, or at least their metadata are being published in such a way, vocabularies and ontologies of various domains are being created and used in the data management, such as the AGROVOC [4] for agriculture and the GCMD keywords [5] and CLEAN vocabulary [6] for climate sciences. The new generation of data scientist should be aware of those technologies and receive training where appropriate to incorporate those technologies into their reforming daily works. References [1] Branch, B.D., Fosmire, M., 2012. The role of interdisciplinary GIS and data curation librarians in enhancing authentic scientific

  12. Hypothetical Justifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Lahno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic conviction in moral non-cognitivism is: only hypothetical norms may be justified. Hartmut Kliemt argues for a moderate variant: there are only hypothetical justifications of norms whether the norms are hypothetical or categorical in kind. In this paper the concept of 'hypothetical justification' is analyzed. It is argued that hypothetical justifications are not of the kind that we should look for in normative ethics.

  13. THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE CONCEPT OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS PROCESSES IN THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina G. Garanina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains theoretical and practical justification of the concept of innovative development of business processes based on the information analysis of the company’s infrastructure under the conditions of building a common information space. This study focuses on the supporting business processes update, on the documented information processing based on the state-of-the-art information technology solutions in particularly.The factors preventing an enterprise to build a common information space are highlighted in this study. The functional set of the management areas is examined and the degree of state-of-the-art information technology utilization to support the company’s process areas is analyzed. It is proposed to overcome the identified barriers through the automation of the company’s process areas and innovative development of supporting business processes of documented information processing by using modern information technology resources.

  14. Effective Quality-of-Service Renegotiating Schemes for Streaming Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hwangjun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The conventional network supporting quality of service generally allows a negotiation at a call setup. However, it is not efficient for the video application since the compressed video traffic is statistically nonstationary. Thus, we consider the network supporting quality-of-service renegotiations during the data transmission and study effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The token bucket model, whose parameters are token filling rate and token bucket size, is adopted for the video traffic model. The renegotiating time instants and the parameters are determined by analyzing the statistical information of compressed video traffic. In this paper, two renegotiating approaches, that is, fixed renegotiating interval case and variable renegotiating interval case, are examined. Finally, the experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed schemes.

  15. QoS Negotiation and Renegotiation Based on Mobile Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-bing; ZHANG Deng-yin

    2006-01-01

    The Quality of Service (QoS) has received more and more attention since QoS becomes increasingly important in the Internet development. Mobile software agents represent a valid alternative to the implementation of strategies for the negotiation. In this paper, a QoS negotiation and renegotiation system architecture based on mobile agents is proposed. The agents perform the task in the whole process. Therefore, such a system can reduce the network load, overcome latency, and avoid frequent exchange information between clients and server. The simulation results show that the proposed system could improve the network resource utility about 10%.

  16. Renegotiation of transportation public-private partnerships: The US experience

    OpenAIRE

    Gifford, Jonathan; Bolaños, Lisardo; Daito, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (P3s) typically rely on long-term contracts between participants. When conditions arise that fall outside the expectations embodied in the contract, one party may seek to renegotiate the contract terms. Globally, the frequency of P3 contract renegotiations has been sufficient to raise questions regarding why these events occur and what their consequences are for the projects and society. The literature highlights four relevant causes behind renegotiation occurrence...

  17. Justification for the development of a bending magnet beamline at sector 10 at the APS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division

    2006-09-18

    The long-planned and much-needed merger of EnviroCAT into the Materials Research Collaborative Access Team (MR-CAT) will provide dedicated state-of-the-art facilities that are critical to research on a broad range of issues in environmental sciences. These CATs will focus on developing a bending magnet (BM) beamline for x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and micro x-ray analysis of environmental samples through integration with existing insertion device (ID) capabilities in XAFS, micro x-ray analysis, and x-ray scattering. In addition, the expanded MR-CAT will serve as the hub of personnel and laboratory infrastructure support for molecular environmental science and biogeochemical science at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). In conjunction with the merger of EnviroCAT into MR-CAT, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will become a member institution of MR-CAT, joining the present members (University of Notre Dame, Illinois Institute of Technology, University of Florida, British Petroleum, and Argonne's Chemical Engineering and Biosciences Division). The motivation for blending capabilities meeting the needs of EnviroCAT users into the MR-CAT facilities is the explosion of synchrotron-radiation-based research in the field known as molecular environmental science (MES). This research is driven largely by the need to remediate contaminated environmental materials and to understand the scientific foundations that govern contaminant transport in the environment. Synchrotron radiation is playing a crucial role in solving environmental science problems by offering x-ray-based analytical techniques for detailed molecular- and atomic-level studies of these systems. This document focuses on the scientific justification for developing a specific type of BM beamline capability at Sector 10 for XAFS and micro x-ray analysis to support the growing MES community. However, the modification of Sector 10 will meet other future needs by providing (1) an existing

  18. A note on renegotiation in repeated Bertrand duopolies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2007-01-01

    Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome......Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome...

  19. The development of shared liking of representational but not abstract art in primary school children and their justifications for liking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRodway

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how aesthetic preferences are shared among individuals, and its developmental time course, is a fundamental question in aesthetics. It has been shown that semantic associations, in response to representational artworks, overlap more strongly among individuals than those generated by abstract artworks and that the emotional valence of the associations also overlaps more for representational artworks. This valence response may be a key driver in aesthetic appreciation. The current study tested predictions derived from the semantic association account in a developmental context. Twenty 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-year-old children (n=80 were shown 20 artworks (10 representational, 10 abstract and were asked to rate each artwork and to explain their decision. Cross-observer agreement in aesthetic preferences increased with age from 4 to 8 years for both abstract and representational art. However, after age 6 the level of shared appreciation for representational and abstract artworks diverged, with significantly higher levels of agreement for representational than abstract artworks at age 8 and 10. The most common justifications for representational artworks involved subject matter, while for abstract artworks formal artistic properties and color were the most commonly used justifications. Representational artwork also showed a significantly higher proportion of associations and emotional responses than abstract artworks. In line with predictions from developmental cognitive neuroscience, references to the artist as an agent increased between ages 4 and 6 and again between ages 6 and 8, following the development of Theory of Mind. The findings support the view that increased experience with representational content during the life span reduces inter-individual variation in aesthetic appreciation and increases shared preferences. In addition, brain and cognitive development appear to impact on art appreciation at milestone ages.

  20. The Development of Shared Liking of Representational but not Abstract Art in Primary School Children and Their Justifications for Liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, Paul; Kirkham, Julie; Schepman, Astrid; Lambert, Jordana; Locke, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how aesthetic preferences are shared among individuals, and its developmental time course, is a fundamental question in aesthetics. It has been shown that semantic associations, in response to representational artworks, overlap more strongly among individuals than those generated by abstract artworks and that the emotional valence of the associations also overlaps more for representational artworks. This valence response may be a key driver in aesthetic appreciation. The current study tested predictions derived from the semantic association account in a developmental context. Twenty 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-year-old children (n = 80) were shown 20 artworks (10 representational, 10 abstract) and were asked to rate each artwork and to explain their decision. Cross-observer agreement in aesthetic preferences increased with age from 4-8 years for both abstract and representational art. However, after age 6 the level of shared appreciation for representational and abstract artworks diverged, with significantly higher levels of agreement for representational than abstract artworks at age 8 and 10. The most common justifications for representational artworks involved subject matter, while for abstract artworks formal artistic properties and color were the most commonly used justifications. Representational artwork also showed a significantly higher proportion of associations and emotional responses than abstract artworks. In line with predictions from developmental cognitive neuroscience, references to the artist as an agent increased between ages 4 and 6 and again between ages 6 and 8, following the development of Theory of Mind. The findings support the view that increased experience with representational content during the life span reduces inter-individual variation in aesthetic appreciation and increases shared preferences. In addition, brain and cognitive development appear to impact on art appreciation at milestone ages.

  1. Theoretical justification of indicators system to estimate the regional stability level considering its development peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granovska Lyudmyla Mykolayivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical analysis of the indicators system concept, observes in details such components of this system as society, nature, economy. The general indicators of social, ecological, and economic system development are considered. It has been found that indicators are the indexes system of ecological, economical, and social development and give the possibility to analyze and control the implementation of areas sustainable development statement. The system of indicators, which characterize the level of the region stability on the basis of domestic and foreign experience considering region peculiarities, has been improved. At that, the regional peculiarities of both the natural and resource potential and the economical activity impact on the natural and resource potential have been taken into account.

  2. An economic justification for open access to essential medicine patents in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sean; Hollis, Aidan; Palmedo, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an economic rationale for compulsory licensing of needed medicines in developing countries. The patent system is based on a trade-off between the "deadweight losses" caused by market power and the incentive to innovate created by increased profits from monopoly pricing during the period of the patent. However, markets for essential medicines under patent in developing countries with high income inequality are characterized by highly convex demand curves, producing large deadweight losses relative to potential profits when monopoly firms exercise profit-maximizing pricing strategies. As a result, these markets are systematically ill-suited to exclusive marketing rights, a problem which can be corrected through compulsory licensing. Open licenses that permit any qualified firm to supply the market on the same terms, such as may be available under licenses of right or essential facility legal standards, can be used to mitigate the negative effects of government-granted patents, thereby increasing overall social welfare.

  3. Dynamic Capital Structure with Callable Debt and Debt Renegotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Flor, Christian Riis; Lando, David

    2014-01-01

    We consider a dynamic trade-off model of a firm’s capital structure with debt renegotiation. Debt holders only accept restructuring offers from equity holders backed by threats which are in the equity holders’ own interest to execute. Our model shows that in a complete information model in which...

  4. Luther and Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2017-01-01

    In this article I treat of Luther's doctrine on justification as it came out in different ways in seminal texts between 1518-1538, all represented in new and highly recommendable commented translations in The Annotated Luther, vol. 2: Word and Faith, Fortress Press 2015.......In this article I treat of Luther's doctrine on justification as it came out in different ways in seminal texts between 1518-1538, all represented in new and highly recommendable commented translations in The Annotated Luther, vol. 2: Word and Faith, Fortress Press 2015....

  5. Corruption and concession renegotiations. Evidence from the water and transport sectors in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasch, J. Luis [World Bank (United States); University of California, San Diego (United States); Straub, Stephane [Toulouse School of Economics, ARQADE (France); University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Numerous renegotiations have plagued water and transport concession contracts in Latin America. Using a panel dataset of over 300 concession contracts from Latin America between 1989 and 2000, we show that country-level corruption is a significant determinant of these renegotiations and that the effect of corruption varies depending on the type of renegotiations considered. While a more corrupt environment clearly leads to more firm-led renegotiations, it significantly reduces the incidence of government-led ones. The paper then discusses and tests the likely channels through which these different effects of corruption arise, looking in particular at the interactions between country-level corruption and relevant microeconomic institutions. (author)

  6. Alston's Concept of Justification

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The controversy between "internalism" and "externalism" is one of the most heated in epistemology. At stake is what confers justification (or warrant) or on what converts true belief into knowledge. Although most epistemologists are epistemic internalists or externalists, a few purport to reconcile these apparently disparate epistemic positions. Most notable of these synthesizers is William Alston. He argues that to be justified in believing that p is for that belief to be based on some acces...

  7. Justification and Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanek Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In her paper “Argumentation theory and the conception of epistemic justification”, Lilian Bermejo-Luque presents a critique of deductivism in argumentation theory, as well as her own concept of epistemic justification inspired by the views of Stephen Toulmin. Reading this paper induced me to reflect on the mutual relation between the notions of justification and argumentation. In this work I would like to first draw the reader’s attention to a few issues which seem debatable to me, or which I find worth presenting from a slightly different point of view than that of Lilian Bermejo-Luque. I agree that deductivism is not suitable for a general theory of evaluation of arguments although the critique of deductivism presented by the Author appears as not fully adequate to me. Then I proceed to presenting my doubts about the “conception of justification as a proper outcome of good argumentation” presented in the work. I need to emphasise that due to a broad range of topics addressed by me in this short paper, the description of some of them will be neither fully precise nor exhaustive.

  8. Renegotiating Incomplete Contracts: Over and Under-Investment in Public Infraestructure Renegotiating Incomplete Contracts: Over and Under-Investment in Public Infraestructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Saavedra

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper characterizes the equilibria of infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex–post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment (labeled as investments in service quality is renegotiated by the parties in the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this paper is that not only under-investment but also over-investment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting level. This paper characterizes the equilibria of infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex–post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment (labeled as investments in service quality is renegotiated by the parties in the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this paper is that not only under-investment but also over-investment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting level.

  9. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  10. Discursive Justification and Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerken, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I consider how a general epistemic norm of action that I have proposed in earlier work should be specified in order to govern certain types of acts: assertive speech acts. More specifically, I argue that the epistemic norm of assertion is structurally similar to the epistemic norm...... of action. First, I argue that the notion of warrant operative in the epistemic norm of a central type of assertion is an internalist one that I call ‘discursive justification.’ This type of warrant is internalist insofar as it requires that the agent is capable of articulating reasons for her belief....... The idea, roughly, is that when one asserts that p, one is supposed to be in a position to give reasons for believing that p. Bonjour’s reliable clairvoyant Norman, for example, is not in an epistemic position to make assertions regarding the president’s whereabouts—even if Norman knows the president...

  11. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law.

  12. Airframe RDT&E Cost Estimating: A Justification for and Development of Unique Cost Estimating Relationships According to Aircraft Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    used as a basis of support for the subsequent regression 39 equations. And finally, the development process serves as an instrument to support the...8217 . ; ;AI - U .*- .. ." ... , -Lt" U :% 170.,, ..’ ,:, -:iZ,: . APPENDIX G FACTOR ANALYSIS INITIAL 1 71 239= RUN UKI FACTOR ANALISIS 𔃾

  13. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in "Supernatural"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybro Petersen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion is subsumed to media logic, and thus transformed religious representations are an example of a continuous process of mediatization of religion. This essay applies a three-sided theoretical approach, considering mediatization, cognitive anthropology, and social theory. The concept of mediatization applied here implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming these representations, the show challenges our imaginations. These transformations of banal religious representations in Supernatural come about in three ways: (1 as a mainstreaming of occulture, (2 through connecting banal religious elements to existential themes, and (3 through playful intertextuality. The series applies these narrative devices, which heighten plausibility and familiarity, while simultaneously offering viewers a change in perspective, thus creating opportunities for viewers to renegotiate existing religious imaginations.

  14. A grid to facilitate physics staffing justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric E

    2009-12-03

    Justification of clinical physics staffing levels is difficult due to the lack of direction as how to equate clinical needs with the staffing levels and competency required. When a physicist negotiates staffing requests to administration, she/he often refers to American College of Radiology staffing level suggestions, and resources such as the Abt studies. This approach is often met with questions as to how to fairly derive the time it takes to perform tasks. The result is often insufficient and/or inexperienced staff handling complex and cumbersome tasks. We undertook development of a staffing justification grid to equate the clinical needs to the quantity and quality of staffing required. The first step is using the Abt study, customized to the clinical setting, to derive time per task multiplied by the anticipated number of such tasks. Inclusion of vacation, meeting, and developmental time may be incorporated along with allocated time for education and administration. This is followed by mapping the tasks to the level of competency/experience needed. For example, in an academic setting the faculty appointment levels correlate with experience. Non-staff personnel, such as IMRT QA technicians or clerical staff, should also be part of the equation. By using the staffing justification grid, we derived strong documentation to justify a substantial budget increase. The grid also proved useful when our clinical demands changed. Justification for physics staffing can be significantly strengthened with a properly developed data-based time and work analysis. A staffing grid is presented, along with a development methodology that facilitated our justification. Though our grid is for a large academic facility, the methodology can be extended to a non-academic setting, and to a smaller scale. This grid method not only equates the clinical needs with the quantity of staffing, but can also help generate the personnel budget, based on the type of staff and personnel required

  15. Universalizing Core Human Rights in the 'New' ASEAN: A Reassessment of Culture and Development Justifications Against the Global Rejection of Impunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Desierto

    2009-02-01

    character. The cultural exception also suffers from teleological incoherence, since the protection of core human rights norms bears a greater immediacy and proximity to human dignity and personhood – a fundamental value that should be more conceptually valuable than the porous construct of culture. Turning to the “right to development” as an exception to human rights observance, the paper contends that there is empirical uncertainty and/or indeterminacy in the concept of “development” that undermines its legal-philosophical value as an exception to human rights observance. Moreover, contrary to the assertions of development exceptionalism to human rights observance, there is no linearity in the claim that human rights protection “impedes” development. Rather, as shown in recent economic analysis, there is a stronger claim for human rights protection as a necessary precondition for development.

    Further reinforcing these refutations of “culture” and “development” justifications for human rights exceptionalism is, however, the emergence of a customary international law norm rejecting impunity for serious violations of human rights (specifically, civil and political rights, which has gained recognition from the forty-year independent practice (primarily seen in treaty ratifications and implementation of Southeast Asian states. Despite variances in the degree of ASEAN Member States’ practices, there is at least consistent opinio juris that redress for serious human rights violations should not be met with non liquet in remedial processes, whether domestic or international. The passage of the ASEAN Charter therefore marks a convergence of ASEAN towards “universalizing” core human rights norms as now seen in its Organizational Principles and the new requirements of ASEAN membership obligations

  16. Justification of staff positions in a tightening marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, C

    1988-01-01

    Recend economic and political changes in the health care environment have made justification of both new and vacant staff positions increasingly difficult. Occupational therapy managers have been forced with balancing higher program costs with reduced reimbursement. As a result, requests to increase or refill positions are closely scrutinized. Managers must be able to develop staff justifications utilizing program, productivity, wst, revenue and reimbursement projections based on viable marketing surveys. This paer resents guidelines for development of a marketing survey. &a& and rogram options based on the results of such a survey are examine ! and discussed. A staffing justification proposal is included which demonstrates an effective method whtch can use to develop dynamic programs and services to ensure continued growth of the profession of occupational therapy.nd=yes&

  17. Cost Justification for Investing in LEED Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparkling, Anthony E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability, or “green” building, has been examined across disciplines and continues to be at the forefront of global organizations’ and governments’ commitment to promote energy and environmental stewardship. As it relates to construction, this term has been defined and developed by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC. This Green Building certification body has developed a green building rating system for building construction, referred to as LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. The practice of constructing building facilities that meet LEED certification standards implies the overall goal of “meeting our building needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (WCED, 1987. The objective of this study is to determine key cost justifications informing the pursuit of LEED certification, and to ascertain the level of satisfaction of owners as to the value of LEED. The study comprises 30 LEED-certified buildings that are owner occupied, and a survey to determine which cost justifications associated with LEED construction participants favored.

  18. Renegotiating the pedagogic contract: Teaching in digitally enhanced secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ajibola Oluneye

    This qualitative case study explores the effects of emerging digital technology as a teaching and learning tool in secondary school science classrooms. The study examines three teachers' perspectives on how the use of technology affects the teacher-student pedagogic relationship. The "pedagogic contract" is used as a construct to analyze the changes that took place in these teachers' classrooms amid the use of this new technology. The overarching question for this research is: How was the pedagogic contract renegotiated in three secondary science teachers' classrooms through the use of digitally enhanced science instruction. To answer this question, data was collected via semi-structured teacher interviews, classroom observations, and analysis of classroom documents such as student assignments, tests and Study Guides. This study reveals that the everyday use of digital technologies in these classrooms resulted in a re-negotiated pedagogic contract across three major dimensions: content of learning, method and management of learning activities, and assessment of learning. The extent to which the pedagogic contract was renegotiated varied with each of the teachers studied. Yet in each case, the content of learning was extended to include new topics, and greater depth of learning within the mandated curriculum. The management of learning was reshaped around metacognitive strategies, personal goal-setting, individual pacing, and small-group learning activities. With the assessment of learning, there was increased emphasis on self-directed interactive testing as a formative assessment tool. This study highlights the aspects of science classrooms that are most directly affected by the introduction of digital technologies and demonstrates how those changes are best understood as a renegotiation of the teacher-student pedagogic contract.

  19. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  20. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to...

  1. Proposal for the renegotiation of a contract for the supply of eight coil casings for the barrel toroid magnet of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the renegotiation of a contract for the supply of eight coil casings for the Barrel Toroid Magnet of the ATLAS detector. The proposal for the award of a contract with ABB ENERTECH (CH) was presented to Finance Committee for information in September 1998 (CERN/FC/4089). In view of the developments outlined in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the renegotiation of a contract with ALSTOM SWITZERLAND (CH), for the supply of eight coil casings for the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Magnet for a total Ex-works price of 12 580 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July 2001, with an option for an extra coil casing for an additional Ex-works price of 1 525 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July 2001, bringing the total amount for the supply to 14 105 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July 2001. The total amount of the contract, including transport to the integration site, will not exceed 14 490 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July...

  2. Designing For Democracy: Using Design Activism to Re-negotiate the Roles and Rights for Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Mårbjerg Thomsen, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    there are already a number of approaches available which in one way or the other address the relationship between design, democracy and power. We provide an account of participatory design, adversarial design and design activism thereby pointing towards design’s potential for re-distributing power and authority...... in healthcare. Positioning ourselves within design activism, we have set up a series of disruptive design experiments at a Danish Hospital. The aim of these experiments is to make inquiries into the hospital’s own conception of democracy and to use design activism to re-negotiate the roles and rights...

  3. Justification for a Standardised Zoological Nomenclature: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justification for a Standardised Zoological Nomenclature: The Fascinating World of Animal Common Names. ... Ghana Journal of Science ... by the beginning of the 19th century, became the final authority on naming animals worldwide.

  4. Renegotiating cultural practices as a result of HIV in the eastern region of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Kunkeyani, Thokozani E

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that HIV awareness is very high among Malawians and yet infection rates are rising. Local cultural practices have been identified as contributing to this contradictory situation. Using data from 12 focus-group discussions collected in Balaka, Zomba, Machinga and Mangochi, the paper explores the reformulation of nine cultural practices as a preventive measure against HIV. The study reveals that cultural practices that involve sexual acts for completion are mediated through condoms and HIV tests. The study also shows that traditional herbs known for healing ailments are repurposed to symbolise sexual acts. We conclude that the idea of repurposing offers an avenue in which initiation and cleansing rites that involve sexual acts are replaced by other semiotics such as a traditional medicine called mtela. We also conclude that the modifications to cultural practices do not indicate complete abandonment of associated traditions, rather, they constitute the renegotiation of cultural practices and meanings associated with particular rites of passage. Lastly, we propose that a comprehensive prevention programme needs to be part of a wider national HIV-prevention effort combining a women and child rights and empowerment agenda and, critically, lifestyle lessons in a process of cultural renegotiation.

  5. Renegotiating "best treatment practice" and professional subject positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    other. The analysis indicates that an argument of prevention may be a reinforcing motivation factor and possibility of subjectivation for the personnel. A possibility to construct a story about oneself, that facilitates the staff development as self-managing professional, in line with modern management......This paper will investigate the situated enactments of the psychiatric prevention and treatment approach Open Dialogue. Open Dialogue has theoretical roots in constructionist language theory (e.g. Gergen) and systemic therapy (e.g. the Milanoschool; Selvini-Palazzoli et al.). The ideal...

  6. Whoever could get rid of the context of discovery/context of justification dichotomy? A proposal based on recent developments in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Renan Springer; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    In his Art and Illusion, art historian Ernst Gombrich argues that the emergence and development of styles of pictorial representation depend on the availability of certain schemata, which can be documented. He himself documents the schemata responsible for the emergence and development of several styles. Nothing of this kind has been done as far as the growth of scientific knowledge is concerned. In this article we discuss whether is it possible to document something analogous to Gombrich's schemata that can be of crucial relevance for the development of clinical research.

  7. Exploring the Application of Capital Facility Investment Justification Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Karić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades now, the models for identifying and quantifying the level of risk of investment projects and investment justification evaluation have been the subject of investigation by members of professional and research communities. It is important to quantify the level of risk because by evaluating investment justification in terms of the risks involved, the decision-maker (investor is able to choose from available alternatives the one that will achieve the most favourable ratio of expected profit to the assumed risk. In this way, the economic entity can raise its productivity, profitability and the quality of business operation in general. The aim of this paper was to investigate the extent to which medium and large companies have been using modern methods of investment justification evaluation in their decision-making process and determine the level of quality of the application of the selected methods in practice. The study was conducted on a sample of medium and large enterprises in the eastern Croatia during 2011 and 2012, and it was established that despite the fact that a large number of modern investment project profitability and risk assessment models have been developed, the level of their application in practice is not high enough. The analyzed investment proposals included only basic methods of capital budgeting without risk assessment. Hence, it was concluded that individual investors were presented with low-quality and incomplete investment justification evaluation results on the basis of which the decisions of key importance for the development of the economic entity as a whole were made. This paper aims to underline the need for financial managers to get informed and educate themselves about contemporary investment project profitability and risk assessment models as well as the need to create educational programmes and computer solutions that will encourage key people in companies to acquire new knowledge and apply modern

  8. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  9. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1979 Submitted to Congress January 1978. Research Development, Test and Evaluation, Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development Administration - Pipe Line Gas; HYBLA Gold; DIABLO HAWK; Grout StudiesJl Borerffle Waste; A Fracturing; High Temperature IXist Energy...392012 AJWCC Improvement- Plan 208015 Project AVID GUARDIAN . Total O&M, Army 403 Total Army 2 462 Total Army Included in Other Ceiling 604...ELEMENT MITRE CORPORATIOH (Continued) , 8. Project AVID GUARDIAN - a. Project AVID GUARDIAN , established in 197A, has been conducting studies to

  10. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  11. JUSTIFICATION OF THE CHOICE OF THE METHOD OF TREATMENT AT INJURY OF THE CALCANEAL BONE ON THE BASIS OF ANALYTICAL MODEL OF RISK OF DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Vladimirovich Savgachev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective. Decrease in risk of emergence of complications of treatment at patients with injury of a calcaneal bone.Scientific novelty. The assessment of attributive and relative risks of emergence of complications at injuries of a calcaneal bone is made. Complex studying of structure of the help at injury of a calcaneal bone in the conditions of a profile traumatology hospital is offered. Need of development mathematically of the verified algorithm of prevention of emergence of complications after treatment concerning an injury of a calcaneal bone locates.Conclusions:1. The retrospective analysis with an assessment of attributive and relative risks of emergence of complications at injuries of a calcaneal bone will lead to decrease in frequency of complications at treatment of injuries of a calcaneal bone with improvement of quality of life of patients.2. Introduction in practice of maintaining patients with injuries of a calcaneal bone ma-thematically of the verified algorithm of prevention of emergence of complications after treatment, will allow to reduce risk of developing of this pathology significantly.

  12. Governance of nanotechnology and nanomaterials: principles, regulation, and renegotiating the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, George A

    2009-01-01

    Good governance for nanotechnology and nanomaterials is predicated on principles of general good governance. This paper discusses on what lessons we can learn from the oversight of past emerging technologies in formulating these principles. Nanotechnology provides us a valuable opportunity to apply these lessons and a duty to avoid repeating past mistakes. To do that will require mandatory regulation, grounded in precaution, that takes into account the uniqueness of nanomaterials. Moreover, this policy dialogue is not taking place in a vacuum. In applying the lessons of the past, nanotechnology provides a window to renegotiate our public's social contract on chemicals, health, the environment, and risks. Emerging technologies illuminate structural weaknesses, providing a crucial chance to ameliorate lingering regulatory inadequacies and provide much needed updates of existing laws.

  13. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he a...

  14. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  15. Working class conservatism: a system justification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T

    2017-08-12

    Working class conservatism is a perennial issue in social science, but researchers have struggled to provide an adequate characterization. In social psychology, the question has too often been framed in 'either/or' terms of whether the disadvantaged are more or less likely to support the status quo than the advantaged. This is a crude rendering of the issue obscuring the fact that even if most working class voters are not conservative, millions are-and conservatives could not win elections without their support. System justification theory highlights epistemic, existential, and relational needs to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord that are shared by everyone-and that promote conservative attitudes. I summarize qualitative and quantitative evidence of system justification among the disadvantaged and consider prospects for more constructive political activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [ETHICAL PRINCIPALS AND A POSTERIORI JUSTIFICATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Monica

    2015-12-01

    It is difficult to conceive that the human being, while being the same everywhere, could be cared for in such different ways in other societies. Anthropologists acknowledge that the diversity of cultures implies a diversity of moral values, thus that in a multicultural society the individual could draw upon different moral frames to justify the peculiarities of her/his demand of care. But how could we determine what is the moral frame that catalyzes behaviour while all we can record are a posteriori justifications of actions? In most multicultural societies where several moralframes coexist, there is an implicit hierarchy between ethical systems derived from a hierarchy of power which falsifies these a posteriori justifications. Moreover anthropologists often fail to acknowledge that individual behaviour does not always reflect individual values, but is more often the result of negotiations between the moralframes available in society and her/his own desires and personal experience. This is certainly due to the difficulty to account for a dynamic and complex interplay of moral values that cannot be analysed as a system. The impact of individual experience on the way individuals give or receive care could also be only weakly linked to a moral system even when this reference comes up explicitly in the a posteriori justifications.

  17. Justification of Galston's liberal pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Golam

    2016-01-01

    Liberal multicultural theories developed in late twenty-first century aims to ensure the rights of the minorities, social justice and harmony in liberal societies. Will Kymlicka is the leading philosopher in this field. He advocates minority rights, their autonomy and the way minority groups can be accommodated in a liberal society with their distinct cultural identity. Besides him, there are other political theorists on the track and Galston is one of them. He disagrees with Kymlicka on some crucial points, particularly regarding the scope of civil rights of the minority groups and the responsibilities of both majority and minority groups for the sake of social harmony and justice. He tries to develop a moral theory of mutualism based on inter-community toleration and constitutionalism. Considering toleration as one of the fundamental liberal virtues he contends that the majority government has the responsibility to make arrangement both for the members of majority and minority groups so that they can build inter personal relation and learn toleration. The paper critically justifies the feasibility of his theory in a liberal society and claims that although Galston's theory has a higher possibility to be accommodated in liberal societies, it eventually fails.

  18. Renegotiation of the 1987 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: From Confusion to Promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Krantzberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For nearly four decades, the Great Lakes regime has invoked the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement as the mechanism for binational cooperation on programs and policies. Many advances in water quality have led to unquestionable improvements in ecosystem quality, habitat and biodiversity, and water infrastructure. Still, Great Lakes scientists have issued compelling evidence that the ecological health of the basin ecosystem is at significant risk. In 2012, the Agreement will be revised for the first time in 25 years. The degree of engagement in a future Agreement, including scope, issues of significant importance, governance and collaboration will hinge on a thorough analytical process, so far seemingly absent, coupled with real consultation, so far marginally evident. Renegotiating the Agreement to generate a revitalized and sustainable future mandates that science inform contemporary public policy, and that inclusive discourse and public engagement be integral through the process. Many of these steps are still absent, and the analysis presented here strongly suggests that the constituents of the Great Lakes regime voice their views critically, emphatically, and often. If the negotiators listen, we can collectively make the Lakes Great.

  19. The System Justification Conundrum : Re-Examining the Cognitive Dissonance Basis for System Justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owuamalam, Chuma K.; Rubin, Mark; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In a landmark 1994 publication in the British Journal of Social Psychology, Jost and Banaji proposed the existence of a novel, fundamental system justification motive that drives social behaviors. More specifically, they proposed (a) that people have an epistemic need to support social hierarchies a

  20. The System Justification Conundrum : Re-Examining the Cognitive Dissonance Basis for System Justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owuamalam, Chuma K.; Rubin, Mark; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In a landmark 1994 publication in the British Journal of Social Psychology, Jost and Banaji proposed the existence of a novel, fundamental system justification motive that drives social behaviors. More specifically, they proposed (a) that people have an epistemic need to support social hierarchies

  1. 75 FR 53269 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY 2010, Public Law 111-84. Section 811 addresses requirements for the justification and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... business under the Small Business Administration's 8(a) business development program, including...

  2. Defense Contracting: DOD’s Use of Class Justifications for Sole-Source Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-16

    under these class justifications included: • The Army’s Counter Narco -Terrorism Program covered technology development and application, training... Narco -Terrorism Program $0 – no cost modification one responsible source Counter Narco - Terrorism Army Counter Narcotics Transnational Threats...Project Not identifiable one responsible source Counter Narco - Terrorism Air Force Local Exchange Services (dial tone) $3 Unusual and

  3. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  4. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  5. Justifications and Excuses in the Economic Analysis of Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In the economic analysis of tort law, scant attention is paid to justifications and excuses. An injurer invoking a justification argues that he did not act wrongfully. Excuses imply that the injurer acted wrongfully, but that his act cannot be imputed to him. If torts are descr

  6. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  7. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  8. Business, Biodiversity and New ′Fields′ of conservation: The world conservation congress and the renegotiation of organisational order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation, in practice, is defined through the institutionalised association of individuals, organisations, institutions, bodies of knowledge, and interests. Events like the World Conservation Congress (WCC constitute political sites where much of that institutionalisation is rendered legible and where struggles over the organisational order of conservation are acted out. Over the past decade one source of struggle has been the role of private sector actors and markets. This paper treats the WCC as a site where tension over market-based mechanisms of conservation becomes visible and where it becomes possible to watch durable institutional arrangements form and enter standard operational practice of organisations like IUCN. This paper builds upon recent work on the performative aspects of governance and analyses the WCC as an integral mechanism in achieving a renegotiated ′order′ of conservation with ′private sector engagement′ as a core operational practice. It describes how this performative work is predicated, in part, on the act of meeting; and the ways meetings serve both as sites for the formation of associations and as vehicles that privilege certain positions in renegotiating an organisational order under which the interests of capital accumulation receive an unparalleled degree of access and consideration in conservation planning and practice.

  9. Two-level renegotiated constant bit rate algorithm (2RCBR) for scalable MPEG2 video over QoS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegueroles, Josep R.; Alins, Juan J.; de la Cruz, Luis J.; Mata, Jorge

    2001-07-01

    MPEG family codecs generate variable-bit-rate (VBR) compressed video with significant multiple-time-scale bit rate variability. Smoothing techniques remove the periodic fluctuations generated by the codification modes. However, global efficiency concerning network resource allocation remains low due to scene-time-scale variability. RCBR techniques provide suitable means to achieving higher efficiency. Among all RCBR techniques described in literature, 2RCBR mechanism seems to be especially suitable for video-on demand. The method takes advantage of the knowledge of the stored video to calculate the renegotiation intervals and of the client buffer memory to perform work-ahead buffering techniques. 2RCBR achieves 100% bandwidth global efficiency with only two renegotiation levels. The algorithm is based on the study of the second derivative of the cumulative video sequence to find out sharp-sloped inflection points that point out changes in the scene complexity. Due to its nature, 2RCBR becomes very adequate to deliver MPEG2 scalable sequences into the network cause it can assure a constant bit rate to the base MPEG2 layer and use the higher rate intervals to deliver the enhanced MPEG2 layer. However, slight changes in the algorithm parameters must be introduced to attain an optimal behavior. This is verified by means of simulations on MPEG2 video patterns.

  10. Business Reporting: How Transparency becomes a Justification Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion of the present status and future scenarios of business reporting by conducting a thorough review and analysis of state-of-the-art of the authoritative business reporting literature and also a set of specifically formulated models for voluntary reporting...... through linking disclosure to value creation is emphasized. As transparency is in the eye of the beholder, the process of developing corporate reporting practices must be concerned with reaching a common understanding and agreement between producers and consumers of such disclosures. Transparency...... is perceived as both a key objective and outcome of comprehensive business reporting. However, the concept of transparency seems to be an empty concept merely constituting a justification mechanism for actual behaviour, i.e. that disclosure instead is driven by the signalling value for the individual company...

  11. Management's performance justification and failure to meet earnings thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Aerts, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We examine the intensity of management's performance justification as a remedial narrative impression management device, by investigating the association between behavioural earnings thresholds and causal language intensity on earnings-related outcomes in annual management commentary reports. Not me

  12. Theoretical Justification of Regulating International Trade and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The theory of comparative advantage has been advocated to justify the immense benefits that ... of international trade, and the operating rules and systems require periodic analysis and justification.

  13. Dimensions of Justice and Justification in EU and Transnational Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin-Karnell, Ester; Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction to this special issue presents and explains the main idea behind each contribution to this collection of papers. Specifically, this special issue explores a grammar of justice and justification through political theory, legal and sociological perspectives, and discusses...

  14. "Pig's Nest" in an Even Bigger Pen: Pugad Baboy as a Case of Subversion and Renegotiation in Philippine Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rhodora G. Ancheta

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Pol Medina, Jr.'s contemporary comic strip Pugad Baboy as a case of subversion and renegotiation undergone by Philippine comedy. This paper posits that Medina's innovation by way of the "novelization" of the comic strip, as exemplified here by "Ang Hiwaga ng Dueñas" ("The Dueñas Mystery" from Pugad Baboy 4, illustrates and inscribes what can be deemed as comic interpretations of the gaps, distortions, and juxtapositions within Philippine culture. The reading of this contemporary Philippine comic strip leads us to examine abnormality, incongruity, inversions, and hyperreality as manifestations of current Philippine comedy, one that may be socially corrective, or culturally liminal, which now moves towards a depiction of comic postmodernity.

  15. Complementary stereotyping of ethnic minorities predicts system justification in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Winiewski, M.; Bilewicz, Michal; Bukowski, M.; Jost, John T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of complementary stereotyping of ethnic minorities in Poland and its relationship to system justification. Using results from a nationally representative survey we test the hypothesis that complementary stereotypes—according to which ethnic minorities are seen as possessing distinctive, offsetting strengths and weaknesses—would be associated with system justification among Polish majority citizens. For four minorities, results indicated that stereotyping them as ...

  16. The moral justification scale: reliability and validity of a new measure of care and justice orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, L S; Baker, R C; Roll, S

    2000-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that there are limitations to Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Gilligan in particular has observed that Kohlberg's theory considers abstract principled reasoning as the highest level of moral judgment, and penalizes those who focus on the interpersonal ramifications of a moral decision. Gilligan calls these justice and care orientations. The present paper describes the development of the Moral Justification Scale, an objective measure of the two orientations. The scale consists of six vignettes, of which two are justice oriented, two are care oriented, and two are mixed, incorporating both orientations. Construct validity was evaluated by expert judges and, overall, was high. Cronbach's alpha was .75 for the Care subscale and .64 for the Justice subscale, indicating adequate internal consistency. Split-half reliabilities were as follows: Care, r = .72, p Moral Justification Scale shows promise as an easily administered, objectively scored measure of Gilligan's constructs of care and justice.

  17. Justification of criticism of the international financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đonlagić Dženan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As more than half a century has passed since the establishment of the international financial institutions (IMF, World Bank, this paper analyzes the opinion that these institutions have not accomplished their mission. They generally admit that they have not succeeded in the activities that they set out to accomplish, a propos of gathering funds for countries faced with economic gaps and helping them to maintain long term economic growth and development. We show that these financial institutions have done nothing to reduce poverty and financial disparities, to increase their own transparency, responsibility and management, especially with the public participation of developing countries, or to create a more effective loans system. In this paper the main goal of research is to explore the arguments pro and contra the strategic effect, policy, and working methodology of the international financial institutions in view of finding a solution to the global financial crisis and global prevalent financial problems, and also to consider the reasons for the justification or otherwise of their being part of the global financial system.

  18. Predictions of Actions and Their Justifications in False-Belief Tasks: The Role of Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putko Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine whether children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states is related, in a similar way as the ability to predict actions, to such aspects of executive function (EF as executive control and working memory. An additional objective was to check whether the frequency of different types of justifications made by children in false-belief tasks is associated with aforementioned aspects of EF, as well as language. The study included 59 children aged 3-4 years. The ability to predict actions and to justify these predictions was measured with false-belief tasks. Luria’s hand-game was used to assess executive control, and the Counting and Labelling dual-task was used to assess working memory capacity. Language development was controlled using an embedded syntax test. It was found that executive control was a significant predictor of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states, even when age and language were taken into account. Results also indicated a relationship between the type of justification in the false-belief task and language development. With the development of language children gradually cease to justify their action predictions in terms of current location, and they tend to construct irrelevant justifications before they begin to refer to beliefs. Data suggest that executive control, in contrast to language, is a factor which affects the development of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions only in its later phase, during a shift from irrelevant to correct justifications.

  19. Evaluation and Justification of an RFID Implementation : Pilot at IKEA Customer Distribution Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Björn; Qviberg, Ola

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this final thesis isto develop a model for justification and evaluation of RFID technology. RFID is a new, relatively untested, technology using radio signals for automatic identification of different objects. Our theoretical frame of references focuses on research about RFID and implementation iss ues, we also conducted case studies and interviews in order to learn about RFID. Most RFID installations of today are Pilots or early adopters wanting to try new technology. A lot of...

