WorldWideScience

Sample records for renegotiating gendered subjectivities

  1. Debt Covenant Renegotiation and Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona

    This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiation outside corporate distress on firms. We study a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment reduces the agency cost of debt because...... it induces a firm value maximizing investment financing policy and mitigates the overinvestment problem. Incorporating renegotiation outside corporate distress is crucial to explain empirical occurrence patterns of debt renegotiation, the impact of debt renegotiation on corporate securities, and the relation...

  2. The Renegotiation-Proofness Principle and Costly Renegotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Brennan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We study contracting and costly renegotiation in settings of complete, but unverifiable information, using the mechanism-design approach. We show how renegotiation activity is best modeled in the fundamentals of the mechanism-design framework, so that noncontractibility of renegotiation amounts to a constraint on the problem. We formalize and clarify the Renegotiation-Proofness Principle (RPP, which states that any state-contingent payoff vector that is implementable in an environment with renegotiation can also be implemented by a mechanism in which renegotiation does not occur in equilibrium. We observe that the RPP is not valid in some settings. However, we prove a general monotonicity result that confirms the RPP’s message about renegotiation opportunities having negative consequences. Our monotonicity theorem states that, as the costs of renegotiation increase, the set of implementable state-contingent payoffs becomes larger.

  3. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  4. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  5. Renegotiation Perfection in Infinite Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C. Jamison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamic structure of equilibria in game theory. Allowing players in a game the opportunity to renegotiate, or switch to a feasible and Pareto superior equilibrium, can lead to welfare gains. However, in an extensive-form game this can also make it more difficult to enforce punishment strategies, leading to the question of which equilibria are feasible after all. This paper attempts to resolve that question by presenting the first definition of renegotiation-proofness in general games. This new concept, the renegotiation perfect set, satisfies five axioms. The first three axioms—namely Rationality, Consistency, and Internal Stability—characterize weakly renegotiation-proof sets. There is a natural generalized tournament defined on the class of all WRP sets, and the final two axioms—External Stability and Optimality—pick a unique “winner” from this tournament. The tournament solution concept employed, termed the catalog, is based on Dutta’s minimal covering set and can be applied to many settings other than renegotiation. It is shown that the renegotiation perfection concept is an extension of the standard renegotiation-proof definition for finite games, introduced by (Benoit and Krishna 1993, and that it captures the notion of a strongly renegotiation-proof equilibrium as defined by (Farrell and Maskin 1989.

  6. Contract Renegotiation and Organizational Design

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Poitevin

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the implications of non-commitment for organizational design. An organizational form must trade-off between the coordination benefits associated with the centralization of information and its associated costs in terms of renegotiation. The analysis makes precise what these benefits and costs are. First, I characterize renegotiation-proof allocations for organizational forms that differ in the amount of decentralization that they support. Second, I compare these different or...

  7. "Being Good" at Maths: Fabricating Gender Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronaki, Anna; Pechtelidis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Current research in mathematics education places emphasis on the analysis of men and women's accounts about their life trajectories and choices for studying, working and developing a career that involves the learning and teaching of mathematics. Within this realm, the present study aims to highlight how mathematics, gender and subjectivity become…

  8. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  9. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  10. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  11. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  12. Virtual materiality, potentiality and gendered subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse, subjectivity and the enactment of masculinity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse, subjectivity and masculinity in children’s everyday lives...

  13. Influence Of Age, Gender, Subject Background And Predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence Of Age, Gender, Subject Background And Predisposing Factors On The ... of Nigerian universities apply to study library and information science unless as ... Chi-square tests revealed significant relationships between undergraduates ...

  14. Influence Of Gender Stereotyping Of Science Subjects On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence Of Gender Stereotyping Of Science Subjects On Secondary School ... Correlational research design was used in which a random sample of 378 was ... and Stereotyping of Science Questionnaire (SASSQ) was used in data collection.

  15. Effective Quality-of-Service Renegotiating Schemes for Streaming Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hwangjun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The conventional network supporting quality of service generally allows a negotiation at a call setup. However, it is not efficient for the video application since the compressed video traffic is statistically nonstationary. Thus, we consider the network supporting quality-of-service renegotiations during the data transmission and study effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The token bucket model, whose parameters are token filling rate and token bucket size, is adopted for the video traffic model. The renegotiating time instants and the parameters are determined by analyzing the statistical information of compressed video traffic. In this paper, two renegotiating approaches, that is, fixed renegotiating interval case and variable renegotiating interval case, are examined. Finally, the experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed schemes.

  16. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers’ gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eHanulíková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker’s gender, i.e. the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker’s gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbours were upset because I *stoleMASC plums’ elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker’s gender, a disagreement between a formally-marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM *stoleMASC plums resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally-marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  17. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers' gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker's gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker's gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbors were upset because I (∗)stoleMASC plums') elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker's gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM (∗)stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  18. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers’ gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker’s identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker’s gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject–verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker’s gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker’s gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person ‘the neighbors were upset because I ∗stoleMASC plums’) elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker’s gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM ∗stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex. PMID:26441771

  19. Gender differences associated with orienting attentional networks in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; HU Pan-pan; FAN Jin; WANG Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective attention is considered one of the main components of cognitive functioning.A number of studies have demonstrated gender differences in cognition.This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in selective attention in healthy subjects.Methods The present experiment examined the gender differences associated with the efficiency of three attentional networks:alerting,orienting,and executive control attention in 73 healthy subjects (38 males).All participants performed a modified version of the Attention Network Test (ANT).Results Females had higher orienting scores than males (t=2.172,P <0.05).Specifically,females were faster at covert orienting of attention to a spatially cued location.There were no gender differences between males and females in alerting (t=0.813,P >0.05) and executive control (t=0.945,P >0.05) attention networks.Conclusions There was a significant gender difference between males and females associated with the orienting network.Enhanced orienting attention in females may function to motivate females to direct their attention to a spatially cued location.

  20. Renegotiation of transportation public-private partnerships: The US experience

    OpenAIRE

    Gifford, Jonathan; Bolaños, Lisardo; Daito, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (P3s) typically rely on long-term contracts between participants. When conditions arise that fall outside the expectations embodied in the contract, one party may seek to renegotiate the contract terms. Globally, the frequency of P3 contract renegotiations has been sufficient to raise questions regarding why these events occur and what their consequences are for the projects and society. The literature highlights four relevant causes behind renegotiation occurrence...

  1. Anorexia nervosa: discourses of gender, subjectivity and the body

    OpenAIRE

    Malson, H. M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis investigates how anorexia nervosa is constructed and deployed as a discursive social and psychological category, drawing critically on feminist psychoanalytic and Foucauldian theories of gender, subjectivity and discourse. The introduction provides a brief discussion of diagnostic criteria and the epidemiology of anorexia. It outlines the thesis as a whole, providing a brief explanation of the approach adopted in the thesis. Chapter 2 critically reviews rec...

  2. Gender classification of running subjects using full-body kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina M.; Flora, Jeffrey B.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes novel automated gender classification of subjects while engaged in running activity. The machine learning techniques include preprocessing steps using principal component analysis followed by classification with linear discriminant analysis, and nonlinear support vector machines, and decision-stump with AdaBoost. The dataset consists of 49 subjects (25 males, 24 females, 2 trials each) all equipped with approximately 80 retroreflective markers. The trials are reflective of the subject's entire body moving unrestrained through a capture volume at a self-selected running speed, thus producing highly realistic data. The classification accuracy using leave-one-out cross validation for the 49 subjects is improved from 66.33% using linear discriminant analysis to 86.74% using the nonlinear support vector machine. Results are further improved to 87.76% by means of implementing a nonlinear decision stump with AdaBoost classifier. The experimental findings suggest that the linear classification approaches are inadequate in classifying gender for a large dataset with subjects running in a moderately uninhibited environment.

  3. How Is Gender Self-Confidence Related to Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2006-01-01

    This study of ethnically diverse participants explored the relationship of gender self-confidence to subjective well-being. The 2 components of gender self-confidence (gender self-definition and gender self-acceptance) were assessed using the Hoffman Gender Scale (R. M. Hoffman, 1996; R. M. Hoffman, L. D. Borders, & J. A. Hattie, 2000). The…

  4. How Is Gender Self-Confidence Related to Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2006-01-01

    This study of ethnically diverse participants explored the relationship of gender self-confidence to subjective well-being. The 2 components of gender self-confidence (gender self-definition and gender self-acceptance) were assessed using the Hoffman Gender Scale (R. M. Hoffman, 1996; R. M. Hoffman, L. D. Borders, & J. A. Hattie, 2000). The…

  5. Impulsivity, gender, and the platelet serotonin transporter in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marazziti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Baroni, Irene Masala, Francesca Golia, Giorgio Consoli, Gabriele Massimetti, Michela Picchetti, Mario Catena Dell’Osso, Gino Giannaccini, Laura Betti, Antonio Lucacchini, Antonio CiapparelliDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: The present study explored the possible relationships between impulsivity, gender, and a peripheral serotonergic marker, the platelet serotonin (5-HT transporter (SERT, in a group of 32 healthy subjects. The impulsivity was measured by means of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, version 11 (BIS-11, a widely used self-report questionnaire, and the platelet SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par to platelet membranes, according to standardized protocols. The results showed that women had a higher BIS-11 total score than men, and also higher scores of two factors of the same scale: the motor impulsivity and the cognitive complexity. The analysis of the correlations revealed that the density of the SERT proteins, as measured by the maximum binding capacity (Bmax of 3H-Par, was significantly and positively related to the cognitive complexity factor, but only in men. Men showed also a significant and negative correlation with the dissociation constant, Kd, of (3H-Par binding, and the motor impulsivity factor. These findings suggest that women are generally more impulsive than men, but that the 5-HT system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women.Keywords: impulsivity, gender, serotonin transporter, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, platelets, 3H-paroxetine

  6. A note on renegotiation in repeated Bertrand duopolies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2007-01-01

    Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome......Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome...

  7. Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: does country-level gender equality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho

    2013-12-01

    Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender Differences in Contextual Predictors of Urban, Early Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…

  9. Gender Differences in Contextual Predictors of Urban, Early Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…

  10. Dynamic Capital Structure with Callable Debt and Debt Renegotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Flor, Christian Riis; Lando, David

    2014-01-01

    We consider a dynamic trade-off model of a firm’s capital structure with debt renegotiation. Debt holders only accept restructuring offers from equity holders backed by threats which are in the equity holders’ own interest to execute. Our model shows that in a complete information model in which...

  11. Excerpt from Domestic Subjects: Gender, Citizenship, and Law in Native American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth H. Piatote

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Beth H. Piatote, Domestic Subjects: Gender, Citizenship, and Law in Native American Literature (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.Reprinted with permission from Yale University Press.

  12. Renegotiating "best treatment practice" and professional subject positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    other. The analysis indicates that an argument of prevention may be a reinforcing motivation factor and possibility of subjectivation for the personnel. A possibility to construct a story about oneself, that facilitates the staff development as self-managing professional, in line with modern management......This paper will investigate the situated enactments of the psychiatric prevention and treatment approach Open Dialogue. Open Dialogue has theoretical roots in constructionist language theory (e.g. Gergen) and systemic therapy (e.g. the Milanoschool; Selvini-Palazzoli et al.). The ideal...

  13. Renegotiating "best treatment practice" and professional subject positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    for the professionals involved. In other words I will discuss how situated ways of becoming psychiatric member of personnel is connected with the enactments of ideals in Open Dialogue. The analysis draws on empirical material collected through observations, interviews and videos dealing with different aspects...... strategies, where governing strategies are made invisible, and where management strategies are converted to individual existential projects. A central argument is that the individual ethical project of the introduction of a new treatment approach melts together with psychiatric treatment. There is no longer...

  14. [Subjectivity of nursing college students' awareness of gender equality: an application of Q-methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun Jeong

    2012-06-01

    This study was done to identify the awareness of gender equality among nursing college students, and to provide basic data for educational solutions and desirable directions. A Q-methodology which provides a method of analyzing the subjectivity of each item was used. 34 selected Q-statements from each of 20 women nursing college students were classified into a shape of normal distribution using 9-point scale. Subjectivity on the equality among genders was analyzed by the pc-QUANL program. Four types of awareness of gender equality in nursing college students were identified. The name for type I was 'pursuit of androgyny', for type II, 'difference-recognition', for type III, 'human-relationship emphasis', and for type IV, 'social-system emphasis'. The results of this study indicate that different approaches to educational programs on gender equality are recommended for nursing college students based on the four types of gender equality awareness.

  15. Recodifications of Academic Positions and Reiterations of Desire: Change but Continuity in Gendered Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapping, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the analysis of changes in the social position of women needs to distinguish between levels of social practice and psychic subjectification. The argument draws on Lacan's conception of the relationship between subjectivity, desire and sexual difference to describe gendered aspects of subjectivity embedded within the…

  16. Transgender women and the Gender Reassignment Process: subjection experiences, suffering and pleasure in body adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analídia Rodolpho Petry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article seeks to understand the experiences of transgender women in relation to the hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery that make up the Gender Reassignment Process. METHOD: It is a qualitative study inserted into the field of cultural and gender studies. Data collection used narrative interviews, conducted in 2010 and 2011, with seven transsexual women who had been undergoing the Gender Reassignment Process for at least two years. The data was submitted to a thematic analysis. RESULTS: The results show that the transformation processes for construction of the female body include behavior adaptation, posture modification, voice modulation, hormone use, vaginal canal dilation and surgical complications. Such processes subject the body to be built as idealized to fit the gender identity, infringing on pleasures and afflictions. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the discussion involving the Gender Reassignment Process brings allowances for nursing regarding body changes experienced by transgender women.

  17. Corruption and concession renegotiations. Evidence from the water and transport sectors in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasch, J. Luis [World Bank (United States); University of California, San Diego (United States); Straub, Stephane [Toulouse School of Economics, ARQADE (France); University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Numerous renegotiations have plagued water and transport concession contracts in Latin America. Using a panel dataset of over 300 concession contracts from Latin America between 1989 and 2000, we show that country-level corruption is a significant determinant of these renegotiations and that the effect of corruption varies depending on the type of renegotiations considered. While a more corrupt environment clearly leads to more firm-led renegotiations, it significantly reduces the incidence of government-led ones. The paper then discusses and tests the likely channels through which these different effects of corruption arise, looking in particular at the interactions between country-level corruption and relevant microeconomic institutions. (author)

  18. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana

    2016-01-01

    in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage...

  19. Media Usage, Religiosity and Gender as Determinant of Performance in Chemistry Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Ganiyat Kehinde; Mercy, Ofole Ndidi

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effect of media usage, religiosity and gender on performance in chemistry subject. This study employed survey research design. Two hundred participants (66 males and 134 females) drawn from public Senior Secondary Schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Oyo State constituted the study's sample.…

  20. Perceptions of Classroom Assessment Tasks: An Interplay of Gender, Subject Area, and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain Ali; Al-Hosni, Salim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' perceptions of classroom assessment tasks as a function of gender, subject area, and grade level. Data from 2753 students on Dorman and Knightley's (2006) Perceptions of Assessment Tasks Inventory (PATI) were analyzed in a MANOVA design. Results showed that students tended to hold positive perceptions of their…

  1. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Holst, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the German Socio-economic Panel to examine gender differences in the extent to which self-reported subjective well-being was associated with occupying a high-level managerial position in the labour market, compared with employment in non-leadership, non-high-level managerial positions, unemployment, and non-labour market…

  2. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Holst, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the German Socio-economic Panel to examine gender differences in the extent to which self-reported subjective well-being was associated with occupying a high-level managerial position in the labour market, compared with employment in non-leadership, non-high-level managerial positions, unemployment, and non-labour market…

  3. QoS Negotiation and Renegotiation Based on Mobile Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-bing; ZHANG Deng-yin

    2006-01-01

    The Quality of Service (QoS) has received more and more attention since QoS becomes increasingly important in the Internet development. Mobile software agents represent a valid alternative to the implementation of strategies for the negotiation. In this paper, a QoS negotiation and renegotiation system architecture based on mobile agents is proposed. The agents perform the task in the whole process. Therefore, such a system can reduce the network load, overcome latency, and avoid frequent exchange information between clients and server. The simulation results show that the proposed system could improve the network resource utility about 10%.

  4. Renegotiating Incomplete Contracts: Over and Under-Investment in Public Infraestructure Renegotiating Incomplete Contracts: Over and Under-Investment in Public Infraestructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Saavedra

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper characterizes the equilibria of infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex–post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment (labeled as investments in service quality is renegotiated by the parties in the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this paper is that not only under-investment but also over-investment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting level. This paper characterizes the equilibria of infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex–post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment (labeled as investments in service quality is renegotiated by the parties in the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this paper is that not only under-investment but also over-investment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting level.

  5. How avoidant attachment influences subjective well-being: an investigation about the age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H

    2014-01-01

    Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.

  6. Gender-dependent reduction of spontaneous motor activity and growth in rats subjected to portacaval shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conjeevaram, H S; Mullen, K D; May, E J; McCullough, A J

    1994-02-01

    Alterations in behavior are frequently described in rats subjected to portacaval shunt. Previous work has reported reduced spontaneous motor activity in various settings (nighttime, red light, decreased illumination) in this animal model. We investigated this phenomenon in rats of both genders subjected to portacaval shunt to determine whether our previously observed divergent growth patterns (males reduced, females unchanged) had any impact on the alterations in spontaneous motor activity in this model. Dietary intake, growth, motor activity and serum ammonia and amino acid concentrations were measured, in addition to final liver and spleen weights, in each animal after 3 to 4 wk of observation. Our results reconfirm the differential impact of portacaval shunt on growth in male (35% reduction p < 0.01) but not female rats (5% reduction, NS) compared with their respective-gender sham-operated controls. In addition, spontaneous motor activity was significantly reduced in male (congruent to 50%, p = 0.01) but not female rats subjected to portacaval shunt. The reduction of activity in male rats subjected to portacaval shunt did not correlate with any of the measured biochemical data or calculated nutritional/growth parameters. Thus we observed gender-dependent reduction in spontaneous motor activity after portacaval shunt in the rat. The mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown, but it is easily investigated with this reproducible model.

  7. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. On the Gender Difference of Translator’s Subjectivity in Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志海; 董淑新; 王齐

    2014-01-01

    Translation is an activity aimed at transferring the source language to the target language, related to many aspects in⁃volving culture, society, history and so on. The translator plays a critical role in translation practice. Xu Jun considers“translator’s subjectivity should be reflected to be artistic personal consciousness in translated works.”Translator’s differences in age, gender, personal traits, educational level and other aspects make translation artistry completely divergent. Therefore, translator ’s subjectivi⁃ty shoulders great significances on the success of literary translation, which isn ’t arbitrary, out of control, must be conducted in line with essence of the original work. This paper focuses on the gender difference of translator ’s subjectivity in literary transla⁃tion, hoping to find a way of eliminating the influence of it in the translation work.

  9. The house of difference: gender, culture, and the subject-in-process on the American stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L

    1993-01-01

    A lesbian woman of color is often defined by her multiple differences as "other" and/or "object." Yet these very differences can also allow her to challenge culturally held notions of gender, subjectivity, and representation. This article examines one such example, Cherríe Moraga's teatro Giving Up the Ghost where, for the first time, the issue of Chicana lesbian sexuality is addressed on the stage.

  10. Identifying the death gender -- the ghost of masochism in queer subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This article re-assesses the theories of death, narcissism and identification from a selection of essays by Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan in order to demonstrate that gender is generated out of masochism and the 'death drive' (Todestrieb). In closely reading and amending key sections of Judith Butler's queer theories, the author argues against her Foucaltian claim that the queer subject is constituted in the face of a sadistic Law, which s/he is forced to eroticise and internalise, and therefore conflate with her/his own masochism. It is argued that the subject's masochism is a queer attempt not to be; to bridge the constitutional split enforced by the Lacanian idea of the assumption of subjectivity through misidentification, and to become a living mortuary for the (dead) identifications that found the subject on his/her illusory ground through the (contingent) foreclosure of the Other.

  11. Outcome and preferences in male–to–female subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gender dysphoria (GD is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. Aims: Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male–to–female (MTF transgender subjects in Eastern India. Subjects and Methods: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis is carried out in the present study, and Microsoft Word and Excel are used to generate graphs and tables. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.9 years and 14 subjects (25.5% were lost to follow-up after a single or 2–3 contact sessions. Rest 41 subjects (74.5% desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All 41 subjects were dressing to present herself as female and all of them were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy either estrogen only (68%, or drospirenone in combination with estrogen (12% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH in combination with estrogens (19.5%. Most of the subjects preferred estrogen therapy as it was most affordable and only a small number of subjects preferred drospirenone or GnRH agonist because of cost and availability. 23.6% subjects underwent esthetic breast augmentation surgery and 25.5% underwent orchiectomy and/or vaginoplasty. Three subjects presented with prior breast augmentation surgery and nine subjects presented with prior orchiectomy without vaginoplasty, depicting a high prevalence of poorly supervised surgeries. Conclusions: Standards of care documents provide clinical guidance for health professionals about the optimal management of transsexual people. The lack of information among health professionals about proper and protocolwise management leads to suboptimal physical, social, and sexual results.

  12. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  13. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law.

  14. Gender differences in subjective health complaints in adolescence: The roles of self-esteem, stress from schoolwork and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanesen, Fiona; Meland, Eivind; Torp, Steffen

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine subjective health complaints among Norwegian adolescents and assess the development of gender differences in subjective health complaints between age 14 and 16; to investigate whether self-esteem, stress from schoolwork or body dissatisfaction affected adolescents' subjective health complaints; and determine whether these factors could explain the excess of subjective health complaints among girls. We used multiple linear regression analyses to analyse longitudinal survey data from 751 Norwegian adolescents at the ages of 14 and 16. The results from various cross-sectional and prospective analyses were compared. Girls reported more subjective health complaints than boys, and gender differences increased from age 14 to 16. Self-esteem and stress from schoolwork had cross-sectional and prospective associations with subjective health complaints. Stress from schoolwork at age 14 was also associated with changes in subjective health complaints from age 14 to 16. The cross-sectional mediation analyses indicated that self-esteem and stress from schoolwork accounted for 61% of the excess of subjective health complaints among girls at age 16. The same variables measured at age 14 accounted for 24% of the gender differences in subjective health complaints two years later. The investigated factors could not account for the increase in gender differences in subjective health complaints between ages 14 and 16. The findings showed that self-esteem and stress from schoolwork were associated with subjective health complaints during adolescence. These factors could partially explain the excess of subjective health complaints among girls.

  15. The impact of globalization on subjectivities in Cuba: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Ania Pupo

    2014-10-01

    Globalization has created great transformations, not only in economics, but also in social and cultural relations, and has influenced political practices and governments. If not critically analysed, globalization may at first appear positive, but, in parallel with its development, high levels of poverty and exclusion have occurred and these may affect men and women differently. The objective of this article is to reveal the subjective or individual consequences that derive from globalization and the contexts it creates. This analysis centres on a gender perspective within a Cuban context and tries to challenge the prevailing view of the most poor and excluded groups. Psychiatry and psychology have a long way to go in the search for an understanding of the impact of globalization on human well-being, but critical thinking and the social sciences can offer an alternative to the transformation of this constructed order by giving prominence to people's own subjectivities and experiences.

  16. SERUM HEPCIDIN REFERENCE RANGE, GENDER DIFFERENCES, MENOPAUSAL DEPENDENCE AND BIOCHEMICAL CORRELATES IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilkovska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepcidin has emerged as the central regulatory molecule of iron homeostasis. Iron deficiency and iron overload play a major role in molecular insights of many disease states and serum hepcidin normal values and biochemical correlations are of substantial importance. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the serum hepcidin reference range, gender and age differences, menopausal dependence and biochemical correlates in healthy subjects. Methods: Serum hepcidin concentration was measured with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DRG Hepcidin-25 ELISA Kit together with hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, transferrin and C-reactive protein in 120 healthy subjects both men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Results: Normal serum hepcidin values were found in the range of 1,23 – 36,46 ng/mL (mean 9,25 ± 6,45 ng/mL.There were statistically significant differences in measured hepcidin levels between men (12,34 ± 7,37 ng/mL and women (6,16 ± 3,2 ng/mL (p<0.01 and between pre- menopausal (5,51 ± 2,8 ng/mL and post-menopausal women (7,29 ± 3,59 ng/mL ( p<0,05. Strong correlations were found with serum ferritin and hemoglobin but not with serum iron, transferrin and CRP. No 5-year age interval differences were deemed significant. Conclusion: Serum hepcidin concentration varied substantially between subjects, which is reflected in wide reference ranges. Serum hepcidin levels were gender and menopausal status related and were in correlation with hemoglobin and serum ferritin in healthy subjects

  17. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  18. Subjective sexual arousal in response to erotica: effects of gender, guided fantasy, erotic stimulus, and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Gahyun

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of gender, guided fantasy, erotic stimulus (with or without audio), and exposure duration on the subjective sexual arousal of participants watching a 10-min erotic video excerpt depicting sexual activities between a heterosexual adult couple. The excerpt was shown to 105 male and 110 female undergraduates, and sexual arousal was measured four times, at intervals of 1, 4, 7, and 10,min from the onset of the excerpt. While no erotic stimulus effect was found, analysis of variance showed main effects of gender, guided fantasy, and exposure duration, and three two-way interactions of gender x guided fantasy, gender x exposure duration, and guided fantasy x exposure duration. According to the results of simple effects tests, the gender effects were found regardless of whether they had firstly experienced a guided fantasy, while the guided fantasy effect was detected only for the females. The simple main effects for gender were found at all four time intervals, while the pattern of within-subject contrasts at the four time intervals for the males was different from that for the females. The simple main effects for guided fantasy were not found at 1,min and 4,min, but at 7,min and 10,min, while the pattern of within-subject contrasts at the four time intervals for the guided fantasy present condition was different from that for the absent condition. The findings involving gender differences were discussed in the context of biological and social factors.

  19. The Role of Personality in Relation to Gender Differences in School Subject Choices in Pre-University Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, H.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Boys and girls to some extent differ in personality characteristics while they also prefer different school subjects in secondary education. This study has attempted to unravel the relations among gender, personality, and students' subject choices. The study was based on a sample of 1,740 9th grade

  20. The Role of Personality in Relation to Gender Differences in School Subject Choices in Pre-University Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, H.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Boys and girls to some extent differ in personality characteristics while they also prefer different school subjects in secondary education. This study has attempted to unravel the relations among gender, personality, and students' subject choices. The study was based on a sample of 1,740 9th grade

  1. Gender differences when choosing school subjects: Parental push and career pull. Some tentative hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Chris; O'Connor, Pam

    1991-12-01

    The literature has made us all aware of large gender differences in students' atttudes to science, in enrolment statistics in upper high school and tertiary level science courses, and in different spheres of employment. What have not been looked at in detail are the factors which are influential when students begin to make choices in early high school, choices which may well set them on a particular pathway from which it is difficult to turn. This preliminary study identifies factors which students in a Year 9 class believed were influential on the limited subject choices they had been able to make in Years 8 and 9, and the factors they believed would be most influential on choices to be made later in the school. In addition the students' views of science, of the separate sciences, and of their anticipated career patterns were sought. Several interesting findings were made which, if validated in further work, could lead to strategies which would support other approaches designed to reduce gender imbalances related to science.

  2. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J

    1996-06-01

    This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported.

  3. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in "Supernatural"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybro Petersen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion is subsumed to media logic, and thus transformed religious representations are an example of a continuous process of mediatization of religion. This essay applies a three-sided theoretical approach, considering mediatization, cognitive anthropology, and social theory. The concept of mediatization applied here implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming these representations, the show challenges our imaginations. These transformations of banal religious representations in Supernatural come about in three ways: (1 as a mainstreaming of occulture, (2 through connecting banal religious elements to existential themes, and (3 through playful intertextuality. The series applies these narrative devices, which heighten plausibility and familiarity, while simultaneously offering viewers a change in perspective, thus creating opportunities for viewers to renegotiate existing religious imaginations.

  4. Gender differences in childhood food preference: evaluation using a subjective picture choice method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shinji; Endo, Yuri; Minamimae, Keiko; Kanzaki, Susumu; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    A preference for calorie-dense food in men seems to be closely linked with a considerably higher incidence of obesity in adulthood for men than women, but it is not clear in which life stage the gender differences in food preference begin to appear. In order to clarify this, a picture choice method has been developed that is designed to evaluate food preferences or interests in children based on their subjective choices. In total, 486 children aged 6-12 years were enrolled. To evaluate food interest, children were instructed to choose any 10 from 36 pictures in the panel showing 10 different foods and 26 other things. The number of foods chosen was set as the food interest score. For food preference, they were also instructed to choose any 10 from 36 pictures in the other panel depicting 36 different foods. For the 10 foods chosen, Japanese food score, energy density, fat energy content, and saturated fatty acid score were calculated. These indices were compared for sex, age group and body mass index. Indices reflecting food interest or fat preference were significantly higher in boys than girls both in the 7-9- and 10-12-year-old age groups. Positive correlations were found between food interest score and energy density, fat energy content, and saturated fatty acid score. Using the picture choice method, definite gender differences in food preference were identified in early elementary school children. This information could be useful for dietary therapy in childhood obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Proposal for the renegotiation of a contract for the supply of eight coil casings for the barrel toroid magnet of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the renegotiation of a contract for the supply of eight coil casings for the Barrel Toroid Magnet of the ATLAS detector. The proposal for the award of a contract with ABB ENERTECH (CH) was presented to Finance Committee for information in September 1998 (CERN/FC/4089). In view of the developments outlined in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the renegotiation of a contract with ALSTOM SWITZERLAND (CH), for the supply of eight coil casings for the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Magnet for a total Ex-works price of 12 580 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July 2001, with an option for an extra coil casing for an additional Ex-works price of 1 525 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July 2001, bringing the total amount for the supply to 14 105 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July 2001. The total amount of the contract, including transport to the integration site, will not exceed 14 490 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July...

