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Sample records for rendered serca soluble

  1. Parallel rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides a broad introduction to the subject of parallel rendering, encompassing both hardware and software systems. The focus is on the underlying concepts and the issues which arise in the design of parallel rendering algorithms and systems. We examine the different types of parallelism and how they can be applied in rendering applications. Concepts from parallel computing, such as data decomposition, task granularity, scalability, and load balancing, are considered in relation to the rendering problem. We also explore concepts from computer graphics, such as coherence and projection, which have a significant impact on the structure of parallel rendering algorithms. Our survey covers a number of practical considerations as well, including the choice of architectural platform, communication and memory requirements, and the problem of image assembly and display. We illustrate the discussion with numerous examples from the parallel rendering literature, representing most of the principal rendering methods currently used in computer graphics.

  2. High Resolution X-ray Diffraction Dataset for Bacillus licheniformis Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase-acivicin complex: SUMO-Tag Renders High Expression and Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shobha; Pal, Ravi Kant; Gupta, Rani; Goel, Manisha

    2017-02-01

    Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, (GGT) is a ubiquitous protein which plays a central role in glutathione metabolism and has myriad clinical implications. It has been shown to be a virulence factor for pathogenic bacteria, inhibition of which results in reduced colonization potential. However, existing inhibitors are effective but toxic and therefore search is on for novel inhibitors, which makes it imperative to understand the interactions of various inhibitors with the protein in substantial detail. High resolution structures of protein bound to different inhibitors can serve this purpose. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis is one of the model systems that have been used to understand the structure-function correlation of the protein. The structures of the native protein (PDB code 4OTT), of its complex with glutamate (PDB code 4OTU) and that of its precursor mimic (PDB code 4Y23) are available, although at moderate/low resolution. In the present study, we are reporting the preliminary analysis of, high resolution X-ray diffraction data collected for the co-crystals of B. licheniformis, Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, with its inhibitor, Acivicin. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffract X-ray to 1.45 Å resolution. This is the highest resolution data reported for all GGT structures available till now. The use of SUMO fused expression system enhanced yield of the target protein in the soluble fraction, facilitating recovery of protein with high purity. The preliminary analysis of this data set shows clear density for the inhibitor, acivicin, in the protein active site.

  3. Postępowanie z chorym po zawale serca

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina Niedolaz; Katarzyna Hałas; Anna Kaźmierczak-Dziuk

    2011-01-01

    Choroba wieńcowa, czyli choroba niedokrwienna serca na podłożu miażdżycy tętnic wieńcowych, stanowi niezwykle istotny problem kliniczny. Jej bezpośrednim i często nieuchronnym następstwem jest zawał mięśnia serca. Zawał najczęściej jest spowodowany zamknięciem tętnicy wieńcowej w wyniku uszkodzenia blaszki miażdżycowej (jej pęknięcia lub erozji) z następowym wytworzeniem dystalnego zakrzepu i powoduje zniszczenie prawidłowo działającego mięśnia sercowego. Chory po przebytym zawale...

  4. Direct detection of SERCA calcium transport and small-molecule inhibition in giant unilamellar vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Tengfei; Autry, Joseph M.; Casemore, Denise; Li, Ji; Thomas, David D.; He, Gaohong; Xing, Chengguo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a charge-mediated fusion method to reconstitute the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA) in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV). Intracellular Ca 2+ transport by SERCA controls key processes in human cells such as proliferation, signaling, and contraction. Small-molecule effectors of SERCA are urgently needed as therapeutics for Ca 2+ dysregulation in human diseases including cancer, diabetes, and heart failure. Here we report the development of a method for efficiently reconstituting SERCA in GUV, and we describe a streamlined protocol based on optimized parameters (e.g., lipid components, SERCA preparation, and activity assay requirements). ATP-dependent Ca 2+ transport by SERCA in single GUV was detected directly using confocal fluorescence microscopy with the Ca 2+ indicator Fluo-5F. The GUV reconstitution system was validated for functional screening of Ca 2+ transport using thapsigargin (TG), a small-molecule inhibitor of SERCA currently in clinical trials as a prostate cancer prodrug. The GUV system overcomes the problem of inhibitory Ca 2+ accumulation for SERCA in native and reconstituted small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). We propose that charge-mediated fusion provides a widely-applicable method for GUV reconstitution of clinically-important membrane transport proteins. We conclude that GUV reconstitution is a technological advancement for evaluating small-molecule effectors of SERCA.

  5. Saturation of SERCA's lipid annulus may protect against its thermal inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Trojanowski, Natalie; Castelli, Laura M.; Miotto, Paula M.; Amoye, Foyinsola; Ward, Wendy E.; Tupling, A. Russell; LeBlanc, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pumps are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the active transport of Ca 2+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby eliciting muscle relaxation. SERCA pumps are highly susceptible to oxidative damage, and cytoprotection of SERCA dampens thermal inactivation and is a viable therapeutic strategy in combating diseases where SERCA activity is impaired, such as muscular dystrophy. Here, we sought to determine whether increasing the percent of saturated fatty acids (SFA) within SERCA's lipid annulus through diet could protect SERCA pumps from thermal inactivation. Female Wistar rats were fed either a semi-purified control diet (AIN93G, 7% soybean oil by weight) or a modified AIN93G diet containing high SFA (20% lard by weight) for 17 weeks. Soleus muscles were extracted and SERCA lipid annulus and activity under thermal stress were analyzed. Our results show that SERCA's lipid annulus is abundant with short-chain (12–14 carbon) fatty acids, which corresponds well with SERCA's predicted bilayer thickness of 21 Å. Under control-fed conditions, SERCA's lipid annulus was already highly saturated (79%), and high-fat feeding did not increase this any further. High-fat feeding did not mitigate the reductions in SERCA activity seen with thermal stress; however, correlational analyses revealed significant and strong associations between % SFA and thermal stability of SERCA activity with greater %SFA being associated with lower thermal inactivation and greater % polyunsaturation and unsaturation index being associated with increased thermal inactivation. Altogether, these findings show that SERCA's lipid annulus may influence its susceptibility to oxidative damage, which could have implications in muscular dystrophy and age-related muscle wasting. - Highlights: • SERCA's lipid annulus in rat soleus was measured after immunoconcentration. • Short fatty acid chains surround SERCA and

  6. Postępowanie z chorym po zawale serca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Niedolaz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Choroba wieńcowa, czyli choroba niedokrwienna serca na podłożu miażdżycy tętnic wieńcowych, stanowi niezwykle istotny problem kliniczny. Jej bezpośrednim i często nieuchronnym następstwem jest zawał mięśnia serca. Zawał najczęściej jest spowodowany zamknięciem tętnicy wieńcowej w wyniku uszkodzenia blaszki miażdżycowej (jej pęknięcia lub erozji z następowym wytworzeniem dystalnego zakrzepu i powoduje zniszczenie prawidłowo działającego mięśnia sercowego. Chory po przebytym zawale mię- śnia serca należy do grupy pacjentów obciążonych wysokim ryzykiem sercowo-naczyniowym, a więc zagrożony jest wystąpieniem kolejnych incydentów, takich jak zawał, udar mózgu i zgon. Prawidłowe postępowanie po przebytym zawale pozwala na istotną redukcję ryzyka i korzystnie wpływa na rokowanie. Prewencja wtórna po zawale serca obejmuje postępowanie niefarmakologiczne, czyli modyfikację stylu życia, i leczenie farmakologiczne. Największe znaczenie ma wyeliminowanie czynników ryzyka, tj. zaprzestanie palenia papierosów, prawidłowa kontrola ciśnienia tętniczego i normalizacja poziomu cholesterolu, a także redukcja nadwagi i systematyczna aktywność fizyczna. Świadomość pacjentów i zaangażowanie lekarzy są decydujące dla osiągnięcia korzystnych efektów prewencji wtórnej po zawale serca. Artykuł przedstawia zasady, którym powinien podlegać każdy chory po zawale mięśnia serca, uwzględnia zalecenia dotyczące postępowania niefarmakologicznego, wytyczne dotyczące odpowiedniej farmakoterapii według aktualnych standardów. W pracy uwzględniono również zasady postępowania z chorym po zawale w sytuacjach szczególnych, jakimi są choroby współistniejące, takie jak nadciśnienie tętnicze, cukrzyca, dysfunkcja lewej komory i niewydolność serca, przewlekła choroba nerek, przewlekła obturacyjna choroba płuc.

  7. Ca2+-clock-dependent pacemaking in the sinus node is impaired in mice with a cardiac specific reduction in SERCA2 abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Jit Ramamoorthy Jeewanlal Logantha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2 pump is an important component of the Ca2+-clock pacemaker mechanism that provides robustness and flexibility to sinus node pacemaking. We have developed transgenic mice with reduced cardiac SERCA2 abundance (Serca2 KO as a model for investigating SERCA2’s role in sinus node pacemaking.Methods and Results: In Serca2 KO mice, ventricular SERCA2a protein content measured by Western blotting was 75% (P70% Serca2 downregulation.Conclusions: Serca2 KO mice show a disrupted Ca2+-clock-dependent pacemaker mechanism contributing to impaired sinus node and atrioventricular node function.

  8. SERCA directs cell migration and branching across species and germ layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle V. Bower

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis underlies organogenesis in vertebrates and invertebrates, yet is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ reuptake pump (SERCA directs budding across germ layers and species. Clonal knockdown demonstrated a cell-autonomous role for SERCA in Drosophila air sac budding. Live imaging of Drosophila tracheogenesis revealed elevated Ca2+ levels in migratory tip cells as they form branches. SERCA blockade abolished this Ca2+ differential, aborting both cell migration and new branching. Activating protein kinase C (PKC rescued Ca2+ in tip cells and restored cell migration and branching. Likewise, inhibiting SERCA abolished mammalian epithelial budding, PKC activation rescued budding, while morphogens did not. Mesoderm (zebrafish angiogenesis and ectoderm (Drosophila nervous system behaved similarly, suggesting a conserved requirement for cell-autonomous Ca2+ signaling, established by SERCA, in iterative budding.

  9. Cloning of a neonatal calcium atpase isoform (SERCA 1B) from extraocular muscle of adult blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londraville, R L; Cramer, T D; Franck, J P; Tullis, A; Block, B A

    2000-10-01

    Complete cDNAs for the fast-twitch Ca2+ -ATPase isoform (SERCA 1) were cloned and sequenced from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) extraocular muscle (EOM). Complete cDNAs for SERCA 1 were also cloned from fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the same species. The two sequences are identical over the coding region except for the last five codons on the carboxyl end; EOM SERCA 1 cDNA codes for 996 amino acids and the fast-twitch cDNAs code for 991 aa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EOM SERCA 1 clusters with an isoform of Ca2+ -ATPase normally expressed in early development of mammals (SERCA 1B). This is the first report of SERCA 1B in an adult vertebrate. RNA hybridization assays indicate that 1B expression is limited to extraocular muscles. Because EOM gives rise to the thermogenic heater organ in marlin, we investigated whether SERCA 1B may play a role in heat generation, or if 1B expression is common in EOM among vertebrates. Chicken also expresses SERCA 1B in EOM, but rat expresses SERCA 1A; because SERCA 1B is not specific to heater tissue we conclude it is unlikely that it plays a specific role in intracellular heat production. Comparative sequence analysis does reveal, however, several sites that may be the source of functional differences between fish and mammalian SERCAs.

  10. Novel allelic mutations in murine Serca2 induce differential development of squamous cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toki, Hideaki; Minowa, Osamu; Inoue, Maki; Motegi, Hiromi; Karashima, Yuko; Ikeda, Ami [Team for Advanced Development and Evaluation of Human Disease Models, Riken BioResource Center (BRC), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kaneda, Hideki [Technology and Development Team for Mouse Phenotype Analysis, Riken BRC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakuraba, Yoshiyuki [Mutagenesis and Genomics Team, Riken BRC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Saiki, Yuriko [Department of Molecular Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Wakana, Shigeharu [Technology and Development Team for Mouse Phenotype Analysis, Riken BRC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi [Department of Biochemistry, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Gondo, Yoichi [Mutagenesis and Genomics Team, Riken BRC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shiroishi, Toshihiko [Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka (Japan); Noda, Tetsuo, E-mail: tnoda@jfcr.or.jp [Team for Advanced Development and Evaluation of Human Disease Models, Riken BioResource Center (BRC), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Cell Biology, Cancer Institute, The Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    Dominant mutations in the Serca2 gene, which encodes sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase, predispose mice to gastrointestinal epithelial carcinoma [1–4] and humans to Darier disease (DD) [14–17]. In this study, we generated mice harboring N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced allelic mutations in Serca2: three missense mutations and one nonsense mutation. Mice harboring these Serca2 mutations developed tumors that were categorized as either early onset squamous cell tumors (SCT), with development similar to null-type knockout mice [2,4] (aggressive form; M682, M814), or late onset tumors (mild form; M1049, M1162). Molecular analysis showed no aberration in Serca2 mRNA or protein expression levels in normal esophageal cells of any of the four mutant heterozygotes. There was no loss of heterozygosity at the Serca2 locus in the squamous cell carcinomas in any of the four lines. The effect of each mutation on Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity was predicted using atomic-structure models and accumulated mutated protein studies, suggesting that putative complete loss of Serca2 enzymatic activity may lead to early tumor onset, whereas mutations in which Serca2 retains residual enzymatic activity result in late onset. We propose that impaired Serca2 gene product activity has a long-term effect on squamous cell carcinogenesis from onset to the final carcinoma stage through an as-yet unrecognized but common regulatory pathway. -- Highlights: •Novel mutations in murine Serca2 caused early onset or late onset of tumorigenesis. •They also caused higher or lower incidence of Darier Disease phenotype. •3D structure model suggested the former mutations led to severer defect on ATPase. •Driver gene mutations via long-range effect on Ca2+ distributions are suggested.

  11. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A

    2005-01-01

    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en

  12. Rendering of Gemstones

    OpenAIRE

    Krtek, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive appearance of gemstones is caused by the way light reflects and refracts multiple times inside of them. The goal of this thesis is to design and implement an application for photorealistic rendering of gems. The most important effects we aim for are realistic dispersion of light and refractive caustics. For rendering we use well-known algorithm of path tracing with an experimental modification for faster computation of caustic effects. In this thesis we also design and impleme...

  13. Discovery of novel SERCA inhibitors by virtual screening of a large compound library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Christopher; Lape, Michael; Deye, Joel; Zultowsky, Jodie; Stanton, David T; Paula, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Two screening protocols based on recursive partitioning and computational ligand docking methodologies, respectively, were employed for virtual screens of a compound library with 345,000 entries for novel inhibitors of the enzyme sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), a potential target for cancer chemotherapy. A total of 72 compounds that were predicted to be potential inhibitors of SERCA were tested in bioassays and 17 displayed inhibitory potencies at concentrations below 100 μM. The majority of these inhibitors were composed of two phenyl rings tethered to each other by a short link of one to three atoms. Putative interactions between SERCA and the inhibitors were identified by inspection of docking-predicted poses and some of the structural features required for effective SERCA inhibition were determined by analysis of the classification pattern employed by the recursive partitioning models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of cardiac contractility by the phospholamban/SERCA2a regulatome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranias, Evangelia G; Hajjar, Roger J

    2012-06-08

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. Current therapies aim at treating the symptoms rather than the subcellular mechanisms, underlying the etiology and pathological remodeling in heart failure. A universal characteristic, contributing to the decreased contractile performance in human and experimental failing hearts, is impaired calcium sequestration into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). SR calcium uptake is mediated by a Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2), whose activity is reversibly regulated by phospholamban (PLN). Dephosphorylated PLN is an inhibitor of SERCA and phosphorylation of PLN relieves this inhibition. However, the initial simple view of a PLN/SERCA regulatory complex has been modified by our recent identification of SUMO, S100 and the histidine-rich Ca-binding protein as regulators of SERCA activity. In addition, PLN activity is regulated by 2 phosphoproteins, the inhibitor-1 of protein phosphatase 1 and the small heat shock protein 20, which affect the overall SERCA-mediated Ca-transport. This review will highlight the regulatory mechanisms of cardiac contractility by the multimeric SERCA/PLN-ensemble and the potential for new therapeutic avenues targeting this complex by using small molecules and gene transfer methods.

  15. SERCA2a gene transfer improves electrocardiographic performance in aged mdx mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjar Roger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiomyocyte calcium overloading has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD heart disease. The cardiac isoform of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a plays a major role in removing cytosolic calcium during heart muscle relaxation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that SERCA2a over-expression may mitigate electrocardiography (ECG abnormalities in old female mdx mice, a murine model of DMD cardiomyopathy. Methods 1 × 1012 viral genome particles/mouse of adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AAV-9 SERCA2a vector was delivered to 12-m-old female mdx mice (N = 5 via a single bolus tail vein injection. AAV transduction and the ECG profile were examined eight months later. Results The vector genome was detected in the hearts of all AAV-injected mdx mice. Immunofluorescence staining and western blot confirmed SERCA2a over-expression in the mdx heart. Untreated mdx mice showed characteristic tachycardia, PR interval reduction and QT interval prolongation. AAV-9 SERCA2a treatment corrected these ECG abnormalities. Conclusions Our results suggest that AAV SERCA2a therapy may hold great promise in treating dystrophin-deficient heart disease.

  16. Sarco/Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA contribute to GPCR-mediated taste perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Iguchi

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is important for providing animals with valuable information about the qualities of food, such as nutritional or harmful nature. Mammals, including humans, can recognize at least five primary taste qualities: sweet, umami (savory, bitter, sour, and salty. Recent studies have identified molecules and mechanisms underlying the initial steps of tastant-triggered molecular events in taste bud cells, particularly the requirement of increased cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](c for normal taste signal transduction and transmission. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms controlling the removal of elevated [Ca(2+](c from the cytosol of taste receptor cells (TRCs and how the disruption of these mechanisms affects taste perception. To investigate the molecular mechanism of Ca(2+ clearance in TRCs, we sought the molecules involved in [Ca(2+](c regulation using a single-taste-cell transcriptome approach. We found that Serca3, a member of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA family that sequesters cytosolic Ca(2+ into endoplasmic reticulum, is exclusively expressed in sweet/umami/bitter TRCs, which rely on intracellular Ca(2+ release for signaling. Serca3-knockout (KO mice displayed significantly increased aversive behavioral responses and greater gustatory nerve responses to bitter taste substances but not to sweet or umami taste substances. Further studies showed that Serca2 was mainly expressed in the T1R3-expressing sweet and umami TRCs, suggesting that the loss of function of Serca3 was possibly compensated by Serca2 in these TRCs in the mutant mice. Our data demonstrate that the SERCA family members play an important role in the Ca(2+ clearance in TRCs and that mutation of these proteins may alter bitter and perhaps sweet and umami taste perception.

  17. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  18. SERCA2 Haploinsufficiency in a Mouse Model of Darier Disease Causes a Selective Predisposition to Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Null mutations in one copy of ATP2A2, the gene encoding sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2, cause Darier disease in humans, a skin condition involving keratinocytes. Cardiac function appears to be unimpaired in Darier disease patients, with no evidence that SERCA2 haploinsufficiency itself causes heart disease. However, SERCA2 deficiency is widely considered a contributing factor in heart failure. We therefore analyzed Atp2a2 heterozygous mice to determine whether SERCA2 haploinsufficiency can exacerbate specific heart disease conditions. Despite reduced SERCA2a levels in heart, Atp2a2 heterozygous mice resembled humans in exhibiting normal cardiac physiology. When subjected to hypothyroidism or crossed with a transgenic model of reduced myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity, SERCA2 deficiency caused no enhancement of the disease state. However, when combined with a transgenic model of increased myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity, SERCA2 haploinsufficiency caused rapid onset of hypertrophy, decompensation, and death. These effects were associated with reduced expression of the antiapoptotic Hax1, increased levels of the proapoptotic genes Chop and Casp12, and evidence of perturbations in energy metabolism. These data reveal myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity to be an important determinant of the cardiac effects of SERCA2 haploinsufficiency and raise the possibility that Darier disease patients are more susceptible to heart failure under certain conditions.

  19. Darier disease mutation E917K/E918K of SERCA causes accumulation of the E2 form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine; Holdensen, Anne Nyholm; Vilsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    . SERCA2b E917K as well as SERCA1a E918K reduces the apparent Ca2+ affinity 2- to 3-fold, compared with the respective wild type. The resulting disturbance of Ca2+ homeostasis is probably the reason for the abnormalities of epidermal cells in the Darier disease patients. The reduction of apparent Ca2...

  20. High Fidelity Haptic Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Otaduy, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The human haptic system, among all senses, provides unique and bidirectional communication between humans and their physical environment. Yet, to date, most human-computer interactive systems have focused primarily on the graphical rendering of visual information and, to a lesser extent, on the display of auditory information. Extending the frontier of visual computing, haptic interfaces, or force feedback devices, have the potential to increase the quality of human-computer interaction by accommodating the sense of touch. They provide an attractive augmentation to visual display and enhance t

  1. Atomic-level characterization of the activation mechanism of SERCA by calcium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Michel Espinoza-Fonseca

    Full Text Available We have performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations to elucidate, in atomic detail, the mechanism by which the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA is activated by Ca(2+. Crystal structures suggest that activation of SERCA occurs when the cytoplasmic head-piece, in an open (E1 conformation stabilized by Ca(2+, undergoes a large-scale open-to-closed (E1 to E2 transition that is induced by ATP binding. However, spectroscopic measurements in solution suggest that these structural states (E1 and E2 are not tightly coupled to biochemical states (defined by bound ligands; the closed E2 state predominates even in the absence of ATP, in both the presence and absence of Ca(2+. How is this loose coupling consistent with the high efficiency of energy transduction in the Ca(2+-ATPase? To provide insight into this question, we performed long (500 ns all-atom MD simulations starting from the open crystal structure, including a lipid bilayer and water. In both the presence and absence of Ca(2+, we observed a large-scale open-to-closed conformational transition within 400 ns, supporting the weak coupling between structural and biochemical states. However, upon closer inspection, it is clear that Ca(2+ is necessary and sufficient for SERCA to reach the precise geometrical arrangement necessary for activation of ATP hydrolysis. Contrary to suggestions from crystal structures, but in agreement with solution spectroscopy, the presence of ATP is not required for this activating transition. Principal component analysis showed that Ca(2+ reshapes the free energy landscape of SERCA to create a path between the open conformation and the activated closed conformation. Thus the malleability of the free energy landscape is essential for SERCA efficiency, ensuring that ATP hydrolysis is tightly coupled to Ca(2+ transport. These results demonstrate the importance of real-time dynamics in the formation of catalytically competent conformations of SERCA, with broad

  2. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibits calcium uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles but not SERCA ATP hydrolysis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim-Messeder, Douglas; Camacho-Pereira, Juliana; Galina, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3BrPA) is an antitumor agent that alkylates the thiol groups of enzymes and has been proposed as a treatment for neoplasias because of its specific reactivity with metabolic energy transducing enzymes in tumor cells. In this study, we show that the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) ATPase (SERCA) type 1 is one of the target enzymes of 3BrPA activity. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum vesicles (SRV) were incubated in the presence of 1mM 3BrPA, which was unable to inhibit the ATPase activity of SERCA. However, Ca(2+)-uptake activity was significantly inhibited by 80% with 150 μM 3BrPA. These results indicate that 3BrPA has the ability to uncouple the ATP hydrolysis from the calcium transport activities. In addition, we observed that the inclusion of 2mM reduced glutathione (GSH) in the reaction medium with different 3BrPA concentrations promoted an increase in 40% in ATPase activity and protects the inhibition promoted by 3BrPA in calcium uptake activity. This derivatization is accompanied by a decrease of reduced cysteine (Cys), suggesting that GSH and 3BrPA increases SERCA activity and transport by pyruvylation and/or S-glutathiolation mediated by GSH at a critical Cys residues of the SERCA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brody disease: insights into biochemical features of SERCA1 and identification of a novel mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vattemi, G.; Gualandi, F.; Oosterhof, A.; Marini, M.; Tonin, P.; Rimessi, P.; Neri, M.; Guglielmi, V.; Russignan, A.; Poli, C.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Ferlini, A.; Tomelleri, G.

    2010-01-01

    Brody disease is an inherited disorder of skeletal muscle function characterized by increasing impairment of relaxation during exercise. The autosomal recessive form can be caused by mutations in the ATP2A1 gene, which encodes for the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase 1 (SERCA1) protein.

  4. Atrial SERCA2a Overexpression Has No Affect on Cardiac Alternans but Promotes Arrhythmogenic SR Ca2+ Triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassal, Michelle M J; Wan, Xiaoping; Laurita, Kenneth R; Cutler, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in humans, yet; treatment has remained sub-optimal due to poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Cardiac alternans precede AF episodes, suggesting an important arrhythmia substrate. Recently, we demonstrated ventricular SERCA2a overexpression suppresses cardiac alternans and arrhythmias. Therefore, we hypothesized that atrial SERCA2a overexpression will decrease cardiac alternans and arrhythmias. Adult rat isolated atrial myocytes where divided into three treatment groups 1) Control, 2) SERCA2a overexpression (Ad.SERCA2a) and 3) SERCA2a inhibition (Thapsigargin, 1μm). Intracellular Ca2+ was measured using Indo-1AM and Ca2+ alternans (Ca-ALT) was induced with a standard ramp pacing protocol. As predicted, SR Ca2+ reuptake was enhanced with SERCA2a overexpression (poverexpression or inhibition when compared to controls (p = 0.73). In contrast, SERCA2a overexpression resulted in increased premature SR Ca2+ (SCR) release compared to control myocytes (28% and 0%, p overexpression in atrial myocytes can increase SCR, which may be arrhythmogenic.

  5. ARE: Ada Rendering Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Penge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E' ormai pratica diffusa, nello sviluppo di applicazioni web, l'utilizzo di template e di potenti template engine per automatizzare la generazione dei contenuti da presentare all'utente. Tuttavia a volte la potenza di tali engine è€ ottenuta mescolando logica e interfaccia, introducendo linguaggi diversi da quelli di descrizione della pagina, o addirittura inventando nuovi linguaggi dedicati.ARE (ADA Rendering Engine è€ pensato per gestire l'intero flusso di creazione del contenuto HTML/XHTML dinamico, la selezione del corretto template, CSS, JavaScript e la produzione dell'output separando completamente logica e interfaccia. I templates utilizzati sono puro HTML senza parti in altri linguaggi, e possono quindi essere gestiti e visualizzati autonomamente. Il codice HTML generato è€ uniforme e parametrizzato.E' composto da due moduli, CORE (Common Output Rendering Engine e ALE (ADA Layout Engine.Il primo (CORE viene utilizzato per la generazione OO degli elementi del DOM ed è pensato per aiutare lo sviluppatore nella produzione di codice valido rispetto al DTD utilizzato. CORE genera automaticamente gli elementi del DOM in base al DTD impostato nella configurazioneIl secondo (ALE viene utilizzato come template engine per selezionare automaticamente in base ad alcuni parametri (modulo, profilo utente, tipologia del nodo, del corso, preferenze di installazione il template HTML, i CSS e i file JavaScript appropriati. ALE permette di usare templates di default e microtemplates ricorsivi per semplificare il lavoro del grafico.I due moduli possono in ogni caso essere utilizzati indipendentemente l'uno dall'altro. E' possibile generare e renderizzare una pagina HTML utilizzando solo CORE oppure inviare gli oggetti CORE al template engine ALE che provvede a renderizzare la pagina HTML. Viceversa è possibile generare HTML senza utilizzare CORE ed inviarlo al template engine ALECORE è alla prima release ed è€ già utilizzato all

  6. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  7. Transformative Rendering of Internet Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    using either the Firefox or Google Chrome rendering engine. The rendering server then captures a screen shot of the page and creates code that positions...be compromised at web pages the hackers had built for that hacking competition to exploit that particular OS /browser configuration. During...of risk with no benefit. They include: - The rendering server is hosted on a Linux-based operating system ( OS ). The OS is much more secure than the

  8. Darier disease mutation E917K of SERCA2b relieves the inhibitory influence of the 11th transmembrane segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine; Holdensen, Anne Nyholm; Vangheluwe, Peter

    Mutation E917K of the Sarco(endo)plasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2b (SERCA2b) causes Darier disease, an autosomal dominantly inherited skin disease also denoted as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease. SERCA is encoded by three genes ATP2A1, ATP2A2 and ATP2A3 giving rise to the pr......Mutation E917K of the Sarco(endo)plasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2b (SERCA2b) causes Darier disease, an autosomal dominantly inherited skin disease also denoted as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease. SERCA is encoded by three genes ATP2A1, ATP2A2 and ATP2A3 giving rise...

  9. Exendin-4 Plays a Protective Role in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury Through SERCA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Current therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI have limited efficacy, and identifying a therapeutic target is a pressing need. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2 (SERCA2 plays an important role in regulating calcium homeostasis, which has been shown to inhibit apoptosis. Exendin-4 has been shown to inhibit the apoptosis of nerve cells in SCI, which can also improve SERCA2 expression. In this study, we sought to determine whether exendin-4 plays a protective role in a rat model of SCI via SERCA2. Methods: To investigate the effects of exendin-4 on SCI, a rat model of SCI was induced by a modified version of Allen’s method. Spinal cord tissue sections from rats and western blot analysis were used to examine SERCA2 expression after treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor exendin-4 or the SERCA2 antagonist 5(6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester (CE. Locomotor function was evaluated using the Basso Beattie Bresnahan locomotor rating scale and slanting board test. Results: Cell apoptosis was increased with CE treatment and decreased with exendin-4 treatment. Upregulation of SERCA2 in female rats with SCI resulted in an improvement of motor function scores and histological changes. Conclusion: These findings suggest that exendin-4 plays a protective role in a rat model of SCI through SERCA2 via inhibition of apoptosis. Existing drugs targeting SERCA2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SCI.

  10. Sketchy Rendering for Information Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, Jo; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Dykes, Jason; Boukhelifa, Nadia; Slingsby, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for constructing sketchy style information visualizations that mimic data graphics drawn by hand. We provide an alternative renderer for the Processing graphics environment that redefines core drawing primitives including line, polygon and ellipse rendering. These

  11. Rat vas deferens SERCA2 is modulated by Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.B.R.; Muzi-Filho, H.; Valverde, R.H.F.; Quintas, L.E.M.; Noel, F.; Einicker-Lamas, M.; Cunha, V.M.N.

    2013-01-01

    Ca 2+ pumps are important players in smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, little information is available about these pumps in the vas deferens. We have determined which subtype of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase isoform (SERCA) is expressed in rat vas deferens (RVD) and its modulation by calmodulin (CaM)-dependent mechanisms. The thapsigargin-sensitive Ca 2+ -ATPase from a membrane fraction containing the highest SERCA levels in the RVD homogenate has the same molecular mass (∼115 kDa) as that of SERCA2 from the rat cerebellum. It has a very high affinity for Ca 2+ (Ca 0.5 = 780 nM) and a low sensitivity to vanadate (IC 50 = 41 µM). These facts indicate that SERCA2 is present in the RVD. Immunoblotting for CaM and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) showed the expression of these two regulatory proteins. Ca 2+ and CaM increased serine-phosphorylated residues of the 115-kDa protein, indicating the involvement of CaMKII in the regulatory phosphorylation of SERCA2. Phosphorylation is accompanied by an 8-fold increase of thapsigargin-sensitive Ca 2+ accumulation in the lumen of vesicles derived from these membranes. These data establish that SERCA2 in the RVD is modulated by Ca 2+ and CaM, possibly via CaMKII, in a process that results in stimulation of Ca 2+ pumping activity

  12. Sphingosine inhibits the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca"2"+-ATPase (SERCA) activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaim, Gustavo; Pimentel, Adriana A.; Felibertt, Pimali; Mayora, Adriana; Colman, Laura; Sojo, Felipe; Rojas, Héctor; De Sanctis, Juan B.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the intracellular Ca"2"+ concentration ([Ca"2"+]_i) is the key variable for many different processes, ranging from regulation of cell proliferation to apoptosis. In this work we demonstrated that the sphingolipid sphingosine (Sph) increases the [Ca"2"+]_i by inhibiting the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca"2"+-ATPase (SERCA), in a similar manner to thapsigargin (Tg), a specific inhibitor of this Ca"2"+ pump. The results showed that addition of sphingosine produced a release of Ca"2"+ from the endoplasmic reticulum followed by a Ca"2"+ entrance from the outside mileu. The results presented in this work support that this sphingolipid could control the activity of the SERCA, and hence sphingosine may participate in the regulation of [Ca"2"+]_I in mammalian cells.