  20. Software and hardware package for justification of safety of nuclear legacy facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Blokhin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of future fate for nuclear legacy facilities is becoming an extremely important near-term issue. This includes decommissioning options to be identified based on detailed justifications of respective designs. No general practice has been developed in Russia to address such issues, while the initial steps to this end have been made as part of the federal target program “Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Safety for 2008 and Up to the Year 2015”. Problems arising in justification of decommissioning options for such facilities, in terms of radiation protection and safety assessments both for the public and personnel, differ greatly from tasks involved in design of new nuclear installations. The explanation is a critical shortage of information on both nuclear legacy facilities as such and on the RW they contain. Extra complexities stem from regulatory requirements to facilities of this type having changed greatly since the time these facilities were built. This puts priority on development of approaches to justification of nuclear, radiation and environmental safety. A software and hardware package, OBOYAN, has been developed to solve a great variety of tasks to be addressed as part of this problem based on a combination of software and hardware tools enabling analysis and justification of the NLS safety in their current state and in a long term. The package's key components are computational modules used to model radiation fields, radionuclide migration and distribution of contamination in water and air, as well as to estimate human doses and risks. The purpose of the study is to describe the structure and the functional capabilities of the package and to provide examples of the package application.

  1. Leaders' use of moral justifications increases policy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zant, Alex B; Moore, Don A

    2015-06-01

    Leaders must choose how to justify their organization's actions to stakeholders. We differentiate moral frames, or justifications based on moral values, from pragmatic frames, or justifications based on practical costs and benefits. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we found that moral policy frames elicited more support than pragmatic frames across a variety of scenarios. This effect was mediated by the perception that leaders who offer moral justifications possess relatively greater moral character. In Experiment 2, we found that perceptions of a leader's private motives had a stronger influence on policy support than did the leader's public stance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that, irrespective of how a policy was framed, people were most supportive of a policy championed by a leader high in moral character. In Experiment 4, we documented an additional benefit of moral policy frames: They allow leaders to mitigate the moral outrage generated by reneging on a policy.

  2. In between St. Augustine and Luther: Grace and justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The view presented in this study emphasized grace as a cause of spiritual strength and justification of man. In understanding the deep meaning and nature of grace, this paper analyzes the formations given on the subject by two great minds, St. Augustine and Martin Luther. Because of the great influence of their work on the theology of grace and justification, this paper attempts to seek whether man’s understanding and belief of prudence would mean nothing at all, that any good that he will perform on his behalf would do nothing for his own justification. Thus it raises the question on the purpose of man’s freedom if his proprium is nothing and that divine prudence is the source of everything good. This led to the idea that grace is the primary energy source of man to make good, not by his own, but by divine prudence to obtain justification. Therefore, in this sense there is nothing good in man.

  3. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of e...

  4. Maintaining Legitimacy: Controversies, Orders of Worth and Public Justifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriotta, G.; Gond, J.-P.; Schultz, F.

    2011-01-01

    We build on Boltanski and Thévenot's theory of justification to account for the ways in which different stakeholder groups actively engage with discourses and objects to maintain the legitimacy of institutions that are relevant to their activity. We use this framework to analyse a controversy emergi

  5. Dewey's Ethical Justification for Public Deliberation Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John

    2013-01-01

    Interpretations of John Dewey's political theory grasp his respect for public deliberation, but typically overlook his ethical justification for democracy. Dewey gave two primary reasons why democracy is superior to other forms of government. First, a public educated in the tools of social intelligence can be more effective at managing their…

  6. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  7. Confirmation and justification. A commentary on Shogenji's measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-01-01

    So far no known measure of confirmation of a hypothesis by evidence has satisfied a minimal requirement concerning thresholds of acceptance. In contrast, Shogenji's new measure of justification (Shogenji, Synthese, this number 2009) does the trick. As we show, it is ordinally equivalent to the most

  8. Multi-agent Justification Logic : communication and evidence elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renne, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a logic combining , a framework for reasoning about multi-agent communication, with a new multi-agent version of , a framework for reasoning about evidence and justification. This novel combination incorporates a new kind of that cleanly meshes with the multi-agent communications

  9. Choosing a Strategy for Return-on-Investment Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshay, Wellesley R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital, including how it is linked to strategic analysis and how it relates to four alternative models for return-on-investment (ROI). Discusses how to choose the best model for ROI justification of training or other human performance technology (HPT) interventions. (AEF)

  10. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  11. 41 CFR 109-26.501-52 - Justification for purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Justification for purchase. 109-26.501-52 Section 109-26.501-52 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... purchase. (a) Requisitions for additions to the passenger motor vehicle fleet must contain adequate...

  12. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  13. Adolescents' and Mothers' Evaluations of Justifications for Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1991-01-01

    Used vignettes and self-reports to examine adolescents' and mothers' reasoning about family conflicts. Found that mothers and adolescents differentially evaluated reasons for parental requests and adolescent noncompliance. They also differed in their judgments of the likelihood of particular justifications succeeding or leading to conflict. (BC)

  14. Kierkegaard, Justification and the Integrity of Christian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    The doctrine of justification is frequently interpreted in a manner that excludes our active involvement in the drama of salvation. This reading has a detrimental effect on Christian education concerned to enable the learner's attentive, reasonable and responsible understanding of the Gospel. Taking its lead from Kierkegaard's account of…

  15. 48 CFR 245.7307-2 - Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... terminated research and development contracts with educational institutions; (2) No acceptable bids received... thereof, or tax-supported agencies therein, and the estimated fair market value of the property and other... expenses; or (7) Such action is essential to the Government's interests. (b) The contracting...

  16. Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives.

  17. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  18. Tank farms justification for continued operations 007 Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propson, J.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-23

    This Implementation Plan (IP) provides detailed descriptions, cost estimates, and schedules of activities required to implement the controls specified in Flammable Gas/Slurry Growth Unreviewed Safety Question: Justification for Continued Operation for the Tank Farms at Hanford Site (WHC-SD-WM-JCO-007, Rev.0). This IP complies with the Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) Administrative Control 5.27 and WHC-IP-0842 Volume 4 Section 5.6 for such a plan.

  19. Mathematical justification of the Aharonov-Bohm hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Cesar R

    2008-01-01

    It is presented, in the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, a justification of the usual Aharonov-Bohm hamiltonian (with solenoid of radius greater than zero). This is obtained by way of increasing sequences of finitely long solenoids together with a natural impermeability procedure; further, both limits commute. Such rigorous limits are in the strong resolvent sense and in both $\\R^2$ and $\\R^3$ spaces.

  20. ON JUSTIFICATION OF STANDARDS FOR NATURAL RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATION IN FACING PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses issues of the population radiation protection regulatory framework development for the natural sources of radiation. Calculations for justification of standard for natural radionuclide concentration in the wide range of contemporary building materials - facing products - are formulated. The basic consideration of calculations is that implementation of these products could lead to the additional population exposure from natural sources less than 0,1 mSv/year. On the base of this assumption it is shown that effective specific activity of natural radionuclides in these products must not exceed 740 Bq/kg.

  1. ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL JUSTIFICATION OF FRANCHISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Jokić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The text explains the right that stems from the franchise as a legal body that develops from franchising agreements. The contract includes the right to use someone else's business identity, meaning the name, trademark, symbol, products or services. In this way, the franchiser and the franchisee gain certain benefits. The article discusses the legal and economic aspect of a franchise agreement, its content, the parties, the positive and negative aspects of this agreement by the parties. Franchise agreement is a means of legal technique that fits the needs posed by imposing daily life and social practice, and in the function of protecting the security of legal transactions. Centennial practice shows that it is time that the law regulates this agreement and to be released from the status unnamed contract.

  2. Interface Methods Renegotiating relations between digital social research, STS and the sociology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marres, N.; Gerlitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a distinctive approach to methods development in digital social research called ‘interface methods’. We begin by discussing various methodological confluences between digital media, social studies of science and technology (STS) and sociology. Some authors have posited signific

  3. Changing Personas and Evolving Identities: The Contestation and Renegotiation of Researcher Roles in Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Laura; Jones, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development and evolution of particular personas adopted by researchers in the quest for rich exchanges within the social field. It analyses my role (the principal author) as a female ethnographer (and the sole female) in the world of elite male rowing. Data are drawn from personal notes, reflections and…

  4. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  5. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Il

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the "Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine", and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization.

  6. Exploring ethical justification for self-demand amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Floris

    2006-01-01

    Self-demand amputees are persons who need to have one or more healthy limbs or digits amputated to fit the way they see themselves. They want to rid themselves of a limb that they believe does not belong to their body-identity. The obsessive desire to have appendages surgically removed to fit an alternative body-image is medically and ethically controversial. My purpose in this paper is to provide a number of normative and professional ethical perspectives on whether or not it is possible to justify surgery for self-demand amputees. In doing so I proceed dialogically, moving between empirical context and normative theory, revealing the taken for granted normative assumptions (what I call the natural attitude--a technical term borrowed from phenomenology) that provide ethical limits to justifying the treatment of self-demand amputees. While I critically examine both Kantian responses against as well as Utilitarian responses for amputation on demand, I conclude that neither normative tradition can fully incorporate an understanding of what it is like to be a self-demand amputee. Since neither theory can justify the apparent non-rational desire of amputation on demand, ethical justification, I argue, falls short of the recognition that there may be a problem. To end, I introduce a meta-ethical idea, "the struggle for recognition," opening up the theoretical possibility of a hermeneutics of recognition before ethical justification that may be more sensitive to the problem of radical embodied difference exemplified by self-demand amputees.

  7. Renegotiating "best treatment practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses re-accentuated ways of practicing psychiatric treatment. More generally it discusses how an initiative to change local practices in an organisation is taken up and fought for and against by people and things with different competing interests.......This paper discusses re-accentuated ways of practicing psychiatric treatment. More generally it discusses how an initiative to change local practices in an organisation is taken up and fought for and against by people and things with different competing interests....

  8. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Anri Sala’s film 1395 Days Without Red (2011) provides a kind of reenactment of an accidental day during the 1992-95 siege of Sarajevo. Shot in today’s Sarajevo, the film revisits and embodies some of the widely circulated images of the siege, such as inhabitants sprinting across so-called Sniper...... Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...

  9. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RATIONAL NUMBER OF THE CENTERS OF TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, THEIR GEOGRAPHY AND NOMENCLATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to calculate number of the centers of transplantation according to real requirement of the population and a donor resource, to prove their geography and the nomenclature, providing with donor organs. Methods and results. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the centers of transplantation, their transplant activity in Russia and abroad are made. Calculation of number of the centers of transplantation is carried out and justification of their geography is offered. The analysis of statistical data on hospitals in the Russia is made, calculation of a rational number of donor hospitals according to need for a donor resource is carried out. Justification of transplant coordination in territorial subjects of the Russia, in federal districts is offered. Justification of the nomenclature of the centers of transplantation and donor hospitals is offered.Conclusion. Settlement data on a rational number of the centers of transplantation, their geography and the nomenclature, providing with the donor organs, suitable developments for planning of the hi-tech medical care in territorial subjects of the Russia are obtained. 

  10. Young Children's Moral Judgments, Justifications, and Emotion Attributions in Peer Relationship Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ball, Courtney L

    2017-06-06

    Children (n = 160, 4- to 9-year-olds; Mage  = 6.23 years, SD = 1.46) judged, justified, attributed emotions, and rated intent for hypothetical physical harm, psychological harm, and resource distribution transgressions against close friends, acquaintances, disliked peers, or bullies. Transgressions against bullies were judged more acceptable than against friends and disliked peers and less deserving of punishment than against acquaintances and disliked peers. Transgressions against friends were judged least intended and resulting in more negative emotions for transgressors; actors transgressing against disliked peers, as compared to bullies or acquaintances, were happy victimizers. Across relationships, children viewed moral transgressions as wrong independent of rules and authority, based primarily on welfare and fairness justifications. Peer context colors but does not fundamentally change moral evaluations. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyun Tan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  12. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  13. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is in an economic viability and relief... Required Reports § 203.85 What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? This report... economic viability and relief justification report must contain the following items for an oil and...

  14. Justification as a Teaching and Learning Practice: Its (Potential) Multifacted Role in Middle Grades Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Megan E.; Bartlo, Joanna; Thanheiser, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Justification is a core mathematics practice. Although the purposes of justification in the mathematician community have been studied extensively, we know relatively little about its role in K-12 classrooms. This paper documents the range of purposes identified by 12 middle grades teachers who were working actively to incorporate justification…

  15. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  16. System justification and the defense of committed relationship ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Kay, Aaron C; Holmes, John G; Napier, Jaime L

    2011-08-01

    A consequential ideology in Western society is the uncontested belief that a committed relationship is the most important adult relationship and that almost all people want to marry or seriously couple (DePaulo & Morris, 2005). In the present article, we investigated the extent to which the system justification motive may contribute to the adoption of this ideology. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined whether a heightened motive to maintain the status quo would increase defense of committed relationship values. In Study 3, we examined the reverse association, that is, whether a threat to committed relationship ideology would also affect sociopolitical system endorsement. As past research has found that the justification of political systems depends upon how much these systems are perceived as controlling, in Study 4 we tested whether the defense of the system of committed relationships would also increase when framed as controlling. Results from Studies 1-4 were consistent with our hypotheses, but only for men. In Study 5, using cross-cultural data, we sought to replicate these findings correlationally and probe for a cause of the gender effect. Results from more than 33,000 respondents indicated a relationship (for men) between defense of the sociopolitical system and defense of marriage in countries where the traditional advantages of men over women were most threatened. In Studies 6 and 7, we investigated when this gender difference disappears. Results revealed that when we measured (Study 6) or manipulated (Study 7) personal relationship identity rather than relationship ideology, effects also emerge for women.

  17. Justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernysh Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study and justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis policy of the state in the tourist industry. The article justifies and proves expediency of the use of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry. The article marks out the scientific problem of identification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry by scientists, provides the composition and specifies the characteristics of principles of the anti-crisis state policy, and justifies functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry; proves the necessity of identification of principles and functions when developing conceptual grounds of the anti-crisis state policy and establishes their interrelation and interdependence during realisation of the relevant concept.

  18. Prototypical argumentative patterns in a legal context: The role of pragmatic argumentation in the justification of judicial decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.T. Feteris

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution the prototypical argumentative patterns are discussed in which pragmatic argumentation is used in the context of legal justification in hard cases. First, the function and implementation of pragmatic argumentation in prototypical argumentative patterns in legal justification are

  19. Analysis of the Paternalistic Justification of an Agenda Setting Public Health Policy: The Case of Tobacco Plain Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses the paternalistic justification of the world's first mandatory tobacco plain packaging policy, which came into force in Australia in 2012. The policy is setting international precedence, with a range of developed and developing countries planning and implementing similar policies. Understanding the paternalistic dimension of the policy is therefore of imminent international importance. The policy meets important ethical benchmarks such as respect for citizens' self-interests and protection of others against harm. However, plain packaging faces a number of ethical challenges: the policy is a controversial type of paternalism; it runs partially against the harm principle; and it fails to meet key operational criteria.

  20. A RAISE Specification Framework and Justification assistant for the Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Xia, Yong

    1998-01-01

    . The goal of our work is two-fold:(1) to extend RSL with real-time features, and (2) to provide a specification language and tools support (e.g. a syntax and type checker, a justification assistant, etc.) for DC. A first step towards this goal, could be to combine DC and RSL achieving the power of both.......So far, we have encoded DC in RSL and set up a proof assistant tool to verify (encoded) DC formulas using the RAISE Justification tools. This paper first introduces a RAISE specification framework for DC, and then explains how the justification assistant is set up....

  1. ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC PROBLEMS FOR LINEARLY ELASTICSHELLS JUSTIFICATION OF EQUATIONS FOR DYNAMIC FLEXURAL SHELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖黎明

    2001-01-01

    Under certain conditions, starting from the three-dimensional dynamic equations of elastic shells the author gives the justification of dynamic equations of flexural shells by means of themethod of asymptotic analysis.

  2. 19 CFR 10.257 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Textile Articles § 10.257 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a... article in question, such as purchase orders, invoices, bills of lading and other shipping documents,...

  3. [Justification of violence as a mediator between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of the justification of violence schema in the relationship between exposure to violence and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. We differentiated between direct and indirect exposure in four contexts: home, neighborhood, school and TV. A total of 675 children, aged between 8 and 12 years, participated in the study. They answered questionnaires about exposure to violence, justification of violence, and proactive and reactive aggressive behavior in two waves six months apart. The results showed that witnessing violence at home and on TV predicted aggressive behavior, and this relationship was mediated by the justification of violence. Victimization in all contexts predicted aggressive behavior and this relationship was generally mediated by the justification of violence.

  4. Stripped of illusions? Exploring system justification processes in capitalist and post-Communist societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Jost, John T

    2014-02-01

    Sociologists and political scientists have often observed that citizens of Central and Eastern Europe express high levels of disillusionment with their social, economic and political systems, in comparison with citizens of Western capitalist societies. In this review, we analyze system legitimation and delegitimation in post-Communist societies from a social psychological perspective. We draw on system justification theory, which seeks to understand how, when and why people do (and do not) defend, bolster and justify existing social systems. We review some of the major tenets and findings of the theory and compare research on system-justifying beliefs and ideologies in traditionally Capitalist and post-Communist countries to determine: (1) whether there are robust differences in the degree of system justification in post-Communist and Capitalist societies, and (2) the extent to which hypotheses derived from system justification theory receive support in the post-Communist context. To this end, we summarize research findings from over 20 countries and cite previously unpublished data from a public opinion survey conducted in Poland. Our analysis confirms that there are lower levels of system justification in post-Communist countries. At the same time, we find that system justification possesses similar social and psychological antecedents, manifestations and consequences in the two types of societies. We offer potential explanations for these somewhat complicated patterns of results and conclude by addressing implications for theory and research on system justification and system change (or transition). © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Researching Justification Texts of a First Instance Court: from Assignment to Results and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Langbroek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Court decisions are reasoned to legitimize them. Lay people seem to understand little of the work of the courts. One of the questions for court administrators and judges is: for whom do judges write their judgments? Is it possible to analyze judicial justification texts with a view to the audiences they address? We answered that question by developing a methodology for the analysis of judgment justification texts, investigating judicial writing behavior. This paper focuses on the methodological hurdles we had to take and the mistakes we made and had to correct. Research reports in all articles on socio-legal research offer a positive and linear description of the research. This article wants to show that trial and error during the research process were inevitable and maybe could have been avoided if we would have had more experience with this type of research. We hope students and other researchers may profit from our experience. Las decisiones judiciales se razonan para legitimarlas. Los profanos en la materia parecen entender poco de la labor de los tribunales. Una de las preguntas a administradores de tribunales y jueces es: ¿para quién redactan los jueces sus sentencias? ¿Es posible analizar los textos de justificación judiciales desde la perspectiva del público a quien se dirigen? Hemos respondido a esta pregunta mediante el desarrollo de una metodología para el análisis de textos de justificación judiciales, investigando el comportamiento de la escritura judicial. Este artículo se centra en los obstáculos metodológicos que tuvimos que sortear y los errores que cometimos y tuvimos que corregir. Los informes de investigación en todos los artículos de investigación sociojurídica ofrecen una descripción positiva y lineal de la investigación. Este artículo quiere demostrar que la prueba y el error eran inevitables durante el proceso de investigación eran inevitables, y podrían haberse evitado si hubiéramos tenido mayor

  6. The Transitional Justice Models and the Justifications of Means of Dealing with the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Krotoszynski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transitional justice measures can be fully understood only when one takes into account the values, rationales and justifications that lie at the roots of various ways of dealing with past wrongs. Seeing transitional justice as an ontologically complex structure, the article aims to relate the legal instruments that concentrate on past abusers to the axiological layer of settling accounts with the past. In order to do so, three basic models of transitional justice – a retribution model, a historical clarification model and a thick line model – all based on the measures implemented during democratic change, are presented. Then, with the use of a classic division between consequentialist and deontological argumentation, the article describes transitional justice justifications. Next, the values emblematic for each of the models are identified. Finally, the article proposes a structure of transitional justice moral reasoning that may guide transitional decision-making process on the axiological level. El desarrollo de medidas de justicia transicional sólo puede entenderse en su totalidad cuando se tienen en cuenta los valores, razones y justificaciones que subyacen en las raíces de las diversas maneras de tratar con los errores del pasado. Al ver la justicia transicional como una estructura ontológicamente compleja, el artículo pretende relacionar los instrumentos jurídicos que se concentran en los agresores del pasado con la capa axiológica de ajustar cuentas con el pasado. Para conseguirlo, se presentan tres modelos básicos de justicia transicional -un modelo de retribución, un modelo de esclarecimiento histórico y un modelo de línea gruesa-, todos basados en las medidas aplicadas durante un cambio democrático. Seguidamente, el artículo describe las justificaciones de la justicia transicional, con el uso de una división clásica entre argumentación consecuencialista y deontológica. A continuación, se

  7. From mirror self-recognition to the looking-glass self: exploring the Justification Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Leigh S

    2005-01-01

    In his Tree of Knowledge (ToK) System, Henriques (2003) posits that the human ego or "self" has evolved because human beings are the only animals that have had to justify their behavior to others. This essay provides evidence for this Justification Hypothesis (JH) from everyday life sociology, starting with the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley, and focuses on research related to the concept of the "looking-glass self." Special emphasis is given to the pragmatics of speech acts, the presentation of self in interaction rituals, the accounts given by actors in justification of their actions, and the role of social norms and conformity in the large-scale justification systems commonly called "culture."

  8. On Engster's care-justification of the specialness thesis about healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Benedict

    2016-06-07

    To say health is 'special' is to say that it has a moral significance that differentiates it from other goods (cars, say or radios) and, as a matter of justice, warrants distributing it separately. In this essay, I critique a new justification for the specialness thesis about healthcare (STHC) recently put forth by Engster. I argue that, regrettably, Engster's justification of STHC ultimately fails and fails on much the same grounds as have previous justifications of STHC. However, I also argue that Engster's argument still adds something valuable to the debate around STHC insofar as it reminds us that the moral significance of healthcare may be wider than simply its effect on the incidence of disability and disease: one further reason we may think healthcare is morally significant is because it concerns the treatment and care of those who are already unwell.

  9. Appealing to the crowd: ethical justifications in Canadian medical crowdfunding campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Mathers, Annalise; Chow-White, Peter

    2017-01-30

    Medical crowdfunding is growing in terms of the number of active campaigns, amount of funding raised and public visibility. Little is known about how campaigners appeal to potential donors outside of anecdotal evidence collected in news reports on specific medical crowdfunding campaigns. This paper offers a first step towards addressing this knowledge gap by examining medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients. Using 80 medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients, we analyse how Canadians justify to others that they ought to contribute to funding their health needs. We find the justifications campaigners tend to fall into three themes: personal connections, depth of need and giving back. We further discuss how these appeals can understood in terms of ethical justifications for giving and how these justifications should be assessed in light of the academic literature on ethical concerns raised by medical crowdfunding.

  10. Justifying the Justification Hypothesis: scientific-humanism, Equilintegration (EI) Theory, and the Beliefs, Events, and Values Inventory (BEVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, Craig N

    2005-01-01

    The Justification Hypothesis (JH; Henriques, 2003) is a basic, general, and macro-level construct that is highly compelling. However, it needs greater specification (i.e., justification) regarding what it is, how it might be operationalized and measured, and what it does and does not predict in the real world. In the present analysis, the act of "justification" is conceptualized as the ongoing attempt to convince self and/or others that one's beliefs and values, which is to say one's "version of reality" or VOR, is correct, defensible, and good. In addressing these issues, this paper is divided into two complementary parts: (a) consideration of justification dynamics and exemplars from a scientific-humanist perspective and (b) an examination of how justification systems and processes have been studied vis-a-vis research and theory on beliefs and values as well as an extant model--Equilintegration (EI) Theory--and method--the Beliefs, Events, and Values Inventory (BEVI).

  11. Young Children's Ideas about the Nature, Causes, Justification, and Alleviation of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A.; Neitzel, Carin

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-four 8-year-old boys and girls from urban and rural settings and representing different races and socioeconomic status backgrounds responded to questions about the nature, causes, justification, and alleviation of poverty. Much of what the children said indicated that they had not yet internalized prevailing adult norms and values about the…

  12. Chinese Children's Justifications for Sharing Resources: Why Do We Have to Share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2011-01-01

    Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's justice-based stage theory of morality reflects only one type of morality and does not consider people's tendency to use care-based moral judgements. This study examines Chinese children's tendency to use justice-based and care-based justifications for moral reasoning. Children's attitudes to conforming to the…

  13. Justification of diagnostic medical exposures: some practical issues. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J; Guleria, R; Craven, C; Horton, P; Järvinen, H; Mayo, J; O'reilly, G; Picano, E; Remedios, D; Le Heron, J; Rehani, M; Holmberg, O; Czarwinski, R

    2012-05-01

    The Radiation Protection of Patients Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerned about the effectiveness of justification of diagnostic medical exposures. Recent published work and the report of an initial IAEA consultation in the area gave grounds for such concerns. There is a significant level of inappropriate usage, and, in some cases, a poor level of awareness of dose and risk among some key groups involved. This article aims to address this. The IAEA convened a second group of experts in November 2008 to review practical and achievable actions that might lead to more effective justification. This report summarises the matters that this group considered and the outcome of their deliberations. There is a need for improved communication, both within professions and between professionals on one hand, and between professionals and the patients/public on the other. Coupled with this, the issue of consent to imaging procedures was revisited. The need for good evidence-based referral guidelines or criteria of acceptability was emphasised, as was the need for their global adaptation and dissemination. Clinical audit was regarded as a key tool in ensuring that justification becomes an effective, transparent and accountable part of normal radiological practice. In summary, justification would be facilitated by the "3 As": awareness, appropriateness and audit.

  14. The ethical justification for the use of animals in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostomitsopoulos N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the benefits, the use of animals in biomedical research is still a subject of debate with respect to its true value. The sensitivity of the community and the interest of scientists who work in the field of laboratory animal science and welfare have clearly demonstrated that the use of animals in biomedical research must be conducted under specific scientific, legal and ethical rules. The ethical justification of a research project starts from its initial designing phase until its completion and the review of the obtained results. Justification of the necessity of the project and the need to use animals in the interests of human or animal health, the importance of conducting a pilot study and a systematic review of previously published animal research on the topic, and the availability of the proper facilities, equipment and personnel are the main issues of concern in the ethical review of a research project. The ethical justification of the proposed project by the scientists themselves involves team-work, and should be a sustainable rather than a one-off procedure. This justification reflects the interest and the responsibility of scientists to reduce the number of animals, refine the procedures, and possibly replace animals in their research projects. The end-results of the ethical review process will be the creation of a trust relationship between scientists and society. .

  15. Authority and Moral Reasons: Parenting Style and Children's Perceptions of Adult Rule Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The style of parenting of 100 children (mean age 11 years, 5 months) was established according to Baumrind's typology. Children were asked to indicate what they thought an adult would say to justify a moral rule in five different scenarios. Results indicated that parenting style did not relate to the number of justifications that children thought…

  16. Authority and Moral Reasons: Parenting Style and Children's Perceptions of Adult Rule Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The style of parenting of 100 children (mean age 11 years, 5 months) was established according to Baumrind's typology. Children were asked to indicate what they thought an adult would say to justify a moral rule in five different scenarios. Results indicated that parenting style did not relate to the number of justifications that children thought…

  17. 75 FR 34273 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-003, Public Disclosure of Justification and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... (c) (i.e., other than competitive procedures) to require public availability of the justification and... members of the intelligence community regards the potential security threat from publication of even... the sensitive but unclassified nature of the intelligence business. If this new requirement cannot...

  18. Reactions to group devaluation and social inequality: A comparison of social identity and system justification predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Kevin Owuamalam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System justification theory (SJT proposes that support for social inequality should be stronger among members of devalued groups than among members of higher status groups; that embracing the system in this way soothes anger and leads to a withdrawal of support for social change; and that these effects should occur when group interest is weak. We compared these SJT predictions with identity management and hope for group advancement accounts that we deduced from social identity theory (SIT and that suggest that both system justification and support for social change will be significant when group interest is strong. Consistent with the SIT-based accounts, Study 1 (N = 116, Malaysia, Mage =19.09 years showed that strong identifiers were more concerned about their ingroup’s reputation than weak identifiers, and that this concern increased system justification but only before an outgroup audience to whom a need to present one’s group in good light is normally strong. Study 2 (N = 375, Australia, Mage = 23.59 years conceptually replicated Study 1’s results and further revealed that strong identifiers justified the system due to the hope that their ingroup status would improve in the future. Finally, Study 3 (N = 132, Germany, Mage = 20.34 years revealed that system justification soothed anger and reduced support for social protest but only when group interest was strong (not weak. We did not find evidence in support of SJT predictions.

  19. Details and justifications for the MAP concept specification for acceleration above 63 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) requires a concept specification for each of the accelerator systems. The Muon accelerators will bring the beam energy from a total energy of 63 GeV to the maximum energy that will fit on the Fermilab site. Justifications and supporting references are included, providing more detail than will appear in the concept specification itself.

  20. Researching Justification Texts of a First Instance Court from Assignment to Results and Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langbroek, Philip; van der Linden - Smith, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Court decisions are reasoned to legitimize them. Lay people seem to understand little of the work of the courts. One of the questions for court administrators and judges is: for whom do judges write their judgments? Is it possible to analyze judicial justification texts with a view to the audiences

  1. Researching Justification Texts of a First Instance Court from Assignment to Results and Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langbroek, Philip; van der Linden - Smith, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Court decisions are reasoned to legitimize them. Lay people seem to understand little of the work of the courts. One of the questions for court administrators and judges is: for whom do judges write their judgments? Is it possible to analyze judicial justification texts with a view to the audiences

  2. American Sterilization: The Racist Justifications for Sterilization in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor Price

    2016-01-01

    An investigative analysis into anthropometrics, sterilization, eugenics, and other forms of scientific racism used to justify white supremacy and racial thought in the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States. The Tuskegee syphilis study, Darwinistic ideals, and neo-Lamarckian thoughts are critically analyzed as justifications for institutional racism.

  3. Legitimacy, democracy and public justification: Rawls' political liberalism versus Gaus' justificatory liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Public justification-based accounts of liberal legitimacy rely on the idea that a polity’s basic structure should, in some sense, be acceptable to its citizens. In this paper I discuss the prospects of that approach through the lens of Gerald Gaus’ critique of John Rawls’ paradigmatic account of

  4. EPRI PWR Safety and Relief Valve Test Program: test condition justification report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosler, J.

    1982-12-01

    In response to NUREG 0737, Item II.D.1.A requirements, several safety and relief valve designs were tested by EPRI under PWR utility sponsorship. Justification that the inlet fluid conditions under which these valve designs were tested are representative of those expected in participating domestic PWR units during FSAR, Extended High Pressure Injection, and Cold Overpressurization events is presented.

  5. Verification or Proof: Justification of Pythagoras' Theorem in Chinese Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents key findings of my research on the approaches to justification by investigating how a sample of teachers in Hong Kong and Shanghai taught the topic Pythagoras theorem. In this study, 8 Hong Kong videos taken from TIMSS 1999 Video Study and 11 Shanghai videos videotaped by the researcher comprised the database. It was found that…

  6. A Reply on Behalf of the Relativist to Mark Mason's Justification of Universal Ethical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Mark Mason, in his "A Justification, After the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals" Educational Philosophy and Theory, 37 (2005), attempts to justify transcultural multiculturalism. In this paper I argue that he fails to refute moral relativism, and that multiculturalism as he interprets it is not morally…

  7. Justification for Continued Operation of the SRS Saltstone Facility (Z-Area)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W.A.

    1999-01-20

    Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) are a part of the Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF). Z-Area facilities are just one segment of an integrated waste management and disposal system located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The bases for the Justification of Continuing Operations (JCO) of the Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) at SRS are provided.

  8. 19 CFR 10.824 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.824 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a) Verification. A claim for preferential... preferential treatment. 10.824 Section 10.824 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 19 CFR 10.470 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.470 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a) Verification. A claim for preferential... preferential treatment. 10.470 Section 10.470 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 19 CFR 10.550 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.550 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a) Verification. A claim for preferential... preferential treatment. 10.550 Section 10.550 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment... preferential tariff treatment. 10.616 Section 10.616 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...

  12. 19 CFR 10.784 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.784 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a) Verification. A claim for preferential... preferential treatment. 10.784 Section 10.784 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  13. Students' Reported Justifications for Their Representational Choices in Linear Function Problems: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo Nistal, Ana; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six secondary school students aged 14-16 were interviewed while they chose between a table, a graph or a formula to solve three linear function problems. The justifications for their choices were classified as (1) task-related if they explicitly mentioned the to-be-solved problem, (2) subject-related if students mentioned their own…

  14. THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION LAW OF DISTANCES BETWEEN STOPS OF CITY PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigation of relation bitween the trip distance on stops location on the route between places of attraction. Theoretical justification of the use fulness of exponential distribution with the shift parameter for describing the trip distance between stops is given.

  15. Some problems typically present in sociological justification and foundation: Notes on the theoretical debate regarding contemporary sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maynor Antonio Mora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some problems typically observed in contemporary sociological justification and foundation, as well as its implications, are discussed from a constructivist epistemological, pragmatic and evolutionary position. The central thesis proposed here is the need to reconsider archaeologically these problems (from the origin of the discipline and in the sense proposed by Foucault, i.e. from the reconstruction of the deep layers of our own contemporaneity. These problems should be reconsidered without forgetting the course of sociology and its historical background in modern times, specifically in the last century and a half of its historical development, in order to avoid the renewed imposition of common sense, sociological common sense and ideology, which in many cases are camouflaged under the technique or uncritical utopistics.

  16. From ships in the night to exchanges in the piazza: Renegotiating the researcher-stakeholder nexus in climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    A substantial divide remains between the communities of research, embedded largely in universities and science agencies, and the communities of practice, comprising the natural-resource managers and other decision-makers in diverse federal, state, local, and tribal agencies and in private-sector enterprises and organizations. In spite of clear needs and best intentions, engagement among the respective communities is imperfect; researchers and stakeholders are often like ships passing in the night, exchanging brief, cryptic signals. A variety of boundary organizations have been developed to facilitate the communications, and a number of successful models for researcher-stakeholder exchange and engagement have been applied. At least two substantial challenges remain. First, how can the successes be scaled up and proliferated to meet the vast demands posed by climate adaptation? Second, how can the various boundary organizations most effectively foster this expansion, individually and collectively? Meeting these challenges will require coordination among the respective organizations, changes in the cultures of research and management, and careful assessment of process and outcomes.

  17. From Ships in the Night to Exchanges in the Piazza: Renegotiating the Researcher-Stakeholder Nexus in Climate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    A substantial divide remains between the communities of research, embedded largely in universities and science agencies, and the communities of practice, comprising the natural-resource managers and other decision-makers in diverse federal, state, local, and tribal agencies and in private-sector enterprises and organizations. In spite of clear needs and best intentions, engagement among the respective communities is imperfect; researchers and stakeholders are often like ships passing in the night, exchanging brief, cryptic signals. A variety of boundary organizations have been developed to facilitate the communications, and a number of successful models for researcher-stakeholder exchange and engagement have been applied. At least two substantial challenges remain. First, how can the successes be scaled up and proliferated to meet the vast demands posed by climate adaptation? Second, how can the various boundary organizations most effectively foster this expansion, individually and collectively? Meeting these challenges will require coordination among the respective organizations, changes in the cultures of research and management, and careful assessment of process and outcomes.

  18. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): Presentation and Justification of the NEFI Science Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Qi, J.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2004, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research - has addressed large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental changes over Northern Eurasia and their impact on the Global Earth system. With more than 1500 peer-reviewed journal publications and 40 books to its credit, NEESPI's activities resulted in significant scientific outreach. This created a new research realm through self-organization of NEESPI scientists in a broad research network, accumulation of knowledge while developing new tools (observations, models, and collaborative networks) and producing new, exciting results that can be applied to directly support decision-making for societal needs. At the Synthesis NEESPI Workshop in Prague, Czechia (April 9-12, 2015) it was decided to shift gradually the foci of regional studies in Northern Eurasia towards applications with the following major Science Question: "What dynamic and interactive change(s) will affect societal well-being, activities, and health, and what might be the mitigation and adaptation strategies that could support sustainable development and decision-making activities in Northern Eurasia?". To answer this question requires a stronger socio-economic component in the ongoing and future regional studies focused on sustainable societal development under changing climatic and environmental conditions. The NEESPI Research Team has reorganized itself into "Northern Eurasia Future Initiative" (NEFI) and began development of the NEFI Programmatic White Paper released at http://neespi.org in June 2016. Presentation will provide justification of the new NEFI research foci and approach examples addressing them. The societal challenges, particularly the socio-economic challenges are the top priority in most of them. Throughout the NEESP Initiative duration, support for it studies has been provided by

  19. The theoretical justification of civil service professional space management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Terentiev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article develops the basic theoretical principles concerning the practical aspects of a civil service professional space. Development of the theoretical foundations of civil service professional space management provides for Public Administration new, more comprehensive methodological tools for adequately analysis and management of both social and professional processes in the public service, and ongoing process in the subspaces, fields and environments of all professions. Civil service professional space defines the main parameters and directions of public service, and professional environment of public authorities. As a space of common activity it requires special development and management. The author describes the content of functions for civil service professional space management, and provides appropriate practical recommendations. It is concluded that the civil service professional space should be the top point for analysis, forecasting, planning, implementation and decision-making in the civil service management in Ukraine.

  20. A Case Study of Hogtown Creek: Justification for Field Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Felicia E.

    A case-study model of a field trip to a small creek was made to facilitate the use of field studies as a technique for involving students and teachers in studying the earth as it undergoes change. Methods and techniques of planning are presented which include familiarization with the area by the teacher, the development of goals and objectives,…

  1. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  2. Combining Theory of Institutional Logics and Theory of Justification in Understanding Ambiguous Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    I propose to understand decision making by combining theory of institutional logics (Friedland; Thornton, Ocasio & Lounsbury) and theory of justification (Boltanski and Thévenot). These two theoretical approaches are different but, at the same time, deal with the socially constructed plurality...... of the world nesting a macro-meso-micro level analysis. My argument is that both theories may learn from each other and enrich the study of ambiguous decision making. In the paper I describe, compare and combine the two theoretical approaches. I then illustrate the combined approach by a case where Chinese...... companies have located part of their business in Denmark. Finally I conclude and discuss why theory of institutional logics needs theory of justification and vice versa....

  3. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.

  4. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical–statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject. PMID:27081307

  5. Pharmacokinetic justification of antiprotozoal therapy. A US perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, J D; Fleckenstein, L

    1991-12-01

    Infections with parasitic protozoa have always been problems for the developing world and are becoming of greater importance to the developed world in this age of easy international travel. The major human protozoal diseases are summarised with an emphasis on their presentation in normal hosts and in immunocompromised individuals and current US drug treatment recommendations are discussed. Present antiprotozoal regimens are based either on a pharmacokinetic rationale or on clinical trial and error. Regimens based on trial and error include amphotericin B against leishmaniasis and arsenic against African trypanosomiasis. Regimens which are to some extent driven by pharmacokinetic or biochemical considerations include paromomycin and metronidazole against amoebiasis, sodium stibogluconate against leishmaniasis, halofantrine and mefloquine against malaria, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors against Pneumocystis carinii and toxoplasmosis and aerosolised pentamidine against P. carinii pneumonia. The majority of pharmacokinetic studies have been performed only on agents which have some therapeutic activity against other diseases of the developed world. Despite the trend toward rational treatment regimens, no studies have been performed that permit optimisation of antiprotozoal treatment regimens on the basis of clinical conditions such as renal failure.

  6. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical-statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject.

  7. Ethical Justification of Moral Norms in Scientific Research: Scientists' External Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AKÖZER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists' moral responsibilities have become a focus for the scientific community over the postwar decades. International and regional networks of leading academic bodies have responded to a widely perceived increase in scientific fraud and the ensued loss of public trust in science during the 1980s, and initiated a discussion with a view to codifying good practice in research. While scientists' “external” responsibilities towards society and the humankind have been variously addressed, codes drafted since then mainly dwell on problems of misconduct concerning scientists' “internal” responsibilities towards science and to the scientific community. They also reflect an ethical pluralism, which declines justifying moral standards in research with reference to universal ethical principles. However, the need for such justification has been first recognized decades ago, during the Doctor's Trial in Nuremberg, where the shortcomings of the established ethos of science and the inadequacy of the Hippocratic ethics in safeguarding human rights in research had become flagrant, with the resultant Nuremberg Code of 1947 introducing a human rights perspective into Hippocratic ethics. This paper argues for the necessity of an integral ethical justification of scientists' both external and inner responsibilities, as put down or assumed by internationally acclaimed codes of conduct. Such necessity is validated by the evidence that a historical current to monopolize ethical thinking in the name of science and nullify philosophical ethics lies at the root of an anti–morality that relativized human worth and virtually legitimized human rights violations in scientific practice. Kantian ethics based on humans' absolute inner worth, and Popperian epistemology rooted in respect for truth and for humans as rational beings, pledge an ethical justification of moral norms in science so as to reinforce the latter against intrusions of anti–morality. The paper

  8. Labour Standards as a Justification for Trade Barriers: Consumer Concerns, Protectionism and the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhshi, Samira; Kerr, William A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, justifications by producers (economic protectionism), consumers and social advocates (humanitarian motives) for including labour standards in international trade agreements are discussed. To date, little work has been undertaken to determine empirically whether low labour standards lead to trade distortions. This article provides some empirical evidence pertaining to this question. Consumer groups, social advocates and traditional vested interests such as labour unions have a...