  6. Effects of gender and relationship context in audio narratives on genital and subjective sexual response in heterosexual women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L; Timmers, Amanda D

    2012-02-01

    Previous research suggests that heterosexual women's sexual arousal patterns are nonspecific; heterosexual women demonstrate genital arousal to both preferred and nonpreferred sexual stimuli. These patterns may, however, be related to the intense and impersonal nature of the audiovisual stimuli used. The current study investigated the gender specificity of heterosexual women's sexual arousal in response to less intense sexual stimuli, and also examined the role of relationship context on both women's and men's genital and subjective sexual responses. Assessments were made of 43 heterosexual women's and 9 heterosexual men's genital and subjective sexual arousal to audio narratives describing sexual or neutral encounters with female and male strangers, friends, or long-term relationship partners. Consistent with research employing audiovisual sexual stimuli, men demonstrated a category-specific pattern of genital and subjective arousal with respect to gender, while women showed a nonspecific pattern of genital arousal, yet reported a category-specific pattern of subjective arousal. Heterosexual women's nonspecific genital response to gender cues is not a function of stimulus intensity or relationship context. Relationship context did significantly affect women's genital sexual arousal--arousal to both female and male friends was significantly lower than to the stranger and long-term relationship contexts--but not men's. These results suggest that relationship context may be a more important factor in heterosexual women's physiological sexual response than gender cues.

  7. Gender differences in subjective sleep after trauma and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2013-08-01

    Women are at higher risk than men for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following certain types of trauma such as accidents and assaults. Sleep disturbances have been implicated in the development of PTSD. Although gender differences in objective sleep soon after trauma have been found in a prior polysomnographic study, gender differences in subjective sleep soon after trauma and their associations to the development of PTSD have not been examined. This pilot study prospectively examined whether gender moderated the relationship between subjective sleep soon after trauma and PTSD symptom development. Injury patients (17 women, 28 men) completed a sleep questionnaire and a 1-week sleep diary 2 weeks after their injuries, and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale at 7-weeks postinjury. Results showed that women reported greater frequency of nightmares and disruptive nocturnal behaviors (e.g., hot flashes, memories/nightmares about trauma) following the trauma and more severe PTSD symptoms at 7 weeks. Further, gender moderated the relationship between sleep-onset latency and PTSD symptom severity, such that longer sleep-onset latency predicted more severe PTSD symptoms in men, but less severe PTSD symptoms in women. These findings suggest that gender-specific mechanisms may underlie the relationship between sleep impairment and the development of PTSD.

  8. 5-HTTLPR, anxiety and gender interaction moderates right amygdala volume in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo; Piras, Fabrizio; Mangone, Graziella; Magariello, Angela; Fagioli, Sabrina; Girardi, Paolo; Muglia, Maria; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2014-10-01

    Genetic variants within the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) impact the neurobiology and risk for anxiety-related behaviours. There are also gender differences in the prevalence of anxiety-related behaviours. Although numerous studies have investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on the neural systems involved in emotional regulation, none have investigated how these effects are modulated by gender and anxiety. We investigated this issue using two complementary region of interest-based structural neuroimaging approaches (voxel-based morphometry and Freesurfer) in 138 healthy individuals categorized into 'no anxiety' and 'subclinical anxiety' groups based on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Preliminarily, using anxiety as a continuous variable, we found a significant interaction effect of genotype by gender on anxiety. Females homozygous for the Short allele showed the highest HAM-A scores and males the lowest. In addition, a three-way significant interaction among genotype, gender and anxiety category was found for the right amygdala volume. Post hoc tests revealed that homozygous females carrying the Short variant with a subclinical anxiety condition had larger volume. The reported interaction effects demonstrate that gender strongly modulates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and subclinical expression of anxiety acting on amygdala, one region of the emotional neural network specifically involved in the anxiety-like behaviours.

  9. Enhancing Social Connectedness or Stabilising Oppression: Is Participation in Music Free From Gendered Subjectivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Scrine

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Connectedness and inclusivity are components of a healthy community. However, intersectional feminist thought poses that exclusion and marginalisation are enacted through gendered power structures and affect the lives of individuals and communities around the world on multiple intersecting axes, including gender, sexuality, race, class, and disability (Crenshaw, 1989. Critical analysis of music in its high art form, from traditional music education and musical narratives, to jazz, to what instrument one chooses, highlights a raced, classed gender order, and an ongoing cultural bias that privileges a heteronormative narrative, and highlights the work and importance of men’s contributions (Bradley, 2007; Gould, 2007; Maus, 2011. While community approaches to musical participation may seek to emancipate and transcend moral hierarchies which dictate who can and cannot participate, I contend that these may occur within the context of a deeply entrenched gender order. By focusing only on the essential and universal, or liberating and connecting qualities of music and music therapy for all of humanity, we may sidestep and erase histories of oppression and marginalisation. This article uses a critical lens to explore the literature for contexts in music that preserve a male dominated gender order, and seeks to question and problematise the notion that music provides equal opportunity for social connectedness.

  10. A Discussion of Gender-conscious towards Legal Subjects%法律主体的性别之辩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马姝

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of dualism,subject of law has distinct brand of patriarchy.The argument has been proved by lots of facts.For example,woman could not be regarded as legal subjects in history,and many western thinkers have sexist comments.Gender equality cannot be achieved only through emphasizing gender equality based on existing law.By suggesting breaking dualism and deconstructing subject,post -modern feminism provides valuable theoretical approaches to creating just gender conscious law.%从二元论视角审视法律主体,会发现法律主体打着鲜明的男性烙印。历史上女性在法律主体上的缺席和西方先哲们有关女性的论说都印证了这一事实。如果只是强调女性与男性在现有法律上的平等,则难以实现实质意义上的男女平等。后现代女性主义提议破除二元论和解构主体,为创造性别公正的法律提供了富有理论价值的研究思路。

  11. Gender-specific reduction of estrogen-sensitive small RNA, miR-30b, in subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellios, Nikolaos; Galdzicka, Marzena; Ginns, Edward; Baker, Stephen P; Rogaev, Evgeny; Xu, Jun; Akbarian, Schahram

    2012-05-01

    Estrogen signaling pathways affect cortical function and metabolism, are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and exert neuroprotective effects in female subjects at risk. However, the molecular signatures of estrogen signaling in normal and diseased cerebral cortex remain largely unexplored. Expression of the estrogen-sensitive small RNA, microRNA-30b (miR-30b), was studied in 30 controls and 30 matched samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia from prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as in 23 samples from parietal cortex (12 controls and 11 schizophrenia cases). The majority of case and control samples were genotyped for an estrogen receptor α (Esr1) sequence variant (rs2234693) previously associated with genetic risk, and a subset of them were subjected to further analysis to determine expression of mature and precursor forms of miR-30b (pre/pri-miR-30b). Gender-dimorphic expression was also explored in mouse frontal cortex and hippocampus. A significant interaction between gender and diagnosis was discovered for changes in mature miR-30b levels, so that miR-30b expression was significantly reduced in the cerebral cortex of female but not male subjects with schizophrenia. In addition, disease-related changes in miR-30b expression in a subset of female subjects were further modulated by Esr1 genotype. Changes after antipsychotic drug exposure remained insignificant. These preliminary findings point to the possibility that disease-related changes in the expression of small noncoding RNAs such as miR-30b in schizophrenia could be influenced by gender and potentially regulated by estrogen signaling.

  12. Gendered Subjective Theologies: Dutch Teenage Girls and Boys on the Role of Religion in Their Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Avest, Ina; Jozsa, Dan-Paul; Knauth, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this article about the Dutch contribution to the REDCo sub-project on the role of gender, related to religion in/and school, the authors present the characteristics in the answers girls and boys, respectively gave to their questionnaires. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were used in this research project. The research findings show…

  13. Gendered Subjective Theologies: Dutch Teenage Girls and Boys on the Role of Religion in Their Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Avest, Ina; Jozsa, Dan-Paul; Knauth, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this article about the Dutch contribution to the REDCo sub-project on the role of gender, related to religion in/and school, the authors present the characteristics in the answers girls and boys, respectively gave to their questionnaires. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were used in this research project. The research findings show…

  14. Culture, Gender and Subjectivities: Computer and Internet Restrictions in a High School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tara M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is drawn from an empirical, ethnographic study of information and communications technologies (ICT) use among thirteen, low-income twelfth-graders attending a large urban high school and focuses on participants' ICT access in the school library. It examines how library staff members' cultural and gendered perceptions shaped ICT…

  15. Culture, Gender and Subjectivities: Computer and Internet Restrictions in a High School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tara M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is drawn from an empirical, ethnographic study of information and communications technologies (ICT) use among thirteen, low-income twelfth-graders attending a large urban high school and focuses on participants' ICT access in the school library. It examines how library staff members' cultural and gendered perceptions shaped ICT…

  16. Renegotiating the pedagogic contract: Teaching in digitally enhanced secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ajibola Oluneye

    This qualitative case study explores the effects of emerging digital technology as a teaching and learning tool in secondary school science classrooms. The study examines three teachers' perspectives on how the use of technology affects the teacher-student pedagogic relationship. The "pedagogic contract" is used as a construct to analyze the changes that took place in these teachers' classrooms amid the use of this new technology. The overarching question for this research is: How was the pedagogic contract renegotiated in three secondary science teachers' classrooms through the use of digitally enhanced science instruction. To answer this question, data was collected via semi-structured teacher interviews, classroom observations, and analysis of classroom documents such as student assignments, tests and Study Guides. This study reveals that the everyday use of digital technologies in these classrooms resulted in a re-negotiated pedagogic contract across three major dimensions: content of learning, method and management of learning activities, and assessment of learning. The extent to which the pedagogic contract was renegotiated varied with each of the teachers studied. Yet in each case, the content of learning was extended to include new topics, and greater depth of learning within the mandated curriculum. The management of learning was reshaped around metacognitive strategies, personal goal-setting, individual pacing, and small-group learning activities. With the assessment of learning, there was increased emphasis on self-directed interactive testing as a formative assessment tool. This study highlights the aspects of science classrooms that are most directly affected by the introduction of digital technologies and demonstrates how those changes are best understood as a renegotiation of the teacher-student pedagogic contract.

  17. Gender differences in hemispheric organization during divergent thinking: an EEG investigation in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, Olga M

    2004-05-27

    This study examined the gender-related differences in EEG patterns during the experimental condition of divergent thinking. The EEG of 36 males and 27 females was recorded from 16 scalp electrodes in rest and while students were solving a creative problem. The spectral power density along with EEG coherence estimates were analyzed in each of the six frequency bands in the 4-30 Hz range. Gender-related differences in the EEG patterns were found during successful divergent thinking. Creative men were characterized by massive increases of amplitude and interhemispheric coherence in the beta2 whereas creative women showed more local increases of the beta2 power and coherence. On the contrary, the task-induced desynchronization of the alpha1 rhythm in creative women was topographically more expanded as compared with men who demonstrated greater interhemispheric coherence than women did. Our results propose a different hemispheric organization in men and women during creative thinking.

  18. Gender differences in public office workers' satisfaction, subjective symptoms and musculoskeletal complaints in workplace and office environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangbok; Park, Myoung Hwan; Jeong, Byung Yong

    2017-01-19

    This study investigates differences between male and female public office workers' satisfaction levels, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) complaints in workplace and office environments. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 30 offices from 15 public institutions. Male and female workers of the same age were coupled and selected from each office, gathering a total of 120 male and 120 female subjects. The results show that differences exist between genders in noise and lighting satisfaction levels, SBS-related symptoms (eye, nose, skin) and MSD complaints of hand/wrist/finger, while there is no difference in overall satisfaction level of office environments. The study also suggests that office design for public office workers should take into account gender differences in preventing MSDs and also SBS. The findings of this study are expected to serve as basic data for designing effective public office environments.

  19. Stress specificities: differential effects of coping style, gender, and type of stressor on autonomic arousal, facial expression, and subjective feeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbott, H G; Scherer, K R

    1991-07-01

    In this study several factors considered to be relevant in mediating stress arousal were experimentally manipulated. Ss selected for the coping styles anxiety denying, low anxiety, and high anxiety were confronted with both low- and high-arousal-inducing situations, using 2 different types of stressors (cognitive vs. emotional) in each case. Arousal reactions were measured in 3 response modalities: verbal report of subjective experience; nonverbal, nonvocal behavior; and physiological reactions. The results reveal complex interactions between type and degree of stress, coping style, and gender of Ss, confirming findings on vocal parameters of stress. These complex interactions are discussed with respect to the possibility that Ss' evaluation of situation characteristics may be influenced by coping styles and gender, resulting in differential reaction patterns.

  20. From "Closing Doors" to "Opening Doors": Exploring gender and subject choice in UK schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ann

    2015-12-01

    Two reports drawing on the National (English) Pupil Database are discussed: the It's Different for Girls and the Closing Doors reports (2012 and 2013, respectively), both of which examine the experience of girls studying physics in England. The UK government has responded to these studies by launching the "Opening Doors" project (June 2014), which will focus on a whole-school approach to addressing gender imbalance in progression to post-16 studies.

  1. Entrepreneurial subjectivities and gendered complexities: neo-liberal citizenship in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Altan Olcay, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This contribution explores the promotion of women’s entrepreneurial activities in Turkey. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews conducted during 2011–12 in two civil-society organizations that run programs fostering women’s entrepreneurship, this study shows how neoliberal ideologies interact with ideas of labor, responsibility, and gender. Emphasizing individual rationalities and entrepreneurial attitudes, these civil-society programs cont...

  2. [Articulate mental health and social gender relations: giving voice to silenced subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Anna Maria Corbi Caldas

    2009-01-01

    The experience of the psychological suffering based on testimonies of male and female users of a public health service in the municipality of Araraquara (SP). It is considered the social construction of the psychological suffering and, therefore, the arrangement of values and norms of a certain society and historical period. Semi-structured interviews were applied in male and female users of the Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS). These interviews were analyzed through the perspective of social gender relations and under the context of changes at the Brazilian psychiatric system started with the Anti Asylum Fight. In conclusion, the challenge to be of the contemporary Brazilian society in the construction of public policies in the field of mental health must take into account questions raised by the perspective of social gender relations. Therefore, it means that by incorporating the gender theme in mental health issues, we must question the biological and reductionist conception of women's mental health. The violence against women and the sexual repression in our society have contributed a lot to the female psychiatric debility. Regarding men, it is necessary to face the question of their stigma. By falling sick, they are excluded from public spaces and confront great difficulties to reintroduce themselves into society and to rebuild their previous identity.

  3. (PostColonial Worlds. Considerations about Race, Gender and Sex, Subjectivity and Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bidaseca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a comparison with post-colonial studies, the essay focuses on the importance of activating a South/South dialogue in order to analyze both the genealogies and legacies of colonialism and the violent tensions that cross the contemporary colonies. Inside this perspective, a fundamental place is dedicated to feminist reflection, from the critique of a western «salvationist» feminism to the idea of a «third feminism» or border feminism: new conceptual instruments and new theoretical practices through which we can re-write the relations between race, gender and class in the Global South as well as in the Global North.

  4. The place of the subjects: an analysis of the diversity of gender issue in Carrefour communication strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Greco Soares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand how the discursive formation of the LGBT subject occurs on a communication strategy of the Carrefour multinational, the primer “               Valorizamos a diversidade”. Starting from bibliographical research about social communication as a space of dispute of senses, this study intends to approximate the area of public relations with the studies of gender, prospecting how this new strategies are part of a process of redefinition of communicative practices on organizations, which becomes to act towards the recognition of the gender issues. Through the methodological assumptions presented in Pêcheaux (1988, this study is also an exercise about the gender discourse analysis on the organizations. By this perspective, this process is understood as a symbolic change in the meanings that the organizations attribute to their strategies and also a place that benefits the recognition and visibility of the LGBT sociocultural group in those places.

  5. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Carla; Froehlich, Florian; Burnand, Bernard; Michetti, Pierre; Maillard, Michel H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Methods Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis factor analysis was used to explore concern domains. Linear multiple regressions were conducted to assess associations with patient characteristics. Results Of 1102 patients who replied to the survey, 54% were female and 54% had Crohn’s disease. We identified six domains of concern: socialization and stigmatization, disease-related constraints and uncertainty, symptoms and their impact on body and mind, loss of body control (including sexuality), disease transmission, and long-term impact of the disease. Cancer concerns were among the highest scored by all patients (median 61.8). Severity of symptoms was the only factor associated with concerns, unrelated to dimension and gender (p40 years decreased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns, and being at home or unemployed increased them. Treatments were associated with increased socialization and stigmatization and with increased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns in men. Overall, psychosomatic characteristics were highly associated with concerns for both men and women. Depending on the concern dimensions, increased levels of concern were associated with the highest signs of anxiety in women or depression in men, as well as lower health-related quality of life in men. Conclusions Patients have numerous concerns related to their illness that need to be reassessed regularly. Concerns differ between men and women, suggesting that information and communication about the disease should take gender

  6. Recruitment of subjects for clinical trials after informed consent: does gender and educational status make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Researchers and investigators have argued that getting fully informed written consent may not be possible in the developing countries where illiteracy is widespread. AIMS: To determine the percentage of patients who agree to participate in a trial after receiving either complete or partial information regarding a trial and to find out whether there were gender or educational status-related differences. To assess reasons for consenting or refusing and their depth of understanding of informed consent. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A simulated clinical trial in two tertiary health care facilities on in-patients. METHODS AND MATERIAL: An informed consent form for a mock clinical trial of a drug was prepared. The detailed / partial procedure was explained to a purposive sample of selected in-patients and their consent was asked for. Patients were asked to free list the reasons for giving or withholding consent. Their depth of understanding was assessed using a questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The percentages of those consenting after full disclosure 29/102 (30% and after partial disclosure 15/50 (30% were the same. There was a significant (p=0.043 gender difference with a lesser percentage of females (30% consenting to participation in a trial. Educational status did not alter this percentage. Most patients withheld consent because they did not want to give blood or take a new drug. Understanding of informed consent was poor in those who consented. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that only one-third of subjects are likely to give consent to participate in a trial needs to be considered while planning clinical trials with a large sample size. Gender but not educational status influences the number of subjects consenting for a study. Poor understanding of the elements of informed consent in patients necessitates evolving better methods of implementing consent procedures in India.

  7. Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Early Adolescence: Examining Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Yurkewicz, Charles; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2009-01-01

    Gratitude was examined among 154 students to identify benefits from its experience and expression. Students completed measures of subjective well-being, social support, prosocial behavior, and physical symptoms. Positive associations were found between gratitude and positive affect, global and domain specific life satisfaction, optimism, social…

  8. Gender differences in health and aging of Atlantic cod subject to size selective fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethanie Carney Almroth

    2012-07-01

    We have analyzed health and physiological aging parameters in male and female Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, captured in Kattegat, Skagerrak and in Öresund. Gender differences were clearly evident in a number of variables. Males had longer liver telomeres and higher catalase activities than females, while females had higher superoxide dismutase activity, liver somatic index and condition factor. Effects of age were found for males where levels of the antioxidant glutathione and telomere length declined with age, indicating physiological aging. Liver somatic index increased and percentage oxidized glutathione decreased with age. Between-site comparisons of males show that percentage oxidized glutathione and catalase were lowest in Kattegat, whereas protein carbonyls and condition factor were higher in Skagerrak. Females, on the other hand, showed no differences between sites or indications of somatic aging or age-related effects in egg quality, indicating that older and larger female cod are healthy and show no changes in eggs with age. In contrast, males showed indications of physiological aging and lower condition than females. The results emphasize the importance of conserving old mature fish, in particular high egg-productive females, when managing fisheries.

  9. Cervical cancer: a qualitative study on subjectivity, family, gender and health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Cervantes Malaquías

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002, cervical cancer was one of the leading causes of death in Mexico. Quantitative techniques allowed for the identification of socioeconomic, behavioral and biological characteristics that are part of its etiology. However such characteristics, are inadequate to explain sufficiently the role that emotions, family networks and socially-constructed categories such as gender play in the demand and utilization of health services for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment and neither the timely undertaking of preventive actions, such as getting a PAP smear or seeking adequate and continuons treatment. Methods A qualitative study was carried out to analyze the role of different social and cultural factors in the timely detection of cervical cancer. As part of a multi-level, multi-method research effort, this particular study was based on individual interviews with women diagnosed with cervical cancer (identified as the "cases", their female friends and relatives (identified as the "controls" and the cases' husbands. Results The results showed that both: denial and fear are two important components that regulate the behavior of both the women and their partners. Women with a small support network may have limited opportunities for taking action in favor of their own health and wellbeing. Conclusion Women tend not to worry about their health, in general and neither about cervical cancer in particular, as a consequence of their conceptualizations regarding their body and feminine identify – both of which are socially determined. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve the quality of information provided in health services.

  10. Designing For Democracy: Using Design Activism to Re-negotiate the Roles and Rights for Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Mårbjerg Thomsen, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    there are already a number of approaches available which in one way or the other address the relationship between design, democracy and power. We provide an account of participatory design, adversarial design and design activism thereby pointing towards design’s potential for re-distributing power and authority...... in healthcare. Positioning ourselves within design activism, we have set up a series of disruptive design experiments at a Danish Hospital. The aim of these experiments is to make inquiries into the hospital’s own conception of democracy and to use design activism to re-negotiate the roles and rights...

  11. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  12. Age- and gender-adjusted normative data for the German version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test from healthy subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Paula; Wersching, Heike; Bruchmann, Sabine; Bracht, Dorothea; Stehling, Christoph; Thielsch, Meinald; Knecht, Stefan; Lohmann, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is widely used to evaluate dysfunctional episodic memory. The current study aimed to provide extended age- and gender-specific norms for the German AVLT for individuals older than 50 years. In 690 subjects, a comprehensive medical examination including a structural 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan was administered, as well as extensive neuropsychological tests. After controlling for exclusion criteria, 407 subjects were included in the analysis. AVLT performance decreased with age, and women outperformed men. We present age- and gender-specific normative data for the German AVLT from subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

  13. Gender and line size factors modulate the deviations of the subjective visual vertical induced by head tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyat Marion

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subjective visual vertical (SVV, the visual estimation of gravitational direction is commonly considered as an indicator of the sense of orientation. The present study examined the impact of two methodological factors (the angle size of the stimulus and the participant's gender on deviations of the SVV caused by head tilt. Forty healthy participants (20 men and 20 women were asked to make visual vertical adjustments of a light bar with their head held vertically or roll-tilted by 30° to the left or to the right. Line angle sizes of 0.95° and 18.92° were presented. Results The SVV tended to move in the direction of head tilt in women but away from the direction of head tilt in men. Moreover, the head-tilt effect was also modulated by the stimulus' angle size. The large angle size led to deviations in the direction of head-tilt, whereas the small angle size had the opposite effect. Conclusions Our results showed that gender and line angle size have an impact on the evaluation of the SVV. These findings must be taken into account in the growing body of research that uses the SVV paradigm in disease settings. Moreover, this methodological issue may explain (at least in part the discrepancies found in the literature on the head-tilt effect.

  14. Effect of gender on lipid-induced insulin resistance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Hellgren, Lars; Vadset, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In obese subjects, chronically elevated plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) exert a marked risk to contract insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. When NEFA is acutely increased due to i.v. infusion of lipid, glucose disposal during...... a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is reduced. This effect has been explained by a NEFA-induced decrease in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity caused by accumulation of the lipid intermediates Such as ceramide and diacylglycerol in the myocytes. However, neither the lipid-induced reduction of glucose disposal nor...... the clamp was similar in females and males (46+/-10 and 60+/-4%,, respectively, NS). However, whole-body insulin sensitivity as well as non-oxidative glucose disposal was higher in obese females compared with obese males both during lipid and saline infusion (P...

  15. Gender Specific Association of Serum Leptin and Insulinemic Indices with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Prediabetic Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Ara Hossain

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin plays a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity which also represent the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The present study explored the gender specific association of serum leptin and insulinemic indices with NAFLD in Bangladeshi prediabetic subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 ultrasound examined prediabetic subjects, aged 25-68 years consisting of 57.3% male (55.6% non NAFLD and 44.4% NAFLD and 42.7% female (57.4% non NAFLD and 42.6% NAFLD, were investigated. Insulin secretory function (HOMA%B and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S were calculated from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Serum leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (r = 0.530, P = 0.004, postprandial insulin (r = 0.384, P = 0.042 and HOMA-IR (r = 0.541, P = 0.003 as well as significant negative correlation with HOMA%S (r = -0.388, P = 0.046 and HOMA%B (r = -0.356, P = 0.039 in male prediabetic subjects with NAFLD. In multiple linear regression analysis, log transformed leptin showed significant positive association with HOMA-IR (β = 0.706, P <0.001 after adjusting the effects of body mass index (BMI, triglyceride (TG and HOMA%B in male subjects with NAFLD. In binary logistic regression analysis, only log leptin [OR 1.29 95% (C.I (1.11-1.51, P = 0.001] in male subjects as well as HOMA%B [OR 0.94 95% (C.I (0.89-0.98, P = 0.012], HOMA-IR [OR 3.30 95% (C.I (0.99-10.95, P = 0.049] and log leptin [OR 1.10 95% (C.I (1.01-1.20, P = 0.026] in female subjects were found to be independent determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the BMI and TG. Serum leptin seems to have an association with NAFLD both in male and female prediabetic subjects and this association in turn, is mediated by insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance among these subjects.

  16. Gender Specific Association of Serum Leptin and Insulinemic Indices with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Prediabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Israt Ara; Akter, Salima; Rahman, Mohammad Khalilur; Ali, Liaquat

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin plays a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity which also represent the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study explored the gender specific association of serum leptin and insulinemic indices with NAFLD in Bangladeshi prediabetic subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 ultrasound examined prediabetic subjects, aged 25-68 years consisting of 57.3% male (55.6% non NAFLD and 44.4% NAFLD) and 42.7% female (57.4% non NAFLD and 42.6% NAFLD), were investigated. Insulin secretory function (HOMA%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) were calculated from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Serum leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (r = 0.530, P = 0.004), postprandial insulin (r = 0.384, P = 0.042) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.541, P = 0.003) as well as significant negative correlation with HOMA%S (r = -0.388, P = 0.046) and HOMA%B (r = -0.356, P = 0.039) in male prediabetic subjects with NAFLD. In multiple linear regression analysis, log transformed leptin showed significant positive association with HOMA-IR (β = 0.706, P binary logistic regression analysis, only log leptin [OR 1.29 95% (C.I) (1.11-1.51), P = 0.001] in male subjects as well as HOMA%B [OR 0.94 95% (C.I) (0.89-0.98), P = 0.012], HOMA-IR [OR 3.30 95% (C.I) (0.99-10.95), P = 0.049] and log leptin [OR 1.10 95% (C.I) (1.01-1.20), P = 0.026] in female subjects were found to be independent determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the BMI and TG. Serum leptin seems to have an association with NAFLD both in male and female prediabetic subjects and this association in turn, is mediated by insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance among these subjects.

  17. Gender-specific impact of personal health parameters on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFranke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. This study uses a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for developing AD. Within this cross-sectional, multi-center study 228 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects (118 males completed an MRI at 1.5T, physiological and blood parameter assessments. The multivariate regression model combining all measured parameters was capable of explaining 39% of BrainAGE variance in males (p < 0.001 and 32% in females (p < 0.01. Furthermore, markers of the metabolic syndrome as well as markers of liver and kidney functions were profoundly related to BrainAGE scores in males (p < 0.05. In females, markers of liver and kidney functions as well as supply of vitamin B12 were significantly related to BrainAGE (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects several clinical markers of poor health were associated with subtle structural changes in the brain that reflect accelerated aging, whereas protective effects on brain aging were observed for markers of good health. Additionally, the relations between individual brain aging and miscellaneous health markers show gender-specific patterns. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of subtly abnormal patterns of brain aging probably preceding cognitive decline and development of AD.

  18. Renegotiating cultural practices as a result of HIV in the eastern region of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Kunkeyani, Thokozani E

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that HIV awareness is very high among Malawians and yet infection rates are rising. Local cultural practices have been identified as contributing to this contradictory situation. Using data from 12 focus-group discussions collected in Balaka, Zomba, Machinga and Mangochi, the paper explores the reformulation of nine cultural practices as a preventive measure against HIV. The study reveals that cultural practices that involve sexual acts for completion are mediated through condoms and HIV tests. The study also shows that traditional herbs known for healing ailments are repurposed to symbolise sexual acts. We conclude that the idea of repurposing offers an avenue in which initiation and cleansing rites that involve sexual acts are replaced by other semiotics such as a traditional medicine called mtela. We also conclude that the modifications to cultural practices do not indicate complete abandonment of associated traditions, rather, they constitute the renegotiation of cultural practices and meanings associated with particular rites of passage. Lastly, we propose that a comprehensive prevention programme needs to be part of a wider national HIV-prevention effort combining a women and child rights and empowerment agenda and, critically, lifestyle lessons in a process of cultural renegotiation.

  19. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP, and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P<0.0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P<0.0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8.5% of specimens without such exposures (P=0.0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet, and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. PMID:24617520

  20. Effects of gender difference and birth order on perceived parenting styles, measured by the EMBU scale, in Japanese two-sibling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, T; Uehara, T; Kadowaki, M; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppforstran (EMBU) scaling and gender, birth order and parents' gender was previously investigated in a large volunteer sample; significant interactions among the variables were found. In the present study, 730 Japanese volunteers with one sibling were used as subjects in order to control the number of siblings: the effect of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order on the perceived parenting style was examined. Based on gender and birth orders, 730 subjects were grouped into the following categories: (i) male with a younger brother; (ii) male with a younger sister; (iii) male with an older brother; (iv) male with an older sister; (v) female with a younger brother; (vi) female with a younger sister; (vii) female with an older brother; and (viii) female with an older sister. One-way ANOVA was performed with each EMBU subscale used as a dependent variable and these eight groups as independent variables. The scores for rejection and emotional warmth of father were influenced significantly by the pattern of siblings (Pparenting style as more rejecting than others, and female children (elder sisters with brother, or younger sisters with sister) recognized parenting style as more caring and demonstrated more warmth than others. The results confirmed a significant interaction of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order of perceived parental rearing behavior.

  1. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  2. The Effect of Gender, Seniority and Subject Matter on the Perceptions of Organizational Justice of Teachers: A Meta-Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkurt, Yahya; Yilmaz, Kursad; Karaman, Gizem

    2015-01-01

    This study reveals the results of a meta-analysis conducted with the theses and research studies published in Turkey from 2005 to 2012 regarding organizational justice. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of gender, seniority and subject matter on the perceptions of organizational justice of teachers. Specific criteria were used…

  3. Ethnic and gender differences in additive effects of socio-economics, psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity on suicidal ideation among blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation.

  4. Struggle over th pie? The gendered distribution of power and subjective financial well-being within UK households

    OpenAIRE

    de Henau, Jerome; Himmelweit, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the ways in which the distribution of power and well-being within couple households is gendered in the sense of having gendered determinants, from inside the household, rather than just gendered outcomes. We model such households, as Sen (1990) suggests, as sites of cooperative conflict, where decision-making has a component reflecting shared views and a component representing a bargain over conflicting views. Using household panel data from the British Household Panel...