  13. Sphingosine inhibits the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA) activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaim, Gustavo, E-mail: gbenaim@idea.gob.ve [Instituto de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto de Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Pimentel, Adriana A., E-mail: adriana.pimentel@ucv.ve [Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Felibertt, Pimali [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Mayora, Adriana [Instituto de Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Colman, Laura [Instituto Pasteur de Montevideo, Montevideo (Uruguay); Sojo, Felipe [Instituto de Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Rojas, Héctor [Instituto de Inmunología, Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Centro de Biofísica y Bioquímica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); De Sanctis, Juan B. [Instituto de Inmunología, Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-04-29

    The increase in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is the key variable for many different processes, ranging from regulation of cell proliferation to apoptosis. In this work we demonstrated that the sphingolipid sphingosine (Sph) increases the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by inhibiting the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA), in a similar manner to thapsigargin (Tg), a specific inhibitor of this Ca{sup 2+} pump. The results showed that addition of sphingosine produced a release of Ca{sup 2+} from the endoplasmic reticulum followed by a Ca{sup 2+} entrance from the outside mileu. The results presented in this work support that this sphingolipid could control the activity of the SERCA, and hence sphingosine may participate in the regulation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub I} in mammalian cells.

  14. Advanced Material Rendering in Blender

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatka, Martin; Haindl, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2012), s. 15-23 ISSN 1081-1451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0335; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:CESNET(CZ) 387/2010; CESNET(CZ) 409/2011 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : realistic material rendering * bidirectional texture function * Blender Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/haindl-advanced material rendering in blender.pdf

  15. SERCA mutant E309Q binds two Ca ions but adopts a catalytically incompetent conformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johannes D.; Bublitz, Maike; Arnou, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) couples ATP hydrolysis to transport of Ca2+. This directed energy transfer requires cross-talk between the two Ca2+ sites and the phosphorylation site over 50 Å distance. We have addressed the mechano-structural basis for this intramolecular...... a shift of transmembrane segment M1 into an ‘up and kinked position’. This transition is impaired in the E309Q mutant, most likely due to a lack of charge neutralization and altered hydrogen binding capacities at Ca2+ site II....

  16. Rat vas deferens SERCA2 is modulated by Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.B.R.; Muzi-Filho, H. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, R.H.F. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quintas, L.E.M. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Noel, F. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Einicker-Lamas, M. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, V.M.N. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-03-19

    Ca{sup 2+} pumps are important players in smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, little information is available about these pumps in the vas deferens. We have determined which subtype of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase isoform (SERCA) is expressed in rat vas deferens (RVD) and its modulation by calmodulin (CaM)-dependent mechanisms. The thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase from a membrane fraction containing the highest SERCA levels in the RVD homogenate has the same molecular mass (∼115 kDa) as that of SERCA2 from the rat cerebellum. It has a very high affinity for Ca{sup 2+} (Ca{sub 0.5} = 780 nM) and a low sensitivity to vanadate (IC{sub 50} = 41 µM). These facts indicate that SERCA2 is present in the RVD. Immunoblotting for CaM and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) showed the expression of these two regulatory proteins. Ca{sup 2+} and CaM increased serine-phosphorylated residues of the 115-kDa protein, indicating the involvement of CaMKII in the regulatory phosphorylation of SERCA2. Phosphorylation is accompanied by an 8-fold increase of thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} accumulation in the lumen of vesicles derived from these membranes. These data establish that SERCA2 in the RVD is modulated by Ca{sup 2+} and CaM, possibly via CaMKII, in a process that results in stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} pumping activity.

  17. Niewydolność serca - definicja, klasyfikacja, epidemiologia, objawy i leczenie = Heart failure - definition, classification, epidemiology, symptoms and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kowalczyk

    2017-02-01

      Streszczenie   W ciągu ostatnich 50 lat pojawiło się wiele określeń niewydolności serca. Dokonał się również znaczący postęp w postrzeganiu i leczeniu tej choroby. Skuteczność leczenia i rehabilitacji przekłada się na redukcję klasy NYHA i poprawę frakcji wyrzutowej lewej komory serca. Istotnie poprawiło się rokowanie chorych z umiarkowaną i ciężką postacią niewydolności. Kluczem do wczesnego rozpoznania niewydolności serca są jej objawy przedmiotowe i podmiotowe. Niestety pomimo ogromnego rozwoju medycyny niewydolność serca jest nadal poważnym problemem klinicznym, społecznym i ekonomicznym. Liczba zachorowań stale rośnie. W kompleksowej opiece nad pacjentem z niewydolnością serca oprócz leczenia farmakologicznego znaczącą rolę odgrywa odpowiednie przygotowanie chorego do życia z niewydolnością serca. Celem artykułu jest podsumowanie zagadnień definicji, klasyfikacji, epidemiologii, objawów i leczenia niewydolności serca.   Słowa kluczowe: niewydolność serca, definicja, klasyfikacja, epidemiologia, leczenie.     Abstract   In the last 50 years there have been many definitions of heart failure. It has been made significant progress in the perception and treatment of the disease. The effectiveness of treatment and rehabilitation translates into a reduction in NYHA class and improve the ejection fraction of the left ventricle. Significantly improved the prognosis in patients with moderate or severe heart failure. The key to early diagnosis of heart failure are its signs and symptoms. Heart failure unfortunately continues despite the enormous development of medicine is serious clinical, social and economic problem. The number of cases continues to grow. In the comprehensive care of patients with heart failure in addition to pharmacological treatment plays an important role adequate preparation of the patient to live with heart failure. Objectives of this article is a summary of issues of definition

  18. Sketchy Rendering for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J; Isenberg, P; Isenberg, T; Dykes, J; Boukhelifa, N; Slingsby, A

    2012-12-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for constructing sketchy style information visualizations that mimic data graphics drawn by hand. We provide an alternative renderer for the Processing graphics environment that redefines core drawing primitives including line, polygon and ellipse rendering. These primitives allow higher-level graphical features such as bar charts, line charts, treemaps and node-link diagrams to be drawn in a sketchy style with a specified degree of sketchiness. The framework is designed to be easily integrated into existing visualization implementations with minimal programming modification or design effort. We show examples of use for statistical graphics, conveying spatial imprecision and for enhancing aesthetic and narrative qualities of visualization. We evaluate user perception of sketchiness of areal features through a series of stimulus-response tests in order to assess users' ability to place sketchiness on a ratio scale, and to estimate area. Results suggest relative area judgment is compromised by sketchy rendering and that its influence is dependent on the shape being rendered. They show that degree of sketchiness may be judged on an ordinal scale but that its judgement varies strongly between individuals. We evaluate higher-level impacts of sketchiness through user testing of scenarios that encourage user engagement with data visualization and willingness to critique visualization design. Results suggest that where a visualization is clearly sketchy, engagement may be increased and that attitudes to participating in visualization annotation are more positive. The results of our work have implications for effective information visualization design that go beyond the traditional role of sketching as a tool for prototyping or its use for an indication of general uncertainty.

  19. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  20. Nanosuspension Technology for Solubilizing Poorly Soluble Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Deoli Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. It is estimated that around 40% of drugs in the pipeline cannot be delivered through the preferred route or in some cases, at all owing to poor water solubility. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor1 EL). To date, nanoscale systems f...

  1. Immunohistochemical evidence for expression of fast-twitch type sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA1) in German shepherd dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Nuala; Peters, Mary E; Hercock, Carol A; Mobasheri, Ali; Young, Iain S

    2010-04-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the most common acquired canine heart diseases. It is particularly common in large and giant breed dogs. Although a great deal is known about the clinical progression and manifestations of the disease, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. One widely held belief is that calcium-handling abnormalities are critically involved in the disease process. This study investigates the changes in expression of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) isoforms in DCM myocardium from German shepherd dogs. Affected tissue samples were obtained from German shepherd dogs with DCM, euthanized for intractable congestive heart failure while normal myocardial tissue samples were obtained from German shepherd dogs, euthanized for non-cardiovascular reasons. Tissue microarrays containing normal and DCM myocardium samples were prepared, immunostained with SERCA1 and SERCA2 antibodies and analyzed. We were able to demonstrate, for the first time, that while there is little change in the expression of the cardiac isoform (SERCA2), there is clear expression of the fast-twitch skeletal muscle isoform SERCA1 in the myocardium of dogs diagnosed with DCM. We propose that SERCA1 expression is evidence of a natural adaptive response to the impaired Ca2+ handling thought to occur in German shepherd dogs with DCM and heart failure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  3. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  4. Substrate and mechanotransduction influence SERCA2a localization in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes affecting functional performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Martewicz

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we show involvement of the mechanotransduction pathway RhoA/ROCK in the structural reorganization of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes after adhesion plating. These structural changes have a major impact on the intracellular localization of SERCA2 pumps and concurrent improvement in calcium cycling. The process is triggered by cell interaction with the culture substrate, which mechanical cues drive sarcomeric alignment and SERCA2a spreading and relocalization from a perinuclear to a whole-cell distribution. This structural reorganization is mediated by the mechanical properties of the substrate, as shown by the process failure in hPSC-CMs cultured on soft 4 kPa hydrogels as opposed to physiologically stiff 16 kPa hydrogels and glass. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK by different compounds identifies this specific signaling pathway as a major player in SERCA2 localization and the associated improvement in hPSC-CMs calcium handling ability in vitro.

  5. RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasly, Benjamin S; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Lichtman, Daniel P; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H

    2014-02-07

    RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3.

  6. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  7. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...

  8. Physically based rendering from theory to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pharr, Matt

    2010-01-01

    "Physically Based Rendering, 2nd Edition" describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method - known as 'literate programming'- combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, you will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This book features new sections on subsurface scattering, Metropolis light transport, precomputed light transport, multispectral rendering, and much more. It includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux. Code and text are tightly woven together through a unique indexing feature that lists each function, variable, and method on the page that they are first described.

  9. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  10. Detection of Sequence-Specific Tyrosine Nitration of Manganese SOD and SERCA in Cardiovascular Disease and Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shanqin; Ying, Jia; Jiang, Bingbing; Guo, Wei; Adachi, Takeshi; Sharov, Victor; Lazar, Harold; Menzoian, James; Knyushko, Tanya V.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Schoneich, Christian; Cohen, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Nitration of protein tyrosine residues (nY) is a marker of oxidative stress and may alter the biological activity of the modified proteins. The aim of this study was to develop antibodies towards site-specific nY-modified proteins and to use histochemical and immunoblotting to demonstrate protein nitration in tissues. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies towards peptides with known nY sites in MnSOD nY-34 and of two adjacent nY in the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2 di-nY-294,295) were developed. Kidneys from rats infused with angiotensin II with known MnSOD nY and aorta from atherosclerotic rabbits and aging rat skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum with known SERCA di-nY were used for positive controls. Staining for MnSOD nY-34 was most intense in distal renal tubules and collecting ducts. Staining of atherosclerotic aorta for SERCA2 di-nY was most intense in atherosclerotic plaques. Aging rat skeletal muscle and atherosclerotic aorta and cardiac atrium from human diabetic patients also stained positively. Staining was decreased by sodium dithionite that chemically reduces nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, and the antigenic nY-peptide blocked staining for each respective nY site, but not for the other. As previously demonstrated, immunoblotting failed to detect these modified proteins in whole tissue lysates, but did when the proteins were concentrated. Immunohistochemical staining for specific nY-modified tyrosine residues offers the ability to assess the effects of oxidant stress associated with pathological conditions on individual proteins whose function may be affected in specific tissue sites.

  11. Structure-function relation of phospholamban: modulation of channel activity as a potential regulator of SERCA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Smeazzetto

    Full Text Available Phospholamban (PLN is a small integral membrane protein, which binds and inhibits in a yet unknown fashion the Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. When reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers PLN exhibits ion channel activity with a low unitary conductance. From the effect of non-electrolyte polymers on this unitary conductance we estimate a narrow pore with a diameter of ca. 2.2 Å for this channel. This value is similar to that reported for the central pore in the structure of the PLN pentamer. Hence the PLN pentamer, which is in equilibrium with the monomer, is the most likely channel forming structure. Reconstituted PLN mutants, which either stabilize (K27A and R9C or destabilize (I47A the PLN pentamer and also phosphorylated PLN still generate the same unitary conductance of the wt/non-phosphorylated PLN. However the open probability of the phosphorylated PLN and of the R9C mutant is significantly lower than that of the respective wt/non-phosphorylated control. In the context of data on PLN/SERCA interaction and on Ca(2+ accumulation in the sarcoplasmic reticulum the present results are consistent with the view that PLN channel activity could participate in the balancing of charge during Ca(2+ uptake. A reduced total conductance of the K(+ transporting PLN by phosphorylation or by the R9C mutation may stimulate Ca(2+ uptake in the same way as an inhibition of K(+ channels in the SR membrane. The R9C-PLN mutation, a putative cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, might hence affect SERCA activity also via its inherent low open probability.

  12. Distinct Roles of the C-terminal 11th Transmembrane Helix and Luminal Extension in the Partial Reactions Determining the High Ca2+ Affinity of Sarco(endo)plasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Isoform 2b (SERCA2b)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johannes D; Vandecaetsbeek, Ilse; Wuytack, Frank

    2012-01-01

    of each of these parts and their interactions with the SERCA environment were examined by transient kinetic analysis of the partial reaction steps in the Ca2+ transport cycle in mutant and chimeric Ca2+-ATPase constructs. Manipulations to the LE of SERCA2b markedly increased the rate of Ca2+ dissociation...

  13. RenderGAN: Generating Realistic Labeled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sixt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Convolutional Neuronal Networks (DCNNs are showing remarkable performance on many computer vision tasks. Due to their large parameter space, they require many labeled samples when trained in a supervised setting. The costs of annotating data manually can render the use of DCNNs infeasible. We present a novel framework called RenderGAN that can generate large amounts of realistic, labeled images by combining a 3D model and the Generative Adversarial Network framework. In our approach, image augmentations (e.g., lighting, background, and detail are learned from unlabeled data such that the generated images are strikingly realistic while preserving the labels known from the 3D model. We apply the RenderGAN framework to generate images of barcode-like markers that are attached to honeybees. Training a DCNN on data generated by the RenderGAN yields considerably better performance than training it on various baselines.

  14. Recirculating cardiac delivery of AAV2/1SERCA2a improves myocardial function in an experimental model of heart failure in large animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M J; Power, J M; Preovolos, A; Mariani, J A; Hajjar, R J; Kaye, D M

    2008-12-01

    Abnormal excitation-contraction coupling is a key pathophysiologic component of heart failure (HF), and at a molecular level reduced expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a) is a major contributor. Previous studies in small animals have suggested that restoration of SERCA function is beneficial in HF. Despite this promise, the means by which this information might be translated into potential clinical application remains uncertain. Using a recently established cardiac-directed recirculating method of gene delivery, we administered adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2)/1SERCA2a to sheep with pacing-induced HF. We explored the effects of differing doses of AAV2/1SERCA2a (low 1 x 10(10) d.r.p.; medium 1 x 10(12) d.r.p. and high 1 x 10(13) d.r.p.) in conjunction with an intra-coronary delivery group (2.5 x 10(13) d.r.p.). At the end of the study, haemodynamic, echocardiographic, histopathologic and molecular biologic assessments were performed. Cardiac recirculation delivery of AAV2/1SERCA2a elicited a dose-dependent improvement in cardiac performance determined by left ventricular pressure analysis, (+d P/d t(max); low dose -220+/-70, P>0.05; medium dose 125+/-53, P0.05; medium dose 1+/-2, P>0.05; high dose 6.5+/-3.9, Preversal of the HF molecular phenotype. In contrast, direct intra-coronary infusion did not elicit any effect on ventricular function. As such, AAV2/1SERCA2a elicits favourable functional and molecular actions when delivered in a mechanically targeted manner in an experimental model of HF. These observations lay a platform for potential clinical translation.

  15. Distributed rendering for multiview parallax displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annen, T.; Matusik, W.; Pfister, H.; Seidel, H.-P.; Zwicker, M.

    2006-02-01

    3D display technology holds great promise for the future of television, virtual reality, entertainment, and visualization. Multiview parallax displays deliver stereoscopic views without glasses to arbitrary positions within the viewing zone. These systems must include a high-performance and scalable 3D rendering subsystem in order to generate multiple views at real-time frame rates. This paper describes a distributed rendering system for large-scale multiview parallax displays built with a network of PCs, commodity graphics accelerators, multiple projectors, and multiview screens. The main challenge is to render various perspective views of the scene and assign rendering tasks effectively. In this paper we investigate two different approaches: Optical multiplexing for lenticular screens and software multiplexing for parallax-barrier displays. We describe the construction of large-scale multi-projector 3D display systems using lenticular and parallax-barrier technology. We have developed different distributed rendering algorithms using the Chromium stream-processing framework and evaluate the trade-offs and performance bottlenecks. Our results show that Chromium is well suited for interactive rendering on multiview parallax displays.

  16. Intracellular alkalinization induces cytosolic Ca2+ increases by inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Li

    Full Text Available Intracellular pH (pHi and Ca(2+ regulate essentially all aspects of cellular activities. Their inter-relationship has not been mechanistically explored. In this study, we used bases and acetic acid to manipulate the pHi. We found that transient pHi rise induced by both organic and inorganic bases, but not acidification induced by acid, produced elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+. The sources of the Ca(2+ increase are from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca(2+ pools as well as from Ca(2+ influx. The store-mobilization component of the Ca(2+ increase induced by the pHi rise was not sensitive to antagonists for either IP(3-receptors or ryanodine receptors, but was due to inhibition of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA, leading to depletion of the ER Ca(2+ store. We further showed that the physiological consequence of depletion of the ER Ca(2+ store by pHi rise is the activation of store-operated channels (SOCs of Orai1 and Stim1, leading to increased Ca(2+ influx. Taken together, our results indicate that intracellular alkalinization inhibits SERCA activity, similar to thapsigargin, thereby resulting in Ca(2+ leak from ER pools followed by Ca(2+ influx via SOCs.

  17. One Dimensional Finite Element Method Approach to Study Effect of Ryanodine Receptor and Serca Pump on Calcium Distribution in Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Parvaiz Ahmad; Pardasani, Kamal Raj

    2013-11-01

    Oocyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. Calcium ions (Ca2+) impact nearly all aspects of cellular life as they play an important role in a variety of cellular functions. Calcium ions contributes to egg activation upon fertilization. Since it is the internal stores which provide most of the calcium signal, much attention has been focused on the intracellular channels. There are mainly two types of calcium channels which release calcium from the internal stores to the cytoplasm in many cell types. These channels are IP3-Receptor and Ryanodine Receptor (RyR). Further it is essential to maintain low cytosolic calcium concentration, the cell engages the Serco/Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases (SERCA) present on the ER or SR membrane for the re-uptake of cytosolic calcium at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. In view of above an attempt has been made to study the effect of the Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and the SERCA pump on the calcium distribution in oocytes. The main aim of this paper is to study the calcium concentration in absence and presence of these parameters. The FEM is used to solve the proposed Mathematical model under appreciate initial and boundary conditions. The program has been developed in MATLAB 7.10 for the entire problem to get numerical results.

  18. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  19. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  20. Anticancer ruthenium(III) complex KP1019 interferes with ATP-dependent Ca2+ translocation by sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadafi, Fabrizio-Zagros; Massai, Lara; Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Messori, Luigi; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), a P-type ATPase that sustains Ca2+ transport and plays a major role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, represents a therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Here, we investigated whether ruthenium-based anticancer drugs, namely KP1019 (indazolium [trans-tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)]), NAMI-A (imidazolium [trans-tetrachloro(1H-imidazole)(S-dimethylsulfoxide)ruthenate(III)]) and RAPTA-C ([Ru(η6-p-cymene)dichloro(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane)]), and cisplatin (cis-diammineplatinum(II) dichloride) might act as inhibitors of SERCA. Charge displacement by SERCA adsorbed on a solid-supported membrane was measured after ATP or Ca2+ concentration jumps. Our results show that KP1019, in contrast to the other metal compounds, is able to interfere with ATP-dependent translocation of Ca2+ ions. An IC50 value of 1 μM was determined for inhibition of calcium translocation by KP1019. Conversely, it appears that KP1019 does not significantly affect Ca2+ binding to the ATPase from the cytoplasmic side. Inhibition of SERCA at pharmacologically relevant concentrations may represent a crucial aspect in the overall pharmacological and toxicological profile of KP1019. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Training induced decrease in oxygen cost of cycling is accompanied by down-regulation of SERCA expression in human vastus lateralis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Karasinski, J; Zoladz, J A

    2008-09-01

    We have examined the effect of 5 week cycling endurance training program on the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoforms (SERCA1 and 2) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle as well as on the oxygen uptake to power output ratio (VO2/PO) during incremental cycling. Fifteen untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after moderate intensity training. Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis before and after training program. Training resulted in higher (P = 0.048) maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) as well as in higher power output reached at VO(2max) (P = 0.0001). Moreover, lower (P = 0.02) VO2/PO ratio determined during incremental moderate intensity cycling (i.e. 30-120 W) as well as lower (P = 0.003) VO2/PO ratio reached at VO(2max) were observed after the training. A significant down regulation of SERCA2 protein (P = 0.03) and tendency (P = 0.055) to lower SERCA1 content accompanied by lower (P<10(-4)) plasma thyroid hormone concentration, with no changes (P = 0.67) in MyHC composition in vastus lateralis muscle were found after training. We have concluded that the increase in mechanical efficiency of cycling occurring during first weeks of endurance training is not related to changes in MyHC composition but it may be due to down-regulation of SERCA pumps.

  2. Digital color acquisition, perception, coding and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also look at coding, compression, protection and quality of color images and videos.

  3. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  4. Blender cycles lighting and rendering cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Iraci, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth guide full of step-by-step recipes to explore the concepts behind the usage of Cycles. Packed with illustrations, and lots of tips and tricks; the easy-to-understand nature of the book will help the reader understand even the most complex concepts with ease.If you are a digital artist who already knows your way around Blender, and you want to learn about the new Cycles' rendering engine, this is the book for you. Even experts will be able to pick up new tips and tricks to make the most of the rendering capabilities of Cycles.

  5. GPU Pro 5 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In GPU Pro5: Advanced Rendering Techniques, section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Marius Bjorge have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book covers rendering, lighting, effects in image space, mobile devices, 3D engine design, and compute. It explores rasterization of liquids, ray tracing of art assets that would otherwise be used in a rasterized engine, physically based area lights, volumetric light

  6. Fast rendering of scanned room geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Room acoustics are rendered in Virtual Realities based on models of the real world. These are typically rather coarse representations of the true geometry resulting in room impulse responses with a lack of natural detail. This problem can be overcome by using data scanned by sensors, such as e...

  7. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  8. Free-viewpoint depth image based rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinger, S.; Do, Q.L.; With, de P.H.N.

    2010-01-01

    In 3D TV research, one approach is to employ multiple cameras for creating a 3D multi-view signal with the aim to make interactive free-viewpoint selection possible in 3D TV media. This paper explores a new rendering algorithm that enables to compute a free-viewpoint between two reference views from

  9. Geographic structuring of the Plasmodium falciparum sarco(endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (PfSERCA gene diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Jambou

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a thapsigargin-like sesquiterpene has been shown to inhibit the Plasmodium falciparum sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase PfSERCA. To collect baseline pfserca sequence information before field deployment of Artemisinin-based Combination therapies that may select mutant parasites, we conducted a sequence analysis of 100 isolates from multiple sites in Africa, Asia and South America. Coding sequence diversity was large, with 29 mutated codons, including 32 SNPs (average of one SNP/115 bp, of which 19 were novel mutations. Most SNP detected in this study were clustered within a region in the cytosolic head of the protein. The PfSERCA functional domains were very well conserved, with non synonymous mutations located outside the functional domains, except for the S769N mutation associated in French Guiana with elevated IC(50 for artemether. The S769N mutation is located close to the hinge of the headpiece, which in other species modulates calcium affinity and in consequence efficacy of inhibitors, possibly linking calcium homeostasis to drug resistance. Genetic diversity was highest in Senegal, Brazil and French Guiana, and few mutations were identified in Asia. Population genetic analysis was conducted for a partial fragment of the gene encompassing nucleotide coordinates 87-2862 (unambiguous sequence available for 96 isolates. This supported a geographic clustering, with a separation between Old and New World samples and one dominant ancestral haplotype. Genetic drift alone cannot explain the observed polymorphism, suggesting that other evolutionary mechanisms are operating. One possible contributor could be the frequency of haemoglobinopathies that are associated with calcium dysregulation in the erythrocyte.

  10. SERCA plays a crucial role in the toxicity of a betulinic acid derivative with potential antimalarial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Denise; Wildner, Andreia C; Silveira, Thayse F; Silva, Gloria N S; Santos, Francine Dos; da Silva, Elenilson F; do Canto, Vanessa P; Visioli, Fernanda; Gosmann, Grace; Bergold, Ana M; Zimmer, Aline R; Netz, Paulo A; Gnoatto, Simone C B

    2018-05-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant infectious diseases that affect poor populations in tropical areas throughout the world. Plants have been shown to be a good source for the development of new antimalarial chemotherapeutic agents, as shown for the discovery of quinine and artemisinin derivatives. Our research group has been working with semisynthetic triterpene derivatives that show potential antimalarial activity toward different strains of Plasmodium falciparum by specifically modulating calcium pathways in the parasite. Promising results were obtained for nanomolar concentrations of the semisynthetic betulinic acid derivative LAFIS13 against the P. falciparum 3D7 strain in vitro, with a selectivity index of 18 compared to a mammalian cell line. Continuing these studies, we present here in vitro and in vivo toxicological evaluations of this compound, followed by docking studies with PfATP6, a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca +2 -ATPase (SERCA) protein. LAFIS13 showed an LD 50 between 300 and 50 mg/kg, and the acute administration of 50 mg/kg (i.p.) had no negative effects on hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Based on the results of the in vitro assays, LAFIS13 not exerted significant effects on coagulation parameters of human peripheral blood, but a hemolytic activity was verified at higher concentrations. According to the molecular docking study, the PfATP6 protein may be a target for LAFIS13, which corroborates its previously reported modulatory effects on calcium homeostasis in the parasite. Notably, LAFIS13 showed a higher selectivity for the mammalian SERCA protein than for PfATP6, thus impairing the selectivity between parasite and host. In summary, the direct interaction with calcium pumps and the hemolytic potential of the compound proved to be plausible mechanism of LAFIS13 toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RAY TRACING RENDER MENGGUNAKAN FRAGMENT ANTI ALIASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriliyan Samopa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Rendering is generating surface and three-dimensional effects on an object displayed on a monitor screen. Ray tracing as a rendering method that traces ray for each image pixel has a drawback, that is, aliasing (jaggies effect. There are some methods for executing anti aliasing. One of those methods is OGSS (Ordered Grid Super Sampling. OGSS is able to perform aliasing well. However, this method requires more computation time since sampling of all pixels in the image will be increased. Fragment Anti Aliasing (FAA is a new alternative method that can cope with the drawback. FAA will check the image when performing rendering to a scene. Jaggies effect is only happened at curve and gradient object. Therefore, only this part of object that will experience sampling magnification. After this sampling magnification and the pixel values are computed, then downsample is performed to retrieve the original pixel values. Experimental results show that the software can implement ray tracing well in order to form images, and it can implement FAA and OGSS technique to perform anti aliasing. In general, rendering using FAA is faster than using OGSS

  12. Rendering Falling Leaves on Graphics Hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Balsa; Pere-Pau Vázquez

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount...

  13. Emission of VOC's from modified rendering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Z.A.; Raja, I.A.; Saddique, M.; Langenhove, H.V.

    2005-01-01

    Rendering technique for processing of dead animal and slaughterhouse wastes into valuable products. It involves cooking of raw material and later Sterilization was added to reduce the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). Studies have been carried out on rendering emission, with the normal cooking process. Our study shows, that the sterilization step in rendering process increases the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Gas samples, containing VOC's, were analyzed by the GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometry). The most important groups of compounds- alcohols and cyclic hydrocarbons were identified. In the group of alcohol; 1-butanol, l-pentanol and l-hexanol compounds were found while in the group of cyclic hydrocarbon; methyl cyclopentane and cyclohexane compounds were detected. Other groups like aldehyde, sulphur containing compounds, ketone and furan were also found. Some compounds, like l-pentanol, 2-methyl propanal, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, which belong to these groups, cause malodor. It is important to know these compounds to treat odorous gasses. (author)

  14. Haptic rendering foundations, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ming C

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, human beings have dreamed of a virtual world where it is possible to interact with synthetic entities as if they were real. It has been shown that the ability to touch virtual objects increases the sense of presence in virtual environments. This book provides an authoritative overview of state-of-theart haptic rendering algorithms and their applications. The authors examine various approaches and techniques for designing touch-enabled interfaces for a number of applications, including medical training, model design, and maintainability analysis for virtual prototyping, scienti

  15. GPU Pro 4 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    GPU Pro4: Advanced Rendering Techniques presents ready-to-use ideas and procedures that can help solve many of your day-to-day graphics programming challenges. Focusing on interactive media and games, the book covers up-to-date methods producing real-time graphics. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book begins with discussions on the abi

  16. GPU PRO 3 Advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    GPU Pro3, the third volume in the GPU Pro book series, offers practical tips and techniques for creating real-time graphics that are useful to beginners and seasoned game and graphics programmers alike. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again brought together a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced GPU programming. With contributions by more than 50 experts, GPU Pro3: Advanced Rendering Techniques covers battle-tested tips and tricks for creating interesting geometry, realistic sha

  17. Conservation of old renderings - the consolidation of rendering with loss of cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of external renderings in the scope of conservation and restoration has acquired in the last years great methodological, scientific and technical advances. These renderings are important elements of the built structure, for besides possessing a protection function, they possess often a decorative function of great relevance for the image of the monument. The maintenance of these renderings implies the conservation of traditional constructive techniques and the use of compatible materials, as similar to the originals as possible. The main objective of this study is to define a methodology of conservative restoration using strategies of maintenance of renderings and traditional constructive techniques. The minimum intervention principle is maintained as well as the use of materials compatible with the original ones. This paper describes the technique and products used for the consolidation of the loss of cohesion. The testing campaign was developed under controlled conditions, in laboratory, and in situ in order to evaluate their efficacy for the consolidation of old renders. A set of tests is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the process. The results are analysed and a reflection is added referring to the applicability of these techniques. Finally the paper presents a proposal for further research.

  18. Validation of a colour rendering index based on memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Kevin; Jost-Boissard, Sophie; Ryckaert, Wouter; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the performance of a colour rendering index based on memory colours is investigated in comparison with the current CIE Colour Rendering Index, the NIST Colour Quality Scale and visual appreciation results obtained at CNRS at Lyon University for a set of 3000K and 4000K LED light sources. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between each colour rendering metric and the two sets of visual results were calculated. It was found that the memory colour based colour render...

  19. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  20. Photon Differential Splatting for Rendering Caustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Schjøth, Lars; Erleben, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    We present a photon splatting technique which reduces noise and blur in the rendering of caustics. Blurring of illumination edges is an inherent problem in photon splatting, as each photon is unaware of its neighbours when being splatted. This means that the splat size is usually based...... on heuristics rather than knowledge of the local flux density. We use photon differentials to determine the size and shape of the splats such that we achieve adaptive anisotropic flux density estimation in photon splatting. As compared to previous work that uses photon differentials, we present the first method...... where no photons or beams or differentials need to be stored in a map. We also present improvements in the theory of photon differentials, which give more accurate results and a faster implementation. Our technique has good potential for GPU acceleration, and we limit the number of parameters requiring...