  9. Labour Standards as a Justification for Trade Barriers: Consumer Concerns, Protectionism and the Evidence: Technical Annex

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhshi, Samira; Kerr, William A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, justifications by producers (economic protectionism), consumers and social advocates (humanitarian motives) for including labour standards in international trade agreements are discussed. To date, little work has been undertaken to determine empirically whether low labour standards lead to trade distortions. This article provides some empirical evidence pertaining to this question. Consumer groups, social advocates and traditional vested interests such as labour unions have a...

  10. The Scientific Research and the Problem of its Justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cárdenas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the conflict that has to do with epistemic and methodological issues involved in Boyle/Spinoza discussion, which allows to appreciate how it should be reassessed, at least two things, in the growing natural science of the Seventeenth Century: i the preference of a hypothetical and practical knowledge instead of the mere pretence of an absolute certainty of the scientific knowledge. And ii the investigation of the nature demands a careful experimentation that stresses the development of some epistemological approaches and different method to those to which most modern philosophers were accustomed to.

  11. Justification for intravenous magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H S

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are magnesium-deficient and develop an additional transient decrease in serum magnesium concentrations (S-Mg c) during the acute phase of the infarct. Animal experiments, as well as studies on humans, have indicated...... of routine practice for patients with acute myocardial infarction....... that the acute decrease in S-Mg c as well as a more chronic magnesium (Mg) deficiency state are harmful to the myocardium in the setting of acute ischaemia. This knowledge has led during the last couple of years to the performance of four double-blind placebo controlled studies in which the effect of i...

  12. Conceptual Model of IT Infrastructure Capability and Its Empirical Justification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xianfeng; LAN Boxiong; GUO Zhenwei

    2008-01-01

    Increasing importance has been attached to the value of information technology (IT) infrastructure in today's organizations. The development of efficacious IT infrastructure capability enhances business performance and brings sustainable competitive advantage. This study analyzed the IT infrastructure capability in a holistic way and then presented a concept model of IT capability. IT infrastructure capability was categorized into sharing capability, service capability, and flexibility. This study then empirically tested the model using a set of survey data collected from 145 firms. Three factors emerge from the factor analysis as IT flexibility, IT service capability, and IT sharing capability, which agree with those in the conceptual model built in this study.

  13. Justification in clinical radiological practice: a survey among staff of five London hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalonis, M; Horrocks, J

    2012-04-01

    This study represents a survey performed among staff who, according to the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposures) Regulations of 2000 (IRMER), are responsible for justifying radiological examinations in the UK. The aim of the survey is to map the current situation regarding knowledge of risks from X-ray exposures and the criteria used for their justification. An anonymous electronic questionnaire was emailed to 219 radiologists and radiographers of five National Health Service hospitals. The questions were designed to investigate the way the sample group defines/assesses risk and benefit when justifying medical exposures, and to test their knowledge on radiation doses, risk communication, and on relevant national legislation. The majority of the respondents are aware of the relevant legislation/guidelines. Patient's medical condition, age and sex, and alternative techniques using less or no ionising radiation are the main criteria used for justification. However, when estimating the effective dose of various examinations in chest radiograph equivalents, the majority of the responses were incorrect. Although there is good knowledge of legislation around justification of medical exposures, there seems to be a lack of knowledge on radiation doses and risks among IRMER practitioners.

  14. Discourse, Justification, and Education: Jürgen Habermas on Moral Epistemology and Dialogical Conditions of Moral Justification and Rightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okshevsky, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Walter Okshevsky addresses the question of whether a certain form of dialogically derived agreement can function as an epistemic (universal and necessary) criterion of moral judgment and ground of moral authority. Okshevsky examines arguments for and against in the literature of educational philosophy and develops Jürgen Habermas's…

  15. Discourse, Justification, and Education: Jürgen Habermas on Moral Epistemology and Dialogical Conditions of Moral Justification and Rightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okshevsky, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Walter Okshevsky addresses the question of whether a certain form of dialogically derived agreement can function as an epistemic (universal and necessary) criterion of moral judgment and ground of moral authority. Okshevsky examines arguments for and against in the literature of educational philosophy and develops Jürgen Habermas's…

  16. ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC??PROBLEMS FOR LINEARLY ELASTICSHELLS—JUSTIFICATION OF EQUATIONS???FOR DYNAMIC FLEXURAL SHELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Under certain conditions, starting from the three-dimensional dynamic equations of elastic shells the author gives the justification of dynamic equations of flexural shells by means of the method of asymptotic analysis.

  17. The ethics of placebo-controlled trials: methodological justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millum, Joseph; Grady, Christine

    2013-11-01

    The use of placebo controls in clinical trials remains controversial. Ethical analysis and international ethical guidance permit the use of placebo controls in randomized trials when scientifically indicated in four cases: (1) when there is no proven effective treatment for the condition under study; (2) when withholding treatment poses negligible risks to participants; (3) when there are compelling methodological reasons for using placebo, and withholding treatment does not pose a risk of serious harm to participants; and, more controversially, (4) when there are compelling methodological reasons for using placebo, and the research is intended to develop interventions that can be implemented in the population from which trial participants are drawn, and the trial does not require participants to forgo treatment they would otherwise receive. The concept of methodological reasons is essential to assessing the ethics of placebo controls in these controversial last two cases. This article sets out key considerations relevant to considering whether methodological reasons for a placebo control are compelling.

  18. Speculation and Justification in Policy-Making on Neuroenhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schlag

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los descubrimientos de las neurociencias permiten intervenir en el cerebro humano para mejorar su estado o sus capacidades sin indicación médica. Este fenómeno es conocido como “Neuroenhancement” y está sujeto a un amplio debate ético. Como “Neuroenhancement” es un fenómeno evolutivo, el debate de aspectos éticos está necesariamente orientado al futuro y depende de la información sobre el posible desarrollo de la tecnología y sus consecuencias para la sociedad. Sin embargo, hay que establecer límites para la formulación de previsiones especulativas en argumentos éticos y justificaciones políticas. Propongo distinguir argumentos con tres propósitos distintos: la formación de intuiciones éticas, el reflejo sobre el futuro de la sociedad y justificación de normativas y políticas. Para cada uno de ellos necesitamos estándares adecuados. Es tarea de la filosofía política desarrollar un estándar para los argumentos justificadores. Abstract: Neuroscientific findings allow interventions in the human brain to improve its function or modify mental states even without medical indication. This procedure, termed as neuroenhancement, is subject to a broad ethical debate. As neuroenhancement is an evolving phenomenon, the debate is necessarily future-oriented and highly dependent on information about future developments. It remains an open question to what degree uncertain forecasting or even speculation should be considered in the ethical debate and policy-making. I propose to distinguish between arguments with three different purposes: intuition-forming, self-reflecting and justifying arguments. Adequate standards are required for all kinds of future-oriented arguments. The development of these standards for justifying arguments is a task for political philosophy.

  19. Justification of computational methods to ensure information management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Due to the diversity and complexity of organizational management tasks a large enterprise, the construction of an information management system requires the establishment of interconnected complexes of means, implementing the most efficient way collect, transfer, accumulation and processing of information necessary drivers handle different ranks in the governance process. The main trends of the construction of integrated logistics management information systems can be considered: the creation of integrated data processing systems by centralizing storage and processing of data arrays; organization of computer systems to realize the time-sharing; aggregate-block principle of the integrated logistics; Use a wide range of peripheral devices with the unification of information and hardware communication. Main attention is paid to the application of the system of research of complex technical support, in particular, the definition of quality criteria for the operation of technical complex, the development of information base analysis methods of management information systems and define the requirements for technical means, as well as methods of structural synthesis of the major subsystems of integrated logistics. Thus, the aim is to study on the basis of systematic approach of integrated logistics management information system and the development of a number of methods of analysis and synthesis of complex logistics that are suitable for use in the practice of engineering systems design. The objective function of the complex logistics management information systems is the task of gathering systems, transmission and processing of specified amounts of information in the regulated time intervals with the required degree of accuracy while minimizing the reduced costs for the establishment and operation of technical complex. Achieving the objective function of the complex logistics to carry out certain organization of interaction of information

  20. Observing Planetary Rings with JWST: Science Justification and Observation Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Tiscareno, Matthew S; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; de Pater, Imke; Hamilton, Douglas P; Hedman, Matthew M; Nicholson, Philip D; Showalter, Mark R; Tamayo, Daniel; Verbiscer, Anne J

    2014-01-01

    The rings that adorn the four giant planets are of prime importance as accessible natural laboratories for disk processes, as clues to the origin and evolution of planetary systems, and as shapers as well as detectors of their planetary environments. The retinue of small moons accompanying all known ring systems are intimately connected as both sources and products, as well as shepherds and perturbers, of the rings. Leading sources of data on ring systems include spacecraft such as Cassini and Voyager, but also space telescopes such as Hubble and Spitzer as well as ground-based telescopes. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being prepared for launch in 2018 to begin a planned five-year mission. JWST will have the capability to observe solar system objects as close as Mars. Although most of the hardware is already designed and under construction if not completed, work continues on the development of operations guidelines and software and the completion of calibration tasks. The purpose of this white pape...

  1. Seeking New Perspectives on the Development of Teacher Education A Study of the Finnish Context

    OpenAIRE

    Hökkä, Päivi; Eteläpelto, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that changes in teacher education around the world occur slowly and are difficult to implement. This study aims to contribute to the discussion on the major resources for and obstacles to developing teacher education and finding novel solutions to overcome the obstacles. Resources and obstacles were investigated in the context of academic and university-based teacher education in Finland. Findings revealed three major challenges: (a) obstacles in renegotiating professional identi...

  2. JUSTIFICATION OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL FOR PRODUCTION SUPPOSITORIES WITH GLIFAZIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrievskiy D.I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensive search for new anti-diabetic drugs, carried out in the National pharmaceutical university in recent years led to the creation of complex drug "Glifazin" on base of which the composition and technology of suppositories with hypoglycemic effect were developed. Now comprehensive physicochemical and pharmacological study of the dosage form are going on. This paper presents results of determining the critical parameters of technology of suppositories witn Glifazin produced by molding - temperature control of homogenization and molding of suppository mass. This mode, as shown in the work, grounded on the analysis of rheological behavior of the system in the temperature range in which it is the transition from the liquid state of Newtonian type flow to the plastic-bound state of non- Newtonian flow type. This interval for suppository mass with Glifazin is in the range 45-60 ° C. Materials and methods. As the object of the study the suppositories with Glifazin 0.1 g and polietylenoxide base on which they are prepared were taken. The study of structural and mechanical (rheological properties of suppository base and suppository mass were performed on a rotary viscometer «Reotest-2" (Germany with coaxial cylinders and the temperature range 45-60 °C. Determination of hardening temperature, resistance of suppositories to decay and their dissolution time were measured by methods of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. Determination of uniformity suppository mass was assessed by quantitative content of Glifazin in selected samples by using UV spectrophotometry method at 271 nm against a standard sample of Onozid. Results and discussion. The analysis of rheogram shows that the suppository mass with Glifazin in the test temperature range has falseplastice type of flow. The presence of hysteresis loops indicates that this system has dispersed thixotropic properties. Thus, an increase in temperature leads to a decrease in the area of the hysteresis

  3. Justification for screening programs for early detection of HBV infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Leźnicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to collect the data on undetected hepatitis B virus (HBV in the frequently hospitalized (at least twice in the last 5 years population of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study results could be used by occupational health services and local governments to take preventive actions. Material and Methods: The study focused on empirical data derived from hepatitis B Screening Programme in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study comprised 6332 people tested for hepatitis B virus surface antigen – HBsAg. They had been hospitalized at least twice. The diagnostic survey was based on an anonymous questionnaire, developed for this study. For the statistical analysis the Statistica 10.0 program was used. A level of statistical significance was assumed at a value of α = 0.05. The results showing that the probability test p satisfy the inequality p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: HBs antigen was detected in 34 patients (0.54%. There was no association between the detected infections and the gender of the respondents. There was no relationship between the detected infections and transfusion of blood and blood products before 1992. Surgical procedures performed in the patients did not increase the risk of hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Actions aimed at detecting asymptomatic infections should primarily focus on the 35–39 age group. Effective identification of chronically-infected people and application of optimal treatment play a key role in reducing the risk of disease progression in the whole population. Therefore, the implementation of screening programs is warranted for prevention and early detection of hepatitis B. Med Pr 2014;65(6:777–784

  4. JUSTIFICATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOLDING VIBRATING TABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Anofriev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the efficient ways to obtain castings of complex shape is lost foam casting (LFC in the evacuated molds (containers. Upgrading the quality of this casting method requires improvement of molding techniques. The molding process involves layer-by-layer vibratory compaction of sand in the containers. Most of the lines of LFC sections are equipped with vibrating tables with inertia oscillators driven by induction motors, operating at nominal speed. A promising way of improving the molding technique is the rational setting of the following parameters of vibrating table: vibration displacement, velocity and acceleration. These parameters are determined by the elastic-mass characteristics of the system «vibrating table – mold» and perturbing forces created by inertia oscillators. The aim of the study is to determine the rational range of setting the parameters of oscillators at which the qualitative layer-by-layer compaction of the molding sand in the mold takes place. Methodology. The efficiency criterion for setting characteristics of the vibrating table there were taken the values of averaged accelerations of 6.5 – 7.5 m/s2 corresponding to maximum compaction degree of dry molding sand and the range of acceleration values 9 – 9.5 m/s2 for giving the sand «pseudo-yielding». For the study it was developed a mathematical model of oscillations of the movable part of vibrating table with two types of casting containers for steady and transient operation modes. Findings. In the process of research of the mold oscillations it was calculated the natural frequencies of oscillations at different elastic-mass characteristics of the system using a mathematical model. It was constructed the frequency response of displacements and accelerations of the moving part of the table with container filled with molding sand layer-by-layer. Originality. The author proposes a method of determining the range of frequency setting of inertial

  5. Justification doctrine in the prohibition on torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggott, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the legacy of a justification doctrine evident in early international jurisprudence that set the threshold for treatment prohibited under international law as torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment [hereafter the prohibition], excusing from its reach deliberately inflicted, potentially severe, suffering proportionately inflicted for a legitimate purpose. Debates over a 'threshold' at which point the prohibition engages, or at which point 'inhumane' treatment reaches a level sufficient to be deemed 'torture', typically invoke an implicit 'severity' threshold. This paper is not primarily concerned with severity or the instrumentality of any 'severity threshold' either in engaging the prohibition or in distinguishing categories of prohibited treatment. Neither is the article concerned directly with the legal distinction between categories of prohibited treatment (i.e. the distinction between 'torture', other 'inhuman', or even any subcategory 'degrading' treatment). Rather the article focuses on the distinction between (i) treatment prohibited, as either torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading, and (ii) treatment prima facie 'justified'. What the article looks at is the operation of a 'justification' threshold in triggering the prohibition, one that understands 'justified' treatment as never reaching the level of, or never amounting to inhuman, cruel or degrading treatment under the prohibition. The article interprets the current prohibition on torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment as one on 'unjustified' inflicted suffering, suggesting that the notion of 'justifiability' active in this definition is problematic in encouraging arguments seeking to circumvent the protection afforded under the prohibition. In the absence of a clearly defined notion of the 'victim', or circumscribed class afforded protection, this paper both identifies and addresses a correlation between (i) a broadly inclusive contextual scope for

  6. JUSTIFICATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF PREPARATORY GROUPS IN SPECIAL SCOOLS FOR CHILDREN LIGHTLY HANDICAPPED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta ANDONAKIS

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches about child’s intellectual development in the psychology has started in the 19th century and the first step has been made by Tiedemann in “ Observation of the development of the mental abilities of the children”. His work caused a great interest in the circles of doctors and psychologists. Their interpretation of intelligence was different, but the most acceptable is the performance of complicated activities for getting knowledge and skills and getting over the obstacles in the development of the person”.The social ability do not correspond with the intelligence. The two aspects are tested and a complete picture of their functioning can be seen. The developmental principle is determined from general to the separate as functionally connected.In the period when a child does not accept the higher level of intelligence and thinking , in relation to which are effectuated by sense-motor activities, than we say that a child is mentally handicapped. The widest approach of the educational system should be treated as a functional, institutional and organizational, that takes part in the realization of the social aims and tasks.Not getting into viewing of the curriculum's and programs for preparatory groups in the preeducational period, we may say that the justification for the existence of these group in the regular schools, is maturation of the perceptive motor coordination and learning. With the maturing the function of the "ego" is increasing.As a child adapts better he can learn better, and the maturity comes sooner. In this way these groups are justified.Mentally handicapped child has not the opportunity to attend an organized prepared education which provides:-forming of the speech, self-control, which can be achieved in the process of learning through a direct contact with other children;· regulation of the lateralization through re-education of the psycho-motor abilities, and in general neuro-motor experienced maturation

  7. Unraveling the Symbols: Interpretation and Justification of Iranian Myths in Motahhar ben Tahir el-Maqdisi’s Afarinesh va Tarikh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمود حسن آبادی

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article, first, gives a brief account of hermeneutics, its history, and its methods. Then, the focus is directed to the interpretations and justifications of the Iranian myths as they appear in Motahhar ben Tahir’s work Afarinesh va Tarikh (i.e. Genesis and History. Science and religion are two powerful opponents of myths. After the development of science and the emergence of monotheistic religions, myths were declining. Scientists refuted them and the men of religion considered them as heresy. The first attacks against myths took place in the form of interpretation. The interpretation of myths has been done by two parties: the opponents of myths who aimed to destroy them and the believers who meant to adapt them to the new scientific systems and religious beliefs. With the revival of the Persian culture, the Iranian cultural movement (i.e. Shu'ubiyyah reached its climax in the 4th century A.H. One of their missions was to collect and arrange Iranian national history which included myths and the accounts of extraordinary creatures and deeds. To prevent the denial of the myths by the opponents, some of the Shu'ubi scholars began interpreting and justifying them. Motahhar ben Tahir, author of Afarinesh va Tarikh, was the first who, with the aim of preserving and developing Iranian culture, interpreted myths with his own specific methods.

  8. The moral justification behind a climate tax on beef in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkeskov, Anne; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the moral justification behind placing a tax on foods in correlation with their greenhouse gas emissions. The background is a report from 2016 by the Danish Council of Ethics promoting a national tax on the consumption of meat from ruminants as an initial step to curb the 19...... production and consumption. We discuss whether, given the anticipated effects on humans and the nature of climate change, individual consumers have a moral responsibility to change their diet and/or whether governments are justified in restricting the individual consumer’s freedom of choice through taxation...

  9. Justification of the solvent choice for the industrial amizon substance production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Georgiyants

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In recent years, the rapid development gets implementing principles of quality management in the pharmaceutical industry. It should be noted that instead of the mechanical control of the quality associated with the chemical characteristics of pharmaceutical substances and drugs innovative ways to ensure the quality associated primarily with the understanding of the processes occurring during the manufacturing process come. Objective: To study solvent selection for the industrial production of methiodide benzyl amide isonicotinic acid substance considering the conception “Quality by design”. MATERIALS AND METHODS Solution of 0.1 moles of isonicotinic acid in 0.12 moles of benzylamine was heated at 160-185°C during 4-5 hours while distilling off water and excess benzylamine. The resulting melt - cooled isonicotinic acid benzylamide was dissolved in acetone and filtered. It was used in further synthesis without further purification. 0.1 moles of isonicotinic acid benzylamide was dissolved in0.6 litersof a suitable solvent and 0.12 mole of methyl iodide was added to the solution at room temperature. The mixture was heated at 40-50 ° C for 3-4 hours, the reaction mixture was cooled, filtered the product was dried. After calculating the aim product was recrystallized from an appropriate solvent. Isonicotinic acid benzylamide iodomethylate quantitative content was determined by acid-base titration in non-aqueous medium (fixing the endpoint - potentiometrically. The impurity content benzylamide isonicotinic acid – by HPLC. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION When solvent have been chosen we took into account previously developed scheme of laboratory synthesis. We guided primarily data about security and efficiency. The least toxic solvents conventionally used in pharmaceutical production , included 2- propanol and ethanol (limit of residual amounts of these solvents, allowable HFC substances was 0.5 % and 1 %, respectively. Therefore, these

  10. Thermodynamic Justification for the Ni/Al/Ni Joint Formation by a Diffusion Brazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Wolczynski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A theoretical model for the joint formation was developed for the diffusion brazing. The phenomena of dissolution and solidification were included into the model. A thermodynamic justification for the isothermal soldering occurrence in meta-stable conditions was developed. It involved the application of the criterion of higher temperature of the solid / liquid (s/l interface. The dissolution of the filler metal in the substrate was described by the solute concentration within the dissolution zone (liquid film situated at the substrate surface. The selection of the  parameter was justified by the Thermocalc calculation of the Ni-Al phase diagram for meta-stable equilibrium. According to the model assumptions, the solidification was accompanied by undercooled peritectic reactions resulting in formation of the intermetallic phases. The average Al – solute concentration measured across a given Al3Ni2/Al3Ni/Al3Ni2 joint confirmed that the solute concentration was conserved within the joint sub-layers. The Ni-Al phase diagram for meta-stable equilibrium referred to the solidification was also calculated by means of the Thermocalc Software. It allowed to locate the solidification path, s/l interface path and redistribution path onto the mentioned diagram. Superposition of both calculated phase

  11. Justifications and self-organization as determinants of recycling behavior. The case of used batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Ralf; Bernasconi, Petra; Smieszek, Timo; Loukopoulos, Peter; Scholz, Roland W. [Chair of Environmental Sciences: Natural and Social Science Interface, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (ETH Zuerich), Universitaetsstrasse 22, ETH Zentrum CHN J76.3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-15

    Much previous research on recycling behavior has drawn heavily on models of personal and perceived social norms, as well as of personal attitudes, to explain recycling behavior. Although such models have received empirical support, the issue concerning discrepancies between norms, personal attitudes and an individual's behavior is yet to be resolved. Using battery recycling in Switzerland as a case in point, the present questionnaire-based research examines via regression analyses the relationship between self-reported recycling behavior and socio-demographic variables, attitudes towards ecologically positive waste disposal, trust in waste disposal authorities, specific knowledge concerning recycling, justifications for not participating in the recycling scheme, self-organization of recycling behavior, and level of battery consumption. It was found that recycling knowledge, self-organization of recycling, and disagreement with justifications for non-recycling were positively related to recycling behavior, while attitudes towards ecological waste disposal and trust in waste disposal authorities were not directly related to respondents' self-reported battery recycling behavior. On the basis of these results, with reference to Sykes and Matza's Neutralization theory [Sykes GM, Matza D. Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency. Am Sociol Rev 1957:22(6):664-70] a contextualized model of recycling behavior is proposed. This model is able to account for inconsistencies between personal attitudes and perceived social norms, and has practical implications for the design of public intervention strategies for enhancing participation in the recycling. (author)

  12. Can the NICE "end-of-life premium" be given a coherent ethical justification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In 2009 the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) announced that its health technology appraisal committees would henceforth give special additional weight to health gains from life-extending end-of-life treatments. This was a response to mounting concern from NICE's stakeholders that effective new drugs for end-stage cancer often fail NICE's standard test of cost effectiveness. This change of policy may be justifiable on procedural grounds as the result of a democratic political process responding to stakeholder concerns. However, according to the "accountability for reasonableness" framework proposed by the philosopher Norman Daniels and endorsed by NICE, there also needs to be transparency about the substantive ethical grounds for public health care resource allocation decisions. In that spirit, I analyze eleven potentially relevant justifications for the NICE "end-of-life premium," drawn from the economics and philosophy literature: (1) rule of rescue, (2) fair chances, (3) ex post willingness to pay, (4) caring externality, (5) financial protection, (6) symbolic value, (7) diminishing marginal value of future life years, (8) concentration of benefits, (9) dread, (10) time to set your affairs in order, and (11) severity of illness. I conclude that none of them yields a coherent ethical justification for the NICE end-of-life premium.

  13. The application of Dempster-Shafer theory demonstrated with justification provided by legal evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn P. Curley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In forecasting and decision making, people can and often do represent a degree of belief in some proposition. At least two separate constructs capture such degrees of belief: likelihoods capturing evidential balance and support capturing evidential weight. This paper explores the weight or justification that evidence affords propositions, with subjects communicating using a belief function in hypothetical legal situations, where justification is a relevant goal. Subjects evaluated the impact of sets of 1--3 pieces of evidence, varying in complexity, within a hypothetical legal situation. The study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this evidential weight measure as an alternative or complement to the more-studied probability measure. Subjects' responses indicated that weight and likelihood were distinguished; that subjects' evidential weight tended toward single elements in a targeted fashion; and, that there were identifiable individual differences in reactions to conflicting evidence. Specifically, most subjects reacted to conflicting evidence that supported disjoint sets of suspects with continued support in the implicated sets, although an identifiable minority reacted by pulling back their support, expressing indecisiveness. Such individuals would likely require a greater amount of evidence than the others to counteract this tendency in support. Thus, the study identifies the value of understanding evidential weight as distinct from likelihood, informs our understanding of the psychology of individuals' judgments of evidential weight, and furthers the application and meaningfulness of belief functions as a communication language.

  14. Justification by faith in Luther’s thought and today: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ribeiro Caldas Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the fifth centenary of the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century approaches, it reminds us of the person and work of Martin Luther. Perhaps the main aspect of the reforming program of Luther has been his comprehension of the doctrine of justification by faith, understood as the foundation of the theology of the Reformation. However, since the end of the late 20th century this doctrine has been reframed, due the work of Biblical scholars, such as James Dunn and N. Thomas Wright, who identify themselves with the so called “New Perspective on Paul” (NPP. This essay intends to show, succinctly, the general contours of Luther’s understanding of the subject, as well as the reaction of the Council of Trent of 1545, the Lutheran-Roman Catholic Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification of 1999 and the recent debate on the NPP. In summary, regardless of any consideration of the merits the NPP, the text shall show the relevance of Luther’s thought for today. 

  15. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2. Budget Activity 7: Central Supply & Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    7AD-A126� OEPARTMENT OF THE .. NAY JUSTIFICATION OF ESTIMATES FOR I/ FSCAL YEAR 1984 SAUU OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER A( S D NAVY) WASHINGTON DC...DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY JUSTIFICATION OF ESTIMATES FOR FSCAL YEAR 1984 SU.U) 0OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER I NAVY WASHINGTON DC JAN 83UNCLASFE F/0 5/1 N

  16. Effects of Job Alternatives, Extrinsic Rewards, and Behavioral Commitment on Attitude toward the Organization: A Field Test of the Insufficient Justification Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Lawler, John

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the results of a test of the insufficient justification prediction of an interaction between behavioral commitment and sufficiency of justification influencing organizational attitudes in a field setting using data collected by others for other purposes. (Author)

  17. "Because I Am Worth It" : A Theoretical Framework and Empirical Review of a Justification-Based Account of Self-Regulation Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witt Huberts, Jessie C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315033770; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; De Ridder, Denise T D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's discr

  18. 41 CFR 102-5.95 - Is the comfort and/or convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? 102-5...-to-Work Transportation § 102-5.95 Is the comfort and/or convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? No, the comfort and/or convenience of...

  19. Inducing Attitude Change toward Online Gaming among Adolescent Players Based on Dissonance Theory: The Role of Threats and Justification of Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The negative impact of online gaming on adolescents has received much attention. The question of how to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is a critical issue. Based on the concept of external justification in dissonance theory, this experimental study aimed to examine whether severity of threat and justification of effort would impact…

  20. Codex dietary fibre definition - Justification for inclusion of carbohydrates from 3 to 9 degrees of polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Sardá, Fabiana Andréa Hoffmann; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2013-10-01

    The main controversy about the DF definition, adopted by the commission of Codex Alimentarius, refers to the inclusion of carbohydrates of 3-9 degrees of polymerisation (DP), decision which may be made individually by the authorities of each country. Due to the possibility of having two definitions and the negative impact it would cause over the harmonisation of nutritional information, a bibliographic review was carried, from 2009 to 2011, aiming to gather justifications for the inclusion of carbohydrates of 3-9 DP in the definition. The current review presents scientific bases that are directed to three topics: physiological aspects; repercussion over the analytical method; and impact on consumers and other users. The decision of including unavailable carbohydrates of 3-9 DP in the definition of DF may cause effective global harmonisation in the nutritional labelling, considering that the main goal is to help consumers choose healthy foods.

  1. Knowledge, innate concepts, and the justification for the belief in god

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimelahi Abdolmajid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The epistemological approach of evidentialism maintains that a belief must have sufficient evidence in order to be rationally justified. The belief in God is no exception and, hence, it too must pass the litmus test of evidence as a measure of its rational justification. But what counts as evidence? Responding to this question and identifying the nature of the evidence that can be used to justify belief has become a point of contention between philosophers. While some evidentialists have denied the possibility of evidence for the belief in God, others have attacked the very basis of the evidentialist claim by promoting belief in God without evidence. The following paper briefly describes these two currents and culminates by discussing the notion of innate concepts and presential knowledge as proposed by Mulla Sadra. According to the authors, this type of presential knowledge can be included as 'evidence' even from the evidentialist point of view which does not limit evidence to conceptual knowledge.

  2. Beyond Territory: Revisiting the Normative Justification of Self-Government in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janique Dubois

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The association of sovereignty with control over territory is being challenged both internally and externally in modern societies. Demands for political autonomy from sub-state minorities undermine the natural link between nation, state and territory from within, while the movement of capital, goods and information across borders contests the relationship between these concepts from without. Scholars of international relations, law, philosophy and political science have already suggested that the sovereignty of nation-states is under attack; however, scant attention has been paid to the way in which changes in the relation between nation, state, and territory affect the normative weight associated with each of these concepts in discussions about sovereignty and self-government. The objectives of this article is to examine the way in which nation, state, sovereignty, and territory are addressed in normative justifications of indigenous self-government and to better understand how these notions are being treated in its implementation.

  3. Justification of the complex Langevin method with the gauge cooling procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Keitaro; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been remarkable progress in the complex Langevin method, which aims at solving the complex action problem by complexifying the dynamical variables in the original path integral. In particular, a new technique called the gauge cooling was introduced and the full QCD simulation at finite density has been made possible in the high temperature (deconfined) phase or with heavy quarks. Here we provide a rigorous justification of the complex Langevin method including the gauge cooling procedure. We first show that the gauge cooling can be formulated as an extra term in the complex Langevin equation involving a gauge transformation parameter, which is chosen appropriately as a function of the configuration before cooling. The probability distribution of the complexified dynamical variables is modified by this extra term. However, this modification is shown not to affect the Fokker-Planck equation for the corresponding complex weight as far as observables are restricted to gauge invariant ones. Thus...

  4. Justification of application of new types of fastening of slopes of hydraulic engineering constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyvalov Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the analysis of various types of fastenings of the soil slopes which have found broad application in the hydrotechnical construction practice for the last 10-15 years. It is noted that, generally, new types of fastenings represent composite materials made of concrete, metal and polymers. Experience shows that producers of the construction materials used in bank protection designs seek to recommend them for the solution of a wide range of tasks, at the same time it isn’t always founded. The authors, on the basis of the analysis of experience with the types of fastenings and also modern domestic and foreign recommendations about their design and construction, offer a technique of justification of new types of fastenings of slopes of hydraulic engineering constructions. The use of concrete filled geotextile mats in bank protection is brought out as a practical realization of the represented technique.

  5. Western Interventions in Current Wars: Political Justification and Civil Society´s Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Bueno Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, it seems to be an agreement in Western countries in favor of values included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On the other hand, Western countries initiate or intervene in armed conflicts outside their territories, which implies actions contrary to such values. This article examines this apparent contradiction: it describes briefly the international context of contemporary conflicts and it refers to the just-war tradition in order to analyze both the position of the Charter of the United Nations and the justifications given by Western countries. Moreover, the arguments used by the US and the Spanish Governments to justify their interventions in the Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2008 wars, and the responses of civil society are considered.

  6. Quality assurance in digital dental radiography--justification and dose reduction in dental and maxillofacial radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstern, F; Geibel, M-A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of quality assurance requirements for digital dental radiography in routine clinical practice. The results should be discussed by radiation protection authorities in the context of the relevant legal requirements and current debates on radiation protection. Two hundred digital dental radiographs were randomly selected from the digital database of the Department of Dentistry's Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Ulm University, and evaluated for various aspects of image quality and compliance with radiographic documentation requirements. The dental films were prepared by different radiology assistants (RAs) using one of two digital intraoral radiographic systems: Sirona Heliodent DS, 60 kV, focal spot size: 0.7 mm (group A) or KaVo Gendex 765 DC, 65 kV, focal spot size: 0.4 mm (group B). Radiographic justification was documented in 70.5% of cases, and the radiographic findings in 76.5%. Both variables were documented in the patient records as well as in the software in 14% of cases. Clinical documentation of the required information (name of the responsible dentist and radiology assistant, date, patient name, department, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, type of radiograph, film size, department and serial number of the dental radiograph) was 100% complete in all cases. Moreover, the department certified according to DIN ISO 9001:2008 specifications demonstrated complete clinical documentation of radiographic justifications and radiographic findings. The entire dentition was visible on 83% of the digital films. The visible area corresponded to the target region on 85.7% of the digital dental radiographs. Seven to 8.5% of the images were classified as "hypometric" or "hypermetric". This study indicates that improvements in radiology training and continuing education fordentists and dental staff performing x-ray examinations are needed to ensure consistent high quality of digital dental radiography. Implementation of

  7. [Pharmacy as a means of propagating the Lutherian doctrine of justification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Fritz

    2003-09-01

    Pharmacy serving to propagate the Lutherian doctrine of justification: "Christus as a pharmacist" is an interconfessional, but confessionally differentiated symbolic motif (Sinnbildmotiv) of Christian folklore art in German-speaking countries. The article investigates the sociocultural conditions and prerequisites (German bible translation, religion and confession, piety, pharmacy, chymiatry, chemistry, apothecary training and status) for transfering the old metaphor and idea of Christ as a physician to the new vision of Christ as a apothecary who prepares and dispenses his heavenly medicine all by himself. In the early 17th century (especially in the 1610's) these requirements were fulfilled, so that the oldest known witness to this motif transfer (picturing the so-called Heilandsruf of Matthew 11, 28), a genre picture of 1619, will be the first pictural version of this motif in general. It was created by the protestant Painter Mich(a)el Herr of Nuremberg. In the abstract and reduced form of a devotional picture this motif then became widespread in churches and vicarages, in monasteries and their apothecaries as well as in private houses (with small altars: Herrgottswinkel). The oldest yet known examples are works from around 1630. For the first time during the Thirty Year's War, it served in this form for propagating the Lutherian justification doctrine (now referring to Jesaja 55, 1), saying that the belief in Christ is enough to be released from all sins (sola fide). Around 1650, as a reaction to that, a catholic version of the devotional picture was created, claiming and picturing that in contrast eucharist is the highest and real, healing medium' of Christ to redemption. All pictures of this version avoid quoting Jesaja 55, 1, whereas all protestant pictures quote this verse from the Bible word-for-word.

  8. Examining self-justifications for unsafe sex as a technique of AIDS education: the importance of personal relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R S; Rosenthal, D A

    1998-04-01

    In an earlier study, we found that sexual risk-taking in gay men was reduced by getting them to evaluate the self-justifications for having unsafe sex which they had used on a specific occasion when they 'slipped up' (broke their safe sex rules by having unprotected anal intercourse). This study investigated whether the earlier finding occurred simply because recalling vividly a specific encounter in which a slip-up took place brought the men's risk-taking home to them very strongly and whether the intervention would still work if translated into posters suitable for the mass media. Gay men (n=92) who had slipped up kept diaries of their sexual behaviour for 16 weeks. After 4 weeks, they were allocated to one of 3 conditions: Specific Encounter (detailed reconstruction of a slip-up, but without any questions about self-justifications); Posters (examination of posters, specially designed for the study, that focused on self-justifications); and Control (no intervention). All 3 groups slipped up to the same extent in the post-intervention period. The results for the Specific Encounter group indicate that the earlier finding is not attributable to the alternative explanation above, while those for the Posters group suggest the importance of ensuring personal 'ownership' of the self-justifications presented. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.

  9. The Politics of Justification : Party Competition and Welfare-State Retrenchment in Denmark and the Netherlands from 1982 to 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green-Pedersen, Christoffer

    2002-01-01

    The Politics of Justification onderzoekt de bezuinigingen op de sociale zekerheid die plaatsvonden in Nederland en Denemarken in de periode 1982-1998. Het korten op sociale voorzieningen ligt politiek uiterst gevoelig, maar toch snijden regeringen in hun uitgaven. Green-Pedersen bepleit dat regering

  10. The Epistemic Understanding of Justification of Deduction%演绎证成的认知解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓华

    2012-01-01

    Deduction needs justification, which just likes putting the science mansion based on logic reason on a volcanic crater and having the danger of breakup at any time. After giving a brief analysis of justification of deduction, this paper puts forward that the justification of deduction is in essence a problem of logical om- niscience from cognitive agent aspect. The paper defends the foundation of science mansion, because deduction needs justification just from cognitive agent not deduction itself.%演绎也是需要证成的,这如同把所有以逻辑推理为基础的科学大厦放置在一个火山口上,随时有崩溃的危险。论文在对各种演绎证成进行评判的基础上,从认知主体的角度分析,认为演绎证成其实也是一个逻辑全能问题,演绎证成在认知主体层面上才需要辩护,从而维护科学大厦的基础。

  11. Theoretical justification of space-mapping-based modeling utilizing a database and on-demand parameter extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical justification of a recently introduced surrogate modeling methodology based on space mapping that relies on an available data base and on-demand parameter extraction. Fine model data, the so-called base set, is assumed available in the region of interest. To evaluate the ...

  12. The Future Justification to Adopt Governance System at the Jordan Universities from the Perspective of Educational Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Nair, Natheer Sihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the future justification to adopt governance system at the Jordanian Universities from the perspective of educational experts. The study society was the academic staff in the field of education at Al-Balqa Applied University and Jordan University, at the first semester of the academic year 2013-2014. The study…

  13. A JUSTIFICAÇÃO POR CONSENSO SOBREPOSTO EM JOHN RAWLS JOHN RAWLS' OVERLAPPING CONSENSUS JUSTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Coitinho Silveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é estabelecer algumas considerações sobre o papel da categoria de consenso sobreposto na teoria da justiça como eqüidade de John Rawls nas obras Political Liberalism (Lecture IV, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (§ 11 e Replay to Habermas (§ 2, com a intenção de identificar um modelo pragmático de justificação em um âmbito público, compreendendo os princípios de justiça para a estrutura básica da sociedade como um mínimo social que visa a garantia da estabilidade e legitimidade, assegurando critérios públicos para a determinação dos principais  acordos constitucionais, econômicos e sociais. Com a afirmação dos valores políticos de razoabilidade e reciprocidade, identificar-se-á um modelo pragmatista universalista de justificação com base em um intuicionismo mitigado.The aim of this article is to raise some considerations about the role of category of the overlapping consensus in John Rawls’s theory of justice as fairness in Political Liberalism (Lecture IV, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (§ 11 and Replay to Habermas (§ 2, with a view to identifying a pragmatical justification model in a public scope, understanding the principles of justice for the basic structure of society as a social minimum that aims at the guarantee of the stability and legitimacy, assuring public criteria for the determination of the principal constitution, economic and social arrangements. With affirmation of the political values of the reasonableness and reciprocity, I’ll identify a pragmatical-universalist justification model with basis in a mitigated intuitionism.

  14. Ethics of radiological risk governance: justice of justification as a central concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskens, G

    2016-06-01

    Due to the specific character of the radiological risk, judgements on whether the use of nuclear technology would be justified in society have to consider knowledge-related uncertainties and value pluralism. The justice of justification not only informs the right of the potentially affected to participate in decision making, but also implies the responsibility of concerned actors to give account of the way they rationalise their own position, interests, hopes, hypotheses, beliefs, and concerns in knowledge generation and decision making. This paper characterises the evaluation of whether the use of nuclear technology would be justified in society as a 'complex social problem', and reflects on what it would imply to deal with its complexity fairly. Based on this assessment, the paper proposes 'reflexivity' and 'intellectual solidarity' as ethical attitudes or virtues for all concerned actors, to be understood from a specific 'ethics of care' perspective 'bound in complexity'. Consequently, it argues that there is a need for an 'interactive' understanding of ethics in order to give ethical attitudes or virtues a practical meaning in a sociopolitical context, and draws conclusions for the case of radiological risk governance.