  5. Governance of nanotechnology and nanomaterials: principles, regulation, and renegotiating the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, George A

    2009-01-01

    Good governance for nanotechnology and nanomaterials is predicated on principles of general good governance. This paper discusses on what lessons we can learn from the oversight of past emerging technologies in formulating these principles. Nanotechnology provides us a valuable opportunity to apply these lessons and a duty to avoid repeating past mistakes. To do that will require mandatory regulation, grounded in precaution, that takes into account the uniqueness of nanomaterials. Moreover, this policy dialogue is not taking place in a vacuum. In applying the lessons of the past, nanotechnology provides a window to renegotiate our public's social contract on chemicals, health, the environment, and risks. Emerging technologies illuminate structural weaknesses, providing a crucial chance to ameliorate lingering regulatory inadequacies and provide much needed updates of existing laws.

  6. Gender-specific decrease in NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor proteins in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Albert, Paul R; Burns, Ariel M; Czesak, Margaret; Overholser, James C; Jurjus, George J; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Konick, Lisa C; Dieter, Lesa; Herbst, Nicole; May, Warren; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A; Austin, Mark C

    2009-03-01

    A variety of studies have documented alterations in 5-HT1A receptor binding sites in the brain of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). The recently identified transcription factor, nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor (NUDR/Deaf-1) has been shown to function as a transcriptional modulator of the human 5-HT1A receptor gene. The present study was undertaken to document the regional and cellular localization of NUDR in the human prefrontal cortex and to examine the levels of NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor protein in prefrontal cortex of female and male depressed and control subjects. NUDR immunoreactivity was present in neurons and glia across cortical layers and was co-localized with 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactive neurons. NUDR immunoreactivity as measured by Western blot was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex of female depressed subjects (42%, p=0.02) and unchanged in male depressed subjects relative to gender-matched control subjects. Similarly, 5-HT1A receptor protein level was significantly reduced in the prefrontal cortex of female depressed subjects (46%, p=0.03) and unchanged in male depressed subjects compared to gender-matched control subjects. Reduced protein expression of NUDR in the prefrontal cortex of female subjects with MDD may reflect a functional alteration in this transcription factor, which may contribute to the decrease in 5-HT1A receptors observed in the same female subjects with MDD. In addition, the gender-specific alterations in cortical NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor proteins could represent an underlying biological mechanism associated with the higher incidence of depression in women.

  7. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  8. The Construction of Physics as a Quintessentially Masculine Subject: Young People's Perceptions of Gender Issues in Access to Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Archer, Louise; Moote, Julie; DeWitt, Jen; MacLeod, Emily; Yeomans, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    The present article investigates explanations for gendered trends in Physics and Engineering access, reporting findings from a large-scale study funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council and drawing primarily on data from interviews with 132 15-16 year-old adolescents and their parents. Survey results in our study and elsewhere show strong gender disparities in anticipated pursuit of Physics after completion of compulsory education. In order to explore the constructions of gender and Physics underlying these trends, we focus on qualitative interview data, applying Foucaultian analysis of discourse to investigate gendered narratives underpinning adolescents' and their parents' articulations. This analysis reveals three key discourses at work on the topic of women's access to Physics: (a) equality of opportunity, (b) continued gender discrimination in and around Physics, and (c) Physics as quintessentially masculine. We additionally identify five distinct narratives supporting the discourse of physics as masculine. These various discourses and narratives are interrogated, and their implications explored. We conclude that it is only by disrupting prevalent constructions of the Physical sciences as a masculine and "hard" domain will we increase the presence of women in the sector. Working with young people to analyse and deconstruct the discursive assumptions made in relation to gender and Physics, as well as further work to increase accessibility and broaden representation in Physics, may be fruitful ways to challenge these longstanding associations between Physics and masculinity.

  9. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Additive Effects of Socio-economics, Psychiatric Disorders, and Subjective Religiosity on Suicidal Ideation among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the additive effects of socio-economic factors, number of psychiatric disorders, and religiosity on suicidal ideation among Blacks, based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. With a cross-sectional design, data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003, which included 3570 African-American and 1621 Caribbean Black adults. Socio-demographics, perceived religiosity, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime suicidal ideation were measured. Logistic regressions were fitted specific to groups based on the intersection of gender and ethnicity, while socioeconomics, number of life time psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity were independent variables, and lifetime serious suicidal ideation was the dependent variable. Irrespective of ethnicity and gender, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders was a risk factor for lifetime suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] ranging from 2.4 for Caribbean Black women to 6.0 for Caribbean Black men). Only among African-American men (OR = 0.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.7-0.9), perceived religiosity had a residual protective effect against suicidal ideation above and beyond number of lifetime psychiatric disorders. The direction of the effect of education on suicidal ideating also varied based on the group. Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation.

  10. Are we right to blame it all on colonialism?: The subject of history and gender in schools in a Malawian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinane Priscilla Kamlongera Katenga-Kaunda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on the history school subject showed that any reenactment of the history discipline should include the reinterpretation of identities from a historical perspective, and this reinterpretation should start with colonial history because this is where it all began. A different approach to history will have positive implications on society’s view of gender, as it will encourage the inclusion of devalued categories such as women, black women and third-world women. But does this mean that colonialism is fully to blame for all the gender issues, as is the case within the Malawian history syllabus? This paper explores the influence of colonialism on the history/social and environmental sciences primary school subject.

  11. Six different fat tolerance tests in young, healthy subjectsgender dependent postprandial lipemia and glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Winther; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2016-01-01

    tolerenctes (OFTT) with varying amoun of saturated fat. Methods: With six different types of fatin random order to tomatoes we measured postprandial lipemia, lipoprotein, glucose and insulin increments for eight hours in 14 young lean healthy students, seven of each gender. The area under the curve (AUC......) was dtermined for the postprandial values. Results: The meals with six types of butters had similar postprandial response even if the saturated fat content varied with 50%.Gender significantly affected the TG responses, as time to pesk was 90 minutes in women and 180 min in men. Postprandial AUC was higherwith...... responses and postprandial lipemia was gender-specific. Replacement of saturated fat by mono- or polyunsaturated fat did not alter postprandial lipemia during single OFTT...

  12. Renegotiation of the 1987 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: From Confusion to Promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Krantzberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For nearly four decades, the Great Lakes regime has invoked the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement as the mechanism for binational cooperation on programs and policies. Many advances in water quality have led to unquestionable improvements in ecosystem quality, habitat and biodiversity, and water infrastructure. Still, Great Lakes scientists have issued compelling evidence that the ecological health of the basin ecosystem is at significant risk. In 2012, the Agreement will be revised for the first time in 25 years. The degree of engagement in a future Agreement, including scope, issues of significant importance, governance and collaboration will hinge on a thorough analytical process, so far seemingly absent, coupled with real consultation, so far marginally evident. Renegotiating the Agreement to generate a revitalized and sustainable future mandates that science inform contemporary public policy, and that inclusive discourse and public engagement be integral through the process. Many of these steps are still absent, and the analysis presented here strongly suggests that the constituents of the Great Lakes regime voice their views critically, emphatically, and often. If the negotiators listen, we can collectively make the Lakes Great.

  13. Literacy, Subjectivity and the Gender Divide: "The Freedom of Writing Implies the Freedom of the Citizen" (Sartre, 1948)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Beth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the research project was to explore new ways in which we might evaluate boys' and girls' engagement and "performance" in English at Key Stage 3. This paper draws on recent theories regarding literacy, identity and gender and includes an analysis of short stories written by boys and girls aged 12- to 13-years-old. An…

  14. Literacy, Subjectivity and the Gender Divide: "The Freedom of Writing Implies the Freedom of the Citizen" (Sartre, 1948)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Beth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the research project was to explore new ways in which we might evaluate boys' and girls' engagement and "performance" in English at Key Stage 3. This paper draws on recent theories regarding literacy, identity and gender and includes an analysis of short stories written by boys and girls aged 12- to 13-years-old. An exploration of…

  15. Literacy, Subjectivity and the Gender Divide: "The Freedom of Writing Implies the Freedom of the Citizen" (Sartre, 1948)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Beth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the research project was to explore new ways in which we might evaluate boys' and girls' engagement and "performance" in English at Key Stage 3. This paper draws on recent theories regarding literacy, identity and gender and includes an analysis of short stories written by boys and girls aged 12- to 13-years-old. An…

  16. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  17. Inter-Gender sEMG Evaluation of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in Biceps Brachii of Young Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meduri, Federico; Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; Calanni, Luca; Segreto, Valentina; Giovanetti, Giuseppe; Barbero, Marco; Cescon, Corrado; D’Antona, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate inter-arm and inter-gender differences in fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) obtained from multichannel surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings during sustained fatiguing contractions of the biceps brachii. Methods A total of 20 recreationally active males (24±6 years) and 18 recreationally active females (22±9 years) performed two isometric contractions at 120 degrees elbow joint angle: (1) at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 90 s, and (2) at 60% MVC until exhaustion the time to perform the task has been measured. Signals from sEMG were detected from the biceps brachii using bidimensional arrays of 64 electrodes and initial values and rate of change of CV and FD of the sEMG signal were calculated. Results No difference between left and right sides and no statistically significant interaction effect of sides with gender were found for all parameters measured. A significant inter-gender difference was found for MVC (p0.05). During the sustained 60% MVC no statistical correlation was found between MVC and CV or FD initial estimates nor between MVC and CV or FD slopes both in males and females whereas. A significant positive correlation between CV and FD slopes was found in both genders (males: r = 0,61; females: r = 0,55). Conclusions Fatigue determines changes in FD and CV values in biceps brachii during sustained contractions at 60% MVC. In particular males show greater increase in the rate of change of CV and FD than females whereas no difference in percentage change of these sEMG descriptors of fatigue was found. A significant correlation between FD and CV slopes found in both genders highlights that central and peripheral myoelectric components of fatigue may interact during submaximal isometric contractions. PMID:28002429

  18. The Influence of Gender, Grade Level and Favourite Subject on Czech Lower Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Geography is an important school subject that brings pupils' description and explanation of social, economic and/or political aspects of the changing world. It has been affirmed that the interest in a subject depends on the attitude to this subject. This study investigates Czech lower secondary school pupils' perception of geography. The research…

  19. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender – a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklund Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18 year olds (n = 1027, boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71 and anxiety (r = 0.71. Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the

  20. Age effects on cortical thickness in young Down's syndrome subjects: a cross-sectional gender study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Andrea; Moraschi, Marta [San Raffaele Foundation Rome, Rehabilitation Facility Ceglie Messapica, Rome (Italy); Cornia, Riccardo; Stella, Giacomo [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Education and Human Sciences, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Bozzao, Alessandro; Gagliardo, Olga [University Sapienza, NESMOS, Department of Neuroradiology, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Chiacchiararelli, Laura [University Sapienza, Department of Medical Physics, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Iani, Cristina [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Communication and Economy, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Albertini, Giorgio [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Paediatrics, Rome (Italy); Pierallini, Alberto [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in the characteristic pattern of age-related cortical thinning in men and women with Down's syndrome (DS) by means of MRI and automatic cortical thickness measurements and a cross-sectional design, in a large cohort of young subjects. Eighty-four subjects with DS, 30 females (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 22.8 ± 5.9) and 54 males (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 21.5 ± 6.5), were examined using a 1.5-T scanner. MRI-based quantification of cortical thickness was performed using FreeSurfer software package. For all subjects participating in the study, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between age and mean cortical thickness values has been evaluated. A significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in female DS subjects, predominantly in frontal and parietal lobes, bilaterally. In male DS subjects, a significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in the right fronto-temporal lobes and cingulate regions. Whole brain mean cortical thickness values were significantly negative correlated with age only in female DS subjects. Females with Down's syndrome showed a strong correlation between cortical thickness and age, already in early age. We suggest that the cognitive impairment due to hormonal deficit in the postmenopausal period could be emphasized by the early structural decline of gray matter in female DS subjects. (orig.)

  1. Teaching with Gender. European Women’s Studies inInternational and Interdisciplinary Classrooms. A book series by ATHENA : Teaching Subjectivity.Travelling Selves for Feminist Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    How can educators (teachers, professors, trainers) address issues of gender, women, gender roles, feminism and gender equality? The ATHENA thematic network brings together specialists in women’s and gender studies, feminist research, women’s rights, gender equality and diversity. In the book series ‘ Teaching with Gender’ the partners in this network have collected articles on a wide range of teaching practices in the field of gender. The books in this series address challenges and possibilit...

  2. Business, Biodiversity and New ′Fields′ of conservation: The world conservation congress and the renegotiation of organisational order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation, in practice, is defined through the institutionalised association of individuals, organisations, institutions, bodies of knowledge, and interests. Events like the World Conservation Congress (WCC constitute political sites where much of that institutionalisation is rendered legible and where struggles over the organisational order of conservation are acted out. Over the past decade one source of struggle has been the role of private sector actors and markets. This paper treats the WCC as a site where tension over market-based mechanisms of conservation becomes visible and where it becomes possible to watch durable institutional arrangements form and enter standard operational practice of organisations like IUCN. This paper builds upon recent work on the performative aspects of governance and analyses the WCC as an integral mechanism in achieving a renegotiated ′order′ of conservation with ′private sector engagement′ as a core operational practice. It describes how this performative work is predicated, in part, on the act of meeting; and the ways meetings serve both as sites for the formation of associations and as vehicles that privilege certain positions in renegotiating an organisational order under which the interests of capital accumulation receive an unparalleled degree of access and consideration in conservation planning and practice.

  3. Two-level renegotiated constant bit rate algorithm (2RCBR) for scalable MPEG2 video over QoS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegueroles, Josep R.; Alins, Juan J.; de la Cruz, Luis J.; Mata, Jorge

    2001-07-01

    MPEG family codecs generate variable-bit-rate (VBR) compressed video with significant multiple-time-scale bit rate variability. Smoothing techniques remove the periodic fluctuations generated by the codification modes. However, global efficiency concerning network resource allocation remains low due to scene-time-scale variability. RCBR techniques provide suitable means to achieving higher efficiency. Among all RCBR techniques described in literature, 2RCBR mechanism seems to be especially suitable for video-on demand. The method takes advantage of the knowledge of the stored video to calculate the renegotiation intervals and of the client buffer memory to perform work-ahead buffering techniques. 2RCBR achieves 100% bandwidth global efficiency with only two renegotiation levels. The algorithm is based on the study of the second derivative of the cumulative video sequence to find out sharp-sloped inflection points that point out changes in the scene complexity. Due to its nature, 2RCBR becomes very adequate to deliver MPEG2 scalable sequences into the network cause it can assure a constant bit rate to the base MPEG2 layer and use the higher rate intervals to deliver the enhanced MPEG2 layer. However, slight changes in the algorithm parameters must be introduced to attain an optimal behavior. This is verified by means of simulations on MPEG2 video patterns.

  4. Different Things Make Different People Happy: Examining Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being by Gender and Parental Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of key challenges in current subjective well-being (SWB) research: A new wave of studies should take into account that different things may make different people happy, thus going beyond a unitary "happiness formula". Furthermore, empirical results need to be connected to broader theoretical narratives.…

  5. Response by gender of HIV-1-infected subjects treated with abacavir/lamivudine plus atazanavir, with or without ritonavir, for 144 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires KE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen E Squires,1 Benjamin Young,2,3 Lizette Santiago,4 Robin H Dretler,5 Sharon L Walmsley,6 Henry H Zhao,7 Gary E Pakes,8 Lisa L Ross,8 Mark S Shaefer8 On behalf of the ARIES Study Team 1Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Apex Family Medicine and Research, Denver, CO, 3International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care, Washington DC, USA; 4HOPE Clinic and Wellness Center, San Juan, Puerto Rico; 5ID Specialists of Atlanta, Decatur, GA, USA; 6University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 7GlaxoSmithKline, 8ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Purpose: The 144-week results of the open-label, multicenter Atazanavir/Ritonavir Induction with Epzicom Study (ARIES were stratified by gender to compare treatment responses.Methods: A total of 369 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve subjects receiving once-daily abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r whose HIV-1 RNA was <50 copies/mL by week 30 were randomized 1:1 at week 36 to maintain or discontinue ritonavir for 108 subsequent weeks. Between- and within-treatment gender-related efficacy and safety differences were analyzed.Results: Subjects were 85% male; 64% white; and had a mean age of 39 years, baseline median HIV-1 RNA of 114,815 copies/mL, and median CD4+ cell count of 198 cells/mm3. Gender (ATV [n=189]: 29 females/160 males; ATV/r [n=180]: 25 females/155 males and most other demographics were similar between groups; more females than males were black (65% vs 25% and fewer females had baseline HIV-1 RNA ≥100,000 copies/mL (41% vs 58%. At week 144, no significant differences between genders were observed in proportion maintaining HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (ATV, 79% vs 77%; ATV/r, 60% vs 75% or <400 copies/mL (ATV, 83% vs 84%; ATV/r, 68% vs 82% (intent-to-treat-exposed: time to loss of virologic response analysis; median CD4+ change from baseline (ATV, +365 vs +300 cells/mm3; ATV/r, +344 vs +301 cells/mm3; proportion with treatment-related grade 2–4

  6. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.

    2014-01-01

    To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for...

  7. Subversões do desejo: sobre gênero e subjetividade em Judith Butler Subversions of desire: on gender and subjectivity in Judith Butler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arán

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da sugestão de Judith Butler de que o gênero é uma norma, ou seja, uma construção social histórica e contingente, o presente trabalho procura fazer uma análise crítica dos conceitos de identificação e sexuação na psicanálise, oriundos de uma concepção estruturalista do sujeito e da diferença sexual. Parte-se do princípio de que, embora gênero e subjetivação sejam reiterações da norma sexual, na própria instabilidade da repetição do mesmo é possível vislumbrar a positividade da subjetivação como resistência, singularidade e produção de diferença.From Judith Butler's suggestion that gender is a norm, that is, a historical and contingent social construction, this work intends a critical analysis of the concepts of identification and sexuation in psychoanalysis, derived from a structuralist conception of the subject and the sexual difference. We start from the principle that even if gender and subjectivation are reiterations of the sexual norm, in the instability itself of the repetition of the same it is possible to glimpse the positivity of the subjectivation as resistance, singularity and production of difference.

  8. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  9. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  10. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E.; Fonsah, Julius Y.; Njamnshi, Dora M.; Kuate, Callixte T.; Doh, Roland F.; Kengne, Anne M.; Tagny, Claude T.; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K.; Njamnshi, Alfred K.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (p<0.01). However, multivariable negative binomial regression analyses showed no effect of age, HIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden. PMID:28231258

  11. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmogne, Georgette D; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E; Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Dora M; Kuate, Callixte T; Doh, Roland F; Kengne, Anne M; Tagny, Claude T; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (p<0.01). However, multivariable negative binomial regression analyses showed no effect of age, HIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden.

  12. "Pig's Nest" in an Even Bigger Pen: Pugad Baboy as a Case of Subversion and Renegotiation in Philippine Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rhodora G. Ancheta

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Pol Medina, Jr.'s contemporary comic strip Pugad Baboy as a case of subversion and renegotiation undergone by Philippine comedy. This paper posits that Medina's innovation by way of the "novelization" of the comic strip, as exemplified here by "Ang Hiwaga ng Dueñas" ("The Dueñas Mystery" from Pugad Baboy 4, illustrates and inscribes what can be deemed as comic interpretations of the gaps, distortions, and juxtapositions within Philippine culture. The reading of this contemporary Philippine comic strip leads us to examine abnormality, incongruity, inversions, and hyperreality as manifestations of current Philippine comedy, one that may be socially corrective, or culturally liminal, which now moves towards a depiction of comic postmodernity.

  13. Gender disparities in the association between epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerosis: A 3-dimensional cardiac computed tomography imaging study in Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagvasumberel Munkhbaatar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD. In this study, we explored gender disparities in EAT volume (EATV and its impact on coronary atherosclerosis. Methods The study population consisted of 90 consecutive subjects (age: 63 ± 12 years; men: 47, women: 43 who underwent 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT coronary angiography. EATV was measured as the sum of cross-sectional epicardial fat area on CT images, from the lower surface of the left pulmonary artery origin to the apex. Subjects were segregated into the CAD group (coronary luminal narrowing > 50% and non-CAD group. Results EATV/body surface area (BSA was higher among men in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group (62 ± 13 vs. 33 ± 10 cm3/m2, p 3/m2, not significant. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that EATV/BSA was the single predictor for >50% coronary luminal narrowing in men (p Conclusions Increased EATV is strongly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in men.

  14. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects-something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women

  15. Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Heise

    Full Text Available Gender Based violence-including rape, domestic violence, murder and sexual abuse-is a profund health problem for women across the globe. Although a significant cause of female morbidity and mortality, violence against women has only recently begun to be recognized as an issue for public health. This paper draws together existing data on the dimensions of violence against women worldwide and reviews available literature on the health consequences of abuse. It argues that the health sector has an important role to play in combatting violence against women through increased research, screening and referral of victims, and behavioral interventions. Any strategy to confrnt violence must address the root causes of abuse in addition to meeting the immediate needs of victims. This means challenging the social attitudes and beliefs that undergird men's violence and renegotiating the balance of power between women and men at all levels of society.

  16. Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Lori

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender Based violence-including rape, domestic violence, murder and sexual abuse-is a profund health problem for women across the globe. Although a significant cause of female morbidity and mortality, violence against women has only recently begun to be recognized as an issue for public health. This paper draws together existing data on the dimensions of violence against women worldwide and reviews available literature on the health consequences of abuse. It argues that the health sector has an important role to play in combatting violence against women through increased research, screening and referral of victims, and behavioral interventions. Any strategy to confrnt violence must address the root causes of abuse in addition to meeting the immediate needs of victims. This means challenging the social attitudes and beliefs that undergird men's violence and renegotiating the balance of power between women and men at all levels of society.

  17. Protocol for an experimental investigation of the roles of oxytocin and social support in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to stress across age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that individuals who are socially isolated or have few positive social connections seem to age at a faster rate and have more chronic diseases. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone hypothesized to coordinate both the causes and effects of positive social interactions, and may be involved in positive physiological adaptations such as buffering the deleterious effects of stress and promoting resilience. The proposed research will examine whether and how oxytocin influences responses to stress in humans and will consider effects in relation to those of social support. Methods/Design Experimental research will be used to determine whether exogenously administered oxytocin (intranasal influences psychological and physiological outcomes under conditions of stress across gender and age in adulthood. Hypotheses to be tested are: 1 Oxytocin ameliorates the deleterious neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective effects of stress; 2 Oxytocin and social support have similar and additive stress-buffering effects; 3 Oxytocin effects are stronger in women versus men; and 4 Oxytocin effects are similar across a range of adult ages. Hypotheses will be tested with a placebo-controlled, double-blind study using a sample of healthy men and women recruited from the community. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either oxytocin or placebo. They undergo a social stress manipulation with and without social support (randomly assigned, and outcome measures are obtained at multiple times during the procedure. Discussion Understanding the determinants of healthy aging is a major public health priority and identifying effective measures to prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases is an important goal. Experimental research on oxytocin, social relationships, and health in adulthood will contribute to the scientific knowledge base for maximizing active life and health expectancy. At

  18. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... the particular social situation of the young people of immigrant origin. The feelings of obligations and debt toward the parents are strong, as well as the adherence to traditional family values. Still there is clearly a tendency that ideas about individual rights, such as women?s and children?s rights to decide...

  19. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Ertl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have <30% females. It was investigated to which degree individual stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects

  20. Motherhood as Performance: (ReNegotiations of Motherhood in Contemporary German Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Merley Hill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the birth rate in Europe remains low, the role of motherhood is hotly debated in Germany—particularly in conjunction with the revival of feminism in that country. In the context of these debates, this article analyzes the representation of mothers in three contemporary novels by German authors: Himmelskörper (2003 by Tanja Dückers, Die Gunnar-Lennefsen-Expedition (1998 by Kathrin Schmidt, and Die Mittagsfrau (2007 by Julia Franck. All three books are informed by a feminist perspective, but only Die Mittagsfrau offers a new way of thinking about motherhood; while Dückers and Schmidt ultimately do not depart from the connection between motherhood and the female body, Franck represents motherhood as a performative identity, in the sense of Judith Butler’s theory of performative gender. “Maternal drag,” as articulated in this article, theorizes the identity mother as a performative one, illuminating expectations of that role and thereby opening it up to possible reconfiguration.

  1. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Which Female Graduates Were Subjected to the Gender Discrimination of the Starting-Wage?%哪些女大学生遭受了起薪歧视?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红霞; 孙璐; 胡永远

    2015-01-01

    Based on the survey data of "The Employment of the college graduates", this paper presents the quantile decomposition of the gender starting-wage gap among college graduates. The results show that the average rate of gender discrimination against female graduates arrives 91.7% by the Oaxaca-Blinder approach. Meanwhile, the extent of gender discrimination increases with the wage quantiles, while the gender wage gap measured by absolute values shows an opposite tendency. In other words, the degree of gender discrimination measured by proportion of differentials unexplained is higher in the upper end of wage distribution. Meanwhile, the result is robust regardless of model specification and methods of decomposition. The policy implication is that well-paid positions should be open up to females.%以课题组“高校毕业生就业问卷调查”数据为基础,对男女大学生起薪差距进行了分位数分解。分析表明,就工资均值而言,采用Oaxaca-Blinder 方法的结果表明性别歧视比率高达91.7%;同时,就工资条件分布而言,男女起薪差距随分位数上升而逐步减少,而歧视比率却随工资分位数上升而增大,说明工资高端的性别歧视程度更大。这一结果具有估计的稳健性。因此,要将反性别歧视的重点放在高工资岗位的获取上。

  3. Gender, Toys and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  4. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender – a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund Maria; Malmgren-Olsson Eva-Britt; Öhman Ann; Bergström Erik; Fjellman-Wiklund Anncristine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northe...

  5. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  6. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  7. Combined effects of admission serum creatinine concentration with age and gender on the prognostic significance of subjects with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Yang Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to explore the impact of admission serum creatinine concentration on the in-hospital mortality and its interaction with age and gender in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in China. METHODS: 1424 acute STEMI patients were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were collected from every patient. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine the relationships between the admission serum creatinine level (Cr level, age, sex and the in-hospital mortality. A crossover analysis and a stratified analysis were used to determine the combined impact of Cr levels with age and gender. RESULTS: Female (HR 1.687, 95%CI 1.051 ∼ 2.708, elevated Cr level (HR 5.922, 95%CI 3.780 ∼ 9,279 and old age (1.692, 95%CI 1.402 ∼ 2.403 were associated with a high risk of death respectively. After adjusting for other confounders, the renal dysfunction was still independently associated with a higher risk of death (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.32 ∼ 4.63, while female gender (HR 1.19, 95%CI 0.62 ∼ 2.29 and old age (HR 1.77, 95%CI 0.92 ∼ 3.37 was not. In addition, crossover analysis revealed synergistic effects between elevated Cr level and female gender (SI = 3.01, SIM = 2.10, AP = 0.55. Stratified analysis showed that the impact of renal dysfunction on in-hospital mortality was more pronounced in patients <60 years old (odds ratios 11.10, 95% CI 3.72 to 33.14 compared with patients 60 to 74 years old (odds ratios 5.18, 95% CI 2.48 ∼ 10.83 and patients ≥ 75 years old (odds ratios 3.99, 95% CI 1.89 to 8.42. CONCLUSION: Serum Cr concentration on admission was a strong predictor for in-hospital mortality among Chinese acute STEMI patients especially in the young and the female.

  8. The use of audiovisual media in adolescence and its relationship with subjective well-being: A qualitative analysis from an intergenerational and gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Malo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative research that explores, from an intergenerational and gender perspective, how the use of audiovisual media influences to personal well-being in adolescence. Three, semi-structured group interviews were used with adolescent girls (aged 12 to 18 years, and two with mothers of boys and girls of those ages. The results show that interpersonal relationships are one of the factors that greatly contribute to the adolescents’ well-being. Girls said that the use of technology generates personal well-being because it allows them to maintain interpersonal relationships with their peers. The mothers, however, question whether overuse of technology can contribute to their personal well-being. On the other hand, girls and mothers agree to comment that the use of technology hinders the relationships that adolescents have with their parents. 

  9. Renegotiating "best treatment practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses re-accentuated ways of practicing psychiatric treatment. More generally it discusses how an initiative to change local practices in an organisation is taken up and fought for and against by people and things with different competing interests.......This paper discusses re-accentuated ways of practicing psychiatric treatment. More generally it discusses how an initiative to change local practices in an organisation is taken up and fought for and against by people and things with different competing interests....

  10. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Anri Sala’s film 1395 Days Without Red (2011) provides a kind of reenactment of an accidental day during the 1992-95 siege of Sarajevo. Shot in today’s Sarajevo, the film revisits and embodies some of the widely circulated images of the siege, such as inhabitants sprinting across so-called Sniper...... Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...

  11. The construction of women's subjectivity. Blog analysis of El País.com and El Mundo.es from a gender point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BANDRÉS GOLDÁRAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative study based on a random strategic selection of blogs sample written by women in two reference newspapers (El Mundo.es & El País.com in Spain to find out the issues dealt and concerning, women as they enable the construction of women's subjectivity and their social visibility. This agenda-setting analysis visibilizes these female blog whose subject's choice discovers the existing inequality, both in number (women and men writers, as well as selection of the major issues: politics and economy, where women's presence nearly does not exist.

  12. Women's autonomy and subjective well-being: How gender norms shape the impact of self-help groups in Odisha, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, T.J. de; Kempen, L.A.C.M. van; Linssen, R.; Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents impact estimates of women's self-help group (SHG) membership on subjective well-being in Odisha, India, using 2008 survey data in a quasi-experimental design. It finds that, while there is evidence of a positive impact of SHG membership on women's autonomy, on average, SHG member

  13. Escolarización secundaria: asignaturas pendientes y expresiones en materia de inequidades de género Secondary schooling: pending subjects and expressions regarding of gender inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Miranda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El texto presenta un análisis sobre las principales actividades de los y las jóvenes en relación a la participación laboral y a las obligaciones extra-escolares, proponiendo una serie de cuestionamientos guiados por la consigna: en qué medida estas actividades pueden afectar la continuidad en la educación secundaria. Se sostiene, como supuesto clave, la vigencia de expresiones de desigualdad donde la condición de género tiene implicancias sustantivas. Hecho que convoca a desentrañar cuanto hay de nuevo y cuanto de continuidad en las tendencias hacia la desigualdad de oportunidad y accesos al bienestar entre las nuevas generaciones.The text introduces an analysis of the main activities of male and female youths in connection with labor involvement and extracurricular duties, by proposing a series of issues guided by the question: to what extent do such activities affect continuity in secondary education. As a key assumption, we point to the prevailing expressions of inequality where gender condition carries far-reaching implications. This fact leads us to find out how much is new and how much is continuity in trends towards inequality of opportunity and access to welfare among new generations.