  1. Extreme simplification and rendering of point sets using algebraic multigrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, D.; Telea, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel approach for extreme simplification of point set models, in the context of real-time rendering. Point sets are often rendered using simple point primitives, such as oriented discs. However, this requires using many primitives to render even moderately simple shapes. Often, one

  2. Simple Coatings to Render Polystyrene Protein Resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Hecker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific protein adsorption is detrimental to the performance of many biomedical devices. Polystyrene is a commonly used material in devices and thin films. Simple reliable surface modification of polystyrene to render it protein resistant is desired in particular for device fabrication and orthogonal functionalisation schemes. This report details modifications carried out on a polystyrene surface to prevent protein adsorption. The trialed surfaces included Pluronic F127 and PLL-g-PEG, adsorbed on polystyrene, using a polydopamine-assisted approach. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D results showed only short-term anti-fouling success of the polystyrene surface modified with F127, and the subsequent failure of the polydopamine intermediary layer in improving its stability. In stark contrast, QCM-D analysis proved the success of the polydopamine assisted PLL-g-PEG coating in preventing bovine serum albumin adsorption. This modified surface is equally as protein-rejecting after 24 h in buffer, and thus a promising simple coating for long term protein rejection of polystyrene.

  3. Lighting design for globally illuminated volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    With the evolution of graphics hardware, high quality global illumination becomes available for real-time volume rendering. Compared to local illumination, global illumination can produce realistic shading effects which are closer to real world scenes, and has proven useful for enhancing volume data visualization to enable better depth and shape perception. However, setting up optimal lighting could be a nontrivial task for average users. There were lighting design works for volume visualization but they did not consider global light transportation. In this paper, we present a lighting design method for volume visualization employing global illumination. The resulting system takes into account view and transfer-function dependent content of the volume data to automatically generate an optimized three-point lighting environment. Our method fully exploits the back light which is not used by previous volume visualization systems. By also including global shadow and multiple scattering, our lighting system can effectively enhance the depth and shape perception of volumetric features of interest. In addition, we propose an automatic tone mapping operator which recovers visual details from overexposed areas while maintaining sufficient contrast in the dark areas. We show that our method is effective for visualizing volume datasets with complex structures. The structural information is more clearly and correctly presented under the automatically generated light sources.

  4. Hybrid rendering of the chest and virtual bronchoscopy [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, M D; Seemann, O; Luboldt, W; Gebicke, K; Prime, G; Claussen, C D

    2000-10-30

    Thin-section spiral computed tomography was used to acquire the volume data sets of the thorax. The tracheobronchial system and pathological changes of the chest were visualized using a color-coded surface rendering method. The structures of interest were then superimposed on a volume rendering of the other thoracic structures, thus producing a hybrid rendering. The hybrid rendering technique exploit the advantages of both rendering methods and enable virtual bronchoscopic examinations using different representation models. Virtual bronchoscopic examinations with a transparent color-coded shaded-surface model enables the simultaneous visualization of both the airways and the adjacent structures behind of the tracheobronchial wall and therefore, offers a practical alternative to fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Hybrid rendering and virtual endoscopy obviate the need for time consuming detailed analysis and presentation of axial source images.

  5. Calsequestrin content and SERCA determine normal and maximal Ca2+ storage levels in sarcoplasmic reticulum of fast- and slow-twitch fibres of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robyn M; Larkins, Noni T; Mollica, Janelle P; Beard, Nicole A; Lamb, Graham D

    2009-01-15

    Whilst calsequestrin (CSQ) is widely recognized as the primary Ca2+ buffer in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscle fibres, its total buffering capacity and importance have come into question. This study quantified the absolute amount of CSQ isoform 1 (CSQ1, the primary isoform) present in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus fibres, and related this to their endogenous and maximal SR Ca2+ content. Using Western blotting, the entire constituents of minute samples of muscle homogenates or segments of individual muscle fibres were compared with known amounts of purified CSQ1. The fidelity of the analysis was proven by examining the relative signal intensity when mixing muscle samples and purified CSQ1. The CSQ1 contents of EDL fibres, almost exclusively type II fibres, and soleus type I fibres [SOL (I)] were, respectively, 36 +/- 2 and 10 +/- 1 micromol (l fibre volume)(-1), quantitatively accounting for the maximal SR Ca2+ content of each. Soleus type II [SOL (II)] fibres (approximately 20% of soleus fibres) had an intermediate amount of CSQ1. Every SOL (I) fibre examined also contained some CSQ isoform 2 (CSQ2), which was absent in every EDL and other type II fibre except for trace amounts in one case. Every EDL and other type II fibre had a high density of SERCA1, the fast-twitch muscle sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform, whereas there was virtually no SERCA1 in any SOL (I) fibre. Maximal SR Ca2+ content measured in skinned fibres increased with CSQ1 content, and the ratio of endogenous to maximal Ca2+ content was inversely correlated with CSQ1 content. The relative SR Ca2+ content that could be maintained in resting cytoplasmic conditions was found to be much lower in EDL fibres than in SOL (I) fibres (approximately 20 versus >60%). Leakage of Ca2+ from the SR in EDL fibres could be substantially reduced with a SR Ca2+ pump blocker and increased by adding creatine to buffer cytoplasmic [ADP] at a higher level, both results

  6. The N Terminus of Sarcolipin Plays an Important Role in Uncoupling Sarco-endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) ATP Hydrolysis from Ca2+ Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahoo, Sanjaya K; Shaikh, Sana A; Sopariwala, Danesh H

    2015-01-01

    to bind SERCA throughout its kinetic cycle and promotes uncoupling of Ca(2+) transport from ATP hydrolysis. To determine the structural regions of SLN that mediate uncoupling of SERCA, we employed mutagenesis and generated chimeras of PLB and SLN. In this study we demonstrate that deletion of SLN N....... Interestingly, transfer of the PLB cytosolic domain to the SLN transmembrane (TM) and luminal tail causes the chimeric protein to lose SLN-like function. Further introduction of the PLB TM region into this chimera resulted in conversion to full PLB-like function. We also found that swapping PLB N and C termini...... with those from SLN caused the resulting chimera to acquire SLN-like function. Swapping the C terminus alone was not sufficient for this conversion. These results suggest that domains can be switched between SLN and PLB without losing the ability to regulate SERCA activity; however, the resulting chimeras...

  7. Innovative Lime Pozzolana Renders for Reconstruction of Historical Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejmelkova, E.; Maca, P.; Konvalinka, P.; Cerny, R.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk density, matrix density, open porosity, compressive strength, bending strength, water sorptivity, moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity of two innovative renovation renders on limepozzolana basis are analyzed. The obtained results are compared with reference lime plaster and two commercial renovation renders, and conclusions on the applicability of the particular renders in practical reconstruction works are drawn. (author)

  8. Fast algorithm for the rendering of three-dimensional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Mark D.

    1994-02-01

    It is often desirable to draw a detailed and realistic representation of surface data on a computer graphics display. One such representation is a 3D shaded surface. Conventional techniques for rendering shaded surfaces are slow, however, and require substantial computational power. Furthermore, many techniques suffer from aliasing effects, which appear as jagged lines and edges. This paper describes an algorithm for the fast rendering of shaded surfaces without aliasing effects. It is much faster than conventional ray tracing and polygon-based rendering techniques and is suitable for interactive use. On an IBM RISC System/6000TM workstation it renders a 1000 X 1000 surface in about 7 seconds.

  9. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  10. Serca2a and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20mg/kg/week for 4weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+dP/dtmax, -dP/dtmin and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-time photorealistic stereoscopic rendering of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin M.; McAllister, David F.

    2007-02-01

    We propose a method for real-time photorealistic stereo rendering of the natural phenomenon of fire. Applications include the use of virtual reality in fire fighting, military training, and entertainment. Rendering fire in real-time presents a challenge because of the transparency and non-static fluid-like behavior of fire. It is well known that, in general, methods that are effective for monoscopic rendering are not necessarily easily extended to stereo rendering because monoscopic methods often do not provide the depth information necessary to produce the parallax required for binocular disparity in stereoscopic rendering. We investigate the existing techniques used for monoscopic rendering of fire and discuss their suitability for extension to real-time stereo rendering. Methods include the use of precomputed textures, dynamic generation of textures, and rendering models resulting from the approximation of solutions of fluid dynamics equations through the use of ray-tracing algorithms. We have found that in order to attain real-time frame rates, our method based on billboarding is effective. Slicing is used to simulate depth. Texture mapping or 2D images are mapped onto polygons and alpha blending is used to treat transparency. We can use video recordings or prerendered high-quality images of fire as textures to attain photorealistic stereo.

  12. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  13. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  14. Extreme Simplification and Rendering of Point Sets using Algebraic Multigrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel approach for extreme simplification of point set models in the context of real-time rendering. Point sets are often rendered using simple point primitives, such as oriented discs. However efficient, simple primitives are less effective in approximating large surface areas. A large

  15. Transform coding for hardware-accelerated volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hardware-accelerated volume rendering using the GPU is now the standard approach for real-time volume rendering, although limited graphics memory can present a problem when rendering large volume data sets. Volumetric compression in which the decompression is coupled to rendering has been shown to be an effective solution to this problem; however, most existing techniques were developed in the context of software volume rendering, and all but the simplest approaches are prohibitive in a real-time hardware-accelerated volume rendering context. In this paper we present a novel block-based transform coding scheme designed specifically with real-time volume rendering in mind, such that the decompression is fast without sacrificing compression quality. This is made possible by consolidating the inverse transform with dequantization in such a way as to allow most of the reprojection to be precomputed. Furthermore, we take advantage of the freedom afforded by off-line compression in order to optimize the encoding as much as possible while hiding this complexity from the decoder. In this context we develop a new block classification scheme which allows us to preserve perceptually important features in the compression. The result of this work is an asymmetric transform coding scheme that allows very large volumes to be compressed and then decompressed in real-time while rendering on the GPU.

  16. Light Field Rendering for Head Mounted Displays using Pixel Reprojection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Juhler; Klein, Jákup; Kraus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Light field displays have advantages over traditional stereoscopic head mounted displays, for example, because they can overcome the vergence-accommodation conflict. However, rendering light fields can be a heavy task for computers due to the number of images that have to be rendered. Since much ...

  17. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps. Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  18. Media Presentation Synchronisation for Non-monolithic Rendering Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vaishnavi (Ishan); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); B. Gao (Bo)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractNon-monolithic renderers are physically distributed media playback engines. Non-monolithic renderers may use a number of different underlying network connection types to transmit media items belonging to a presentation. There is therefore a need for a media based and inter-network- type

  19. Evaluating progressive-rendering algorithms in appearance design tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiawei Ou; Karlik, Ondrej; Křivánek, Jaroslav; Pellacini, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Progressive rendering is becoming a popular alternative to precomputational approaches to appearance design. However, progressive algorithms create images exhibiting visual artifacts at early stages. A user study investigated these artifacts' effects on user performance in appearance design tasks. Novice and expert subjects performed lighting and material editing tasks with four algorithms: random path tracing, quasirandom path tracing, progressive photon mapping, and virtual-point-light rendering. Both the novices and experts strongly preferred path tracing to progressive photon mapping and virtual-point-light rendering. None of the participants preferred random path tracing to quasirandom path tracing or vice versa; the same situation held between progressive photon mapping and virtual-point-light rendering. The user workflow didn’t differ significantly with the four algorithms. The Web Extras include a video showing how four progressive-rendering algorithms converged (at http://youtu.be/ck-Gevl1e9s), the source code used, and other supplementary materials.

  20. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  1. Simplification of Visual Rendering in Simulated Prosthetic Vision Facilitates Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnieux, Victor; Macé, Marc J-M; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    Visual neuroprostheses are still limited and simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) is used to evaluate potential and forthcoming functionality of these implants. SPV has been used to evaluate the minimum requirement on visual neuroprosthetic characteristics to restore various functions such as reading, objects and face recognition, object grasping, etc. Some of these studies focused on obstacle avoidance but only a few investigated orientation or navigation abilities with prosthetic vision. The resolution of current arrays of electrodes is not sufficient to allow navigation tasks without additional processing of the visual input. In this study, we simulated a low resolution array (15 × 18 electrodes, similar to a forthcoming generation of arrays) and evaluated the navigation abilities restored when visual information was processed with various computer vision algorithms to enhance the visual rendering. Three main visual rendering strategies were compared to a control rendering in a wayfinding task within an unknown environment. The control rendering corresponded to a resizing of the original image onto the electrode array size, according to the average brightness of the pixels. In the first rendering strategy, vision distance was limited to 3, 6, or 9 m, respectively. In the second strategy, the rendering was not based on the brightness of the image pixels, but on the distance between the user and the elements in the field of view. In the last rendering strategy, only the edges of the environments were displayed, similar to a wireframe rendering. All the tested renderings, except the 3 m limitation of the viewing distance, improved navigation performance and decreased cognitive load. Interestingly, the distance-based and wireframe renderings also improved the cognitive mapping of the unknown environment. These results show that low resolution implants are usable for wayfinding if specific computer vision algorithms are used to select and display appropriate

  2. Novel micellar systems for the formulation of poorly water soluble drugs : biocompatibility aspects and pharmaceutical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dumontet Mondon, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the large number of novel drugs, 95% are lipophilic and poorly water soluble. Particularly, this renders their aqueous formulation very difficult. In this regard this thesis focused on polymeric micelles based on novel MPEG-hexPLA copolymers forming a hydrophilic shell and a very hydrophobic core that favors the incorporation of poorly water soluble drugs. Although the drug hydrophobicity and water solubility are the main parameters in respect to their incorporation efficiency, struct...

  3. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  4. Light Field Rendering for Head Mounted Displays using Pixel Reprojection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Juhler; Klein, Jákup; Kraus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    of the information of the different images is redundant, we use pixel reprojection from the corner cameras to compute the remaining images in the light field. We compare the reprojected images with directly rendered images in a user test. In most cases, the users were unable to distinguish the images. In extreme...... cases, the reprojection approach is not capable of creating the light field. We conclude that pixel reprojection is a feasible method for rendering light fields as far as quality of perspective and diffuse shading is concerned, but render time needs to be reduced to make the method practical....

  5. View compensated compression of volume rendered images for remote visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalgudi, Hariharan G; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2009-07-01

    Remote visualization of volumetric images has gained importance over the past few years in medical and industrial applications. Volume visualization is a computationally intensive process, often requiring hardware acceleration to achieve a real time viewing experience. One remote visualization model that can accomplish this would transmit rendered images from a server, based on viewpoint requests from a client. For constrained server-client bandwidth, an efficient compression scheme is vital for transmitting high quality rendered images. In this paper, we present a new view compensation scheme that utilizes the geometric relationship between viewpoints to exploit the correlation between successive rendered images. The proposed method obviates motion estimation between rendered images, enabling significant reduction to the complexity of a compressor. Additionally, the view compensation scheme, in conjunction with JPEG2000 performs better than AVC, the state of the art video compression standard.

  6. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre and ... Small, micro and medium entrepreneurs play an important role in economic ... such as production, marketing and management to adequately service the ...

  7. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  8. Experiencing "Macbeth": From Text Rendering to Multicultural Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Gail

    1993-01-01

    Shows how one teacher used innovative methods in teaching William Shakespeare's "Macbeth." Outlines student assignments including text renderings, rewriting a scene from the play, and creating a multicultural scrapbook for the play. (HB)

  9. Insurance of professional responsibility at medical aid rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abyzova N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of adoption of professional responsibility insurance act into the public health service. It is considered as the basic mechanism of compensation in case of damage to a patient at medical aid rendering

  10. Integral image rendering procedure for aberration correction and size measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Holger; Ihrig, Andreas; Ebenau, Melanie; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2014-05-20

    The challenge in rendering integral images is to use as much information preserved by the light field as possible to reconstruct a captured scene in a three-dimensional way. We propose a rendering algorithm based on the projection of rays through a detailed simulation of the optical path, considering all the physical properties and locations of the optical elements. The rendered images contain information about the correct size of imaged objects without the need to calibrate the imaging device. Additionally, aberrations of the optical system may be corrected, depending on the setup of the integral imaging device. We show simulation data that illustrates the aberration correction ability and experimental data from our plenoptic camera, which illustrates the capability of our proposed algorithm to measure size and distance. We believe this rendering procedure will be useful in the future for three-dimensional ophthalmic imaging of the human retina.

  11. Beaming teaching application: recording techniques for spatial xylophone sound rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...... to spatial improvements mainly in terms of the Apparent Source Width (ASW). Rendered examples are subjectively evaluated in listening tests by comparing them with binaural recording....

  12. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2011-01-01

    images using a 12.1 megapixel camera. Next, we extend the volume rendering pipeline by creating a transfer function which yields not only color and opacity from the input intensity, but also texture coordinates for our synthesized 3D texture. Thus, we add texture to the volume rendered images....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  13. Graphical User Interfaces for Volume Rendering Applications in Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, Lisa; Lindmark, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering applications are used in medical imaging in order to facilitate the analysis of three-dimensional image data. This study focuses on how to improve the usability of graphical user interfaces of these systems, by gathering user requirements. This is achieved by evaluations of existing systems, together with interviews and observations at clinics in Sweden that use volume rendering to some extent. The usability of the applications of today is not sufficient, according to the use...

  14. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  15. Fast DRR splat rendering using common consumer graphics hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoerk, Jakob; Bergmann, Helmar; Wanschitz, Felix; Dong, Shuo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) are a vital part of various medical image processing applications such as 2D/3D registration for patient pose determination in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. This paper presents a technique to accelerate DRR creation by using conventional graphics hardware for the rendering process. DRR computation itself is done by an efficient volume rendering method named wobbled splatting. For programming the graphics hardware, NVIDIAs C for Graphics (Cg) is used. The description of an algorithm used for rendering DRRs on the graphics hardware is presented, together with a benchmark comparing this technique to a CPU-based wobbled splatting program. Results show a reduction of rendering time by about 70%-90% depending on the amount of data. For instance, rendering a volume of 2x10 6 voxels is feasible at an update rate of 38 Hz compared to 6 Hz on a common Intel-based PC using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a conventional graphics adapter. In addition, wobbled splatting using graphics hardware for DRR computation provides higher resolution DRRs with comparable image quality due to special processing characteristics of the GPU. We conclude that DRR generation on common graphics hardware using the freely available Cg environment is a major step toward 2D/3D registration in clinical routine

  16. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  17. RenderSelect: a Cloud Broker Framework for Cloud Renderfarm Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, Annette J; Aisha, Banu W; Subash, Chandran P

    2016-01-01

    In the 3D studios the animation scene files undergo a process called as rendering, where the 3D wire frame models are converted into 3D photorealistic images. As the rendering process is both a computationally intensive and a time consuming task, the cloud services based rendering in cloud render farms is gaining popularity among the animators. Though cloud render farms offer many benefits, the animators hesitate to move from their traditional offline rendering to cloud services based render ...

  18. Serca2a and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt max , − dP/dt min and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  19. Architecture for high performance stereoscopic game rendering on Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Shetty, Sampath

    2014-03-01

    Stereoscopic gaming is a popular source of content for consumer 3D display systems. There has been a significant shift in the gaming industry towards casual games for mobile devices running on the Android™ Operating System and driven by ARM™ and other low power processors. Such systems are now being integrated directly into the next generation of 3D TVs potentially removing the requirement for an external games console. Although native stereo support has been integrated into some high profile titles on established platforms like Windows PC and PS3 there is a lack of GPU independent 3D support for the emerging Android platform. We describe a framework for enabling stereoscopic 3D gaming on Android for applications on mobile devices, set top boxes and TVs. A core component of the architecture is a 3D game driver, which is integrated into the Android OpenGL™ ES graphics stack to convert existing 2D graphics applications into stereoscopic 3D in real-time. The architecture includes a method of analyzing 2D games and using rule based Artificial Intelligence (AI) to position separate objects in 3D space. We describe an innovative stereo 3D rendering technique to separate the views in the depth domain and render directly into the display buffer. The advantages of the stereo renderer are demonstrated by characterizing the performance in comparison to more traditional render techniques, including depth based image rendering, both in terms of frame rates and impact on battery consumption.

  20. Volume rendering in treatment planning for moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Alexander [GSI-Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States); Wolfgang, John A.; Chen, George T.Y. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Advances in computer technologies have facilitated the development of tools for 3-dimensional visualization of CT-data sets with volume rendering. The company Fovia has introduced a high definition volume rendering engine (HDVR trademark by Fovia Inc., Palo Alto, USA) that is capable of representing large CT data sets with high user interactivity even on standard PCs. Fovia provides a software development kit (SDK) that offers control of all the features of the rendering engine. We extended the SDK by functionalities specific to the task of treatment planning for moving tumors. This included navigation of the patient's anatomy in beam's eye view, fast point-and-click measurement of lung tumor trajectories as well as estimation of range perturbations due to motion by calculation of (differential) water equivalent path lengths for protons and carbon ions on 4D-CT data sets. We present patient examples to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of volume rendered images as compared to standard 2-dimensional axial plane images. Furthermore, we show an example of a range perturbation analysis. We conclude that volume rendering is a powerful technique for the representation and analysis of large time resolved data sets in treatment planning.

  1. Nanonization strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huabing; Khemtong, Chalermchai; Yang, Xiangliang; Chang, Xueling; Gao, Jinming

    2011-04-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor(®) EL). In this review, several major nanonization techniques that seek to overcome these limitations for drug solubilization are presented. Strategies including drug nanocrystals, nanoemulsions and polymeric micelles are reviewed. Finally, perspectives on existing challenges and future opportunities are highlighted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A kinesthetic washout filter for force-feedback rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieau, Fabien; Lecuyer, Anatole; Guillotel, Philippe; Fleureau, Julien; Mollet, Nicolas; Christie, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Today haptic feedback can be designed and associated to audiovisual content (haptic-audiovisuals or HAV). Although there are multiple means to create individual haptic effects, the issue of how to properly adapt such effects on force-feedback devices has not been addressed and is mostly a manual endeavor. We propose a new approach for the haptic rendering of HAV, based on a washout filter for force-feedback devices. A body model and an inverse kinematics algorithm simulate the user's kinesthetic perception. Then, the haptic rendering is adapted in order to handle transitions between haptic effects and to optimize the amplitude of effects regarding the device capabilities. Results of a user study show that this new haptic rendering can successfully improve the HAV experience.

  3. Clustered deep shadow maps for integrated polyhedral and volume rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Bornik, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hardware-accelerated approach for shadow computation in scenes containing both complex volumetric objects and polyhedral models. Our system is the first hardware accelerated complete implementation of deep shadow maps, which unifies the computation of volumetric and geometric shadows. Up to now such unified computation was limited to software-only rendering . Previous hardware accelerated techniques can handle only geometric or only volumetric scenes - both resulting in the loss of important properties of the original concept. Our approach supports interactive rendering of polyhedrally bounded volumetric objects on the GPU based on ray casting. The ray casting can be conveniently used for both the shadow map computation and the rendering. We show how anti-aliased high-quality shadows are feasible in scenes composed of multiple overlapping translucent objects, and how sparse scenes can be handled efficiently using clustered deep shadow maps. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Mucosal detail at CT virtual reality: surface versus volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, K D; Iyriboz, A T; Wise, S W; Neuman, J D; Mauger, D T; Kasales, C J

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate computed tomographic virtual reality with volumetric versus surface rendering. Virtual reality images were reconstructed for 27 normal or pathologic colonic, gastric, or bronchial structures in four ways: the transition zone (a) reconstructed separately from the wall by using volume rendering; (b) with attenuation equal to air; (c) with attenuation equal to wall (soft tissue); (d) with attenuation halfway between air and wall. The four reconstructed images were randomized. Four experienced imagers blinded to the reconstruction graded them from best to worst with predetermined criteria. All readers rated images with the transition zone as a separate structure as overwhelmingly superior (P Virtual reality is best with volume rendering, with the transition zone (mucosa) between the wall and air reconstructed as a separate structure.

  5. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias; Pascal Grosset, A.V.; Martin, Tobias; Pegoraro, Vincent; Smith, Sean T.; Hansen, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  6. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  7. Chromium Renderserver: Scalable and Open Source Remote RenderingInfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook,Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2007-12-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure thatprovides the ability for one or more users to run and view image outputfrom unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote,parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardwareaccelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocolsand clientviewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to theproblem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote deliveryof parallel hardware-accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis ofseveral different optimizations that are generally applicable to avariety of rendering architectures. CRRSis fully operational, Open Sourcesoftware.

  8. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... rendered. Upon request of any applicant, all or any part of the contents of any report issued to the...

  9. Frequency Analysis of Gradient Estimators in Volume Rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Lichtenbelt, Barthold B.A.; Malzbender, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Gradient information is used in volume rendering to classify and color samples along a ray. In this paper, we present an analysis of the theoretically ideal gradient estimator and compare it to some commonly used gradient estimators. A new method is presented to calculate the gradient at arbitrary

  10. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  11. The effects of multiview depth video compression on multiview rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkle, P.; Morvan, Y.; Smolic, A.; Farin, D.S.; Mueller, K.; With, de P.H.N.; Wiegang, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the interaction between different techniques for depth compression and view synthesis rendering with multiview video plus scene depth data. Two different approaches for depth coding are compared, namely H.264/MVC, using temporal and inter-view reference images for efficient

  12. The effect of depth compression on multiview rendering quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkle, P.; Morvan, Y.; Smolic, A.; Farin, D.S.; Mueller, K..; With, de P.H.N.; Wiegand, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on different techniques for depth-image compression and its implications on the quality of multiview video plus depth virtual view rendering. A novel coding algorithm for depth images that concentrates on their special characteristics, namely smooth regions

  13. The Peshitta Rendering of Psalm 25: Spelling, Synonyms, and Syntax’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyk, J.W.; Loopstra, J.; Sokoloff, M.

    2013-01-01

    The very act of making a translation implies that the rendered text will differ from the source text. The underlying presupposition is that the grammar, syntax, and semantics of the source and target languages are sufficiently divergent as to warrant a translation. Translations differ in how close

  14. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  16. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel; Dumusc, Raphael; Bilgili, Ahmet; Hernando, Juan; Eilemann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  17. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jü rgen P.; Acevedo-Feliz, Daniel; Mangan, John; Prudhomme, Andrew; Nguyen, Phi Khanh; Weber, Philip P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. A Real-Time Sound Field Rendering Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yiyu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time sound field renderings are computationally intensive and memory-intensive. Traditional rendering systems based on computer simulations suffer from memory bandwidth and arithmetic units. The computation is time-consuming, and the sample rate of the output sound is low because of the long computation time at each time step. In this work, a processor with a hybrid architecture is proposed to speed up computation and improve the sample rate of the output sound, and an interface is developed for system scalability through simply cascading many chips to enlarge the simulated area. To render a three-minute Beethoven wave sound in a small shoe-box room with dimensions of 1.28 m × 1.28 m × 0.64 m, the field programming gate array (FPGA-based prototype machine with the proposed architecture carries out the sound rendering at run-time while the software simulation with the OpenMP parallelization takes about 12.70 min on a personal computer (PC with 32 GB random access memory (RAM and an Intel i7-6800K six-core processor running at 3.4 GHz. The throughput in the software simulation is about 194 M grids/s while it is 51.2 G grids/s in the prototype machine even if the clock frequency of the prototype machine is much lower than that of the PC. The rendering processor with a processing element (PE and interfaces consumes about 238,515 gates after fabricated by the 0.18 µm processing technology from the ROHM semiconductor Co., Ltd. (Kyoto Japan, and the power consumption is about 143.8 mW.

  19. Basal and β-Adrenergic Cardiomyocytes Contractility Dysfunction Induced by Dietary Protein Restriction is Associated with Downregulation of SERCA2a Expression and Disturbance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Regulation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete R. Penitente

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms responsible for the cardiac dysfunction associated with dietary protein restriction (PR are poorly understood. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of PR on calcium kinetics, basal and β-adrenergic contractility in murine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Methods: After breastfeeding male Fisher rats were distributed into a control group (CG, n = 20 and a protein-restricted group (PRG, n = 20, receiving isocaloric diets for 35 days containing 15% and 6% protein, respectively. Biometric and hemodynamic variables were measured. After euthanasia left ventricles (LV were collected for histopathological evaluation, SERCA2a expression, cardiomyocytes contractility and Ca2+sparks analysis. Results: PRG animals showed reduced general growth, increased heart rate and arterial pressure. These animals presented extracellular matrix expansion and disorganization, cardiomyocytes hypotrophy, reduced amplitudes of shortening and maximum velocity of contraction and relaxation at baseline and after β-adrenergic stimulation. Reduced SERCA2a expression as well as higher frequency and lower amplitude of Ca2+sparks were observed in PRG cardiomyocytes. Conclusion: The observations reveal that protein restriction induces marked myocardial morphofunctional damage. The pathological changes of cardiomyocyte mechanics suggest the potential involvement of the β-adrenergic system, which is possibly associated with changes in SERCA2a expression and disturbances in Ca2+ intracellular kinetics.

  20. 3D rendering and interactive visualization technology in large industry CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yongshun; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Kang Kejun

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the applications of interactive 3D rendering technology in the large ICT. It summarizes and comments on the iso-surfaces rendering and the direct volume rendering methods used in ICT. The paper emphasizes on the technical analysis of the 3D rendering process of ICT volume data sets, and summarizes the difficulties of the inspection subsystem design in large ICT

  1. 3D rendering and interactive visualization technology in large industry CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yongshun; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Kang Kejun

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the applications of interactive 3D rendering technology in the large ICT. It summarizes and comments on the iso-surfaces rendering and the direct volume rendering methods used in ICT. The author emphasizes on the technical analysis of the 3D rendering process of ICT volume data sets, and summarizes the difficulties of the inspection subsystem design in large ICT

  2. Intracellular calcium chelation and pharmacological SERCA inhibition of Ca2+ pump in the insular cortex differentially affect taste aversive memory formation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María Isabel; González-Cedillo, Francisco J; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2011-09-01

    Variation in intracellular calcium concentration regulates the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity and is associated with a variety of memory/retrieval and learning paradigms. Accordingly, impaired calcium mobilization from internal deposits affects synaptic plasticity and cognition in the aged brain. During taste memory formation several proteins are modulated directly or indirectly by calcium, and recent evidence suggests the importance of calcium buffering and the role of intracellular calcium deposits during cognitive processes. Thus, the main goal of this research was to study the consequence of hampering changes in cytoplasmic calcium and inhibiting SERCA activity by BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin treatments, respectively, in the insular cortex during different stages of taste memory formation. Using conditioned taste aversion (CTA), we found differential effects of BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin infusions before and after gustatory stimulation, as well as during taste aversive memory consolidation; BAPTA-AM, but not thapsigargin, attenuates acquisition and/or consolidation of CTA, but neither compound affects taste aversive memory retrieval. These results point to the importance of intracellular calcium dynamics in the insular cortex during different stages of taste aversive memory formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Jakość życia chorych z niewydolnością serca = Quality of life in patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kowalczyk

    2016-10-01

      Streszczenie: Wprowadzenie Przewlekła niewydolność serca jest poważnym problemem klinicznym, społecznym i ekonomicznym. W ostatnich latach częstość występowania tej choroby stale rośnie i znacząco ogranicza funkcjonowanie pacjentów w aspekcie bio-psycho-społecznym, obniżając poziom jego jakości życia. Cel pracy Ocena jakości życia pacjentów z niewydolnością serca. Materiał i metody Badaniem objęto 105 pacjentów z niewydolnością serca. Do jego przeprowadzenia wykorzystano anonimową ankietę własnego autorstwa, kwestionariusza AIS oraz kwestionariusza NHP. Przeprowadzono analizę statystyczną. Wyniki Najliczniejszą grupę stanowiły osoby ze średnim poziomem akceptacji choroby (56,2%. Najwięcej ankietowanych znajdowało się w II klasie w skali NYHA (56,2% i wykazywało średni i dobry (33 vs. 20 stopień akceptacji choroby. Analiza kwestionariusza NHP wykazała, iż w grupie pacjentów z dobrym poziomem akceptacji choroby poziom zaburzeń funkcji jest znacznie niższy niż w grupie pacjentów nie akceptujących chorobę (p<0,001. W grupie ankietowanych osób najbardziej zaburzona była energia życiowa (63,0 ± 42,2, a najmniej izolacja społeczna (20,0 ± 27,8. Wnioski Wyższy poziom jakości życia warunkuje lepszą akceptację choroby. Na stopień akceptacji choroby pacjentów wpływa: płeć, wiek, miejsce zamieszkania, stan cywilny, frakcja wyrzutowa lewej komory, klasa czynnościowa wg NYHA, konieczność wezwania pogotowia lub udania się na SOR, niektóre choroby współistniejące i wszystkie domeny jakości życia. Na akceptację choroby wpływają ujemnie ograniczenia ruchowe, wyobcowanie społeczne, reakcje emocjonalne i poziom energii.  Im niższa jakość życia tym niższy poziom akceptacji choroby. Słowa kluczowe: niewydolność serca, jakość życia, akceptacja choroby.           Abstract: Background Chronic heart failure is a serious clinical, social and economic problem.  In recent years, the

  4. Water driven leaching of biocides from paints and renders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Vollertsen, Jes; Bollmann, Ulla E

    ) were so high, that rather professional urban gardening (flower and greenhouses) than handling of biocides from construction materials seem to be able to explain the findings. While the use in agriculture is restricted, the use in greenhouses is currently considered legal in Denmark. Leaching....../partitioning: Considering material properties, it was found out that, for all of the compounds the sorption (and leaching) is highly pH-dependent. It must be take into account that the pH in the porewater of the tested render materials is between 9 and 10 while the rainwater is around 5, thus making prediction difficult...... at this stage. For some of the compounds the sorption is dependent on the amount of polymer in the render, while it is only rarely of importance which polymer is used. Considering the interaction of weather with the leaching of biocides from real walls it turned out that a lot of parameters such as irradiation...