  15. Dental cone beam computed tomography: justification for use in planning oral implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Quirynen, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Intra-oral and panoramic radiographs are most frequently used in oral health care. Yet, the inherent nature of jaws and teeth renders three-dimensional diagnosis essential, especially in relation to oral surgery. Nowadays, this can be accomplished by dental cone beam computed tomography, which provides high-quality images at low radiation doses and low costs. Nonetheless, the effective dose ranges of cone beam computed tomography machines may easily vary from 10 to 1000 μSv, this being equivalent to two to 200 panoramic radiographs, even for similar presurgical indications. Moreover, the diagnostic image quality varies massively among available machines and parameter settings. Apart from the radiodiagnostic possibilities, dental cone beam computed tomography may offer a vast therapeutic potential, including opportunities for surgical guidance and further prosthetic rehabilitation via computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing solutions. These additional options may definitely explain part of the success of cone beam computed tomography for oral implant placement. In conclusion, dental cone beam computed tomography imaging could be justified for oral implant-related diagnosis, planning and transfer to surgical and further prosthetic treatment, but guidelines for justification and cone beam computed tomography optimization remain mandatory.

  16. Do ethnicity and polygyny contribute to justification of men beating women in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Tuoyire, Derek Anamaale

    2016-01-01

    Violence against intimate partners threatens public health and social cohesion, and its prevalence could increase with an attitude of justification of such violence. The objective of this article was to use religion and ethnicity as proxies for culture to examine Ghanaian women's acceptance of being beaten. We employed descriptive and binary logistic regression statistics applied to Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data collected in 2011 in Ghana. With a weighted sample of 10,627 women, the findings revealed that more than half (59.83%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 57.41%, 62.2%) of the respondents justified at least one form of intimate partner violence (IPV) or another and being a Mole-Dagbani (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.41; 95%; CI = 1.05, 1.90) and/or in a polygamous marriage/union (AOR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.420) were significant risk factors for justifying IPV. Activism in promoting IPV-free communities has to be group-specific to reach those in need of interventions.

  17. QFT justification of the κ-framework using the electroweak chiral Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchalla, Gerhard; Cata, Oscar; Celis, Alejandro; Krause, Claudius [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We consider the electroweak chiral Lagrangian as effective field theory (EFT) for the Standard Model at the electroweak scale v. This EFT describes the phenomenology of the Standard Model with generalized Higgs couplings in a consistent way. This is motivated by (but not restricted to) a new, strongly-coupled sector responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. After a brief discussion of the systematics of the effective expansion, I present its application to current LHC Higgs data. I show how the leading effects are related to the κ-framework that is currently used by the experiments at the LHC. The κ-framework was introduced as a pure phenomenological signal-strength parametrization and is criticized as being inconsistent with quantum field theory. I will show that the latter is not the case and present a justification of the κ-framework using the leading order analysis of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian. It is therefore well defined and can straightforwardly be extended to higher orders within the EFT. I also present a fit of the chiral Lagrangian to the LHC Higgs data.

  18. Mortality Salience, System Justification, and Candidate Evaluations in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sterling

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted during the 2004 and 2008 U.S. presidential elections suggested that mortality salience primes increased support for President George W. Bush and Senator John McCain, respectively. Some interpreted these results as reflecting "conservative shift" following exposure to threat, whereas others emphasized preferences for "charismatic" leadership following exposure to death primes. To assess both hypotheses in the context of a new election cycle featuring a liberal incumbent who was considered to be charismatic, we conducted four experiments shortly before the 2012 election involving President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney. Contrary to earlier studies, there was little evidence that mortality salience, either by itself or in interaction with political orientation, affected overall candidate ratings or voting intentions. However, a significant interaction between mortality salience and system justification in some studies indicated a more circumscribed effect. The failure to "replicate" previous results in the context of this election may be attributable to disagreement among participants as to which of the candidates better represented the societal status quo.

  19. Toxicity of Atorvastatin on Pancreas Mitochondria: A Justification for Increased Risk of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighara, Melina; Amirsheardost, Zahra; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Salimi, Ahmad; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-02-01

    Statins (including atorvastatin) are a widely used class of drugs, and like all medications, they have a potential for adverse effects. Recently, it has been shown that statins also exert side effects on the pancreas. In vitro studies have suggested that this class of drugs induced a reduction in insulin secretion. Also, the use of statins is associated with a raised risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but the mechanisms underlying statin-induced diabetes are poorly known. Literature data indicate that several statins are able to induce apoptosis signalling. This study was designed to examine the mechanism of atorvastatin on mitochondria obtained from rat pancreas. In our study, mitochondria were obtained from the pancreas and then exposed to atorvastatin and vehicle to investigate probable toxic effects. The results showed that atorvastatin (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 μM) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial swelling, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, the orchestrating factor for mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Atorvastatin also reduced the ATP levels. These results propose that the toxicity of atorvastatin on pancreas mitochondria is a key point for drug-induced apoptotic cell loss in the pancreas and therefore a justification for increased risk of DM. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. Justification and Persuasion about Cloning: Arguments in Hwang's Paper and Journalistic Reported Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar; Federico-Agraso, Marta

    2009-05-01

    We examine the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s (2004) paper about human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, or ‘therapeutic cloning’), contrasted with four Journalistic Reported Versions (JRV) of it, and with students’ summaries of one JRV. As the evaluation of evidence is one of the critical features of argumentation (Jiménez-Aleixandre 2008), the analysis focuses on the use of evidence, drawing from instruments to analyze written argumentation (Kelly et al. 2008) and from studies about the structure of empirical research reports (Swales 2001). The objectives are: 1) To examine the use of evidence and the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s Science, 303: 1669-1674 (2004) original paper in terms of the criteria: a) pertinence of the evidence presented to the claims; b) sufficiency of the evidence for the purpose of supporting the claims; and c) coordination of the evidence across epistemic levels. 2) To explore how the structure of Hwang’s paper translates into the JRV and into university students’ perceptions about the evidence supporting the claims. The argumentative structure of Hwang’s paper is such that its apparently ostensible main claim about NT constitutes a justification for a second claim about its therapeutic applications, for which no evidence is offered. However, this second claim receives prominent treatment in the JRV and in the students’ summaries. Implications for promoting critical reading in the classroom are discussed.

  1. The argument for justification of the complex Langevin method and the condition for correct convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Keitaro; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The complex Langevin method is a promising approach to the complex-action problem based on a fictitious time evolution of complexified dynamical variables under the influence of a Gaussian noise. Although it is known to have a restricted range of applicability, the use of gauge cooling made it applicable to various interesting cases including finite density QCD in certain parameter regions. In this paper we revisit the argument for justification of the method. Starting with a finite Langevin step-size $\\epsilon$, we find that the $\\epsilon\\rightarrow 0$ limit is actually subtle, although the previous argument used a continuous Langevin time from the outset. We also point out a subtlety in the use of time-evolved observables, which play a crucial role in the argument. This subtlety appears when the probability of the drift term is not suppressed exponentially at large magnitude. We claim that the failures of the method previously considered to occur for different reasons should be understood in this way. Using...

  2. Humanity and Justice in Global Health: Problems with Venkatapuram's Justification of the Global Health Duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollar, Eszter; Laukötter, Sebastian; Buyx, Alena

    2016-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and sophisticated recent approaches to provide a theory of global health justice is Sridhar Venkatapuram's recent work. In this commentary, we first outline the core idea of Venkatapuram's approach to global health justice. We then argue that one of the most important elements of the account, Venkatapuram's basis of global health duties, is either too weak or assumed implicitly without a robust justification. The more explicit grounding of the duty to protect and promote health capabilities is based on Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. We argue that this foundation gives rise to humanitarian duties rather than duties of justice proper. Venkatapuram's second argument from the social determinants of health thesis is instead a stronger candidate for grounding duties of justice. However, as a justificatory argument, it is only alluded to and has not yet been spelled out sufficiently. We offer plausible justificatory steps to fill this gap and draw some implications for global health action. We believe this both strengthens Venkatapuram's approach and serves to broaden the basis for future action in the area of global health.

  3. Argument for justification of the complex Langevin method and the condition for correct convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    The complex Langevin method is a promising approach to the complex-action problem based on a fictitious time evolution of complexified dynamical variables under the influence of a Gaussian noise. Although it is known to have a restricted range of applicability, the use of gauge cooling made it applicable to various interesting cases including finite density QCD in certain parameter regions. In this paper we revisit the argument for justification of the method. In particular, we point out a subtlety in the use of time-evolved observables, which play a crucial role in the previous argument. This requires that the probability of the drift term should fall off exponentially or faster at large magnitude. We argue that this is actually a necessary and sufficient condition for the method to be justified. Using two simple examples, we show that our condition tells us clearly whether the results obtained by the method are trustable or not. We also discuss a new possibility for the gauge cooling, which can reduce the magnitude of the drift term directly.

  4. Mortality Salience, System Justification, and Candidate Evaluations in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joanna; Jost, John T; Shrout, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    Experiments conducted during the 2004 and 2008 U.S. presidential elections suggested that mortality salience primes increased support for President George W. Bush and Senator John McCain, respectively. Some interpreted these results as reflecting "conservative shift" following exposure to threat, whereas others emphasized preferences for "charismatic" leadership following exposure to death primes. To assess both hypotheses in the context of a new election cycle featuring a liberal incumbent who was considered to be charismatic, we conducted four experiments shortly before the 2012 election involving President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney. Contrary to earlier studies, there was little evidence that mortality salience, either by itself or in interaction with political orientation, affected overall candidate ratings or voting intentions. However, a significant interaction between mortality salience and system justification in some studies indicated a more circumscribed effect. The failure to "replicate" previous results in the context of this election may be attributable to disagreement among participants as to which of the candidates better represented the societal status quo.

  5. Queen Christina's moral claim on the living: justification of a tenacious moral intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, Malin; Helgesson, Gert; Höglund, Anna T; Hansson, Mats G

    2007-09-01

    In the long-running debate on the interest of the dead, Joan C. Callahan argues against such interests and although Søren Holm for practical reasons is prepared to consider posthumous interests, he does not see any moral basis to support such interests. He argues that the whole question is irresolvable, yet finds privacy interests where Tutankhamen is concerned. Callahan argues that there can be reasons to hold on to the fiction that there are posthumous interests, namely if it is comforting for the living and instrumental for society. Thus, despite arguing against the position that the dead have any interests or for any moral basis for such interests, these "interests" are still taken into consideration in the end. This shows the unsatisfactory basis of their positions and indicates the tenacity of the moral intuition that the dead can have moral claims on the living. One example of a posthumous interest is the interest in one's good name. Here we argue that it is an interest of moral significance. This implies that if individuals restrict use of their sample when they are still alive, those restrictions apply after their death. Further, it implies that one should be concerned with the reputation of historic persons. Research that defeats these interests calls for justification. We have suggested two lines of thinking along which such a discussion could go: investigating the truth-value of the good name and the relevance of bringing it into possible disrepute.

  6. Justifying direct discrimination: an analysis of the scope for a general justification defence in cases of direct sex discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, E. R.

    2000-01-01

    The prospect of a justification defence in cases of direct sex discrimination is universally criticised by academic commentators on the ground that it would subvert the goal of equality that underlies sex discrimination and equal treatment legislation. At the outset the thesis examines the differences between the sexes, how these differences can be used to explain the distinction between direct and indirect sex discrimination and considers various concepts of equality. Building...

  7. Ring fencing Volcker’s Rule? : The Liikanen Report and justifications for ring fencing and separate legal entities revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne, Ojo

    2014-01-01

    The predecessor paper to this publication, “Volcker/Vickers Hybrid”: The Liikanen Report and Justifications For Ring Fencing and Separate Legal Entities, considered the merits, objectives and cost-benefit attributes of respective models associated with the Vickers Report, Liikanen Report and Volckers Rule – by way of reference to the degree of separation of legal entities or banking activities involved, as well as whether an outright ban or prohibition on proprietary trading is involved. ...

  8. JUSTIFICATION FOR THE SUBJECT OF CONGRUENCE AND SIMILARITY IN THE CONTEXT OF DAILY LIFE AND CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Dündar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine prospective elementary mathematics teachers’ conceptual knowledge level for congruence and similarity in triangles subject and to examine their ability to represent the knowledge, to associate the knowledge with daily life, and to justify and solve the geometry problems about this subject. The study is designed in a characteristic pattern. Total of 46 prospective elementary mathematics teachers were selected using purposive sampling method. The instruments used to collect data in this study are: GJP (Geometry Justification Problems, GCKQ (Geometry Conceptual Knowledge Questions and GQDLE (Geometry Questions of Daily Life Examples. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics method. The results of the study show that 1 the prospective teachers are successful in geometry conceptual knowledge questions but had difficulty in the justification problems; 2 there is a relationship between the theoretical knowledge levels and the argument standards of the prospective teachers; 3 the prospective teachers had difficulty in the daily life examples of congruence and similarity in triangles subject. Keywords: Congruence and Similarity, Justification, Conceptual Knowledge, Daily Life Association DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3256.35-54

  9. A system justification view of sexual violence: legitimizing gender inequality and reduced moral outrage are connected to greater rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Rape is a pervasive social problem that causes serious physical and psychological repercussions. Rape victims' recovery is often complicated by the public's failure to believe the victim and restore justice. This study applied system justification theory to examine whether the justification of gender inequality is related to moral outrage (an emotional precursor to corrective action) and rape myth acceptance; we also examined whether rape myth acceptance is associated with moral outrage at injustice. Results showed that gender-specific system justification correlated with less moral outrage at human suffering as well as greater rape myth acceptance. The relationships between these variables were similar for men and for women, a finding that suggests that rape myths are system justifying for women. When we controlled for gender-specific system justification, rape myth acceptance correlated with less moral outrage. Results are discussed in the context of how legitimizing ideologies reduce moral outrage at injustice and perpetuate a system of sexual violence.

  10. JUSTIFICATION OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS FOR HPP’S SUCTION PIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal’zannikov Mikhail Ivanovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbine suction pipes at hydropower plants (HPPs play an important role for providing high power indices of HPP operation. At the same time for channel type HPPs with vertical reactive hydraulic turbines curved large size suction tubes are used and this leads to great costs for their installation. That is why the significance of economic analysis for justification of the size of such suction pipes is underlined. Minimally possible sizes of curved pipes (height and length are determined by hydraulic turbine normal operation requirements and are given in reference books. Nevertheless often such conditions arise when the correction of their size leading to their enlargement becomes inevitable. In particular, when there are rocks at a small depth below of the project position of the foundation slab it is feasible to increase a suction pipe’s height to place the foundation concrete on the strong rock. Or if it is necessary to make a motorway at the downstream side of a channel HPP lengthening of a suction pipe appears sensible. In such cases economic calculations are necessary on feasibility of suction pipe size change proposals. The use of an integral effect technique for such an analysis is proposed. The article provides a criterion for economic efficiency of the given technique. In conformity with it the calculations for a hydraulic turbine with 9 m diameter under acting head of 24 m are made. The calculation results are presented as graphs of dependencies of integral effect on varying parameters. The analysis of the results shows that a parameter being changed (suction pipe lengthening has a distinct optimal value, which in the investigated variants is 2.5...3.0 m. Herewith a maximal value of economically justified hydrogenerator suction pipe lengthening satisfying the criterion adopted is in the range of 7.5...8.0 m. It is also shown that the value of the integral effect depends significantly on electric energy tariffs and the

  11. Seismic justification of free standing spent fuel storage racks: experimental versus computed behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champomier, F.P. [FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Peron, J.Y. [ATEA, 44 - Carquefou (France)

    2001-07-01

    Most spent fuel storage racks now designed for nuclear power plants are of the free standing type. They consist in a series of independent modules of varying size (typically, 2 m long and wide and 5 m high) immersed in water but simply left standing on the bottom of the spent fuel storage pool. The ever increasing need for additional storage room leads power plants to wish to have compact modules positioned as close to each other as possible. The reduced clearance is essentially limited by the possible interaction of a module with its neighbors in case of a seismic event. In fact, during an earthquake, it is anticipated that each module may have a complex and different movement relative to the pool floor: sliding, uplifting, rocking may occur depending on various parameters related to module geometry and load and seismic excitation. Minimum clearance between modules is to be defined and justified. Two approaches are possible: each module may be demonstrated to stay wide from its neighbors or to impact them with no significant resulting damage. Though experimental work is sometimes possible, it certainly cannot be routinely or systematically envisaged. Thus, approaches to evaluation and justification basically rely on numerical simulation of the problem. Actually, the entire calculation scheme is often repeated a large number of times with varying parameters (seismic input in the three directions, friction coefficients, fuel loading characteristics, etc.) for additional treatment and confidence. The object of this paper is to provide some insight on the kind of information one can reasonably expect to obtain from such studies. (author)

  12. Is there adequate empirical justification for radically revising the personality disorders section for DSM-5?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark

    2012-10-01

    The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders (PDs) Work Group has recommended a reformulation of the PD section. In the present review I examined the empirical support for the Work Group's criticisms of the DSM-IV approach that were central to the justification for radically changing the diagnostic criteria. The Work Group indicated that comorbidity among the DSM-IV PDs is excessive, and to reduce comorbidity they recommended deleting five PDs. The studies they cited demonstrating high levels of comorbidity were of samples of psychiatric patients. A review of the epidemiological literature shows that comorbidity rates are much lower than in patient samples, and this challenges the proposition that high comorbidity is due to the diagnostic criteria. Moreover, the empirical support for the exclusion of some disorders over others is lacking. The Work Group noted that the diagnostic stability of the PDs is modest. However, modest levels of diagnostic stability may be largely attributable to methodological factors such test-retest unreliability, state effects, regression to the mean, and measurement error due to repeated assessments, rather than a reflection of inadequacies of the diagnostic system. Thus, modest stability is likely to be found in any approach toward diagnosing PDs. The present review therefore suggests that several of the core problems linked to the DSM-IV approach toward diagnosing PDs are more likely due to methodological factors than inadequacies of the criteria themselves. The Work Group's recommendation to delete five PDs is inconsistent with the explicit guidelines established for making revisions for DSM-5 which specify that for a disorder to be deleted there should be a thorough review of that disorder's clinical utility and validity.

  13. Mathematical justification of a nonlinear integral-differential equation for the propagation of spherical flames; Justification mathematique d'une equation integro-differentielle non lineaire pour un modele de flamme spherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, C.; Wolanski, N. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Roquejoffre, J.M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, UFR-MIG, UMR CNRS 5640, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2002-04-01

    This Note is devoted to the justification of an asymptotic model for quasisteady three-dimensional spherical flames proposed by G. Joulin. The paper derives, by means of a three-scale matched asymptotic expansion, starting from the classical thermo-diffusive model with high activation energies, an integral-differential equation for the flame radius. In the derivation, it is essential for the Lewis number - i.e., the ratio between thermal and molecular diffusion - to be strictly less than unity. In this Note, we give the main ideas of a rigorous proof of the validity of this model, under the additional restriction that the Lewis number is close to 1. (authors)

  14. System Justification's Opposite Effects on Psychological Well-Being: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model in a Gay Men and Lesbian Sample in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes-Correa, Joaquín

    2016-08-12

    Those who adhere to system justifying beliefs benefit from a palliative function that buffers negative effects on psychological well-being. This has been consistently observed for high-status groups, whereas for members of low-status groups, it remains rather unclear whether system justification exerts a positive or a negative effect. This study tested the palliative effect of system justification on symptoms of anxiety-depression in a gay men and lesbian sample (N = 467) in Chile. Results from moderated mediation analyses revealed that system justification beliefs buffer symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, system justification enhances anxious and depressive symptoms through internalized homonegativity; this mediation effect was significant for gay men. We pose that justifying the social order comprises two contradictory functions: system justification as a coping source, and otherwise, as source of distress under conditions of in-group derogation, posing a threat to well-being among members of low-status groups (as observed in gay and lesbian individuals). Implications of the opposing effects, and gender differences are further discussed in this study.

  15. Justification of the Impact of the Use PPS (Plasmic Propulsion System) on Li-Ion VES140S/VES180 Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthomieu, Yannick; Prevot, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery has been since the beginning of 2000's with the support of ESA, CNES but also the European primes Astrium, (now Airbus Space and Defense) and Thalès Alénia Space. This technology replaced quickly the previous NiH2 system mainly for GEO applications thanks to the numerous advantage brought by this promising technology in terms of technical, industrial and cost aspects.The use of the Plasmic Propulsion System has been considered very early in the VES Saft Li-Ion cell development program, and included in the first life tests that run.The objective of this document is to present the impact of the use of the PPS (plasmic propulsion system also called IPS : ionic propulsion system or XPS : Xenon propulsion system) on the Saft VES140/180 Li-Ion batteries on board GEO telecommunication satellites. The PPS battery impacts have been tested since 2000 on VES140 cells and since 2006 on VES180. More than 12 years feedback on this new type of battery use on- board GEO satellites allows giving significant justification of the use of the PPS power on the battery.

  16. The renaissance of National Forest Inventories (NFIs in the context of the international conventions – a discussion paper on context, background and justification of NFIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available National Forest Inventories (NFI cover whole countries and strive to put the resource forest and the ecosystem forest into a quantitative framework. While for forest management inventories it is very obvious that they shall support management decisions and contribute to making forest planning, silvicultural interventions, conservation management and timber sales more efficient, the purpose of NFIs is not immediately visible nor “measurable”: they are to support national (and sub-national level policy processes that relate to forests. NFIs have a long history and do experience currently a boom because the availability of a science-based quantification of the forest resource and its changes is among the prerequisites for results-based payments to developing countries when they implement measures that are efficient - and evidenced by verifiable results – in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from forests. While forest monitoring science does currently focus very much on increasing precision and accuracy of forest monitoring, on integration of ever more efficient remote sensing techniques and modelling methods, surprisingly little research is being published on background, strategic justification, institutionalization and impact of NFIs.

  17. Microfinance Participation, Control Over Resources, and Justification of IPV: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta

    2016-04-13

    A high percentage of men and women are purported to justify intimate partner violence (IPV) in countries that are steeped in patriarchy even in the presence of programs such as microfinance that aim to address gender equity. This article examines two assertions that emerge from the literature on microfinance and its potential for positive outcomes for women who participate in it: (a) Microfinance participation is associated with reduced justification of IPV, and (b) microfinance participants with control over their own resources are less likely to justify IPV when compared with microfinance participants who do not have control over their resources. Couples data from a nationally representative survey, the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, were used in the present study. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were conducted to reveal that (a) microfinance participation was not associated with justification of IPV and that (b) women who participated in microfinance were less likely to justify IPV when they had no control over their resources. Implications for practitioners and policymakers are discussed.

  18. Types of Adolescent Male Dating Violence Against Women, Self-Esteem, and Justification of Dominance and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Aguado, Maria Jose; Martinez, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    The recognition of the seriousness of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the need to prevent it has led to the study of its inception in relationships established in adolescence. This study uses latent class analysis to establish a typology of male adolescents based on self-reports of violence against a girl in dating relationships. The participants were 4,147 boys in Spain aged 14 to 18 years from a probabilistic sample. Four discrete, identifiable groups were derived based on 12 indicators of emotional abuse, intimidation, coercion, threats, physical violence, and violence transmitted via communication technologies. The first group consists of non-violent adolescent boys. A second group comprises those boys who isolate and control their partners. Boys who exert only medium-level emotional abuse form the third group, whereas the fourth is formed by teenage boys who frequently engage in all types of violence. Compared with the non-violent adolescents in a multinomial logistic regression, the other groups show lower self-esteem and display a greater justification of male dominance and IPV against women; greater justification of aggression in conflict resolution; they have also received more dominance and violence messages from adults in their family environment; and they perceive IPV behaviors against women as abuse of lesser importance.

  19. Technical justification for a request to reclassify the former CCC/USDA facility at Canada, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-12-21

    Contamination in groundwater at Canada, Kansas, was discovered in 1997, during limited private well sampling near former grain storage facilities of the Commodity Credit Corporation, U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). Subsequent investigations by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) confirmed carbon tetrachloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater above the respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of 5.0 {micro}g/L and 10.0 mg/L. The KDHE investigations identified both the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility and a private grain storage facility as likely sources for the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The CCC/USDA funded extension of a rural water district line to provide a permanent alternate water supply, and the KDHE has conducted long-term monitoring under the State Water Plan. This document presents an analysis of the available information for the Canada site, acquired in previous investigations and the long-term KDHE monitoring. This analysis forms the technical justification for a request to reclassify the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Canada as a site requiring no further action under the Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) between the KDHE and the USDA's Farm Service Agency. The KDHE's long-term water level monitoring results indicate a consistent groundwater flow direction to the east-southeast. Consequently, the wells with the highest overall concentrations of carbon tetrachloride are downgradient from the private grain storage facility but not downgradient from the former CCC/USDA facility. The KDHE criterion for reclassification of a site is that contamination there should not pose an unacceptable risk, on the basis of analytical results for four consecutive, equally timed, sequenced sampling episodes over a period of no less than two years. In seven KDHE sampling events over a period of six years (2001-2007), the concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in the monitoring well on the former

  20. A Self-Determination Model of Childhood Exposure, Perceived Prevalence, Justification, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F; Zegree, Joan; Foster, Dawn W; Roffman, Roger A

    2013-02-01

    The present research was designed to evaluate self-determination theory as a framework for integrating factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. The proposed model suggests that childhood exposure to parental violence may influence global motivational orientations which, in turn result in greater cognitive biases (overestimating the prevalence of IPV and justification of IPV) which, in turn, contribute to an individual's decision to use abusive behavior. Participants included 124 men who had engaged in abusive behavior toward an intimate partner. Results provided reasonable support for the proposed model and stronger support for a revised model suggesting that controlled orientation, rather than autonomy orientation, appears to play a stronger role in the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and cognitive biases associated with abusive behavior.

  1. Anti-Spanish sentiment in the Jamaica Letter: between the legitimacy of independence and the justification of republican failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saralegui Benito

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Simón Bolívar’s Jamaica Letter has underestimated the importance of Hispanophobia. Generally this aspect of the text has been regarded as purely rhetorical and circumstantial. However, this element is of central importance to the text, because virtually every idea in the essay is closely tied up with this hatred towards Spain. Without Hispanophobia, the Jamaica Letter would simply cease to exist. In this work, I will try to show the three cornerstones of this enmity created by Bolívar: criticism of the Conquest and the Colony, the time gap undermining the Spanish Empire and the invention of this Empire as the worst tyranny in history, an issue to which I will devote particular attention. By means of this exaggeration, Bolívar offers an unintentional justification of every political disaster or constitutional failure.

  2. ANALYSIS RESULTS OF THE JUSTIFICATION OF INVESTMENTS INTO QUALITY, ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND PRODUCTS SAFETY IN SUMADIJA AND POMORAVLJE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Raonić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the project "Improvement of quality and environment protection in Sumadija and Pomoravlje", financed by EU, "The study on vindication investments into quality improvement and environment protection in Sumadija and Pomoravlje" has been made. This paper discusses the results of cost/benefit analysis that includes SME from metal-processing industry, industry for non-metalic materials production and manufacturing, agriculture and food-processing industry, tourism and catering industry. The paper also includes the indicators of total economic benefits and costs that may be the result of QMS, EMS and HACCP initiation, as well as of CE mark for the products obtaining. We illustrated necessary financial investments in relation to predicted percentage of certified SME in the region in five years period, and on this basis financial indicators of justification of investments and the proof of those investments through calculated net present values (NPV.

  3. The effects of implicit gender role theories on gender system justification: Fixed beliefs strengthen masculinity to preserve the status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Laura J; Howland, Laura; Russell, Alexandra G; Jackman, Lauren M

    2017-01-01

    Four studies (n = 1199) tested support for the idea that implicit theories about the fixedness versus malleability of gender roles (entity vs. incremental theories) predict differences in the degree of gender system justification, that is, support for the status quo in relations between women and men in society. Relative to an incremental theory, the holding of an entity theory correlated with more system-justifying attitudes and self-perceptions (Study 1) for men and women alike. We also found that strength of identification with one's gender in-group was a stronger predictor of system justification for men than it was for women, suggesting men's defense of the status quo may be motivated by their membership in a high status group in the social hierarchy. In 3 experiments, we then tested whether exposure to a fixed gender role theory would lead men to identify more with masculine characteristics and their male gender group, thus increasing their defense of the gender system as fair and just. We did not expect a fixed gender role theory to trigger these identity-motivated responses in women. Overall, we found that, by increasing the degree of psychological investment in their masculine identity, adopting a fixed gender role theory increased men's rationalization of the gender status quo compared with when gender roles were perceived to be changeable. This suggests that, when men are motivated to align with their masculine identity, they are more likely to endorse the persistence of gender inequality as a way of affirming their status as "real men." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Flammable gas/slurry growth unreviewed safety question:justification for continued operation for the tank farms at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) provides a basis for continued operation in 176 high level waste tanks, double contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, 244-AR Vault, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) relative to flammable gas hazards. Required controls are specified.

  5. Solution Strategies, Modes of Representation and Justifications of Primary Five Pupils in Solving Pre Algebra Problems: An Experience of Using Task-Based Interview and Verbal Protocol Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gan We; Ghazali, Munirah

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive study was aimed at looking into how Primary 5 pupils solve pre-algebra problems concerning patterns and unknown quantities. Specifically, objectives of this study were to describe Primary 5 pupils' solution strategies, modes of representations and justifications in: (a) discovering, describing and using numerical and geometrical…

  6. Health Care Professionals' Attitudes About Physician-Assisted Death: An Analysis of Their Justifications and the Roles of Terminology and Patient Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Derek W; Marcus, Brian S; Wakim, Paul G; Mercurio, Mark R; Kopf, Gary S

    2017-07-15

    Health care professionals (HCPs) are crucial to physician-assisted death (PAD) provision. To quantitatively assess the favorability of justifications for or against PAD legalization among HCPs, the effect of the terms "suicide" and "euthanasia" on their views and their support for three forms of PAD. Our questionnaire presented three cases: physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia for a competent patient, and euthanasia for an incompetent patient with an advance directive for euthanasia. Respondents judged whether each case was ethical and should be legal and selected their justifications from commonly cited reasons. The sample included physician clinicians, researchers, nonphysician clinicians, and other nonclinical staff at a major academic medical center. Of 221 HCPs, the majority thought that each case was ethical and should be legal. In order of declining favorability, justifications supporting PAD legalization were relief of suffering, right to die, mercy, acceptance of death, nonabandonment, and saving money for the health care system; opposing justifications were the slippery slope argument, unnecessary due to palliative care, killing patients is wrong, religious views, and suicide is wrong. The use of suicide and euthanasia terminology did not affect responses. Participants preferred physician-assisted suicide to euthanasia for a competent patient (P euthanasia for an incompetent patient to euthanasia for a competent patient (P euthanasia language did not bias HCPs against PAD, challenging claims that such value-laden terms hinder dialogue. More research is required to understand the significance of competency in shaping attitudes toward PAD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  8. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  9. The Impact of Image Management, Self-Justification, and Escalation of Commitment on Knowledge Development in the Marketing Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmaa, Dheeraj; Albers-Miller, Nancy D.; Pelton, Lou E.; Straughan, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    The paramount role of scholarship in the modern academic environment is manifest across program accreditation, individual evaluation, and institutional reputation processes. At the microlevel, success in this domain positively influences scholars' performance evaluations and institutions' external reputations. At the macrolevel, research expands…

  10. A RAISE Specification Framework and Justification assistant for the Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Xia, Yong

    1998-01-01

    RAISE is a product consisting of a development method, an associated formal specification language (RSL) and a collection of computer-based tools. RAISE has turned out to be useful in the development of many kinds of software systems.However, RSL has no ``real-time'' features, and hence, it is di...

  11. Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1986, Submitted to Congress February 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    multi-channel processors for towed and conformal array applications; and (4) the Mini-GPS v22?iT*r Pr"cjranl’ whlch Wl11 develop a cigarette package...Receiver: GPS receiver with Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) A 30-month effort was started in FY 1984 to develop a cigarette cack sized h full...530 FY 1986 RDT&E DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY Materials Processing Technology ; lectronics Techn Title: Title: Materials Budget Activity: and El 1

  12. Ofsted's Judgement of Parental Engagement: A Justification of Its Place in Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the recent change to Ofsted's inspection criteria, which now includes a judgement on schools' engagement with parents as part of the overall Leadership and Management judgement. The article argues that this is the correct place for this judgement, linking effective parental engagement with the development of a broad and…

  13. Waiting for the Great Pumpkin? On the Whereabouts of Justification in Library Research: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henige, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This symposium report includes seven papers that address issues concerning the North American Collections Inventory Project (NCIP) Conspectus sponsored by the Research Libraries Group (RLG). Topics discussed include cooperative collection development; rigor and research in library and information science; decision making and uncertainty; and data…

  14. StructuralComponents 4: Conceptual building models with structural design justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of computation in the building industry has led to the development of a range of tools intended for design. Although commonly used for detailed analysis (FEA) and documentation (CAD/BIM), few tools address the needs of the early design stages for flexibility and quick, insightful feedba

  15. The marketing innovative decisions justification based on the diagnosis of management problem areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Gryshchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical and methodical bases of the process of development, acceptance and implementation of marketing innovative decisions based on a diagnosis of the management problem areas of the enterprise. The results of the analysis. A scientific and methodical approach to the stages formation of the process of development, acceptance and implementation of marketing innovative decisions is developed. The author proposes to distinguish three enlarged stages (problematic, inventive and executive. Each stage has it’s formalized result: problematic – cause-and-result map of managerial problems; inventive – marketing innovative decision; executive – the effect of marketing innovative decision market implementation. A scientific and methodical approach to marketing innovative decisions selecting by the results of problem areas diagnostics based on the integrated risk and quality levels indicators is offered. The choice of marketing innovative decisions from a set of alternatives is proposed to carry out on the basis of criteria-based assessment. In the framework of this methodological approach the criterion is seen as measure of validity and compliance of the marketing innovative decision to objective reality. For the formation the system of the decision selection indicators the author proposes to carry out the division of criteria into two groups: criteria for assessing the level of risk and criteria for assessing the level of quality. The list of criteria is not fixed, it’s selection is carried out depending on the specific requirements of the economic situation in which the process of development, acceptance and implementation of marketing innovative decisions takes place. The number of indicators also isn’t regulated – it may be reduced or supplemented. The final selection of marketing innovative decision from the list of alternatives is proposed to carry out by building the

  16. Safety Justification of Software Systems. Software Based Safety Systems. Regulatory Inspection Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahll, Gustav (OECD Halden Project, Halden (NO)); Liwaang, Bo (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)); Wainwright, Norman (Wainwright Safety Advice (GB))

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of new software based technology in the safety systems in nuclear power plants also makes it necessary to develop new strategies for regulatory review and assessment of these new systems that is more focused on reviewing the processes at the different phases in design phases during the system life cycle. It is a general requirement that the licensee shall perform different kinds of reviews. From a regulatory point of view it is more cost effective to assess that the design activities at the suppliers and the review activities within the development project are performed with good quality. But the change from more technical reviews over to the development process oriented approach also cause problems. When reviewing development and quality aspects there are no 'hard facts' that can be judged against some specified criteria, the issues are more 'soft' and are more to build up structure of arguments and evidences that the requirements are met. The regulatory review strategy must therefore change to follow the development process over the whole life cycle from concept phase until installation and operation. Even if we know what factors that is of interest we need some guidance on how to interpret and judge the information.For that purpose SKl started research activities in this area at the end of the 1990s. In the first phase, in co-operation with Gustav Dahll at the Halden project, a life cycle model was selected. For the different phases a qualitative influence net was constructed of the type that is used in Bayesian Believe Network together with a discussion on different issues involved. In the second phase of the research work, in co-operation with Norman Wainwright, a former NII inspector, information from a selection of the most important sources as guidelines, IAEA and EC reports etc, was mapped into the influence net structure (the total list on used sources are in the report). The result is presented in the form of

  17. Delineating sampling procedures: Pedagogical significance of analysing sampling descriptions and their justifications in TESL experimental research reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Miin-Hwa Lim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching second language learners how to write research reports constitutes a crucial component in programmes on English for Specific Purposes (ESP in institutions of higher learning. One of the rhetorical segments in research reports that merit attention has to do with the descriptions and justifications of sampling procedures. This genre-based study looks into sampling delineations in the Method-related sections of research articles on the teaching of English as a second language (TESL written by expert writers and published in eight reputed international refereed journals. Using Swales’s (1990 & 2004 framework, I conducted a quantitative analysis of the rhetorical steps and a qualitative investigation into the language resources employed in delineating sampling procedures. This investigation has considerable relevance to ESP students and instructors as it has yielded pertinent findings on how samples can be appropriately described to meet the expectations of dissertation examiners, reviewers, and supervisors. The findings of this study have furnished insights into how supervisors and instructors can possibly teach novice writers ways of using specific linguistic mechanisms to lucidly describe and convincingly justify the sampling procedures in the Method sections of experimental research reports.

  18. Using cognitive dissonance to induce adolescents' escaping from the claw of online gaming: the roles of personal responsibility and justification of cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wan, Chin-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    The negative impact of the Internet on adolescents has received much attention. How to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is also a critical issue. Based on cognitive dissonance theory, two experiments were conducted to examine whether personal responsibility and justification of cost may play crucial factors in impacting adolescent players' attitude change and their willingness to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that adolescent players who felt a strong sense of responsibility appeared to exhibit greater attitude change. In Experiment 2, the findings indicated that players tended to employ justification of cost in order to reduce or eliminate the dissonance between their attitude toward online gaming and invested cost. Adolescent players who perceived a higher cost in online gaming were less willing to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. Reducing adolescents ' overuse of online gaming can be appreciated through the perspective of cognitive dissonance.

  19. Vrednovanje Dobara pri Ocjeni Društvene Opravdanosti Investicionih Projekata / Evaluation of Goods in Assessment of Social Justification of Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čoprka Miodrag

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an investment, depending on their type and size, may manifest differently on the economy, which is why it is necessary to examine various aspects of their evaluation. Starting from the fact that the market cannot always and at all times and circumstances properly evaluate all the goods and services from the society viewpoint, commercial justification may greatly differ from social justification. The main starting point in the process is the application of billing prices instead of market prices, i.e. consideration of opportunity costs and benefits of investment projects, as they are an integral part of the investment and are not applied in the best alternative use. Starting from the shortcomings of conventional financial analyses in the identification and evaluation of the effects of investment projects from a social aspect, it is necessary to promote increasingly popular and relevant approaches.

  20. Justification of the technical requirements of a fully functional modular robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlyakhov Nikita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular robots are characterized by limited built-in resources necessary for communication, connection and movement of modules, when performing reconfiguration tasks at rigidly interconnected elements. In developing the technological fundamentals of designing modular robots with pairwise connection mechanisms, we analysed modern hardware and model algorithms typical of a fully functional robot, which provide independent locomotion, communication, navigation, decentralized power and control. A survey of actuators, batteries, sensors, communication means, suitable for modular robotics is presented.

  1. To the question of scientific justification of the interests on deposits and credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M.Pshinko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the need of loans in the form they are presented today at the present stage of economic functioning. To develop a systematic group of actions in order to allow the “economic and financial” system of the country to work efficiently, irrespective of economic and financial world cataclysms. Methodology. Computer simulation model of monetary movement in the state is developed and tested. Conclusions. A retrospective analysis of the essence of theories of credit and lending rate has been made. Some aspects of interest receiving on deposits and loans from the point of view of a radically new economic model of management, which based on the "National economy high-performance theory», are considered. Using the simulation modeling the negative influence of bank interest on the national economy general development is indicated. It is proved that the main reason of the “financial and economic crisis” is the economic category of “profit”. Originality. A radically new model of banking system functioning in the country is proposed. This system allows one to create synergistic economic effect. Practical value. Implementation of the given model will provide the GDP growth for the 2–2.5 times as early as the first years. The economic effect of the introduction can bring about 1 trillion UAH.