  14. Gender roles and social policy in an ageing society: the case of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiko Makita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the major underpinnings of the Japanese welfare state in the context of social care from a feminist perspective. In Japan, familycare responsibilities have traditionally been assigned to women; hence, care has long been a women’s issue. However, as the social contract of a male breadwinner and a “professional housewife” gradually fades out, Japanese women find more opportunities to renegotiate their caring roles. Of course, this social transformation did not occur in isolation, it was influenced by patterns in economic development, state policies and mainly demographic changes. All this has stimulated new state responses in the form of social welfare expansion that arguably aim to relieve women of the burdens of family-care. The issue remains, however, as to whether Japan would be able to recognise that the main structural issues of population ageing do not originate from demographic changes, but from a strict gendered division of labour and gender inequality.

  15. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...... research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, M. [Inst. of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine, CNR, Rome (Italy); Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, D. [Inst. of Psychology, CNR, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Waegner, A. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  17. Gendered Sources of Distress and Resilience among Afghan Refugees in Northern California: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Stempel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have emphasized the influence of resettlement factors on the mental health of refugees resettling in developed countries. However, little research has addressed gender differences in the nature and influence of resettlement stressors and sources of resilience. We address this gap in knowledge by investigating how gender moderates and mediates the influence of several sources of distress and resilience among 259 Afghan refugees residing in Northern California (USA. Gender moderated the effects of four factors on levels of distress. Intimate and extended family ties have little correlation with men’s distress levels, but are strongly associated with lower distress for women. English ability is positively associated with lower distress for women, but not men. In terms of gender ideology, traditionally oriented women and egalitarian men have lower levels of distress. And experiencing greater dissonant acculturation increases distress for men, but not women. The influence of gender interaction terms is substantial and patterns may reflect difficulty adapting to a different gender order. Future studies of similar populations should investigate gender differences in sources of distress and resilience, and efforts to assist new arrivals might inform them of changes in gender roles they may experience, and facilitate opportunities to renegotiate gender roles.

  18. Gendered Sources of Distress and Resilience among Afghan Refugees in Northern California: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempel, Carl; Sami, Nilofar; Koga, Patrick Marius; Alemi, Qais; Smith, Valerie; Shirazi, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the influence of resettlement factors on the mental health of refugees resettling in developed countries. However, little research has addressed gender differences in the nature and influence of resettlement stressors and sources of resilience. We address this gap in knowledge by investigating how gender moderates and mediates the influence of several sources of distress and resilience among 259 Afghan refugees residing in Northern California (USA). Gender moderated the effects of four factors on levels of distress. Intimate and extended family ties have little correlation with men’s distress levels, but are strongly associated with lower distress for women. English ability is positively associated with lower distress for women, but not men. In terms of gender ideology, traditionally oriented women and egalitarian men have lower levels of distress. And experiencing greater dissonant acculturation increases distress for men, but not women. The influence of gender interaction terms is substantial and patterns may reflect difficulty adapting to a different gender order. Future studies of similar populations should investigate gender differences in sources of distress and resilience, and efforts to assist new arrivals might inform them of changes in gender roles they may experience, and facilitate opportunities to renegotiate gender roles. PMID:28036054

  19. Relações de gênero e subjetividades no devir MST Gender relations and subjectivities in the building of Brazil's landless movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Bereta da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os relatórios internos e as diversas e distintas publicações do e sobre o MST produzidos nos últimos 20 anos desvelam processos que permitem perceber que outras preocupações foram constituídas em meio às lutas e disputas pela conquista da terra. Essas preocupações foram mudando, adquirindo outros contornos nas idas e vindas da produção de idéias, práticas e sujeitos de um Movimento em construção. Este estudo é um exercício crítico de reflexão sobre a natureza dessas produções nas relações cotidianas, nas tentativas de construir sujeitos militantes. Busca investigar como as mudanças foram sendo construídas e de que forma foram investidas sobre as relações de trabalho, sociais, políticas e, também, afetivas de mulheres e homens, bem como de homens e homens, e de mulheres e mulheres nas dobras do MST.The internal reports of MST and the many different publications about this Movement, produced in the last 20 years, reveal the processes and the many different issues that appeared among the dispute for a piece of land. Many worries have been added to the main concern that is about the lack of land. Ideas, practices and political concerns have emerged in this movement that is still in construction. This study is a critical exercise of reflection about the nature of these productions and of the quotidian relations about the endeavours of constructing new subjects. It tries to investigate how were the changes being constructed in the work, social and political relations as well as in the affective relationships of men X women, women X women and men X men inside the MST.

  20. [Gender, health and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Edméia Almeida Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    This essay is about Gender, Health and Nursing, the main theme of the 65th Brazilian Nursing Week held in 2004. Besides doing a review of the construction of Gender as an analytical category and a critical analysis of socio-historical building of the nursing career, some implications of the stereotypes of gender to work practices are shown. The subject is articulated with concrete practices in which nurses are the focus of attention, particularly women's health and the influence of men and women relationship in the health-illness process. An awareness of gender building as one of the conditions to the increasing of the professional field pointing out challenges and ways to follow is emphasized.

  1. Gendered Negotiations: Engagements with ‘Modernity’ and Identity Change amongst Chiapeneco Youth in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie-Leigh Ruse

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to examine how changes have occurred in the processes of gendered identity construction amongst Mexican youths through examining local experiences of global, and specifically Mexican, modernities. Based on fieldwork carried out amongst youths in the city of San Cristobal de las Casas, in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas, my analysis addresses how youths plan for the future in the context of economic and political marginalisation, and how this affects the way in which they pursue different forms of romantic relationships. I also address changes that have occurred in youths’ understandings, perceptions and performances of their gendered identities in the context of a highly developed local tourist industry, the advent of mass media, and new online social worlds. My study shows how gendered identity construction amongst youths here becomes context-dependent, and how it encompasses individual agency whilst at the same time being negotiated through wider structural and social limitations. I also wish to demonstrate how changing gendered identities amongst youths are constantly constructed and renegotiated by individuals seeking to accommodate notions of modernity with perceptions of the traditional, and how these individuals balance contesting notions of gendered identities within themselves. This is, therefore, a study of local and gendered identity change amongst youths in the context of localised modernities and rapid social change.

  2. Pedagogies of difference: Unknowing immigrant teachers as subjects forever in process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Sonja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Immersed in the bicultural, increasingly globalized, yet uniquely local, Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood landscape, immigrant teacher subjects are shaped in complicated, entangled ways. This paper attempts to open fresh spaces for re-thinking knowable teacher identities by drawing on Julia Kristeva’s work on the foreigner and the subject-in-process. It explores the immigrant teacher subject as “infinitely in construction, de-constructible, open and evolving” (Kristeva, 2008, p. 2. In a sector that is grappling with the complexities of outcomes driven expectations of productivity, mass participation and often homogenized indicators of ‘quality’, this paper elevates insights into the subject formation of the Other, to expose cracks in this veneer, through the notions of the semiotic and revolt. In this critical philosophical examination, I reconceptualise the idea of knowing immigrant teacher subjects, and their confrontation and (renegotiation of social, political and professional expectations and unknowable foreignness.

  3. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  4. Gender, Mentoring, and Tacit Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Dianne D.; Simeon, Rebecca J.

    Practical or "tacit" knowledge has been argued to be critical for managerial success. Mentoring may be one way in which tacit knowledge is learned. This study examined the relationships of tacit knowledge, mentoring, gender, and competence. Subjects were managers (N=57) in a southern city. No significant gender differences were found on any of the…

  5. Gendered Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  6. Gender Object Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercial…

  7. Gender performance as spatial acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    a part in sex work. Likewise, the paper analyses the ways in which sex work plays a significant part in how the Thai migrant sex workers understand their gendered subject positions in the spaces away from their sex work. The analysis of the Thai migrant sex workers becoming intelligible or non......-intelligible gendered subjects depends on different spaces. In this paper I focus on the space of domesticity, the space of sexual consumption and the quasi-public space of leisure....

  8. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  9. Gender Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Fan-min

    2016-01-01

    Gender discourse was paid much attention in recent years. The primary objective of this fundamental research is to perceive the distinction between direct and indirect in gender discourse. The method used in this study is known as contrastive and analysis which illustrates men and women's differences.

  10. On Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  11. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  12. Study on the relationship between plasma creatinine level and gender in healthy subjects%健康体检者血浆肌酐水平与性别之间的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勤

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between plasma creatinine level and gender in healthy subjects.Methods:1 000 healthy subjects who were taken physical examination were selected.They were divided into the male group(n=655) and the female group(n=345).The plasma creatinine level of healthy subjects were examined,and the results were compared and analyzed.Results:The creatinine level of the male group which taken health physical examination was(72.68±11.37)μmol/L,significantly higher than that of the female group of(54.12±7.76)μmol/L.The difference was statistically significant between groups(t=27.167,P<0.05).Conclusion:The men's plasma creatinine level is higher than that of women in healthy physical examination.It is of great significance to strengthen the application to prevent renal disease.%目的:探究健康体检者血浆肌酐水平、性别之间的关系。方法:收治健康体检者1000例,分为男性组(n=655)和女性组(n=345),对健康体检者的血浆肌酐水平进行检查,对比分析检测结果。结果:男性健康体检者的肌酐水平(72.68±11.37)μmol/L 明显高于女性健康体检者(54.12±7.76)μmol/L,组间比较,差异有统计学意义(t=27.167, P<0.05)。结论:健康体检者男性血浆肌酐水平比女性血浆肌酐水平高,加强应用对预防肾脏疾病具有重要的意义。

  13. Women's employment and changing gender relations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alice Colón

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000, using excerpts from interviews conducted with women workers displaced from a clothing and a tuna factory between 2001 and 2002 (Colón et al. 2008), as well as data from the Public Use Sample (PUMS) of the U.S. Census Puerto Rico Community Survey 2005-2007. It is argued that women's employment has resulted in advances in women's autonomy, gender equity, and renegotiations of the provider role, but, intensified by men's unstable earnings, it has also led to the increase of female family headship even among married women. Women's education and employment have been an important means of reducing family poverty both among dual earner families and female heads. Yet, the continuing joblessness in the Island places even higher educated sectors on the verge of economic precariousness.

  14. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes its starting point in the problem faced by a specific Danish bank that women are grossly underrepresented in management positions, in spite of the great measure of initiatives taken over more than a century to ensure equal opportunities in Denmark. Danish women got the vote in 1915......, there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...

  15. Gender dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concept Gender dysphoria is not the same as homosexuality. Identity conflicts need to continue over time to ... to be the opposite sex. Treatment Individual and family therapy is recommended for children to create a ...

  16. Renegotiating «law and order»: judicial reform and citizen responses in post-war Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel SIEDER

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines reforms aimed at strengthening the rule of law in Guatemala implemented since the signing of the Peace Accords in December 1996. Despite nearly $200 millions in foreign aid to the justice sector, impunity remains the rule, the judicial process is subverted by military and criminal networks, citizen confidence in the judicial system remains low and recourse to non-judicial measures –the «privatisation of justice»– is on the increase. It is argued that the institutionally-focused approach to rule of law reform currently predominating in donor thinking ignores the historical context within which understandings of «law», «justice» and «rights» are shaped. Institutions do matter, but only by understanding the role of law in long­run processes of State formation and the dynamic, inter-subjective nature of legal interactions can we begin to understand the specificities of socio-legal change.

  17. Gendered Education in a Gendered World: Looking beyond Cosmetic Solutions to the Gender Gap in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education…

  18. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  19. Regarding gender relations: Gender identity or gender interaction styles?

    OpenAIRE

    Bazán Ramírez, Aldo

    1996-01-01

    This study discusses sorne assumptions from the social determinism in the construction of gender roles, gender-typed identities, and gender relarions inequities. Ir is proposed that gender sryles of interaction are relatively invariant forms or dispositions related ro specific contexts of social interaction. Iris not enough ro say that socialization factors such as the family, school, mass media, and rhe inirial social group relations generare a typed gender identity or gender seggregation, b...

  20. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...... of connectivity might endure, as Capetonian politics assumes a post-apartheid structure....

  1. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  2. Gendered Violence, Intersectionalities and Resisting Gender Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stubbs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developments in feminist theory and research towards a more complex approach to gender relations and a more differentiated understanding of gendered violence have been positive but also have been the subject of significant debate. Some debates have long histories, while others mark more newly emergent concerns. In this paper I reflect on three areas of debate: intersectionality, complex gendering and complex inequalities; differentiating between forms of gendered violence (with a focus on intimate partner violence (IPV, and criminalisation. In each of these areas, feminist frameworks and knowledge concerning gendered violence have been challenged and the resurgence of gender neutral accounts has been notable. I argue that keeping a structural analysis to the fore provides the best way forward for constructive debate in the field aligned with feminist aspirations for the achievement of substantive equality. El desarrollo de la teoría feminista y la investigación hacia un enfoque más complejo de las relaciones de género y una comprensión más diferenciada de la violencia de género ha sido positivo, pero también ha sido objeto de un importante debate. Algunos debates tienen una larga historia, mientras que otros marcan preocupaciones emergentes surgidas en los últimos tiempos. En este trabajo se reflexiona sobre tres áreas de debate: interseccionalidad, configuración de géneros compleja y desigualdades complejas; diferenciación entre formas de violencia de género (fijándose en la violencia de pareja (VP; y la criminalización. En cada una de estas áreas, se han cuestionado los marcos feministas y el conocimiento relativo a la violencia de género, y ha sido notable el resurgimiento de cuentas de género neutro. Se defiende que fomentar un análisis estructural ofrece la mejor forma de fomentar un debate constructivo en el campo alineado con las aspiraciones feministas para el logro de una igualdad sustantiva. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM

  3. Disabling sexualities: Exploring the impact of the intersection of HIV, disability and gender on the sexualities of women in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wickenden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women with a disability are often characterised as a homogenous social group consigned to a cultural stereotype with assumptions of dependence, asexuality and gender neutrality. Furthermore, there is a void of research about the experience of people with disabilities following diagnosis with HIV. Little is known about how HIV diagnosis intersects with disability and gender and how it shapes the experiences of intimacy and gender roles of those negotiating this intersection.Objective: The objective of this study was to explore how HIV, disability and gender shape the perspectives of HIV-positive women with disabilities regarding intimacy and gender roles.Methods: Twelve women in Lusaka, Zambia were recruited for in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences of having a disability and living with HIV. Interviews were conducted in English, Bemba, Nyanja and Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted, followed by in-depth gender analyses of data relating to intimacy and gender roles.Results: Data analysis led to the identification of two main themes: the impact of HIV diagnosis on intimate relationships amongst the participants; and the disruption and renegotiation of gender roles. These findings demonstrate the loss of intimacy (often decided by the participants and changes in women’s gender roles (infrequently decided by them.Conclusions: The narrow approaches to sexuality and HIV that reinforce misconceptions and stereotypes need to change. In their place should be inclusive and disability and sex-positive approaches that are informed by the diverse realities of women’s lives. Further research is needed to develop stronger evidence of the impact of HIV and disability on gender roles and sexuality.

  4. Teacher Gender, Student Gender, and Primary School Achievement: Evidence from Ten Francophone African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jieun; Rhee, Dong-eun; Rudolf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Using an exceptionally rich dataset comprising over 1,800 primary schools and nearly 40,000 students from ten francophone Sub-Saharan African countries, this study analyzes the relationship between teacher gender, student gender, and student achievement in mathematics and reading. Findings indicate that being taught by a female teacher increases academic achievements and that both performance and subject appreciation rise when taught by a same-gender teacher. Traditional academic gender stere...

  5. In Search of an Alternative Feminist Cinema: Gender, Crisis, and the Cultural Discourse of Nation Building in Chinese Independent Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese feminist cinema in the postsocialist era is shaped by the grand narrative of nation building that glamorizes urban professional career women and their contributions to economic marketization and globalization. Such cinematic overemphasis on urban women proves inadequate as it creates a disturbing silence about the diasporic existence of non-urban women. This uneven condition demands the creation of an alternative cinematic feminism that visualizes the diversity of Chinese women and represents the heterogeneity of feminist cinematic expressions and female experiences. Using Li Yu’s 'Lost in Beijing' (2007, 'Pingguo' 苹果 and Li Yang’s 'Blind Mountain' (2007, 'Mang shan' 盲山 as case studies, this essay investigates how Chinese independent films re-negotiate female gender identity and crisis through commercialized visual realism and social intervention while in reality the postsocialist grand narrative of nation building redefines the living conditions of female migrant workers and women of limited resources.

  6. Negotiating power relations, gender equality, and collective agency: are village health committees transformative social spaces in northern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kerry; George, Asha S; Harvey, Steven A; Mondal, Shinjini; Patel, Gupteswar; Sheikh, Kabir

    2017-09-15

    Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India. Over 18 months, we conducted 74 interviews and 18 focus groups with VHSNC members (including female community health workers and local government officials), non-VHSNC community members, NGO staff, and higher-level functionaries. We observed 54 VHSNC-related events (such as trainings and meetings). Initial thematic network analysis supported further examination of power relations, gendered "social spaces," and the "discourses of responsibility" that affected collective agency. VHSNCs supported some re-negotiation of intra-community inequalities, for example by enabling some women to speak in front of men and perform assertive public roles. However, the extent to which these new gender dynamics transformed relations beyond the VHSNC was limited. Furthermore, inequalities between the community and outside stakeholders were re-entrenched through a "discourse of responsibility": The comparatively powerful outside stakeholders emphasized community responsibility for improving health without acknowledging or correcting barriers to effective VHSNC action. In response, some community members blamed peers for not taking up this responsibility, reinforcing a negative collective identity where participation was futile because no one would work for the greater good. Others resisted this discourse, arguing that the VHSNC alone was not responsible for taking action: Government must also intervene. This counter-narrative also positioned VHSNC participation as futile. Interventions to strengthen

  7. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...

  8. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-12-01

    Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.

  9. Gender Differences in Power and Social Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任琳

    2015-01-01

    As one of the popular studies,gender differences in language attract many attentions.It is also an important part of language culture.The gender differences in language are studied in many subjects.As far as this thesis is concerned,it is different from the previous studies.The research will be done about the gender differences in power and social distance between college teachers and students.

  10. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gender Identity Development in Children Page Content Article Body ​What's the ... children, the match between biological sex and gender identity is not so ... gender development in children. See the related article, Gender Non- ...

  11. Eyeglasses and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, R L

    1989-10-01

    Under the guise of forming impressions of a job applicant in a hiring interview, subjects rated a videotaped male or female stimulus person (SP) on several gender stereotypical and task relevant traits. In one condition, the SP's wore eyeglasses, and in the other condition they did not. Eyeglasses, especially when worn by the stimulus male, were associated with feminine stereotypes and positive task relevant attributes. The results were interpreted to suggest that men who wear eyeglasses may be the target of some negative social judgments but also redeeming task relevant attributes, whereas women who wear eyeglasses are more likely to be the target of only negative social judgments.

  12. Sectarianism, Revolutionary Subjectivity and War in Syria - the case of the peaceful movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Events unfolding in Syria since 2011 have all too often been depicted too simply as a “sectarian war”. Against the backdrop of such accounts, this article investigates the lived revolutionary experience of Syrians active in the peaceful revolutionary movement and the local coordination committees....... A more nuanced ethnographic approach to sectarianism, revolutionary action and war reveals how young revolutionaries re-negotiate family background and sectarian histories in the face of the regime’s sectarian enterprises and narratives. Anti-sectarian features of revolutionary action on the part...... of the peaceful movement not only counteract the narratives of the regime. It also offers a window into revolutionary subjectivity and ideology in Syria’s peaceful movement as part of broader social changes occurring in Syria in the context of devastating war and destruction....

  13. Gender bias in academic recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that women are underrepresented in the academic systems of many countries. Gender discrimination is one of the factors that could contribute to this phenomenon. This study considers a recent national academic recruitment campaign in Italy, examining whether women are subject to m...

  14. The linguistics of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender

  15. Gender and Posthuman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione La Camera blu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Camera Blu is an important contribution to the study of gender and the posthuman for different reasons. Currently, posthumanism has become a highly fashionable academic trend. Considering that anthropocentrism is leading to an environmental eco-disaster so deep as to endanger the very survival of the human species, this breakthrough in academia is a great opportunity for social reform. On the other hand, the hegemonic appropriation of the posthumanist discourse is obscuring the core meaning of the posthuman with ironic consequences. The “neutral” subject, that is male, white, heterosexual, Western etc., is rediscovering the posthuman in the name of the Father, in an ahistorical reconstruction in which the decisive contribution of feminism is gradually superseded by names of male theorists, to ensure a phallocratic genealogy to Posthuman Studies. Is this a defeat of the posthuman? Not at all. The interest that posthumanism is attracting can only bring satisfaction to scholars who have been working for years to its promotion. And still, because in this proliferation of the posthuman, the meaning of the term is taking on different shades, colors and nuances, it is crucial to rediscover its roots. Posthumanism stems from Feminism: forgetting this genealogical debt means giving up the deepest identity of the posthuman. This issue of the Camera Blu wishes to emphasize this powerful genealogy, and to lay a platform for further development of gender through the posthuman, and of the posthuman through gender, reflecting on the possible futures of gender in relation to the human and the posthuman species.

  16. Gender and Religiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Modiri

    2013-08-01

    As mentioned before, Collet link gender differences to the power structure of family, asserting that girls who have been raised in patriarchal families have higher risk aversion and therefore are more religious. According to the findings of this research, however, these assumptions are not statistically acceptable. Therefore, the assertion that religiousness of women depends on the type of family (patriarchal or egalitarian is rejected. The third assumption which, based on Collet theory, asserts that women in patriarchal families are more religious is rejected. These findings are highly important in view of sociological theory, because in the contemporary world in which power structure in most societies, including Iran, proceeds towards egalitarianism (Inglehart, 1993, (Azadarmaki, 2010, the rejection of this relation may denote the emergence of new structures in families and the possibility to preserve religious inclinations at the same time. The fact is that that acceptance of egalitarianism by families does not necessarily mean a reduction in religiosity. Considering gender studies which often emphasize discrimination against women due to social backgrounds and their inequality with men in some social aspects, studies such as the present one, which shows that gender differences are in favor of women, can have a positive effect on women. Their awareness about such abilities can help them play a more efficient role in their family and in their society, whereby improving their living standards and develop a better generation. In view of the importance of the subject, it is recommended that quantitative and qualitative studies to be conducted on gender differences in religiosity, its reasons and its contributing factors.

  17. Gender determination by odontometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litha; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay; Savita, J K

    2017-01-01

    Gender determination is central in establishing personal identification from human skeletal remains. The study was conducted to find out the accuracy with which gender can be determined by odontometric methods. To investigate the mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) dimensions of all the teeth of permanent dentition to find new parameters to differentiate between male and female teeth and to assess whether each type of linear measurement can be used independently in odontometric sex differentiation. The study was conducted at a dental college on a composite group of 500 individuals comprising 250 males and 250 females. Impressions of upper and lower jaws were made with alginate impression material and casts prepared with dental stone. A digital Vernier calliper was used to measure the BL and MD dimensions of all the upper teeth except the third molars. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using univariate analysis and linear stepwise discriminant function analysis to find the variables which discriminate gender significantly. The MD and BL dimensions between males and females were statistically significant. The predicted value for correct classification of gender was also statistically significant. The ability to differentiate gender in the population using stepwise discriminant functions was found to be very high with 99.8% accuracy with males showing statistically larger teeth than females. This is similar to the near 100% success in gender determination using pelvic and skull bones.

  18. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  19. Prototypes of gender : Conceptions of feminine and masculine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    As gender research over the past 20 years has shown, conceptions of gender, while largely unconsciously held, are profoundly important; they influence our attitudes, behavior, and sense of self Culturally and socially induced, gender conceptions are subject to change over time. This article reports

  20. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  1. Measuring Gender Dysphoria: A Multicenter Examination and Comparison of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    This study examined two instruments measuring gender dysphoria within the multicenter study of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA) were examined for their definitions of gender dysphoria and their psychometric properties, and evaluated for their congruence in assessing the construct. The sample of 318 participants consisted of 178 male-to-females (MtF) and 140 female-to-males (FtM) who were recruited from the four ENIGI gender clinics. Both instruments were significantly correlated in the group of MtFs. For the FtM group, there was a trend in the same direction but smaller. Gender dysphoria was found to be defined differently in the two instruments, which led to slightly different findings regarding the subgroups. The UGDS detected a difference between the subgroups of early and late onset of gender identity disorder in the group of MtFs, whereas the GIDYQ-AA did not. For the FtM group, no significant effect of age of onset was found. Therefore, both instruments seem to capture not only similar but also different aspects of gender dysphoria. The UGDS focusses on bodily aspects, gender identity, and gender role, while the GIDYQ-AA addresses subjective, somatic, social, and sociolegal aspects. For future research, consistency in theory and definition of gender dysphoria is needed and should be in line with the DSM-5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

  2. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 達彦; ナガサカ, タツヒコ; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  3. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  4. Defining the terrain for responsible management education: gender, gender equality and the case of marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Despite the existence of significant links between gender, marketing and consumer research, and despite a wide-spread recognition of women’s complex relationship with marketing and markets, the concept of gender equality has been widely neglected in this subject discipline. This chapter seeks to provide some understanding of what gender equality may mean through an exploration of various marketing practices, studies and teaching. It begins with a brief overview of marketing’s disciplinary dev...

  5. Personality and gender differences in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, David P; Long, Audrey E; McPhearson, Allante; O'Brien, Kirby; Remmert, Brooke; Shah, Seema H

    2016-03-21

    Men's and women's personalities appear to differ in several respects. Social role theories of development assume gender differences result primarily from perceived gender roles, gender socialization and sociostructural power differentials. As a consequence, social role theorists expect gender differences in personality to be smaller in cultures with more gender egalitarianism. Several large cross-cultural studies have generated sufficient data for evaluating these global personality predictions. Empirically, evidence suggests gender differences in most aspects of personality-Big Five traits, Dark Triad traits, self-esteem, subjective well-being, depression and values-are conspicuously larger in cultures with more egalitarian gender roles, gender socialization and sociopolitical gender equity. Similar patterns are evident when examining objectively measured attributes such as tested cognitive abilities and physical traits such as height and blood pressure. Social role theory appears inadequate for explaining some of the observed cultural variations in men's and women's personalities. Evolutionary theories regarding ecologically-evoked gender differences are described that may prove more useful in explaining global variation in human personality.

  6. Gender-marked age stereotypes in english proverbs and sayings

    OpenAIRE

    Галапчук-Тарнавська, Олена Михайлівна; Halapchuk-Tarnavska, Olena M.

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are characteristic features of male/female gender group behavior that are expected by a society.Gender stereotypes in the Ukrainian language are viewed as ethnic stereotypes and perform the function of accumulating and systemizing the social, cultural and historical experiences of the Ukrainian people.Gender-marked age stereotypes are widely accepted believes held about certain age that are perceived as being appropriate for women and men.Family roles are also subject to ch...

  7. Gender bias in academic recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that women are underrepresented in the academic systems of many countries. Gender discrimination is one of the factors that could contribute to this phenomenon. This study considers a recent national academic recruitment campaign in Italy, examining whether women are subject...... to more or less bias than men. The findings show that no gender-related differences occur among the candidates who benefit from positive bias, while among those candidates affected by negative bias, the incidence of women is lower than that of men. Among the factors that determine success in a competition...... for an academic position, the number of the applicant’s career years in the same university as the committee members assumes greater weight for male candidates than for females. Being of the same gender as the committee president is also a factor that assumes greater weight for male applicants. On the other hand...

  8. Articular saúde mental e relações de gênero: dar voz aos sujeitos silenciados Articulate mental health and social gender relations: giving voice to silenced subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Corbi Caldas dos Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a experiência do sofrimento psíquico a partir de relatos de homens e mulheres usuários de serviço público de saúde do município de Araraquara (SP. Considera-se a construção social do sofrimento psíquico e, portanto, a conformação dos valores e normas de determinada sociedade e época histórica. Utilizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas com usuários do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS, homens e mulheres, analisadas sob a ótica das relações sociais de gênero e do contexto das mudanças no sistema psiquiátrico brasileiro a partir da luta antimanicomial. Conclui-se que o desafio a ser enfrentado pela sociedade brasileira contemporânea na construção de políticas públicas para saúde mental deve levar em conta questões postas pela perspectiva das relações sociais de gênero. Portanto, significa, ao incorporar o tema gênero no âmbito da saúde mental, questionar uma concepção reducionista e biologizante da saúde mental das mulheres. Verificou-se que o adoecimento psíquico feminino mantém estreita correlação com a violência contra as mulheres e a repressão sexual ainda vigente na sociedade. No que tange à vivência do adoecimento psíquico masculino, requer enfrentar a questão do estigma. Estes, ao adoecerem, são excluídos do espaço público e enfrentam maiores dificuldades de reinserção social e de reconstrução da identidade anterior.The experience of the psychological suffering based on testimonies of male and female users of a public health service in the municipality of Araraquara (SP. It is considered the social construction of the psychological suffering and, therefore, the arrangement of values and norms of a certain society and historical period. Semi-structured interviews were applied in male and female users of the Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS. These interviews were analyzed through the perspective of social gender relations and under the context of changes at the

  9. The Intersection of Gender and Age: An Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…

  10. The Intersection of Gender and Age: An Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…

  11. Conceptual physics differences by pedagogy and gender: Questioning the deficit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Twanelle Deann Walker

    The differences in physics performance between males and females have been studied extensively (Blue & Heller, 2003; Coletta, 2015; Madsen, McKagan, & Sayre 2013; McCullough, 2002, 2004, 2011; Pollock, Finkelstein, & Kost, 2007; Zohar & Sela, 2003). The purpose of this study was to look at the ways teaching methods and assessment choices have fabricated a gender gap. Deficit ways of thinking have further marginalized women by renegotiating prior acts of power that initiated and perpetuated marginalization. Outside of the deficit model, the blame for the underperformance of females has been attributed to discourses of power as well as less-than-critical ways of evaluating learning and schooling. Students in introductory algebra-based physics courses from 2008-2014 at Tennessee Technological University were self-enrolled in PHYS2010 sections that were taught using either a traditional or constructivist, interactive-engagement Learner-centered Environment for Algebra-based Physics (LEAP) pedagogy. Propensity scoring on all feasible and relevant independent variables was used to adjust for the probability of students choosing either LEAP or traditional sections. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Gender Force Concept Inventory (GFCI) were used as the measures to gauge students' performance on physics concepts. The results showed that there were no differences in the FCI or GFCI performance of males and females. Results also showed that when accounting for pretest performance and the likelihood of choosing a LEAP section, LEAP pedagogy accounted for roughly 30% of performance differences. Not only was this true on the average, it was true for both genders. This meant that the main effect of LEAP pedagogy was even stronger and more generalizable. Gender did not moderate pedagogy, indicating that a pedagogy gap focus was more appropriate for evaluating physics learners.