  5. Emotion rendering in auditory simulations of imagined walking styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Rodá, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated how different emotional states of a walker can be rendered and recognized by means of footstep sounds synthesis algorithms. In a first experiment, participants were asked to render, according to imagined walking scenarios, five emotions (aggressive, happy, neutral, sad......, and tender) by manipulating the parameters of synthetic footstep sounds simulating various combinations of surface materials and shoes types. Results allowed to identify, for the involved emotions and sound conditions, the mean values and ranges of variation of two parameters, sound level and temporal...... distance between consecutive steps. Results were in accordance with those reported in previous studies on real walking, suggesting that expression of emotions in walking is independent from the real or imagined motor activity. In a second experiment participants were asked to identify the emotions...

  6. Visualization of plasma collision phenomenon by particle based rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Takagishi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kyoko; Nakata, Susumu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we visualize plasma collision phenomenon based on XYT-space (space and time) volume data for supporting research in plasma physics. We create 3D volume data in the XYT-space by piling up a time series of XY-plane photo images taken in experiment. As a result, we can visualize as one still image all the time behavior of the plasma plume. Besides, we adopt 'fused' visualization based on particle based rendering technique. Using that technique, we can easily fuse volume rendering different materials, and compare physics of different elements in flexible ways. In addition, we propose the method to generate pseudo-3D images from pictures shoot by ICCD of two perspectives on the upper and side. (author)

  7. Tactile display for virtual 3D shape rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Mansutti, Alessandro; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel system for the simultaneous visual and tactile rendering of product shapes which allows designers to simultaneously touch and see new product shapes during the conceptual phase of product development. This system offers important advantages, including potential cost and time savings, compared with the standard product design process in which digital 3D models and physical prototypes are often repeatedly modified until an optimal design is achieved. The system consists of a tactile display that is able to represent, within a real environment, the shape of a product. Designers can explore the rendered surface by touching curves lying on the product shape, selecting those curves that can be considered style features and evaluating their aesthetic quality. In order to physically represent these selected curves, a flexible surface is modeled by means of servo-actuated modules controlling a physical deforming strip. The tactile display is designed so as to be portable, low cost, modular,...

  8. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  9. Soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger J

    2012-01-01

    CD163 is an endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes and is expressed solely on macrophages and monocytes. As a result of ectodomain shedding, the extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in blood as a soluble protein (sCD163) at 0.7-3.9 mg/l in healthy individuals. The function o...

  10. Solubility Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tantra, Ratna; Bolea, Eduardo; Bouwmeester, H.; Rey-Castro, Carlos; David, C.A.A.; Dogné, Jean Michel; Laborda, Francisco; Laloy, Julie; Robinson, Kenneth N.; Undas, A.K.; Zande, van der M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of different methods that can potentially be used to determine the solubility of nanomaterials. In general, the methods presented can be broadly divided into four categories: separation methods, methods to quantify free ions, methods to quantify total dissolved

  11. Autostereoscopic image creation by hyperview matrix controlled single pixel rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasnick, Armin

    2017-06-01

    technology just with a simple equation. This formula can be utilized to create a specific hyperview matrix for a certain 3D display - independent of the technology used. A hyperview matrix may contain the references to loads of images and act as an instruction for a subsequent rendering process of particular pixels. Naturally, a single pixel will deliver an image with no resolution and does not provide any idea of the rendered scene. However, by implementing the method of pixel recycling, a 3D image can be perceived, even if all source images are different. It will be proven that several millions of perspectives can be rendered with the support of GPU rendering and benefit from the hyperview matrix. In result, a conventional autostereoscopic display, which is designed to represent only a few perspectives can be used to show a hyperview image by using a suitable hyperview matrix. It will be shown that a millions-of-views-hyperview-image can be presented on a conventional autostereoscopic display. For such an hyperview image it is required that all pixels of the displays are allocated by different source images. Controlled by the hyperview matrix, an adapted renderer can render a full hyperview image in real-time.

  12. Irregular Morphing for Real-Time Rendering of Large Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper proposes an alternative approach to the real-time adaptive triangulation problem. A new region-based multi-resolution approach for terrain rendering is described which improves on-the-fly the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile after selecting appropriate Level-Of-Detail by an adaptive sampling. This proposed approach organizes the heightmap into a QuadTree of tiles that are processed independently. This technique combines the benefits of both Triangular Irregular Network approach and region-based multi-resolution approach by improving the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile. Our technique morphs the initial regular grid of the tile to deformed grid in order to minimize approximation error. The proposed technique strives to combine large tile size and real-time processing while guaranteeing an upper bound on the screen space error. Thus, this approach adapts terrain rendering process to local surface characteristics and enables on-the-fly handling of large amount of terrain data. Morphing is based-on the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The use of the D2WT multi-resolution analysis of the terrain height-map speeds up processing and permits to satisfy an interactive terrain rendering. Tests and experiments demonstrate that Haar B-Spline wavelet, well known for its properties of localization and its compact support, is suitable for fast and accurate redistribution. Such technique could be exploited in client-server architecture for supporting interactive high-quality remote visualization of very large terrain.

  13. Rendering potential wearable robot designs with the LOPES gait trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, B; van Asseldonk, E H F; van der Kooij, H; van Dijk, W; Ronsse, R

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, wearable robots (WRs) for rehabilitation, personal assistance, or human augmentation are gaining increasing interest. To make these devices more energy efficient, radical changes to the mechanical structure of the device are being considered. However, it remains very difficult to predict how people will respond to, and interact with, WRs that differ in terms of mechanical design. Users may adjust their gait pattern in response to the mechanical restrictions or properties of the device. The goal of this pilot study is to show the feasibility of rendering the mechanical properties of different potential WR designs using the robotic gait training device LOPES. This paper describes a new method that selectively cancels the dynamics of LOPES itself and adds the dynamics of the rendered WR using two parallel inverse models. Adaptive frequency oscillators were used to get estimates of the joint position, velocity, and acceleration. Using the inverse models, different WR designs can be evaluated, eliminating the need to build several prototypes. As a proof of principle, we simulated the effect of a very simple WR that consisted of a mass attached to the ankles. Preliminary results show that we are partially able to cancel the dynamics of LOPES. Additionally, the simulation of the mass showed an increase in muscle activity but not in the same level as during the control, where subjects actually carried the mass. In conclusion, the results in this paper suggest that LOPES can be used to render different WRs. In addition, it is very likely that the results can be further optimized when more effort is put in retrieving proper estimations for the velocity and acceleration, which are required for the inverse models. © 2011 IEEE

  14. Software System for Vocal Rendering of Printed Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a software system architecture developed to render the printed documents in a vocal form. On the other hand, in the paper are described the software solutions that exist as software components and are necessary for documents processing as well as for multimedia device controlling used by the system. The usefulness of this system is for people with visual disabilities that can access the contents of documents without that they be printed in Braille system or to exist in an audio form.

  15. 3D Volume Rendering and 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, Rujuta A; Taft, Robert M; Grant, Gerald T

    2018-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered images allow 3D insight into the anatomy, facilitating surgical treatment planning and teaching. 3D printing, additive manufacturing, and rapid prototyping techniques are being used with satisfactory accuracy, mostly for diagnosis and surgical planning, followed by direct manufacture of implantable devices. The major limitation is the time and money spent generating 3D objects. Printer type, material, and build thickness are known to influence the accuracy of printed models. In implant dentistry, the use of 3D-printed surgical guides is strongly recommended to facilitate planning and reduce risk of operative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    The use of biocides as additives for building materials has gained importance in recent years. These biocides are, e.g., applied to renders and paints to prevent them from microbial spoilage. However, these biocides can leach out into the environment. In order to better understand this leaching...... compared. The partitioning constants for calcium carbonate varied between 0.1 (isoproturon) and 1.1 (iodocarb) and 84.6 (dichlorooctylisothiazolinone), respectively. The results for barite, kaolinite and mica were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high partitioning constants for one mineral...

  17. Radionuclide cisternography: SPECT and 3D-rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkes, H.; Huber, G.; Piepgras, U.; Hierholzer, J.; Cordes, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is indicated in the clinical work-up for hydrocephalus, when searching for CSF leaks, and when testing whether or not intracranial cystic lesions are communicating with the adjacent subarachnoid space. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and diagnostic value of SPECT and subsequent 3D surface rendering in addition to conventional rectilinear CSF imaging in eight patients. Planar images allowed the evaluation of CSF circulation and the detection of CSF fistula. They were advantageous in examinations 48 h after application of 111 In-DTPA. SPECT scans, generated 4-24 h after tracer application, were superior in the delineation of basal cisterns, especially in early scans; this was helpful in patients with pooling due to CSF fistula and in cystic lesions near the skull base. A major drawback was the limited image quality of delayed scans, when the SPECT data were degraded by a low count rate. 3D surface rendering was easily feasible from SPECT data and yielded high quality images. The presentation of the spatial distribution of nuclide-contaminated CSF proved especially helpful in the area of the basal cisterns. (orig.) [de

  18. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  19. Continuous Surface Rendering, Passing from CAD to Physical Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Covarrubias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a desktop-mechatronic interface that has been conceived to support designers in the evaluation of aesthetic virtual shapes. This device allows a continuous and smooth free hand contact interaction on a real and developable plastic tape actuated by a servo-controlled mechanism. The objective in designing this device is to reproduce a virtual surface with a consistent physical rendering well adapted to designers' needs. The desktop-mechatronic interface consists in a servo-actuated plastic strip that has been devised and implemented using seven interpolation points. In fact, by using the MEC (Minimal Energy Curve Spline approach, a developable real surface is rendered taking into account the CAD geometry of the virtual shapes. In this paper, we describe the working principles of the interface by using both absolute and relative approaches to control the position on each single control point on the MEC spline. Then, we describe the methodology that has been implemented, passing from the CAD geometry, linked to VisualNastran in order to maintain the parametric properties of the virtual shape. Then, we present the co-simulation between VisualNastran and MATLAB/Simulink used for achieving this goal and controlling the system and finally, we present the results of the subsequent testing session specifically carried out to evaluate the accuracy and the effectiveness of the mechatronic device.

  20. Hardware-accelerated autostereogram rendering for interactive 3D visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, Christoph; Goldluecke, Bastian; Magnor, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) are an attractive way of depicting three-dimensional objects using conventional display technology. Once trained in decoupling the eyes' convergence and focusing, autostereograms of this kind are able to convey the three-dimensional impression of a scene. We present in this work an algorithm that generates SIRDS at interactive frame rates on a conventional PC. The presented system allows rotating a 3D geometry model and observing the object from arbitrary positions in real-time. Subjective tests show that the perception of a moving or rotating 3D scene presents no problem: The gaze remains focused onto the object. In contrast to conventional SIRDS algorithms, we render multiple pixels in a single step using a texture-based approach, exploiting the parallel-processing architecture of modern graphics hardware. A vertex program determines the parallax for each vertex of the geometry model, and the graphics hardware's texture unit is used to render the dot pattern. No data has to be transferred between main memory and the graphics card for generating the autostereograms, leaving CPU capacity available for other tasks. Frame rates of 25 fps are attained at a resolution of 1024x512 pixels on a standard PC using a consumer-grade nVidia GeForce4 graphics card, demonstrating the real-time capability of the system.

  1. Rendering of HDR content on LDR displays: an objective approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasula, Lukáš; Narwaria, Manish; Fliegel, Karel; Le Callet, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic range compression (or tone mapping) of HDR content is an essential step towards rendering it on traditional LDR displays in a meaningful way. This is however non-trivial and one of the reasons is that tone mapping operators (TMOs) usually need content-specific parameters to achieve the said goal. While subjective TMO parameter adjustment is the most accurate, it may not be easily deployable in many practical applications. Its subjective nature can also influence the comparison of different operators. Thus, there is a need for objective TMO parameter selection to automate the rendering process. To that end, we investigate into a new objective method for TMO parameters optimization. Our method is based on quantification of contrast reversal and naturalness. As an important advantage, it does not require any prior knowledge about the input HDR image and works independently on the used TMO. Experimental results using a variety of HDR images and several popular TMOs demonstrate the value of our method in comparison to default TMO parameter settings.

  2. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  3. Tomographic image reconstruction and rendering with texture-mapping hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Cabral, B.K.; Foran, J.

    1994-07-01

    The image reconstruction problem, also known as the inverse Radon transform, for x-ray computed tomography (CT) is found in numerous applications in medicine and industry. The most common algorithm used in these cases is filtered backprojection (FBP), which, while a simple procedure, is time-consuming for large images on any type of computational engine. Specially-designed, dedicated parallel processors are commonly used in medical CT scanners, whose results are then passed to graphics workstation for rendering and analysis. However, a fast direct FBP algorithm can be implemented on modern texture-mapping hardware in current high-end workstation platforms. This is done by casting the FBP algorithm as an image warping operation with summing. Texture-mapping hardware, such as that on the Silicon Graphics Reality Engine (TM), shows around 600 times speedup of backprojection over a CPU-based implementation (a 100 Mhz R4400 in this case). This technique has the further advantages of flexibility and rapid programming. In addition, the same hardware can be used for both image reconstruction and for volumetric rendering. The techniques can also be used to accelerate iterative reconstruction algorithms. The hardware architecture also allows more complex operations than straight-ray backprojection if they are required, including fan-beam, cone-beam, and curved ray paths, with little or no speed penalties

  4. Efficient visibility encoding for dynamic illumination in direct volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronander, Joel; Jönsson, Daniel; Löw, Joakim; Ljung, Patric; Ynnerman, Anders; Unger, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    We present an algorithm that enables real-time dynamic shading in direct volume rendering using general lighting, including directional lights, point lights, and environment maps. Real-time performance is achieved by encoding local and global volumetric visibility using spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions stored in an efficient multiresolution grid over the extent of the volume. Our method enables high-frequency shadows in the spatial domain, but is limited to a low-frequency approximation of visibility and illumination in the angular domain. In a first pass, level of detail (LOD) selection in the grid is based on the current transfer function setting. This enables rapid online computation and SH projection of the local spherical distribution of visibility information. Using a piecewise integration of the SH coefficients over the local regions, the global visibility within the volume is then computed. By representing the light sources using their SH projections, the integral over lighting, visibility, and isotropic phase functions can be efficiently computed during rendering. The utility of our method is demonstrated in several examples showing the generality and interactive performance of the approach.

  5. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  6. Physically Based Rendering in the Nightshade NG Visualization Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Karrie; Larey-Williams, Trystan; Spearman, Rob; Bogard, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This poster describes our work on creating a physically based rendering model in Nightshade NG planetarium simulation and visualization software (project website: NightshadeSoftware.org). We discuss techniques used for rendering realistic scenes in the universe and dealing with astronomical distances in real time on consumer hardware. We also discuss some of the challenges of rewriting the software from scratch, a project which began in 2011.Nightshade NG can be a powerful tool for sharing data and visualizations. The desktop version of the software is free for anyone to download, use, and modify; it runs on Windows and Linux (and eventually Mac). If you are looking to disseminate your data or models, please stop by to discuss how we can work together.Nightshade software is used in literally hundreds of digital planetarium systems worldwide. Countless teachers and astronomy education groups run the software on flat screens. This wide use makes Nightshade an effective tool for dissemination to educators and the public.Nightshade NG is an especially powerful visualization tool when projected on a dome. We invite everyone to enter our inflatable dome in the exhibit hall to see this software in a 3D environment.

  7. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G.; Costenoble, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3H{sub 2}O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} (log {beta}1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log {beta}1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10{sup -8} to 9.2 10{sup -9} and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H{sup +}] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10{sup -8}. (authors)

  8. Argon solubility in liquid steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R; Dankert, O; Van Veen, A; Kamperman, AA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to establish the solubility of argon in liquid interstitial-free steel. The solubility appears to be lower than 0.1 at ppb, The results are in line with argon solubilities reported in the literature on liquid iron. Semiempirical theories and calculations based on the

  9. Morphological pyramids in multiresolution MIP rendering of large volume data : Survey and new results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    We survey and extend nonlinear signal decompositions based on morphological pyramids, and their application to multiresolution maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering with progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The structure of the resulting multiresolution rendering

  10. Adaptive proxy map server for efficient vector spatial data rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The rapid transmission of vector map data over the Internet is becoming a bottleneck of spatial data delivery and visualization in web-based environment because of increasing data amount and limited network bandwidth. In order to improve both the transmission and rendering performances of vector spatial data over the Internet, we propose a proxy map server enabling parallel vector data fetching as well as caching to improve the performance of web-based map servers in a dynamic environment. Proxy map server is placed seamlessly anywhere between the client and the final services, intercepting users' requests. It employs an efficient parallelization technique based on spatial proximity and data density in case distributed replica exists for the same spatial data. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is proved at the end of the article by the application of creating map images enriched with earthquake seismic data records.

  11. Development of a virtual speaking simulator using Image Based Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J M; Kim, H; Oh, M J; Ku, J H; Jang, D P; Kim, I Y; Kim, S I

    2002-01-01

    The fear of speaking is often cited as the world's most common social phobia. The rapid growth of computer technology has enabled the use of virtual reality (VR) for the treatment of the fear of public speaking. There are two techniques for building virtual environments for the treatment of this fear: a model-based and a movie-based method. Both methods have the weakness that they are unrealistic and not controllable individually. To understand these disadvantages, this paper presents a virtual environment produced with Image Based Rendering (IBR) and a chroma-key simultaneously. IBR enables the creation of realistic virtual environments where the images are stitched panoramically with the photos taken from a digital camera. And the use of chroma-keys puts virtual audience members under individual control in the environment. In addition, real time capture technique is used in constructing the virtual environments enabling spoken interaction between the subject and a therapist or another subject.

  12. Artist rendering of dust grains colliding at low speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Clues to the formation of planets and planetary rings -- like Saturn's dazzling ring system -- may be found by studying how dust grains interact as they collide at low speeds. To study the question of low-speed dust collisions, NASA sponsored the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment (COLLIDE) at the University of Colorado. It was designed to spring-launch marble-size projectiles into trays of powder similar to space or lunar dust. COLLIDE-1 (1998) discovered that collisions below a certain energy threshold eject no material. COLLIDE-2 was designed to identify where the threshold is. In COLLIDE-2, scientists nudged small projectiles into dust beds and recorded how the dust splashed outward (video frame at top; artist's rendering at bottom). The slowest impactor ejected no material and stuck in the target. The faster impactors produced ejecta; some rebounded while others stuck in the target.

  13. Latency in Distributed Acquisition and Rendering for Telepresence Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Stephan; Willert, Malte; Staadt, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Telepresence systems use 3D techniques to create a more natural human-centered communication over long distances. This work concentrates on the analysis of latency in telepresence systems where acquisition and rendering are distributed. Keeping latency low is important to immerse users in the virtual environment. To better understand latency problems and to identify the source of such latency, we focus on the decomposition of system latency into sub-latencies. We contribute a model of latency and show how it can be used to estimate latencies in a complex telepresence dataflow network. To compare the estimates with real latencies in our prototype, we modify two common latency measurement methods. This presented methodology enables the developer to optimize the design, find implementation issues and gain deeper knowledge about specific sources of latency.

  14. Volumetric ambient occlusion for real-time rendering and games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirmay-Kalos, L; Umenhoffer, T; Toth, B; Szecsi, L; Sbert, M

    2010-01-01

    This new algorithm, based on GPUs, can compute ambient occlusion to inexpensively approximate global-illumination effects in real-time systems and games. The first step in deriving this algorithm is to examine how ambient occlusion relates to the physically founded rendering equation. The correspondence stems from a fuzzy membership function that defines what constitutes nearby occlusions. The next step is to develop a method to calculate ambient occlusion in real time without precomputation. The algorithm is based on a novel interpretation of ambient occlusion that measures the relative volume of the visible part of the surface's tangent sphere. The new formula's integrand has low variation and thus can be estimated accurately with a few samples.

  15. D.Vanwijnsberghe, Autour de la Madeleine Renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Verbeeck-Boutin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Institution fédérale belge de réputation internationale, l’Institut royal du Patrimoine artistique, à Bruxelles,  célèbre cette année son soixantième anniversaire: c’est l’occasion de rappeler le prestige dont jouit depuis des décennies cet institut de recherche, de formation et de diffusion du savoir. Pour souligner l’événement, l’IRPA publie le quatrième volume de la collection Scientia Artis. Il présente sous le titre Autour de la Madeleine Renders un ensemble de recherches qui documentent...

  16. On-the-Fly Decompression and Rendering of Multiresolution Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Cohen, J D

    2009-04-02

    We present a streaming geometry compression codec for multiresolution, uniformly-gridded, triangular terrain patches that supports very fast decompression. Our method is based on linear prediction and residual coding for lossless compression of the full-resolution data. As simplified patches on coarser levels in the hierarchy already incur some data loss, we optionally allow further quantization for more lossy compression. The quantization levels are adaptive on a per-patch basis, while still permitting seamless, adaptive tessellations of the terrain. Our geometry compression on such a hierarchy achieves compression ratios of 3:1 to 12:1. Our scheme is not only suitable for fast decompression on the CPU, but also for parallel decoding on the GPU with peak throughput over 2 billion triangles per second. Each terrain patch is independently decompressed on the fly from a variable-rate bitstream by a GPU geometry program with no branches or conditionals. Thus we can store the geometry compressed on the GPU, reducing storage and bandwidth requirements throughout the system. In our rendering approach, only compressed bitstreams and the decoded height values in the view-dependent 'cut' are explicitly stored on the GPU. Normal vectors are computed in a streaming fashion, and remaining geometry and texture coordinates, as well as mesh connectivity, are shared and re-used for all patches. We demonstrate and evaluate our algorithms on a small prototype system in which all compressed geometry fits in the GPU memory and decompression occurs on the fly every rendering frame without any cache maintenance.

  17. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  18. Rendering Future Vegetation Change across Large Regions of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna Dias, Felipe; Gu, Yuting; Agarwalla, Yashika; Cheng, Yiwei; Patil, Sopan; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg

    2015-04-01

    We use two Machine Learning techniques, Decision Trees (DT) and Neural Networks (NN), to provide classified images and photorealistic renderings of future vegetation cover at three large regions in the US. The training data used to generate current vegetation cover include Landsat surface reflectance images, USGS Land Cover maps, 50 years of mean annual temperature and precipitation for the period 1950 - 2000, elevation, aspect and slope data. Present vegetation cover was generated on a 100m grid. Future vegetation cover for the period 2061- 2080 was predicted using the 1 km resolution bias corrected data from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Global Climate Model E simulation. The three test regions encompass a wide range of climatic gradients, topographic variation, and vegetation cover. The central Oregon site covers 19,182 square km and includes the Ochoco and Malheur National Forest. Vegetation cover is 50% evergreen forest and 50% shrubs and scrubland. The northwest Washington site covers 14,182 square km. Vegetation cover is 60% evergreen forest, 14% scrubs, 7% grassland, and 7% barren land. The remainder of the area includes deciduous forest, perennial snow cover, and wetlands. The third site, the Jemez mountain region of north central New Mexico, covers 5,500 square km. Vegetation cover is 47% evergreen forest, 31% shrubs, 13% grasses, and 3% deciduous forest. The remainder of the area includes developed and cultivated areas and wetlands. Using the above mentioned data sets we first trained our DT and NN models to reproduce current vegetation. The land cover classified images were compared directly to the USGS land cover data. The photorealistic generated vegetation images were compared directly to the remotely sensed surface reflectance maps. For all three sites, similarity between generated and observed vegetation cover was quite remarkable. The three trained models were then used to explore what the equilibrium vegetation would look like for

  19. Optimization of translation profiles enhances protein expression and solubility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Katrin Hess

    Full Text Available mRNA is translated with a non-uniform speed that actively coordinates co-translational folding of protein domains. Using structure-based homology we identified the structural domains in epoxide hydrolases (EHs and introduced slow-translating codons to delineate the translation of single domains. These changes in translation speed dramatically improved the solubility of two EHs of metagenomic origin in Escherichia coli. Conversely, the importance of transient attenuation for the folding, and consequently solubility, of EH was evidenced with a member of the EH family from Agrobacterium radiobacter, which partitions in the soluble fraction when expressed in E. coli. Synonymous substitutions of codons shaping the slow-transiting regions to fast-translating codons render this protein insoluble. Furthermore, we show that low protein yield can be enhanced by decreasing the free folding energy of the initial 5'-coding region, which can disrupt mRNA secondary structure and enhance ribosomal loading. This study provides direct experimental evidence that mRNA is not a mere messenger for translation of codons into amino acids but bears an additional layer of information for folding, solubility and expression level of the encoded protein. Furthermore, it provides a general frame on how to modulate and fine-tune gene expression of a target protein.

  20. Artist Material BRDF Database for Computer Graphics Rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Justin C.

    The primary goal of this thesis was to create a physical library of artist material samples. This collection provides necessary data for the development of a gonio-imaging system for use in museums to more accurately document their collections. A sample set was produced consisting of 25 panels and containing nearly 600 unique samples. Selected materials are representative of those commonly used by artists both past and present. These take into account the variability in visual appearance resulting from the materials and application techniques used. Five attributes of variability were identified including medium, color, substrate, application technique and overcoat. Combinations of these attributes were selected based on those commonly observed in museum collections and suggested by surveying experts in the field. For each sample material, image data is collected and used to measure an average bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The results are available as a public-domain image and optical database of artist materials at art-si.org. Additionally, the database includes specifications for each sample along with other information useful for computer graphics rendering such as the rectified sample images and normal maps.

  1. TransCut: interactive rendering of translucent cutouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Sun, Xin; Ren, Zhong; Lin, Stephen; Tong, Yiying; Guo, Baining; Zhou, Kun

    2013-03-01

    We present TransCut, a technique for interactive rendering of translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations. As the object is fractured or cut open, the user can directly examine and intuitively understand the complex translucent interior, as well as edit material properties through painting on cross sections and recombining the broken pieces—all with immediate and realistic visual feedback. This new mode of interaction with translucent volumes is made possible with two technical contributions. The first is a novel solver for the diffusion equation (DE) over a tetrahedral mesh that produces high-quality results comparable to the state-of-art finite element method (FEM) of Arbree et al. but at substantially higher speeds. This accuracy and efficiency is obtained by computing the discrete divergences of the diffusion equation and constructing the DE matrix using analytic formulas derived for linear finite elements. The second contribution is a multiresolution algorithm to significantly accelerate our DE solver while adapting to the frequent changes in topological structure of dynamic objects. The entire multiresolution DE solver is highly parallel and easily implemented on the GPU. We believe TransCut provides a novel visual effect for heterogeneous translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations.

  2. Brain ageing changes proteoglycan sulfation, rendering perineuronal nets more inhibitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foscarin, Simona; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Fawcett, James W; Kwok, Jessica C F

    2017-06-28

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in perineuronal nets (PNNs) from the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in the control of plasticity and memory. Removing PNNs reactivates plasticity and restores memory in models of Alzheimer's disease and ageing. Their actions depend on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CS proteoglycans, which are mainly sulfated in the 4 (C4S) or 6 (C6S) positions. While C4S is inhibitory, C6S is more permissive to axon growth, regeneration and plasticity. C6S decreases during critical period closure. We asked whether there is a late change in CS-GAG sulfation associated with memory loss in aged rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed a progressive increase in C4S and decrease in C6S from 3 to 18 months. GAGs extracted from brain PNNs showed a large reduction in C6S at 12 and 18 months, increasing the C4S/C6S ratio. There was no significant change in mRNA levels of the chondroitin sulfotransferases. PNN GAGs were more inhibitory to axon growth than those from the diffuse extracellular matrix. The 18-month PNN GAGs were more inhibitory than 3-month PNN GAGs. We suggest that the change in PNN GAG sulfation in aged brains renders the PNNs more inhibitory, which lead to a decrease in plasticity and adversely affect memory.

  3. Moisture Transfer through Facades Covered with Organic Binder Renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen DICO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Year after year we witness the negative effect of water over buildings, caused by direct or indirect actions. This situation is obvious in case of old, historical building, subjected to this aggression for a long period of time, but new buildings are also affected. Moisture in building materials causes not only structural damage, but also reduces the thermal insulation capacity of building components.Materials like plasters or paints have been used historically for a long period of time, fulfilling two basics functions: Decoration and Protection. The most acute demands are made on exterior plasters, as they, besides being an important decorative element for the facade, must perform two different functions simultaneously: protect the substrate against weathering and moisture without sealing, providing it a certain ability to “breathe” (Heilen, 2005. In order to accomplish this aim, the first step is to understand the hygrothermal behavior of coating and substrate and define the fundamental principles of moisture transfer; According to Künzel’s Facade Protection Theory, two material properties play the most important role: Water absorption and Vapor permeability.In the context of recently adoption (2009 of the “harmonized” European standard EN 15824 – „Specifications for external renders and internal plasters based on organic binders”, this paper deals extensively with the interaction of the two mentioned above properties for the coating materials, covered by EN 15824.

  4. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  5. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were based on, for example, LC. Koontz et al. showed results of total folate concentrations measured by microbiological assay in a variety of foods. Samples were submitted in a routine manner to experienced laboratories that regularly perform folate analysis fee-for-service basis in the United States. Each laboratory reported the use of a microbiological method similar to the AOAC Official Method for the determination of folic acid. Striking was, the use of 3 different pH extraction conditions by 4 laboratories. Only one laboratory reported using a tri-enzyme extraction. Results were evaluated. Results for folic acid fortified foods had considerably lower between-laboratory variation, 9-11%, versus >45% for other foods. Mean total folate ranged from 14 to 279 microg/100 g for a mixed vegetable reference material, from 5 to 70 microg/100 g for strawberries, and from 28 to 81 microg/100 g for wholemeal flour. One should realize a large variation in results, which might be caused by slight modifications in the microbiological analysis of total folate in foods or the analysis in various (unfortified) food matrixes. Furthermore, optimal

  6. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  7. Digital tomosynthesis rendering of joint margins for arthritis assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Jeffrey W.; Neumann, Gesa; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Dobbins, James T., III

    2004-05-01

    PURPOSE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand is a significant healthcare problem. Techniques to accurately quantity the structural changes from RA are crucial for the development and prescription of therapies. Analysis of radiographic joint space width (JSW) is widely used and has demonstrated promise. However, radiography presents a 2D view of the joint. In this study we performed tomosynthesis reconstructions of proximal interphalangeal (PIP), and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints to measure the 3D joint structure. METHODS: We performed a reader study using simulated radiographs of 12 MCP and 12 PIP joints from skeletal specimens imaged with micro-CT. The tomosynthesis technique provided images of reconstructed planes with 0.75 mm spacing, which were presented to 2 readers with a computer tool. The readers were instructed to delineate the joint surfaces on tomosynthetic slices where they could visualize the margins. We performed a quantitative analysis of 5 slices surrounding the central portion of each joint. Reader-determined JSW was compared to a gold standard. As a figure of merit we calculated the average root-mean square deviation (RMSD). RESULTS: RMSD was 0.22 mm for both joints. For the individual joints, RMSD was 0.18 mm (MCP), and 0.26 mm (PIP). The reduced performance for the smaller PIP joints suggests that a slice spacing less than 0.75 mm may be more appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated the capability of limited 3D rendering of joint surfaces using digital tomosynthesis. This technique promises to provide an improved method to visualize the structural changes of RA.