  2. Department of the Air Force Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1983 Submitted to Congress February 1982. Aircraft Procurement, Missile Procurement, Other Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    manuals , and other technical data identified with the specific aircraft being procured. Requirements in these categories are established to provide for...improvements to assure a standard -- ’nfiguration with the produccion line aircraft. A/T-37-(FY-83- $7;8 million;-FY 84-$4.6million). The FT 1983 program...41420B MODELS OF AIRCRAFT AFFECTED: E-3A DESCRIPTION/JUSTIFICATION: FORCED AIR MONITER AND ALAFM SYSTEM .FAMAS) THE CURRENT MANUAL CARRY 0 ro TEST

  3. Two Approaches to the Justification of the Primitiveness of Collective Intention%对集体意图原初性的两层辩护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍

    2016-01-01

    The justification of primitiveness of collective intention is one of the main issues of collective action in philosophy of action.Based on the research of game theory and psychology , especially the “Team Reasoning” model and the “Shared Intentionality Hypothesis” theory, this paper tries to break out of the normal framework of the justification , and provides a justification in epistemology and ontology respectively .The new justification points out that the primitiveness is one of es-sential properties of collective intention , and that is also the foundation to understand the nature of collective action in a nat -uralistic perspective .%为集体意图的原初性提供正面辩护,一直都是行动哲学中关于集体行动的研究重心之一。文章试图打破原有的论证框架,从认识论与本体论两个层面分别对该论题进行辩护。其中,认识论层面的辩护主要以协同博弈中的“团队推理”模型为理论基础;而本体论层面的辩护则主要以心理学中的“共有意向性假说”为理论基础。上述论证将指出原初性是集体意图的本质属性,而这一论断也是在自然主义视角下理解集体行动的基础所在。

  4. Justification philosophique de l’éducation des valeurs éthiques et civiques dans l’éducation formelle. Analyse critique de la LOMCE

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Calandín, Javier; Vicent GOZÁLVEZ

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we start with the approach of the new LOMCE in order to go back to the philosophical justification of each ethical value that we believe should be addressed in education as its backbones. First, we focus on some contradictions in the new LOMCE. Later, we explore the philosophical foundation of ethical values in education. We propose the hermeneutical approach to unravel the ethical values. In the third and most extensive section we delve into the philosophical basis of different...

  5. JUSTIFICATION OF MEASURES TO IMPROVE QUALITY AND ROAD SAFETY AT REGIONAL ARTERIAL STREET IN MINSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kuzmenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results pertaining to investigations of traffic conditions and intensity of traffic and pedestrian flows, calculations on loading level of objects located in the Makayonka Street, Minsk. The objects constitute transport regional development which presupposes reconstruction of regional arterial street with due account of infrastructure improvement,   residential  construction and  construction  of  multi-purpose  complex  with   shopping,  entertainment,   wellness  and business centers. In addition to this it is planned to construct a two-level underground parking, a two-level interchange at intersection of the Filimonova Street and Nezavisimosty Avenue due to an increase of traffic load at adjacent neighboring street and road network. An analysis on the current traffic management and calculation for distribution of the existing and prospective traffic load levels after implementation of appropriate measures to improve quality as a whole and road safety as well has been carried out in the paper. Determination of loading levels for a street and road network has been carried out while taking into account an intensity of traffic flows in order to evaluate various options for road traffic organization. Variants for planning of road junctions, road traffic organization and traffic signalization (including coordinated passing of  transport facilities have been developed in the paper. All this will contribute to improvement of quality and road safety in the investigated street with due consideration of further development of the region and overbuilding of the existing housing system in the Makayonka Streets and increase of its transport importance in the Minsk street and road network.

  6. [Justification of regulations for the use of computers with LCD monitor during academic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Sazanyuk, Z I; Laponova, E D; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, I P

    2014-01-01

    In the article there are reported the results of studies of the effect on the functional state of the body of schoolchildren curriculum with the use of personal computers with LCD monitors. The resistance to the development of visual and general fatigue in schoolchildren -users of personal computers with LCD monitors was found to be higher because they provide a more favorable environment for visual work in comparison with monitors based on cathode-ray tube. The use of LED lighting in classrooms contributes to the creation a more favorable light environment than in fluorescent lighting and reduces fatigable impact (both general and visual) of classes with the use of personal computers.

  7. Religious and Philosophical Justifications for War: A Synthesis of Selected Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martzen, E

    2000-08-15

    The Critical Issues Forum (CIF) is a cooperative education program supported in part by the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The Science and Technology Education Program (STEP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory manages one component of this program. CIF engages high school students and teachers regarding issues of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, arms control, and international security. These issues are viewed in light of their scientific, economic, socio-cultural, and political/geopolitical influences and implications. This year CIF's focus is on chemical and biological weapons (CBW). CBW is becoming more of a threat today than ever before. Many countries are developing these weapons. CBW also presents certain ethical dilemmas for many individuals, especially if those individuals feel it is their religious duty to use or avoid the use of such weapons. Religion has become an important determining factor in international security because many cultures, and even governments make decisions based on religious traditions. This paper is an attempt to look at these religions and philosophical traditions with an emphasis on views of ''just war''. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to promote awareness about religion's influence on international security issues. This paper was written by Cadet Ernst ''Mitch'' Martzen, AFROTC. He is an intern with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Science and Technology Education Program, under the guidance of Dr. Stephen C. Sesko, the director of LLNL's CIF program. Every major religion and ethical system has developed a societal concept of ''just war''. Today, the world's largest religions include Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Each faith lays claim to a heritage rich with thousands of years of history, and the power of great minds to support its ethical and moral beliefs. These religions

  8. JUSTIFICATION OF THE PRIORITIES OF THE CLUSTERING OF AGRO-INDUSTRIES OF THE VORONEZH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Salikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in many regions of the Russian Federation initiated a large-scale work on the development and implementation of cluster policy in accordance with Federal and regional socio-economic development until 2020. The analysis of the status of implementation adopted in 2012, the concept of cluster policy of the Voronezh region showed that the complex is made on the date of the event is mainly responsible for the informational and infrastructural nature. However, from the total number of promising clusters by 2014, formed in fact, only two-thirds, while among the uncreated shall apply the cluster processing of agricultural products having a high rating prospects. Given that the formation of the agro-industrial cluster corresponds to the requirements and conditions in this study developed a new methodological approach, which carried out the rationale for the priority of the formation of the meat cluster in the agro-industrial complex of the Voronezh region. The basis of this methodological approach is the algorithm for the identification of areas of clustering, developed by the authors using statistics Forsythe, represents an efficient tool for the formation of priorities to achieve a qualitatively new results in the field of economy, science and technology. The proposed algorithm includes the serial combination of the following methodological stages: the formation of the object of research, identifying sources of reliable information on the basis of expert assessments, identify areas clustering of industries (including analysis legal framework the study of statistical data on the level of localization of industries and analysis of the practice of implementation of the cluster policy regions-analogues, identification of areas for additional clustering of industries and their mapping, and de-termination of the priority directions of the additional clustering of industries by ranking. The results of the study, carried out in accordance with this

  9. Morphometric justification of algorithm of the choice of method of surgical treatment of dysplastic coxarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norkin I.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define regularities of variability of bone structures of a hip joint depending on type of dysplastic coxarthrosis and to develop tactics of total endoprosthesis replacement. Objects of research. 106 patients with dysplastic coxarthrosis of varying severity, passing treatment on the basis of Federal State Budget Institution of Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics from 2005 to 2014 applying methods X, KT-, MRT-metry variation and statistical methods. Results: According to anatomic features of a hip joint at dysplastic coxarthrosis of various types algorithms of choice of acetabularand femoral components of endoprosthesis, and also tactics of total endoprosthesis replacement in groups of research are developed. Conclusion. The choice of a standard size of an endoprosthesis of a hip joint needs to be carried out taking into account X-ray anatomic features of a hip joint and degree of expressiveness of the dysplastic changes. At dysplastic coxarthrosis of the l-ll types it is necessary to carry out standard total endoprosthesis replacement; at coxarthrosis of the III type —total endoprosthesis replacement in combination with plasticity of a roof of acetabular hollow; at coxarthrosis of the IV type — total endoprosthesis replacement in a combination from the shortening femur osteotomy.

  10. HEDONIC PREFERENCES AND UTILITARIAN JUSTIFICATIONS AT THE INTRODUCTION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Jose Montero Arruda Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast technological upgrading attracts the development of new products in the market, converging into multiples uses and accesses, which has been presentedin the literature of new product development and systems integration. Due to their confront, this research places its study focus on the determinants of consumer preference for high technology product launch. The hedonic / social utility of the all-in-one products has a priority in utilitarian factors. The main objective of this work is to evaluate which factors influence the consumer preference of high technology users, using the Apple´s tablet (iPad as a research object to identify how its use decision is made. In this article, anetnographic study was carried out about the iPad consumer behavior, interpreting their needs through their experiences described in American websites for the discussion of the product. These sites present comments about the process of choice, preference and use of the iPad. The websites have also been used to collect the textual database which is coded, interpreted and presented through the description of how current and potential consumers use the analyzed product.

  11. Justification for experimental methods for circuit training aerobics classes first mature age women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop and validate a methodology for circuit training aerobics. Methodology focused on improving physical health first mature age women. Material : a study was conducted with 81 women (age 21 - 35 years. Results : justified the means and methods of circuit training, the duration of the structural components, the rational parameters of physical activity, pulse modes. Depending on the physical health of women developed a set of circuit training for the main part of the session. Complex circuit training consists of 2 series, active rest interval between 3 minutes. Duration of employment in one series of 23 minutes. Exercises are performed at 5 locations: 3 - aerobic (3x5 min, 2 - power (2x4 min. The total duration of training - 49 minutes. The intensity of the training load is regulated by the level of physical health and the maximum test results. Conclusions : The positive changes morphofunctional indicators show an increase in the body's bioenergy and women transition to a higher level of physical health.

  12. Cultural warrant as a justification in knowledge organization systems: A critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Barité

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory analysis of the "cultural warrant" concept is made with the objective of determining related future research areas. First, the generic notion of "warrant" is reviewed as it has been considered by Knowledge Organization. Different kinds of warrants proposed to legitimate the inclusion of terminology in knowledge organization systems are described. A critical analysis of the "culture" concept is carried out as well as the way in which the various anthropological, sociological and political point of views come together in its epistemological construction. The treatment of the cultural warrant in the relevant literature is reviewed and discussed. Its contribution to the construction of cultural identities through differentiation elements in the interpretation and life experience is valued.The relationship between cultural warrant and local culture is developed in-depth. The insertion of the ethical factor through of the cultural warrant is weighted in the development of classification schemes as well as the classification and indexing processes. The need to explore in greater detail the methodological alternatives which can be based upon this integrative and democratizing conception in the Knowledge Organization field is established among other conclusions

  13. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (NOEMAIL), R

    2005-12-14

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  14. Kinesthetic activities in physics instruction: Image schematic justification and design based on didactic situations

    CERN Document Server

    Bruun, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors have argued that student conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinesthetic experiences of being. If central schemas have a bodily basis, this idea should be utilized in physics instruction. Thus, we argue that kinesthetic activities, including careful experiential and conceptual analysis will provide useful entry point for student acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and can overcome the phenomenological gap between the experiential and the conceptual understanding. We discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. We argue that this schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We provide an example of a kinesthetic model and describe how an instructional strategy of these exercises can support studen...

  15. The quantum and mechanical justification of intensification by magnetic field of amalgam isotope separation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myshkin V. F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The steady increase in demand for isotopes requires the development of methods to increase the efficiency of isotope separation technologies. Methods of isotope separation based on thermodynamic differences of isotopic forms of the molecules don't require significant investment, but characterized by a low rate of exchange. It's known that the magnetic effect leads to a change the vibrational frequency of the molecules, and therefore their thermodynamic parameters. The change increases the thermodynamic parameters, including the exchange rate. The results of the experimental determination of the thermal effect of dissolving the salts of NaCl, KCl, CuSO4, sodium amalgam decomposition by distillate in a magnetic field and without field were shown. Magnetic interference can have a significant effect on the amalgam exchange method which was shown by quantum and mechanical analysis of the results

  16. Surface Signature Characterization at SPE through Ground-Proximal Methods: Methodology Change and Technical Justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    A portion of LANL’s FY15 SPE objectives includes initial ground-based or ground-proximal investigations at the SPE Phase 2 site. The area of interest is the U2ez location in Yucca Flat. This collection serves as a baseline for discrimination of surface features and acquisition of topographic signatures prior to any development or pre-shot activities associated with SPE Phase 2. Our team originally intended to perform our field investigations using previously vetted ground-based (GB) LIDAR methodologies. However, the extended proposed time frame of the GB LIDAR data collection, and associated data processing time and delivery date, were unacceptable. After technical consultation and careful literature research, LANL identified an alternative methodology to achieve our technical objectives and fully support critical model parameterization. Very-low-altitude unmanned aerial systems (UAS) photogrammetry appeared to satisfy our objectives in lieu of GB LIDAR. The SPE Phase 2 baseline collection was used as a test of this UAS photogrammetric methodology.

  17. [Experimental justification of possible mechanisms of action of low intensity electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on animals' behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, L N; Dubrovik, B V; Zhavoronkov, l P; Glushakova, V S

    2012-01-01

    Effects of EMR on the behavior of Wistar rats (196 males, 180-240 g of mass) under the conflict of opposed motivations: strong positive, drinking, motivation, and strong negative, pain, motivation were studied. The animals were exposed to low intensity EMR (40 microW/cm2) produced by two independent sources, 475 MHz (Albatross) with two orthogonal E vectors, and synchronization of rhythm modulation in the range of electroencephalography (EEG) frequency. The effect on behavior was observed during 10 min: 1) following the 5-minute exposure to EMR and 2) during the 10-minute exposure. Low intensity EMR of the above mentioned parameters and pulse modulation of 4, 8, 10 and 13 Hz was found to inhibit development of phobia to pain, increase the number of punishable contacts. It testifies to the existence of a weak anxiolytic effect which is similar to the effect of tranquilizers. If animals were exposed to EMR following administration of phenazepam, the radiation was shown to produce potentiation of the anxiolytic effect ofphenazepam. Effect of phenazepam is associated with activation ofbenzdiazipine receptors in the structure ofGABA-ergic receptor complex, which regulates neural membrane chloride channel conductance. We can suggest that anxiolytic and neurodepressive effects of EMR are realized to some extent at the level of ionophore and regulatory receptor complexes.

  18. JUSTIFICATION OF CONTROL SYSTEM TYPES OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE FOR CIVIL AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The problem of unmanned aerial vehicle control systems is a complicated issue which requires consideration of the tasks and applications of unmanned aerial vehicles. The typology of control systems combination for civil unmanned aerial vehicle is suggested and justified. Methods: The methodology of the research was based on application of the varieties of the experts method for rationale of the variants of control system combinations for a specific type of unmanned aerial vehicle and the morphological analysis was used to generate the variants of control system combinations. Results: The causes that lead to discrepancies in types of control systems for civil unmanned aerial vehicle are revealed. Compliance between remote radio control application and type of feedback signal are considered. Based on morphological analysis method, 25 variants of combined unmanned aerial vehicle control systems are suggested. Discussion: Regulatory, substantive and technical components of basic unmanned aerial vehicle control systems are considered. The practical experience of the development by Scientific Production Center of Unmanned Aviation “Virazh” is used to demonstrate the applicability of findings.

  19. Enterprise’s transfer system functions justification based on the analysis of main resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kniaz

    2015-06-01

    as transfer objects, used by the company. Such an analysis allows taking into account and covering the most important features of production, which will help to build the transfer system structure that would functionally meet the specific requirements of efficiency. Thus, the most important functions of the enterprise transfer system are as follows: 1.Organization, control and registration of movement of raw materials, semi-finished, work-in-progress and finished products within the enterprise. 2.Finding and incorporating the necessary energy resources, and ensuring ultimate control over their consumption in order to minimize their amount for the needs of the main and auxiliary production. 3.Organization of movement and optimal allocation of human resources of the enterprise. 4.Creation and use of own and outsourced innovative developments, scientific and technological advances, and new technical solutions by monitoring and researching the innovation market. 5. Attraction of investment resources for development and improvement of economic efficiency of the enterprise. 6.Ensuring timely exchange of information on the movement of raw materials, labour, financial and other resources, semi-finished, and finished products. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Thus, analysis of resources transfer process allowed us to form transfer function of certain types of resources and on this basis the most important features which transfer system should perform. During the work of an enterprise the main functions of management and transfer system are closely related, while their coordinated interaction should facilitate high financial and economic performance of the company. Further studies will be aimed at assessment of the impact of transfer system functions on the effectiveness of enterprise management.

  20. Technical Review Report for the Justification for 9975 Gram Based Content Envelopes, C.10 and C.11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M

    2009-09-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) desires to ship Model 9975-85 and Model 9975-96 Packages loaded with Pu/U metal and Pu/U oxide materials as identified in new Content Envelopes C.10 and C.11. The new Content Envelopes C.10 and C.11 consist of radioisotopes and impurities that are similar to the existing C.3, Pu/U metal, and C.4, Pu/U oxide, Content Envelopes but that list the radioisotopes as gram values in lieu of the existing weight percent of radioactive material mass values listed for the C.3 and C.4 Content Envelopes. Authorization for shipment requires acceptance of this report by the DOE-Headquarters (HQ) Certifying Official (EM-10/EM-2) as an Addendum to WSRC-SA-2002-00008, Revision 0, S-SARA-G-00001, Addendum 1, Revision 0, and S-SARA-G-00002 Addendum 2, Revision 1, of the Model 9975-85 Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). This Addendum also applies to S-SARP-G-00003, Revision 0, of the Model 9975-96 Package SARP. These documents are collectively referred to as the existing Model 9975 Package SARP. The safety basis described addresses specific supplements to the currently approved safety basis. Justification is made for shipping the new Content Envelopes C.10 and C.11 under this Addendum. Following acceptance of this Addendum by EM-10/EM-2 and subsequent revision to the current Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), the new contents will be authorized for shipment in the Model 9975 Package. The new Content Envelopes will be incorporated into the next revision to the Model 9975-85 and Model 9975-96 Package SARPs.

  1. Arranging a Library to Support Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    When designing a school library space and deciding how to arrange resources, it is important to consider multiple components of adolescent development, including social, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Acknowledging these developmental facets and their importance can provide additional justification for some of the more controversial aspects of…

  2. EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index D A Walker, M O Leibman, H E Epstein, B C Forbes, U S Bhatt, M K Raynolds, J C Comiso, A A Gubarkov, A V Khomutov, G J Jia, E Kaarlejarvi, J O Kaplan, T Kumpula, P Kuss, G Matyshak, N G Moskalenko, P Orekhov, V E Romanovsky, N G Ukraientseva and Q Yu Methods of surface monitoring from space A bio-optical algorithm for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a concentration in case 2 waters Anatoly A Gitelson, Daniela Gurlin, Wesley J Moses and Tadd Barrow Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters using MODIS and MERIS data—successes and challenges W J Moses, A A Gitelson, S Berdnikov and V Povazhnyy Dual scale trend analysis for evaluating climatic and anthropogenic effects on the vegetated land surface in Russia and Kazakhstan K M de Beurs, C K Wright and G M Henebry Satellite microwave remote sensing of North Eurasian inundation dynamics: development of coarse-resolution products and comparison with high-resolution synthetic aperture radar data R Schroeder, M A Rawlins, K C McDonald, E Podest, R Zimmermann and M Kueppers

  3. Values, Watersheds and Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    ’ it in systems of water provision, sewagesystems etc. Under conditions of climate change this ‘undergrounding’ approach has shown its limitations. In extreme weather conditions water is ‘resurfacing’ which creates both problems and a new condition of HOW in urban landscapes. Problems of water cannot be ‘buried...

  4. Vaccine-Hesitant Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases have re-emerged as more individuals have strayed from the recommended inoculation schedule. Previous work on vaccine hesitancy is generally limited to content analyses. Using grounded theory, this project examines vaccine debates on a prominent discussion board over a period of five years. Individuals generally justified opposition or hesitancy toward vaccines through personal experience and/or research, and the concepts of narrative persuasion and the conflation of expertise help describe the most prominent characteristics of such discourse. A consideration of online comments regarding vaccinations allows practitioners to not only become better prepared for patient concerns they might encounter, and but also become more familiar with the types of anecdotes and narratives that may be influential but left unspoken in face-to-face conversations. PMID:28508015

  5. Values, Watersheds and Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    ’ it in systems of water provision, sewagesystems etc. Under conditions of climate change this ‘undergrounding’ approach has shown its limitations. In extreme weather conditions water is ‘resurfacing’ which creates both problems and a new condition of HOW in urban landscapes. Problems of water cannot be ‘buried...

  6. Institutional Justification in Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike

    Crises – such as the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (2010) – are moments in which conventional interpretations break down. This paper analyzes the dynamics of the re-construction and stabilization of meaning in the public debate and assesses how BP’s strategic framing affected the emerging...

  7. Regimes of justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Irma; Buijs, A.E.; Verschoor, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Legitimacy of environmental management and policies is an important topic in environmental research. Based on the notion of ‘regimes of justification’, we aim to analyse the dynamics in argumentations used to legitimize and de-legitimize Dutch nature conservation practices. Contrary to prior

  8. Justification and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    This chapter argues in discussion with John Milbank, Risto Saarinen, and Ingolf U. Dalferth for the idea of "purified gift-exchange" as a better alternative to "pure gift" in understanding the doctrine of justificaiton.......This chapter argues in discussion with John Milbank, Risto Saarinen, and Ingolf U. Dalferth for the idea of "purified gift-exchange" as a better alternative to "pure gift" in understanding the doctrine of justificaiton....

  9. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected

  10. Creditor Governance and Corporate Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona

    This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiations on corporate policies. We develop a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment disciplines equity holders in their financing...... and investment decisions and, hence, mitigates the agency cost of debt. Our model explains the empirical intensity and patterns of the occurrence of debt renegotiation. We also quantify the role of debt covenant renegotiations as a governance channel on corporate financial policies and on the value of corporate...

  11. A CRÍTICA E OS MOMENTOS CRÍTICOS: DE LA JUSTIFICATION E A GUINADA PRAGMÁTICA NA SOCIOLOGIA FRANCESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Silva Corrêa

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo do presente texto é apresentar a sociologia pragmática francesa a partir do livro De la justification de Luc Boltanski e Laurent Thévenot. Primeiro, fazemos uma introdução geral dos principais pontos de convergência do campo sociológico francês desde a década de 80. Em seguida, apresentamos a obra De la justification, considerada como um marco na guinada pragmática da sociologia francesa. Então, apresentamos dois de seus principais conceitos: o de prova e o de cité. Por fim, através de um apanhado das forças e das fraquezas do modelo, problematizamos alguns de seus limites e desafios, como o de integrar na intuição pragmatista questões como o engajamento crítico do sociólogo e a análise dos processos, das disposições e dos problemas de longa duração.

  12. Developing Cultural Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at emphasizing the issue of teaching of culture in foreign language teaching.  In this respect, the reasons of teaching culture in foreign language classes are focused on initially.  So, the justifications of teaching culture are considered and explained and by the help of a dialogue.  Right after this, ways of developing cultural awareness is taken into account.  At this step, types of courses to develop cultural awareness are dealt with.  Developing cultural awareness in cla...

  13. LEDs: DOE Programs Add Credibility to a Developing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbere, Susan

    2009-01-01

    LED (light-emitting diode) technology is moving fast, and with justification, some facility managers have viewed it with a wary eye. Some LEDs on the market do not perform as promised, and the technology is changing rapidly. But new developments from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) now make it easier for facility managers to find LEDs that…

  14. AND LEVEL OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS OF THE UFA STATE AVIATION TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urazbakhtina, Yu.O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to justification of need of development of intellectual service for monitoring of health and level of physical development of students of USATU. The analysis of the existing criteria of an assessment of indicators of a state of health and level of physical development of students is provided. The description of the main functions of intellectual service is given.

  15. Fasting, justification, and self-righteousness in Luke 18:9–14: A social-scientific interpretation as response to Friedrichson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Mathews

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a social-scientific interpretation of the role of fasting in Jesus’ parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector in Luke 18:9–14. Specifically, the article considers such social realia as honour and shame, collectivism, and purity in the interpretation of the text. The textual and social contexts of the text are considered. It is contended that in the parable Jesus presents a caricature of both the Pharisee and the tax collector to make a larger point, in which fasting is not a major consideration. The article also evaluates Friedrichson’s interpretation of this text, which depicts the Pharisee as fasting vicariously, resulting in the justification of the tax collector. Finally, the significance of this text in a holistic theology of fasting in the New Testament is considered.

  16. RADIATION SAFETY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE LONG-TERM STORAGE OF GAS CONDENSATE IN THE UNDERGROUND RESERVOURS FORMED BY THE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to the safety justification of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs formed by the nuclear explosion technology. Gas condensate and brine are the intermediate level liquid radioactive waste containing isotopes: 3Н, 137Cs and 90Sr, in traces - 239Pu, 235U, 241Am.Safety of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs is assessed on the base of the multi-barrier principle implementation, used during radioactive waste disposal. It is shown that the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the sealed underground reservoirs formed by nuclear explosion technologies in salt domes does not lead to the surface radioactive contamination and population exposure.

  17. Product Market Competition,Managerial Power and Compensation Justification%产品市场竞争、管理层权力与薪酬辩护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东清; 刘艳辉

    2016-01-01

    以2011~2014年我国 A 股上市公司为研究样本,基于薪酬辩护的视角,考察管理层权力对薪酬—业绩敏感性的影响以及产品市场竞争的监督约束作用。实证结果表明,企业高管利用手中权力获取超额薪酬、谋取私利的同时,会通过提升薪酬—业绩敏感性为自身薪酬进行辩护,形成薪酬契约合理有效的表象;产品市场竞争能够显著抑制企业高管的薪酬辩护行为,降低管理层权力对薪酬契约的影响和扭曲。%Based on the samples of listed companies in China from 201 1 to 2014,this paper in-vestigates the impact of managerial power on pay for performance sensitivity and the impact of su-pervision under product market competition from the perspective of compensation justification. The main empirical results indicate that when corporate top managers use their power to get ex-cess compensation and seek their own interests,they will also increase the pay for performance sensitivity to justify the reasonability of compensation,and present a reasonable and effective compensation contract.Product market competition can inhibit top managers'behavior of compen-sation justification significantly,and then reduce the impact and distortion on compensation con-tract under managerial power.

  18. Las Prácticas de Justificación en el Aula de Matemáticas (Justification Practices in the Mathematics Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rigo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se exponen los resultados parciales de un estudio centrado en el análisis del papel que juega el convencimiento en la construcción del conocimiento matemático que se da en el aula. Se describen los resultados de una investigación empírica, centrada en el análisis de un estudio de caso longitudinal, en el que se examinan las prácticas de justificación y promoción de convencimiento a las que sistemáticamente recurre una profesora de sexto grado de primaria. Además de describir los patrones de racionalidad identificados en las clases observadas, se muestra que en el aula pueden converger, en un mismo recorrido discursivo, argumentos por razones y argumentaciones por motivos y que estas justificaciones son acumulativas, suelen ser implícitas, tienen límites borrosos y carecen de una estructura lineal. The paper contains the partial outcomes of a study focused on analyzing the role played by convincingness in building mathematical knowledge in the classroom setting. The paper describes the findings of an empirical study that is centered on the analysis of a longitudinal case study, in which we analyze the justification practices and convincingness promotion systematically resorted to by a sixth-grade elementary school teacher. In addition to describing the patterns of rationality identified in the classes observed, this paper serves to show that in the classroom setting, reasons-based arguments and motive-based lines of argument can converge within one discursive path. Consequently the justifications are cumulative, apt to be implicit, with blurred outer borders and lack a linear structure.

  19. 顾客抱怨处理的公平性与交叉购买关系的实证研究%An Empirical Research on the Relationship of Justification of Customer Complaint Treatment and Cross-purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中江

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the research, constructs model, and makes the conclusion through an empirical research:justification of the customer complaint treatment has a positive effect on cross-purchase. What’s more, result justification, procedure justification and interaction justification all have a positive effect on cross-purchase will and cross-purchase behavior. It also helps companies to make targeted tactics to enhance customer relationship management skills and increase economic returns.%在理论研究基础上提出假设,建立模型,通过实证研究得出结论:顾客抱怨处理的公平性与交叉购买呈正相关关系。其中,结果公平、程序公平和互动公平与交叉购买意愿和交叉购买行为呈正相关关系。帮助企业制定有针对性的策略,以提高顾客关系管理技巧,增加企业利润。

  20. Renegotiating intimate relationships with men: how HIV shapes attitudes and experiences of marriage for South African women living with HIV: ‘Now in my life, everything I do, looking at my health’★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane; Moore, Elena; Mantell, Joanne E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores marriage attitudes and practices among Xhosa-speaking women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Cape Town, South Africa. It reports on a study that assessed the fertility intentions of a cohort of people living with HIV, aimed at informing an HIV care intervention. It draws on qualitative data generated from 30 successive interviews with WHLIV in wave 1, 23 interviews in wave 2 and 20 follow-up interviews in wave 3. Gender inequality, marriage and HIV are strongly intertwined. Broader layers of South Africa's history, politics and socio-economic and cultural contexts have consequences for the fluidity in intimate relations, marriage and motherhood for WLHIV. Key and conflicting themes emerge that impact on marriage and motherhood. Firstly, marriage is the ‘last on a list of priorities’ for WLHIV, who wish to further their children's education, to work, to earn money, and to achieve this rapidly because of their HIV-positive status. We demonstrate that the pressure women face in marriage to bear children creates a different attitude to and experience of marriage for WLHIV. Some WLHIV wish to avoid marriage due to its accompanying pressure to have children. Other WLHIV experience difficulties securing intimacy. WLHIV may find it easier to seek partners who are also living with HIV. A partner living with HIV is perceived as sharing similar fertility goals. In this study, HIV accentuates existing issues and highlights new ones for WLHIV negotiating intimacy. The findings contribute to the existing knowledge base regarding the fluidity of marriage and fertility intentions within the dynamic context of living with HIV. These are likely to have broader relevance in currently rapidly urbanising and economically developing countries with high HIV prevalence in southern Africa. PMID:25505803

  1. Creating and justifying research and development value: Scope, scale, skill and social networking of R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Arend J.; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.; Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.; Badoux, Rob A.J.; Olthuis, Gerard P.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a framework for analysing the creation and justification of Research & Development. The 4S framework is developed for analysing the scope, scale, skills and social network aspects of Research & Development value. The framework is based on social system theory, a process con

  2. Anatomy of public-private partnerships : Creation, financing, and renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP is structu

  3. Cultura ciudadana. Renegotiating the Boundary between State and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L. Hunt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the continued existence of the Colombian state despite widespread crime and violence. Contemporary theorists posit that the state must subscribe to the image of an entity that is relatively autonomous from civil society and able to monopolize violence. However, citizen culture (cultura ciudadana, the innovative crime reduction policy I study here, is based on the premise that the state is unable to provide security for its inhabitants given the existence of a culture of violence. The policy encourages citizens to assume responsibility for their own security provision by adopting a culture of citizenship. I argue that citizen culture functions to legitimize the state despite ongoing violence by transferring responsibility for security provision from the state to civil society. It does so by inundating public space with educational spectacles, symbols, and slogans that circumscribe public debate and instruct citizen’s behavior. Citizen culture uses educational and symbolic programming to shift responsibility for security provision from the state to society, thereby altering the boundary between state and society and redefining the very essence of the modern state.

  4. Renegotiating Community Life: Arts, agency, inclusion and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mulligan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available AAs part of a broader emphasis on addressing the ‘social determinants’ of health and wellbeing, health promotion agencies in Australia and elsewhere have increasingly turned to arts participation as a strategy for reducing social isolation. However, research on the relationships between arts participation and its outcomes in terms of individual and community wellbeing has been undermined by conceptual and methodological weaknesses in the studies conducted hitherto. This paper presents some of the findings emerging from a broadly conceived, four-year, multi-method study conducted across four diverse local communities in Victoria, Australia. In particular it focuses on insights gained from the use of photonarrative techniques to explore the lived experiences of people whose involvement in local communities is seen as being problematic. This is complemented by some surprising outcomes of a survey of people who participated in a range of community celebrations and events. The paper shifts the focus from specific outcomes of arts-based interventions in community life to an understanding of how arts participation can help people negotiate new forms of engagement in complex and changing local communities. It argues for a more nuanced understanding of contemporary community life in the context of globalization and a deeper understanding of the relationships between inclusion and exclusion.

  5. Dynamic Capital Structure with Callable Debt and Debt Renegotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Flor, Christian Riis; Lando, David

    2014-01-01

    taxes and bankruptcy costs are the only frictions, violations of the absolute priority rule (APR) are typically optimal. The size of the bankruptcy costs and the equity holders’ bargaining power affect the size of APR violations, but they have only a minor impact on the choice of capital structure....

  6. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    is subsumed to media logic, and thus transformed religious representations are an example of a continuous process of mediatization of religion. This essay applies a three-sided theoretical approach, considering mediatization, cognitive anthropology, and social theory. The concept of mediatization applied here...... implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming......Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion...

  7. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    is subsumed to media logic, and thus transformed religious representations are an example of a continuous process of mediatization of religion. This essay applies a three-sided theoretical approach, considering mediatization, cognitive anthropology, and social theory. The concept of mediatization applied here...... implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming......Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion...

  8. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion...... implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming...... these representations, the show challenges our imaginations. These transformations of banal religious representations in Supernatural come about in three ways: (1) as a mainstreaming of occulture, (2) through connecting banal religious elements to existential themes, and (3) through playful intertextuality. The series...

  9. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion...... implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming...... these representations, the show challenges our imaginations. These transformations of banal religious representations in Supernatural come about in three ways: (1) as a mainstreaming of occulture, (2) through connecting banal religious elements to existential themes, and (3) through playful intertextuality. The series...

  10. Anatomy of public-private partnerships : Creation, financing, and renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP is

  11. Renegotiation of Identity: The Social Context of Aphasia Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, Barbara B.; Agan, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses identity as it relates to aphasia and the resulting impact on life participation. The relationships among social identity, language, and social interaction are considered from the sociocultural perspective. Core social identity concepts are identified and used to examine the broad classifications of aphasia intervention.…

  12. Renegotiating Data Ecologies through Trees, Soil, and Pigs’ Lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas; Stephensen, Jan Løhmann

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates examples of artistic practices that all somehow deal with establishing relations to the world and environment around us in an age of pervasive technological mediation which runs parallel with increasing threats of pollution and climate change – partly generated exactly...... by our consumption and dependence on technology. Digital interfaces and ubiquitous networks of data streams are constantly filtering our experience of the world, and this often takes place as habitual and hidden processes. Counter to this non-reflective relation between the world and technology, a number...

  13. Renegotiating Data Ecologies through Trees, Soil, and Pigs’ Lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas; Stephensen, Jan Løhmann

    2015-01-01

    of contemporary artists are working critically with re-defining how we engage with data and digital technologies in different ways. In this article, the theme of ecological modes of engagement is discussed through three art works/projects which address one of the most pressing issues of the Anthropocene, namely......This article investigates examples of artistic practices that all somehow deal with establishing relations to the world and environment around us in an age of pervasive technological mediation which runs parallel with increasing threats of pollution and climate change – partly generated exactly...

  14. Renegotiating "best treatment practice" and professional subject positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    for the professionals involved. In other words I will discuss how situated ways of becoming psychiatric member of personnel is connected with the enactments of ideals in Open Dialogue. The analysis draws on empirical material collected through observations, interviews and videos dealing with different aspects...... strategies, where governing strategies are made invisible, and where management strategies are converted to individual existential projects. A central argument is that the individual ethical project of the introduction of a new treatment approach melts together with psychiatric treatment. There is no longer...

  15. Anatomy of public-private partnerships : Creation, financing, and renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP is structu

  16. Renegotiating property rights in the Florida golden crab fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Crosson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The golden crab (Chaceon fenneri supports a small, economically healthy fishery in south Florida. Crabbers in the fishery have successfully protected themselves against larger outside fishing interests in the past, and management has been stable for over fifteen years.  Why, then, did a portion of the fleet propose shifting to individual transferable quotas (ITQs?  Our findings suggest that proponents sought ITQ management because they believed it would further limit the ability of other crabbers to enter the fishery and act as a mechanism to legally preserve the informal and formal property rights that they have previously negotiated among themselves. Opponents believed that a shift to an ITQ regime would destroy those same property rights.  We explore the implications of these findings to a broader understanding of property rights and natural resource management institutions, noting that the currently existing system closely resembles a territorial use rights fishery (TURF.

  17. Keeping Things Simple: Why the Human Development Index Should Not Diverge from Its Equal Weights Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Lee M.; Garrod, Guy D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a range of statistical criteria rooted in Information Theory we show that there is little justification for relaxing the equal weights assumption underlying the United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) even if the true HDI diverges significantly from this assumption. Put differently, the additional model complexity that unequal weights…

  18. Development of AM 1.5 global measurement procedures and international cell measurement round robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the capability for measurement under global irradiance spectral distribution is reported. The airmass 1.5 global measurement procedure is given. Also given is the procedure and justification for using the large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). The status of the international round robin of reference cell measurements managed by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) is described.

  19. Experience as a Basis for the Professional Development of Future Teacher of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of forming the professional and personal experience of the future music teacher as the basis for improving its professional excellence. The aim of the study was the theoretical justification and experimental verification of the contents of the experience gained and pedagogical technology of development of the…

  20. OUT-SOURCING PROJECT STRATEGIC JUSTIFICATION TOOLS AND METHODS FOR UP-TO-DATE COMPANY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Strikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The term out-sourcing signifies signing an agreement with some external organization on performing certain management functions (accounting, communication, computer networks, etc.. Out-sourcing is an important instrument of company restructuring by improving its management system. Main methodological approaches to make decision on out-sourcing on the basis of simulation are discussed. Strategic substantiation of out-sourcing projects is proposed to be carried out on the basis of strategic positioning method developed by M. Porter.

  1. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Procurement. Aircraft Procurement, Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    increase in the survivability for Navy tactical aircraft 1gainst radar directed air detcnse system. Development Stitis: Northroo Corporation is under...9H and AIM-9L iiterfaee comnatibility ; (5) deleting the visual target icquisition svstem (VTAS) back up power supply to make room for a new shop...5, 16$5,162 Unstallation Data: Component modification will be accoamplished via an avionics change (AVc) 3ubmitte from anhe aircra ft Corporation and

  2. Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    reviewing WTO rules addressing development and developing countries and the EU´s application of them......reviewing WTO rules addressing development and developing countries and the EU´s application of them...

  3. Department of the Navy FY 1996/FY 1997 Biennial Budget Estimates. Justification of Estimates, Budget Activity 7, February 1995. Research, Development Test and Evaluation, Navy Descriptive Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    o i_» tu 2 ^ !i f tt- t- 2 * U. w tipo _ -^ I ^ ^ E ►< a < ( Z/\\ SS’S 5? o«»ooo«» Sc W r^i c/D t 0s: s;j •. o...r* e pie ?"* ^g X 1 & IS X a a a i a s i » •n Q CO u z 3 ADA29303: Q tu 55 CO < J U 2 3 c hi hi Q

  4. Justification inclusion of physiotherapy and self-reflexotherapy program physical rehabilitation of adolescents with short-sightedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redkovets T.G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To substantiate the combined use of therapeutic exercises and Onnuri therapy to restore vision in teenagers with myopia. Material: analysis of more than 80 sources of literature on the subject to study the prevalence of myopia in adolescents and the impact of physical rehabilitation for restoration of view. Results : It was established that the increase in the prevalence of myopia in adolescents with greater visual load, requires the development of new approaches to rehabilitation. Data on the impact kinesotherapy and reflexology on the body. Presents the rationale of their use in rehabilitation, with the principles of conduct, with myopia. Conclusions : kinesis therapy, compliance with recommendations for the application of different directivity exercises limited power voltage, over- load of a physical and jumping, should be combined with the methods of self-reflection therapy (self-massage, application of seed, color effects for more high effect of restoring vision.

  5. Justification of equivalent substitution circuits used to optimize the dissipative properties of electroelastic bodies with external electric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. S.; Matvienko, V. P.; Oshmarin, D. A.; Sevodina, N. V.; Yurlov, M. A.; Yurlova, N. A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider elastoplastic systems which are piecewise homogeneous bodies composed of piezoelectric elements some of which have piezoelectrical properties. Electric series circuits consisting of resistors, capacitors, and inductance coils are applied to piezoelectric elements through the electrode coating on the body surface. The goal of the study is to develop efficient methods of mathematical modelling for determining the parameters of elements of the external electric circuit, which ensure, at prescribed resonance frequencies, the maximum damping properties of electroelastic bodies with external electric circuits. To choose effective circuits for solving the problem posed above, we suggest to pose the problem of natural vibrations of elastic bodies whose elements exhibit piezoeffect and have external electric circuits.As the most efficient approaches for calculating the electric circuit parameters necessary for the maximal damping, we propose some versions of equivalent circuits, which can be used to substitute elastic systems with piezoelectric elements. The most reliable equivalent substitution circuits are justified on the basis of the proposed problem of natural vibrations. Numerical results are obtained for a cantilever plate with a piezoelement connected through the electrode coated surface with a series electric circuit consisting of resistors, capacitors and inductance coils.