  12. Gender Structure and Spatial Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoosh Sadoughianzadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the widespread debate on the “gender reading” of the “built environment,” this article aims to situate the subject in a new context, the Iranian society. To depict the subject, two distinct traditional architectures of the region, associated with their respective socio-spatial organizations, have been comparatively explored: the “Introvert” and “Extrovert.” These two almost ageless “Introvert” and “Extrovert” architectures, evolved through centuries in different geographical parts of the country, are spatial patterns aptly illustrating how the “gender structure” of each social organization has contributed to the formation of the relevant “physical space” and, further, how the specific “gender relationships” are pertinently structured within each one of the two types of the spaces. Based on a systematic approach and through concentration on the macro-socio-spatial organization, this article is to explore the gender/space associated variations within either of the social systems they belong to. This perspective is particularly instrumental in pinpointing the Introvert and Extrovert architectures in the context of their social organizations and carefully scrutinizing “gender” and “space” categories as systematically integrated variables.

  13. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B) were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2) and from...

  14. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  15. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  16. Gender Gap in the ERASMUS Mobility Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Böttcher

    Full Text Available Studying abroad has become very popular among students. The ERASMUS mobility program is one of the largest international student exchange programs in the world, which has supported already more than three million participants since 1987. We analyzed the mobility pattern within this program in 2011-12 and found a gender gap across countries and subject areas. Namely, for almost all participating countries, female students are over-represented in the ERASMUS program when compared to the entire population of tertiary students. The same tendency is observed across different subject areas. We also found a gender asymmetry in the geographical distribution of hosting institutions, with a bias of male students in Scandinavian countries. However, a detailed analysis reveals that this latter asymmetry is rather driven by subject and consistent with the distribution of gender ratios among subject areas.

  17. Gender gap in the ERASMUS mobility program

    CERN Document Server

    Böttcher, L; Nagler, J; Mendes, J F F; Helbing, D; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    Studying abroad has become very popular among students. The ERASMUS mobility program is one of the largest international student exchange programs in the world, which has supported already more than three million participants since 1987. We analyzed the mobility pattern within this program in 2011-12 and found a gender gap across countries and subject areas. Namely, for almost all participating countries, female students are over-represented in the ERASMUS program when compared to the entire population of tertiary students. The same tendency is observed across different subject areas. We also found a gender asymmetry in the geographical distribution of hosting institutions, with a bias of male students in Scandinavian countries. However, a detailed analysis reveals that this latter asymmetry is rather driven by subject and consistent with the distribution of gender ratios among subject areas.

  18. Gender Gap in the ERASMUS Mobility Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Lucas; Araújo, Nuno A M; Nagler, Jan; Mendes, José F F; Helbing, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    Studying abroad has become very popular among students. The ERASMUS mobility program is one of the largest international student exchange programs in the world, which has supported already more than three million participants since 1987. We analyzed the mobility pattern within this program in 2011-12 and found a gender gap across countries and subject areas. Namely, for almost all participating countries, female students are over-represented in the ERASMUS program when compared to the entire population of tertiary students. The same tendency is observed across different subject areas. We also found a gender asymmetry in the geographical distribution of hosting institutions, with a bias of male students in Scandinavian countries. However, a detailed analysis reveals that this latter asymmetry is rather driven by subject and consistent with the distribution of gender ratios among subject areas.

  19. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  20. Identifying the Gender Dimension in Research Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.; Lalonde, B.St.L.; Tippett, C.; Archambault, E.; Callaert, J.; Mantouvalou, K.; Arora, L.

    2016-07-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in integrating the gender dimension in research content (GDRC). As a first step towards monitoring progress in this area, a new indicator measuring the proportion of a country’s scientific publications integrating a gender dimension in their subject matter was developed for the European Commission’s She Figures 2015 publication. This indicator is based on a keyword-based query covering both sex-related terms (biological characteristics of both women and men) and gender-related terms (social/cultural factors of both women and men). The final GDRC dataset consisted of some 212,600 distinct publications including a gender dimension in their research content. Findings suggest that integrating a gender dimension into research content is relatively rare. Unsurprisingly, it was less common for scientific articles in the fields of agricultural sciences, engineering and technology, and natural sciences to do so, and more common in the social sciences. (Author)

  1. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.

  2. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B) were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2) and from group B (groups 3 and 4). In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII) (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv) infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P < 0.05). The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P < 0.05). MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P < 0.05). These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult) that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

  3. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pezeshki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2 and from group B (groups 3 and 4. In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P<0.05. The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P<0.05. MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P<0.05. These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

  4. Gender Difference in Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jia

    2013-01-01

      The language research about gender has been a heated topic in linguistics. Gender difference and sexism in language is a natural phenomenon during its use and development. It is the fact that language is discriminatory against women.

  5. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  6. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  7. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  8. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  9. About Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正During my high school years,I found physics,chemistry and maths specially interesting.Actually,I was interested in many subjects,such as biology,history,geography and English.But somehow I simply couldn't remember the events of history or the facts about geography.I couldn't remember the some of the English idioms well either.On the other hand,physics,chemistry and maths were easy for me to learn.After considering carefully my interests and talents,I felt that science might be the best choice for me.So I was determined to study natural science at college.After graduating from college,I would like to return to school to teach.

  10. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  11. Gendered Representations of Fandom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Ödül A

    2016-01-01

    discursive perspective that demonstrates that gender dynamics plays a role in interpreting the material related to fiction and the points of view of the other fan groups. The audience discourse that is shaped and negotiated by men and women who deliberate the so-called gendered interests in online mixed-gender...

  12. Gender, Identity and CMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Simeon J.

    1997-01-01

    Some research and popularized accounts have claimed computer-mediated communication (CMC) based interactions are free of gender inequality though a growing body of research has documented gender differences in access and practice. This article examines both positions and cultural aspects of gender identities to make clear the centrality of gender…

  13. Gender: a battlefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the campaign against gender studies and LGBT rights conducted in France and Italy by the Catholic Church together with traditionalist movements and conservative politicians. They accuse that which they call the "gender theory" of corrupting the youth and undermining the traditional family as well as sexual customs and gender identities.

  14. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  15. Gender: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to identify research opportunities for gender scholars in all disciplines. The authors explain why a truly interdisciplinary approach is necessary to study gender and offer their current thinking about how to pursue this goal. They first provide a description of gender as it plays out at the individual, interpersonal, and…

  16. Gendered Personality Disposition and Gender Role Attitudes among Israeli Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gendered personality dispositions and two aspects of gender role attitudes (occupational sex typing and gender role stereotypes). Indicates that gendered personality disposition affects occupational sex typing, whereas gender has the strongest effect on stereotypes of gender roles in the family and society.…

  17. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  18. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.

  19. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  20. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Pavlova

    Full Text Available Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  1. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  2. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  3. Gender Orders Unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity.......During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...

  4. Gender in medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Malterud, Kirsti

    2009-01-01

    are regarded as normal to the extent that female values disappear or need to be blatantly highlighted in order to be recognized. We have applied this frame of reference to understand how the idea of gender neutrality has been established in medicine. The average medical practitioner, teacher, or researcher...... is a man. We suggest that notions of normality subtly construct gender in medicine in ways where men become normal, while women become deviant. Finally, we discuss strengths and pitfalls of three different strategies which have been used by gender researchers in health to challenge andronormativity......: demonstrating gender differences, revealing the consequences of gendered power inequalities, and deconstructing the meaning of gender. Conclusions: We conclude that gender still matters in medicine....

  5. Gender roles revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to deepen the understanding of how mobile phone usage is related to gender in general and the negotiation of gender roles in particular. It will focus on how women in Kenya appropriate mobile phones and how the appropriation is influenced by prevailing gender norms......’s mobile phone use in everyday life, to shed light on the relationship between gender, mobile phone and development in Kenya and to answer the following questions: How is mobile phones integrated in the everyday life of Kenyan women (rural, peri-urban and urban)? How can women’s different usages of mobile...... phones be understood in relation to, and inform us about changing gender relations in contemporary Kenya? The chapter demonstrates that on the one hand, distinctive gendered usage of mobile phones is present - practices that are direct consequences of prevailing gender roles. On the other hand...

  6. Neural correlates of face gender discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junzhu; Tan, Qingleng; Fang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    Using combined psychophysics and event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effect of perceptual learning on face gender discrimination and probe the neural correlates of the learning effect. Human subjects were trained to perform a gender discrimination task with male or female faces. Before and after training, they were tested with the trained faces and other faces with the same and opposite genders. ERPs responding to these faces were recorded. Psychophysical results showed that training significantly improved subjects' discrimination performance and the improvement was specific to the trained gender, as well as to the trained identities. The training effect indicates that learning occurs at two levels-the category level (gender) and the exemplar level (identity). ERP analyses showed that the gender and identity learning was associated with the N170 latency reduction at the left occipital-temporal area and the N170 amplitude reduction at the right occipital-temporal area, respectively. These findings provide evidence for the facilitation model and the sharpening model on neuronal plasticity from visual experience, suggesting a faster processing speed and a sparser representation of face induced by perceptual learning.

  7. Gender Differences in College Teachers-Students Praise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任琳

    2015-01-01

    As one of the popular studies, gender differences in language attract many attentions. It is also an important part of language culture. The gender differences in language are studied in many subjects. As far as this thesis is concerned, it is different from the previous studies. The research will be done about the gender differences in teachers-students praise in college through quantitative approach. This new viewpoint will make the paper meaningful.

  8. Gendered Characteristics of Female Learners’ Conversational Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Yoshida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines gendered characteristics in four female Japanese language learners’ discourse practices in a communicative setting, where they interact with native Japanese speaking friends in a JFL context. Focusing on the relationship between gender ideologies and discourse practices, I explore the extent to which learners are aware of gender ideologies in the Japanese community and how these ideologies are influential in their discourse practices in the particular setting. In addition, how native speakers of Japanese evaluate gender-differentiated features produced by the learners during the interaction is investigated. Qualitatively-approached, this study revealed that each learner possesses a unique character in their utterances and perceptions, reflecting their individual awareness of gender ideologies and their negotiation of language use against the backdrop of social expectations. At the same time, a lack of such awareness emerged as an issue which kept them from fully and actively engaging in exploring their subjectivities. In addition, this study pointed out that native Japanese speakers utilised gender ideologies as the basis for their judgements on learners’ gendered features in their interaction.

  9. Youth, gender and sexual practices in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Heilborn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey developed in three Brazilian state capitals, this paper presents data and interpretations about the sexual practices and management of sexual desire among male and female youth. The findings indicate a close connection between gender and sexuality in modeling individuals' sexual trajectories and subjectivities. There is a higher acceptance of practices formerly considered to be deviant, revealing that sexual morality among youth has acquired a more modern configuration. This paper argues that there is a differentiated modernization of sexual values: gender disparities were detected in the answers of respondents in all social environments. The increasing flexibility of individual trajectories does not necessarily lead to gender equality. The affirmation that the individualizing process coexists with the persistence of traditional gender ideology entails the recognition that men and women's, and different generations' and social segments' modernization paths do not evolve in the same way.

  10. Unpacking the Gender Differences on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan; Jiang, Feng; Hou, Zhenhu; Chen, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Mental health studies show that women are likely to score higher on subjective well-being and higher on depression than men. To verify this, the present study collected a sample of 5648 undergraduates in 55 universities in China. Results showed that women reported higher optimism, gratitude, subjective well-being, and depression than men, and that optimism and gratitude mediated the relationship between gender and mental health (subjective well-being and depression). By its implication, women were more likely to be optimistic and grateful, and as such they tended to experience higher subjective well-being and depression simultaneously. This also implies that gender differences on mental health could also be a dispositional issue as well as a socialization one.

  11. Perceptual Adaptation of Voice Gender Discrimination with Spectrally Shifted Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether perceptual adaptation improves voice gender discrimination of spectrally shifted vowels and, if so, which acoustic cues contribute to the improvement. Method: Voice gender discrimination was measured for 10 normal-hearing subjects, during 5 days of adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels, produced by processing the…

  12. Gender Division in Sociology Degree Programmes--Causes and Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Ann-Katrin

    2009-01-01

    In spite of engagement and efforts to bring about gender equality in Swedish universities, gender division paradoxically appears in both old and new degree programs and academic disciplines. In recent years there has been a tendency for higher education students to enrol in degree programmes rather than in single subject courses. Due to the…

  13. Grunting Alone? Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F. Schaap (Julian); P.P.L. Berkers (Pauwke)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe global metal scene is a highly skewed field of cultural production in which women are greatly under-represented. As tokens, women are likely to be subjected to gender-biased evaluations, the male gaze, and are held accountable when breaking gender roles. This paper investigates the o

  14. The Gender Gap in Malaysian Public Universities: Examining the 'Lost Boys'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Yong Tienxhi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the growing gender gap between men and women in Malaysian public universities, using the Gender Parity Index (GPI to measure gender disparities over time. It considers the gender gap in University of Malaya with other prominent overseas universities, and compares the GPI between all twenty public higher education institutions for the years 2009-2013. It also compares the GPI of public universities in Malaysia with local private education institutions, and examines the gender disparities in public universities in terms of subject segregation. Particular attention is paid to the gender segregation in terms of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM subjects; gender segregation in STEM subjects in Malaysian public universities is compared to East Asia Pacific averages. Lastly, various causes and explanations for the gender gap are explored.

  15. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  16. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren

    2015-01-01

    . To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia....... Such research enables us to engage with the subjects of post-conflict peacebuilding and transitional justice processes directly and in their own spaces. This article thus renders women’s agency visible and attempts to grasp its contributions and consequences for transformations from war to peace....

  17. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  18. Gender Inequality since 1820

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights). A composite indicator shows strong progress in reducing gender inequality in the pa...

  19. Gender and Poverty Reduction: A Kenyan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Elishiba Njambi; Kombo, Donald Kisilu

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is a dehumanising condition for every one. It erodes human rights of the affected whether women or men. Poverty subjects an individual to a state of powerlessness, hopelessness, and lack of self-esteem, confidence, and integrity, leading to a situation of multidimensional vulnerability. Poverty has a gender dimension since women and men…

  20. Sexual Fantasies, Gender, and Molestation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A total of 314 university students completed a questionnaire examining reports of childhood sexual abuse history and extent and type of adult sexual fantasies. Multivariate main effects of gender and abuse history were found, as well as a multivariate interaction between these variables. Sexually abused subjects had more sexual fantasies in four…

  1. Quantifying the Gender Gap in Science Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 5,000 self-generated science-related K-12 students' questions, classified into seven science subjects, were used to quantitatively measure the gender gap in science interests and its change with age. In this data set, a difference between boys' and girls' science interests did not exist during early childhood, but increased over 20-fold by…

  2. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive construct......In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive...

  3. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…

  4. Gnathological features in growing subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballanti, Fabiana; Ranieri, Salvatore; Baldini, Alberto; Pavoni, Chiara; Bollero, Patrizio; Cozza, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of consecutive subjects. Materials and methods TMDs were recorded in a sample of 580 subjects (279 M, 301 F; mean age: 13.4y). For each subject a case history was compiled to evaluate the social and demographic parameters. An extraoral exam was effected to point out the face proportions, and an intraoral exam was performed to analyze dental occlusion, mandibular deviation during opening, presence of cross-bites, overjet and overbite. A functional exam was carried out to evaluate mandibular movements and to find joint sounds and myofascial pain. The sample was divided into 6 groups according to the: gender, age (ages 6y–11y and 12y–16y), Angle Dental Class, cross-bite, midline deviation and chewing side. For this investigation latex gloves, a millimeter calipers (precision 0,01 mm) and a phonendoscope were used. The percentages of signs and symptoms were compared using the ?2-test with Yates correction to determine the differences among the groups for the rates of TMDs, reduced opening/lateral/protrusive movements, and myofascial pain. Results The prevalence of TMDs in the total sample was 13,9%. Among 6y–11y subjects the percentage of TMD was 7,3% while it was 16,1% among 12y–16y subjects (?2=1.634;; p=0.201). Females showed a percentage of 16,6% of TMDs while males one of 10,8% (?2=0.556;; p=0.456). According to angle malocclusion, the prevalence was 14% in subjects with Class I malocclusion, 15% in sample with Class II and 9% in patients with Class III (?2=0.540;; p=0.763). According to presence or absence of crossbite, prevalence of TMD signs and symptoms was 13,8% among subjects without crossbite and 14,3% among subjects with crossbite, with no significant difference between the two subgroups (?2= 0,047619;; p=0.050). In relation of midline deviation, prevalence of TMDs was 15% in subjects without deviation, 15,8% in functional deviation

  5. El papel de las políticas habitacionales en la construcción de sujetos y ciudadanía: Discusiones y reflexiones desde la perspectiva de género The role of the housing policies in the construction of subjects and citizenship: Discussions and reflections from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Czytajlo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo nos proponemos reflexionar sobre realidades y desafíos de las políticas habitacionales respecto de la construcción de sujetos y ciudadanía. La perspectiva de género constituye una mirada enriquecedora para rediscutir las intervenciones urbanas y habitacionales. Superar las desigualdades requiere identificar los elementos físicos y sociales obstaculizantes y facilitadores del acceso y apropiación de la ciudad hacia el fortalecimiento de la ciudadanía y el establecimiento de condiciones y entornos que lo permitan. Ello implica repensar la vulnerabilidad, problematizar y dotar de nuevos sentido a los conceptos de participación y empoderamiento y a la distinción público-privado en relación a las necesidades. Presentamos reflexiones a la luz de la teoría, observaciones empíricas e interpretaciones sobre programas y proyectos específicos "de reducción de la pobreza centrados en el hábitat". Con los aportes de la antropología social y los específicos de los análisis de género de las políticas públicas, revisamos discursos y prácticas; categorías, sistemas discursivos y mecanismos, evidenciando algunos mecanismos de exclusión presentes en las mismas. Nos enfocamos en nuestra experiencia profesional y académica en relación al programa mejoramiento de barrios (PMB de implementación local que tiene relevancia en América Latina como una de las respuestas urbanas más aceptadas en las últimas décadas, como parte de los "nuevos enfoques de las políticas habitacionales". Ponemos atención en tres dimensiones: la formulación y la definición de beneficiarios, el proceso de implementación y la participación, el proyecto de intervención y los aspectos territoriales.The role of housing policies in the construction of subjects and citizenship. Discussions and reflections from the gender's perspective In this article we will reflect on realities and challenges of housing policies on the construction of subjects

  6. Gender differences in economic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Ergun, Selim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the experimental economics literature on gender differences concerning four salient subjects: risk aversion, trust, deception and leadership. We review both experiments conducted in a laboratory and field experiments. We summarize very briefly the main characteristics of the experiments we review and point out the main results related to gender differences. The vast majority of the articles we have revised document gender differences in behavior; differences which could be explained by sex-role stereotypes which could be formed even in early stages of life and/or hormonal differences such as the female hormone oxytocin or estrogen.

    Este artículo revisa la literatura en el área de economía experimental sobre las diferencias de género en cuatro temas destacados: aversión al riesgo, confianza, engaño y liderazgo. Se revisan tanto experimentos realizados en laboratorios como experimentos de campo. Resumimos brevemente las principales características de los experimentos que consideramos y señalamos los principales resultados relacionados con las diferencias de género. La gran mayoría de los artículos que hemos revisado documentan diferencias de género en el comportamiento. Estas diferencias podrían explicarse por los estereotipos de roles sexuales que podrían formarse incluso en edades tempranas y / o diferencias hormonales como la hormona femenina oxitocina, o el estrógeno.

  7. [Gender identity and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, R; de la Barrera, M; Michelotti, J

    2001-09-01

    A possible role of the feminine gender role in the genesis of eating disorders is possible, since most patients with these disorders are women. To compare some traits of gender identity between females with eating disorders and a control group. An structured clinical interview based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) were administered to 63 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa (ED group) and 63 comparison subjects (C group). Forty three percent of patients in contrast with 23.8% of controls were classified within the feminine category. Likewise 19% of patients and 31.7% of controls were qualified as Androgynous; 27% of patients and 43% of controls were qualified as Undifferentiated. There were significant differences between patients and controls in 22 items of the BSRI (p gender identity in patients suffering of eating disorders. In contrast, Androgyny showed by the control group could result in a better adaptability and flexibility to face difficult life circumstances.

  8. Atherogenic index and relationship with age, gender, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atherogenic index and relationship with age, gender, and anthropometric measurements among hypertensive patients attending Niger ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... Subjects were recruited consecutively over a three month period.

  9. The Effect of Parental Supportiveness and Gender on English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: Parental Supportiveness, home-work, supervision, Gender, Achievement ... most school subjects in Europe and America (Desforges and Abouchaar, 2003), but ..... Inequality and the home learning environment: Predictions about.

  10. GENESIS CONTRADICTIONS OF GENDER APPROACH IN EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Dyuldina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider genesis contradictions of gender approach in modern education and training of children and possibilities of its application in an educational system during the newest period of the society development.Methods, results and scientific novelty. The retrospective analysis of the sources has shown that gender approach isn’t new and not studied: on the contrary, separate education and training of boys and girls in the past was a norm and a duty of parents and teachers. However, the reflection of social processes shows the demolition of traditional system of gender stratification; weakening of women’s and men’s polarization of social roles; change of cultural stereotypes of masculinity and femininity; objective changes in the matrimonial relations. Everything listed above brings into focus an investigative search of new approaches to gender education. The essence of the terms «gender», «gender approach» is specified. Despite very long history of gender education (which was cultivated since the most ancient eras of existence of a mankind, insufficient study of this problem is stated now. Special importance of gender aspect in family education is emphasized. The different points of view in understanding of gender approach in modern science are revealed; the main perspective directions of researches on this subject are noted.Practical significance. The materials of the present article can be used in teaching history of pedagogics, gender psychology and gender pedagogics.

  11. Gender effects on esophageal motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas R.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that there are no gender effects on esophageal motility. However, in previous studies the subjects did not perform multiple swallows and the quantitative features of esophageal contractions were not evaluated. In order to investigate the gender effects on esophageal motility we studied 40 healthy normal volunteers, 20 men aged 37 ± 15 years (mean ± SD, and 20 women aged 38 ± 14 years. We used the manometric method with an eight-lumen polyvinyl catheter and continuous perfusion. The upper and lower esophageal sphincter pressures were measured by the rapid pull-through method. With the catheter positioned with one lumen opening in the lower esophageal sphincter, and the others at 5, 10 and 15 cm above the sphincter, ten swallows of a 5-ml water bolus alternated with ten dry swallows were performed. Statistical analysis was done by the Student t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Gender differences (P<0.05 were observed for wet swallows in the duration of contractions 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (men: 3.7 ± 0.2 s, women: 4.5 ± 0.3 s, mean ± SEM, and in the velocity of contractions from 15 to 10 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (men: 4.7 ± 0.3 cm/s, women: 3.5 ± 0.2 cm/s. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sphincter pressure, duration and percentage of complete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, amplitude of contractions, or in the number of failed, multipeaked and synchronous contractions. We conclude that gender may cause some differences in esophageal motility which, though of no clinical significance, should be taken into consideration when interpreting esophageal motility tests.

  12. On markets and culture : object exchange and subject formation

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Misael Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings that have led me to develop an artistic practice rooted in interventions in the form/function/ exchange of commodities to create micro-political renegotiations of subordination--using the act of exchange as a way of reflecting on the greater ideological order of social, cultural, and economic structures that maintain current relations of power

  13. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions.

  14. Personality, Gender, and Crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in crying as well as associations between basic personality traits and self-reported indices of crying. Forty-eight men and 56 women completed the Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Adult Crying Inventory. Substantial gender differences were demonstrated

  15. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  16. Gender Differences in Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Barbara B.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the research on gender differences in leadership, examines the impact of sex stereotyping, looks at the organizational effects of various types of leadership, and argues for the acceptance of a diversity of non-gender-linked leadership styles. (43 references) (LRW)

  17. Are Numbers Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  18. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  19. Are Numbers Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  20. Gender Orders Unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...

  1. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  2. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and

  3. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and m

  4. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35751405X; Dilli, Selin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370724267; Rijpma, Auke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314174982

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and m

  5. Gender Inequality at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  6. Gender Identity: Intersex Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhame Khabar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to past beliefs and social norms, society has been taught that their has only been two types of biological structures regarding the ideal male and female. The majority of society has also believed that gender identity was specific only to those structures, as most have had a very fixed perspective of men and women and the sexual organs that are associated. In today's society, there has been an observed increase of many variations in sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and sex anatomy. Awareness has been subtle, yet growing on gender identity and intersex individuals; however, some studies and popular media stories have also shown that many of these individuals have experienced trauma and hardship due to their ambiguous genitalia and how it has affected their gender identity.

  7. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    is associated with ‘social democratic’ perceptions of welfare and gender equality. Brochmann and Hagelund (2010) have pointed towards a specific form of Scandinavian welfare nationalism which is challenged by globalization and increased migration. We add that gender equality is a key aspect of the Scandinavian...... politics of belonging and that this has implications for our understanding of the challenges which can be recognised in the contemporary politics of gender and welfare in Scandinavia. This point is illustrated by exploring the problematic ways in which contemporary nationalist parties in Sweden, Denmark...... and Norway have linked national belongings with support for the welfare state and gender equality politics. These observations in turn raise theoretical, normative and analytical questions about understandings and conceptualizations of the nationalism, welfare and gender.The article aims to explore what...

  8. Gender Concept Development and Preschool-Aged Children in the United States and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerscheid, Jean D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested the gender understanding of 31 American and 31 Egyptian children. American children had a higher mean score on gender identity than Egyptian children. Found significant positive relationships between subject's age and two gender constructs, identity and stability. (Author/BJV)

  9. Doing Gender in Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Judi

    1999-01-01

    Explores teaching gender to management students, mainly those working toward Masters in Business Administration degrees. Introduces a gender awareness approach and illustrates it with two examples of "doing" gender using multiple associations of that term. (SLD)

  10. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.

  11. Gender disadvantage and common mental disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Prabha S; Satyanarayana, Veena A

    2010-01-01

    Research in the area of gender and mental health indicates that women are disproportionately affected by common mental disorders (CMDs) as well as co-morbid mental disorders. However, the concept of gender disadvantage, its correlates, and mental health outcomes has received relatively less research attention. In addition, there are no known systematic reviews in the area of gender disadvantage and common mental disorders in recent years. In this review we have therefore attempted to deconstruct the concept of gender disadvantage, identify important correlates of gender disadvantage and illustrate their influence on common mental disorders. Since gender is a social construct and is greatly influenced by one's culture and ethnicity, we have made an attempt to integrate international literature on the subject and highlight cultural and ethnic relevance of topics as they emerge. Finally, we have provided take home messages from existing literature, identified gaps in literature, and formulated directions for future research in this area.

  12. The development of cognitive gender constancy and sex role preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, D E; Overton, W F

    1978-06-01

    The chief purpose of this study was to examine the development of stable concepts of "boy" and "girl" (gender identity constancy) in kindergartners and first and second graders. Gender constancy was explored in relation to cognitive level (assessed both by grade and conservation measures); whether the concept was applied to the subject himself or to another child; whether the concept was applied to live children or pictorial representations; and sex role preferences (games, television characters, peer preferences). In support of a cognitive-developmental position, gender constancy was found to be related to cognitive level, and most children conformed to a developmental sequence (Guttman scalogram) in which conservation preceded gender constancy. Gender constancy performance was better when the concept was applied to the self versus another child and when applied to pictorial representations versus live forms. Gender constancy was not related to sex role preferences.

  13. Talking about gendered headship: how do women and men working in schools conceive and articulate notions of gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kay

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I explore how a woman secondary school headteacher and her colleagues talk about her gendered headship. To facilitate and contextualise the semi-structured interviews, participants were asked to categorise a range of attributes and qualities that have been seen as 'masculine' or 'feminine'. They attempted to plot their perceptions of her gendered headship on a continuum from 'extremely masculine' to 'extremely feminine' in relation to her appearance and interactions in various contexts. Their talk, as they explained and illustrated their thinking, reveals that even from a dualist starting point many have an understanding of the fluid nature of complex, subjective, gendered identities. The rejection of binary notions of gender by some participants disrupts the perpetuation of gender as a dualist concept. In particular, the headteacher forces open a space in which to consider the complexity of her own gendered headship.

  14. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive...... constructions of national and European identities/belongings. On this basis the article claims that diversity represents a dual challenge to be conceptualized within and beyond the nation state. The article explores the formation of national and transnational identities based on analyses of political actors......’ debates about gender and diversity within the national and transnational European Polity....

  15. Gender and Social Remittances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    the extent to which migrant experiences generally constitute a source of inspiration for imagining and working for transformations in gender ideologies and practices in the current life in Yemen of these return migrants. According to Levitt (2001) such inspiration will on certain conditions work as social...... is on the surprise of finding, upon return, that social norms had changed in Yemen, in terms of a more restrictive approach to practices defined by gender. The return migrants all came to Yemen when they were still in their youth and they have had to accommodate to new gender norms upon their return in spite...

  16. Modelling Gender Pay Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionThere has been little change in the full-time gender pay gap since the mid 1990s andin the female part-time/male full-time pay gap since the mid 1970s. The gender gapin hourly earnings for those employed full-time in Britain in 2003 was 18 per cent,while that between women working part-time and men working full-time was 40 percent.This research uses statistical methods to identify how much of the gender pay gap isassociated with different factors. The data set ana...

  17. Gender inequality and gender differences in authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J

    2012-10-01

    Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.