  8. Enhancement method for rendered images of home decoration based on SLIC superpixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yutong; Jiang, Xiaotong

    2018-04-01

    Rendering technology has been widely used in the home decoration industry in recent years for images of home decoration design. However, due to the fact that rendered images of home decoration design rely heavily on the parameters of renderer and the lights of scenes, most rendered images in this industry require further optimization afterwards. To reduce workload and enhance rendered images automatically, an algorithm utilizing neural networks is proposed in this manuscript. In addition, considering few extreme conditions such as strong sunlight and lights, SLIC superpixels based segmentation is used to choose out these bright areas of an image and enhance them independently. Finally, these chosen areas are merged with the entire image. Experimental results show that the proposed method effectively enhances the rendered images when compared with some existing algorithms. Besides, the proposed strategy is proven to be adaptable especially to those images with obvious bright parts.

  9. Students’ misconceptions on solubility equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiowati, H.; Utomo, S. B.; Ashadi

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated the students’ misconceptions of the solubility equilibrium. The participants of the study consisted of 164 students who were in the science class of second year high school. Instrument used is two-tier diagnostic test consisting of 15 items. Responses were marked and coded into four categories: understanding, misconception, understand little without misconception, and not understanding. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 45 students according to their written responses which reflected different perspectives, to obtain a more elaborated source of data. Data collected from multiple methods were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the data analysis showed that the students misconceptions in all areas in solubility equilibrium. They had more misconceptions such as in the relation of solubility and solubility product, common-ion effect and pH in solubility, and precipitation concept.

  10. On the americium oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakolupin, S.A.; Korablin, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    The americium oxalate solubility at different nitric (0.0-1 M) and oxalic (0.0-0.4 M) acid concentrations was investigated in the temperature range from 14 to 60 deg C. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was determined. Increasing oxalic acid concentration was found to reduce the americium oxalate solubility. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was noted to be a minimum at low acidity (0.1-0.3 M nitric acid). This is most likely due to Am(C 2 O 4 ) + , Am(C 2 O 4 ) 2 - and Am(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- complex ion formation which have different unstability constants. On the basis of the data obtained, a preliminary estimate was carried out for the product of americium oxalate solubility in nitric acid medium (10 -29 -10 -31 ) and of the one in water (6.4x10 -20 )

  11. Influence of rendering methods on yield and quality of chicken fat recovered from broiler skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Kun Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective In order to utilize fat from broiler byproducts efficiently, it is necessary to develop an appropriate rendering procedure and establish quality information for the rendered fat. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the influence of rendering methods on the amounts and general properties of the fat recovered from broiler skin. Methods The yield and quality of the broiler skin fat rendered through high and lower energy microwave rendering (3.6 W/g for 10 min and 2.4 W/g for 10 min for high power microwave rendering (HPMR and high power microwave rendering (LPMR, respectively, oven baking (OB, at 180°C for 40 min, and water cooking (WC, boiling for 40 min were compared. Results Microwave-rendered skin exhibited the highest yields and fat recovery rates, followed by OB, and WC fats (p<0.05. HPMR fat had the highest L*, a*, and b* values, whereas WC fat had the highest moisture content, acid values, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA values (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the acid value, peroxide value, and TBA values between HPMR and LPMR fats. Conclusion Microwave rendering at a power level of 3.6 W/g for 10 min is suggested base on the yield and quality of chicken fat.

  12. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  13. Indirect caudal lymphography using a new water-soluble contrast agent - animal experimental studies in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apitzsch, D.E.; Kroll, H.U.; Zuehlke, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    Animal experiments on caudal lymphography in pigs are presented, using a new water-soluble contrast medium which is renally excreted. Indirect cutaneous administration renders possible the radiological visualization of the entire lymphatic drainage system of the lower limb, the retro-peritoneal space and the thoracic duct. Visualization of the lymphatic system is rapid, homogeneous and can be repeated as often as desired. The quality of the lymphogram is as good as that obtained by the current methods in common use. (orig.)

  14. Uranium solubility and solubility controls in selected Needle's Eye groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The solubility control of uranium in selected groundwater samples from the cliff and sediments at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site is investigated using the speciation code PHREEQE and the CHEMVAL thermodynamic database (release 3). Alkali-earth bearing uranyl carbonate secondary minerals are likely to exert influence on the solubility . Other candidates are UO 2 and arsenates, depending on the prevailing redox conditions. In the absence of literature data, solubility products for important arsenates have been estimated from analogy with other arsenates and phosphates. Phosphates themselves are unlikely to exert control owing to their comparatively high solubilities. The influence of seawater flooding into the sediments is also discussed. The importance of uranyl arsenates in the retardation of uranium in shallow sediments has been demonstrated in theory, but there are some significant gaps in the thermodynamic databases used. (author)

  15. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  16. Serca2a and Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares [Department of Physiology and Biophysic, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de [Department of Pharmacy, University Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Bissoli, Nazaré Souza, E-mail: nazarebissoli@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt{sub max}, − dP/dt{sub min} and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  17. Przydatność rokownicza nowych markerów w przewlekłej skurczowej niewydolności serca = The prognostic usefulness of new markers in chronic systolic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Surowiec

    2015-08-01

      Streszczenie Przewlekła skurczowa niewydolność serca (PNS jest chorobą o złożonej symptomatologii. PNS dzieli się na skurczową oraz na niewydolność serca (NS z zachowaną frakcją wyrzutową. Choroba ta występuje u około 1-2% dorosłych w krajach rozwiniętych, natomiast u osób >70 roku życia odsetek ten stanowi >10%. Niewydolność serca stanowi jedną z wiodących przyczyn śmierci i niepełnosprawności na świecie, ponadto charakteryzuje się stale rosnącą zapadalnością. W przebiegu tej choroby w mięśniu sercowym dochodzi do niekorzystnych zmian, które mogą zostać zatrzymane lub nawet cofnięte poprzez wczesne, odpowiednie i zintensyfikowane leczenie. Chorzy na PNS stanowią niejednorodną grupę, a wpływ na stężenie peptydów natriuretycznych mają różne czynniki kliniczne, takie jak wiek, płeć, funkcja nerek, funkcja tarczycy, indeks masy ciała oraz niedokrwistości. Ponadto ocena stężenia peptydów natriuretycznych nie charakteryzuje wszystkich mechanizmów, które stanowią podłoże niewydolności serca. Zarówno chorzy ze skurczową PNS jak i chorzy z zachowaną frakcją wyrzutową mają podobne objawy, ale różne przyczyny patofizjologiczne NS oraz odmienną odpowiedź na leczenie. Na skutek tych wszystkich ograniczeń peptydów natriuretycznych w dalszym ciągu poszukuje się nowych markerów, które w lepszy i dokładniejszy sposób będą oceniały rokowanie chorych na PNS w praktyce klinicznej. Celem pracy jest przedstawienie roli wybranych nowych markerów w stratyfikacji ryzyka chorych z przewlekłą skurczową niewydolnością serca.   Abstract Chronic systolic heart failure (CHF is a disease with complex symptomatology. Chronic CHF can divided into systolic and heart failure (NS with preserved ejection fraction. Approximately 1-2% of adults suffer from the disease in the developed countries, whereas it affects >10% of  patients > 70 years of age. Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death and

  18. Three-dimensional spiral CT during arterial portography: comparison of three rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D G; Soyer, P A; Kuszyk, B S; Bliss, D F; Calhoun, P S; Bluemke, D A; Choti, M A; Fishman, E K

    1995-07-01

    The three most common techniques for three-dimensional reconstruction are surface rendering, maximum-intensity projection (MIP), and volume rendering. Surface-rendering algorithms model objects as collections of geometric primitives that are displayed with surface shading. The MIP algorithm renders an image by selecting the voxel with the maximum intensity signal along a line extended from the viewer's eye through the data volume. Volume-rendering algorithms sum the weighted contributions of all voxels along the line. Each technique has advantages and shortcomings that must be considered during selection of one for a specific clinical problem and during interpretation of the resulting images. With surface rendering, sharp-edged, clear three-dimensional reconstruction can be completed on modest computer systems; however, overlapping structures cannot be visualized and artifacts are a problem. MIP is computationally a fast technique, but it does not allow depiction of overlapping structures, and its images are three-dimensionally ambiguous unless depth cues are provided. Both surface rendering and MIP use less than 10% of the image data. In contrast, volume rendering uses nearly all of the data, allows demonstration of overlapping structures, and engenders few artifacts, but it requires substantially more computer power than the other techniques.

  19. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  20. On the design of a real-time volume rendering engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap; Wessels, H.L.F.; van der Horst, A.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    1992-01-01

    An architecture for a Real-Time Volume Rendering Engine (RT-VRE) is given, capable of computing 750 × 750 × 512 samples from a 3D dataset at a rate of 25 images per second. The RT-VRE uses for this purpose 64 dedicated rendering chips, cooperating with 16 RISC-processors. A plane interpolator

  1. On the design of a real-time volume rendering engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap; Wessels, H.J.; van der Horst, A.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    1995-01-01

    An architecture for a Real-Time Volume Rendering Engine (RT-VRE) is given, capable of computing 750 × 750 × 512 samples from a 3D dataset at a rate of 25 images per second. The RT-VRE uses for this purpose 64 dedicated rendering chips, cooperating with 16 RISC-processors. A plane interpolator

  2. Method and system for rendering and interacting with an adaptable computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil [Albuquerque, NM; Bouchard, Ann Marie [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-12

    An adaptable computing environment is implemented with software entities termed "s-machines", which self-assemble into hierarchical data structures capable of rendering and interacting with the computing environment. A hierarchical data structure includes a first hierarchical s-machine bound to a second hierarchical s-machine. The first hierarchical s-machine is associated with a first layer of a rendering region on a display screen and the second hierarchical s-machine is associated with a second layer of the rendering region overlaying at least a portion of the first layer. A screen element s-machine is linked to the first hierarchical s-machine. The screen element s-machine manages data associated with a screen element rendered to the display screen within the rendering region at the first layer.

  3. An improved method of continuous LOD based on fractal theory in terrain rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Li, Lijun

    2007-11-01

    With the improvement of computer graphic hardware capability, the algorithm of 3D terrain rendering is going into the hot topic of real-time visualization. In order to solve conflict between the rendering speed and reality of rendering, this paper gives an improved method of terrain rendering which improves the traditional continuous level of detail technique based on fractal theory. This method proposes that the program needn't to operate the memory repeatedly to obtain different resolution terrain model, instead, obtains the fractal characteristic parameters of different region according to the movement of the viewpoint. Experimental results show that the method guarantees the authenticity of landscape, and increases the real-time 3D terrain rendering speed.

  4. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-01

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO 2 partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products

  5. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  6. Design and Implementation of High-Performance GIS Dynamic Objects Rendering Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y.; Wang, S.; Li, R.; Yun, W.; Song, G.

    2017-12-01

    Spatio-temporal dynamic visualization is more vivid than static visualization. It important to use dynamic visualization techniques to reveal the variation process and trend vividly and comprehensively for the geographical phenomenon. To deal with challenges caused by dynamic visualization of both 2D and 3D spatial dynamic targets, especially for different spatial data types require high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine. The main approach for improving the rendering engine with vast dynamic targets relies on key technologies of high-performance GIS, including memory computing, parallel computing, GPU computing and high-performance algorisms. In this study, high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine is designed and implemented for solving the problem based on hybrid accelerative techniques. The high-performance GIS rendering engine contains GPU computing, OpenGL technology, and high-performance algorism with the advantage of 64-bit memory computing. It processes 2D, 3D dynamic target data efficiently and runs smoothly with vast dynamic target data. The prototype system of high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine is developed based SuperMap GIS iObjects. The experiments are designed for large-scale spatial data visualization, the results showed that the high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine have the advantage of high performance. Rendering two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic objects achieve 20 times faster on GPU than on CPU.

  7. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  8. Three-dimensional rendering of segmented object using matlab - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional rendering of microscopic objects is a difficult and challenging task that often requires specialized image processing techniques. Previous work has been described of a semi-automatic segmentation process of fluorescently stained neurons collected as a sequence of slice images with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Once properly segmented, each individual object can be rendered and studied as a three-dimensional virtual object. This paper describes the work associated with the design and development of Matlab files to create three-dimensional images from the segmented object data previously mentioned. Part of the motivation for this work is to integrate both the segmentation and rendering processes into one software application, providing a seamless transition from the segmentation tasks to the rendering and visualization tasks. Previously these tasks were accomplished on two different computer systems, windows and Linux. This transition basically limits the usefulness of the segmentation and rendering applications to those who have both computer systems readily available. The focus of this work is to create custom Matlab image processing algorithms for object rendering and visualization, and merge these capabilities to the Matlab files that were developed especially for the image segmentation task. The completed Matlab application will contain both the segmentation and rendering processes in a single graphical user interface, or GUI. This process for rendering three-dimensional images in Matlab requires that a sequence of two-dimensional binary images, representing a cross-sectional slice of the object, be reassembled in a 3D space, and covered with a surface. Additional segmented objects can be rendered in the same 3D space. The surface properties of each object can be varied by the user to aid in the study and analysis of the objects. This inter-active process becomes a powerful visual tool to study and understand microscopic objects.

  9. Bacterial expression of human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: solubility, activity, purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K; Mole, D J; Binnie, M; Homer, N Z M; Zheng, X; Yard, B A; Iredale, J P; Auer, M; Webster, S P

    2014-03-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an enzyme central to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. KMO has been implicated as a therapeutic target in several disease states, including Huntington's disease. Recombinant human KMO protein production is challenging due to the presence of transmembrane domains, which localise KMO to the outer mitochondrial membrane and render KMO insoluble in many in vitro expression systems. Efficient bacterial expression of human KMO would accelerate drug development of KMO inhibitors but until now this has not been achieved. Here we report the first successful bacterial (Escherichia coli) expression of active FLAG™-tagged human KMO enzyme expressed in the soluble fraction and progress towards its purification. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial expression of human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: Solubility, activity, purification☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Mole, D.J.; Binnie, M.; Homer, N.Z.M.; Zheng, X.; Yard, B.A.; Iredale, J.P.; Auer, M.; Webster, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an enzyme central to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. KMO has been implicated as a therapeutic target in several disease states, including Huntington’s disease. Recombinant human KMO protein production is challenging due to the presence of transmembrane domains, which localise KMO to the outer mitochondrial membrane and render KMO insoluble in many in vitro expression systems. Efficient bacterial expression of human KMO would accelerate drug development of KMO inhibitors but until now this has not been achieved. Here we report the first successful bacterial (Escherichia coli) expression of active FLAG™-tagged human KMO enzyme expressed in the soluble fraction and progress towards its purification. PMID:24316190

  11. On nitrogen solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalajda, Yu.A.; Katkov, Yu.D.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Lastovtsev, A.Yu.; Lastochkin, A.P.; Susoev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental investigations on nitrogen solubility in water under 0-15 MPa pressure, at the temperature of 100-340 deg C and nitrogen concentration of 0-5000 n.ml. N 2 /kg H 2 O. Empiric equations are derived and a diagram of nitrogen solubility in water is developed on the basis of the experimental data, as well as critically evaluated published data. The investigation results can be used in analyzing water-gas regime of a primary heat carrier in stream-generating plants with water-water reactors

  12. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  13. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter [H 2 C 2 O 4 ]/[HNO 3 ] 2 . Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory

  14. Solubility database for TILA-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, U.; Carlsson, T. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    The safety assessment of spent fuel disposal requires solubility values for several elements estimated in Finnish disposal conditions. In Finland four sites (Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara) are investigated for the disposal of spent fuel. Haestholmen and OLkiluoto are onshore sites, while Kivetty and Romuvaara are inland sites. Based on groundwater analysis and classification according to salinity at the planned disposal depth mainly fresh groundwater is encountered at Kivetty and Romuvaara, while brackish and saline water-types are met at Haestholmen and Olkiluoto. Very saline, almost brine-type water ({approx}70 g/l) has been found in the deepest parts of the investigated bedrock at one of the sites (Olkiluoto). The reference waters and conditions were chosen according to the water-types. The considered reference conditions incorporated both the near- and far-field, and both oxidizing and reducing conditions were considered. In the reference conditions, the changes in solubilities were also estimated as caused by possible variations in the pH, carbonate content and redox conditions. Uranium, which is the main component of spent fuel is dealt with in a separate report presenting the solubility of uranium and spent fuel dissolution. In this work the solubilities of all the other elements of concern (Am, Cu, Nb, Np, Pa, Pd, Pu, Ra, Se, Sn, Tc, Zr, Cm, Ni, Sr, Th, C, Cl, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, and Sm) in the safety assessment are considered. Some discussion on the corrosion of the spent fuel canister is also presented. For the estimation of solubilities of the elements in question, literature data was collected that mainly comprised experimentally measured concentrations. The sources used were spent fuel experiments, concentrations measured in solubility measurements, natural concentrations and concentrations from natural analogue sites (especially Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae in Finland) as well as the concentrations measured at the Finnish investigation sites

  15. Solubility database for TILA-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Carlsson, T.; Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M.

    1998-11-01

    The safety assessment of spent fuel disposal requires solubility values for several elements estimated in Finnish disposal conditions. In Finland four sites (Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara) are investigated for the disposal of spent fuel. Haestholmen and OLkiluoto are onshore sites, while Kivetty and Romuvaara are inland sites. Based on groundwater analysis and classification according to salinity at the planned disposal depth mainly fresh groundwater is encountered at Kivetty and Romuvaara, while brackish and saline water-types are met at Haestholmen and Olkiluoto. Very saline, almost brine-type water (∼70 g/l) has been found in the deepest parts of the investigated bedrock at one of the sites (Olkiluoto). The reference waters and conditions were chosen according to the water-types. The considered reference conditions incorporated both the near- and far-field, and both oxidizing and reducing conditions were considered. In the reference conditions, the changes in solubilities were also estimated as caused by possible variations in the pH, carbonate content and redox conditions. Uranium, which is the main component of spent fuel is dealt with in a separate report presenting the solubility of uranium and spent fuel dissolution. In this work the solubilities of all the other elements of concern (Am, Cu, Nb, Np, Pa, Pd, Pu, Ra, Se, Sn, Tc, Zr, Cm, Ni, Sr, Th, C, Cl, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, and Sm) in the safety assessment are considered. Some discussion on the corrosion of the spent fuel canister is also presented. For the estimation of solubilities of the elements in question, literature data was collected that mainly comprised experimentally measured concentrations. The sources used were spent fuel experiments, concentrations measured in solubility measurements, natural concentrations and concentrations from natural analogue sites (especially Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae in Finland) as well as the concentrations measured at the Finnish investigation sites. The

  16. Color-coded volume rendering for three-dimensional reconstructions of CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, O.; Mildenberger, P.; Thelen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a technique of colored three-dimensional reconstructions without segmentation. Material and methods: Color-coded volume rendered images were reconstructed from the volume data of 25 thoracic, abdominal, musculoskeletal, and vascular helical CT scans using commercial software. The CT volume rendered voxels were encoded with color in the following manner. Opacity, hue, lightness, and chroma were assigned to each of four classes defined by CT number. Color-coded reconstructions were compared to the corresponding grey-scale coded reconstructions. Results: Color-coded volume rendering enabled realistic visualization of pathologic findings when there was sufficient difference in CT density. Segmentation was necessary in some cases to demonstrate small details in a complex volume. Conclusion: Color-coded volume rendering allowed lifelike visualisation of CT volumes without the need of segmentation in most cases. (orig.) [de

  17. Rendering Large-Scale Terrain Models and Positioning Objects in Relation to 3D Terrain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hittner, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... Rendering large scale landscapes based on 3D geometry generally did not occur because the scenes generated tended to use up too much system memory and overburden 3D graphics cards with too many polygons...

  18. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TerraBlocksTM 3D terrain data format and terrain-block-rendering methodology provides an enabling basis for successful commercial deployment of...

  19. Processing-in-Memory Enabled Graphics Processors for 3D Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Chenhao; Song, Shuaiwen; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Weigong; Fu, Xin

    2017-02-06

    The performance of 3D rendering of Graphics Processing Unit that convents 3D vector stream into 2D frame with 3D image effects significantly impact users’ gaming experience on modern computer systems. Due to the high texture throughput in 3D rendering, main memory bandwidth becomes a critical obstacle for improving the overall rendering performance. 3D stacked memory systems such as Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC) provide opportunities to significantly overcome the memory wall by directly connecting logic controllers to DRAM dies. Based on the observation that texel fetches significantly impact off-chip memory traffic, we propose two architectural designs to enable Processing-In-Memory based GPU for efficient 3D rendering.

  20. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TerraMetrics proposes an SBIR Phase I R/R&D effort to develop a key 3D terrain-rendering technology that provides the basis for successful commercial deployment...

  1. A point-based rendering approach for real-time interaction on mobile devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XiaoHui; ZHAO QinPing; HE ZhiYing; XIE Ke; LIU YuBo

    2009-01-01

    Mobile device is an Important interactive platform. Due to the limitation of computation, memory, display area and energy, how to realize the efficient and real-time interaction of 3D models based on mobile devices is an important research topic. Considering features of mobile devices, this paper adopts remote rendering mode and point models, and then, proposes a transmission and rendering approach that could interact in real time. First, improved simplification algorithm based on MLS and display resolution of mobile devices is proposed. Then, a hierarchy selection of point models and a QoS transmission control strategy are given based on interest area of operator, interest degree of object in the virtual environment and rendering error. They can save the energy consumption. Finally, the rendering and interaction of point models are completed on mobile devices. The experiments show that our method is efficient.

  2. Physically-Based Rendering of Particle-Based Fluids with Light Transport Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddiaf, Ali; Babahenini, Mohamed Chaouki

    2018-03-01

    Recent interactive rendering approaches aim to efficiently produce images. However, time constraints deeply affect their output accuracy and realism (many light phenomena are poorly or not supported at all). To remedy this issue, in this paper, we propose a physically-based fluid rendering approach. First, while state-of-the-art methods focus on isosurface rendering with only two refractions, our proposal (1) considers the fluid as a heterogeneous participating medium with refractive boundaries, and (2) supports both multiple refractions and scattering. Second, the proposed solution is fully particle-based in the sense that no particles transformation into a grid is required. This interesting feature makes it able to handle many particle types (water, bubble, foam, and sand). On top of that, a medium with different fluids (color, phase function, etc.) can also be rendered.

  3. Major Deficiencies Preventing Auditors From Rendering Audit Opinions on DOD General Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rauu, Russell

    1995-01-01

    .... We plan to issue a similar report each year. The audit objective was to identify and summarize the major deficiencies that prevented auditors from rendering audit opinions, other than disclaimers, on Army and Air Force general fund financial...

  4. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  5. Specification and time required for the application of a lime-based render inside historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Peixoto de Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervention in ancient buildings with historical and architectural value requires traditional techniques, such as the use of lime mortars for internal and external wall renderings. In order to ensure the desired performance, these rendering mortars must be rigorously specified and quality controls have to be performed during application. The choice of mortar composition should take account of factors such as compatibility with the substrate, mechanical requirements and water behaviour. The construction schedule, which used to be considered a second order variable, nowadays plays a decisive role in the selection of the rendering technique, given its effects upon costs. How should lime-based mortars be specified? How much time is required for the application and curing of a lime-based render? This paper reflects upon the feasibility of using traditional lime mortars in three-layer renders inside churches and monasteries under adverse hygrothermal conditions and when time is critical. A case study is presented in which internal lime mortar renderings were applied in a church in Northern Portugal, where the very high relative humidity meant that several months were necessary before the drying process was complete.

  6. On-the-fly generation and rendering of infinite cities on the GPU

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for shape-grammar-based generation and rendering of huge cities in real-time on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Traditional approaches rely on evaluating a shape grammar and storing the geometry produced as a preprocessing step. During rendering, the pregenerated data is then streamed to the GPU. By interweaving generation and rendering, we overcome the problems and limitations of streaming pregenerated data. Using our methods of visibility pruning and adaptive level of detail, we are able to dynamically generate only the geometry needed to render the current view in real-time directly on the GPU. We also present a robust and efficient way to dynamically update a scene\\'s derivation tree and geometry, enabling us to exploit frame-to-frame coherence. Our combined generation and rendering is significantly faster than all previous work. For detailed scenes, we are capable of generating geometry more rapidly than even just copying pregenerated data from main memory, enabling us to render cities with thousands of buildings at up to 100 frames per second, even with the camera moving at supersonic speed. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Using neutrosophic graph cut segmentation algorithm for qualified rendering image selection in thyroid elastography video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanhui; Jiang, Shuang-Quan; Sun, Baiqing; Siuly, Siuly; Şengür, Abdulkadir; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Recently, elastography has become very popular in clinical investigation for thyroid cancer detection and diagnosis. In elastogram, the stress results of the thyroid are displayed using pseudo colors. Due to variation of the rendering results in different frames, it is difficult for radiologists to manually select the qualified frame image quickly and efficiently. The purpose of this study is to find the qualified rendering result in the thyroid elastogram. This paper employs an efficient thyroid ultrasound image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic graph cut to find the qualified rendering images. Firstly, a thyroid ultrasound image is mapped into neutrosophic set, and an indeterminacy filter is constructed to reduce the indeterminacy of the spatial and intensity information in the image. A graph is defined on the image and the weight for each pixel is represented using the value after indeterminacy filtering. The segmentation results are obtained using a maximum-flow algorithm on the graph. Then the anatomic structure is identified in thyroid ultrasound image. Finally the rendering colors on these anatomic regions are extracted and validated to find the frames which satisfy the selection criteria. To test the performance of the proposed method, a thyroid elastogram dataset is built and totally 33 cases were collected. An experienced radiologist manually evaluates the selection results of the proposed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method finds the qualified rendering frame with 100% accuracy. The proposed scheme assists the radiologists to diagnose the thyroid diseases using the qualified rendering images.

  8. On-the-fly generation and rendering of infinite cities on the GPU

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberger, Markus; Kenzel, Michael; Kainz, Bernhard K.; Wonka, Peter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for shape-grammar-based generation and rendering of huge cities in real-time on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Traditional approaches rely on evaluating a shape grammar and storing the geometry produced as a preprocessing step. During rendering, the pregenerated data is then streamed to the GPU. By interweaving generation and rendering, we overcome the problems and limitations of streaming pregenerated data. Using our methods of visibility pruning and adaptive level of detail, we are able to dynamically generate only the geometry needed to render the current view in real-time directly on the GPU. We also present a robust and efficient way to dynamically update a scene's derivation tree and geometry, enabling us to exploit frame-to-frame coherence. Our combined generation and rendering is significantly faster than all previous work. For detailed scenes, we are capable of generating geometry more rapidly than even just copying pregenerated data from main memory, enabling us to render cities with thousands of buildings at up to 100 frames per second, even with the camera moving at supersonic speed. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jose Luis

    microscopy revealed selfassembly formation of the enhanced composites indicating that the reinforcement was influenced by the CNC nanoscale structure on the matrix. These structures were found to be distributed in different directions along the extrusion line, suggesting that an angled CNC orientation favored a higher toughness as observed in natural cellulose fibers. PLA was also modified by grafting polyacrylic acid (PAA), which provided a stiffer and more hydrophilic surface for the addition of unmodified CNCs. In this case, the toughness of the PLA copolymer decreased with CNC concentration, while the tensile modulus increased. This effect was attributed to an increase of polymer crystallinity upon addition of CNCs, probably due to an enhanced compatibility provided by the PAA chains. For the purpose of obtaining a more efficient separation of proteins and fats from RMs, liquid and supercritical CO2 (LCO2 and SCCO2) were explored as solvents for the extraction, demonstrating the ability to extract up to 97% of the fat in the RMs. Higher fat solubilities in LCO2 were obtained compared to SCCO2, a result attributed to a retrograde phenomenon. These results are advantageous for the separation of rendered fats at relatively low temperatures and pressures, obtaining higher yields than screw pressing currently used in the industry. However, this extraction requires high amounts of CO2 due to low fat solubilities. This issue was addressed using CO2-assisted mechanical extraction, resulting in yields up to 81%, representing a 98% increase compared to conventional extraction, and significantly reducing the amount of CO2 for the extraction.

  10. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  11. Solubility of Nd in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, F.I.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured at 23±3 C in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl 2 with an ionic strength of 7.8 M (9.4 m) a solid compound of Nd(III) at each pcH was assigned from X-ray diffraction patterns. The log values of the experimental solubilities decrease fomr -3 at pcH 6.4 to -5.8 at pcH 8.4; at pcH 10.4 and 12.4 the solubility was below the detection limit of -7.5. The experimental solubility does not follow closely the variation with pcH estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. (orig.)

  12. Effective non-denaturing purification method for improving the solubility of recombinant actin-binding proteins produced by bacterial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jeong Min; Lee, Sangmin; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial expression is commonly used to produce recombinant and truncated mutant eukaryotic proteins. However, heterologous protein expression may render synthesized proteins insoluble. The conventional method used to express a poorly soluble protein, which involves denaturation and refolding, is time-consuming and inefficient. There are several non-denaturing approaches that can increase the solubility of recombinant proteins that include using different bacterial cell strains, altering the time of induction, lowering the incubation temperature, and employing different detergents for purification. In this study, we compared several non-denaturing protocols to express and purify two insoluble 34 kDa actin-bundling protein mutants. The solubility of the mutant proteins was not affected by any of the approaches except for treatment with the detergent sarkosyl. These results indicate that sarkosyl can effectively improve the solubility of insoluble proteins during bacterial expression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Solubility of sparingly soluble drug derivatives of anthranilic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra

    2011-03-24

    This work is a continuation of our systematic study of the solubility of pharmaceuticals (Pharms). All substances here are derivatives of anthranilic acid, and have an anti-inflammatory direction of action (niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, and diclofenac sodium). The basic thermal properties of pure Pharms, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as the enthalpy of melting, have been measured with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The equilibrium mole fraction solubilities of three pharmaceuticals were measured in a range of temperatures from 285 to 355 K in three important solvents for Pharm investigations: water, ethanol, and 1-octanol using a dynamic method and spectroscopic UV-vis method. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of the commonly known G(E) equation: the NRTL, with the assumption that the systems studied here have revealed simple eutectic mixtures. pK(a) precise measurement values have been investigated with the Bates-Schwarzenbach spectrophotometric method. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Real-Time Location-Based Rendering of Urban Underground Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concealment and complex spatial relationships of urban underground pipelines present challenges in managing them. Recently, augmented reality (AR has been a hot topic around the world, because it can enhance our perception of reality by overlaying information about the environment and its objects onto the real world. Using AR, underground pipelines can be displayed accurately, intuitively, and in real time. We analyzed the characteristics of AR and their application in underground pipeline management. We mainly focused on the AR pipeline rendering procedure based on the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM technology. First, in aiming to improve the spatial accuracy of pipeline rendering, we used differential corrections received from the Ground-Based Augmentation System to compute the precise coordinates of users in real time, which helped us accurately retrieve and draw pipelines near the users, and by scene recognition the accuracy can be further improved. Second, in terms of pipeline rendering, we used Visual-Inertial Odometry (VIO to track the rendered objects and made some improvements to visual effects, which can provide steady dynamic tracking of pipelines even in relatively markerless environments and outdoors. Finally, we used the occlusion method based on real-time 3D reconstruction to realistically express the immersion effect of underground pipelines. We compared our methods to the existing methods and concluded that the method proposed in this research improves the spatial accuracy of pipeline rendering and the portability of the equipment. Moreover, the updating of our rendering procedure corresponded with the moving of the user’s location, thus we achieved a dynamic rendering of pipelines in the real environment.