  6. Ceftolozane/tazobactam pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-derived dose justification for phase 3 studies in patients with nosocomial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Alan J; Miller, Benjamin W; Huntington, Jennifer A; Nicolau, David P

    2016-01-01

    Ceftolozane/tazobactam is an antipseudomonal antibacterial approved for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) and in phase 3 clinical development for treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model with the plasma-to-epithelial lining fluid (ELF) kinetics of ceftolozane/tazobactam was used to justify dosing regimens for patients with nosocomial pneumonia in phase 3 studies. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine ceftolozane/tazobactam dosing regimens with a > 90% probability of target attainment (PTA) for a range of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets at relevant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for key pathogens in nosocomial pneumonia. With a plasma-to-ELF penetration ratio of approximately 50%, as observed from an ELF PK study, a doubling of the current dose regimens for different renal functions that are approved for cUTIs and cIAIs is needed to achieve > 90% PTA for nosocomial pneumonia. For example, a 3-g dose of ceftolozane/tazobactam for nosocomial pneumonia patients with normal renal function is needed to achieve a > 90% PTA (actual 98%) for the 1-log kill target against pathogens with an MIC of ≤ 8 mg/L in ELF, compared with the 1.5-g dose approved for cIAIs and cUTIs.

  7. Além da dicotomia fato/valor: justificação e legitimação Beyond the fact/value dichotomy: justification and legitimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Coitinho Silveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Meu principal objetivo, neste artigo, é analisar o problema da justificação moral para John Rawls, caracterizando a teoria da justiça como equidade como um sistema coerentista de justificação que conta com uma epistemologia coerentista holística, uma teoria do contrato social que introduz uma ontologia social e uma estratégia pragmatista de justificação na teoria contratualista. No escopo deste trabalho, examinarei o pressuposto pragmatista de justificação na teoria do contrato social, o qual faz uso do argumento da estabilidade social e legitimidade política para garantir a validade da regra, isto é, dos princípios de justiça, a partir de dois artigos centrais para este debate: "Justice as Fairness: Political not Metaphysical" e "Reply to Habermas" § 1, 2. Um objetivo específico será o de mostrar a complementaridade entre o descritivismo e o prescritivismo nessa estratégia de justificação que possibilita a superação da dicotomia entre fato e valor.My main aim in this paper is to analyze the problem of moral justification in John Rawls, characterizing the theory of justice as fairness as a coherentist system of justification that relies on a holistic coherentist epistemology, a social contract theory that introduces a social ontology, and a pragmatist strategy of justification in contractarian theory. I will analyze the core characteristics of the pragmatic presupposition of justification in social contract theory, which uses the argument of social stability and political legitimacy as a guarantee of the legitimacy of the rules, that is, of the principles of justice. I will mainly make use of two articles relevant to this debate: "Justice as Fairness: Political not Metaphysical" and "Reply to Habermas" § 1, 2. A specific objective here is to show the complementarity between descriptivism and prescriptivism in this strategy of justification that allows an overcoming the fact/value dichotomy.

  8. ENTONACIÓN VERSUS JUSTIFICACIÓN ADVERBIAL COMO EFECTO DE CORTESÍA INTONATION VERSUS ADVERBIAL JUSTIFICATION AS DISCURSIVE POLITENESS EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLADYS CEPEDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el análisis de un corpus de 17 entrevistas clínicas en el español de mujeres bajo violencia intrafamiliar, el trabajo identifica las unidades fonológicas tonales, según el modelo métrico autosegmental AM, de las cláusulas de justificación con efecto de cortesía y sus funciones pragmático-comunicativas a nivel demarcativo-gramatical y pragmático-expresivo, a fin de dilucidar su correlación entre forma y función. Los resultados indican que la justificación por cortesía, que incluye información explicativa no requerida de efecto de aminoración estratégico-discursiva, es realzada a nivel entonacional por la presencia de tonos altos y bajos como apoyo intensificador o mitigador, según su modalidad y contexto lingüístico.. Los usos de mayor frecuencia corresponden a: (1 la modalidad de inconclusividad en tonos altos con la presencia de acentos tonales altos H* en el pretonema o núcleo del tonema, de expresión pragmático-expresiva referencial de información conocida, y con la presencia de tonemas H*H%, de expresión de referencia más suspenso. (2 La modalidad de conclusividad con acentos tonales altos H* de expresión referencial intensificadora valorativa de lo dicho y de expresión de seguridad pragmática en su descenso al tono de frontera L%.Based on the AM model of autosegmental phonology, the article identifies the tonal phonological units of a corpus of justification adverbial clauses with a discursive politeness effect, extracted from 17 clinical interviews to women suffering domestic violence, in order to correlate their intonational form with their grammatical-demarcative and expressive-pragmatical functions in discourse. The results showed that the use of justification clauses with a politeness effect, which include non-required information that has a strategic mellowing discursive effect, are emphasized or deemphasized by the presence of high and low tones in accordance with their modality and linguistic

  9. Individual schooling and women's community-level media exposure: a multilevel analysis of normative influences associated with women's justification of wife beating in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kathleen H; Haardörfer, Regine; Yount, Kathryn M

    2017-02-01

    Our objective was to examine the multilevel correlates of women's justification of wife beating in Bangladesh, a form of intimate partner violence (IPV). We focus on individual-level schooling, community-level media exposure among women and their interaction. A cross-sectional study using data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Our sample included 17 749 ever-married women 15-49 years in 600 communities. We fit 6 multilevel logistic regression models to examine factors associated with justifying IPV; focusing on a woman's completed grades of schooling; frequent (at least once weekly) community-level media exposure among women via newspaper/magazine, television and radio; and their cross-level interaction. At the individual level, completing more grades of schooling than the community average was negatively associated with justifying IPV (0.95, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.97). The main effects of women's community-level media exposure were not significant, but suggested that frequent exposure to newspaper/magazine or television was negatively associated with justifying IPV, while exposure to radio was positively associated. In cross-level interactions, a woman's completed grades of schooling above the community average was protective against justifying IPV, even in communities where women's exposure to radio would otherwise increase the odds of justifying IPV. Different forms of media likely send different messages about gender and IPV. Girls' schooling should remain a priority, given its protective effect against justifying wife beating. Targeting girls and women who do not receive any schooling for intervention may yield the most benefit in terms of normative change regarding IPV against women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The Right to Self-Defence in International Law as a Justification for Crossing Borders: The Turkey-PKK Case within the Borders of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Khdir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International law grants states an inherent right to self-defence. States can exercise this right whenever they face armed attack. However, any country wishing to exercise its right to self-defence must fully consider all the restrictions on this right. The right to self-defence can permit the use of force within the borders of the victim state or on the territory of another state from where the attack is carried out. Accordingly, states may respond to any attack by the armed forces of another state or irregular armed groups that use the territory of other states for their attacks. Turkey is a country with a huge population of Kurdish inhabitants. The Kurds possess distinct origins, history, language, culture and a historical link to their land. Thus, they qualify as a people. For much of their history they have peacefully sought to assert their rights; however, Turkey denied those rights to the extent that the formation of the PKK in 1978 became amove of last resort. When the PKK started demanding Kurdish right to self-determination, Turkey launched military operations against it in self-defence. During the 1980s and 1990s, the PKK established camps in Iraq. On several occasions it withdrew its forces there as part of peace negotiations with the Turkish government. Turkey crossed the Iraqi borders and attacked the camps as part of a state policy to fight the PKK outside its borders. The PKK subsequently handed over the camps to other groups, which never posed any military threat to Turkey, but Turkish forces continued to cross the border into Iraq. This article examines the right of Turkey to use force within the borders of Iraq under the justification of self-defence.

  11. The Justifications for Studying Identity Issues in Peter Carey's Novels%彼得·凯里小说认同问题研究缘起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张计连

    2014-01-01

    彼得·凯里的小说创作有对殖民历史、民族主义的反思,有对澳大利亚当下幸福生活方式神话的解构,有对现代澳大利亚人自我认同的探讨。追寻凯里小说中的认同迷踪,我们可以看到澳大利亚国家认同如何从含混走向澄明,民族认同如何在危机中出现转机,文化认同如何在困境中走向超越,自我认同如何关联现代性反思和现代人的焦虑。从作家的生活经历,作品反映的殖民历史和认同现实,以及澳大利亚历史上的民族主义这三个方面分析缘何可以从认同问题入手来研究凯里的小说。%Peter Carey's novels ponder over the Australian colonial history and nationalism , deconstruct the Australian present happy lifestyle myth , and discuss self -identity of modern Australians . Through tracing the identity issues in Carey's novels , we can learn these points , i . e . in Australian society , national identity is gradually highlighted , ethnic identity and cultural identity find paths in crises , and self-identity is relevant to modernity and contemporary human's anxiety . The justifications for studying identity issues in Carey's novels is demonstrated by the writer's life experiences , the colonial history and identity dilemmas reflected in works , as well as the nationalism in Australian history .

  12. The Justification of Organizational Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staw, Barry M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Letters from management to stockholders of 81 firms, both low and high performing, show self-serving biases that both convinced potential investors to invest and belied management's own pessimism about company prospects. (JW)

  13. Justifications Shape Ethical Blind Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous se

  14. Root justifications for ontology repair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Moodley_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 32328 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Moodley_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Root Justi cations... the ontology, based on the no- tion of root justi cations [8, 9]. In Section 5, we discuss the implementation of a Prot eg e3 plugin which demonstrates our approach to ontology repair. In this section we also discuss some experimental results comparing...

  15. Scientific Justification of Cryonics Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Benjamin P.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Very low temperatures create conditions that can preserve tissue for centuries, possibly including the neurological basis of the human mind. Through a process called vitrification, brain tissue can be cooled to cryogenic temperatures without ice formation. Damage associated with this process is theoretically reversible in the same sense that rejuvenation is theoretically possible by specific foreseeable technology. Injury to the brain due to stopped blood flow is now known to result ...

  16. Scientific justification of cryonics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Benjamin P

    2008-04-01

    Very low temperatures create conditions that can preserve tissue for centuries, possibly including the neurological basis of the human mind. Through a process called vitrification, brain tissue can be cooled to cryogenic temperatures without ice formation. Damage associated with this process is theoretically reversible in the same sense that rejuvenation is theoretically possible by specific foreseeable technology. Injury to the brain due to stopped blood flow is now known to result from a complex series of processes that take much longer to run to completion than the 6 min limit of ordinary resuscitation technology. Reperfusion beyond the 6 min limit primarily damages blood vessels rather than brain tissue. Apoptosis of neurons takes many hours. This creates a window of opportunity between legal death and irretrievable loss of life for human and animal subjects for cryopreservation with possibility of future resuscitation. Under ideal conditions, the time interval between onset of clinical death and beginning of cryonics procedures can be reduced to less than 1 min, but much longer delays could also be compatible with ultimate survival. Although the evidence that cryonics may work is indirect, the application of indirect evidence is essential in many areas of science. If complex changes due to aging are reversible at some future date, then similarly complex changes due to stopped blood flow and cryopreservation may also be reversible, with life-saving results for anyone with medical needs that exceed current capabilities.

  17. Africa and The Philosophy of the New Partnership For Africa’s Development (NEPAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu Raji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work examined the task of developing Africa within the framework of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD with a view to evaluating the philosophical implications of the Programme for sustainable development in the continent. Findings from the research through exploratory technique showed that the NEPAD philosophy is primarily anchored on the African ownership and management of its development process owing to the continent’s conviction that no development paradigm can succeed optimally unless it is built on what its people genuinely require, understand and overwhelmingly control. The paper therefore concluded that there is no country that can escape from the process because the contemporary global imperative to development is premised on sufficient funding, adequate knowledge of scientific and technological know-how, all of which are the drivers and hallmark of neo-liberalism and globalization process. Africa thus needs to align its development philosophy with the global best practices in order to achieve the best for its citizens. There is also the need for the continent to re-negotiate the neo-liberal contents in the NEPAD document to make the programme more relevant and more responsive to the development aspirations of Africans.

  18. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing

  19. Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises and Urban Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys

    2003-01-01

    Local political and community leaders and the owners of professional sports teams frequently claim that professional sports facilities and franchises are important engines of economic development in urban areas. These structures and teams allegedly contribute millions of dollars of net new spending annually and create hundreds of new jobs, and provide justification for hundreds of millions of dollars of public subsidies for the construction of many new professional sports facilities in the Un...

  20. Justificativas e motivações do consumo e não consumo de café Coffee consumption and non-consumption justifications and motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Arruda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do perfil dos consumidores e dos fatores envolvidos no processo de compra do café é uma ferramenta importante na identificação dos diferentes segmentos deste mercado e de suas potencialidades. Por outro lado, também é importante compreender porque alguns consumidores recusam a bebida. Portanto, objetivou-se neste trabalho entrevistar os moradores da cidade de Belo Horizonte - MG, a fim de identificar consumidores e não consumidores de café, para traçar o perfil de ambos, descrever suas características, fatores motivacionais e justificativas para consumo ou não do café. Para isto, 250 consumidores foram entrevistados e os resultados avaliados de forma descritiva. Os resultados revelaram que a bebida é consumida por uma parcela heterogênea e que corresponde à maioria da população. Em geral, os consumidores associam o consumo do café ao hábito, prazer, família, amizade e trabalho. Isso indica as motivações para o seu consumo reflete o significado social da bebida quer no âmbito doméstico, trabalho ou no círculo de amizade e que este significado está fortemente associado aos hábitos e costumes da sociedade brasileira. Observou-se a necessidade de expansão deste mercado entre os jovens.The study of consumer's profile and the factors involved in the process of coffee purchase is an important tool in the identification of the different segments of this market and its potentialities. On the other hand, it is also important to understand the reasons why some consumers refuse the drink. Therefore, the aim of this study was to interview the residents of the city of Belo Horizonte - MG - Brazil in order to identify consumers and non consumers of coffee to trace the profile of both, to describe their characteristics, motivational factors and justifications to consume coffee, or not. For that reason, 250 consumers were interviewed and the results were evaluated in a descriptive way. The results revealed that the drink is

  1. ¿Necesidad Económica o Preferencias Culturales? La Justificación Parental del Trabajo Infantil en Chile Economic Constraints or Cultural Preferences? The Parent Justification of Child Labor in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Francisca del Río

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Con base en los datos de la Primera Encuesta Nacional sobre Trabajo Infantil realizada el año 2003 en Chile, se analizó la justificación parental para el trabajo de sus hijos. Se hipotetizó que se observaría una mayor probabilidad de justificación económica del trabajo infantil para los casos de mayor vulnerabilidad, es decir, niños y niñas de bajo nivel socioeconómico (NSE, menores de 12 años y el grupo de las niñas y adolescentes mujeres. El análisis de los datos, mediante una prueba de regresión logística, reveló que, si bien la necesidad económica efectivamente continúa siendo el principal motor del trabajo infantil en algunos grupos más vulnerables, las preferencias culturales y la participación de los adolescentes en esta decisión tienen un peso cada vez más importante.Using data from the First National Survey on Children Labor conducted in 2003, we analyzed parental justification for children labor. We hypothesized that a higher probability of economic justification would be observed in parents of children from vulnerable groups: lower socioeconomic status (SES, children younger than 12 years, and girls. Logistic regression revealed that economic constraints are the most common justification among the more vulnerable groups, but that others reasons, such as cultural preferences and adolescence participation in the decision making process, are increasingly important.

  2. The Impact of Behavior Justification on Salespersons' Behavioral Intention of Gray Marketing%行为合理化对销售人员灰色营销行为倾向的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭茜; 庄贵军

    2012-01-01

    以中国企业间购销关系为研究平台,基于卖方视角,以计划行为理论和营销道德理论为基础,实证检验行为合理化对销售人员的灰色营销行为决策的影响,特别是行为合理化的调节作用.运用情境法对148位销售人员进行问卷调查,使用SPSS 15软件进行多元层次回归分析.研究结果表明,计划行为理论对中国销售人员的灰色营销行为有很好的解释作用;行为合理化对销售人员的灰色营销行为没有直接影响,但是会调节不道德性评价和感知的选择自由度与灰色营销行为倾向之间的相关关系,而对感知的支持与灰色营销行为倾向之间的相关关系没有调节作用.%Based on the theory of planned behavior and marketing ethics, this paper focuses on the purchase and sale relation between Chinese companies and empirically tests the impact of behavior justification on salespersons' behavioral decision-making of gray marketing, and the moderator effects of behavior justification from the seller's standpoint. The scenarios were used to conduct a questionnaire survey to the one hundred and forty-eight salespersons. The multiple regression analysis was implemented by SPSS 15. This paper comes to the following conclusions; The theory of planned behavior could predict and explain the gray-mar-keting behavior of Chinese salespersons well. Behavior justification doesn't have direct effect on salespersons' gray-marketing intention, but it moderators the relationship between salespersons' un-ethicalness judgment of gray marketing and their intention to adopt gray marketing and the relationship between perceived choice freedom and salespersons' behavioral intention of gray marketing. However, Behavior justification doesn't moderate the relationship between perceived supports and salespersons' gray-marketing intention.

  3. Can students' reasons for choosing set answers to ethical vignettes be reliably rated? Development and testing of a method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John; Schwartz, Lisa; McConnachie, Alex; Jolly, Brian; Morrison, Jillian

    2004-12-01

    Although ethics is an important part of modern curricula, measures of students' ethical disposition have not been easy to develop. A potential method is to assess students' written justifications for selecting one option from a preset range of answers to vignettes and compare these justifications with predetermined 'expert' consensus. We describe the development of and reliability estimation for such a method -- the Ethics in Health Care Instrument (EHCI). Seven raters classified the responses of ten subjects to nine vignettes, on two occasions. The first stage of analysis involved raters' judging how consistent with consensus were subjects' justifications using generalizability theory, and then rating consensus responses on the action justification and values recognition hierarchies. The inter-rater reliability was 0.39 for the initial rating. Differential performance on questions was identified as the largest source of variance. Hence reliability was investigated also for students' total scores over the nine consensus vignettes. Rater effects were the largest source of variance identified. Examination of rater performance showed lack of rater consistency. D-studies were performed which showed acceptable reliability could nevertheless be obtained using four raters per EHCI. This study suggests that the EHCI has potential as an assessment instrument although further testing is required of all components of the methodology.

  4. Institutional development: from legal pluralism to institutional bricolage in West African pastoralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokou, G; Bonfoh, B

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralists in Africa are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of globalisation, climate change and changes in land use. They are confronted with problems related to access to scarce natural resources and their regulation, the management of mobility, and too little investment in health systems, livestock production and social service delivery. However, this paper focuses on positive trends and vital innovations in pastoral societies. These rely on robust institutions and policy frameworks that contribute to economically secure, politically stable, and environmentally sustainable livelihoods for African pastoral societies. The authors analyse ways in which internal and external efforts can improve the economic viability and social aspects of pastoralism. The institutions that manage natural resources and their effects on livelihoods and access to social services must be critically reviewed. The authors suggest that a new model for the economic and social development of African pastoralism should be positioned between donor- or governmentdriven development (in other words, 'seeing like a state') and the autonomous development goals of pastoralists ('seeing like a pastoralist'). Pastoralists are resourceful, entrepreneurial and innovative people, fully able to support new institutional systems and services which recognise their way of life and production systems. It seems evident that African pastoralism will maintain its vitality and creativity through a process of 'bricolage', with institutional and policy innovations based on a constant renegotiation of norms, the reinvention or transformation of tradition, the importance of legitimate authority and the role of the people themselves in shaping such arrangements.

  5. Developed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; Rui

    2001-01-01

    [1]Antal, S. P., Lahey, R. T. Jr. Flaherty, J. E., Analysis of phase distribution in fully developed laminar bubbly two-phase flow, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1991, 17: 635.[2]Nakoryakov, V. E., Kashinsky, O. N., Randin, V. V. et al., Gas-liquid bubbly flow in vertical pipes, Journal of Fluid Engineering, 1996, 118: 377.[3]Kashinsky, O. N., Timkin, L. S., Cartellier, A., Experimental study of 搇aminar?bubbly flows in a vertical pipe, Experiments in Fluids, 1993, 14: 308.[4]Song, Q., Theoretical and experimental research on bubbly flow in a vertical pipe, Ph. D Thesis, Tsinghua University, 1999, Beijing, China.[5]Kataoka, M., Ishii, M., Serizawa, A., Local formulation of interfacial area concentration, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1986, 12: 505.[6]Drew, D. A., Mathematical modeling of two-phase flow, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 1983, 15: 261.[7]Nigmatulin, R. I., Spatial averaging in the mechanics of heterogeneous and dispersed systems, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1979, 5: 353.[8]Sato, Y., Sadatomi, M., Sekoguchi, K., Momentum and heat transfer in two-phase bubbly flow-I, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1981, 7: 167.[9]Ishii, M., Mishima, K., Two-fluid modeling and hydrodynamic constitutive relations, Nucl. Engng. Des., 1984, 82: 107.[10]Drew, D. A., Lahey, R. T. Jr., The virtual mass and lift force on a sphere in rotating and straining invicid flow, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1987, 13: 113.[11]Cherkutat, P., McLaughlin, J. B., Wall-induced lift on a sphere, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1990, 16: 899.[12]Tomiyama, A., Zun, I., Higaki, H. et al., A three-dimensional particle tracking method for bubbly flow simulation, Nucl. Engng. Des., 1997, 175: 77.[13]Van Wijingaarden, L., The mean rise velocity of pairwise-interacting bubbles in liquid, J. Fluid Mech., 1993, 251: 55.[14]Stuhmiller, J. H., The influence of interfacial pressure on the character of two-phase flow model equations, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1977, 3: 551.

  6. From Hitting to Tattling to Gossip: An Evolutionary Rationale for the Development of Indirect Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon P. D. Ingram

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult humans are characterized by low rates of intra-group physical aggression. Since children tend to be more physically aggressive, an evolutionary developmental account shows promise for explaining how physical aggression is suppressed in adults. I argue that this is achieved partly through extended dominance hierarchies, based on indirect reciprocity and linguistic transmission of reputational information, mediated by indirectly aggressive competition. Reviewing the literature on indirect and related forms of aggression provides three pieces of evidence for the claim that evolutionarily old impulses towards physical aggression are socialized into indirect aggression in humans: (i physical aggression falls in early childhood over the same age range at which indirect aggression increases; (ii the same individuals engage in both direct and indirect aggression; and (iii socially dominant individuals practice indirect aggression more frequently. Consideration of the developmental course of indirect aggression is complemented by analysis of similar developments in verbal behaviors that are not always thought of as aggressive, namely tattling and gossip. An important puzzle concerns why indirect aggression becomes more covert, and tattling more derogated, in preadolescence and adolescence. This may be due to the development of new strategies aimed at renegotiating social identity and friendship alliances in the peer group.

  7. Participatory Communication in Development Process of Matenggeng Dams Cilacap District Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waluyo Handoko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction process of Matenggeng Dams is still have problem such as no dialogue or renegotiation to create a mutual agreement between the government and Dayeuhluhur society. This research aims to identify, analyze and design the model of participatory development communication in the construction process of Matenggeng Dams at Dayeuhluhur subdistrict Cilacap District, Central Java Province. This research used qualitative method with case study. Data Collection through interviews, observation, analysis of documentation and focus group discussions (FGD. The results showed: (1 People have known for a long time about the discourse of Matenggeng Dams construction through interpersonal communication from the parents. (2 There is still no agreement about compensation between the community and the government. (3 The community agree and have learned the benefits of dams and willing to dialogue again to achieve an agreement of compensation for the land and productive trees. The implication, the public will continue to feel anxious for certainty the future of people's lives, if there is no certainty continuation the development of the Matenggeng dams.

  8. A new discriminative criterion for the development of Franz diffusion tests for transdermal pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Baert, Bram; Boonen, Jente; Burvenich, Christian; ROCHE, NATHALIE; Stillaert, Filip; Blondeel, Phillip; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE. In vitro skin/membrane permeation profiling of topical pharmaceuticals is an important overall quality attribute in the evaluation of product consistency and it is also used for IVIVR (in vitro - in vivo relationship) purposes in product development and change control. Franz diffusion cell (FDC) experiments are emerging as a generally accepted methodology in this field, where the choice of operational conditions requires a data-supported justification towards the discriminating power...

  9. Office of the Secretary of Defense Research, Development Test and Evaluation, Development and Test Evaluation, Defense, Director of Operational Test and Evaluation Defense, FY 1994 Budget Estimates, Justification of Estimates Submitted to Congress April 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    components (HTSSE) and adaptive structures ( ACTEX ). o Completed thermoplastic composite creep tests. o Designed and fabricated CC flex seal movable GBI C...vibration control patch. o Conduct on orbit ACTEX experiment. o Integration of joint test of active vibration controlled cryocooier and micro...ALCOR, etc.), Global Positioning System. o Wake Island: Preparation for GBI, LEAP, MSX, and VIP tests. Install range safety system. o ETR: Support ACTEX

  10. Intuition or Ordinary Cognitive Capacity:Williamson's Justification Strategy%直觉还是日常认知能力--威廉姆森的思想实验辩护策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢析

    2015-01-01

    面对来自实验主义者的直觉挑战,提摩西·威廉姆森通过日常认知能力捍卫了思想实验激发的命题作为哲学理论证据的主张。根据威廉姆森的观点,实验主义的直觉挑战是一种应该被拒斥的判断怀疑主义。传统主义诉诸直觉的辩护策略是引发怀疑主义的理论根源。乔纳森·温伯格反对威廉姆森把实验主义归为怀疑主义的主张;杰西卡·布朗为传统主义提供了辩护。但是从哲学方法论的角度来看,威廉姆森的辩护策略是不充分的并且不能完全回应实验主义的挑战。%Facing the intuition challenge from experimentalists , by means of ordinary cognitive capacity , Timothy Williamson defends that a proposition prompted by thought experiment is evidence for philosophy theory .In accordance with Williamson’s view ,the intuition challenge from experimentalists is a kind of judgment skepticism which should be refuted by philosophers .This kind of judgment skepticism is brought about by the justification strategy of traditionalism w hich appeals to intuitions to justify the proposition prompted by thought experiment as evidence for philosophy theory . Jonathan M . Weinberg argues against Williamson’ s view w hich attributes experimentalists to skepticism ;Jessica Brow n defends the justification strategy of traditionalism . However ,appeal to ordinary cognitive capacity is not sufficient to justify the proposition prompted by thought experiment as evidence .Additionally ,Williamson does not completely reply the intuition challenge from experimentalists .

  11. Ethnomathematical research and drama in education techniques: developing a dialogue in a geometry class of 10th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoula Stathopoulou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomathematical research, together with digital technologies (WebQuest and Drama-in-Education (DiE techniques, can create a fruitful learning environment in a mathematics classroom—a hybrid/third space—enabling increased student participation and higher levels of cognitive engagement. This article examines how ethnomathematical ideas processed within the experiential environment established by the Drama-in-Education techniques challenged students‘ conceptions of the nature of mathematics, the ways in which students engaged with mathematics learning using mind and body, and the ‗dialogue‘ that was developed between the Discourse situated in a particular practice and the classroom Discourse of mathematics teaching. The analysis focuses on an interdisciplinary project based on an ethnomathematical study of a designing tradition carried out by the researchers themselves, involving a search for informal mathematics and the connections with context and culture; 10th grade students in a public school in Athens were introduced to the mathematics content via an original WebQuest based on this previous ethnomathematical study; Geometry content was further introduced and mediated using the Drama-in-Education (DiE techniques. Students contributed in an unfolding dialogue between formal and informal knowledge, renegotiating both mathematical concepts and their perception of mathematics as a discipline.

  12. Ethnomathematical research and drama in education techniques: developing a dialogue in a geometry class of 10th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoula Stathopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomathematical research, together with digital technologies (WebQuest and Drama-in-Education (DiE techniques, can create a fruitful learning environment in a mathematics classroom—a hybrid/third space—enabling increased student participation and higher levels of cognitive engagement. This article examines how ethnomathematical ideas processed within the experiential environment established by the Drama-in-Education techniques challenged students‘ conceptions of the nature of mathematics, the ways in which students engaged with mathematics learning using mind and body, and the ‗dialogue‘ that was developed between the Discourse situated in a particular practice and the classroom Discourse of mathematics teaching. The analysis focuses on an interdisciplinary project based on an ethnomathematical study of a designing tradition carried out by the researchers themselves, involving a search for informal mathematics and the connections with context and culture; 10th grade students in a public school in Athens were introduced to the mathematics content via an original WebQuest based on this previous ethnomathematical study; Geometry content was further introduced and mediated using the Drama-in-Education (DiE techniques. Students contributed in an unfolding dialogue between formal and informal knowledge, renegotiating both mathematical concepts and their perception of mathematics as a discipline.

  13. Justification and good practice in using handheld portable dental X-ray equipment: a position paper prepared by the European Academy of DentoMaxilloFacial Radiology (EADMFR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, W.E.R.; Suomalainen, A.; Brüllmann, D.; Jacobs, R.; Horner, K.; Stamatakis, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Handheld portable X-ray devices are increasingly used for intraoral radiography. This development introduces new challenges to staff and patient safety, for which new or revised risk assessments must be made and acted upon prior to use. Major issues might be: difficulties in using rectangular

  14. Posição original e equilíbrio reflexivo em John Rawls: o problema da justificação Original position and reflexive balance in John Rawls: the problem of justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Coitinho Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é estabelecer algumas considerações sobre o papel dos procedimentos de posição original e equilíbrio reflexivo na teoria da justiça como equidade de John Rawls, nas obras A Theory of Justice, Political Liberalism e Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Eu pretendo mostrar que Rawls faz uso de um modelo coerentista-pragmático de justificação dos princípios de justiça em um âmbito público, que é não-fundacionalista em razão da interconexão entre estes procedimentos.The aim of this paper is to raise some considerations about the role of the original position and reflective equilibrium procedures in John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness in A Theory of Justice, Political Liberalism and Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. I want to show that Rawls uses a coherentist-pragmatic model of justification of the principles of justice in a public context, which is nonfoundationalist because of the interconnection between these procedures.

  15. Justification and good practice in using handheld portable dental X-ray equipment: a position paper prepared by the European Academy of DentoMaxilloFacial Radiology (EADMFR)

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, W E R; Suomalainen, A.; Brüllmann, D; Jacobs, R.; Horner, K; Stamatakis, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Handheld portable X-ray devices are increasingly used for intraoral radiography. This development introduces new challenges to staff and patient safety, for which new or revised risk assessments must be made and acted upon prior to use. Major issues might be: difficulties in using rectangular collimation with beam aiming devices, more complex matching of exposure settings to the X-ray receptor used (e.g. longer exposure times), movements owing to the units' weight, protection of the operator ...

  16. Justification of the Technology of Formation of Information Support of Functioning and Development of an Enterprise Обоснование технологии формирования информационного обеспечения функционирования и развития предприятия

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepeyko Tatyana I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to issues of formation of information support of functioning and development of an enterprise. The goal of the article is to theoretically justify and develop a technology of formation of information support of functioning and development of an enterprise. While analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of modern scientists, the article considers approaches to organisation of information support at an enterprise. The article provides specific features and content of processes of functioning and development of an enterprise, essence of the “information support” notion and identifies its main tasks. It develops a technology of formation of information support of functioning and development of an enterprise, which is a succession of stages of work with information in the process of achievement of goals of a stage of activity of an enterprise. It notes that the use of the proposed technology by modern enterprises would allow increase of efficiency of their functioning and development.Статья посвящена вопросам формирования информационного обеспечения функционирования и развития предприятия. Цель статьи состоит в теоретическом обосновании и разработке технологии формирования информационного обеспечения функционирования и развития предприятия. Анализируя, систематизируя и обобщая научные труды современных ученых, были рассмотрены подходы к организации информационного обеспечения на предприятии. Представлены особенности и содержание процессов функционирования и развития п

  17. Development and application of the coupled thermal-hydraulics and neutron-kinetics code ATHLET/BIPR-VVER for safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizorkin, M.; Nikonov, S. [Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The coupled thermal-hydraulics and neutron-kinetics code ATHLET/BIPR-VVER was developed within a co-operation between the RRC Kurchatov Institute (KI) and GRS. The modeling capability of this coupled code as well as the status of validation by benchmark activities and comparison with plant measurements are described. The paper is focused on the modeling of flow mixing in the reactor pressure vessel including its validation and the application for the safety justification of VVER plants. (authors)

  18. Developing critique together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    In a talk entitled “What is critique?”, Michel Foucault states: “critique only exists in relation to something other than itself: it is an instrument, a means for a future or a truth that it will not know nor happen to be […]. [The activity of critique] is supported by some kind of more general...... imperative – more general still than that of eradicating errors. There is something in critique which is akin to virtue” (Foucault, 1997, pp. 42-43). Critique is future-directed: It communicates a ‘more general imperative’ that affects the possible, the imaginable, and thereby the actual. Even if formulated...... the alternatives surface as clearly as possible – so as to render them contestable, renegotiable, accessible for future critique. Such productive critiques can be found in Heidegger’s destruction and Derrida’s deconstruction, in Ilyenkov’s ideal and Critical Psychology’s reconstructionist critique. The symposium...

  19. Justification and good practice in using handheld portable dental X-ray equipment: a position paper prepared by the European Academy of DentoMaxilloFacial Radiology (EADMFR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, W E R; Suomalainen, A; Brüllmann, D; Jacobs, R; Horner, K; Stamatakis, H C

    2015-01-01

    Handheld portable X-ray devices are increasingly used for intraoral radiography. This development introduces new challenges to staff and patient safety, for which new or revised risk assessments must be made and acted upon prior to use. Major issues might be: difficulties in using rectangular collimation with beam aiming devices, more complex matching of exposure settings to the X-ray receptor used (e.g. longer exposure times), movements owing to the units' weight, protection of the operator and third persons, and the use in uncontrolled environments. These problems may result in violation of the "as low as reasonably achievable'', that is, ALARA principle by an increase in (re)exposures compared with the other available intraoral X-ray devices. Hence, the use of handheld portable X-ray devices should be considered only after careful and documented evaluation (which might be performed based on medical physics support), when there is evidence that handheld operation has benefits over traditional modalities and when no new risks to the operators and/or third parties are caused. It is expected that the use of handheld portable X-ray devices will be very exceptional, and for justified situations only. Special attention should be drawn to beam-aiming devices, rectangular collimation, the section of the X-ray receptor, focus-skin distance, and backscatter shielding, and that the unit delivers reproducible dose over the full set of environmental conditions (e.g. battery status and temperature).

  20. Justification for a Nuclear Global Health Workforce: multidisciplinary analysis of risk, survivability & preparedness, with emphasis on the triage management of thermal burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Potokar, Tom; Gosney, James E; Dallas, Cham

    2017-01-01

    Major challenges and crises in global health will not be solved by health alone; requiring rather a multidisciplinary, evidence-based analytical approach to prevention, preparedness and response. One such potential crisis is the continued spread of nuclear weapons to more nations concurrent with the increased volatility of international relations that has significantly escalated the risk of a major nuclear weapon exchange. This study argues for the development of a multidisciplinary global health response agenda based on the reality of the current political analysis of nuclear risk, research evidence suggesting higher-than-expected survivability risk, and the potential for improved health outcomes based on medical advances. To date, the medical consequences of such an exchange are not credibly addressed by any nation at this time, despite recent advances. While no one country could mount such a response, an international body of responders organized in the same fashion as the current World Health Organization's global health workforce initiative for large-scale natural and public health emergencies could enlist and train for just such an emergency. A Nuclear Global Health Workforce is described for addressing the unprecedented medical and public health needs to be expected in the event of a nuclear conflict or catastrophic accident. The example of addressing mass casualty nuclear thermal burns outlines the potential triage and clinical response management of survivors enabled by this global approach.

  1. Descripción de las formas de justificación de los objetivos en artículos de investigación en español de seis áreas científicas (Description of the Justification Forms in Research Articles in Spanish in Six Scientific Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Sabaj Meruane

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La justificación de los objetivos de investigación es una parte consustancial de la producción científica. A pesar de ello, no existen descripciones detalladas de cómo esta práctica se realiza en distintas áreas de la ciencia. En este trabajo analizamos los extractos textuales de justificación de un corpus representativo de 162 artículos de investigación, correspondientes a seis áreas de la ciencia. Utilizando los lineamientos de la teoría fundada, los resultados del análisis muestran que la justificación no siempre se plasma en un movimiento retórico determinado en estos textos. Se puede establecer, además, que el ámbito de justificación puede corresponder a problemáticas o argumentos de distinto nivel, y que la forma más común de justificar una investigación se basa en los aportes, implicancias o aplicabilidad de los resultados. Por último, proponemos que las formas retóricas que adopta la justificación son sensibles a las variaciones determinadas por la naturaleza epistemológica, los objetos de estudio y los procedimientos metodológicos utilizados en cada una de las áreas de la ciencia. (The justification of research objectives is an inherent part of scientific production. However, there are not any detailed descriptions as to how this practice is carried out in different scientific areas. In this article, we analyzetextual extracts of justification from a representative corpus of 162 research articles, corresponding to six scientific disciplines. Using the guidelines of the Grounded Theory, the results of the analysis show that the justification is not always expressed as a determined rhetorical move in these texts. Furthermore, it can be established that the field of justification can correspond to problems and arguments of distinctive levels, and that the most common way to justify a research project is based on the contributions, implicationsor applicability of the results. Finally, we propose that the rhetoric

  2. CRITERIA FOR REHABILITATION OF FACILITIES AND TERRITORIES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIONUCLIDES AS A RESULT OF PAST ACTIVITIES: PART 1. THE CHOICE OF INDICATORS FOR JUSTIFICATION OF THE CRITERIA FOR REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines issues of rehabilitation of facilities and territories contaminated by the man-made and natural radionuclides as a result of past activities of enterprises of nuclear and non-nuclear industries. Rehabilitated facilities and territories contaminated with radionuclides as a result of past activities of enterprises must meet criteria based on the analysis of requirements of existing normative legislative documents in the field of radiation protection of the population taking into account the recommendations of international organizations that are justified dose quantities and derivative indicators used in criteria setting. It is shown that the criteria for rehabilitation of facilities and territories contaminated by man-made radionuclides as a result of past activities, should be the same regardless of whether the contamination occurred as a result of planned activities of the enterprise or due to unauthorized activities. For these situations, the criteria for rehabilitation should be based on dose quantities and derived indicators of the residual contamination of the environment after rehabilitation. Only indicators of radiation safety of the environment can be used in almost all cases for justification of the criteria for rehabilitation of facilities and territories contaminated by natural radionuclides. The article shows that such approaches are applicable not only to environmental media contaminated as result of past activities of enterprises of traditional non-nuclear industries but the mining of uranium and thorium ores. From the standpoint of modern classification of industrial waste with a high concentration of natural radionuclides, the characteristics of these wastes according to their potential radiation hazard to people and the environment are identical.

  3. Medical radiation exposure and justification at a large teaching hospital. Comparison of radiation-related and disease-related risks; Medizinische Strahlenexposition und ihre Rechtfertigung an einem Grossklinikum. Vergleich von strahlungs- und krankheitsbedingtem Risiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, R.W.; Popp, U.; Adamus, R. [Klinikum Nuernberg-Nord (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Wucherer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik

    2010-01-15

    The medical X-ray exposure was determined in a 2400-bed hospital. The radiation-related risk was compared with the severity of disease (ICD) to verify the justification for X-ray procedures. A model to estimate radiation and disease-related ''loss of lifetime'' was applied. X-ray exposure from radiography, fluoroscopy and CT was determined for diagnostic and interventional procedures during one hospital stay of 403 patients (0.5 % of all 80 000 patients/year). CTDI and DLP in CT, DAP in fluoroscopy or SED in radiography were used to calculate the effective dose (ED). The disease and radiation-related risk were compared with a simple ''loss of lifetime'' model. The mean age of all patients was 60. Only a subgroup of 170 patients (42 %) with a mean age of 67.6 had one or more X-ray procedures. The average ED of these exposed patients was 5.12 mSv. 14.4 % CT examinations had a dose contribution of 52.5 % followed by 5.3 % radiology and cardiology procedures at 37.2 %. 90 % of ED was applied to only 44 patients (11 %) and 50 % of ED was applied to only 10 patients (2.5 %) with a mean age of 71.2. 4 of these 10 patients had malignant tumors, the other 6 suffered from pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, stentgraft infection, CAD, Crohn's disease and severe hypertension. The ratio of disease vs. radiation-related risk was between 2.1:1 and 1800:1. In this study referral for justified X-ray procedures in a large hospital with high level medical care offers a significant patient benefit. (orig.)

  4. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    09/205_119828.html; and Foster Klug and Matthew Pennington, “Photos Show NKorea Nuclear Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http...the CTBT, lack of Chinese ratification, U.S. efforts to seek renegotiation of the ABM Treaty, and efforts to ban nuclear weapons in the Middle East led...Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/ap- exclusive-photos-show-nkorea-nuclear

  5. Vector of development of prospecting branch in the conditions of exhaustion of raw material resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Zastypov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustion of oil resources in many oil-extracting regions staticizes a problem of development of mechanisms of economic incentives of activity of the prospecting companies, effective regulation of tax system and its adaptation to needs of development of oil-extracting and prospecting branches. Offers on rational use of investment means in geological exploration and to justification of administrative decisions are considered. The main questions of tax and investment incentives of activity in the subsurface use sphere in the conditions of insufficiency of financing of prospecting works are taken up.