  18. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, J.C.J.M. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was ‘gender blind’ by not

  19. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Verdonk; Y.W.M. Benschop; H.C.J.M. de Haes; T.L.M. Lagro-Janssen

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not

  20. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  1. [Gender-difference in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ai; Ishigaki, Yasushi

    2015-04-01

    Gender-difference is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of glucose metabolism. Imbalances in sex hormones, such as increasing levels of progesterone or testosterone, are associated with systemic insulin resistance. After menopause, women are at an increased risk to develop visceral obesity due to the loss of endogenous ovarian hormone production. On the other hand, insulin resistance caused excess secretion of androgen, leading to menstrual disorder in obese young female. For the better management of glucose intolerance in pregnancy, the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes was revised in Japan. Although glucose intolerance in pregnancy is usually recovered after delivery, the subjects who diagnosed gestational diabetes need to be followed for an early detection of type 2 diabetes development. In addition, gender-differences in living practice and attitude are related to their lifestyle, including diet and exercise, therefore, gender-specific medicine increasingly plays key roles in the treatment of diabetes.

  2. Women leaders in academia, gender and stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Carolina Moncayo Orjuela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the leadership characteristics typical of women in managerial positions in higher education institutions, starting from a particular literary approach and found in research regarding this topic. It is based on the subjective constructions of social duality between the masculine and feminine genders and attributes in the social relations of power. Also, within the conceptual framework examines leadership as a social construction and, therefore, their dependence on the various social characterizations. To fulfill the goal four themes were set. They allow the categorization of the literature review, namely: leadership and development, gender and stereotypes, leadership and gender, and to end, women's leadership in education institutions. Finally, we present the results of the literature research, where the transactional transformational, participative and authoritarian leadership styles are clearly evident, from which the transformational, characteristic of women, is the must in power and leadership positions in higher education institutions.

  3. Gender and School: for other educational practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rita Duarte de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The studies of gender sought to show that the cultural references are sexually produced through symbols, games of significance and power relations of kinship, and economic policies. "The relations of gender are a cultural and social construction and as such represent a continuous process and batch production of seats and powers of men and women in every culture and society" (OLIVEIRA, 1999, p.70. So, to paraphrase LOURO (2003, the discussion on gender aims to contribute to the fight against authoritarian relations, questioned the rigidity of the standards of conduct established for men and women and ways to sharpen the transformation of the paradigms established around the relationship men / women in society. These discussions allow rethink our social participation, either at school or in our emotional relationships, establishing new relations between the subjectivity of others and ours, respecting the similarities and differences, but above all, proposing dialogue with these differences.

  4. Gender and Behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. ... Is entrepreneurial orientation a predictor of entrepreneurial activity? ... Personality traits and sexual satisfaction as determinants of marital satisfaction ...

  5. Gender and Shame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    This entry aims to offer a critical summary of philosophical research at the intersection of gender studies and the particular emotion of shame. Among the emotions, shame attracts particular interest from philosophers interested in gender studies who have primarily focussed on the various facets...... of the oppression and domination of women by men. In this context, shame is often considered as part of the phenomenology of oppression. As a result of the subordinated position of women in society, shame is gender-specific in at least two important senses, which will be the object of this entry. In the first sense......, women are more shame-prone than men. This idea will be the object of Section 2. In the other more radical sense, shame is experienced and therefore conceptualized rather differently by different genders due to the different social positions they tend to occupy. This idea will be the object of Section 3....

  6. Gender Disparities in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswat, Khaled A.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing health concern worldwide and its complications are as prevalent as other common chronic disease complications such as hypertension and diabetes. In this review, we will discuss the role of gender in osteoporosis, especially related to peak bone mass and maturation, rate of annual bone loss, screening, prevalence of osteoporosis and its related fractures, mortality after osteoporosis-related fracture, fracture risk predication using different technologies and the impact of gender on osteoporosis management.

  7. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  8. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide statistics reveal that the increasing number of risks and disaster impacts within the last decades have caused highly severe damages, with high death toll and huge economic damages (World Bank, 2010). As a consequence people's vulnerabilities have increased disproportionally in recent years. Individuals' ability to anticipate, prepare, cope, respond and recover from disasters differs according to some socio-economic attributes present in each community. The research on natural disasters in a gendered perspective is fairly limited compared to other variables. In fact, the need to track social vulnerabilities and investigate gender dynamics into all levels of the disaster life cycle has been recognized only recently, during the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015). For this purpose, we propose a review of the literature regarding the ways men and women conceptualise natural disasters, prepare and react, both physically and psychologically, to catastrophic events. This work tries to give some interpretation to these subjects analysing the social context in which sex discrepancies are developed, in different countries, cultures and in various socio-economic backgrounds. Findings highlighted that women perceived more the risk, and they have developed personal strategies to better react and withstand the impacts of negative occurrences. Being at home, working in the house and caring the children have been always placed them at a higher exposure to disasters. However, these circumstances, they gave them the means to organize the family for evacuations thanks to their deep knowledge of the territory they live and the neighbourhood networks they create. Women seem to be not sole victims, but valuable resources able to take leading roles in building disaster resilience. Some case studies, however, continue to demonstrate a female's higher fear and powerless face hazardous events than their counterparts, showing various mental health disorders

  9. Education and gender: training social educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Bas-Peña

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fromthe Universal Declaration of Human Rights international organizations have launched initiatives to achieve men and women equality and withstand all forms of discrimination and violence. This paper presents the research on gender training of students in Spanish universities that taught the Degree in Social Education. It was conducted in 36 universities (29 public and 7 private.We used a multi-method perspective.We performed a deep analysis of the degree programme through the teaching guides for all courses, in order to identify the presence of gender related areas in specific subjects and in those that include it transversely.We have also set up an on-line questionnaire for 4th year students (213 people, in order to have their opinion on the gender training received throughout their careers.We detected the weak presence, in the degree programmes, of specific subjects related to these topics. Most of the current focus is on gender equality / inequality, being residual the inclusion / exclusion and violence concepts. The subjects that transversely teach it are mostly mandatory and basic. The results extracted from the questionnaire include that students do received little training on these topics.While they give great importance to gender training. They show great unawareness about their right to receive such training and in addition be able to claim it. As well as not having knowledge of the Equality Plan in their university. A high percentage of respondents declared using sexist language, but it is still higher the percentage of students who said that teachers use it in their classes

  10. Gender and the performance of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Desmond C; Himonides, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. Were they present in the musical "message," gendered qualities might be imparted at any of three stages of the music-communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or imposed by the listener in the process of perception. The research was designed to obtain empirical evidence to enable evaluation of claims of the presence of gendering at these three stages. Three research hypotheses were identified and relevant literature of music behaviors and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the three hypotheses: (i) two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, (ii) four "music characteristics" scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically-trained listeners listened to the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that gendered properties are imposed subjectively by the listener, and these are primarily related to the tempo of the music.

  11. Gender and physics: a sociological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendick, Heather

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, I take a sociological approach to understanding the under-representation of gender and physics. I argue that gender is something we do not something that we are. Thus, every aspect of our behaviour, including our engagement (or not) with physics becomes part of our performance of gender. I then use a brief historical analysis and an example from popular culture to show how physics is culturally aligned with masculinity. The impact is that the subject feels more ‘natural’ for men than for women. I end with some of the implications of this for those who want to make physics more accessible to girls and women. (EDITORS NOTE: This paper was given at the Improving Gender Balance (IGB) conference in Cambridge, UK, in March 2015, organised by the Institute of Physics. This conference was for schools and their supporters who were part of the IGB strand of the Stimulating Physics Network, funded by the Department for Education. It aimed to summarise some of the sociological perspectives on girls and physics for the benefit of the teachers attending the conference. We feel that it may be a useful summary for those teachers of physics who are unfamiliar with sociological approaches to gender and the classroom.)

  12. GENDER EQUALITY AS A MODERN PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Storozhuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work. Forming the axiological system of Western society, with the intentions to establish gender equality as a guarantee of a just society being taken into account, on the one hand, and preserving the traditional gender stereotypes inherent to patriarchal gender roles in a considerable part of the world, on the other hand, is actualizing the study of the factors that have contributed to realizing the problem of gender inequality and discrimination. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to highlight the factors that stipulated the awareness of gender equality in European social and cultural space, while leaving alive the traditional gender values in a number of other cultural environments. Methodology of the study is determined by interdisciplinary approach involving the use of general scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, generalization, etc. The leading role belonged to the principle of the historical and logical unity. At the same time the study applies the basic principles of philosophical hermeneutics and the contextual analysis method. Originality lies in putting forward the new theoretical statements aimed to show that in the ancient and pre-modern society, gender inequality and discrimination did not exist, because at that time gender relations were considered either as a result of the biological characteristics of a human body, or were explained by worldview ideas about the origin and structural features of the world, prevailing in a specific historical dimension. Consequently, gender roles were taken for granted and were not subject to any doubt. Conclusions. Despite all the worldview shifts that had been taking place in the pre-modern era social outlook, nevertheless, as history has shown, they failed to generate sufficient philosophical foundations either for recognizing the equality of women, or changing their social, legal and political status. This led to accumulating the unconscious internal resistance to

  13. Flicker perimetry in healthy subjects: influence of age and gender, learning effect and short-term fluctuation Perimetria "flicker" em indivíduos normais: influência da idade e sexo, efeito aprendizado e flutuação a curto prazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bernardi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the mean critical fusion frequency and the short-term fluctuation, to analyze the influence of age, gender, and the learning effect in healthy subjects undergoing flicker perimetry. METHODS: Study 1 - 95 healthy subjects underwent flicker perimetry once in one eye. Mean critical fusion frequency values were compared between genders, and the influence of age was evaluated using linear regression analysis. Study 2 - 20 healthy subjects underwent flicker perimetry 5 times in one eye. The first 3 sessions were separated by an interval of 1 to 30 days, whereas the last 3 sessions were performed within the same day. The first 3 sessions were used to investigate the presence of a learning effect, whereas the last 3 tests were used to calculate short-term fluctuation. RESULTS: Study 1 - Linear regression analysis demonstrated that mean global, foveal, central, and critical fusion frequency per quadrant significantly decreased with age (p0.05, with the exception of the central area and inferonasal quadrant (p=0.049 and p=0.011, respectively, where the values were lower in females. Study 2 - Mean global (p=0.014, central (p=0.008, and peripheral (p=0.03 critical fusion frequency were significantly lower in the first session compared to the second and third sessions. The mean global short-term fluctuation was 5.06±1.13 Hz, the mean interindividual and intraindividual variabilities were 11.2±2.8% and 6.4±1.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that, in healthy subjects, critical fusion frequency decreases with age, that flicker perimetry is associated with a learning effect, and that a moderately high short-term fluctuation is expected.OBJETIVOS: Determinar os valores médios da freqüência crítica de fusão e a flutuação a curto prazo, analisar a influência da idade, sexo e o efeito aprendizado na perimetria "flicker". MÉTODOS: Estudo 1 - 96 indivíduos normais foram submetidos à perimetria "flicker" uma vez em

  14. KETIMPANGAN GENDER DALAM PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Aktaria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the gender inequality in 14 districts/ cities in Central Kalimantan Province by using the Gender Inequality Index (GII, which introduced by UNDP, to analyze the effect of gender inequality with economic growth and compare the use of the GII with the Gender Development Index and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM in relation to economic growth. This research uses panel data from 14 districts/cities during 2004-2007, the analytical methods used were descriptive statistics in analyzing gender inequality and statistical inference to explain the influence of gender inequality on economic growth. Descriptive analysis results showed that there are sharp gender inequality in every district/city. The results of regression analysis shows that there are negative and significant effect of gender inequality to economic growth. Gender inequality is statistically represented by a proxy of the GII is not as strong compared to a proxy of the two others.

  15. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  16. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  17. Prosocial behaviour and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paz eEspinosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in neutral baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context, and (ii gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.

  18. Determinants related to gender differences in general practice utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the determinants related to gender differences in the GP utilization in Danish population aged 50-65 years. DESIGN: Cohort-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Danish general practice. SUBJECTS: Totally, 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer...... explain a large proportion, but not all of the gender difference in GP utilization. Medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment are the main determinants of GP utilization in men and women, while lifestyle has minor effect. Key points: Female gender remained a dominant determinant of GP...... utilization, after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demography, medical and gender specific factors, with females consulting their GP 18% more often than males. Female reproductive factors (use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and gravidity) explained a large proportion of the gender variation in use of GP...

  19. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Gender on Physics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences on the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) have been extensively studied. Ten semesters (N=1621) of CSEM data is presented showing male students outperform female students on the CSEM posttest by 5 % (p qualitative in-semester test questions by 3 % (p = . 004), but no significant difference between male and female students was found on quantitative test questions. Male students enter the class with superior prior preparation in the subject and score 4 % higher on the CSEM pretest (p qualitative test questions cease to be significant. This suggests no intrinsic gender bias exists in the CSEM itself and that gender differences are the result of prior preparation measured by CSEM pretest score. Gender differences between male and female students increase with pretest score. Regression analyses are presented to further explore interactions between preparation, gender, and achievement.

  20. Gendering pursuits of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    ,984 entrepreneurs in 67 countries were surveyed by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, and analysed by hierarchical linear modelling. Entrepreneurs' gender is found to influence their networks, in that women network more in the private sphere, whereas men network more in the public sphere, but networks are smaller......Innovation is embedded in networks that are embedded in culture. An entrepreneur's network of advisors comprises a network within the private sphere of family and friends and a network outside, in the public sphere. This networking is gendered, we hypothesise, in that typically, the private sphere...... network is heavily utilised by women, whereas the public sphere network is stronger for men. We also hypothesise, that these gendered networks are embedded in culture, in that women's networks are reduced within traditional culture, and that culture moderates the effects of networks on innovation. 68...

  1. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...... psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished...

  2. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...... psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished...

  3. Mapping the gendered city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2017-01-01

    opportunities for gender interaction. However, streets are socially conceived as men’s walkscapes, which limits women’s presence, especially at certain times of the day. This paper reveals how walking experience, tempo-rhythm, sense of place and range of walkscapes are not only determined by ‘universal’ spatial......Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  4. Gender affiliation and inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Jadranka Đ.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the inheritance matter in the socialist period, the author concludes that it was based solely on gender. This paper explains the relationship between gender, inheritance, ownership and possessions among kinsmen in the Vranje district. During the socialist period so called customary law of inheritance (a right to inherit a deceased father, that is, a mother was socially and legislatively accepted. The women from the Vranje district are aware of their unfair position in matters of inheritance, but also they know that even if they are to inherit a property they will not become equal to men. It is obvious that it was an illusion that a socialist organization with its legislative system (or any other, as a mater of fact could establish the gender equality in inheritance and thus solve the dualism between the customary law and the law.

  5. What Managers Say when They Talk about Gender and Careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    Like in many other European countries, the Danish financial sector is one in which the male occupation of managerial positions predominates, with women tending to occupy lower-ranking jobs. Social constructivist research has pointed out that this inequality is connected to the way men and women...... metaphors that reflect dominant discourses on gender, resorting only briefly to constructing gendered subject positions (author 2009). The paper takes its starting point in this study arguing that single-sex interview groups promote stereotypical gender constructions among female and male managers. However......, if organised into e.g. mixed-sex groups, men and women are likely to construct their own and the opposite sex along lines that reflect more diversity and hence, tend to adopt metaphors that reflect a number of gendered subject positions. To establish the validity of this claim, the paper will present...

  6. GENDER DALAM TINJAUAN TAFSIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitunah Subhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The  justice gender of issues continues to be voiced. The justice is the most central ideas as well as the highest goal is preached by every religion. Principal of mission of the al Qur’an Islamic Holy Book was revealed to free mankind from all forms of discrimination and oppression. Interpretations is the key to unlock the beauty of meaning which savings in the Qur'an.Keywords : Gender, Tafsir PerspectiveCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i1.34

  7. [Diagnosing gender identity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Mattila, Aino; Kärnä, Teemu; Joutsenneimi, Kaisla

    2015-01-01

    Transsexualism and other variations of gender identity are based on a stable sense of identity. The aetiology of this phenomenon is not fully known. Suffering caused by gender dysphoria is alleviated with sex reassignment. The psychiatric assessment of both adolescents and adults has been centralized in Finland to two university hospitals, the Helsinki University Hospital and Tampere University Hospital. In both hospitals, multidisciplinary teams aim at differential diagnosis by using well-known psychiatric and psychological instruments. Wishes for sex reassignment that are caused by a mental health disorder are excluded. Assessment in adolescence is challenging because the identity in youth is still forming.

  8. The materiality of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, N A

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY Lesbian and transgender histories often recuperate the same historical figures; however, many lesbian spaces (like the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival) have excluded lesbian-identified male-to-female transsexuals. Through an analysis of historical inclusion and socio-political exclusion, this essay examines the relationship between "birth bodies," gender and sexuality. It argues that the lesbian body appears in history through the naturalization of "birth-bodies" and the recuperation of cross-gender behavior. In this way, the body becomes a template for lesbian historical recuperation and an organizing principle for contemporary lesbian communities.

  9. Butler, Judith, Undoing Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Anabela Rocha

    2012-01-01

    O conceito de “gender” de Butler (Gender Trouble, 1990) foi um forte ponto de viragem nos estudos queer uma vez que torna radicalmente claro que o género não é uma essência já feita que seria vivenciada pelos sujeitos mas sim um permanente fazer pela sua própria reiteração performativa, que poderia subverter ou não os padrões dualistas hegemónicos. Undoing Gender tem a particularidade de reflectir radicalmente sobre os riscos que correm aqueles que desconstroem esses padrões. Trata-se de uma ...

  10. Gender equality revisited:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; B. Eydal, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic childcare policy model is often reviewed and even recommended internationally for its contribution to gender equality, high female labour force participation and, perhaps more indirectly, to a high fertility rate. Nordic childcare services and parental leave schemes have thus been...... portrayed in the literature as policies which have managed to facilitate a work–family model of dual earners and dual carers. However, the recent introduction of cash-for-care schemes seems to go against the Nordic dual earner/dual carer model and ideals of gender equality, in supporting parental (maternal...

  11. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  12. Gender stereotypes in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  13. Butler, Judith, Undoing Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Rocha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de “gender” de Butler (Gender Trouble, 1990 foi um forte ponto de viragem nos estudos queer uma vez que torna radicalmente claro que o género não é uma essência já feita que seria vivenciada pelos sujeitos mas sim um permanente fazer pela sua própria reiteração performativa, que poderia subverter ou não os padrões dualistas hegemónicos. Undoing Gender tem a particularidade de reflectir radicalmente sobre os riscos que correm aqueles que desconstroem esses padrões. Trata-se de uma ...

  14. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W M; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L M

    2009-03-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be 'male biased' because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ideology negatively influences treatment and health outcomes. Finally, gender inequality has been overlooked as a determinant of health and illness. The uptake of gender issues in medical education brings about specific challenges for several reasons. For instance, the political-ideological connotations of gender issues create resistance especially in traditionalists in medical schools. Secondly, it is necessary to clarify which gender issues must be integrated in which domains. Also, some are interdisciplinary issues and as such more difficult to integrate. Finally, schools need assistance with implementation. The integration of psychosocial issues along with biomedical ones in clinical cases, the dissemination of literature and education material, staff education, and efforts towards structural embedding of gender in curricula are determining factors for successful implementation. Gender equity is not a spontaneous process. Medical education provides specific opportunities that may contribute to transformation for medical schools educate future doctors for future patients in future settings. Consequently, future benefits legitimize the integration of gender as a qualitative investment in medical education.

  15. Women in situations of gender violence: meanings of affective experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Fernandes Martins Catão; Maria do Socorro Roberto de Lucena

    2013-01-01

    It is aimed in this study to analyze - women in situations of gender violence: meanings ofaffective experience, for women receiving care in the Reference Center in Northeast Brazil. Study participants: 10 women, between 27 and 67 years old. It is used semi-open questionnaire and semi-structured interview. The data were subjected to thematic content analysis in the light of Socio-Historical Psychology. The analysis identifies three interrelated themes: conceptions of gender violence, amounting...

  16. Visual speaker gender affects vowel identification in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte; Tøndering, John

    2013-01-01

    The experiment examined the effect of visual speaker gender on the vowel perception of 20 native Danish-speaking subjects. Auditory stimuli consisting of a continuum between /muːlə/ ‘muzzle’ and /moːlə/ ‘pier’ generated using TANDEM-STRAIGHT matched with video clips of a female and a male speaker...... were used to determine whether visual speaker gender affected Danish listeners similarly to American English-speaking listeners tested in a similar way....

  17. Body image in persons with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito Alcón, María Frenzi; Rodríguez Molina, José Miguel

    2015-05-15

    For subjects with gender dysphoria, body image is an important aspect of their condition. These people sometimes exhibit a strong desire to change their primary and secondary sexual characteristics. In addition, idealization of beauty has grown in importance and it may increase body dissatisfaction. The aim of this paper is to analyze whether body dissatisfaction in people with gender dysphoria is similar to that in clinical population or if it is more similar to that which may appear in general population. We also looked at gender differences in body dissatisfaction. A set of questionnaires was administered to patients with gender dysphoria: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT- 26), body dissatisfaction sub-scale of Eating disorder inventory-two (EDI-2) and IMAGEN questionnaire. In the case of body dissatisfaction subscale of Eating disorder inventory-two with a cut-off 11; body dissatisfaction in our sample was close to the level presented in clinical population. However, using cut-off points 14 and 16, they exhibited a body dissatisfaction level that was similar to the general population. The same occurred for the IMAGEN questionnaire. No gender differences were found when looking at the level of dissatisfaction. The data seem to indicate that people with gender dysphoria would be at an intermediate point in relation to body dissatisfaction between general population and clinical population; in both female and male transsexuals. It seems that some level of body dissatisfaction may be perceived in relation to the ideal of beauty, but this dissatisfaction is significantly lower than in clinical populations.

  18. Straight but Not Narrow; Within-Gender Variation in the Gender-Specificity of Women's Sexual Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L Chivers

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or "straight" women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women. It is therefore unclear if gender-nonspecific responding is found in both exclusively and predominantly androphilic women. The current studies investigated within-gender variability in the gender-specificity of women's sexual response. Two samples of women reporting concurrent andro/gynephilia viewed (Study 1, n = 29 or listened (Study 2, n = 30 to erotic stimuli varying by gender of sexual partner depicted while their genital and subjective sexual responses were assessed. Data were combined with larger datasets of predominantly gyne- and androphilic women (total N = 78 for both studies. In both studies, women reporting any degree of gynephilia, including those who self-identified as heterosexual, showed significantly greater genital response to female stimuli, similar to predominantly gynephilic women; gender-nonspecific genital response was observed for exclusively androphilic women only. Subjective sexual arousal patterns were more variable with respect to sexual attractions, likely reflecting stimulus intensity effects. Heterosexually-identified women are therefore not a homogenous group with respect to sexual responses to gender cues. Implications for within-gender variation in women's sexual orientation and sexual responses are discussed.

  19. Straight but Not Narrow; Within-Gender Variation in the Gender-Specificity of Women’s Sexual Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L.; Bouchard, Katrina N.; Timmers, Amanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or “straight” women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men) and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women). It is therefore unclear if gender-nonspecific responding is found in both exclusively and predominantly androphilic women. The current studies investigated within-gender variability in the gender-specificity of women’s sexual response. Two samples of women reporting concurrent andro/gynephilia viewed (Study 1, n = 29) or listened (Study 2, n = 30) to erotic stimuli varying by gender of sexual partner depicted while their genital and subjective sexual responses were assessed. Data were combined with larger datasets of predominantly gyne- and androphilic women (total N = 78 for both studies). In both studies, women reporting any degree of gynephilia, including those who self-identified as heterosexual, showed significantly greater genital response to female stimuli, similar to predominantly gynephilic women; gender-nonspecific genital response was observed for exclusively androphilic women only. Subjective sexual arousal patterns were more variable with respect to sexual attractions, likely reflecting stimulus intensity effects. Heterosexually-identified women are therefore not a homogenous group with respect to sexual responses to gender cues. Implications for within-gender variation in women’s sexual orientation and sexual responses are discussed. PMID:26629910

  20. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine eSczesny; Magdalena eFormanowicz; Franziska eMoser

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of...

  1. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  2. Gender Differences in Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛媛

    2014-01-01

    Men and women applied language distinct from each other in many ways. The thesis gives an illustration of gender dif-ferences in conversation and different interpretive frames within which the discourse between men and women take place. More profoundly, it tries to explain them from perspective of socialization.

  3. Gender and Behaviour: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour Ife Centre for Psychological Studies and Service. ... On page 1, type article title, author name(s), affiliation(s) address phone and fax ... the manuscript includes only original materials test has not been published and that ...

  4. Gendered Avatar Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Viola

    2011-01-01

    Gendered appearance in "World of Warcraft" is of particular interest because it seems to infiltrate interactions between individuals without serving a functional purpose within the game itself. It provides an opportunity to look at avatar choice in environments that have a primary purpose aside from existing as an arena for creating identity, and…

  5. Pornography and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.; Whelehan, P.; Bolin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between gender and pornography has a long history, beginning with early modern narrative representations of sex written by men but presented from the perspective of female narrators. In the nineteenth century, the representation of sexuality became implicated in the imperial

  6. Puzzles on grammatical gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, J.; Hulk, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the link between the notion of "neuter" gender and default in Dutch, a language that does not make the familiar distinction between masculine and feminine nouns, but opposes non-neuter nouns to neuter nouns. In trying to extend to Dutch the analysis of "neuter" as a default

  7. Gender and Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathryn P.

    Because of widespread acceptance of Kohlberg's theory of moral development other aspects of moral thinking and behavior linked with the feminine voice have not received attention. Four areas of Kohlberg's theory relevant to the gender issue are critiqued, and work by Carol Gilligan, suggesting alternative theories for thinking and behavior, is…

  8. Gender and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how stereotypical gender perceptions relate to employees with physical impairments. This is done by investigating how employees and managers in 13 Danish work organizations draw on stereotypical perceptions of femininity when they talk about their colleag...

  9. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    on insights from the history of religion, I see hope for tolerance and respect of variant genders and loves on the verge of cultural intelligibility lying in the fact that cultural violence is reduced to a far larger extent by investing in the gathering of knowledge about complex identities inside and outside...

  10. Pornography and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.; Whelehan, P.; Bolin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between gender and pornography has a long history, beginning with early modern narrative representations of sex written by men but presented from the perspective of female narrators. In the nineteenth century, the representation of sexuality became implicated in the imperial project

  11. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  12. Gender sensitive design practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways do companies take gender into account in their design decisions? In the past, commerce has been criticized for designing for the dominant group in society--the notorious young, white, able-bodied, highly educated male--to the exclusion of user groups who do not fit

  13. Gender sensitive design practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways do companies take gender into account in their design decisions? In the past, commerce has been criticized for designing for the dominant group in society--the notorious young, white, able-bodied, highly educated male--to the exclusion of user groups who do not fit th

  14. [Gender in view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women.

  15. Puzzles on grammatical gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, J.; Hulk, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the link between the notion of "neuter" gender and default in Dutch, a language that does not make the familiar distinction between masculine and feminine nouns, but opposes non-neuter nouns to neuter nouns. In trying to extend to Dutch the analysis of "neuter" as a default pro

  16. Gender and family stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of partnership disruption among families with children in recent decades has been accompanied by substantial changes in traditional gender roles in industrialized countries. Yet, relatively little is known about the effects of changing gender relations on family stability in the European context. In this paper, we study such gender influences at the familial and societal level in Sweden and Hungary between the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. We focus on the disruption of the first parental union (i.e. the union in which a couple's first child was born. Our analysis is based on data extracted from the Swedish and Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of 1992/93. We use the method of hazard regression. The results suggest (i that the establishment of the dual-earner family model influences family stability only if it is accompanied by some changes in traditional gender relations within the family, and (ii that women's and men's labor-market behavior have different effects in spite of the relatively long history of women's (also mothers' labor-force participation in both Sweden and Hungary.

  17. Mathematics and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Leder, Gilah C., Ed.

    This book reports on various studies that have increased our understanding of why females and males learn different kinds and amounts of mathematics. In particular, this book explicates the Autonomous Learning Behavior model, proposed by Fennema and Peterson, which is a possible explanation of the development of gender differences in mathematics.…

  18. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  19. Gender and Working Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Bergholm

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of occupational segregation by sex and gendered practices in the workplace are complex, multidimensional and contested fields of research and academic discourse. Since the 1960s, we have seen a rapid growth in both quantity and quality of academic work in this field. Earlier simplistic main (male stream as well as straightforward feminist explanations has been roundly criticised and deconstructed. It is now clear that the study of gender relations in working life is far more complicated than it was believed decades ago. The central question in gender research is how gendered structures – in which men in general have more power, more prestigious positions and higher pay – are reproduced in a world in which demography, economy, production, education and therefore society and family have changed over time. Nordic countries represents an interesting geographical arena to examine gender relations in working life, because many factors, which have been seen in other countries as causes for female subordination, appear in other forms. At present, the labour force participation rate of women in Nordic countries is nearly equal to that of men, but there are still substantial differences. Women are better educated than men, and also, to a large extent unionised. Although these factors make Nordic women stand out globally, gender equality at work or at home has not yet been achieved. The male breadwinner is still a societal norm and a construct, which conditions the behaviour of organisations and individuals in many circumstances in working life. This influence can be obvious or obscure. From the 1990s, research has turned to focus also on the fate of the male workforce during deindustrialisation and global restructuring. Participation rate of men in gainful employment have diminished in all industrialised countries (Crouch; 1999, Walby; 1997. Nordic countries are not an exception to this trend. Men’s difficulties to adapt to a new service

  20. Evaluating Gender Discrimination Claims: Is There a Gender Similarity Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Teri J.; Phillips, James S.; Konopaske, Robert; Townsend, Joellyn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the possible existence of a gender similarity bias in evaluations of gender discrimination allegations, using a laboratory experiment in which the strength of evidence against a defendant company and the gender of the plaintiff were manipulated. Participants were ethnically diverse undergraduate students. Although female mock jurors…

  1. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  2. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  3. Gender Differences in Divergent Thinking: Use of the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production on an Egyptian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Emam Moustafa; Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan

    2013-01-01

    The issue of gender differences in creativity has been a controversial and much-disputed subject for decades. The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in divergent thinking and the effect of gender-grade level interaction on divergent thinking. The sample consisted of 901 (367 boys and 534 girls), from K to 6, who were recruited…

  4. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...

  5. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  6. The Gendering Power of Genres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alacovska, Ana

    2017-01-01

    , by virtue of their internal, structural and discursive patterning, play a constitutive role in regulating media producers’ gendered professional identities, shaping their struggle for recognition and structuring their economic sustainability. Rather than being merely outcomes of production processes, genres......This article introduces the notion of genre as an analytical category for the study of gender inequality in creative work. Research on gender and creative labour typically identifies external, systemic and structural causes for gender inequality in media industries. In contrast, I argue that genres...... shape gender inequality: They possess gendering power that influences how media producers work, think and feel. Gendering and gendered genre norms that privilege ‘masculine’ over ‘female’ values are so hard-wired in occupational practice and professional codes of conduct that the genre itself becomes...