  15. 3-D volume rendering visualization for calculated distributions of diesel spray; Diesel funmu kyodo suchi keisan kekka no sanjigen volume rendering hyoji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizaki, T; Imanishi, H; Nishida, K; Yamashita, H; Hiroyasu, H; Kaneda, K [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Three dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate calculated results of diesel combustion simulation into realistically spray and flame images. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Near-field solubility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.

    1992-02-01

    Experimental determinations of the solubilities of americium, plutonium, neptunium, protactinium, thorium, radium, lead, tin, palladium and zirconium are reported. These elements have radioactive isotopes of concern in assessments of radioactive waste disposal. All measurements were made under the highly alkaline conditions typical of the near field of a radioactive waste repository which uses cementitious materials for many of the immobilisation matrices, the backfill and the engineered structures. Low redox potentials, typical of those resulting from the corrosion of iron and steel, were simulated for those elements having more than one accessible oxidation state. The dissolved concentrations of the elements were defined using ultrafiltration. In addition, the corrosion of iron and stainless steel was shown to generate low redox potentials in solution and the solubility of iron(II) at high pH was measured and found to be sufficient for it to act as a redox buffer with respect to neptunium and plutonium. (author)

  17. A cache-friendly sampling strategy for texture-based volume rendering on GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The texture-based volume rendering is a memory-intensive algorithm. Its performance relies heavily on the performance of the texture cache. However, most existing texture-based volume rendering methods blindly map computational resources to texture memory and result in incoherent memory access patterns, causing low cache hit rates in certain cases. The distance between samples taken by threads of an atomic scheduling unit (e.g. a warp of 32 threads in CUDA of the GPU is a crucial factor that affects the texture cache performance. Based on this fact, we present a new sampling strategy, called Warp Marching, for the ray-casting algorithm of texture-based volume rendering. The effects of different sample organizations and different thread-pixel mappings in the ray-casting algorithm are thoroughly analyzed. Also, a pipeline manner color blending approach is introduced and the power of warp-level GPU operations is leveraged to improve the efficiency of parallel executions on the GPU. In addition, the rendering performance of the Warp Marching is view-independent, and it outperforms existing empty space skipping techniques in scenarios that need to render large dynamic volumes in a low resolution image. Through a series of micro-benchmarking and real-life data experiments, we rigorously analyze our sampling strategies and demonstrate significant performance enhancements over existing sampling methods.

  18. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. PMID:20559495

  19. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marciniak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated.

  20. Solubility of Carbon in Nanocrystalline -Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kirchner; Bernd Kieback

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for nanocrystalline interstitial alloys is presented. The equilibrium solid solubility of carbon in -iron is calculated for given grain size. Inside the strained nanograins local variation of the carbon content is predicted. Due to the nonlinear relation between strain and solubility, the averaged solubility in the grain interior increases with decreasing grain size. The majority of the global solubility enhancement is due to grain boundary enrichment however. Therefor...

  1. Evaluation and Improvement of the CIE Metameric and Colour Rendering Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Slavuj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All artificial light sources are intended to simulate daylight and its properties of color rendering or ability of colour discrimination. Two indices, defined by the CIE, are used to quantify quality of the artificial light sources. First is Color Rendering Index which quantifies ability of light sources to render colours and other is the Metemerism Index which describes metamerism potential of given light source. Calculation of both indices are defined by CIE and has been a subject of discussion and change in past. In this work particularly, the problem of sample number and type used in calculation is addressed here and evaluated. It is noticed that both indices depends on the choice and sample number and that they should be determined based on application.

  2. The Visualization Toolkit (VTK): Rewriting the rendering code for modern graphics cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanwell, Marcus D.; Martin, Kenneth M.; Chaudhary, Aashish; Avila, Lisa S.

    2015-09-01

    The Visualization Toolkit (VTK) is an open source, permissively licensed, cross-platform toolkit for scientific data processing, visualization, and data analysis. It is over two decades old, originally developed for a very different graphics card architecture. Modern graphics cards feature fully programmable, highly parallelized architectures with large core counts. VTK's rendering code was rewritten to take advantage of modern graphics cards, maintaining most of the toolkit's programming interfaces. This offers the opportunity to compare the performance of old and new rendering code on the same systems/cards. Significant improvements in rendering speeds and memory footprints mean that scientific data can be visualized in greater detail than ever before. The widespread use of VTK means that these improvements will reap significant benefits.

  3. Reflection curves—new computation and rendering techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Eugen Ulmet

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflection curves on surfaces are important tools for free-form surface interrogation. They are essential for industrial 3D CAD/CAM systems and for rendering purposes. In this note, new approaches regarding the computation and rendering of reflection curves on surfaces are introduced. These approaches are designed to take the advantage of the graphics libraries of recent releases of commercial systems such as the OpenInventor toolkit (developed by Silicon Graphics or Matlab (developed by The Math Works. A new relation between reflection curves and contour curves is derived; this theoretical result is used for a straightforward Matlab implementation of reflection curves. A new type of reflection curves is also generated using the OpenInventor texture and environment mapping implementations. This allows the computation, rendering, and animation of reflection curves at interactive rates, which makes it particularly useful for industrial applications.

  4. Cement-Based Renders Manufactured with Phase-Change Materials: Applications and Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Coppola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the evaluation of the rheological and mechanical performances of cement-based renders manufactured with phase-change materials (PCM in form of microencapsulated paraffin for innovative and ecofriendly residential buildings. Specifically, cement-based renders were manufactured by incorporating different amount of paraffin microcapsules—ranging from 5% to 20% by weight with respect to binder. Specific mass, entrained or entrapped air, and setting time were evaluated on fresh mortars. Compressive strength was measured over time to evaluate the effect of the PCM addition on the hydration kinetics of cement. Drying shrinkage was also evaluated. Experimental results confirmed that the compressive strength decreases as the amount of PCM increases. Furthermore, the higher the PCM content, the higher the drying shrinkage. The results confirm the possibility of manufacturing cement-based renders containing up to 20% by weight of PCM microcapsules with respect to binder.

  5. A concept of volume rendering guided search process to analyze medical data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianlong; Xiao, Chun; Wang, Zhiyan; Takatsuka, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    This paper firstly presents an approach of parallel coordinates based parameter control panel (PCP). The PCP is used to control parameters of focal region-based volume rendering (FRVR) during data analysis. It uses a parallel coordinates style interface. Different rendering parameters represented with nodes on each axis, and renditions based on related parameters are connected using polylines to show dependencies between renditions and parameters. Based on the PCP, a concept of volume rendering guided search process is proposed. The search pipeline is divided into four phases. Different parameters of FRVR are recorded and modulated in the PCP during search phases. The concept shows that volume visualization could play the role of guiding a search process in the rendition space to help users to efficiently find local structures of interest. The usability of the proposed approach is evaluated to show its effectiveness.

  6. Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin

    2013-11-05

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

  7. Use of volume-rendered images in registration of nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, J.W.; Miller, T.R.; Hsu, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A simple operator-guided alignment technique based on volume-rendered images was developed to register tomographic nuclear medicine studies. For each of 2 three-dimensional data sets to be registered, volume-rendered images were generated in 3 orthogonal projections (x,y,z) using the method of maximum-activity projection. Registration was achieved as follows: (a) One of the rendering orientations (e.g. x) was chosen for manipulation; (b) The two dimensional rendering was translated and rotated under operator control to achieve the best alignment as determined by visual assessment; (c) This rotation and translation was then applied to the underlying three-dimensional data set, with updating of the rendered images in each of the orthogonal projections; (d) Another orientation was chosen, and the process repeated. Since manipulation was performed on the small two-dimensional rendered image, feedback was instantaneous. To aid in the visual alignment, difference images and flicker images (toggling between the two data sets) were displayed. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of separate clinical data sets acquired without patient movement. After arbitrary rotation and translation of one of the two data sets, the 2 data sets were registered. Mean registration error was 0.36 pixels, corresponding to a 2.44 mm registration error. Thus, accurate registration can be achieved in under 10 minutes using this simple technique. The accuracy of registration was assessed with use of duplicate SPECT studies originating from separate reconstructions of the data from each of the detectors of a triple-head gamma camera

  8. ACCELERATION RENDERING METHOD ON RAY TRACING WITH ANGLE COMPARISON AND DISTANCE COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana liliana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In computer graphics applications, to produce realistic images, a method that is often used is ray tracing. Ray tracing does not only model local illumination but also global illumination. Local illumination count ambient, diffuse and specular effects only, but global illumination also count mirroring and transparency. Local illumination count effects from the lamp(s but global illumination count effects from other object(s too. Objects that are usually modeled are primitive objects and mesh objects. The advantage of mesh modeling is various, interesting and real-like shape. Mesh contains many primitive objects like triangle or square (rare. A problem in mesh object modeling is long rendering time. It is because every ray must be checked with a lot of triangle of the mesh. Added by ray from other objects checking, the number of ray that traced will increase. It causes the increasing of rendering time. To solve this problem, in this research, new methods are developed to make the rendering process of mesh object faster. The new methods are angle comparison and distance comparison. These methods are used to reduce the number of ray checking. The rays predicted will not intersect with the mesh, are not checked weather the ray intersects the mesh. With angle comparison, if using small angle to compare, the rendering process will be fast. This method has disadvantage, if the shape of each triangle is big, some triangles will be corrupted. If the angle to compare is bigger, mesh corruption can be avoided but the rendering time will be longer than without comparison. With distance comparison, the rendering time is less than without comparison, and no triangle will be corrupted.

  9. Construction and Evaluation of an Ultra Low Latency Frameless Renderer for VR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Sebastian; Steed, Anthony; Tilbury, Simon; Gaydadjiev, Georgi

    2016-04-01

    Latency - the delay between a user's action and the response to this action - is known to be detrimental to virtual reality. Latency is typically considered to be a discrete value characterising a delay, constant in time and space - but this characterisation is incomplete. Latency changes across the display during scan-out, and how it does so is dependent on the rendering approach used. In this study, we present an ultra-low latency real-time ray-casting renderer for virtual reality, implemented on an FPGA. Our renderer has a latency of ~1 ms from 'tracker to pixel'. Its frameless nature means that the region of the display with the lowest latency immediately follows the scan-beam. This is in contrast to frame-based systems such as those using typical GPUs, for which the latency increases as scan-out proceeds. Using a series of high and low speed videos of our system in use, we confirm its latency of ~1 ms. We examine how the renderer performs when driving a traditional sequential scan-out display on a readily available HMO, the Oculus Rift OK2. We contrast this with an equivalent apparatus built using a GPU. Using captured human head motion and a set of image quality measures, we assess the ability of these systems to faithfully recreate the stimuli of an ideal virtual reality system - one with a zero latency tracker, renderer and display running at 1 kHz. Finally, we examine the results of these quality measures, and how each rendering approach is affected by velocity of movement and display persistence. We find that our system, with a lower average latency, can more faithfully draw what the ideal virtual reality system would. Further, we find that with low display persistence, the sensitivity to velocity of both systems is lowered, but that it is much lower for ours.

  10. USER EVALUATION OF EIGHT LED LIGHT SOURCES WITH DIFFERENTSPECIAL COLOUR RENDERING INDICES R9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Iversen, Anne; Logadóttir, Ásta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the influence of the special colour rendering index R9 on subjective red colour perception and Caucasian skin appearance among untrained test subjects. The light sources tested are commercially available LED based light sources with similar correlated colour temperature...... and general colour rendering index, but with varying R9. It was found that the test subjects in general are more positive towards light sources with higher R9. The shift from a majority of negative responses to a majority of positive responses is found to occur at R9 values of ~20....

  11. Mastering Mental Ray Rendering Techniques for 3D and CAD Professionals

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Proven techniques for using mental ray effectively. If you're a busy artist seeking high-end results for your 3D, design, or architecture renders using mental ray, this is the perfect book for you. It distills the highly technical nature of rendering into easy-to-follow steps and tutorials that you can apply immediately to your own projects. The book uses 3ds Max and 3ds Max Design to show the integration with mental ray, but users of any 3D or CAD software can learn valuable techniques for incorporating mental ray into their pipelines.: Takes you under the hood of mental ray, a stand-alone or

  12. Towards the Availability of the Distributed Cluster Rendering System: Automatic Modeling and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kemin; Jiang, Zhengtao; Wang, Yongbin

    2012-01-01

    , whenever the number of node-n and related parameters vary, we can create the PRISM model file rapidly and then we can use PRISM model checker to verify ralated system properties. At the end of this study, we analyzed and verified the availability distributions of the Distributed Cluster Rendering System......In this study, we proposed a Continuous Time Markov Chain Model towards the availability of n-node clusters of Distributed Rendering System. It's an infinite one, we formalized it, based on the model, we implemented a software, which can automatically model with PRISM language. With the tool...

  13. Parametric model of the scala tympani for haptic-rendered cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine; Naghdy, Fazel

    2005-01-01

    A parametric model of the human scala tympani has been designed for use in a haptic-rendered computer simulation of cochlear implant surgery. It will be the first surgical simulator of this kind. A geometric model of the Scala Tympani has been derived from measured data for this purpose. The model is compared with two existing descriptions of the cochlear spiral. A first approximation of the basilar membrane is also produced. The structures are imported into a force-rendering software application for system development.

  14. Deep Exemplar 2D-3D Detection by Adapting from Real to Rendered Views

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Francisco; Russell, Bryan; Aubry, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an end-to-end convolutional neural network (CNN) for 2D-3D exemplar detection. We demonstrate that the ability to adapt the features of natural images to better align with those of CAD rendered views is critical to the success of our technique. We show that the adaptation can be learned by compositing rendered views of textured object models on natural images. Our approach can be naturally incorporated into a CNN detection pipeline and extends the accuracy and speed benefi...

  15. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  16. Hardware-accelerated Point Generation and Rendering of Point-based Impostors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme for generating points from triangle models. The method is fast and lends itself well to implementation using graphics hardware. The triangle to point conversion is done by rendering the models, and the rendering may be performed procedurally or by a black box API....... I describe the technique in detail and discuss how the generated point sets can easily be used as impostors for the original triangle models used to create the points. Since the points reside solely in GPU memory, these impostors are fairly efficient. Source code is available online....

  17. Water-soluble triazabutadienes that release diazonium species upon protonation under physiologically relevant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Flora W; Jewett, John C

    2015-03-23

    Triazabutadienes are an understudied structural motif that have remarkable reactivity once rendered water-soluble. It is shown that these molecules readily release diazonium species in a pH-dependent manner in a series of buffer solutions with pH ranges similar to those found in cells. Upon further development, we expect that this process will be well suited to cargo-release strategies and organelle-specific bioconjugation reactions. These compounds offer one of the mildest ways of generating diazonium species in aqueous solutions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Leveraging Disturbance Observer Based Torque Control for Improved Impedance Rendering with Series Elastic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Holley, James; O'Malley, Marcia K.

    2015-01-01

    The fidelity with which series elastic actuators (SEAs) render desired impedances is important. Numerous approaches to SEA impedance control have been developed under the premise that high-precision actuator torque control is a prerequisite. Indeed, the design of an inner torque compensator has a significant impact on actuator impedance rendering. The disturbance observer (DOB) based torque control implemented in NASA's Valkyrie robot is considered here and a mathematical model of this torque control, cascaded with an outer impedance compensator, is constructed. While previous work has examined the impact a disturbance observer has on torque control performance, little has been done regarding DOBs and impedance rendering accuracy. Both simulation and a series of experiments are used to demonstrate the significant improvements possible in an SEA's ability to render desired dynamic behaviors when utilizing a DOB. Actuator transparency at low impedances is improved, closed loop hysteresis is reduced, and the actuator's dynamic response to both commands and interaction torques more faithfully matches that of the desired model. All of this is achieved by leveraging DOB based control rather than increasing compensator gains, thus making improved SEA impedance control easier to achieve in practice.

  19. Photometric and Colorimeric Comparison of HDR and Spctrally Resolved Rendering Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Soreze, Thierry Silvio Claude; Thorseth, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will demonstrate a comparison between measured colorimetric images, and simulated images from a physics based rendering engine. The colorimetric images are high dynamic range (HDR) and taken with a luminance and colour camera mounted on a goniometer. For the comparison, we have ...

  20. GRAPHICS-IMAGE MIXED METHOD FOR LARGE-SCALE BUILDINGS RENDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban 3D model data is huge and unstructured, LOD and Out-of-core algorithm are usually used to reduce the amount of data that drawn in each frame to improve the rendering efficiency. When the scene is large enough, even the complex optimization algorithm is difficult to achieve better results. Based on the traditional study, a novel idea was developed. We propose a graphics and image mixed method for large-scale buildings rendering. Firstly, the view field is divided into several regions, the graphics-image mixed method used to render the scene on both screen and FBO, then blending the FBO with scree. The algorithm is tested on the huge CityGML model data in the urban areas of New York which contained 188195 public building models, and compared with the Cesium platform. The experiment result shows the system was running smoothly. The experimental results confirm that the algorithm can achieve more massive building scene roaming under the same hardware conditions, and can rendering the scene without vision loss.

  1. Advanced Audiovisual Rendering, Gesture-Based Interaction and Distributed Delivery for Immersive and Interactive Media Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamut, O.A.; Kochale, A.; Ruiz Hidalgo, J.; Macq, J-F.; Kienast, G.

    2011-01-01

    The media industry is currently being pulled in the often-opposing directions of increased realism (high resolution, stereoscopic, large screen) and personalisation (selection and control of content, availability on many devices). A capture, production, delivery and rendering system capable of

  2. An economic analysis of localized pollution: rendering emissions in a residential setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; H.F. MacDonald

    1991-01-01

    The contingent value method is employed to estimate economic damages to households resulting from rendering plant emissions in a small town. Household willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) are estimated individually and in aggregate. The influence of household characteristics on WTP and WTA is examined via regression models. The perception of health...

  3. 3D-TV Rendering on a Multiprocessor System on a Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijndhoven, J.T.J.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the issue of mapping 3D-TV rendering applications to a multiprocessor platform. The target platform aims to address tomorrow's multi-media consumer market. The prototype chip, called Wasabi, contains a set of TriMedia processors that communicate viaa shared memory, fast

  4. Dynamic Resolution in GPU-Accelerated Volume Rendering to Autostereoscopic Multiview Lenticular Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruijters

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of multiview stereoscopic images of large volume rendered data demands an enormous amount of calculations. We propose a method for hardware accelerated volume rendering of medical data sets to multiview lenticular displays, offering interactive manipulation throughout. The method is based on buffering GPU-accelerated direct volume rendered visualizations of the individual views from their respective focal spot positions, and composing the output signal for the multiview lenticular screen in a second pass. This compositing phase is facilitated by the fact that the view assignment per subpixel is static, and therefore can be precomputed. We decoupled the resolution of the individual views from the resolution of the composited signal, and adjust the resolution on-the-fly, depending on the available processing resources, in order to maintain interactive refresh rates. The optimal resolution for the volume rendered views is determined by means of an analysis of the lattice of the output signal for the lenticular screen in the Fourier domain.

  5. An Extension of Fourier-Wavelet Volume Rendering by View Interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, Michel A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an extension to Fourier-wavelet volume rendering (FWVR), which is a Fourier domain implementation of the wavelet X-ray transform. This transform combines integration along the line of sight with a simultaneous 2-D wavelet transform in the view plane perpendicular to this line.

  6. User evaluation of eight led light sources with different special colour rendering indices R9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Iversen, Anne; Logadottir, Asta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the influence of the special colour rendering index R9 on subjective red colour perception and Caucasian skin appearance among untrained test subjects. The light sources tested are commercially available LED based light sources with similar correlated colour temperature...

  7. Uniform illumination rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Rietman, R.

    2009-01-01

    An array of a large number of LEDs will be widely used in future indoor illumination systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of rendering uniform illumination by a regular LED array on the ceiling of a room. We first present two general results on the scaling property of the basic

  8. Interactive dual-volume rendering visualization with real-time fusion and transfer function enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macready, Hugh; Kim, Jinman; Feng, David; Cai, Weidong

    2006-03-01

    Dual-modality imaging scanners combining functional PET and anatomical CT constitute a challenge in volumetric visualization that can be limited by the high computational demand and expense. This study aims at providing physicians with multi-dimensional visualization tools, in order to navigate and manipulate the data running on a consumer PC. We have maximized the utilization of pixel-shader architecture of the low-cost graphic hardware and the texture-based volume rendering to provide visualization tools with high degree of interactivity. All the software was developed using OpenGL and Silicon Graphics Inc. Volumizer, tested on a Pentium mobile CPU on a PC notebook with 64M graphic memory. We render the individual modalities separately, and performing real-time per-voxel fusion. We designed a novel "alpha-spike" transfer function to interactively identify structure of interest from volume rendering of PET/CT. This works by assigning a non-linear opacity to the voxels, thus, allowing the physician to selectively eliminate or reveal information from the PET/CT volumes. As the PET and CT are rendered independently, manipulations can be applied to individual volumes, for instance, the application of transfer function to CT to reveal the lung boundary while adjusting the fusion ration between the CT and PET to enhance the contrast of a tumour region, with the resultant manipulated data sets fused together in real-time as the adjustments are made. In addition to conventional navigation and manipulation tools, such as scaling, LUT, volume slicing, and others, our strategy permits efficient visualization of PET/CT volume rendering which can potentially aid in interpretation and diagnosis.

  9. Validation of Thermal Lethality against Salmonella enterica in Poultry Offal during Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Ibarra, Amie-Marie; Acuff, Gary R; Alvarado, Christine Z; Taylor, T Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Recent outbreaks of human disease following contact with companion animal foods cross-contaminated with enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica, have resulted in increased concern regarding the microbiological safety of animal foods. Additionally, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act and its implementing rules have stipulated the implementation of current good manufacturing practices and food safety preventive controls for livestock and companion animal foods. Animal foods and feeds are sometimes formulated to include thermally rendered animal by-product meals. The objective of this research was to determine the thermal inactivation of S. enterica in poultry offal during rendering at differing temperatures. Raw poultry offal was obtained from a commercial renderer and inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella serovars Senftenberg, Enteritidis, and Gallinarum (an avian pathogen) prior to being subjected to heating at 150, 155, or 160°F (65.5, 68.3, or 71.1°C) for up to 15 min. Following heat application, surviving Salmonella bacteria were enumerated. Mean D-values for the Salmonella cocktail at 150, 155, and 160°F were 0.254 ± 0.045, 0.172 ± 0.012, and 0.086 ± 0.004 min, respectively, indicative of increasing susceptibility to increased application of heat during processing. The mean thermal process constant (z-value) was 21.948 ± 3.87°F. Results indicate that a 7.0-log-cycle inactivation of Salmonella may be obtained from the cumulative lethality encountered during the heating come-up period and subsequent rendering of raw poultry offal at temperatures not less than 150°F. Current poultry rendering procedures are anticipated to be effective for achieving necessary pathogen control when completed under sanitary conditions.

  10. Developing a Tile-Based Rendering Method to Improve Rendering Speed of 3D Geospatial Data with HTML5 and WebGL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokchan Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dedicated plug-in has been installed to visualize three-dimensional (3D city modeling spatial data in web-based applications. However, plug-in methods are gradually becoming obsolete, owing to their limited performance with respect to installation errors, unsupported cross-browsers, and security vulnerability. Particularly, in 2015, the NPAPI service was terminated in most existing web browsers except Internet Explorer. To overcome these problems, the HTML5/WebGL (next-generation web standard, confirmed in October 2014 technology emerged. In particular, WebGL is able to display 3D spatial data without plug-ins in browsers. In this study, we attempted to identify the requirements and limitations of displaying 3D city modeling spatial data using HTML5/WebGL, and we propose alternative ways based on the bin-packing algorithm that aggregates individual 3D city modeling data including buildings in tile units. The proposed method reduces the operational complexity and the number and volume of transmissions required for rendering processing to improve the speed of 3D data rendering. The proposed method was validated on real data for evaluating its effectiveness in 3D visualization of city modeling data in web-based applications.

  11. VIDEO ANIMASI 3D PENGENALAN RUMAH ADAT DAN ALAT MUSIK KEPRI DENGAN MENGUNAKAN TEKNIK RENDER CEL-SHADING

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfranco Irfian Asnawi; Afdhol Dzikri

    2016-01-01

    Animasi ini berjudul "video animasi 3D rumah adat dan alat musik Kepulauan Riau dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading" merupakan video yang bertujuan memperkenalkan alat-alat musik yang berasal dari kepulauan riau, Animasi ini akan diterapkan dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading. Cel-shading adalah teknik render yang menampilkan grafik 3D yang menyerupai gambar tangan, seperti gambar komik dan kartun. Teknik ini juga sudah di terapkan dalam game 3D yang ternyata menarik banyak ...

  12. Soluble theory with massive ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the unitarity of asymptotically free, higher-derivative theories, like certain models of quantum gravity, I study a prototype in two space-time dimensions. The prototype is a kind of higher-derivative nonlinear sigma model; it is asymptotically free, exhibits dimensional transmutation, and is soluble in a large-N expansion. The S-matrix elements, constructed from the analytic continuation of the Euclidean Green's functions, conserve probability to approx.O(N -1 ), but violate unitarity at approx.O(N -2 ). The model demonstrates that in higher-derivative theories unitarity, or the lack thereof, cannot be decided without explicit control over the infrared limit. Even so, the results suggest that there may exist some (rather special) asymptotically free, higher-derivative theories which are unitary

  13. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO2(cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Kitamura, Akira; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO 2 (cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg -1 . These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO 2 (am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO 2 (am) converts to HfO 2 (cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO 2 (cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO 2 (lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO 2 (cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log 10 K 0 values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO 2 (lcr)[HfO 2 (lcr) + 2H 2 O ↔ Hf 4+ + 4OH - ]. The log 10 of the solubility product of HfO 2 (cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  14. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO{sub 2}(cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat [Rai Enviro-Chem, LLC, Yachats, OR (United States); Kitamura, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO{sub 2}(cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg{sup -1}. These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO{sub 2}(am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO{sub 2}(am) converts to HfO{sub 2}(cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO{sub 2}(cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO{sub 2}(lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO{sub 2}(cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log{sub 10} K{sup 0} values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(lcr)[HfO{sub 2}(lcr) + 2H{sub 2}O ↔ Hf{sup 4+} + 4OH{sup -}]. The log{sub 10} of the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  15. Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve

  16. Solubility limits of importance to leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogard, A.; Bentley, G.; Bryant, E.; Duffy, C.; Grisham, J.; Norris, E.; Orth, C.; Thomas, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solubilities of some radionuclides, especially rare earths and actinides, may be an important and controlling factor in leaching of waste forms. These solubilities should be measured accurately as a function of pH and not as a part of a multicomponent system. Individual solubilities should be measured as a function of temperature to determine if a kinetic effect is being observed in the data. A negative temperature coefficient of solubility for actinides and rare earths in water would have important consequences for nuclear reactor safety and for the management of nuclear wastes

  17. Custom OpenStreetMap Rendering – OpenTrackMap Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bartoň

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available After 5 years of its existence, the OpenSteetMap [1] is becoming to be an important and valuable source of a geographic data for all people on the world. Although initially targeted to provide a map of cities for routing services, it can be exploited to other and often unexpected purposes. Such an utilization is an effort to map a network of hiking tracks of the Czech Tourist Club [2].  To support and apply this endeavour, the OpenTrackMap [3] project was started. Its aim is to primarily provide a customized rendering style for Mapnik renderer which emphasizes map features important to tourists and displays a layer with hiking tracks. This article presents obstacles which such project must face and it can be used as a tutorial for other projects of similar type.

  18. Rendering LGBTQ+ Visible in Nursing: Embodying the Philosophy of Caring Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lisa; Rosenburg, Neal; Watson, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Although health care institutions continue to address the importance of diversity initiatives, the standard(s) for treatment remain historically and institutionally grounded in a sociocultural privileging of heterosexuality. As a result, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) communities in health care remain largely invisible. This marked invisibility serves as a call to action, a renaissance of thinking within redefined boundaries and limitations. We must therefore refocus our habits of attention on the wholeness of persons and the diversity of their storied experiences as embodied through contemporary society. By rethinking current understandings of LGBTQ+ identities through innovative representation(s) of the media, music industry, and pop culture within a caring science philosophy, nurses have a transformative opportunity to render LGBTQ+ visible and in turn render a transformative opportunity for themselves.

  19. 3D virtual rendering in thoracoscopic treatment of congenital malformation of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destro F.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the lung (CML are rare but potentially dangerous congenital malformations. Their identification is important in order to define the most appropriate management. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 37 patients affected by CML treated in our Pediatric Surgery Unit in the last four years with minimally invasive surgery (MIS. Results: Prenatal diagnosis was possible in 26/37 patients. Surgery was performed in the first month of life in 3 symptomatic patients and between 6 and 12 months in the others. All patients underwent radiological evaluation prior to thoracoscopic surgery. Images collected were reconstructed using the VR render software. Discussion and conclusions: Volume rendering gives high anatomical resolution and it can be useful to guide the surgical procedure. Thoracoscopy should be the technique of choice because it is safe, effective and feasible. Furthermore it has the benefit of a minimal access technique and it can be easily performed in children.

  20. Volume-Rendered 3D Display Of MR Angiograms in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Hachiya, J. [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Shiokawa, Y. [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2003-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether application of a volume-rendered display of 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography could assist the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Material and Methods: Volume-rendered 3D images of postcontrast 3D time-of-flight MR angiography were compared with conventional angiograms in 12 patients. The correlation between the 3D images and the operative findings was also analyzed in 5 patients. Results: The 3D-displayed images showed all of the feeders and drainers in 10 and 9 patients, respectively. In all patients, the nidus was three-dimensionally visualized. In 3 patients with hematomas, the relationship between the hematoma and the AVM was well demonstrated. The 3D images corresponded well with the operative findings in the 5 patients. Conclusion: This method is of help in assessing the relationship between the components of an AVM as well as that between an AVM and an associated hematoma.

  1. Volume-Rendered 3D Display Of MR Angiograms in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Hachiya, J.; Shiokawa, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether application of a volume-rendered display of 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography could assist the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Material and Methods: Volume-rendered 3D images of postcontrast 3D time-of-flight MR angiography were compared with conventional angiograms in 12 patients. The correlation between the 3D images and the operative findings was also analyzed in 5 patients. Results: The 3D-displayed images showed all of the feeders and drainers in 10 and 9 patients, respectively. In all patients, the nidus was three-dimensionally visualized. In 3 patients with hematomas, the relationship between the hematoma and the AVM was well demonstrated. The 3D images corresponded well with the operative findings in the 5 patients. Conclusion: This method is of help in assessing the relationship between the components of an AVM as well as that between an AVM and an associated hematoma

  2. Pyrite: A blender plugin for visualizing molecular dynamics simulations using industry-standard rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, Nivedita; Durrant, Jacob D

    2018-05-05

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide critical insights into many biological mechanisms. Programs such as VMD, Chimera, and PyMOL can produce impressive simulation visualizations, but they lack many advanced rendering algorithms common in the film and video-game industries. In contrast, the modeling program Blender includes such algorithms but cannot import MD-simulation data. MD trajectories often require many gigabytes of memory/disk space, complicating Blender import. We present Pyrite, a Blender plugin that overcomes these limitations. Pyrite allows researchers to visualize MD simulations within Blender, with full access to Blender's cutting-edge rendering techniques. We expect Pyrite-generated images to appeal to students and non-specialists alike. A copy of the plugin is available at http://durrantlab.com/pyrite/, released under the terms of the GNU General Public License Version 3. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Moisture transport properties of brick – comparison of exposed, impregnated and rendered brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2016-01-01

    In regards to internal insulation of preservation worthy brick façades, external moisture sources, such as wind-driven rain exposure, inevitably has an impact on moisture conditions within the masonry construction. Surface treatments, such as hydrophobation or render, may remedy the impacts...... of external moisture. In the present paper the surface absorption of liquid water on masonry façades of untreated, hydrophobated and rendered brick, are determined experimentally and compared. The experimental work focuses on methods that can be applied on-site, Karsten tube measurements. These measurements...... are supplemented with results from laboratory measurements of water absorption coefficient by partial immersion. Based on obtained measurement results, simulations are made with external liquid water loads for determination of moisture conditions within the masonry of different surface treatments. Experimental...