  6. Mathematical Justification as Non-Conceptualized Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Close analysis of Old Babylonian texts shows that they are not deprived of mathematical argument, but that this argument aims at creating understanding and conceptual coherence rather than being deductive in nature; however, the exts also reveal the presence of second-level "crituque" of techniques...... and concepts, though not in the central role it occupies in Greek mathematics...

  7. Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

  8. Phenomenological Justification of Theory of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perminov V. Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes Husserl’s theory of time and provides its detailed comparison with theories of time of I. Kant and F. Brentano. The author first examines the general principles of the phenomenological theory of consciousness, and then analyzes the time concept of F. Brentano and Husserl’s criticism of these ideas, and eventually makes a comparison of Husserl’s and Kant’s theories of time. The author is inclined to conclude that progress in the interpretation of the time made by Husserl, is largely external, based on unacceptable epistemological principles. Critique of these principles the author plans to carry out in one of the next issues of the magazine.

  9. Autonomy, Perfectionism and the Justification of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drerup, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the practical importance of different forms of paternalism for educational theory and practice. Contrary to the traditional treatment of paternalism as a sometimes necessary and rather messy aspect of educational practices, I demonstrate that paternalism is to be regarded as an "indigenous concept" (Herbart)…

  10. TOWARDS A PRAGMATARIAN JUSTIFICATION FOR EDUCATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    (UDHR) confers on the human person, the right to free education in society. ... pragmatic and utilitarian theories to philosophically justify professional and ... meaning the act of educating,3 which must have translated into the. English word ... human person on how to behave and how not to behave within the environment.

  11. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality...... are articulated and justified in the policy statements of six Scandinavian universities. The analysis reveals some interesting disparities between the countries. In short, the Danish universities seem to be reluctant to deal with gender equality on the basis of rights-based assumptions. While the Norwegian...... and Swedish universities juxtapose arguments of utility, innovation, justice, and anti-discrimination, the Danish universities primarily refer to aspects of competitiveness, utility, and innovation when justifying activities on gender equality. The article suggests that the lack of justice...

  12. Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

  13. The Justification of Antagonistic Response to Wrongdoing

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong Western tradition of opposing angry, hostile, or antagonistic reactions to wrongdoing. In the twentieth century, leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. counseled responding to wrongdoing with forgiveness and love rather than anger, hate, or vindictiveness.This ideal has taken on an exalted status in Western culture. Gandhi and King are widely regarded as moral saints. And yet sometimes antagonism seems deeply appropriate. Consider a very serious wrong: s...

  14. Enterprise imaging: planning and business justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrin, David; Hou, Stephanie W

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate financial performance, academic radiology departments most often measure examination volume and general technical and professional expenses. Although these metrics are not standardized, their frequency of use reflects that productivity and financial health are high priorities for academic radiology departments across the United States. In this article, we discuss both of these topics, in the context of projects to expand services, particularly those with an information technology (IT) component. First, we discuss several informatics innovations that increase productivity or expand service. Second, we explain core financial analysis concepts applicable to radiology departments. Third, we discuss the unique challenge of evaluating a potential IT project for an academic radiology department, when intangible benefits are difficult to quantify. Financial models are only one of several components used for guidance in strategic decisions, but are crucial to building a business case that justifies the initial or capital investment as well as startup and ongoing operational expenses. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pain and justification from dental intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient fear from dental intervention is the most common cause of permanent disposal of the visits to the dentist by the patient , and there arise some magic circle in which symptoms of disease becomes more intensive , which proportionally increase the already present fear and further delay the visits to the dentist . The ultimate outcome is compromised oral health with early loss of teeth and chewing function , speech , etc. The aim of work is to determine the frequency of fear from dental intervention , occurrence of pain during certain phases of tooth extraction , its intensity , and justified fear of the patient from the most common oral surgery . The study includes 96 patients , aged 16-45 years , of whom 55 were male and 41 were female . For the assessment of fear of dental intervention was used Korah modified anxiety scale consisted of four questions ,in which every question has an answer and they are scored on a five point Likert scale . To determine the prevalence of pain in various stages of extraction there was used interview about the pain made up of three questions , and the sample consisted of patients divided by Kore scale into high and very high anxiety person. People who have positively responded to the questionnaire, the pain was further determined with visual analogue scale. For statistical analysis we used hi square test at a significance of level p5,92 . Five patients (22,74% felt the pain during anesthesia where was found statistically significant differences in responses (X ²=7.34> 5.91 . Two patients (8.7% registered the pain during tooth extraction and all the pain was characterized as mild to moderate. There was no statistically significant difference using the Hi square in the responses (x²=15,69>5,91 za p<0,05. The frequency of dental anxiety in our sample was very high in comparison with similar studies in the west of Europe, and the possible cause among other things, can be considered as a lower level of education of the population on which we must work. The emergence of real pain in high and very high anxiety patients during tooth extraction is very small, which indicate the unjustified fear of this type of intervention .

  16. Pain and justification from dental intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević F.; Stanišić J.; Đorđević A.; Vlahović Z.; Mladenović R.

    2015-01-01

    Patient fear from dental intervention is the most common cause of permanent disposal of the visits to the dentist by the patient , and there arise some magic circle in which symptoms of disease becomes more intensive , which proportionally increase the already present fear and further delay the visits to the dentist . The ultimate outcome is compromised oral health with early loss of teeth and chewing function , speech , etc. The aim of work is to determine the frequency of fear from dental i...

  17. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Africa Command (AFRICOM) locations ($ 451 million) Asia-Pacific The intent of Asia-Pacific initiatives is to improve American ability to meet alliance...up to 700 degrees Fahrenheit . Nomex adds an additional two to four seconds of fire protection for vehicle egress. The request will enable the Army to

  18. Justifications and needs for diversity in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A A

    1999-05-01

    America is founded on high humanitarian, democratic ideals. The historic facts of slavery, discrimination, and segregation challenge and taint these democratic principles. Although progress has been made, serious racial problems remain. In 1997, the United States had 474 active hate groups, up 20% from 1996. African American males who have the same education as white males doing the same work earn approximately 75% of what their white counterparts earn. America, as predicted by the Kerner Commission Report, is two societies: black and white, separate, and unequal. Some astonishing disparities in healthcare exist. Peer reviewed medical literature documents that African Americans have higher infant mortality rates, shorter life expectancies, fewer joint replacements, and more amputations than whites. Communications within a diverse group of students and teachers enriches the educational experience. The late Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell, LLD, asserted that a medical student from a particular background may enrich classmates' understanding of people whose cultures are different from their own, and improve their ability to serve a heterogeneous patient population. Diversity on clinical teams can enhance rapport between patient and physician, and can diminish unthinking insults to patients, born of physician ethnic insensitivity. Healthcare facilities with diverse staffs are more likely than homogeneous facilities to attract and successfully serve the nation's diverse population. A University of California at Davis School of Medicine study showed that diversity can be achieved without compromising quality of patient care. Clinically and ideologically, diversity in orthopaedics is good for patients and for the country.

  19. SOME CONVERSE RESULTS ON ONESIDED APPROXIMATION: JUSTIFICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianli; Zhou Songping

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with best onesided approximation rate in Lp spaces ~En (f)Lp of f ∈ C2π. Although it is clear that the estimate ~En(f)Lp≤C ‖f‖ Lp cannot be correct for all f ∈ Lp2π in case p<∞, the question whether ~En (f)Lp ≤Cω (f, n-1 )Lp or ~En(f)Lp ≤CEn(f)Lp holds for f ∈ C2π remains totally untouched.Therefore it forms a basic problem to justify onesided approximation. The present paper will provide an answer to settle down the basis.

  20. Preparing a business justification for going electronic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A Orlando; Luyckx, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Exponential advances in the technology sector and computer industry have benefited the science and practice of radiology. Modalities such as digital radiography, computed radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, digital angiography, and gamma cameras are all capable of producing DICOM compliant images. Text can likewise be acquired using voice recognition technology (VRT) and efficiently rendered into a digital format. All of these digital data sets can subsequently be transferred over a network between machines for display and further manipulation on workstations. Large capacity archiving units are required to store these voluminous data sets. The enterprise components of radiology departments and imaging centers--radiology information systems (RIS) and picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)--have thus undergone a transition from hardcopy to softcopy. When preparing to make transition to a digital environment, the first step is introspective. A detailed SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis, with a focus on the status of "electronic preparedness," ensues. The next step in the strategic planning process is to formulate responses to the following questions: Will this technology acquisition provide sufficient value to my organization to justify the expense? Is there a true need for the new technology? What issues or problems does this technology address? What customer needs will this technology satisfy today and tomorrow? How will the organization's shareholders benefit from this technology? The answers to these questions and the questions that they in turn generate will stimulate the strategic planning process to define demands, investigate technology and investment options, identify resources and set goals. The mission of your radiology center will determine what you will demand from the electronic environment. All radiology practices must address the demand of clinical service. Additional demands based on your mission may include education and research. The investigation of options is probably the most time consuming portion of the analysis. It is in this stage where the system architecture is drafted. Important contributions must be solicited from your information technology division, radiologists and other physicians, hospital administration and any other service where the use of imaging technology information is required and beneficial. Vendors and consultants can be extremely valuable in generating workflow diagrams, which include imaging acquisition components and imaging display components. A request for proposal (RFP) may facilitate this step. A detailed inventory of imaging equipment, imaging equipment locations and use, imaging equipment DICOM compatibility, imaging equipment upgrade requirements, reading locations and user locations must be obtained and confirmed. It is a good idea to take a careful inventory of your resources during the process of investigating system architecture and financial options. An often-ignored issue is the human resource allocation that is required to implement, maintain and upgrade the system. These costs must be estimated and included in the financial analysis. Further, to predict the finances of your operation in the future, a solid understanding of your center's historical financial data is required. This will enable you to make legitimate and reasonable financial calculations using incremental volumes. The radiology center must formulate and articulate discrete clinical and business goals for the transition to a digital environment that are consistent with the institutional or enterprise mission. Once goals are set, it is possible to generate a strategic plan. It is necessary to establish individual accountability for all aspects of the planning and implementation process. A realistic timetable should be implemented. Keep in mind that this is a dynamic process; technology is rapidly changing, as are clinical service demands and regulatory initiatives. It is therefore prudent to monitor the process, make appropriate revisions when necessary and address contingencies as they arise.

  1. Moral justification of Phase 1 oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex

    2014-06-01

    This article attempts to answer the following normative questions: Can one consider the design of Phase 1 trials ethically appropriate due to the unfavorable ratio of risks and benefits? What are some ethical safeguards for Phase 1 oncology research? A comparative review of literature contributed to the consolidation of the proposed ethical framework for Phase 1 oncology trials. This framework gives a special attention to issues of therapeutic misconception and vulnerability. The benefits and dangers associated with the enrollment in trials are described as well as the absence of alternatives, treatment-specific optimism, and vagueness in factual presentation during the informed consent process. The notion of therapeutic misconception is contrasted with optimism despite realism that stems from psychological, cultural, and religious factors and not necessarily from the lack of information. Close attention is given to the possible ways in which the inherent uncertainty and resulting cognitive biases may affect the informed consent process and the definition of therapeutic misconception. The article ends with recommendations for an ethical way of enrolling palliative patients in early stages of oncology research, giving special attention to provision of adequate consent, protection of vulnerability, and avoidance of therapeutic misconception.

  2. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing b...

  3. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...

  4. Using Scaffolding to Scale-up Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carolyn; Casas, Ana; Grant, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Open-ended mathematical tasks provide great opportunities for students to engage in authentic mathematical practices, such as conjecturing, generalizing, and justifying. Supporting students in open-ended tasks can be challenging. Appropriate scaffolding of a task has been linked to more opportunities for student learning and better student…

  5. General Services Administration: FY 1998 Congressional Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    recognized the need to provide training and outplacement support that reflect the imperatives of today and the future. Furnishing information and...software to aid outplacement candidates in writing resumes that appeal to potential private sector employers, and creates a learning environment for

  6. Sustained volunteerism: justification, motivation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In a society such as ours, where the tendency exists to always weigh costs against benefits (“what’s in it for me?”), unselfish volunteerism seems difficult to understand. An unselfish act such as sustained volunteerism lacks clear-cut, visible extrinsic rewards or benefits. The present thesis tries

  7. Sustained volunteerism: justification, motivation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In a society such as ours, where the tendency exists to always weigh costs against benefits (“what’s in it for me?”), unselfish volunteerism seems difficult to understand. An unselfish act such as sustained volunteerism lacks clear-cut, visible extrinsic rewards or benefits. The present thesis tries

  8. Design and Development of a Rapid Research, Design, and Development Platform for In-Situ Testing of Tools and Concepts for Trajectory-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.

    2017-01-01

    To provide justification for equipping a fleet of aircraft with avionics capable of supporting trajectory-based operations, significant flight testing must be accomplished. However, equipping aircraft with these avionics and enabling technologies to communicate the clearances required for trajectory-based operations is cost-challenging using conventional avionics approaches. This paper describes an approach to minimize the costs and risks of flight testing these technologies in-situ, discusses the test-bed platform developed, and highlights results from a proof-of-concept flight test campaign that demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of this approach.

  9. State,Ghost and Folk Prescription:Justification of Medical Pluralism:A Case Study of Kidney Stone Disease in Guannan Village%国家、鬼神、偏方:多元医疗实践的正当性来源--肾结石病在官南寨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田阡; 阿拉坦

    2014-01-01

    One of the most longstanding issues focused by Medical anthropology is the pluralism of medical practices. Medical practice, as a social cultural process, requires its own justification to justify the healing behavior.By studying the ways that villagers in Guannan tackle the kidney stone can lead us to exam the justification bases of different medical prac-tice:the idea of state and science are highly combine together, which makes the modern medicine enjoy a dominant status. Therefore alternative medical practitioner emphasize the fine distinction between the concepts of un-scientific and not-scien-tific to justify their medical practice;and the justification of witchcraft healing roots in the villager social culture structures.%官南寨寨民应对肾结石病的案例为我们提供了考察不同医疗实践的正当性基础的可能。现代医疗、鬼神巫术与民间偏方治疗肾结石病的过程中,“国家”权威与“科学”的紧密勾连构成了现代医疗的正当性的来源;民间医生精细地区分了“不科学的”与“不是科学”两种概念,以避免失去正当性;而鬼神巫术则仍可以在本地社会文化结构中找到正当性基础。

  10. Anatomy of Public-Private Partnerships : Their Creation, Financing, and Renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP

  11. Renegotiating inter-professional boundaries in maternity care: implementing a clinical pathway for normal labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Billie; Segrott, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    This article presents findings from a study of a clinical pathway for normal labour (Normal Labour Pathway) implemented in Wales, UK. The study was conducted between 2004 and 2006. The pathway aimed to support normal childbirth and reduce unnecessary childbirth interventions by promoting midwife-led care. This article focuses on how the pathway influenced the inter-professional relationships and boundaries between midwives and doctors. Data are drawn from semi-participant observation, focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 41 midwives, and semi-structured interviews with five midwifery managers and six doctors, working in two research sites. Whereas some studies have shown how clinical pathways may act as 'boundary objects', dissolving professional boundaries, promoting interdisciplinary care and de-differentiating professional identities, the 'normal labour pathway' was employed by midwives as an object of demarcation, which legitimised a midwifery model of care, clarified professional boundaries and accentuated differences in professional identities and approaches to childbirth. The pathway represented key characteristics of a professional project: achieving occupational autonomy and closure. Stricter delineation of the boundary between midwifery and obstetric work increased the confidence and professional visibility of midwives but left doctors feeling excluded and undervalued, and paradoxically reduced the scope of midwifery practice through redefining what counted as normal.

  12. Motherhood as Performance: (ReNegotiations of Motherhood in Contemporary German Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Merley Hill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the birth rate in Europe remains low, the role of motherhood is hotly debated in Germany—particularly in conjunction with the revival of feminism in that country. In the context of these debates, this article analyzes the representation of mothers in three contemporary novels by German authors: Himmelskörper (2003 by Tanja Dückers, Die Gunnar-Lennefsen-Expedition (1998 by Kathrin Schmidt, and Die Mittagsfrau (2007 by Julia Franck. All three books are informed by a feminist perspective, but only Die Mittagsfrau offers a new way of thinking about motherhood; while Dückers and Schmidt ultimately do not depart from the connection between motherhood and the female body, Franck represents motherhood as a performative identity, in the sense of Judith Butler’s theory of performative gender. “Maternal drag,” as articulated in this article, theorizes the identity mother as a performative one, illuminating expectations of that role and thereby opening it up to possible reconfiguration.

  13. Hallway Fears and High School Friendships: The Complications of Young Men (Re)negotiating Heterosexualized Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a larger ethnographic study of four high school young men, this paper foregrounds high school male-male friendships as a context for examining how heterosexism and homophobia operate to limit and delimit the ways masculinities are constructed. I begin this article by first highlighting an inconsistency between recent school initiatives…

  14. Renegotiation of Identity after a Brain Injury Using Immersive Virtual Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Identity issues on the consequences of a brain injury have been addressed in research for the last 20 years. However, concrete suggestions for how to implement the issues in practice are still insufficient. This paper addresses how avatar-mediated interactions in immersive virtual...... is a pedagogical course for speech therapists, and the other is a rehabilitation course for persons suffering from aphasia. The courses were conducted by speech therapists at The Institute for Speech, Language, and Brain Disorders in Aalborg, DK, from 2011 to 2012. The data comprise interviews, video recordings...

  15. Masked mycotoxins: An emerging issue that makes renegotiable what is ordinary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2016-12-15

    The masked mycotoxins issue is of increasing relevance in the field of food safety. Although under discussion, regulations are still to be set due to the lack of proper toxicological data. In this communication, we discuss the unmet needs to support regulatory bodies in the decision making on this class of compounds.

  16. Anatomy of Public-Private Partnerships : Their Creation, Financing, and Renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP

  17. "Astronauts in the Sperm World" : The Renegotiation of Masculine Identities in Discourses on Male Contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the predominance of modern contraceptive drugs for women has disciplined men and women to delegate responsibilities for contraception largely to women. Consequently, contraceptive use came to be excluded from hegemonic masculinity. The weak alignment of contraceptive technologies an

  18. The Effects of Financial Crises on the Binding Force of Contracts: Renegotiation, Rescission or Revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Andersen, Mads Bryde

    2016-01-01

    of these exceptions - e.g. with specific focus on exceptions related to the possible effects of financial crises ("Hardship") - account must also be taken of their interaction in Danish legal theory and practice, not least because Danish courts do not always specify the exact legal principle which they apply when...

  19. Renegotiating customary tenure reform – Land governance reform and tenure security in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van

    2014-01-01

    In academic and policy debates on how to effectively secure land tenure, an uncompromising belief inthe need to formalize and title landownership has increasingly given way to an acknowledgement of thecontributions non-state, ‘customary’ or otherwise local institutions may make in securing tenure. H

  20. Re-negotiation of the International Space Station Agreements—1993-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Lynn F. H.; Gibbs, Graham

    2003-12-01

    During the Spring of 1993, at the request of the US President, the Space Station partners, under the leadership of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), undertook a fundamental redesign of the Space Station and the manner by which NASA would manage the program. Coincident with the 1993 redesign, NASA initiated discussions with the Russian Federation with the view to Russia becoming a partner in the Space Station Program. This resulted in the partners (the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan) issuing, on December 6, 1993, an invitation to Russia to enter into negotiations to become a partner in the International Space Station Program. Originally, the negotiations were intended to center exclusively around the changes required to the government and agency-level Space Station Agreements to bring Russia into the partnership, and to reflect the changes resulting from the 1993 redesign. After the commencement of the negotiations it became necessary to also reflect changes due to restructuring of the European and Canadian partners' programs, and various desires of the partners to confirm in the legal framework new provisions for dealing with cost control and common operations activities. This paper provides a summary of the complex legal and programmatic multinational negotiations that took place between 1993 and 1997 on a multilateral Intergovernmental Agreement and four bilateral space agency-level Memoranda of Understanding. This paper puts these most recent negotiations in the context of the first set of agreements which were signed in September 1988, explains the process the original partners put in place for the 1993-1997 Round of negotiations, and the substantive issues that resulted together with the solutions agreed. The paper captures in one document the most relevant aspects of these important international negotiations, and complements those papers previously presented by the authors at the 45th and 47th Congresses of the International Astronautical Federation. "International Negotiations: The International Space Station Agreements" by Lynn F.H. Cline, U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, IAA-96-IAA.3.1.03.

  1. Re-Negotiating Ideologies of Bilingualism on the Margins of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic study carried out in three interrelated sites: two contrasting secondary schools and a Youth-Club (the principal focus of this article), in an area of southwest Wales. This article highlights the incongruence between the language at home and the language of the school and posits that the relationship between…

  2. Renegotiation of Self after a Brain Injury Using Immersive Virtual Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla

    collected in relation to two pilot courses in an immersive virtual environment, Second Life. The first course is a pedagogical course for speech therapists, the other a rehabilitation course for persons suffering from aphasia. The courses were conducted by speech therapists at The Institute for Speech...

  3. [The theory of mechanical activity of lungs--a creation history, the present and development prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetenev, F F; Tetenev, K F

    2014-01-01

    In article the history of creation of the doctrine about respiratory movements of lungs, history of classical mechanics of breathing is stated. Supervision of the paradoxical facts which became a basis for hypothesis creation, then the theory of mechanical activity of lungs are presented. The facts proving mechanical activity of lungs on an inspiration and an expiration are given. Options of interaction of intra pulmonary and extra pulmonary sources of mechanical energy are considered. Theoretical justification for development of the new direction of studying of physiology of mechanical movements of the internal which does not have own skeleton is stated.

  4. Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintayo Opawole

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16 core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical, accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

  5. Documenting the decision structure in software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, J. Christian; Maly, Kurt; Shen, Stewart N.

    1990-01-01

    Current software development paradigms focus on the products of the development process. Much of the decision making process which produces these products is outside the scope of these paradigms. The Decision-Based Software Development (DBSD) paradigm views the design process as a series of interrelated decisions which involve the identification and articulation of problems, alternates, solutions and justifications. Decisions made by programmers and analysts are recorded in a project data base. Unresolved problems are also recorded and resources for their resolution are allocated by management according to the overall development strategy. This decision structure is linked to the products affected by the relevant decision and provides a process oriented view of the resulted system. Software maintenance uses this decision view of the system to understand the rationale behind the decisions affecting the part of the system to be modified. D-HyperCase, a prototype Decision-Based Hypermedia System is described and results of applying the DBSD approach during its development are presented.

  6. Ideología política y justificación de la inequidad en dos muestras limeñas de sectores socioeconómicos opuestos (Political Ideology and Justification of the Inequity in Two Samples of the City of Lima from Opposing Socioeconomic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Molina Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este estudio analiza y compara la relación entre la ideología política y la justificación de la inequidad en dos muestras de la ciudad de Lima que se encuentran en situaciones socioeconómicas diferentes: (a un grupo con una situación económica bastante favorable y niveles educativos universitarios o de posgrado, que fue denominado socialmente favorecido y (b un grupo en situación de pobreza y con estudios técnicos como máximo, que fue denominado socialmente desfavorecido. Los resultados muestran que el grupo socialmente desfavorecido presenta mayores puntuaciones en el Autoritarismo de ala derecha (RWA y en algunas de las dimensiones de la justificación de la inequidad. Otro hallazgo importante es que el grupo socialmente desfavorecido parece mostrar una organización ideológica diferente a la que presenta el grupo socialmente favorecido, el mismo que muestra una organización ideológica más consistente con lo encontrado en estudios previos en el ámbito urbano. Abstract This research analyzes and compares the association between political ideology and justification of inequity in two samples from Lima, city, which are in different socio-economic situations: (a a group with a very favorable economic situation and higher educative levels or postgraduate, which was called socially advantaged group; and (b a group in situation of poverty with technical studies as maximum, named socially disadvantaged group. The results show that the socially disadvantaged group presents higher scores in Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA and some of the dimensions of the justification of inequity. Furthermore, another important finding is that the socially disadvantaged group appears to show adifferent ideological organization in comparison with the socially advantaged group, which shows an ideological organization more consistent with the found in previous studies in urban areas.

  7. Resistance among domestic violence offenders: measurement development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Deborah A; Velicer, Wayne F; Castle, Patricia H; Greene, R Neil

    2008-02-01

    Batterers' resistance to traditional intervention programs has been well documented. Within a Transtheoretical Model of Change (stage of change) framework, a measure of processes of resistance was developed and administered to 346 adult male domestic violence offenders in treatment. The study yielded a 38-item measure that assesses eight dimensions of resistance: (a) System Blaming, (b) Problems with Partner, (c) Problems with Alliance, (d) Social Justification, (e) Hopelessness, (f) Isolation, (g) Psychological Reactance, and (h) Passive Reactance. The relationship between resistance and stage of change, time in treatment, and partner aggression are reported. Results suggest that we look beyond the most common forms of resistance (e.g., denial and victim-blaming) to identify and address other forms of resistance that may be more internally based and difficult to detect. The processes of resistance measure provides a tool for measuring those types of resistance.

  8. Strategy for Self-Centered Development from the Perspective of an Historical Analysis of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pérez Sánchez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available After acknowledging the three phases of historical analysis of development, and especially considering the research work done in the last twenty-five years by the Germans Dieter Sengcheus and Ulrich Mezel, the author presents the principle elements of a self-centered development strategy which highlights the following perspectives:dissociation, economic restructuring, and the new forms of an international division of labor among Third World economies.This document calls into question the underlying operation of the conventional theory of development and its current policy, which call for the increasing integration of the Third World in the world market as a means of going beyond development as it is commonly understood. Though being an integral element in the theory of self-centereddevelopment, temporary dissociation from the world market is proposed. The justification for the strategy of dissociation, excepting the recourse to some historical and paradigmatic reflections sketched by Friedrich List, has kept itself, of necessity, to the global and abstract level. This position is nothing, however, but a most direct analytical result deduced fromthe principle theoretical beginnings and the empirical observations of both the Theory of Dependence and Peripheral Capitalism. Although the review vents its criticism on (and mainly questions the practicality of the aforesaid conception, a more penetratingunderstanding of what the wager for such a strategy entails is found. Thus, the notion of self-centered development influences and gives impulse to a most extensive ideologicallymarked debate about the alternative conceptions of development.

  9. Influence of the Factor of Uncertainty on Development and Implementation of Modern Russian Megaprojects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Vasilyevna Mitrofanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The general culture of design, planning and implementation of megaprojects in Russia is underdeveloped. Commercialization of procedures of projects’ justification and the involvement of expert community hinder an objective assessment of risks and efficiency of investment projects, while the aspiration to save money at stages of scientific justifications and skilled and experimental checks, lead often to adventurous decisions and unpredictable consequences. The article’s purpose is to reveal the identification signs of modern territorial megaprojects as important tool of the state strategic management and to reveal a complex of the various risks accompanying processes of development and implementation of large investment projects. The special attention is paid to such types of risk as competence and corruption risks. On the example of modern Russian megaprojects, such as “the Ural Industrial – the Ural Polar”, construction of Olympic objects in the city of Sochi, the authors show that these risks became either the reason of megaproject’s rebranding, or led to essential excess of the actual expenses in comparison with the planned. The authors are sure that identification of possible corruption risks at a predesign stage, accounting of reputation risks, elimination of low competences risks are an important task aimed at decrease of uncertainty of final effect from implementation of the territorial complex megaproject.

  10. Windpower project ownership and financing: The cost impacts of alternative development structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper uses traditional financial cash-flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of wind energy. While most large-scale wind projects are constructed, operated, and financed by non-utility generators (NUGs) via project financing, investor- and publicly-owned utilities have expressed interest in owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing wind energy from independent generators. A primary justification for utility ownership is that, because of financing and tax benefits, windpower may be cheaper when developed in this fashion. The results presented in this paper support that justification, though some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are found to be a result of shortcomings in utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. This paper also discusses the comparative value of the federal production tax credit and renewable energy production incentive; estimates the financing premium paid by NUG wind owners compared to traditional gas-fired generation facilities; and explores the impact of electricity restructuring on financing.

  11. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  12. The justification of discriminating environmental control instruments. An investigation of the range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective using the German energy promoting laws EEG and KWKModG as an example; Die Rechtfertigung von diskriminierenden umweltpolitischen Steuerungsinstrumenten. Eine Untersuchung der Reichweite der Warenverkehrsfreiheit und ihrer Begrenzung durch den Umweltschutz als Vertragsziel am Beispiel der deutschen Energiefoerdergesetze EEG und KWKModG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Lydia

    2012-07-01

    The range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (AEUV) are the objective of this study. The investigation is performed in light of the German energy promoting laws EEG (Renewable Energy Law) and KWKModG (Act for the Retention, Modernisation and Expansion of Combined Heat and Power) whose incentive effect is combined with a discriminating interference of the free merchandise traffic. Based on the PreussenElektra legislation of the European Court of Justice (Luxembourg, Luxembourg) and the succession jurisdiction, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on whether the European Court of Justice has opened the Cassis formula as a basis for justification for discriminations. This can be negotiated. After all, the analysis of the Supreme Court decision comes to the result that the European Court of Justice has applied the known method of practical concordance in the PreussenElektra decision. In case of a collision of treaty objectives of equal rank - merchandise traffic and environmental traffic - one only has to perform an appreciation of values which may involve a justification of discriminating impacts in the free movement of goods and labour. The fundamentals of the minimis notice from the European Competition Act can be decisive for the justification and for the conformity of the domestic market of a discriminating national law if an intervention is connected with a partial market fore closure. These fundamentals have some influence on the consideration as part of the testing of concordance.

  13. MANPRINT Handbook for RFP Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    requirement documents such as the O&O Plan, Mission Need Statement (MNS), Joint Service Operational Requirement ( JSOR ) and ROC are circulated to potential...B Abbreviations/Acronyms J JMSNS Justification for Major System New Start (Obsolete term, see MNS) JSOR Joint Service Operational Requirement L LAV

  14. Development and flight qualification of the C-SiC thermal protection systems for the IXV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffenoir, François; Zeppa, Céline; Pichon, Thierry; Girard, Florent

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) atmospheric re-entry demonstrator, developed within the FLPP (Future Launcher Preparatory Programme) and funded by ESA, aimed at developing a demonstration vehicle that gave Europe a unique opportunity to increase its knowledge in the field of advanced atmospheric re-entry technologies. A key technology that has been demonstrated in real conditions through the flight of this ambitious vehicle is the thermal protection system (TPS) of the Vehicle. Within this programme, HERAKLES, Safran Group, has been in charge of the TPS of the windward and nose assemblies of the vehicle, and has developed and manufactured SepcarbInox® ceramic matrix composite (CMC) protection systems that provided a high temperature resistant non ablative outer mould line (OML) for enhanced aerodynamic control. The design and flight justification of these TPS has been achieved through extensive analysis and testing:

  15. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes approaches to developing and understanding the manufacturing process of a drug substance and provides guidance on what information should be provided in certain sections of the Common Technical Document (CTD). The guidance is intended to harmonize the scientific and technical principles relating to the description and justification of the development and manufacturing process of drug substances (both chemical entities and biotechnological/biological entities) to enable a consistent approach for providing and evaluating this information across the three regions. The discussion of principles in the guidance is intended to apply only to the manufacture of drug substance, not the manufacture of finished drug products.

  16. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  17. Regional knowledge economy development indicative planning system conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Davidovna Vaisman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the processes of Russian knowledge economy development, its progress on the regional level is taken as a theme, which determined the purpose of research: development of the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model. The methodological base of the research is the knowledge economy concept and supply and demand theory, the methods of comparative and system analysis and theoretical modeling; common generalization and classification methods and regression models are used in the work. As a result, we managed to create the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model, which includes the choice of the types of indicative plans and the justification for the complex of indicators according to the stated requirements to this complex. The model of supply and demand for knowledge dependency from the knowledge cost, allowing to determine the acceptable range for the indicators proceeding from the demand and supply levels and their interrelation, is developed. The obtained results may be used by the regional government authorities while planning the regional innovative development and consulting companies while making the proposals for this development

  18. Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Terhi

    2013-06-01

    In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences by Nersessian (Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 3-45, 1992). The approach combines the analyses of actual scientific practices in the history of science with the analytical tools and theories of contemporary cognitive sciences in order to produce knowledge of how conceptual structures are constructed and changed in science. Hence, the cognitive-historical analysis indirectly produces knowledge about the human cognition. Here, a way to use the cognitive-historical approach for didactical purposes is introduced. In this application, the cognitive processes in the history of physics are combined with current physics knowledge in order to create a cognitive-historical reconstruction of a certain quantity or law for the needs of physics teacher education. A principal aim of developing the approach has been that pre-service physics teachers must know how the physical concepts and laws are or can be formed and justified. As a practical example of the developed approach, a cognitive-historical reconstruction of the electromagnetic induction law was produced. For evaluating the uses of the cognitive-historical reconstruction, a teaching sequence for pre-service physics teachers was conducted. The initial and final reports of twenty-four students were analyzed through a qualitative categorization of students' justifications of knowledge. The results show a conceptual development in the students' explanations and justifications of how the electromagnetic induction law can be formed.

  19. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  20. 'Language Development' or 'Language Corruption': A Case of Loan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    second section analyses the justification by the editors of ISN for lemmatising ..... seem to accept loan-words much more easily than the older generation'. .... One enduring value of such a computer-generated file for lexicography is, theo-.

  1. Understanding quality: a guide for developers and consumers of public health emergency preparedness trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Lisle; Altschuld, James

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this article represents two years of collaboration among 32 evaluators from 23 schools of public health involved in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Centers for Public Health Preparedness program. Evaluators in public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) training were tasked with identifying what constitutes quality in PHEP training and providing guidance to practitioners in selecting training packages. The results of their deliberations included development and selection of guidelines for a high-quality course, a justification of the guidelines, and a Training Selection System (TSS) to assist in analyzing extant trainings. In this article, we present the TSS (along with explanatory notes for each of its sections), preliminary feedback from practitioners, and a discussion of next steps.

  2. Framing student dialogue and argumentation: Content knowledge development and procedural knowing in SSI inquiry group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Byhring

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the negotiation of the situated common ground in classroom conversations. Decision making on socioscientific issues (SSI includes norms of diverse funds of knowledge and interests. Arguments and justification may include warrants that cannot necessarily be weighed on the same scale. We discuss Roberts’ Visions 1 and 2 of scientific literacy as framing the common ground of classroom discussions. Two teacher–student dialogue sequences with 11th grade students from the Norwegian research project ElevForsk exemplify the negotiation of the situated common ground and the students’ deliberations. Our analysis examines what goes on in the thematic content, as well as at the interpersonal level of language use. Further, we suggest that different framings may complement each other and provide a space for the students’ emerging scientific conceptual development as well as for deliberation as a form of emerging procedural knowing.

  3. Renegotiating «law and order»: judicial reform and citizen responses in post-war Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel SIEDER

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines reforms aimed at strengthening the rule of law in Guatemala implemented since the signing of the Peace Accords in December 1996. Despite nearly $200 millions in foreign aid to the justice sector, impunity remains the rule, the judicial process is subverted by military and criminal networks, citizen confidence in the judicial system remains low and recourse to non-judicial measures –the «privatisation of justice»– is on the increase. It is argued that the institutionally-focused approach to rule of law reform currently predominating in donor thinking ignores the historical context within which understandings of «law», «justice» and «rights» are shaped. Institutions do matter, but only by understanding the role of law in long­run processes of State formation and the dynamic, inter-subjective nature of legal interactions can we begin to understand the specificities of socio-legal change.

  4. Renegotiating Relations among Teacher, Community, and Students: A Case Study of Teaching Roma Students in a Second Chance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian; Carapanait, Greta

    2011-01-01

    Prejudice and systematic discrimination have often been mentioned as major causes for the chronic underachievement of Roma students. In this paper we present a case study of a Romanian teacher involved in Second Chance, an educational program implemented in Romania in 2004 for the benefit of disadvantaged groups such as the Roma population. Since…

  5. Renegotiating GM crop regulation: Targeted gene-modification technology raises new issues for the oversight of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic modification, which enables scientists to genetically engineer plants more efficiently and precisely, challenges current process-based regulatory frameworks for genetically modified crops.

  6. Renegotiating Relations among Teacher, Community, and Students: A Case Study of Teaching Roma Students in a Second Chance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian; Carapanait, Greta

    2011-01-01

    Prejudice and systematic discrimination have often been mentioned as major causes for the chronic underachievement of Roma students. In this paper we present a case study of a Romanian teacher involved in Second Chance, an educational program implemented in Romania in 2004 for the benefit of disadvantaged groups such as the Roma population. Since…

  7. Stock market in Ukraine: state and prospects of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnova Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analysis of the topical problem of detection of specific features of functioning and problem of development of the stock market of Ukraine and also justification of directions of increase of its liquidity and efficiency. It analyses main tendencies and regularities of development of the stock market in the context of institutional, instrumental and infrastructural components. It considers issues of changes of volumes of trade and other parameters of activity of stock exchanges during recent years. It focuses on existing problems on the way of development of the stock market of Ukraine, which interfere with its efficient functioning, in particular, a limited number of liquid and investment attractive financial instruments, high fragmentariness of the exchange and depositary infrastructure, and insufficient legislative regulation of the exchange activity. For solution of problem issues and stimulation of further development of the domestic stock market the article marks expediency of consolidation of stock exchanges, necessity to increase capitalisation, liquidity and transparency of the stock market; further formation and consolidation of the market infrastructure and ensuring its reliable and efficient functioning, and improvement of mechanisms of state regulation, supervision and protection of the rights of investors in the Ukrainian stock market.

  8. Number needed to treat with rosuvastatin to prevent first cardiovascular events and death among men and women with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: justification for the use of statins in prevention: an intervention trial evaluating rosuvastatin (JUPITER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M; MacFadyen, Jean G; Fonseca, Francisco A H; Genest, Jacques; Gotto, Antonio M; Kastelein, John J P; Koenig, Wolfgang; Libby, Peter; Lorenzatti, Alberto J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Shepherd, James; Willerson, James T; Glynn, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    As recently demonstrated, random allocation to rosuvastatin results in large relative risk reductions for first cardiovascular events among apparently healthy men and women with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, whether the absolute risk reduction among such individuals justifies wide application of statin therapy in primary prevention is a controversial issue with broad policy and public health implications. Absolute risk reductions and consequent number needed to treat (NNT) values were calculated across a range of end points, timeframes, and subgroups using data from Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER), a randomized evaluation of rosuvastatin 20 mg versus placebo conducted among 17 802 apparently healthy men and women with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or=2 mg/L. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to address the potential impact that alternative statin regimens might have on a similar primary prevention population. For the end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, or death, the 5-year NNT within JUPITER was 20 (95% CI, 14 to 34). All subgroups had 5-year NNT values for this end point below 50; as examples, 5-year NNT values were 17 for men and 31 for women, 21 for whites and 19 for nonwhites, 18 for those with body mass index 300). Absolute risk reductions and consequent NNT values associated with statin therapy among those with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are comparable if not superior to published NNT values for several widely accepted interventions for primary cardiovascular prevention, including the use of statin therapy among those with overt hyperlipidemia. clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier NCT00239681.

  9. Development of accounting quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plakhtii T.F.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accounting organization as one of the types of practical activities at the enterprise involves organization of the process of implementation of various kinds of accounting procedures to ensure meeting needs of the users of accounting information. Therefore, to improve its quality an owner should use tools, methods and procedures that enable to improve the quality of implementation of accounting methods and technology. The necessity of using a quality management system for the improvement of accounting organization at the enterprise is substantiated. The system of accounting quality management is developed and grounded in the context of ISO 9001:2015, which includes such processes as the processes of the accounting system, leadership, planning, and evaluation. On the basis of specification and justification of the set of universal requirements (content requirements, formal requirements the model of the environment of demands for high-quality organization of the computerized accounting system that improves the process of preparing high quality financial statements is developed. In order to improve the system of accounting quality management, to justify the main objectives of its further development, namely elimination of unnecessary characteristics of accounting information, the differences between the current level of accounting information quality and its perfect level are considered; the meeting of new needs of users of accounting information that have not been satisfied yet. The ways of leadership demonstration in the system of accounting quality management of accounting subjects at the enterprise are substantiated. The relationship between the current level of accounting information quality and its perfect level is considered. The possible types of measures aimed at improving the system of accounting quality management are identified. The paper grounds the need to include the principle of proper management in the current set of accounting

  10. Modelling Local Attitudes to Protected Areas in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.

  11. Teaching strategies and conceptual change in a professional development program for science teachers of K--8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji

    This case study investigates two consecutive science courses for teachers of K-8 in a professional development program at Washington University. It aims (1) to trace the processes of the teachers' conceptual change; (2) to analyze the teaching strategies by course instructors; and (3) to try to establish possible links between the two. To achieve this goal, I build a modeling theory to account for the observations. The main body of the study consists of four sub-cases. The first two cases instantiate the elements of the modeling theory. The opening case of balance shows that learning tools and task structures shape the learning outcome, and discusses cycles of modeling. The case also delineates the strategy that the instructors employed---moving from concrete experience to abstract explanation. The second case of buoyancy demonstrates that the modeling theory is able to explain the origins and forming mechanism of the alternative conceptions held by the teachers. It also shows that the teaching strategies of using alternative conceptions, applying analogies and following a logical sequence helped the teachers build new models. The last two cases demonstrate the ways of improving the competence of modelers. The third case of physical models emphasizes the metacognition of the learner who builds models. It illustrates that teachers' level of self-awareness in learning is increased when the models are physical. It shows that the creativity of modeling is rooted in agency, curiosity, communicability, and confidence, and that a chain of transformation among models is the key of systematizing and forming knowledge. The last case of frames of reference tries to answer the question "what is the justification of models if there are alternatives?" The teachers employed different forms of justification which relied heavily on common sense, authority, relativism, and pragmatism, all of which are not rational. While discussing both the positive and negative traits of these

  12. Finding EL+ justifications using the Earley parsing algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available small modules for EL+ entailment based on reachability. The authors extend the current notion of forward reachability to obtain a bi-directional version, and show that the bi-directional reachability algorithm allows the authors to transform EL+ ontology...