  7. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)

    2015-01-01

    .... The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers...

  8. GENDER IDENTITY AND GENDER ROLE IN DSD PATIENTS RAISED AS FEMALES:A PRELIMINARY OUTCOME STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya eErcan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients.After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD,11 patients 46XY DSD answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI questionnaire including 60- item Masculinity-Femininity (MF subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n:50 were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist(D.I. on MMPI .For statistical purposes, 7 findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these 7 findings (S1-S7, two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4 and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S3 and S4 respectively. In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively.There was no significant difference between 46XX DSD patients and 46XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the 7 findings. Two patients requested gender change to male;only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions(S7.In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients

  9. Gender and the performance of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond C Sergeant

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. If such propositions are substantive, gendered qualities might be imparted to the musical ‘message’ at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or superimposed in the course of listener perceptions. Four research hypotheses are identified and relevant literature of music behaviours and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the four hypotheses: i two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, ii four ‘music characteristics’ scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically trained listeners heard the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that if gendering of music is a reality, the properties are imposed subjectively by the perceiver, and the respective qualities appear to be primarily related to the tempo of the music.

  10. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  11. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  12. Gender issues of financial analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwen Ge

    2013-01-01

    Increased attention has been drawn to the gender disparity in workplace. This dissertation is dedicated to provide sight to the gender issues in financial analysts. Profound literature reviews are conducted about gender issues and financial analysts, respectively in order to comprehend the existing gender concerns in the business world, and role and functions of financial analysts. Research proposals are described to answer the following question: whether women financial analysts are more lik...

  13. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  14. Grammatical Gender Trouble and Hungarian Gender[lessness]. Part I: Comparative Linguistic Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O. Vasvári

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define linguistic gender[lessness], with particular reference in the latter part of the article to Hungarian, and to show why it is a feminist issue. I will discuss the [socio]linguistics of linguistic gender in three types of languages, those, like German and the Romance languages, among others, which possess grammatical gender, languages such as English, with only pronominal gender (sometimes misnamed ‘natural gender’, and languages such as Hungarian and other Finno-Ugric languages, as well as many other languages in the world, such as Turkish and Chinese, which have no linguistic or pronomial gender, but, like all languages, can make lexical gender distinctions. While in a narrow linguistic sense linguistic gender can be said to be afunctional, this does not take into account the ideological ramifications in gendered languages of the “leakage” between gender and sex[ism], while at the same time so-called genderless languages can express societal sexist assumptions linguistically through, for example, lexical gender, semantic derogation of women, and naming conventions. Thus, both languages with overt grammatical gender and those with gender-related asymmetries of a more covert nature show language to represent traditional cultural expectations, illustrating that linguistic gender is a feminist issue.

  15. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  16. Gender Recognition Using Cognitive Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we use cognitive modeling to estimate the ”gender strength” of frontal faces, a continuous class variable, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To incorporate this continuous variable we suggest a novel linear gender classification algorithm, the Gender Strength Regres...

  17. Troubling Gender through Mail Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    A persistent and troubling trend in teacher education programmes is how gender is constructed heteronormatively. Finding ways that challenge novice teacher thinking about gender and gender identities has proven to be difficult ([Grace, A. P., and K. Wells. 2006. "The Quest for a Queer Inclusive Cultural Ethics: Setting Directions for…

  18. The gender in Bulgarian proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeneva Elena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have chosen the paremiology as the object of this article because it is the area where phraseology and folklore are closely related. This fact makes the study of proverbs significant from the lingua-cultural point of view. The subject of the Bulgarian proverbs is an important source of interpretation because most proverbs are "prescriptions-stereotypes of folk self-consciousness" (Telija. We can see proverbs as cultural stereotypes reflected in common language. The analysis of different proverbs (more then 5000 makes it possible to draw valid conclusions about the dominating tendencies and assessments. We concentrated on proverbs connected with the gender issues. They reflect the social aspects of relationships between a man and a woman. The analysis was seriously hampered by the natural semantic richness of proverbs. Our article focuses on the inner form of proverbs. Our first obvious conclusion will be as follows: the gender factor does not play the leading role in the majority of the Bulgarian proverbs. We can see in some proverbs the reflection of the masculine mentality and the power of man, which in itself is not the dominant factor. The negative female stereotype exists alongside the male one. At the same time the female character does not always have negative connotations. Very often the feminine beauty, mind, positive housewife image and patience are in focus. In addition, the indisputable fact of the presence of the „female“ voice, in which sorrow and suffering dominate, and the female consciousness becomes apparent in the understanding of the world created by Bulgarian proverbs. They characterize her emotional side and decisiveness, as well as her expression of resistance. The above in-depth analysis allows us to make the conclusion about certain independence of women even in those past times which are reflected in the proverbs. Confirmation of our main conclusion can be found in some historical facts such as: a married woman

  19. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modaliti...... for research into intercultural issues to focus on gender and ethnicity, it has to de-center both, gender and ethnicity.......This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...

  20. A Survey of Subject and Logical Subject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永亮

    1999-01-01

    @@ This paper discusses Subject and Logical Subject of the English language. The grammar rules complied by some grammarians will be focused on and induced in a fuller account of the survey, aiming simply at a common- sense justification of traditional sentence analysis. Subject, a familiar grammatical term, is one of the most basic to thetraditional of grammatical analysis. It reports the concept of the subject and its history conducted with learners of English who are involved in making further English programme in the education with deep grammar explorations. Both the teachers and the students face many problems in this area, which need to be made clear and definite. The non- finite verbs have their specific rules or objective laws stipulated or summed up by grammarians. These areas of intellectual inquiry ,like most other fields of language study, have represented profoundly intelligent and important investigation in to the English deep grammars.

  1. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...

  2. Mapping the Gendered City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig;

    2017-01-01

    Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab...... Peninsula, where socio-cultural values and restrictions regulate men and women’s use and access to public spaces. The methodology used is a combination of movement tracking data using GPS technology and map-based workshops where participants can reflect on their walking behaviour and spatial preferences....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  3. Gendering pursuits of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is embedded in networks that are embedded in culture. An entrepreneur's network of advisors comprises a network within the private sphere of family and friends and a network outside, in the public sphere. This networking is gendered, we hypothesise, in that typically, the private sphere...... network is heavily utilised by women, whereas the public sphere network is stronger for men. We also hypothesise, that these gendered networks are embedded in culture, in that women's networks are reduced within traditional culture, and that culture moderates the effects of networks on innovation. 68...... in traditional culture than in secular-rational culture. Typically, the private sphere network impedes innovation, whereas the public sphere network benefits innovation, especially in traditional culture....

  4. Gender and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how stereotypical gender perceptions relate to employees with physical impairments. This is done by investigating how employees and managers in 13 Danish work organizations draw on stereotypical perceptions of femininity when they talk about their colleague...... colleagues and 19 managers. In contrast to the findings of much research on gender and work, this study finds that stereotypically feminized perceptions of employees with cerebral palsy as weak, in need of help, etc., are linked to the impairments of the employee rather than his or her biological sex...... with cerebral palsy, and by examining how these stereotypical perceptions influence the work lives of the participating employees with cerebral palsy — as seen from their own perspective. The empirical point of departure is an interview study conducted in 2013 with 13 employees with cerebral palsy, 44...

  5. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility : An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  6. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility : An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  7. Gender and Climate Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Agostino; Rosa Lizarde

    2012-01-01

    Ana Agostino and Rosa Lizarde explore the concept of climate justice as a rights approach to climate change. They propose that those in the South who are most affected by environmental changes need to receive justice from those in the North who are most responsible for climate change. They apply a gender lens to climate change, analyzing how women have been specifically hit by the phenomenon and how they are responding.

  8. AboutGender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Casalini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available E’ nata una nuova rivista on-line: si chiama AboutGender, è diretta da Emanuela Abbatecola e potrebbe essere una conferma che c’è qualcosa di “femminista” nell’open access. Tre sue caratteristiche sono da rimarcare:  la revisione paritaria nella forma che, negli usi attuali, tutela di più l’autore, ovvero quella del doppio cieco;  il reclutamento di valutatori anche [...

  9. [Gender effect on cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Elena; Berardini, Alessandra; Graziosi, Maddalena; Rosmini, Stefania; Pazzi, Chiara; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    The role of a gender effect (that means differences in clinical manifestations, access to therapies and response to treatments according to gender) in cardiomyopathies remains a matter of debate. Although recent studies have evaluated the differences in the clinical features and prognosis between the two sexes, many issues remain to be elucidated. At present, the only sex-specific condition that affects females is peripartum cardiomyopathy. Recent evidence suggests a pathogenetic role of a prolactin derivative, and ongoing clinical trials are investigating the possibility of targeted therapies using prolactin secretion inhibitors, such as bromocriptine and carbegoline. Although women were considered so far only carriers of X-linked diseases (Anderson-Fabry disease, Danon disease, Hunter syndrome and dystrophinopathies), clinical experience showed a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in females due to random X chromosome inactivation. Conversely, in mitochondrial diseases (with matrilineal inheritance), cardiomyopathies may occur in the context of clinical multisystemic involvement without significant gender-related differences. Autosomal inherited cardiomyopathies also show different phenotypes and prognostic impact according to gender. The hypothesis of a premenopausal protective role of female hormones towards myocardial involvement has been raised by recent data on transtiretin-related amyloidosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Preexisting cardiomyopathies may affect pregnancy, labor and delivery in women, since all these conditions are associated with important hemodynamic changes. Women with low-risk hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (asymptomatic and without left ventricular outflow tract gradient) usually can tolerate pregnancy. Conversely, women who are symptomatic before pregnancy or have severe hypertrophy with important outflow tract gradient are at higher risk and should be referred to a tertiary center to be evaluated on a case by case basis

  10. Gender Difference in Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒婧

    2014-01-01

    All languages, the systems of arbitrary symbols, are equally good. Language which is the linguistic behaviour is used for human communication. Therefore, the rules for conversing are determined by certain social requirements. This essay lays empha⁃sis on gender difference in language vocabulary and in using of language so as to reveal the relatedness between language and soci⁃ety and to explore the language development along with social change.

  11. Gender diversity in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2017-03-01

    There is a strong business case for the value of diversity. Research by the World Economic Forum shows a 36% higher return on equity (ROE) for companies having a workforce with strong gender diversity1. Also growth is influenced in a positive way: in 2009 - 2012 companies with a strong female leadership have increased their ROE by 10.1% as compared to an average of 7.4% for the rest. Diversity is not a problem but a solution!2

  12. Gender, globalisation, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    2000-03-01

    This article discusses the link between gender, globalization and democracy in relation to women¿s empowerment. Analyzing gender relations within the processes of development planning involves five approaches: 1) welfare, 2) equity, 3) anti-poverty, 4) efficiency, and 5) empowerment. In addition, a new approach, which combines efficiency and empowerment, must be added to highlight the problematic nature of the direction of causality assumed by traditional theory of development. The rise on women's representation in national parliament can be attributed to the increase of women's economic power and women's political struggles. However, promotion of globalization produces new opportunities for feminist politics, as well as difficulties, which include: the emergent position of productive engagement in which an efficient economy and democratic society are seen as interdependent; and increase in parliamentary representation correlates with increased paid employment for women. In conclusion, the author underscores that globalization is a gendered process which is restructuring social relations on a large scale and the challenges it bring provide opportunities for women in development.

  13. Gender determination using cheiloscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Padmavathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although lip prints have been used as an evidence for human identification in forensic science, there exists a doubt about its role in gender determination. Aims: The present study was designed for documenting common patterns, as well as their variation in the study population, with objective of evaluating uniqueness of the lip print pattern among the study population, as well as to evaluate the possibility of gender determination. Study Design: Two hundred and thirty five lip prints were collected from volunteers among out patients of Darshan Dental College and Hospital, as well as community dental care camps of rural areas around Udaipur. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were recorded with transparent overlay and transferred on to a bond paper. It was then photographed using a Canon EOS 55OD 16 mega pixel digital camera. Software Picasa 3.6 and Microsoft Picture Manager were used to digitally enhance the quality and magnify the image bearing the groove pattern. Lip prints were later analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Pearson chi square test was adopted for statistical analysis and probability (P value was calculated. Conclusion: In our study, none of the lip prints were identical, thus confirming the role of lip prints in individual identification. Dots, reticular and complex patterns were significant in gender determination.

  14. Artificial knowing gender and the thinking machine

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Artificial Knowing challenges the masculine slant in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) view of the world. Alison Adam admirably fills the large gap in science and technology studies by showing us that gender bias is inscribed in AI-based computer systems. Her treatment of feminist epistemology, focusing on the ideas of the knowing subject, the nature of knowledge, rationality and language, are bound to make a significant and powerful contribution to AI studies. Drawing from theories by Donna Haraway and Sherry Turkle, and using tools of feminist epistemology, Adam provides a sustained critique of AI which interestingly re-enforces many of the traditional criticisms of the AI project. Artificial Knowing is an esential read for those interested in gender studies, science and technology studies, and philosophical debates in AI.

  15. [Gender dysphoria in pervasive developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are characterized by two essential symptoms: impairment in social interaction, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. PDD include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These three disorders are sometimes termed autism spectrum disorders. A recent epidemiological survey demonstrated that the rate of PDD may be almost 1% and that many PDD cases might not be diagnosed properly in childhood. Erik Erikson described eight stages of psychosocial development through which a normally developing human should pass from infancy to adulthood. In the theory, an adolescent shows 'Identity vs. Role Confusion'. It has been reported that individuals with PDD often have identity crises which sometimes include gender dysphoria. This phenomenon might be related to the so-called identity diffusion in youth. When they reach their young youth, it has been said that subjects with PDD realize their uniqueness and differences compared to others, and, as a result, they may develop confusion of identity which could be exhibited as gender identity disorder. A recent study demonstrated that, amongst 204 children and adolescents who visited a GID clinic in the Netherlands, 7.8% were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders after a careful diagnostic procedure by a multi-disciplinary team. Taken together, PDD and GID seem closely related to each other. In this paper, we present four PDD cases with gender dysphoria and related symptoms: 1) a girl with PDD who repeatedly asserted gender identity disorder (GID) symptoms in response to social isolation at school, 2) a junior high school boy with PDD and transvestism, 3) a boy diagnosed with Asperger's disorder who developed a disturbance of sexual orientation, and 4) a boy with Asperger's disorder and comorbid childhood GID. Many of the clinical symptoms related to gender dysphoria might be explained by the

  16. Determination of fish gender using fractal analysis of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan J.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Støttrup, Josianne;

    2009-01-01

    The gender of cod Gadus morhua can be determined by considering the complexity in their gonadal ultrasonographic appearance. The fractal dimension (DB) can be used to describe this feature in images. B-mode gonadal ultrasound images in 32 cod, where gender was known, were collected. Fractal...... by subjective analysis alone. The mean (and standard deviation) of the fractal dimension DB for male fish was 1.554 (0.073) while for female fish it was 1.468 (0.061); the difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). The area under the ROC curve was 0.84 indicating the value of fractal analysis in gender...... result. Fractal analysis is useful for gender determination in cod. This or a similar form of analysis may have wide application in veterinary imaging as a tool for quantification of complexity in images...

  17. Nuclear medicine imaging and therapy: gender biases in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Valeria M; Aarsvold, John N; Alazraki, Naomi P

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based medicine is medical research and care conducted with conscious consideration of the sex and gender differences of subjects and patients. This issue of Seminars is focused on diseases for which nuclear medicine is part of routine management and for which the diseases have sex- or gender-based differences that affect incidence or pathophysiology and that thus have differences that can potentially affect the results of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. In this first article, we discuss neurologic diseases, certain gastrointestinal conditions, and thyroid conditions. The discussion is in the context of those sex- or gender-based aspects of these diseases that should be considered in the performance, interpretation, and reporting of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. Cardiovascular diseases, gynecologic diseases, bone conditions such as osteoporosis, pediatric occurrences of some diseases, human immunodeficiency virus-related conditions, and the radiation dose considerations of nuclear medicine studies are discussed in the other articles in this issue.

  18. Bridging the gender gap seven principles for achieving gender balance

    CERN Document Server

    Roseberry, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to promote gender equality, most leadership positions in business, politics, education, and even NGOs are occupied by men, and most people still work in occupations dominated by one sex. This book argues that gender imbalances in leadership and occupations are not simply a moral issue or an economic issue, but a governance issue. Gender imbalances persist in large part because the very people with the authority and influence to do something about them know very little about gender and how it works in their organizations and in society at large. Gender imbalanced governance is an expression of entrenched ideas about masculinity and femininity that lead to poor decision making. Improving the quality of governance requires action to counteract the main justifications for the status quo. Based on interviews and conversations with leaders and managers in Europe and the United States, the book presents seven of the most common explanations for persistent gender imbalances and shows how th...

  19. GENDER EQUALITY AND THE GENDER GAP IN MATHEMATICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hung-Lin; Michalopoulos, Christos

    2017-05-08

    A gender gap has been found in mathematics (boys outperform girls) that has prevailed across countries for many decades. Whether this gap results from nature or nurture has been hotly debated. Using the evidence of PISA 2003 and the gender equality index of 2003, some researchers have argued that an improvement in gender equality reduces the gender gap in mathematics. This study used five waves of country-level PISA data and, controlling for country fixed effects, found no evidence to support this argument. Furthermore, individual data for PISA 2012 and the multilevel data model were used. The conclusion drawn also does not support the argument. In fact, the relationship between gender equality and the gender gap in mathematics vanished after PISA 2003.

  20. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  1. A 15-Year Review of Trends in Representation of Female Subjects in Islamic Bioethics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zeenat; Kuzian, Edyta; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Gender representation in Islamic bioethics research in the twenty-first century has not been studied. To study temporal trends in representation of female subjects in Islamic bioethics research, PubMed-listed publications on Islamic bioethics from years 2000 to 2014 were reviewed for gender participation in human subjects' research. There were temporal trends of increasing publications of Islamic bioethics-related human subjects' research (64 papers over 15 years; R (2) = 0.72; p women from Muslim-majority countries even in non-gender-focused studies over the past 15 years.

  2. Subject in first person--subject in third person: subject, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, R

    2001-09-01

    In this article, the author traces the history of the concepts of subject, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity in different psychoanalytic theories in the last decades. She argues that the uniqueness of these concepts and their different implications were not emphasized enough. The author discusses the various implications and contexts of the concept of subject in psychoanalytic theory proper and to relate as to: (1). The need to distinguish between the concepts of subject and subjectivity; (2). The mutual interdependence of the subject and his subjectivity and the intersubjective domain (both in the development of the individual and in theoretical thought pertaining to it). Her point of departure is from the position of the subject as a free creature, the centrality of the experiencing individual, from his/her perspective--the subject in the first person. She tries to explain the paradox implicit in the experiential dimension, the place of the other as participant, as both negating and recognizing--the subject in the third person. She suggests the interdependency of the first-person experience of subjectivity on the intersubjective dimension.

  3. Language and Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠祥

    2009-01-01

    @@ The definitions of gender in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (on line) are as follows:1.the fact of being male or female.2.(Grammar) (in some languages) each of the classes (masculine,feminine and sometimes neuter) into which nouns,pronouns and adjectives are divided.It is hardly a matter of dispute that male and female are different.One major genetic difference is that females have two X chromosomes while males have an X and a Y.The book,Men are from Mars and Women are from Venus,asserts the notion that men and women are as different as beings from other planets.

  4. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jen Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. Methods: 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI; the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic types 1 through 6 based on gastric morphology. The gastric morphology was identified based on the initial UGI examination: 166 follow-up UGI radiographs at 12 ± 1.5 months to evaluate whether the stability of gastric anatomy persisted over time. Results: There was a significant difference in anatomic types between females and males (p Conclusion: Gastric anatomic types were associated with obesity and gender.

  5. Gender Identification, Interdependence, and Pseudonyms in CMC: Language Patterns in an Electronic Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, J. Michael; Lee, Young-Eum; Huang, Li-Ning; Oshagan, Hayg

    1999-01-01

    Examines how pseudonymous identification in a computer-mediated communication (CMC) context might: (1) reflect a motivation for gender-based status parity and (2) mitigate supposed gender-based communication differences associated with social interdependence. Subjects were 114 undergraduate students who participated in computer-based…

  6. Studying Gender Bias in Physics Grading: The Role of Teaching Experience and Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Sarah I.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gender-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) stereotypes has been repeatedly documented. This article examines physics teachers' gender bias in grading and the influence of teaching experience in Switzerland, Austria, and Germany. In a 2?×?2 between-subjects design, with years of teaching experience included as…

  7. The Effect of Gender and Age Differences on the Recognition of Emotions from Facial Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneevogt, Daniela; Paggio, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    subjects. We conduct an emotion recognition task followed by two stereotype question- naires with different genders and age groups. While recent findings (Krems et al., 2015) suggest that women are biased to see anger in neutral facial expressions posed by females, in our sample both genders assign higher...

  8. The Gender Identity of Pedophiles: What Does the Outcome Data Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Monique; Van Gijseghem, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pedophiles have a different gender identity profile compared with non-sexual offenders. Participants were 87 male adult subjects, divided into three groups: (a) 27 pedophiles who abused male victims, (b) 30 pedophiles who abused female victims, and (c) 30 non-sexual offenders. The gender identity…

  9. Where Are the Women? An Analysis of Gender Mainstreaming in Introductory Political Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Amy L.

    2017-01-01

    Textbook content is a powerful indicator of what is and is not considered important in a given discipline. Textbooks shape both curriculum and students' thinking about a subject. The extant literature indicates that gender is not well represented in American government textbooks, thus signaling to students that women and gender are not part of the…

  10. Parent-Child Relationships during Middle Childhood: Gender Differences in Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Beth A.; Zboyan, Holly A.

    This study examined gender differences in interactional style between parents and children, focusing on gender socialization and emotional expression. The subjects were 38 mother-child and father-child dyads from intact families, of which about 75 percent were Caucasian; 15 percent, Hispanic; and 10 percent, African American or Asian. Parents…

  11. Gender Stereotyping and Affective Attitudes towards Science in Chinese Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the…

  12. Executive Gender, Competitive Pressures, and Corporate Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amore, Mario Daniele; Garofalo, Orsola

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether the gender of top executives influences a firm’s reaction to competitive pressures. Our empirical approach is based on policy changes that varied the exposure of US banks to competition during the late 1990s. Results suggest that while banks with female executives experience...... significantly higher financial performance under low competition, they tend to underperform when competition increases. At the same time, we find that the presence of female leaders improves the capital stability of banks subject to greater competition. Overall, our study highlights strong interactions between...

  13. Institutionalized Gender Roles in Women in Love

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娥

    2014-01-01

    In his masterpiece Women in Love, D. H. Lawrence devoted a large amount of space to the depiction of sex, sexuality and male-female relationship, which have always been the concerns of academic circle. Yet, in her study of this novel, the pres-ent author has noticed that the male-female relationships in the novel is largely subject to the institutions and seem doomed to failure. This essay will, with the help of theories of gender criticism, concentrate on the analysis of the institutionalized social and family roles undertaken by the main characters in the novel.

  14. Incumbents’ interests, voters’ bias and gender quotas

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The adoption of gender quotas inpart y lists has beena voluntary decision by many parties in many countries, and is now a subject of discussioninman y others. The Parity Low passed inF rance in 2001 is particularly interesting because for the first time the quota was set at 50 percent, and the deputies passing the reform are elected in single member districts. In this paper we rationalize parity onthe basis of the self interest of male incumbent deputies: The existence of a voters' bias in fa...

  15. Exploring the interconnections between gender, health and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBride-Stewart, S; Gong, Y; Antell, J

    2016-12-01

    Public health has recognized that nature is good for health but there are calls for a review of its gendered aspects. This review attempts to develop and explore a broad analytical theme - the differing interconnections between gender, health and nature. The paper summarizes the interconnections that have been subject to extensive academic enquiry between gender and health, health and space, and gender and space. A combination of key terms including place; gender; health; outdoor space; green space; natural environment; national parks; femininity; masculinity; recreation; physical activity; sustainability; ecofeminism; feminism; environmental degradation; and environmental justice were used to search the electronic databases Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and Scopus to identify relevant articles. We took two approaches for this review to provide an overview and analysis of the range of research in the field, and to present a framework of research that is an analysis of the intersection of gender, health and nature. Four dimensions are distinguished: (1) evaluations of health benefits and 'toxicities' of nature; (2) dimensions and qualities of nature/space; (3) environmental justice including accessibility, availability and usability; and (4) identification of boundaries (symbolic/material) that construct differential relationships between nature, gender and health. This paper offers an understanding of how environmental and social conditions may differentially shape the health of women and men. The dimensions direct analytical attention to the diverse linkages that constitute overlapping and inseparable domains of knowledge and practice, to identify complex interconnections between gender, health and nature. This review therefore analyses assumptions about the health benefits of nature, and its risks, for gender from an in-depth, analytical perspective that can be used to inform policy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  16. Women Teachers in Hong Kong: Stories of Changing Gendered Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk-Fong, Yuk Yee Pattie; Brennan, Marie

    2010-01-01

    In a time of mass schooling in most parts of the world, the discourse of the "woman primary teacher" is often the subject of discourse. Yet most stories of these women teachers emerge from other (Western) contexts, with little known about how changing education processes affect the gendered identities of women in other cultural settings.…

  17. Gender Insurgency and Neoliberal Reform: The Academy Twice Transformed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I adopt an auto/biographical method and a critique of abstract social theories to explore how the neoliberal restructuring of universities interacts with the gender order. Many universities are being remoulded as businesses for other businesses, with profound effects on internal relations, the subjectivities of academics and…

  18. Migrant living spaces: Religiosity and gender in a disciplinary institution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batum, D.S.; Jansen, W.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the production of gendered pious subjectivities at an Islamic student dorm in the Netherlands, for Turkish-Dutch female students. Following the Foucauldian framework of disciplinary power, we trace how normalising disciplinary techniques are at work in the dorm. We note, howeve

  19. Mathematics, English and Gender Issues: Do Teachers Count?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Gilah C.; Forgasz, Helen J.; Jackson, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrians were stopped in the street and asked about their views on the teaching and learning of mathematics and English for boys and girls. Many commented on the importance of teachers for both subject areas; some respondents self-identified as teachers. In this article we present findings on the gendering of mathematics and English and the…

  20. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial…

  1. Intermarried Couples, gender positions and mental well being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    . The results indicate both the successes and the struggles involved, highlighting both the internal aspects- subjective feelings in life fases, transforming gender, power positions, family relationships and the external aspects , such as the structural, policy barriers, interpersonal ‘gaze’, stereotypes...

  2. Gender and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Courtney A; Koons-Witt, Barbara A

    2017-05-01

    The current study examines U.S. prison programming availability and participation by gender on a national level. The authors build upon previous literature by using national-level data, something that has been done in very limited cases previously. The main concern of this study is gender and its effects on programming availability and participation. The U.S. corrections field has undergone major changes in regard to population trends, fiscal constraints, policies, and research over the last few decades without a large-scale examination of the effects of these changes on programming across the United States. In this study, multiple types of programming areas were examined and results indicated that often female prisons (i.e., prisons housing only females) were more likely to offer programs (e.g., mental health options) and women were more likely to participate in many programming options compared with male prisons and men, respectively. We discuss the possible reasons for this and implications for future research.

  3. GENDER AND STUDENT BURNOUT SYNDROME

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cecilia López-Pozos

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the influence of postmodernism on development of the burnout syndrome academic, manifested in various symptomatologies involved in the academic performance of the female gender...

  4. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Subject of Exemption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn; Fristrup, Tine; Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the constructions of the deviant subject in Danish Foucauldian educational research. Following the work of Foucault, we argue that the deviant subject, on the one hand, could be considered as a subject of exemption. In this case, exemption is deduced from Foucault’s understa...... discourses of general education. Thus, this article argues that Foucauldian disability studies could benefit from taking into account Foucauldian research in the field of general education. Until recently, the two research fields have been mutually isolated.......This article examines the constructions of the deviant subject in Danish Foucauldian educational research. Following the work of Foucault, we argue that the deviant subject, on the one hand, could be considered as a subject of exemption. In this case, exemption is deduced from Foucault...

  6. Gendering Sustainability: Reframing sustainable development as gender justice

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne A Braun

    2011-01-01

    Yvonne A. Braun is an assistant professor in the Departments of Women's and Gender Studies and International Studies at the University of Oregon. She has conducted ethnographic, interview, and survey research in Lesotho and Southern Africa over a period of fourteen years, and her research and publications are in the area of gender, development, inequality, and environmental justice.

  7. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  8. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

  9. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eSczesny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender-fair language (GFL aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been introduced to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman with gender-unmarked forms (police officer, whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant ... he or she instead of the applicant ... he. Integrating research on language structures, language policies, and individual language behavior, the present paper provides an overview of whether and under what circumstances GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination.

  10. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making.

  11. DOES AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR ISCED 5 UNEMPLOYED PERSONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of age and gender for the duration of unemployment for the ISCED 5 subjects registered as unemployed on the labor market of Gorj County. The obtained results show that age has a significant negative impact for the duration of unemployment, while gender doesn’t have a significant impact for the duration of unemployment of analyzed ISCED 5 subjects.

  12. DOES AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR ISCED 5 UNEMPLOYED PERSONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică; ANA-GABRIELA BABUCEA; Doru Cîrnu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of age and gender for the duration of unemployment for the ISCED 5 subjects registered as unemployed on the labor market of Gorj County. The obtained results show that age has a significant negative impact for the duration of unemployment, while gender doesn’t have a significant impact for the duration of unemployment of analyzed ISCED 5 subjects.

  13. Gendered war and gendered peace: truth commissions and postconflict gender violence: lessons from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Tristan Anne

    2009-10-01

    That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how truth-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in truth telling are illustrated by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered truth, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa.

  14. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs.

  15. Doing Gender Well and Differently in Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于英

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to revisit theoretical positions on gender and the implications for gender in management by building upon current research on doing gender well and re-doing or undoing gender and argue that gender can be done well and differently through simultaneous, multiple enactments of femininity and masculinity.

  16. A genuine article: Intersectionality, Black lesbian gender expression, and the feminist pedagogical project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mel Michelle

    2016-09-15

    This article examines gender expression as central to the pedagogical projects of Black lesbian feminist pedagogues teaching interdisciplinary material related to race, gender, and sexuality. Participants discuss the ways in which their own masculinity, femme identity, and gendered performances influence instructive practices in the classroom and collegiality on campus. Being a "genuine article" of intersectionality theory plays a role in creative applications of the body as text and the institutional impediments to education as the practice of freedom for pedagogues whose marginalized gender, racial, sexual, and political identities closely align with their subject matter and influence campus roles and relationships.