  4. Waqf as a Tool for Rendering Social Welfare Services in the Social Entrepreneurship Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmudul Alam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Islamic entrepreneurship centers on ensuring community well-being as the priority, which is one of the important objectives (Maqasid of the Islamic Shari’ah. Historically, waqf played a significant role in the Islamic economic system, particularly in rendering exemplary welfare services in the areas of healthcare, education, social welfare, environmental, and other community-based programs. However, only a few success stories in recent history have institutionally utilized the properties of waqf under proper management to achieve its substantial objectives. This study uses the literature review as basis to analyze the reasons behind the successful utilization of waqf as an effective tool to ensure social welfare services in the past, as well as how this model can be replicated by considering current contexts. This study will assist Islamic valuecentric entrepreneurs, regulatory authorities, investors, and researchers to gain an overall insight into the potentials of waqf as a tool for rendering commendable social welfare services.

  5. Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Steffler, Eric D.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2016-11-08

    Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include a containment structure having a first compartment that is configured to receive a device therein and a movable member configured to receive a cartridge having reactant material therein. The movable member is configured to be inserted into the first compartment of the containment structure and to ignite the reactant material within the cartridge. Methods of rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include disposing the device into the first compartment of the containment structure, inserting the movable member into the first compartment of the containment structure, igniting the reactant material in the cartridge, and expelling molten metal onto the device.

  6. Subsurface Scattering-Based Object Rendering Techniques for Real-Time Smartphone Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Sun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface scattering that simulates the path of a light through the material in a scene is one of the advanced rendering techniques in the field of computer graphics society. Since it takes a number of long operations, it cannot be easily implemented in real-time smartphone games. In this paper, we propose a subsurface scattering-based object rendering technique that is optimized for smartphone games. We employ our subsurface scattering method that is utilized for a real-time smartphone game. And an example game is designed to validate how the proposed method can be operated seamlessly in real time. Finally, we show the comparison results between bidirectional reflectance distribution function, bidirectional scattering distribution function, and our proposed subsurface scattering method on a smartphone game.

  7. A Semi-automated Approach to Improve the Efficiency of Medical Imaging Segmentation for Haptic Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pat; Hu, Mengqi; Kannan, Rahul; Krishnaswamy, Srinivasan

    2017-08-01

    The Sensimmer platform represents our ongoing research on simultaneous haptics and graphics rendering of 3D models. For simulation of medical and surgical procedures using Sensimmer, 3D models must be obtained from medical imaging data, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Image segmentation techniques are used to determine the anatomies of interest from the images. 3D models are obtained from segmentation and their triangle reduction is required for graphics and haptics rendering. This paper focuses on creating 3D models by automating the segmentation of CT images based on the pixel contrast for integrating the interface between Sensimmer and medical imaging devices, using the volumetric approach, Hough transform method, and manual centering method. Hence, automating the process has reduced the segmentation time by 56.35% while maintaining the same accuracy of the output at ±2 voxels.

  8. A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Greg [Anywhere Software, Albany, CA (United States); Kurt, Murat [International Computer Institute, Ege University (Turkey); Bonneel, Nicolas [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The utilization of real-world materials has been hindered by a lack of standards for sharing and interpreting measured data. This paper presents an XML representation and an Open Source C library to support bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) in data-driven lighting simulation and rendering applications.The library provides for the efficient representation, query, and Monte Carlo sampling of arbitrary BSDFs in amodel-free framework. Currently, we support two BSDF data representations: one using a fixed subdivision of thehemisphere, and one with adaptive density. The fixed type has advantages for certain matrix operations, while theadaptive type can more accurately represent highly peaked data. We discuss advanced methods for data-drivenBSDF rendering for both types, including the proxy of detailed geometry to enhance appearance and accuracy.We also present an advanced interpolation method to reduce measured data into these standard representations.We end with our plan for future extensions and sharing of BSDF data.

  9. Detection of Prion Proteins and TSE Infectivity in the Rendering and Biodiesel Manufacture Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.; Keller, B.; Oleschuk, R. [Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    This paper addresses emerging issues related to monitoring prion proteins and TSE infectivity in the products and waste streams of rendering and biodiesel manufacture processes. Monitoring is critical to addressing the knowledge gaps identified in 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction' (IEA's AMF Annex XXX, 2006) that prevent comprehensive risk assessment of TSE infectivity in products and waste. The most important challenge for monitoring TSE risk is the wide variety of sample types, which are generated at different points in the rendering/biodiesel production continuum. Conventional transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) assays were developed for specified risk material (SRM) and other biological tissues. These, however, are insufficient to address the diverse sample matrices produced in rendering and biodiesel manufacture. This paper examines the sample types expected in rendering and biodiesel manufacture and the implications of applying TSE assay methods to them. The authors then discuss a sample preparation filtration, which has not yet been applied to these sample types, but which has the potential to provide or significantly improve TSE monitoring. The main improvement will come from transfer of the prion proteins from the sample matrix to a matrix compatible with conventional and emerging bioassays. A second improvement will come from preconcentrating the prion proteins, which means transferring proteins from a larger sample volume into a smaller volume for analysis to provide greater detection sensitivity. This filtration method may also be useful for monitoring other samples, including wash waters and other waste streams, which may contain SRM, including those from abattoirs and on-farm operations. Finally, there is a discussion of emerging mass spectrometric methods, which Prusiner and others have shown to be suitable for detection and characterisation of prion proteins (Stahl

  10. LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

    2013-09-01

    The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

  11. FluoRender: joint freehand segmentation and visualization for many-channel fluorescence data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Otsuna, Hideo; Holman, Holly A; Bagley, Brig; Ito, Masayoshi; Lewis, A Kelsey; Colasanto, Mary; Kardon, Gabrielle; Ito, Kei; Hansen, Charles

    2017-05-26

    Image segmentation and registration techniques have enabled biologists to place large amounts of volume data from fluorescence microscopy, morphed three-dimensionally, onto a common spatial frame. Existing tools built on volume visualization pipelines for single channel or red-green-blue (RGB) channels have become inadequate for the new challenges of fluorescence microscopy. For a three-dimensional atlas of the insect nervous system, hundreds of volume channels are rendered simultaneously, whereas fluorescence intensity values from each channel need to be preserved for versatile adjustment and analysis. Although several existing tools have incorporated support of multichannel data using various strategies, the lack of a flexible design has made true many-channel visualization and analysis unavailable. The most common practice for many-channel volume data presentation is still converting and rendering pseudosurfaces, which are inaccurate for both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Here, we present an alternative design strategy that accommodates the visualization and analysis of about 100 volume channels, each of which can be interactively adjusted, selected, and segmented using freehand tools. Our multichannel visualization includes a multilevel streaming pipeline plus a triple-buffer compositing technique. Our method also preserves original fluorescence intensity values on graphics hardware, a crucial feature that allows graphics-processing-unit (GPU)-based processing for interactive data analysis, such as freehand segmentation. We have implemented the design strategies as a thorough restructuring of our original tool, FluoRender. The redesign of FluoRender not only maintains the existing multichannel capabilities for a greatly extended number of volume channels, but also enables new analysis functions for many-channel data from emerging biomedical-imaging techniques.

  12. An image-based approach to the rendering of crowds in real-time

    OpenAIRE

    Tecchia, Franco

    2007-01-01

    The wide use of computer graphics in games, entertainment, medical, architectural and cultural applications, has led it to becoming a prevalent area of research. Games and entertainment in general have become one of the driving forces of the real-time computer graphics industry, bringing reasonably realistic, complex and appealing virtual worlds to the mass-market. At the current stage of technology, an user can interactively navigate through complex, polygon-based scenes rendered with sophis...

  13. Efficient Algorithms for Real-Time GPU Volumetric Cloud Rendering with Enhanced Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Jiménez de Parga; Sebastián Rubén Gómez Palomo

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents several new techniques for volumetric cloud rendering using efficient algorithms and data structures based on ray-tracing methods for cumulus generation, achieving an optimum balance between realism and performance. These techniques target applications such as flight simulations, computer games, and educational software, even with conventional graphics hardware. The contours of clouds are defined by implicit mathematical expressions or triangulated structures inside which ...

  14. Unconscious neural processing differs with method used to render stimuli invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Victor Fogelson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF. In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.

  15. Unconscious neural processing differs with method used to render stimuli invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Sergey V; Kohler, Peter J; Miller, Kevin J; Granger, Richard; Tse, Peter U

    2014-01-01

    Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS) or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF). In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.

  16. CT portography by multidetector helical CT. Comparison of three rendering models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Imuta, Masanori; Funama, Yoshinori; Kadota, Masataka; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of multidetector CT portography in visualizing varices and portosystemic collaterals in comparison with conventional portography, and to compare the visualizations obtained by three rendering models (volume rendering, VR; minimum intensity projection, MIP; and shaded surface display, SSD). A total of 46 patients with portal hypertension were examined by CT and conventional portography for evaluation of portosystemic collaterals. CT portography was performed by multidetector CT (MD-CT) scanner with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm and table feed of 7.5 mm. Three types of CT portographic models were generated and compared with transarterial portography. Among 46 patients, 48 collaterals were identified on CT transverse images, while 38 collaterals were detected on transarterial portography. Forty-four of 48 collaterals identified on CT transverse images were visualized with the MIP model, while 34 and 29 collaterals were visualized by the VR and SSD methods, respectively. The average CT value for the portal vein and varices was 198 HU with data acquisition of 50 sec after contrast material injection. CT portography by multidetector CT provides excellent images in the visualization of portosystemic collaterals. The images of collaterals produced by MD-CT are superior to those of transarterial portography. Among the three rendering techniques, MIP provides the best visualization of portosystemic collaterals. (author)

  17. One-Dimensional Haptic Rendering Using Audio Speaker with Displacement Determined by Inductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avin Khera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report overall design considerations and preliminary results for a new haptic rendering device based on an audio loudspeaker. Our application models tissue properties during microsurgery. For example, the device could respond to the tip of a tool by simulating a particular tissue, displaying a desired compressibility and viscosity, giving way as the tissue is disrupted, or exhibiting independent motion, such as that caused by pulsations in blood pressure. Although limited to one degree of freedom and with a relatively small range of displacement compared to other available haptic rendering devices, our design exhibits high bandwidth, low friction, low hysteresis, and low mass. These features are consistent with modeling interactions with delicate tissues during microsurgery. In addition, our haptic rendering device is designed to be simple and inexpensive to manufacture, in part through an innovative method of measuring displacement by existing variations in the speaker’s inductance as the voice coil moves over the permanent magnet. Low latency and jitter are achieved by running the real-time simulation models on a dedicated microprocessor, while maintaining bidirectional communication with a standard laptop computer for user controls and data logging.

  18. Forensic 3D Visualization of CT Data Using Cinematic Volume Rendering: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars C; Schweitzer, Wolf; Gascho, Dominic; Ruder, Thomas D; Flach, Patricia M; Thali, Michael J; Ampanozi, Garyfalia

    2017-02-01

    The 3D volume-rendering technique (VRT) is commonly used in forensic radiology. Its main function is to explain medical findings to state attorneys, judges, or police representatives. New visualization algorithms permit the generation of almost photorealistic volume renderings of CT datasets. The objective of this study is to present and compare a variety of radiologic findings to illustrate the differences between and the advantages and limitations of the current VRT and the physically based cinematic rendering technique (CRT). Seventy volunteers were shown VRT and CRT reconstructions of 10 different cases. They were asked to mark the findings on the images and rate them in terms of realism and understandability. A total of 48 of the 70 questionnaires were returned and included in the analysis. On the basis of most of the findings presented, CRT appears to be equal or superior to VRT with respect to the realism and understandability of the visualized findings. Overall, in terms of realism, the difference between the techniques was statistically significant (p 0.05). CRT, which is similar to conventional VRT, is not primarily intended for diagnostic radiologic image analysis, and therefore it should be used primarily as a tool to deliver visual information in the form of radiologic image reports. Using CRT for forensic visualization might have advantages over using VRT if conveying a high degree of visual realism is of importance. Most of the shortcomings of CRT have to do with the software being an early prototype.

  19. CT portography by multidetector helical CT. Comparison of three rendering models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Imuta, Masanori; Funama, Yoshinori; Kadota, Masataka; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of multidetector CT portography in visualizing varices and portosystemic collaterals in comparison with conventional portography, and to compare the visualizations obtained by three rendering models (volume rendering, VR; minimum intensity projection, MIP; and shaded surface display, SSD). A total of 46 patients with portal hypertension were examined by CT and conventional portography for evaluation of portosystemic collaterals. CT portography was performed by multidetector CT (MD-CT) scanner with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm and table feed of 7.5 mm. Three types of CT portographic models were generated and compared with transarterial portography. Among 46 patients, 48 collaterals were identified on CT transverse images, while 38 collaterals were detected on transarterial portography. Forty-four of 48 collaterals identified on CT transverse images were visualized with the MIP model, while 34 and 29 collaterals were visualized by the VR and SSD methods, respectively. The average CT value for the portal vein and varices was 198 HU with data acquisition of 50 sec after contrast material injection. CT portography by multidetector CT provides excellent images in the visualization of portosystemic collaterals. The images of collaterals produced by MD-CT are superior to those of transarterial portography. Among the three rendering techniques, MIP provides the best visualization of portosystemic collaterals. (author)

  20. Simulation and training of lumbar punctures using haptic volume rendering and a 6DOF haptic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Matthias; Heller, Julika; Handels, Heinz

    2007-03-01

    The lumbar puncture is performed by inserting a needle into the spinal chord of the patient to inject medicaments or to extract liquor. The training of this procedure is usually done on the patient guided by experienced supervisors. A virtual reality lumbar puncture simulator has been developed in order to minimize the training costs and the patient's risk. We use a haptic device with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) to feedback forces that resist needle insertion and rotation. An improved haptic volume rendering approach is used to calculate the forces. This approach makes use of label data of relevant structures like skin, bone, muscles or fat and original CT data that contributes information about image structures that can not be segmented. A real-time 3D visualization with optional stereo view shows the punctured region. 2D visualizations of orthogonal slices enable a detailed impression of the anatomical context. The input data consisting of CT and label data and surface models of relevant structures is defined in an XML file together with haptic rendering and visualization parameters. In a first evaluation the visible human male data has been used to generate a virtual training body. Several users with different medical experience tested the lumbar puncture trainer. The simulator gives a good haptic and visual impression of the needle insertion and the haptic volume rendering technique enables the feeling of unsegmented structures. Especially, the restriction of transversal needle movement together with rotation constraints enabled by the 6DOF device facilitate a realistic puncture simulation.

  1. A Single Swede Midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Larva Can Render Cauliflower Unmarketable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Chase A; Hodgdon, Elisabeth A; Zuckerman, Samuel G; Shelton, Anthony M; Chen, Yolanda H

    2018-05-01

    Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is an invasive pest causing significant damage on Brassica crops in the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. Heading brassicas, like cauliflower, appear to be particularly susceptible. Swede midge is difficult to control because larvae feed concealed inside meristematic tissues of the plant. In order to develop damage and marketability thresholds necessary for integrated pest management, it is important to determine how many larvae render plants unmarketable and whether the timing of infestation affects the severity of damage. We manipulated larval density (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20) per plant and the timing of infestation (30, 55, and 80 d after seeding) on cauliflower in the lab and field to answer the following questions: 1) What is the swede midge damage threshold? 2) How many swede midge larvae can render cauliflower crowns unmarketable? and 3) Does the age of cauliflower at infestation influence the severity of damage and marketability? We found that even a single larva can cause mild twisting and scarring in the crown rendering cauliflower unmarketable 52% of the time, with more larvae causing more severe damage and additional losses, regardless of cauliflower age at infestation.

  2. Adaptive B-spline volume representation of measured BRDF data for photorealistic rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measured bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF data have been used to represent complex interaction between lights and surface materials for photorealistic rendering. However, their massive size makes it hard to adopt them in practical rendering applications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive method for B-spline volume representation of measured BRDF data. It basically performs approximate B-spline volume lofting, which decomposes the problem into three sub-problems of multiple B-spline curve fitting along u-, v-, and w-parametric directions. Especially, it makes the efficient use of knots in the multiple B-spline curve fitting and thereby accomplishes adaptive knot placement along each parametric direction of a resulting B-spline volume. The proposed method is quite useful to realize efficient data reduction while smoothing out the noises and keeping the overall features of BRDF data well. By applying the B-spline volume models of real materials for rendering, we show that the B-spline volume models are effective in preserving the features of material appearance and are suitable for representing BRDF data.

  3. Determination of soluble protein contents from RVNRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Nurulhuda Othman

    1996-01-01

    This project was carried out to determine the soluble protein contents on RVNRL film vulcanisates, with respect to the RVNRL storage time, gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the latex and the effect of different leaching time and leaching conditions. These three factors are important in the hope to determine the best possible mean of minimizing the soluble protein contents in products made from RVNRL. Within the nine months storage period employed in the study, the results show that, the longer the storage period the less the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. Gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the samples, between 5.3 kGy to 25.2 kGy seems to influence the soluble protein contents of the RVNRL films vulcanisates. The higher the dose the more was the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. At an absorbed dose of 5.3 kGy and 25.2 kGy, the soluble contents were 0. 198 mg/ml and 0.247 mg/ml respectively. At a fixed leaching temperature, the soluble proteins increases with leaching time and at a fixed leaching time, the soluble proteins increases with leaching temperature. ne highest extractable protein contents was determined at a leaching time of 10 minutes and leaching temperature of 90'C The protein analysis were done by using Modified Lowry Method

  4. Solubility Study of Curatives in Various Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, R.; Talma, Auke; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The previous works on solubility of curatives in rubbers were mainly carried out in natural rubber. Not too much information available on dissimilar rubbers and this is important because most of the compounds today are blends of dissimilar rubbers. Although solubility can be expected to certain

  5. Solubility Products of M(II) - Carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, Rolf; Berner, Urs

    1999-01-01

    Many solubility data for M(II) carbonates commonly compiled in tables are contradictory and sometimes obviously wrong. The quality of such data has been evaluated based on the original publications and reliable solubility constants have been selected for the carbonates of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb with the help of cross-comparisons. (author)

  6. Hansen Solubility Parameters for Octahedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    1997, 80, 386-&. 5. Hansen, C. M. The three-dimensional solubility parameter -- key to paint component affinities I. J. Paint Technol. 1967, 39, 104...Chai, J.; Zhang, Q. X.; Han, D. X.; Niu, L. Synthesis and Application of Widely Soluble Graphene Sheets. Langmuir 2010, 26, 12314-12320. 12. Hansen, C

  7. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  8. The lime renderings from plaza de la Corredera, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, T.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The causes of the pathologies found on the lime renderings from Plaza de la Corredera façades are analysed in this study. For this purpose, the mineralogical and chemical analyses of the building materials -brickwork and rendering mortar- has been carried out, as well as their physical, hydric and mechanical properties have been determined. The obtained results from both unaltered and altered materials, and the analysis of the rendering's raw materials, have allowed us to establish that rendering deterioration is connected to the presence of saline compounds (gypsum, halite, which existing in the brickwork substratum, have been removed due to the water saturation of such brickwork. The main cause responsible of the alteration forms - efflorescence, crusts, grain-disintegration, bulging, flaking found on the renderings, has been the salts precipitation (halite, hexahydrite, epsomite in their way towards the external surface.

    En este estudio se analizan las causas de las patologías de los revocos de cal de las fachadas de la Plaza de la Corredera. Para ello se ha realizado el análisis mineralógico y químico de los materiales de construcción - fábrica de ladrillo y mortero de revestimiento- y se han determinado sus propiedades físicas, hídricas y mecánicas. Mediante la comparación de los resultados obtenidos en los materiales inalterados y en los alterados, así como una vez analizadas las materias primas utilizadas en la realización del revoco, se ha podido establecer que la alteración de este último está relacionada con la existencia de compuestos salinos (yeso, halita que, presentes en el substrato de fábrica de ladrillo, se han exudado por saturación de agua de la misma. La precipitación de las sales (halita, hexahidrita, epsomita en su migración hacia el exterior ha sido la principal responsable de las formas de alteración -eflorescencias, costras, arenización, abombamientos, descamaciones- que aparecen sobre los

  9. Visualization of normal and abnormal inner ear with volume rendering technique using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hui; Han Ping; Liang Bo; Lei Ziqiao; Liu Fang; Tian Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of the volume rendering technique to display the normal and abnormal inner ear structures. Methods: Forty normal earand 61 abnormal inner ears (40 congenital inner ear malformations, 7 labyrinthitis ossificans, and 14 inner ear erosion caused by cholesteatomas) were examined with a MSCT scanner. Axial imaging were performed using the following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm slice thickness, a pitch factor of 1. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment and a FOV of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique on the workstation. Results: In the subjects without ear disorders a high quality 3D visualization of the inner ear could be achieved. In the patients with inner ear' disorders all inner ear malformations could be clearly displayed on 3D images as follows: (1) Michel deformity (one ear): There was complete absence of all cochlear and vestibular structures. (2) common cavity deformity (3 ears): The cochlea and vestibule were represented by a cystic cavity and couldn't be differentiated from each other. (3)incomplete partition type I (3 ears): The cochlea lacked the entire modiolus and cribriform area, resulting in a cystic appearance. (4) incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears): The cochlea consisted of 1.5 turns, in which the middle and apical turns coalesced to form a cystic apex. (5) vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears): Cochlea was normal, vestibule dilated, semicircular canals were absent, hypoplastic or enlarged. (6) dilated vestibular aqueduct (14 ears): The vestibular aqueduct was bell-mouthed. In 7 patients with labyrinthifis ossificans, 3D images failed to clearly show the completeinner ears in 4 ears because of too high ossifications in the membranous labyrinth. In the other 3 ears volume rendering could display the thin cochlea basal turn and the intermittent semicircular canals. In the patients

  10. Water-soluble resist for environmentally friendly lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinghuang; Simpson, Logan L.; Steinhaeusler, Thomas; Wilder, Michelle; Willson, C. Grant; Havard, Jennifer M.; Frechet, Jean M. J.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes an 'environmentally friendly,' water castable, water developable photoresist system. The chemically amplified negative-tone resist system consists of three water-soluble components: a polymer, poly(methyl acrylamidoglycolate methyl ether), [poly(MAGME)]; a photoacid generator, dimethyl dihydroxyphenylsulfonium triflate and a crosslinker, butanediol. Poly(MAGME) was synthesized by solution free radical polymerization. In the three-component resist system, the acid generated by photolysis of the photoacid generator catalyzes the crosslinking of poly(MAGME) in the exposed regions during post-exposure baking, thus rendering the exposed regions insoluble in water. Negative tone relief images are obtained by developing with pure water. The resist is able to resolve 1 micrometer line/space features (1:1 aspect ratio) with an exposure dose of 100 mJ/cm2 at 248 nm. The resist can be used to generate etched copper relief images on printed circuit boards using aqueous sodium persulfate as the etchant. The crosslinking mechanism has been investigated by model compound studies using 13C NMR. These studies have revealed that the acid catalyzed reaction of the poly(MAGME) with butanediol proceeds via both transesterification and transacetalization (transaminalization) reactions at low temperatures, and also via transamidation at high temperatures.

  11. Indomethacin solubility estimation in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures by the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller A Ruidiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA was successfully applied to evaluate the solubility of Indomethacin in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlation-performance of EHSA was found by using a regular polynomial model in order four of the W interaction parameter vs. solubility parameter of the mixtures (overall deviation was 8.9%. Although the mean deviation obtained was similar to that obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility vs. mixtures solubility parameters, the advantages of EHSA are evident because it requires physicochemical properties easily available for drugs.

  12. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. VIDEO ANIMASI 3D PENGENALAN RUMAH ADAT DAN ALAT MUSIK KEPRI DENGAN MENGUNAKAN TEKNIK RENDER CEL-SHADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfranco Irfian Asnawi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Animasi ini berjudul "video animasi 3D rumah adat dan alat musik Kepulauan Riau dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading" merupakan video yang bertujuan memperkenalkan alat-alat musik yang berasal dari kepulauan riau, Animasi ini akan diterapkan dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading. Cel-shading adalah teknik render yang menampilkan grafik 3D yang menyerupai gambar tangan, seperti gambar komik dan kartun. Teknik ini juga sudah di terapkan dalam game 3D yang ternyata menarik banyak perhatian peminat. Teknik ini akan di terapkan kedalam animasi 3D "video animasi rumah adat dan alat musik kepulauan riau dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading" Animasi di rancang menggunakan skenario dan storyboard kemudian di implementasikan dalam software 3D MAYA AUTODESK dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading. Setelah diterapkan maka di dapatkan definisi keberhasilan dari teknik render cel shading di bandingkan dengan teknik render global illumination seperti dari kecepatan dalam merender dan tingkat kecerahan warna pada video. Kata kunci: animasi, game 3D, cel-shading.

  14. Solubilities of uranium for TILA-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.; Ahonen, L.

    1998-11-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the uranium solubilities in the reference waters of TILA-99. The behaviour of uranium has been discussed separately in the near-field and far-field conditions. The bentonite/groundwater interactions have been considered in the compositions of the fresh and saline near-field reference waters. The far-field groundwaters' compositions include fresh, brackish, saline and very saline, almost brine-type compositions. The pH and redox conditions, as the main parameters affecting the solubilities, are considered. A literature study was made in order to obtain information on the recent dissolution and leaching experiments of UO 2 and spent fuel. The latest literature includes studies on UO 2 solubility under anoxic conditions, in which the methods for simulating the reducing conditions of deep groundwater have been improved. Studies on natural uraninite and its alteration products give a valuable insight into the long-term behaviour of spent fuel. Also the solubility equilibria for some relevant poorly known uranium minerals have been determined. The solubilities of the selected solubility-limiting phases were calculated using the geochemical code, EQ3/6. The NEA database for uranium was the basis for the modelling. The recently extended and updated SR '97 database was used for comparison. The solubility products for uranophane were taken from the latest literature. The recommended values for solubilities were given after a comparison between the calculated solubilities, experimental information and measured concentrations in natural groundwaters. The experiments include several UO 2 dissolution studies in synthetic groundwaters with compositions close to the reference groundwaters. (author)

  15. Solubilities of uranium for TILA-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollila, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the uranium solubilities in the reference waters of TILA-99. The behaviour of uranium has been discussed separately in the near-field and far-field conditions. The bentonite/groundwater interactions have been considered in the compositions of the fresh and saline near-field reference waters. The far-field groundwaters` compositions include fresh, brackish, saline and very saline, almost brine-type compositions. The pH and redox conditions, as the main parameters affecting the solubilities, are considered. A literature study was made in order to obtain information on the recent dissolution and leaching experiments of UO{sub 2} and spent fuel. The latest literature includes studies on UO{sub 2} solubility under anoxic conditions, in which the methods for simulating the reducing conditions of deep groundwater have been improved. Studies on natural uraninite and its alteration products give a valuable insight into the long-term behaviour of spent fuel. Also the solubility equilibria for some relevant poorly known uranium minerals have been determined. The solubilities of the selected solubility-limiting phases were calculated using the geochemical code, EQ3/6. The NEA database for uranium was the basis for the modelling. The recently extended and updated SR `97 database was used for comparison. The solubility products for uranophane were taken from the latest literature. The recommended values for solubilities were given after a comparison between the calculated solubilities, experimental information and measured concentrations in natural groundwaters. The experiments include several UO{sub 2} dissolution studies in synthetic groundwaters with compositions close to the reference groundwaters. (author) 81 refs.

  16. Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slapa Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR, applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v. 8.2. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of thyroid cancers identified by 3D ultrasound include: (a ill-defined borders of the nodule on MPR presentation, (b a lobulated shape of the nodule in the c-plane and (c a density of central vessels in the nodule within the minimal or maximal ranges. Combination of features provided sensitivity 100% and specificity 60-69% for thyroid cancer. Calcification/microcalcification-like echogenic foci on 3D ultrasound proved not to be a risk factor of thyroid cancer. Storage of the 3D data of the whole nodules enabled subsequent evaluation of new parameters and with new rendering algorithms. Conclusions Our results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. 3D ultrasound stores volumes comprising the whole lesion or organ. Future detailed evaluations of the data are possible, looking for features that were not fully appreciated at the time of collection or applying new algorithms for volume rendering in order to gain important information. Three-dimensional ultrasound data could be included in thyroid cancer databases. Further multicenter large scale studies are warranted.

  17. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  18. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  19. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1 synthetic and (2 natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogels and other water soluble drug polymer complexes have also been explained. The general properties and applications of different water soluble polymers in the formulation of different dosage forms, novel delivery systems and biomedical applications will be discussed.

  20. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  1. A Case Study of a Hybrid Parallel 3D Surface Rendering Graphics Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the design strategy used inbuilding a graphics computer, for drawing very complex 3Dgeometric surfaces. The goal is to build a PC based computer systemcapable of handling surfaces built from about 2 million triangles, andto be able to render a perspective view...... of these on a computer displayat interactive frame rates, i.e. processing around 50 milliontriangles per second. The paper presents a hardware/softwarearchitecture called HPGA (Hybrid Parallel Graphics Architecture) whichis likely to be able to carry out this task. The case study focuses ontechniques to increase...

  2. Three-dimensional rendering of otolith growth using phase contrast synchrotron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, J J I; Fisher, M H; Atwood, R C; Bell, G D; Greco, M K; Songer, S; Hunter, E

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional computer reconstruction of a plaice Pleuronectes platessa otolith is presented from data acquired by the Diamond Light synchrotron, beamline I12, X-ray source, a high energy (53-150 keV) source particularly well suited to the study of dense objects. The data allowed non-destructive rendering of otolith structure, and for the first time allows otolith annuli (internal ring structures) to be analysed in X-ray tomographic images. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. [Rendering surgical care to wounded with neck wounds in an armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, I M; Zavrazhnov, A A; Fakhrutdinov, A M; Sychev, M I

    2001-10-01

    The results of rendering of the medical care (the first aid, qualified and specialized) obtained in 172 servicemen with neck injuries who stayed in Republic of Chechnya during the period from 09.08.1999 to 28.07.2000 were analyzed. Basing on the results of analysis and experience of casualties' treatment the authors discuss the problems of sequence and volume of surgical care in this group of casualties with reference to available medical evacuation system, surgical tactics at the stage of specialized care. They also consider the peculiarities of operative treatment of the casualties with neck injuries.

  4. Experimental and rendering-based investigation of laser radar cross sections of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Bacher, Emmanuel; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Laser imaging systems are prominent candidates for detection and tracking of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in current and future security scenarios. Laser reflection characteristics for laser imaging (e.g., laser gated viewing) of small UAVs are investigated to determine their laser radar cross section (LRCS) by analyzing the intensity distribution of laser reflection in high resolution images. For the first time, LRCSs are determined in a combined experimental and computational approaches by high resolution laser gated viewing and three-dimensional rendering. An optimized simple surface model is calculated taking into account diffuse and specular reflectance properties based on the Oren-Nayar and the Cook-Torrance reflectance models, respectively.

  5. Peeling tests for assessing the cohesion and consolidation characteristics of mortar and render surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Lesák, Jaroslav; Niedoba, Krzysztof; Valach, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2015), s. 1947-1963 ISSN 1359-5997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : peeling test * rendered surface * surface consolidation * cohesion * non-destructive testing Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1617/s11527-014-0285-8

  6. Semiconductive 3-D haloplumbate framework hybrids with high color rendering index white-light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-E; Xu, Gang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Cai, Li-Zhen; Li, Wen-Hua; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2015-12-01

    Single-component white light materials may create great opportunities for novel conventional lighting applications and display systems; however, their reported color rendering index (CRI) values, one of the key parameters for lighting, are less than 90, which does not satisfy the demand of color-critical upmarket applications, such as photography, cinematography, and art galleries. In this work, two semiconductive chloroplumbate (chloride anion of lead(ii)) hybrids, obtained using a new inorganic-organic hybrid strategy, show unprecedented 3-D inorganic framework structures and white-light-emitting properties with high CRI values around 90, one of which shows the highest value to date.