  13. CHOICE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR FUEL CELL ECO-MOBIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramchuk, F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of choice of fuel cell of choice to drive the car competitor of Shell-EcoMarathon are considered. The analysis of the concepts of fuel cells, chosen as the most rational scheme and main parameters of the components of the power plant is done. The results of calculation of the characteris-tics of the sports car with a fuel cell are given.

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility: Why? ethical justification of corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Caballero Jara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucho se ha discutido en el Perú sobre qué es la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE ycómo se implementa. La pregunta de por qué, en cambio, no ha recibido similar interés. Esta esprecisamente la interrogante que el presente artículo busca responder: ¿Qué justifica la RSE?¿Por qué las empresas deben ser socialmente responsables?Tomando como punto de partida la clasificación en cuatro grandes teorías de responsabilidadsocial empresarial o corporativa propuesta por Garriga y Melé (2004, a saber, las teoríasinstrumentales, políticas, integradoras y éticas, se identifican rastros de las mismas en la literaturaperuana. De esta forma, se logra un panorama de las distintas justificaciones brindadas porlos autores peruanos. Posteriormente, se toma partido a favor de las teorías éticas de RSE, enparticular del subgrupo «teoría normativa de los grupos de interés» (stakeholder normativetheory, que ve a la RSE como ética aplicada a los negocios, exponiendo sus versiones utilitaristay deontológica, exposición que deja a esta última mejor posicionada. De esta manera, sepropone ir más allá de las justificaciones exclusivamente rentistas, según la cual el empresariodebe ser socialmente responsable porque le conviene, y considerar la deontología como lajustificación del por qué hacer RSE.

  15. A College English Reading Lesson Plan and Its Justification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡阶娜

    2012-01-01

    本文探讨英文阅读课堂设计应遵循的指导原则如先有知识理论(Schemata Theory),内容本位语言教学(CBI),学生为主教学法等为大学英语阅读教学提供理论指导和实践的范例。

  16. Infinitism's take on justification, knowledge, certainty and skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é mostrar como podem ser desenvolvidas explicações robustas de justificação e de certeza no interior do infinitismo. Primeiro, eu explico como a concepção infinitista de justificação epistêmica difere das concepções fundacionista e coerentista. Em segundo lugar, explico como o infinitista pode oferecer uma solução ao problema do regresso epistêmico. Em terceiro lugar, explico como o infinitismo, per se, é compatível com as teorias daqueles que sustentam 1 que o conhecimento requer certeza e que uma tal forma superior de conhecimento é possível, bem como com as daqueles que rejeitam algum ou ambos os conjuntos em 1. Em outras palavras, o infinitismo nem endossa, nem rejeita o ceticismo, tornando-se essa tese como sendo aquela segundo a qual nós não possuímos conhecimento naquelas situações que nos parecem cognoscíveis

  17. Mathematical Justification as Non-Conceptualized Practice: the Babylonian Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Those Greek philosophers who write about mathematics consider demonstration as central to it. Grosso modo, what Aristotle writes about the topic is congruent with what Euclid does. Demonstration was thus not only practised but also an explicit concern for Greek mathematics. Other early mathematical...... cultures do not speak about mathematics involving demonstration. However, Old Babylonian mathematical texts (c. 1800–1600 BCE) reveal both aspects of mathematical demonstration as we know it for instance from the ancient Greeks: arguments showing why the steps undertaken do lead to the required result......; and “critique” (in Kantian sense) investigating the presuppositions behind and limits of these arguments. This is argued on a sample of characteristic but relatively simple texts in translation. Critique plays a minor role only in Old Babylonian mathematics; still, the Babylonian example shows that mathematical...

  18. Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1983 Submitted to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    hardening of predictive models based upon subscale and scaled experiments will have bien generated, and will be available for use in laser effectiveness...Direct ob igations: 121.001 Travel and transportation of persona 33 35 40 Other services: 16,146 21,559 34,864 125.003 Contracts --6

  19. JUSTIFICATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TIME IN AFRICA Osita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    The metaphorical concept of African time is one in which tardiness, lousiness and a total ..... From the ongoing expositions, it is evident to note that it is an insult and .... meals regardless of their commitment at that time. Sarah in her article “On ...

  20. Food Security and the Justification of Productivism in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The spike in food commodity prices in 2007-2008 is frequently represented as a crisis for the global food system. Interpreted as a failure to achieve the utopian imperative to feed the world, the crisis can potentially expose the distortions inherent to the productivist ideology framing the existing system. As a result, it can act as a shock that…

  1. 28 CFR 570.32 - Justification for furlough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when the cost of medical care is at the expense of the government. In case of medical emergency, staff may authorize a furlough for hospitalization and shall notify the Regional Health Services...

  2. Getting Our Act Together: A Justification for a Speaking Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, John

    Research indicates that about 40% of the population fear public speaking. There is a wide variety of possible causes for this unwillingness to communicate: a lack of skills, social introversion, alienation, lack of fluency in English, and communication apprehension. Despite the fact that evidence indicates everyone may have some difficulty with…

  3. Validity of the Bersohn–Zewail model beyond justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob; Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2012-01-01

    The absorption of probe pulses in ultrafast pump–probe experiments can be determined from the Bersohn–Zewail (BZ) model. The model relies on classical mechanics to describe the dynamics of the nuclei in the excited electronic state prepared by the ultrashort pump pulse. The BZ model provides...... excellent agreement between the classical trajectory and the average position of the excited state wave packet. By investigating the approximations connecting the nuclear dynamics described by quantum mechanics and the BZ model, we conclude that this agreement goes far beyond the validity of the individual...

  4. UNJUST LAW AS A JUSTIFICATION FOR CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAUL

    be, the citizens cannot be blamed if they decide to take to civil disobedience. Civil .... organization and peace maintenance and, therefore, require obedience. .... In his work, Concerning Civil Government, John Locke tells us the essence of the.

  5. Justification for Shielded Receiver Tube Additional Lead Shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-04-11

    In order to reduce high radiation dose rates encountered when core sampling some radioactive waste tanks the addition of 240 lbs. of lead shielding is being considered to the shielded receiver tube on core sample trucks No.1, No.3 and No.4. The lead shielding is 4 inch diameter x 1/2 inch thick half rounds that have been installed around the SR tube over its' full length. Using three unreleased but independently reviewed structural analyses HNF-6018 justifies the addition of the lead shielding.

  6. Odd-Ending Price: Justification For the Hedonic Purchase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jungsil Choi; Surendra Singh; Priyam Rangan

    2011-01-01

      The present study suggests that utilization of the odd-ending pricing strategy, known to have a discount image, reduces guilt from purchasing a hedonic product, consequently increasing demand for hedonic products...

  7. Cognitive Success: Instrumental Justifications of Normative Systems of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard eSchurz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper (sec. 1-4, I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011 distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological versus teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based versus a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5-7, I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general versus locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve a dual account of rationality.

  8. Formulation and justification of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, L. S.

    1980-12-01

    The “absorber theory” of Wheeler and Feynman is supposed to justify the use of retarded potentials in ordinary electromagnetic calculations despite a fundamentally time symmetric interaction. We restate the thesis of absorber theory as follows: here exist causal solutions of time symmetric electrodynamics. In our formulation, absorption need only take place in one direction of time (the future) rather than both, as seems to be required by Wheeler and Feynman. Even with complete absorption, however, the effects of advanced interactions are not entirely eliminated and a residual field may introduce a degree of indeterminacy into particle trajectories obtained using retarded potentials alone.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL JUSTIFICATION OF IDENTITY FEATURE CHOICE OF PALM OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. V. Kadolich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of thermally activated current spectroscopy was used for identification of two popular types of palm oils. The spectrum of thermally stimulated currents represents sufficiently intensive (up to 10-11 А current peaks conditioned by differences in fatty-acid composition of oils. Introduction of representation on unstable associates, in which coordination bonds connect molecules of fat acid’s glycerides, allow interpret the experimental data about the current response at oil specimens heating. The current’s peaks location in a certain temperature range of TSC spectrum can be considered as an identify feature of investigated vegetable oils. 

  10. Business Reporting: How Transparency becomes a Justification Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    business reporting models, the analysis illuminates and characterizes the argumentation for supplementary reporting. The paper posits some interesting points in connection with the motives for improving corporate reporting practices. A dichotomy between reliability through normalization and relevance......This paper contributes to the discussion of the present status and future scenarios of business reporting by conducting a thorough review and analysis of state-of-the-art of the authoritative business reporting literature and also a set of specifically formulated models for voluntary reporting....... By analyzing the chosen business reporting models with respect to 14 generally acknowledged themes, the paper contributes to the understanding of the myriad of arguments that are mobilized in the debate on the future of corporate reporting. Based on a qualitative content analysis of nine purposively selected...

  11. Mathematical Justification as Non-Conceptualized Practice: the Babylonian Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2012-01-01

    cultures do not speak about mathematics involving demonstration. However, Old Babylonian mathematical texts (c. 1800–1600 BCE) reveal both aspects of mathematical demonstration as we know it for instance from the ancient Greeks: arguments showing why the steps undertaken do lead to the required result......; and “critique” (in Kantian sense) investigating the presuppositions behind and limits of these arguments. This is argued on a sample of characteristic but relatively simple texts in translation. Critique plays a minor role only in Old Babylonian mathematics; still, the Babylonian example shows that mathematical...

  12. Food Security and the Justification of Productivism in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The spike in food commodity prices in 2007-2008 is frequently represented as a crisis for the global food system. Interpreted as a failure to achieve the utopian imperative to feed the world, the crisis can potentially expose the distortions inherent to the productivist ideology framing the existing system. As a result, it can act as a shock that…

  13. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1-4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5-7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality.

  14. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  15. A theoretical justification for single molecule peptide sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath Swaminathan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The proteomes of cells, tissues, and organisms reflect active cellular processes and change continuously in response to intracellular and extracellular cues. Deep, quantitative profiling of the proteome, especially if combined with mRNA and metabolite measurements, should provide an unprecedented view of cell state, better revealing functions and interactions of cell components. Molecular diagnostics and biomarker discovery should benefit particularly from the accurate quantification of proteomes, since complex diseases like cancer change protein abundances and modifications. Currently, shotgun mass spectrometry is the primary technology for high-throughput protein identification and quantification; while powerful, it lacks high sensitivity and coverage. We draw parallels with next-generation DNA sequencing and propose a strategy, termed fluorosequencing, for sequencing peptides in a complex protein sample at the level of single molecules. In the proposed approach, millions of individual fluorescently labeled peptides are visualized in parallel, monitoring changing patterns of fluorescence intensity as N-terminal amino acids are sequentially removed, and using the resulting fluorescence signatures (fluorosequences to uniquely identify individual peptides. We introduce a theoretical foundation for fluorosequencing and, by using Monte Carlo computer simulations, we explore its feasibility, anticipate the most likely experimental errors, quantify their potential impact, and discuss the broad potential utility offered by a high-throughput peptide sequencing technology.

  16. Justification and Justice: Rawls, Quine and Ethics as Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Taschetto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Rawls’s theory of justice and Quine’s philosophy constitute an almost entirely new topic of discussion. The analysis undertaken in this article aims to show that some fundamental epistemological traits of Rawls’s theory of justice may be causally explained by referring to Quine’s influence on him. Rawls’s assumptions, methods of theory-building and evaluation criteria are addressed and a close nexus between the methods of ethics and natural science is made explicit. In the light of the historical and epistemological analysis presented in this article it may be argued that Rawls’s theory of justice as fairness satisfies scientific requirements of evidence and objectivity within the sphere of ethics to the extent it is constructed and justified in accordance to Quine’s epistemology.

  17. Cyber Attacks and the Legal Justification for an Armed Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    supporting 1.3 million Estonians.10 These networks controlled all aspects of life in the state including banking , ATM, telephones, personal networks...government and military communication systems, banking systems, and media outlets. The Georgia cyber attack meets the Tallinn Manual definition satisfying...international law apply to cyber attacks and can legally justify armed response. The ICJ’s judgment in Nicaragua v.United States of America and its

  18. Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    results on the problema of C 2 asaociated with joint operations. Analysis of the current U.S./Soviet balance in commiand and control indicates the...theory, and feasibility of non-invasive technology for monitoring cumulative exposure to chemicals such as alcohol , organo- phosphates, drugs of abuse...kidney function; evaluation of effects of alcohol on drug metabolism in the liver; characterization of cardiac performance under stressful conditions

  19. The Water Maser in II Zw 96: Scientific Justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    We propose a VLBI search to image and locate the water emission in II Zw 96. We propose 3 sites within II Zw 96 for VLBI followup (see the proposed target listing below). We request 2.5 hours of on-source integration time with the VLBA per source. The array will achieve ~ 65µJy sensitivity in K band in this time which will be sufficient to detect luminous water maser features.

  20. The Ultimate Justification: Ethical Principles and Tactical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-16

    through a breached minefield, then conduct a movement to contact as the lead force of his brigade. The enemy positions are strong and arrayed in depth... surreal aspect to the fight. Able directs his tanks to begin firing at 3000 meters. Able thinks this must be what Dante’s Inferno looked like. The...Do You Tell A Victorious War From a Just One?" The New York Times, 17 March 1991, sec. 4, p. E4. Sun Tzu. The Art of War. trans. Samuel B. Griffith

  1. justification of a multidisciplinary approach to teaching language arts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adeyemim

    teaching of a concept with the use of the multidisciplinary approaches with the attendant ... Environmental Science, Mathematics, History and so on. In this way, each subject ..... Finally, it is an area of knowledge that is open to more research to ...

  2. Tunneling and propping : A justification for pyramidal ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riyanto, Y.E.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This paper links existence of the pyramidal ownership structure to tunneling and propping. Tunneling refers to a transfer of resources from a lower-level firm to a higher-level firm in the pyramidal chain, whereas propping concerns a transfer in the opposite direction intended to bail out the receiv

  3. The moral justification for a compulsory human papillomavirus vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Joseph E

    2009-04-01

    Compulsory human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls has been proposed as a public health intervention to reduce the threat of the disease. Such a program would entail a symbiotic relationship between scientific interests in reducing mortality and morbidity and philosophical interests in promoting morality. This proposal raises the issue of whether government should use its police powers to restrict liberty and parental autonomy for the purpose of preventing harm to young people. I reviewed the scientific literature that questions the value of a HPV vaccination. Applying a principle-based approach to moral reasoning, I concluded that compulsory HPV vaccinations can be justified on moral, scientific, and public health grounds.

  4. THE ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOUR OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA GRIGORE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the contemporary economy, we are witnessing the amplification of concerns regarding corporate social responsibility, a very complex issue dealing with trans and interdisciplinary approaches, with contemporary dynamics and pressures occurring as a consequence of the complex effects of the world crisis. The current crisis is a complex one with powerful insertions on economic, financial, social, value, moral and psycho-behavioural level. Therefore, the analysis of corporate social responsibility is not only an attractive and modern theme, but also necessary and of high relevance for Romania, being a real challenge in order to understand the economic and social trends at national and international level, especially under the conditions of an amplified world crisis.

  5. Electronic Mail: Another Justification for Using Computers in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murranka, Patricia A.

    1982-01-01

    Various electronic mail systems are described (facsimile, communicating word processors, and computer-based message systems); applications of the computer-based message systems are examined; and the classroom applications of electronic mail are discussed. (CT)

  6. Justification for Rhinoseptoplasty in Children – Our 10 Years Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kopacheva-Barsova

    2016-08-01

    CONCLUSION:The growth centres of the nose have to be avoided if possible; long-term nasal issues will theoretically be minimised. If the surgeon replaces it, the cartilage of the nose becomes straighter but still intact.

  7. First steps in the computation of root justifications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available grown increasingly powerful and sophisticated in the last decade. In section 2 we review the standard approach for the resolution of modelling errors encountered in ontologies and propose the first steps in a new method for resolving such errors...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIAGNOSTIC METHOD OF MORAL ORIENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeevna Slavinskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the developing and standardization of psychodiagnostics test that measures moral orientations for adolescence. The definition of moral orientations as a matter of diagnosis and the justification of chosen stimuli are provided. Respondents evaluate the degree to which 13 values are expressed in the behavior of seven categories of people (from the «native» to the «enemies». Youthful students from 17 to 21 years (N = 330 were used as a standardization sample. Factorial validity of the scales used was tested by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. A hierarchical structure of the test (including the common scale and three subscales is confirmed by the CFA. Cronbach’s alpha indicated a high consistency between separate items of the test, demonstrating high reliability of the test’s scales. Criterion validity of the scales is assessed on the basis of the socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The convergent and discriminant validity was assessed by establishing close statistical relations with constructs similar in content. The standards for test’s scales are developed. The results testify the adequacy of this method for the diagnosis of youth moral orientations.

  9. DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

  10. Agile Contracts: Designing an Agile Team Selection Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how...

  11. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how...

  12. From Ethical Justification to Delimitation of Boundaries between Country Power and Individual Rights:A Settlement Way of the Particular Ethical Conflict in Public Health%从伦理辩护到国家权力、个人权利界限的划定--公共卫生领域特殊伦理冲突的和解之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊; 路绪锋

    2014-01-01

    In epidemic prevention work ,in order to protect public health we have no choice but to infringe the right of infectious disease patients ,this is a particular ethical conflict in public health which is different from clinical medicine . Although some scholars argue in favor of the priority of public health according to utilitarianism ,difference principle and the priority of public good ,all of these are not consistent with the individual perspective of medical ethics . In fact , upholding single theoretical perspective is the maximal obstacle on the road to reconciliation of ethical conflict ,only change the single perspective can we open the compatibility of theory .We have to transform ethical justification to practical wisdom ,that is to say ,country power and individual rights should stick to each boundary ,so as to achieve harmonious status between them .%在流行病防控等公共卫生工作中,为了维护公共健康不得不侵犯传染病患者的个人权利,这是公共卫生领域不同于临床医学的特殊伦理冲突。虽然有学者分别依据“效果论”、“差异原则”和“公共善优先”为公共健康的优先性进行了辩护,但都不能与医学伦理学的个体论视角相融洽。实际上,固守单一的理论视角是伦理冲突和解的最大障碍,只有改变单一视角,才能开启理论的兼容性。伦理辩护必须转化为实践智慧,即必须在公共卫生实践中实现国家权力与个人权利的有序协调,使国家权力和个人权利坚守各自的界限。

  13. Testing paradigm for prediction of development-limiting barriers and human drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasseville, V G; Lane, J H; Kadambi, V J; Bouchard, P; Lee, F W; Balani, S K; Miwa, G T; Smith, P F; Alden, C L

    2004-11-01

    The financial investment grows exponentially as a new chemical entity advances through each stage of discovery and development. The opportunity exists for the modern toxicologist to significantly impact expenditures by the early prediction of potential toxicity/side effect barriers to development by aggressive evaluation of development-limiting liabilities early in drug discovery. Improved efficiency in pharmaceutical research and development lies both in leveraging "best in class" technology and integration with pharmacologic activities during hit-to-lead and early lead optimization stages. To meet this challenge, a discovery assay by stage (DABS) paradigm should be adopted. The DABS clearly delineates to discovery project teams the timing and type of assay required for advancement of compounds to each subsequent level of discovery and development. An integrative core pathology function unifying Drug Safety Evaluation, Molecular Technologies and Clinical Research groups that effectively spans all phases of drug discovery and development is encouraged to drive the DABS. The ultimate goal of such improved efficiency being the accurate prediction of toxicity and side effects that would occur in development before commitment of the large prerequisite resource. Good justification of this approach is that every reduction of development attrition by 10% results in an estimated increase in net present value by $100 million.

  14. Developing an international market entry strategy and tactical plan for the cultural tourism of Turkey in South Korea market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Alaeddinoğlu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since international tourism market is more competitive and lucrative, most of countries want to give their emphasis on their promotional activities in order to increase their market share. This aim can be achieved either through the product diversification or penetrating new markets. In this regard, this paper primarily focuses on developing market entry strategy and tactical plan for cultural tourism of Turkey in Korean market. After the justification of Korean outbound tourism based on analysis of political, legal, economical, and technological factors, marketing strategy including segmentation, targeting, positioning, and marketing objectives are dealt with in this article. Then, a marketing mix based on 7P is suggested for Turkish cultural tourism. Finally, recommendations for Destination Marketing Organisation of Turkey are suggested.

  15. Developing an international market entry strategy and tactical plan for the cultural tourism of Turkey in south Korea market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Alaeddinoğlu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since international tourism market is more competitive and lucrative, most of countries want to give their emphasis on their promotional activities in order to increase their market share. This aim can be achieved either through the product diversification or penetrating new markets. In this regard, this paper primarily focuses on developing market entry strategy and tactical plan for cultural tourism of Turkey in Korean market. After the justification of Korean outbound tourism based on analysis of political, legal, economical, and technological factors, marketing strategy including segmentation, targeting, positioning, and marketing objectives are dealt with in this article. Then, a marketing mix based on 7P is suggested for Turkish cultural tourism. Finally, recommendations for Destination Marketing Organisation of Turkey are suggested.

  16. Development of radiological emergency preparedness technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young gil; Shim, Hae Won; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    Large-scale field tracer experiments have been conducted on Ulchin, Wolsung and Daeduk sites for the purpose of validating FADAS and of analyzing the environmental characteristics around the nuclear sites. The most influential factor in atmospheric dispersion is the meteorological condition. During the experiment, meteorological data were measured on the release point and the selected positions among sampling points. Once radioactive materials are released to the atmosphere, members of public may be exposed through the environmental media such as air, soil and foods. Therefore, to protect the public, adequate countermeasures should be taken at due time for those exposure pathways. both processes, of justification and optimization are applied to a countermeasure simultaneously for decision-making. The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and pentachlorophenol(PCP) exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from PCP, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. RT/PCR technique will be needed for the mutation spectrum of HPRT gene essential to discriminate that by radiation exposure from health effect by chemical exposure on man. (author)

  17. A water sustainability index for West Java. Part 1: developing the conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwana, I; Perera, B J C; Muttil, N

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management is essential since it ensures the integration of social, economical and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. The development and application of water sustainability indices to achieve sustainable water management has been successfully done in the last few years. Although existing water sustainability indices have successfully provided information on current conditions of water resources and prioritised water related issues, they have been developed for specific case study areas. This study therefore aims at developing a water sustainability index for West Java, Indonesia. The overall steps for developing the index include developing a conceptual framework, application of Delphi technique to finalise the components/indicators of the index, applying the index to case studies and robustness analysis of the index. This paper, which is the first in a two-part series, discusses the first step, namely developing the conceptual framework of the West Java Water Sustainability Index (WJWSI). It outlines the criteria for identifying the initial set of components/indicators and based on those criteria, a detailed justification for selecting each component and indicator is also presented. The second paper of the series presents the application of Delphi technique to finalise the framework of WJWSI based on feedback from selected stakeholders. The remaining steps of developing WJWSI will be undertaken in the future.

  18. Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Heather J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors are complex and difficult to modify. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a novel psycho-educational intervention to prevent postnatal mental disorders in mothers of firstborn infants. Methods Data from a variety of sources were synthesised: a literature review summarised epidemiological evidence about neglected modifiable risk factors; clinical research evidence identified successful psychosocial treatments for postnatal mental health problems; consultations with clinicians, health professionals, policy makers and consumers informed the proposed program and psychological and health promotion theories underpinned the proposed mechanisms of effect. The intervention was pilot-tested with small groups of mothers and fathers and their first newborn infants. Results What Were We Thinking! is a psycho-educational intervention, designed for universal implementation, that addresses heightened learning needs of parents of first newborns. It re-conceptualises mental health problems in mothers of infants as reflecting unmet needs for adaptations in the intimate partner relationship after the birth of a baby, and skills to promote settled infant behaviour. It addresses these two risk factors in half-day seminars, facilitated by trained maternal and child health nurses using non-psychiatric language, in groups of up to five couples and their four-week old infants in primary care. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce mental disorders by providing skills

  19. Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane Rw

    2010-08-18

    Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors are complex and difficult to modify. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a novel psycho-educational intervention to prevent postnatal mental disorders in mothers of firstborn infants. Data from a variety of sources were synthesised: a literature review summarised epidemiological evidence about neglected modifiable risk factors; clinical research evidence identified successful psychosocial treatments for postnatal mental health problems; consultations with clinicians, health professionals, policy makers and consumers informed the proposed program and psychological and health promotion theories underpinned the proposed mechanisms of effect. The intervention was pilot-tested with small groups of mothers and fathers and their first newborn infants. What Were We Thinking! is a psycho-educational intervention, designed for universal implementation, that addresses heightened learning needs of parents of first newborns. It re-conceptualises mental health problems in mothers of infants as reflecting unmet needs for adaptations in the intimate partner relationship after the birth of a baby, and skills to promote settled infant behaviour. It addresses these two risk factors in half-day seminars, facilitated by trained maternal and child health nurses using non-psychiatric language, in groups of up to five couples and their four-week old infants in primary care. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce mental disorders by providing skills in sustainable sleep and settling strategies, and the

  20. Development and validation of the conceptions of scientific theories test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotham, Joseph C.; Smith, Edward L.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for use with elementary and secondary teachers of science that would have the following characteristics: 1) sensitivity to alternative conceptions of particular philosophic aspects of scientific theories, and 2) applicability in inferring understanding of the tentative and revisionary conception of the nature of science. This conception, which has educational and social importance, may be a significant influence in the teaching of science as inquiry. Thus, concern with teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and their teaching served as justification for this study. The instrument, which was applied to samples of preservice elementary teachers, college philosophy of science students, and college chemistry students, consisted of items that were adapted to the contexts of particular scientific theories by prefacing them with a brief description of a theory and episodes drawn from its history. Items were written to discriminate between alternative conceptions of the following philosophic aspects of scientific theories: testing, generation, ontological implications, and choice. Evidence in support of the validity of the instrument constructs was obtained using two approaches: discrimination between contrasting groups and the multi-trait and multi-method matrix of Campbell and Fiske. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement were computed for the instrument and its subtests. Reliability data indicates that an adequate degree of accuracy may be attributed to instrument scores.

  1. Development of radiological emergency preparedness and biological dosimetry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil; Shim, Hae Won; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Kang Suk

    1999-04-01

    Large-scale field tracer experiments have been conducted on Ulchin and Wolsung nuclear sites for the purpose of validating FADAS and of analyzing the environmental characteristics around the nuclear site. The most influential factor in atmospheric dispersion is the meteorological condition. During the experiment, meteorological data were measured on the release point and the selected positions among sampling points. Once radioactive materials are released to the atmosphere, members of public may be exposed through the environmental media such as air, soil and foods. Therefore, to protect the public, adequate countermeasures should be taken at due time for those exposure pathways. Both processes of justification and optimization are applied to a countermeasure simultaneously for decision-making. The work scope of biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for the assessment of health effect by radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human t-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods by usage of reverse transcriptase had been developed to analyze of gene product by {gamma} - radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and investigate the point mutation in hprt gene locus of T-lymphocytes. (author)

  2. On markets and culture : object exchange and subject formation

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Misael Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings that have led me to develop an artistic practice rooted in interventions in the form/function/ exchange of commodities to create micro-political renegotiations of subordination--using the act of exchange as a way of reflecting on the greater ideological order of social, cultural, and economic structures that maintain current relations of power

  3. 5 B-26-05 no. 147 from September 1, 2005. Tax credit for procurement costs in the main dwelling in favor of energy saving and sustainable development. Art. 90 of the 2005 finance law (law no. 2004-1484 from December 30, 2004); 5 B-26-05 no. 147 du 1. septembre 2005. Credit d'impot pour depenses d'equipements de l'habitation principale en faveur des economies d'energie et du developpement durable. Art. 90 de la Loi de finances pour 2005 (Loi no. 2004-1484 du 30 decembre 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    Article 90 from the 2005 French finance law foresees a tax credit for the thermal insulation and equipment expenditures (low temperature and condensation boilers, heat pumps, energy generation systems that use a renewable energy source) spent in the main dwelling in favor of energy saving and sustainable development. This document precises: the field of application of this tax credit (people and buildings), the expenditures in concern, the enforcement modalities (basis, ceiling, ratio, imputation, reimbursement..), the justification of expenses and the applicable sanctions. (J.S.)

  4. ¿Y después qué? ... : action-research and ethnography on governance, actors and development in Southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, F.

    2007-01-01

    The research justification and objectives. Mexico is one of the most natural resource-rich places in the world. However, it is also a country that has shown many contrasts in the use of its resources, human relations and the overall distribution of its richness.   The justification of this re

  5. ¿Y después qué? ... : action-research and ethnography on governance, actors and development in Southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, F.

    2007-01-01

    The research justification and objectives. Mexico is one of the most natural resource-rich places in the world. However, it is also a country that has shown many contrasts in the use of its resources, human relations and the overall distribution of its richness.   The justification of this re

  6. ¿Y después qué? ... : action-research and ethnography on governance, actors and development in Southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, F.

    2007-01-01

    The research justification and objectives. Mexico is one of the most natural resource-rich places in the world. However, it is also a country that has shown many contrasts in the use of its resources, human relations and the overall distribution of its richness.   The justification of this

  7. 解读信息公开对现代行政权正当性的证成--以杭州市政府开放式决策为例%Justification of Information Disclosure to Legitimacy of Modern Executive Power:In the Case of Open Decision-making of Hangzhou Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艺

    2014-01-01

    The value of information disclosure is not limited to the supervision of administration and the protection of the right to access to government information .In the case of open decision‐making of the Hangzhou government ,w hich is based on the rule of broad public aw areness of and participation in major events’ in Regulation on the Disclosure of Government Information ,the government builds a decision‐making process that attracts diverse opinions and encourages public participation .The final purpose of this process is to justify modern executive power legitimacy .In the perspective of open decision‐making ,full disclosure is the initiative prerequisite for participation ,the guarantee access to information to gain wider affirmation of decisions and the interactive consultation to facilitate the decision‐making results more reasonable ,which may resolve the administrative legitimacy crisis .So grasping the key role of information disclosure in justification of modern executive power legitimacy and reconsider the value of information disclosure ,administrative organs should make more proactive and positive responses to information disclosure .%信息公开的制度价值并不限于监督依法行政与保障信息获取权。以杭州市政府开放式决策实践为观察样本,其将《政府信息公开条例》中对公众广泛知晓并参与重大事项的保障作为制度基点,构建了吸纳多元意见的信息渠道,将公众的直接参与导入政府的日常决策。开放式决策模式的实质目的在于证成现代行政权的正当性。在开放式决策的视角下,信息公开正是以充分主动公开作为参与的前提、以保障申请公开获得更广泛的决策认同、以互动协商促进决策结果合理化的多维视角化解现代行政权的正当性危机。把握信息公开重塑现代行政权正当性的关键作用,重新认识信息公开的制度价值理念,将促进行政机关更为主动

  8. An Examination of Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Development Within the United States From 1952 to 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1993), 26. 13Ibid., 72. 14Scott D. Sagan , Moving Targets: National Strategy and National Security, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989), 23...and Company Inc., 1982. Reinhardt, George C., Colonel. American Strategy in the Atomic Age. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955. Sagan , Scott...at CARL . 6. Justification: Justification is required for any distribution other than described in Distribution Statement A. All or part of a thesis

  9. Developing a model of forecasting information systems performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Isaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research aim: to develop a model to forecast the performance ofinformation systems as a mechanism for preliminary assessment of the information system effectiveness before the beginning of financing the information system project.Materials and methods: the starting material used the results of studying the parameters of the statistical structure of information system data processing defects. Methods of cluster analysis and regression analysis were applied.Results: in order to reduce financial risks, information systems customers try to make decisions on the basis of preliminary calculations on the effectiveness of future information systems. However, the assumptions on techno-economic justification of the project can only be obtained when the funding for design work is already open. Its evaluation can be done before starting the project development using a model of forecasting information system performance. The model is developed using regression analysis in the form of a multiple linear regression. The value of information system performance is the predicted variable in the regression equation. The values of data processing defects in the classes of accuracy, completeness and timeliness are the forecast variables. Measurement and evaluation of parameters of the statistical structure of defects were done through programmes of cluster analysis and regression analysis. The calculations for determining the actual and forecast values of the information system performance were conducted.Conclusion: in terms of implementing the model, a research of information systems was carried out, as well as the development of forecasting model of information system performance. The conducted experimental work showed the adequacy of the model. The model is implemented in the complex task of designing information systems in education and industry.

  10. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume I, 1985-1988 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    As the mitigation prescribed by the Regional Act proceeds, the incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. It was deemed prudent by the BPA to anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. In this spirit, Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Sustenability and Organic Growth Marketing: an Exploratory Approach on Valorisation of Durable Development Principles in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Epuran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability implies the extension of companies’ classic relations outside the economic sphere, leading to the necessity of justification and legitimisation of the actions performed by them and being a premise for organic growth, a concept known as smart growth. This means creating more products – values, for more customers, with superior productivity and proper management of the risks caused by growth itself. In this context, the expression “grow or disappear” is replaced by “improve in order to stay competitive”. The objective of this paper is to highlight the way in which the implementation of the sustainable development principles are correlated with the aspects of organic growth in tourism and the possibility of evaluating the organic growth from the perspective of sustainable development. In order to achieve the proposed objective, it was conducted a qualitative marketing research among hotel managers in Bra?ov County. Collected using the quota method, the sample is a non-probabilistic type, and the research was conducted based on semi-structured interview, a method chosen in accordance to the type of research. The major contributions of the research process are to highlight the relation between the sustainable development and organic growth, to propose a general configuration of the marketing strategy pillars of sustainable business in tourism and to identify some methods of evaluating the organic growth from the perspective of sustainable development.

  12. May the Soul of the IFS Financial System Definition RIP in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we dissect with great acuteness contemporary insufficiencies of the IFS (2008 definition of the financial system and conclude from sound theoretical underpinnings and empirical justifications that the foundation, on which it is based, while solid for developed countries, holds less ground in developing countries. Perhaps one of the deepest empirical hollows in the financial development literature has been the equation of financial depth in the perspective of money supply to liquid liabilities. This equation has put on the margin (and skewed burgeoning phenomena of mobile banking, knowledge economy (KE, inequality…etc. We conclude that the informal financial sector, a previously missing component in the IFS conception and definition of the financial system can only be marginalized at the cost of misunderstanding recent burgeoning trends in mobile phone penetration, KE and poverty. Hence, the IFS definition has incontrovertibly fought its final dead battle and lost in the face of soaring trends highlighted above. Despite the plethora of econometric and policy-making sins the definition has committed in developing countries through bias estimates and misleading inferences, may its soul RIP.

  13. Message development for surface markers at the Hanford Radwaste Disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1984-12-31

    At the Hanford Reservation in Washington, there are sites which received liquid and solid transuranic wastes from the late 1940`s until 1970. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) is investigating the feasibility of several options for the permanent disposal of these wastes. One option is to stabilize the wastes in their present locations and to add barriers to minimize water infiltration and root penetration into the wastes. This report forms part of the project to develop a marking system for transuranic wastes on the Hanford Reservation. The focus of this report is the development of the message system to appear on the surface markers. A logical framework is developed to deduce what is required by the message system. Alternatives for each message component are evaluated and justification is provided for the choice of each component. The components are then laid out on the surface marker to provide a legible, comprehensible message system. The surface markers are tall, standing monoliths which ring the perimeter of each disposal area. Based on the logical framework, it is recommended that three domains of representation -- symbols, pictures, and language -- be used in the message system. The warning symbol chosen for the message system is the radiation trefoil. Two other options were considered, including the warning symbol developed by the Human Interference Task Force for a high-level waste repository. The trefoil was preferred because of the widespread usage and international acceptance which is already enjoys.

  14. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  15. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 12. Report on the approach to roll-out to other SMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-11-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report describes the different strategic options for rolling-out the integration of the renewable energy technologies to other SMK (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) than those that are currently involved in CASINDO. The report also contains the justification for one strategic option and of the first actions taken to make this strategy work.

  16. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  17. Task 9. Photovoltaic deployment in developing countries. Financing mechanisms for solar home systems in developing countries. The role of financing in the dissemination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheutzlich, T.; Pertz, K.; Klinghammer, W.; Scholand, M.; Wisniwski, S.

    2002-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home Systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This paper takes a look at financing mechanisms for Solar Home Systems (SHS). The lack of financial services for users of SHS is often regarded as the main barrier for their commercial dissemination and is often the justification for donor assisted programmes. This study attempts to shed some light on the question whether commercial SHS dissemination in remote rural areas could be made easier if financial services were made available. The authors state that the thesis is based on the fact that carefully designed, target-group-oriented financial services may speed up the widespread dissemination of SHS. Financial mechanisms for the stimulation of SHS and how their commercialisation can be achieved are among the topics discussed.

  18. TEAM BUILDING IN THE CONTEXT OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna ALYABINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the research is justification of the effectiveness of such organizational development method as ‘teambuilding’. The article shows the role and place of teambuilding in the system of innovative companies’ organizational development and contains the example of teambuilding activities in a large innovative company – producer of electronics. An attempt has been made to analyze how the existing system of individual material motivation in the company is interrelated with team management methods. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of teambuilding activities including the ‘Introduction to Company’ training, teambuilding training and ‘Sales and Service’ training. The novelty of the work is in application of innovative research methods: Seashore's Group Cohesiveness Index, Group Entitativity Measure test and the method of reflected subjectivity measurement by V. A. Petrovskiy. The result is the validation of positive correlation between training as an organizational development method and the level of group cohesion in the company, which, in its turn, raises the professional level of personnel, their involvement in the work of the company and their capability to solve problems more efficiently. 

  19. Can context justify an ethical double standard for clinical research in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landes Megan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of clinical research deserves special caution so as to safeguard the rights of participating individuals. While the international community has agreed on ethical standards for the design of research, these frameworks still remain open to interpretation, revision and debate. Recently a breach in the consensus of how to apply these ethical standards to research in developing countries has occurred, notably beginning with the 1994 placebo-controlled trials to reduce maternal to child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. The design of these trials sparked intense debate with the inclusion of a placebo-control group despite the existence of a 'gold standard' and trial supporters grounded their justifications of the trial design on the context of scarcity in resource-poor settings. Discussion These 'contextual' apologetics are arguably an ethical loophole inherent in current bioethical methodology. However, this convenient appropriation of 'contextual' analysis simply fails to acknowledge the underpinnings of feminist ethical analysis upon which it must stand. A more rigorous analysis of the political, social, and economic structures pertaining to the global context of developing countries reveals that the bioethical principles of beneficence and justice fail to be met in this trial design. Conclusion Within this broader, and theoretically necessary, understanding of context, it becomes impossible to justify an ethical double standard for research in developing countries.

  20. Building scientific confidence in the development and evaluation of read-across.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlewicz, G; Ball, N; Boogaard, P J; Becker, R A; Hubesch, B

    2015-06-01

    Read-across is an alternative approach exploited to address information requirements for risk assessment and for regulatory programmes such as the European Union's REACH regulation. Whilst read-across approaches are accepted in principle, difficulties still remain in applying them consistently in practice. Recent work within Cefic LRI and ECETOC attempted to summarize the state-of-the-art and identify some of the barriers to broader acceptance of read-across approaches to overcome these. Acceptance is undoubtedly thwarted partly by the lack of a systematic framework to characterize the read-across justification and identify the uncertainties particularly for complex regulatory endpoints such as repeated-dose toxicity or prenatal developmental toxicity. Efforts are underway by the European Chemical's Agency (ECHA) to develop a Read-Across Assessment Framework (RAAF) and private sector experts have also considered the development of a similar framework. At the same time, mechanistic chemical categories are being proposed which are underpinned by Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs). Currently such frameworks are only focusing on discrete organic substances, though the AOP approach could conceivably be applied to evaluate more complex substances such as mixtures. Here we summarize the deliberations of the Cefic LRI read-across team in characterizing scientific confidence in the development and evaluation of read-across.