  17. Gender based violence and psychosocial intervention at Quito. Weaving narratives to construct new meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Guarderas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been done in Ecuador on psychosocial interventions involving gender violence. This article, based on research carried out in Quito with people who have experienced this type of violence, is intended to contribute to the debate on the subject. Through narrative production methodology, we hope to construct new meanings of psychosocial intervention and gender violence. The participants offer conceptions of gender violence that go beyond aspects usually taken into account in the creation of laws and services. They point out that current psychosocial intervention in response to gender violence tends to homogenize women, providing services that reduce these situations to woman/victim-man/perpetrator scenarios.

  18. The valued consciousness as register of domination and prevailing in gender cultures:systemological dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Svyatnenko

    2016-08-01

    This register is meaningful and full of value-semantic constructs that create a point of reference in the evaluation of certain theoretical umopostroeny and social practices of gender positioning. In such circumstances, the ruling status of the gains that sociogender group that can afford the definition of evaluation samples of other gender, which she occupies the position aksiodatelya (creator of values, that is, what is significant or insignificant. Therefore, acts of consciousness and behavior of subordinate gender in the register shall be subject to censoring value consciousness prevailing gender, so that every time there is their acceptance / denial, legitimation / delegitimation and others.

  19. [Laughter: gender differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

    2011-01-01

    Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting.

  20. Romanistik und gender studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schlünder

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Die beiden Bände bieten ein breites Spektrum von Beiträgen zur französischen, italienischen und spanischen Literaturwissenschaft. Gedankliche Grundlage der im einzelnen unterschiedlichen Ansätze und Zielsetzungen ist ein im Anschluß an Judith Butler gender-reflektierendes, diskursives Konzept von Geschlecht, dessen wissenschaftsgeschichtliche Herleitung und Perspektiven Renate Kroll einleitend darlegt. Die einzelnen Artikel beschäftigen sich zum einen mit literarischen Strategien, die Schriftstellerinnen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart erprobt haben, und hinterfragen dabei die Rolle weiblicher Autoren in Literaturgeschichte und Literaturgeschichtsschreibung. Zum anderen widmen sie sich den literarischen Inszenierungs- und Repräsentationsformen von Weiblichkeit und stellen darüber einen Bezug zur Lebenswelt der behandelten Autorinnen her.

  1. Gender and Social Remittances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    For centuries migration has been of central significance for Yemeni society, and continues to be source of new inspiration and contestations. This paper takes outset in narratives of youth- and childhood experiences of Yemeni return migrants who used to live in Uganda, Eritrea and Djibouti...... the extent to which migrant experiences generally constitute a source of inspiration for imagining and working for transformations in gender ideologies and practices in the current life in Yemen of these return migrants. According to Levitt (2001) such inspiration will on certain conditions work as social...... remittances, providing in the first instance a critical view on norms and practices of the sending country, but the fact of having experienced different social norms in a different society may also as a second step become the outset for projected social change. In all three narratives, emphasis...

  2. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Rukavina

    Full Text Available Affective computing aims at the detection of users' mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential, age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy.

  3. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  4. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  5. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  6. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the reason

  7. Subjective Wellbeing, Objective Wellbeing and Inequality in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, Mark; Tomaszewski, Wojtek

    2016-01-01

    In recent years policy makers and social scientists have devoted considerable attention to wellbeing, a concept that refers to people's capacity to live healthy, creative and fulfilling lives. Two conceptual approaches dominate wellbeing research. The objective approach examines the objective components of a good life. The subjective approach examines people's subjective evaluations of their lives. In the objective approach how subjective wellbeing relates to objective wellbeing is not a relevant research question. The subjective approach does investigate how objective wellbeing relates to subjective wellbeing, but has focused primarily on one objective wellbeing indicator, income, rather than the comprehensive indicator set implied by the objective approach. This paper attempts to contribute by examining relationships between a comprehensive set of objective wellbeing measures and subjective wellbeing, and by linking wellbeing research to inequality research by also investigating how subjective and objective wellbeing relate to class, gender, age and ethnicity. We use three waves of a representative state-level household panel study from Queensland, Australia, undertaken from 2008 to 2010, to investigate how objective measures of wellbeing are socially distributed by gender, class, age, and ethnicity. We also examine relationships between objective wellbeing and overall life satisfaction, providing one of the first longitudinal analyses linking objective wellbeing with subjective evaluations. Objective aspects of wellbeing are unequally distributed by gender, age, class and ethnicity and are strongly associated with life satisfaction. Moreover, associations between gender, ethnicity, class and life satisfaction persist after controlling for objective wellbeing, suggesting that mechanisms in addition to objective wellbeing link structural dimensions of inequality to life satisfaction.

  8. Gender identity disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    De Gascun, C

    2006-05-01

    Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is a relatively rare condition of atypical gender development in which there is a psychological perception of self as masculine or feminine which is incongruent with ones phenotype. GID replaced the term Transsexualism in DSM-IV in 1994. The demographics of GID in Ireland have not been established. Since 2000 we have received 52 referrals of individuals with confirmed GID to our endocrine service for consideration for hormonal treatment (HT). Of the 52 patients 45 have male to female (MTF) GID (mean age 38.9 years) and 7 have female to male (FTM) GID (mean age 30.7 years). The age at presentation in this group is approximately 9 years older than in international series for both MTF (39 years v 30yrs) and FTM (31 yrs v 22yrs). The karyotype where analysed has been normal for their phenotypic sex. Twenty-three of the patients had received HT prior to attending our clinic that in only one case had been prescribed by a specialist. A number of patients had obtained HT via the internet or from overseas sources without medical review. Eighteen of the patients have been or are married and 14 of the group have children. The scale of referrals confirms that GID exists in the Irish population to a significant degree. Thus an appropriate care pathway for people with the condition needs to be established. This will facilitate optimum medical management of the patient group and a coherent approach to the many difficult social issues faced individuals with this disorder.

  9. Geography and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, L

    1989-05-01

    Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs.

  10. Is Spanish Becoming more Gender Fair? A Historical Perspective on the Interpretation of Gender-specific and Gender-neutral Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Uwe Kjær

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades, many recommendations for a gender fair Spanish language have been proposed, but, generally speaking, it has been the substitution of the so-called 'masculine generic' (e.g. los profesores 'the teachers [masc.]') by gender neutral (e.g. el pro¬fesorado 'the staff...... to interrogate these assumptions by means of two questionnaire investigations that were carried out in Spain in 1995 and 2005 in which native speakers of Spanish were asked to complete specific filler sentences. The results of both investigations demonstrate that there is no clear-cut correspondence between....... Interestingly, this result appears to be stable over time. Altogether, it seems justifiable to conclude that the assumptions underlying the recommendations for a gender fair language can be challenged. At any rate, it is important to point out that these assumptions are subject to change over time - at least...

  11. Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowl, Marion, Ed.; Tobias, Robert, Ed.; Leahy, Jennifer, Ed.; Ferguson, Graeme, Ed.; Gage, Jeffrey, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning" reflects on current debates and discourses around gender and education, in which some academics, practitioners and policy-makers have referred to a crisis of masculinity. This book explores questions such as: Are men under-represented in education? Are women outstripping men in terms of…

  12. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  13. Gender in physics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Karsten Ulrik; Nordström, B.; Bearden, I.

    2013-01-01

    More women than men get a college degree in Denmark. However, Denmark still has very gender-separated labor market, and in physics only 10 of the university professors are women. Measures are needed to get a more balanced gender distribution among university physicists at all levels in Denmark....

  14. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 164 undergraduates (50% women. Taking into account those stereotypes that are still differentially assigned to each gender, this study identifies current gender stereotypes that are independent of sociodemographic characteristics, such as age or sex. In addition, new gender stereotypes emerged recently were gathered, and important changes of stereotypes were emphasized, especially those of feminine stereotypes. According to social role theory, these changes are the consequence of social roles changes. Conclusions highlight that, although part of the results involve progress on the achievement of equality, traditional stereotypic characteristics are still referred to each gender, which perpetuate discrimination.

  15. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  16. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  17. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  18. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  19. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  20. Gender Issues in Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on recent work in variationist sociolinguistics, sociology of language and linguistic anthropology, focuses on new approaches to explaining gender differentiated patterns of sound change and language shift, the success or failure of planned linguistic reforms, and changes in the social evaluation of gendered speech styles. (Author/VWL)

  1. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  2. Standortdebatte: (Gender Mainstreaming und Herrschaftskritik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sänger

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorinnen des Bandes Feminismus, Gender, Geschlecht der schweizerischen Zeitschrift Widerspruch diskutieren die Chancen und Risiken von Gender-Mainstreaming-Strategien im Horizont des neoliberalen Gesellschaftsumbaus und fragen im Diskussionsteil nach den Erkenntnispotenzialen und herrschaftskritischen Perspektiven der feministischen Theorie bzw. poststrukturalistischer und konstruktivistischer Ansätze.

  3. Gender Matters in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Alex; Tattersall, Andy; Goody, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research in higher education has treated student bodies as homogeneous groups with a consequent neglect of any consideration of gender differences. To test the validity of such research a questionnaire was administered to 255 psychology students. The results showed some important differences in responses between the genders. In…

  4. Gender Issues in Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on recent work in variationist sociolinguistics, sociology of language and linguistic anthropology, focuses on new approaches to explaining gender differentiated patterns of sound change and language shift, the success or failure of planned linguistic reforms, and changes in the social evaluation of gendered speech styles. (Author/VWL)

  5. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  6. Valuing gender diversity in teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Villeseche, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Team gender diversity has been much debated in many different contexts – not least since the search for a main effect of diversity on performance was launched. However, results have so far been inconclusive, and a number of scholars suggest that more attention should be directed at contextual...... factors which could influence the effect of gender diversity on team performance. In this study, we explore the effect of positive diversity attitudes and assess the degree of gender diversity where such group attitudes have greater impact. This is done by using a sample of 1085 leaders of academic...... research teams. Findings show that positive diversity attitude in the form of group openness to diversity is strongly associated with team performance. We also find a moderating effect of gender diversity meaning that the effect of openness to diversity is stronger when gender groups are more balanced...

  7. Children Literature: Shaping Gender Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IQRA JABEEN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze stereotype construction of gender roles in the text of children's stories which inculcate in the children’s crude minds socially developed gender differences. For this purpose, the study followed Dell Hymes’ speaking model. This model has sixteen components that can be applied to different types of Discourse (speech interaction: message form; message content; setting; scene; Speaker/sender; address or; the hearer/receiver/audience; addressee; purposes (outcomes; purposes (goals; key; channels; forms of speech; norms of interaction; norms of interpretation; and genres. Selected children's stories were analyzed to identify their role as primary thought developing sources in the mind of young learners thus shaping their gender identities. This study would be beneficial in drawing the attention of authors, editors and writers of children's literature to redefine gender roles in order to minimize gender differences.

  8. Valuing Gender Diversity in Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Villeseche, Florence

    Team gender diversity has been much debated in many different contexts – not least since the search for a main effect of diversity on performance was launched. However, results have so far been inconclusive, and a number of scholars suggest that more attention should be directed at contextual...... factors which could influence the effect of gender diversity on team performance. In this study, we explore the effect of positive diversity attitudes and assess the degree of gender diversity where such group attitudes have greater impact. This is done by using a sample of 1085 leaders of academic...... research teams. Findings show that positive diversity attitude in the form of group openness to diversity is strongly associated with team performance. We also find a moderating effect of gender diversity meaning that the effect of openness to diversity is stronger when gender groups are more balanced...

  9. [Gender and health in the daily press].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Gemma; Alonso, Inma; Tomás, Sonia; Guerrero, Marcela; Rohlfs, Izabella

    2004-05-01

    To have a better understanding on the role of the press in the communication of gender and health issues, the content of the five most spread newspapers in Spain was studied (El País, ABC, El Mundo, La Vanguardia and El Periódico de Catalunya) for five years (1997-2001) and the electronic version of The New York Times of the period 1990-1999. An unequal distribution was observed in the responsibility as for the information related to three aspects: positions of responsibility in the newspapers (out of 71 main posts, 67 were men and 4 women); the authors of the articles on health issues (61.2% men and 38,8% women, among the articles that include the author) and the mentioned information sources (81.43% men and 17.77% women). Among the 120 health issues that were covered during the period of the study, only 20 explicitly mentioned a woman (16.67%). Those subjects that included more frequently explicit references were: ablation, iatrogenics, sterilization, sexual and reproductive health, incontinence, beauty and domestic violence. The analysis of the approach to these subjects helped to identify the stereotypes of gender inequality, in the language as well as in the approach.

  10. Therapist’s Gender and Gender Roles: Impact on Attitudes toward Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytti Artkoski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of therapist’s gender and gender roles on attitudes toward clients. Attitudes toward motivational interviewing were also a focus as MI can be hypothesized to be feminine rather than masculine in nature. The subjects ( were Finnish substance abuse therapists. Their attitudes toward clients were measured using a vignette task. Results indicated that female therapists were significantly more positive toward clients than were male therapists. Although females were significantly more feminine than males, they saw themselves as masculine as the males did. The more feminine the therapist was, the more s/he preferred MI. In the future, an examination of this kind should be combined with measurement of treatment processes and outcomes.

  11. Dilemmas in the Danish Approach to Gender Quotas and Gender Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality. Gender theory has presented diverse arguments for gender quota: justice, resources and women’s interests. Gender quota can be understood as a means to achieve gender parity...

  12. Academic gender stereotypes of pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at studying the content of academic gender stereotypes of pre-service teachers who are being prepared for working in different cycles of education. The sample included 408 students of teaching programmes of the Teacher Training College, Faculty of Mathematics and Faculty of Philology in Belgrade. It has been established that future class and subject teachers have gender stereotypes about the interests and achievements of students in different school subjects. pre-service teachers from both groups are of the opinion that girls get interested more easily than boys in the majority of school subjects, as well as that girls are more talented for the subjects in the field of humanities and languages, while boys are more talented for the subjects in the field of sciences. Pre-service teachers estimate that boys typically have a low achievement in languages, arts and music, while girls have a low achievement in physics, computer science, technical sciences and physical education. Since teachers’ gender stereotypes can affect students’ achievement, educational and career choices, it is important to raise awareness about the content and consequences of such beliefs in teachers and focus on certain actions towards their altering. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  13. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  14. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media...

  15. Students’ Gender-Related Choices and Achievement in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jugović

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research was to explore the role of motivation, gender roles and stereotypes in the explanation of students’ educational outcomes in a stereotypically male educational domain: physics. Eccles and colleagues’ expectancy-value model was used as a theoretical framework for the research. The research sample included 736 grammar school students from Zagreb, Croatia. The variables explored were expectancy of success, selfconcept of ability and subjective task values of physics, gender roles and stereotypes, and educational outcomes: academic achievement in physics, intention to choose physics at the high school leaving exam, and intention to choose a technical sciences university course. The results showed that girls had a lower self-concept of ability and lower expectancies of success in physics compared to boys, in spite of their higher physics school grades. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that self-concept of physics ability was the strongest predictor of physics school grades, whereas the utility value of physics was the key predictor of educational intentions for both genders. Expectancy of success was one of the key predictors of girls’ educational intentions, as well. Endorsement of a typically masculine gender role predicted girls’ and boys’ stronger intentions to choose a stereotypically male educational domain, whereas acceptance of the stereotype about the poorer talent of women in technical sciences occupations predicted girls’ lower educational outcomes related to physics. The practical implication of the research is the need to create gender-sensitive intervention programmes aimed at deconstructing the gender stereotypes and traditional gender roles that restrain students from choosing gender-non-stereotypical careers.

  16. Jewish disappearing acts and the construction of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ruth D

    2006-01-01

    In this essay I propose to investigate the interarticulation of race/ethnicity and gender at two fin de siècle moments: the conceptualization of the Oedipus complex at the turn of the twentieth century and the conceptualization of gender as performative in contemporary queer theory. Though these gender constructions contrast strikingly with one another-queer theory opposes and calls into question the heteronormativity of the Oedipal itinerary-both theories are produced through the displacement of racial/ethnic difference onto sexual and gender difference. One line of investigation in this essay is to relate their difference to the distinct situations of ethnic in-betweenness in which they were produced. Freud's situation as a Jew undergoing assimilation to Western European customs has been compared to that of the post-colonial subject. Judith Butler's and Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick's theories of queer performativity have been located in a post-assimilationist situation in the U.S. of the 1990s. At both moments a doubling takes place but with a radical shift in perspective. Whereas the post-colonial subject undergoes a psychic splitting in which the point of view of the colonizer predominates and promotes assimilation via mimicry, the post-assimilation subject performatively constructs difference, often by a reverse mimicry that involves identification with a subaltern group. Finally, in both situations the notion of "queer incoherence" is deployed not to negate gay and lesbian specificity, but rather to articulate such specificity as historically emergent, on the verge of definition.

  17. Gender Affects Semantic Competition: The Effect of Gender in a Non-Gender-Marking Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Kumiko; Hyönä, Jukka; Scholfield, Merete

    2013-01-01

    English speakers tend to produce fewer pronouns when a referential competitor has the same gender as the referent than otherwise. Traditionally, this gender congruence effect has been explained in terms of ambiguity avoidance (e.g., Arnold, Eisenband, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, 2000; Fukumura, Van Gompel, & Pickering, 2010). However, an…

  18. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

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    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  19. Gendering Prayer: Millennial-generation Catholics and the Embodiment of Feminine Genius and Authentic Masculinity

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    Katherine Anne Dugan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between prayer practices and gendered subjectivity among a group of millennial-generation Catholic men and women. Drawing on ethnographic work, this case study illuminates the role of prayer in shaping how, why, and with what sorts of struggles young and culturally-savvy women and men embodied gender complementarity in the twenty-first century U.S. This article proposes gendering prayer as an analytic for understanding how prayer cultivated these Catholics in the habits of feminine genius and authentic masculinity. By comparing women’s and men’s practices, I argue that these young adults were flourishing in the modern world, even as they rejected egalitarian gender roles in favor of multiple modes of submission within gender essentialism. This work contributes to anthropological scholarship focused on gender performance in daily Catholic life.

  20. Flight instructors’ perceptions of pilot behaviour related to gender

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    Leopold P. Vermeulen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated flight instructors’ perceptions with regard to gender-related pilot behaviour. The subjects fell into two sample groups. The first sample consisted of 93 flight instructors and the second sample was a control group of 93 commercial pilots. The Aviation Gender Attitude Questionnaire (AGAQ was administered to measure the perceptions that both groups held about female pilots’ flying proficiency and safety orientation. Statistical analysis revealed that flight instructors and commercial pilots differed significantly in their perceptions of female pilots’ flying proficiency but that the two groups did not differ in their perceptions of female pilots’ safety orientation.

  1. Masculinity, male development, gender, and identity: modern and postmodern meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Debby A

    2006-05-01

    Modern and postmodern scholars are addressing the crisis in masculinity by questioning the meaning of masculinity and by rethinking masculinity, male development, gender, and identity. This article explicates current modern humanist positions and postmodern positions on these topics. The first section summarizes contemporary theories advanced by scholars in the relatively new discipline of men's studies. The second section presents postmodern positions exploring sex as a biological given, the emerging critiques of differentiating sex and gender, and poststructural psychoanalytic positions on simultaneous production of individual subjectivity (sense of self), masculine identity, and society. Implications of these perspectives are identified.

  2. An Exploration Of Gender And Trust In Mentoring Relationships

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    Catherine Elliott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the role of gender and trust in mentoring, fifteen interviews with mentors were conducted. Eight mentors were male and seven were female; eight were involved in cross-gender mentoring. Subjects were asked to discuss the levels of trust they had developed in their relationships, and what had influenced its development. Interviews were conducted by telephone, transcribed, and analyzed independently by the two authors. This paper will present these findings and discuss future avenues of research. Practical implications to mentoring program designers are also discussed.

  3. PENDIDIKAN KELUARGA BERWAWASAN GENDER PADA ANAK BERKEBUTUHAN KHUSUS DI KUDUS

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    Muzdalifah Muzdalifah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tentang peran orang tua dalam pendidikan berwawasan gender keluarga pada anak berkebutuhan khusus. Penelitian ini mneggunakan pendekatan penelitian kualitatif. Pengumpulan data dengan metode observasi dan wawancara mendalam yang diperoleh dari subyek penelitian sebanyak tiga orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa subyek 1 menganggap bahwa memiliki anak laki-laki berumur 6 tahun berkebutuhan khusus dengan menderita cerebral palsy. Subyek 2 menyatakan memiliki anak perempuan yang berumur 23 tahun yang berkebutuhan khusus berupa cacat kaki. Subyek 3 memiliki anak perempuan berumur 30 tahun berkebutuhan khusus yaitu hidrosefalus. Subyek 1 dan 2 menganggap bahwa pendidikan tetap diberikan kepada anak berkebutuhan khusus dengan berkeadilan gender. Subyek 3 menganggap bahwa pendidikan tidak perlu diberikan kepada anak berkebutuhan khusus .Perbedaan mendidik dalam keluarga ini dipengaruhi oleh faktor tingkat pendidikan, kenyakinan, harapan masa depan, faktor ekonomi dalam keluarga.   This study aims described the role of parents in the education gender responsive family on children with  special needs. This study used qualitative research approach. The collection of data by the method of observation and in-depth interviews were obtained from three research subjects. The results showed that subjects one considers that having a boy was 6 years old with special needs suffering from cerebral palsy. Subjects 2 states had a daughter who was 23 years old with special needs in the form of deformed feet. 3 subjects had a 30 year-old daughter with special needs, namely hydrocephalus. Subjects 1 and 2 assumed that education still be given to children with special needs by gender. Subjects 3 considers that education should not be given to children with special needs in the family . The difference of education is influenced by the level of education, the assurance, the future expectations, economic factors in the

  4. Understanding the MBA Gender Gap: Women Respond to Gender Norms by Reducing Public Assertiveness but Not Private Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Aaron S; Morris, Michael W; Devine, Beth A; Lu, Jackson G

    2017-08-01

    Women's underperformance in MBA programs has been the subject of recent debate and policy interventions, despite a lack of rigorous evidence documenting when and why it occurs. The current studies document a performance gap, specifying its contours and contributing factors. Two behaviors by female students that may factor into the gap are public conformity and private internalization. We predicted that women conform to the norm associating maleness with technical prowess by minimizing their public assertiveness in class discussions and meetings, but that they do not internalize the norm by reducing private effort. Data from multiple cohorts of a top-ranked MBA program reveal female underperformance occurred in technical subjects (e.g., accounting), but not social subjects (e.g., marketing). As predicted, the gender effect ran not through private effort but through public assertiveness, even controlling for gender differences in interests and aptitudes. These findings support some current policy interventions while casting doubt on others.

  5. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  6. "Fitspiration" on Social Media: A Content Analysis of Gendered Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrotte, Elise Rose; Prichard, Ivanka; Lim, Megan Su Cheng

    2017-03-29

    "Fitspiration" (also known as "fitspo") aims to inspire individuals to exercise and be healthy, but emerging research indicates exposure can negatively impact female body image. Fitspiration is frequently accessed on social media; however, it is currently unclear the degree to which messages about body image and exercise differ by gender of the subject. The aim of our study was to conduct a content analysis to identify the characteristics of fitspiration content posted across social media and whether this differs according to subject gender. Content tagged with #fitspo across Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and Tumblr was extracted over a composite 30-minute period. All posts were analyzed by 2 independent coders according to a codebook. Of the 415/476 (87.2%) relevant posts extracted, most posts were on Instagram (360/415, 86.8%). Most posts (308/415, 74.2%) related thematically to exercise, and 81/415 (19.6%) related thematically to food. In total, 151 (36.4%) posts depicted only female subjects and 114/415 (27.5%) depicted only male subjects. Female subjects were typically thin but toned; male subjects were often muscular or hypermuscular. Within the images, female subjects were significantly more likely to be aged under 25 years (Pbody visible (P=.001), and to have their buttocks emphasized (Pfemale subjects. Female subjects were more likely to be sexualized than the male subjects (P=.002). Female #fitspo subjects typically adhered to the thin or athletic ideal, and male subjects typically adhered to the muscular ideal. Future research and interventional efforts should consider the potential objectifying messages in fitspiration, as it relates to both female and male body image.

  7. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  8. PRINSIP KESETARAAN GENDER DALAM ISLAM

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    Ermagusti Ermagusti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Islam has given a clear and a distinct concept about the principles of gender equity. Islam does not distinguish a person of gender and social roles both at home or in society. Different roles does not mean that subordinated women over men, but complementary in order to create good cooperation within families and communities.Keywords : Equity, Gender and IslamCopyright © 2011 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v1i2.78

  9. Gender differences in romantic jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, A M; Friedman, A

    1998-02-01

    Findings of studies of gender differences in jealousy are contradictory. In the present study, conflicting literature was addressed by distinguishing 5 dimensions of jealousy: level, trigger, experience, focus, and responses. In 4 studies, 3 in the U.S. and 1 in Israel, gender differences were explored in these 5 dimensions of romantic jealousy. Although there were no gender differences in the likelihood, frequency, duration, or intensity of jealousy, there were differences in the responses to certain jealousy-producing occasions as well as in the focus, experience, and expression of jealousy.

  10. The Examination of the Effects of Biological Gender and Gender Identity Roles on Attitude of the Consumers to Advertisements Applied by Accomodation Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Güçer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, especially focused on the concept of psychological-based gender identity and researched if there is a differentiation characteristic of consumers’ sex and gender identity roles (masculinity, femininity, androgynous and neutral on consumers’ attitude toward advertisements of accomodation establishments.According to the results,there is a general accordance between biological sex and gender identity roles of individuals and alsothe results of the previous studies were made in different areas in the same subject was supported with determination ofit is possible to participants have gender identity roles different from their biological sex to some extent.Otherwise; determination of theadvertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain feminine messages, are more preferred by people who have feminine and androgynous identity than the others; and advertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain masculinemessages, are preferred by all gender identity roles are ones of the results

  11. IMMIGRANT WOMEN: BODY AND SUBJECTIVITY IN MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lázaro-Castellanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The visibility of women in contemporary migration has broken with the course and social representation of the organization and implementation of international migration projects are predominantly male (Pedone, 2008. The growing presence of women has inspired a large number of studies have focused on immigrant women and their relationship to the labor market, changes in social structure and family and gender systems in both societies of origin and the destination. However, the literature takes as a center for immigrant women and their relationship to emotions and body are relatively recent, the most important contributions are found in disciplines such as anthropology or psychology. The transnational perspective little has reflected on the physical and mental health, emotions and subjectivities of women, resulting from their migration experience. From a socio-anthropological point of view of immigrants and bring their own notions of subjectivity related to gender, race or social class, do not always coincide with those in the host country. We suspect that the same applies to perception, practices and experiences on the body and emotions of women.

  12. Language, Subject, Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A. Ivanov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of interdependence between power and language is viewed. The authors point out that the problem may be investigated in two aspects: from the point of view of a conscious use of language as a political instrument and from the point of view of an unconscious dependence of an individual on language and ideology. In this context, the authors investigate the ideas expressed by Louis Althusser and Michel Pźcheux. The theory of Ideological State Apparatuses by Althusser is represented here as one of possible conceptual bases for defining gender distribution of power. In this paper the specificity of the Pźcheux’s  discourse analysis is revealed: discourse is viewed by Pźcheux as a sphere of intersection of language and extra-linguistic restrictions created by ideology. 

  13. Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, K J; Wild, J; Bradley, S J; Lowry, C B

    1993-02-01

    University students blind to group status rated boys with gender identity disorder and clinical control boys regarding their physical attractiveness. Ratings were made of the face and upper torso from photographs taken at the time of clinical assessment (mean age, 8.1 years). On all five adjectives (attractive, beautiful, cute, handsome, and pretty), boys with gender identity disorder were judged to be more attractive than were the clinical control boys. Attractiveness correlated with extent of behavioral femininity in the clinical control group, but not in the group of boys with gender identity disorder. The extent to which the group differences in attractiveness were due to objective, structural differences in facial attractiveness vs. socially created, or subjective, processes is discussed.

  14. Stolen beauty: gender, aesthetics and embodiment in Brazilian drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Pontes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a broader research on gender inflections in the Brazilian intellectual field and in Brazilian drama, between 1940 and 1968, the article discusses the relations between aesthetics and gender, and their implications on the careers of actresses Cacilda Becker, Maria Della Costa, Tônia Carrero and Cleyde Yáconis. According to testimony of those who saw her perform on stage, Cacilda was never hampered by her less favorable physical attributes. The hypothesis is that this is due to the cunning tricks of the conventions of dramatic arts that allow the dodging of social, gender and physical constraints. Widely evoked by the media to portrait, underline or diminish women under its focus, beauty rarely features as a relevant dimension in the analysis of female trajectories. Hence the interest in discussing the subject through its refraction on the process of social construction of artistic careers.

  15. Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Samaghabadi, Razieh O; Hughes, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthorexia nervosa (ON; characterized by an obsessive fixation on eating healthy) may be predicted from the demographics variables of gender and BMI, and from the personality variables of self-esteem, narcissism, and perfectionism. Participants were 459 college students, who completed several online questionnaires that assessed these variables. A principal components analysis confirmed that the Eating Habits Questionnaire (Gleaves, Graham, & Ambwani, 2013) assesses three internally-consistent ON components: healthy eating behaviors, problems resulting from those behaviors, and positive feelings associated with those behaviors. A MANOVA and its tests of between subjects effects then revealed significant interactions between gender and BMI, such that for men but not women, a higher BMI was associated with greater symptomatology for all ON components. Partial correlation analyses, after controlling for gender and BMI, revealed that both narcissism and perfectionism were positively correlated with all aspects of ON symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  17. Gender differences in gynecologist communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, A.M. van; Bensing, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The intimate nature of gynecological health problems requires the physician's specific attention. On the basis of previous findings in primary care, female gynecologists are expected to communicate more affectively than men. This study addressed gender differences in gynecologist communication

  18. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers.

  19. Gender differences in gynecologist communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, A.M. van; Bensing, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The intimate nature of gynecological health problems requires the physician's specific attention. On the basis of previous findings in primary care, female gynecologists are expected to communicate more affectively than men. This study addressed gender differences in gynecologist communication behav

  20. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, C.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Borm, G.F.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Leenders, K.L.; Eshuis, S.; Booij, J.; Dluzen, D.E.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). W