  7. Use of multidetector row CT with volume renderings in right lobe living liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishifuro, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Kushima, Toshio; Horiguchi, Jun; Nakashige, Aya; Tamura, Akihisa; Marukawa, Kazushi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ono, Chiaki; Ito, Katsuhide

    2002-01-01

    Multidetector row CT is a feasible diagnostic tool in pre- and postoperative liver partial transplantation. We can assess vascular anatomy and liver parenchyma as well as volumetry, which provide useful information for both donor selection and surgical planning. Disorders of the vascular and biliary systems are carefully observed in recipients. In addition, we evaluate liver regeneration of both the donor and the recipient by serial volumetry. We present how multidetector row CT with state-of-the-art three-dimensional volume renderings may be used in right lobe liver transplantation. (orig.)

  8. Uniform illumination rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Rietman, R.

    2009-01-01

    An array of a large number of LEDs will be widely used in future indoor illumination systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of rendering uniform illumination by a regular LED array on the ceiling of a room. We first present two general results on the scaling property of the basic illumination pattern, i.e., the light pattern of a single LED, and the setting of LED illumination levels, respectively. Thereafter, we propose to use the relative mean squared error as the cost function ...

  9. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of Solubility and Bioavailability of Candesartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the otherwise poor solubility and bioavailability of candesartan cilexetil (CDS). Methods: This ... PEG 6000-based solid dispersions showed 1st order drug release kinetics. ..... the liver due to quercetin's inhibitory effect on.

  11. An Introduction to the Understanding of Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Trevor M.; Battino, Rubin

    2001-01-01

    Explores different solubility processes and related issues, including the second law of thermodynamics and ideal mixtures, real liquids, intermolecular forces, and solids in liquids or gases in liquids. (Contains 22 references.) (ASK)

  12. Progress in the research of neptunium solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tao; Liu Yongye; Yao Jun

    2012-01-01

    237 Np is considered a possible long-term potential threat for environment, because of its long half-life, high toxicity and its mobile nature under aerobic conditions due to the high chemical stability of its pentavalent state. Therefore 237 Np is considered as one of high-level radioactive waste and need to be disposed in deep geologic disposal repository. The dissolution behavior is an important aspect of migration research. The solubility is considered very important for high level waste geological disposal safety and environmental evaluation. The solubility determines the maximum concentration of the discharge, and then it is initial concentration of the radionuclides migration to the environment. The solubility impact directly on radionuclides migration in host rock, and can be used to predict the concentration and speciation of radionuclides in groundwater around disposal sites many years later. This paper focused on research results of the solubility, some proposals for Np dissolution chemistry research were also been suggested. (authors)

  13. Development of volume rendering module for real-time visualization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Takayuki; Muramatsu, Kazuhiro

    2000-03-01

    Volume rendering is a method to visualize the distribution of physical quantities in the three dimensional space from any viewpoint by tracing the ray direction on the ordinary two dimensional monitoring display. It enables to provide the interior information as well as the surfacial one by producing the translucent images. Therefore, it is regarded as a very useful means as well as an important one in the analysis of the computational results of the scientific calculations, although it has, unfortunately, disadvantage to need a large amount of computing time. This report describes algorithm and its performance of the volume rendering soft-ware which was developed as an important functional module in the real-time visualization system PATRAS. This module can directly visualize the computed results on BFC grid. Moreover, it has already realized the speed-up in some parts of the software by the use of a newly developed heuristic technique. This report includes the investigation on the speed-up of the software by parallel processing. (author)

  14. State of the Art in Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Ljung, Patric; Krü ger, Jens; Groller, Eduard; Hadwiger, Markus; Hansen, Charles D.; Ynnerman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A central topic in scientific visualization is the transfer function (TF) for volume rendering. The TF serves a fundamental role in translating scalar and multivariate data into color and opacity to express and reveal the relevant features present in the data studied. Beyond this core functionality, TFs also serve as a tool for encoding and utilizing domain knowledge and as an expression for visual design of material appearances. TFs also enable interactive volumetric exploration of complex data. The purpose of this state-of-the-art report (STAR) is to provide an overview of research into the various aspects of TFs, which lead to interpretation of the underlying data through the use of meaningful visual representations. The STAR classifies TF research into the following aspects: dimensionality, derived attributes, aggregated attributes, rendering aspects, automation, and user interfaces. The STAR concludes with some interesting research challenges that form the basis of an agenda for the development of next generation TF tools and methodologies. © 2016 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2016 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluating Approaches to Rendering Braille Text on a High-Density Pin Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash, Valerie S; Russomanno, Alexander; Gillespie, R Brent; OModhrain, Sile

    2017-10-13

    Refreshable displays for tactile graphics are typically composed of pins that have smaller diameters and spacing than standard braille dots. We investigated configurations of high-density pins to form braille text on such displays using non-refreshable stimuli produced with a 3D printer. Normal dot braille (diameter 1.5 mm) was compared to high-density dot braille (diameter 0.75 mm) wherein each normal dot was rendered by high-density simulated pins alone or in a cluster of pins configured in a diamond, X, or square; and to "blobs" that could result from covering normal braille and high-density multi-pin configurations with a thin membrane. Twelve blind participants read MNREAD sentences displayed in these conditions. For high-density simulated pins, single pins were as quickly and easily read as normal braille, but diamond, X, and square multi-pin configurations were slower and/or harder to read than normal braille. We therefore conclude that as long as center-to-center dot spacing and dot placement is maintained, the dot diameter may be open to variability for rendering braille on a high density tactile display.

  16. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of rendering plant and slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayr, Suvi; Rantanen, Marianne; Kaparaju, Prasad; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    Co-digestion of rendering and slaughterhouse wastes was studied in laboratory scale semi-continuously fed continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 35 and 55 °C. All in all, 10 different rendering plant and slaughterhouse waste fractions were characterised showing high contents of lipids and proteins, and methane potentials of 262-572 dm(3)CH(4)/kg volatile solids(VS)(added). In mesophilic CSTR methane yields of ca 720 dm(3) CH(4)/kg VS(fed) were obtained with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.0 and 1.5 kg VS/m(3) d, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d. For thermophilic process, the lowest studied OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m(3) d, turned to be unstable after operation of 1.5 HRT, due to accumulating ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and probably also long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In conclusion, mesophilic process was found to be more feasible for co-digestion than thermophilic process, methane yields being higher and process more stable in mesophilic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical application of three-dimensional spiral CT cerebral angiography with volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaoyin; Huang Xi'en; Kang Jianghe; Zhang Dantong; Lin Qingchi; Cai Guoxiang; Xu Meixin; Pang Ruilin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology and assess the clinical value of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) with volume rendering (VR) in cerebral vessels. Methods: Sixty-two patients were examined by means of 3D-CTA with volume rendering. VR was used in the reconstruction of 3D images, and the demonstration of normal vessels and vascular lesions were particularly analyzed. At the same time, comparisons were made between the images of VR and SSD, MIP, and also between the diagnosis of VR-CTA and DSA or postoperative results. Results: In VR images, cerebral vessel routes and vessel cavities were showed clearly, while the relationship among vascular lesions, surrounding vessels, and neighboring structure was distinguished. 50 cases (80.6%) were found positive, 48 of which were correct and 2 were false-positive compared with DSA or postoperative results. The accurate rate of diagnosis was 96.0%. There was no obvious difference in showing the cerebral vessel among the images of VR, SSD and MIP (P > 0.25). Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT cerebral angiography with VR is a new noninvasive effective method. It can even partly replace the DSA. The 3D-images have the characteristics of showing the cerebral vascular cavity and overlapped vessels without cutting the skull

  18. INCREASING SAVING BEHAVIOR THROUGH AGE-PROGRESSED RENDERINGS OF THE FUTURE SELF

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERSHFIELD, HAL E.; GOLDSTEIN, DANIEL G.; SHARPE, WILLIAM F.; FOX, JESSE; YEYKELIS, LEO; CARSTENSEN, LAURA L.; BAILENSON, JEREMY N.

    2014-01-01

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones. PMID:24634544

  19. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering Architectures, Techniques and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yin; Yu, Lu; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Riding on the success of 3D cinema blockbusters and advances in stereoscopic display technology, 3D video applications have gathered momentum in recent years. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering: Architectures, Techniques and Challenges surveys depth-image-based 3D-TV systems, which are expected to be put into applications in the near future. Depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) significantly enhances the 3D visual experience compared to stereoscopic systems currently in use. DIBR techniques make it possible to generate additional viewpoints using 3D warping techniques to adjust the perceived depth of stereoscopic videos and provide for auto-stereoscopic displays that do not require glasses for viewing the 3D image.   The material includes a technical review and literature survey of components and complete systems, solutions for technical issues, and implementation of prototypes. The book is organized into four sections: System Overview, Content Generation, Data Compression and Transmission, and 3D V...

  20. INCREASING SAVING BEHAVIOR THROUGH AGE-PROGRESSED RENDERINGS OF THE FUTURE SELF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershfield, Hal E; Goldstein, Daniel G; Sharpe, William F; Fox, Jesse; Yeykelis, Leo; Carstensen, Laura L; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2011-11-01

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.

  1. Virtual endoscopy and 3D volume rendering in the management of frontal sinus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belina, Stanko; Cuk, Viseslav; Klapan, Ivica

    2009-12-01

    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are commonly caused by traffic accidents, assaults, industrial accidents and gunshot wounds. Classical roentgenography has high proportion of false negative findings in cases of FSF and is not particularly useful in examining the severity of damage to the frontal sinus posterior table and the nasofrontal duct region. High resolution computed tomography was inavoidable during the management of such patients but it may produce large quantity of 2D images. Postprocessing of datasets acquired by high resolution computer tomography from patients with severe head trauma may offer a valuable additional help in diagnostics and surgery planning. We performed virtual endoscopy (VE) and 3D volume rendering (3DVR) on high resolution CT data acquired from a 54-year-old man with with both anterior and posterior frontal sinus wall fracture in order to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Data acquisition was done by Siemens Somatom Emotion scanner and postprocessing was performed with Syngo 2006G software. VE and 3DVR were performed in a man who suffered blunt trauma to his forehead and nose in an traffic accident. Left frontal sinus anterior wall fracture without dislocation and fracture of tabula interna with dislocation were found. 3D position and orientation of fracture lines were shown in by 3D rendering software. We concluded that VE and 3DVR can clearly display the anatomic structure of the paranasal sinuses and nasopharyngeal cavity, revealing damage to the sinus wall caused by a fracture and its relationship to surrounding anatomical structures.

  2. Radionuclide cisternography: SPECT and 3D-rendering. Radionuklidzisternographie: SPECT- und 3D-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkes, H; Huber, G; Piepgras, U [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hierholzer, J [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Cordes, M [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Belzberg Lab. of Neuroscience

    1991-10-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is indicated in the clinical work-up for hydrocephalus, when searching for CSF leaks, and when testing whether or not intracranial cystic lesions are communicating with the adjacent subarachnoid space. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and diagnostic value of SPECT and subsequent 3D surface rendering in addition to conventional rectilinear CSF imaging in eight patients. Planar images allowed the evaluation of CSF circulation and the detection of CSF fistula. They were advantageous in examinations 48 h after application of {sup 111}In-DTPA. SPECT scans, generated 4-24 h after tracer application, were superior in the delineation of basal cisterns, especially in early scans; this was helpful in patients with pooling due to CSF fistula and in cystic lesions near the skull base. A major drawback was the limited image quality of delayed scans, when the SPECT data were degraded by a low count rate. 3D surface rendering was easily feasible from SPECT data and yielded high quality images. The presentation of the spatial distribution of nuclide-contaminated CSF proved especially helpful in the area of the basal cisterns. (orig.).

  3. Ethylene signaling renders the jasmonate response of Arabidopsis insensitive to future suppression by salicylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Du, Yujuan; Koornneef, Annemart; Proietti, Silvia; Körbes, Ana P; Memelink, Johan; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ritsema, Tita

    2010-02-01

    Cross-talk between jasmonate (JA), ethylene (ET), and Salicylic acid (SA) signaling is thought to operate as a mechanism to fine-tune induced defenses that are activated in response to multiple attackers. Here, 43 Arabidopsis genotypes impaired in hormone signaling or defense-related processes were screened for their ability to express SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Mutant cev1, which displays constitutive expression of JA and ET responses, appeared to be insensitive to SA-mediated suppression of the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Accordingly, strong activation of JA and ET responses by the necrotrophic pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola prior to SA treatment counteracted the ability of SA to suppress the JA response. Pharmacological assays, mutant analysis, and studies with the ET-signaling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene revealed that ET signaling renders the JA response insensitive to subsequent suppression by SA. The APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factor ORA59, which regulates JA/ET-responsive genes such as PDF1.2, emerged as a potential mediator in this process. Collectively, our results point to a model in which simultaneous induction of the JA and ET pathway renders the plant insensitive to future SA-mediated suppression of JA-dependent defenses, which may prioritize the JA/ET pathway over the SA pathway during multi-attacker interactions.

  4. Signal Processing Implementation and Comparison of Automotive Spatial Sound Rendering Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai MingsianR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and implementation strategies of spatial sound rendering are investigated in this paper for automotive scenarios. Six design methods are implemented for various rendering modes with different number of passengers. Specifically, the downmixing algorithms aimed at balancing the front and back reproductions are developed for the 5.1-channel input. Other five algorithms based on inverse filtering are implemented in two approaches. The first approach utilizes binaural (Head-Related Transfer Functions HRTFs measured in the car interior, whereas the second approach named the point-receiver model targets a point receiver positioned at the center of the passenger's head. The proposed processing algorithms were compared via objective and subjective experiments under various listening conditions. Test data were processed by the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA method and the least significant difference (Fisher's LSD method as a post hoc test to justify the statistical significance of the experimental data. The results indicate that inverse filtering algorithms are preferred for the single passenger mode. For the multipassenger mode, however, downmixing algorithms generally outperformed the other processing techniques.

  5. Complex adaptation-based LDR image rendering for 3D image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Hyuk-Ju; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

    2014-07-01

    A low-dynamic tone-compression technique is developed for realistic image rendering that can make three-dimensional (3D) images similar to realistic scenes by overcoming brightness dimming in the 3D display mode. The 3D surround provides varying conditions for image quality, illuminant adaptation, contrast, gamma, color, sharpness, and so on. In general, gain/offset adjustment, gamma compensation, and histogram equalization have performed well in contrast compression; however, as a result of signal saturation and clipping effects, image details are removed and information is lost on bright and dark areas. Thus, an enhanced image mapping technique is proposed based on space-varying image compression. The performance of contrast compression is enhanced with complex adaptation in a 3D viewing surround combining global and local adaptation. Evaluating local image rendering in view of tone and color expression, noise reduction, and edge compensation confirms that the proposed 3D image-mapping model can compensate for the loss of image quality in the 3D mode.

  6. In Vivo CT Direct Volume Rendering: A Three-Dimensional Anatomical Description of the Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Bruschetta, Daniele; Trimarchi, Fabio; Cacciola, Alberto; Cinquegrani, Maria; Duca, Antonio; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Alati, Emanuela; Gaeta, Michele; Milardi, Demetrio

    2016-01-01

    Since cardiac anatomy continues to play an important role in the practice of medicine and in the development of medical devices, the study of the heart in three dimensions is particularly useful to understand its real structure, function and proper location in the body. This study demonstrates a fine use of direct volume rendering, processing the data set images obtained by Computed Tomography (CT) of the heart of 5 subjects with age range between 18 and 42 years (2 male, 3 female), with no history of any overt cardiac disease. The cardiac structure in CT images was first extracted from the thorax by marking manually the regions of interest on the computer, and then it was stacked to create new volumetric data. The use of a specific algorithm allowed us to observe with a good perception of depth the heart and the skeleton of the thorax at the same time. Besides, in all examined subjects, it was possible to depict its structure and its position within the body and to study the integrity of papillary muscles, the fibrous tissue of cardiac valve and chordae tendineae and the course of coronary arteries. Our results demonstrated that one of the greatest advantages of algorithmic modifications of direct volume rendering parameters is that this method provides much necessary information in a single radiologic study. It implies a better accuracy in the study of the heart, being complementary to other diagnostic methods and facilitating the therapeutic plans

  7. Efficient Algorithms for Real-Time GPU Volumetric Cloud Rendering with Enhanced Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jiménez de Parga

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several new techniques for volumetric cloud rendering using efficient algorithms and data structures based on ray-tracing methods for cumulus generation, achieving an optimum balance between realism and performance. These techniques target applications such as flight simulations, computer games, and educational software, even with conventional graphics hardware. The contours of clouds are defined by implicit mathematical expressions or triangulated structures inside which volumetric rendering is performed. Novel techniques are used to reproduce the asymmetrical nature of clouds and the effects of light-scattering, with low computing costs. The work includes a new method to create randomized fractal clouds using a recursive grammar. The graphical results are comparable to those produced by state-of-the-art, hyper-realistic algorithms. These methods provide real-time performance, and are superior to particle-based systems. These outcomes suggest that our methods offer a good balance between realism and performance, and are suitable for use in the standard graphics industry.

  8. 3D cinematic rendering of the calvarium, maxillofacial structures, and skull base: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Steven P; Zinreich, S James; Fishman, Elliot K

    2018-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualizations of volumetric data from CT have gained widespread clinical acceptance and are an important method for evaluating complex anatomy and pathology. Recently, cinematic rendering (CR), a new 3D visualization methodology, has become available. CR utilizes a lighting model that allows for the production of photorealistic images from isotropic voxel data. Given how new this technique is, studies to evaluate its clinical utility and any potential advantages or disadvantages relative to other 3D methods such as volume rendering have yet to be published. In this pictorial review, we provide examples of normal calvarial, maxillofacial, and skull base anatomy and pathological conditions that highlight the potential for CR images to aid in patient evaluation and treatment planning. The highly detailed images and nuanced shadowing that are intrinsic to CR are well suited to the display of the complex anatomy in this region of the body. We look forward to studies with CR that will ascertain the ultimate value of this methodology to evaluate calvarium, maxillofacial, and skull base morphology as well as other complex anatomic structures.

  9. State of the Art in Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Ljung, Patric

    2016-07-04

    A central topic in scientific visualization is the transfer function (TF) for volume rendering. The TF serves a fundamental role in translating scalar and multivariate data into color and opacity to express and reveal the relevant features present in the data studied. Beyond this core functionality, TFs also serve as a tool for encoding and utilizing domain knowledge and as an expression for visual design of material appearances. TFs also enable interactive volumetric exploration of complex data. The purpose of this state-of-the-art report (STAR) is to provide an overview of research into the various aspects of TFs, which lead to interpretation of the underlying data through the use of meaningful visual representations. The STAR classifies TF research into the following aspects: dimensionality, derived attributes, aggregated attributes, rendering aspects, automation, and user interfaces. The STAR concludes with some interesting research challenges that form the basis of an agenda for the development of next generation TF tools and methodologies. © 2016 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2016 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Solubility Products of M(II) - Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauer, Rolf; Berner, Urs [ed.

    1999-01-01

    Many solubility data for M(II) carbonates commonly compiled in tables are contradictory and sometimes obviously wrong. The quality of such data has been evaluated based on the original publications and reliable solubility constants have been selected for the carbonates of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb with the help of cross-comparisons. (author) translated from a PSI internal report written in German in 1994 (TM-44-94-05). 5 figs., 1 tab., 68 refs.

  11. Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline - and nonocrystalline niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.T.; Silva, J.R.G. da

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline and monocrystalline niobium was measured in the range 400 0 C to 1000 0 C at one atmosphere hydrogen partial pressure. The experimental technique consists of saturation of the solvent metal with hydrogen, followed by quenching and analysis of the solid solution. It is presented solubility curves versus reciprocal of the absolute doping temperature, associated with their thermodynamical equation. (Author) [pt

  12. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  13. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  14. Efficient singlet exciton fission in pentacene prepared from a soluble precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Tabachnyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrier multiplication using singlet exciton fission (SF to generate a pair of spin-triplet excitons from a single optical excitation has been highlighted as a promising approach to boost the photocurrent in photovoltaics (PVs thereby allowing PV operation beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. The applicability of many efficient fission materials, however, is limited due to their poor solubility. For instance, while acene-based organics such as pentacene (Pc show high SF yields (up to200%, the plain acene backbone renders the organic molecule insoluble in common organic solvents. Previous approaches adding solubilizing side groups such as bis(tri-iso-propylsilylethynyl to the Pc core resulted in low vertical carrier mobilities due to reduction of the transfer integrals via steric hindrance, which prevented high efficiencies in PVs. Here we show how to achieve good solubility while retaining the advantages of molecular Pc by using a soluble precursor route. The precursor fully converts into molecular Pc through thermal removal of the solubilizing side groups upon annealing above 150 °C in the solid state. The annealed precursor shows small differences in the crystallinity compared to evaporated thin films of Pc, indicating that the Pc adopts the bulk rather than surface polytype. Furthermore, we identify identical SF properties such as sub-100 fs fission time and equally long triplet lifetimes in both samples.

  15. Hydrothermal solubility of uraninite. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G.A.; Pohl, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the solubility of UO 2 from 100 to 300 0 C under 500 bars H 2 , in NaCl solutions at pH from 1 to 8 do not agree with solubilities calculated using existing thermodynamic databases. For pH 2 (hyd) has precipitated and is controlling solubility. For pH > 8, solubilities at all temperatures are much lower than predicted, suggesting that the U(OH)/sub delta/ - complex is much weaker than predicted. Extrapolated to 25 0 C, high pH solubility agrees within experimental error with the upper limit suggested by Ryan and Rai (1983). In the pH range 2 to 6, solubilities are up to three orders of magnitude lower than predicted for temperatures exceeding 200 0 C and up to two orders higher than predicted at lower temperatures. pH dependence in this region is negligible suggesting that U(OH) 4 (aq) predominates, thus the stability of this species is higher than presently estimated at low temperatures, but the enthalpy of solution is smaller. A low maximum observed near pH approx. =3 is presently unexplained. 40 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Uranium solubility and speciation in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this study has been to assess the solubility and possible species of uranium in groundwater at the disposal conditions of spent fuel. The effects of radiolysis and bentonite are considered. The assessment is based on the theoretical calculations found in the literature. The Finnish experimental results are included. The conservative estimate for uranium solubility under the oxidizing conditions caused by alpha radiolysis is based on the oxidation of uranium to the U(VI) state and formation of carbonate complex. For the groundwater with the typical carbonate content of 275 mg/l and the high carbonate content of 485 mg/l due to bentonite, the solubility values of 360 mg u/l and 950 mg U/l, are obtained, respectively. The experimental results predict considerably lower values, 0.5-20 mg U/l. The solubility of uranium under the undisturbed reducing conditions may be calculated based on the hydrolysis, carbonate complexation and redox reactions. The results vary considerably depending on the thermodynamic data used. The wide ranges of the most important groundwater parameters are seen in the solubility values. The experimental results show the same trends. As a conservative value for the solubility in reducing groundwater 50-500 μg U/l is estimated. (author)

  17. Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René

    2013-04-01

    Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.

  18. Pulmonary nodules: sensitivity of maximum intensity projection versus that of volume rendering of 3D multidetector CT data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peloschek, Philipp; Sailer, Johannes; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian J.; Prokop, Mathias; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively compare maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) of multidetector computed tomographic (CT) data for the detection of small intrapulmonary nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved prospective study included 20 oncology

  19. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayr, S.; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH 3 inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N and/or free NH 3 ) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm 3 /kg VS fed . On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm 3 /kg VS fed ). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials

  20. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  1. [Hybrid 3-D rendering of the thorax and surface-based virtual bronchoscopy in surgical and interventional therapy control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, M D; Gebicke, K; Luboldt, W; Albes, J M; Vollmar, J; Schäfer, J F; Beinert, T; Englmeier, K H; Bitzer, M; Claussen, C D

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possibilities of a hybrid rendering method, the combination of a color-coded surface and volume rendering method, with the feasibility of performing surface-based virtual endoscopy with different representation models in the operative and interventional therapy control of the chest. In 6 consecutive patients with partial lung resection (n = 2) and lung transplantation (n = 4) a thin-section spiral computed tomography of the chest was performed. The tracheobronchial system and the introduced metallic stents were visualized using a color-coded surface rendering method. The remaining thoracic structures were visualized using a volume rendering method. For virtual bronchoscopy, the tracheobronchial system was visualized using a triangle surface model, a shaded-surface model and a transparent shaded-surface model. The hybrid 3D visualization uses the advantages of both the color-coded surface and volume rendering methods and facilitates a clear representation of the tracheobronchial system and the complex topographical relationship of morphological and pathological changes without loss of diagnostic information. Performing virtual bronchoscopy with the transparent shaded-surface model facilitates a reasonable to optimal, simultaneous visualization and assessment of the surface structure of the tracheobronchial system and the surrounding mediastinal structures and lesions. Hybrid rendering relieve the morphological assessment of anatomical and pathological changes without the need for time-consuming detailed analysis and presentation of source images. Performing virtual bronchoscopy with a transparent shaded-surface model offers a promising alternative to flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy.

  2. Real-time 3-dimensional fetal echocardiography with an instantaneous volume-rendered display: early description and pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark S; DeVore, Greggory R; Wong, Pierre C

    2004-02-01

    Random fetal motion, rapid fetal heart rates, and cumbersome processing algorithms have limited reconstructive approaches to 3-dimensional fetal cardiac imaging. Given the recent development of real-time, instantaneous volume-rendered sonographic displays of volume data, we sought to apply this technology to fetal cardiac imaging. We obtained 1 to 6 volume data sets on each of 30 fetal hearts referred for formal fetal echocardiography. Each volume data set was acquired over 2 to 8 seconds and stored on the system's hard drive. Rendered images were subsequently processed to optimize translucency, smoothing, and orientation and cropped to reveal "surgeon's eye views" of clinically relevant anatomic structures. Qualitative comparison was made with conventional fetal echocardiography for each subject. Volume-rendered displays identified all major abnormalities but failed to identify small ventricular septal defects in 2 patients. Important planes and views not visualized during the actual scans were generated with minimal processing of rendered image displays. Volume-rendered displays tended to have slightly inferior image quality compared with conventional 2-dimensional images. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography with instantaneous volume-rendered displays of the fetal heart represents a new approach to fetal cardiac imaging with tremendous clinical potential.

  3. A Screen Space GPGPU Surface LIC Algorithm for Distributed Memory Data Parallel Sort Last Rendering Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen; Karimabadi, Homa; Rortershteyn, Vadim

    2014-07-01

    The surface line integral convolution(LIC) visualization technique produces dense visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces. We present a screen space surface LIC algorithm for use in distributed memory data parallel sort last rendering infrastructures. The motivations for our work are to support analysis of datasets that are too large to fit in the main memory of a single computer and compatibility with prevalent parallel scientific visualization tools such as ParaView and VisIt. By working in screen space using OpenGL we can leverage the computational power of GPUs when they are available and run without them when they are not. We address efficiency and performance issues that arise from the transformation of data from physical to screen space by selecting an alternate screen space domain decomposition. We analyze the algorithm's scaling behavior with and without GPUs on two high performance computing systems using data from turbulent plasma simulations.

  4. MRI of the labyrinth with volume rendering for cochlear implants candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Motomichi; Harada, Kuniaki; Shirase, Ryuji; Suzuki, Junpei; Nagahama, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated three-dimensional models of the labyrinth by volume rendering (VR) in preoperative assessment for cochlear implantation. MRI data sets were acquired in selected subjects using three-dimensional-fast spin echo sequences (3D-FSE). We produced the three-dimensional models of the labyrinth from axial heavily T2-weighted images. The three-dimensional models distinguished the scala tympani and scala vestibuli and provided multidirectional images. The optimal threshold three-dimensional models clearly showed the focal region of signal loss in the cochlear turns (47.1%) and the presence of inner ear anomalies (17.3%) in our series of patients. This study was concluded that these three-dimensional models by VR provide the oto-surgeon with precise, detailed, and easily interpreted information about the cochlear turns for cochlear implants candidates. (author)

  5. Screen Space Ambient Occlusion Based Multiple Importance Sampling for Real-Time Rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerari, Abd El Mouméne; Babahenini, Mohamed Chaouki

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new approximation technique for accelerating the Global Illumination algorithm for real-time rendering. The proposed approach is based on the Screen-Space Ambient Occlusion (SSAO) method, which approximates the global illumination for large, fully dynamic scenes at interactive frame rates. Current algorithms that are based on the SSAO method suffer from difficulties due to the large number of samples that are required. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the SSAO technique by integrating it with a Multiple Importance Sampling technique that combines a stratified sampling method with an importance sampling method, with the objective of reducing the number of samples. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our technique can produce high-quality images in real time and is significantly faster than traditional techniques.

  6. Rendering Intelligence at Physical Layer for Smart Addressing and Multiple Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, Rajarshi; Prasad, Ramjee; Cianca, Ernestina

    2010-01-01

    addressing of a node. For a typical closed user group type of network, we propose a multiple access mechanism and network topology which will not only eliminate the need of intelligent core network equipments in the network area , but to use this intelligent physical layer to directly reach any node over......The primary objective of this work is to propose a technique of wireless communication, where we render intelligence to the physical layer. We aim to realize a physical layer that can take part in some processes which is otherwise confined to higher layer signalling activities, like for example...... the fundamentals behind the proposed multiple access scheme and draws out the benefits compared to the existing multiple access processes based on cellular approach....

  7. Chromium: A Stress-Processing Framework for Interactive Rendering on Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, G.; Houston, M.; Ng, Y.-R.; Frank, R.; Ahern, S.; Kirchner, P.D.; Klosowski, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    We describe Chromium, a system for manipulating streams of graphics API commands on clusters of workstations. Chromium's stream filters can be arranged to create sort-first and sort-last parallel graphics architectures that, in many cases, support the same applications while using only commodity graphics accelerators. In addition, these stream filters can be extended programmatically, allowing the user to customize the stream transformations performed by nodes in a cluster. Because our stream processing mechanism is completely general, any cluster-parallel rendering algorithm can be either implemented on top of or embedded in Chromium. In this paper, we give examples of real-world applications that use Chromium to achieve good scalability on clusters of workstations, and describe other potential uses of this stream processing technology. By completely abstracting the underlying graphics architecture, network topology, and API command processing semantics, we allow a variety of applications to run in different environments

  8. The Role of the Patrimonial Result Account in Rendering Performance in the Secondary Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vitan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its tools, in particular through patrimonial result account, accounting gives information about the performance in the secondary educational institutions and beyond. In the work ”Informational valence regarding the role of the patrimonial result account in rendering performance at secondary educational institutions” it is presented an analysis model of the performance in the pre-university education institutions based on the economic-financial indicators. These indicator simply an analysis of the dynamics and structure of revenues, costs, results and enable the knowledge of the resource management in order to cover expenses from the revenue, their evolution and their total balance. The analysis was based on hypothetical data over a period of two years, and after this period it was determined that the institution has managed to maintain its level of efficiency in resource management.

  9. Feed-forward volume rendering algorithm for moderately parallel MIMD machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagel, Roni

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms for direct volume rendering on parallel and vector processors are investigated. Volumes are transformed efficiently on parallel processors by dividing the data into slices and beams of voxels. Equal sized sets of slices along one axis are distributed to processors. Parallelism is achieved at two levels. Because each slice can be transformed independently of others, processors transform their assigned slices with no communication, thus providing maximum possible parallelism at the first level. Within each slice, consecutive beams are incrementally transformed using coherency in the transformation computation. Also, coherency across slices can be exploited to further enhance performance. This coherency yields the second level of parallelism through the use of the vector processing or pipelining. Other ongoing efforts include investigations into image reconstruction techniques, load balancing strategies, and improving performance.

  10. Scene reassembly after multimodal digitization and pipeline evaluation using photorealistic rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Dal Corso, Alessandro; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2017-01-01

    of the lighting environment. This enables pixelwise comparison of photographs of the real scene with renderings of the digital version of the scene. Such quantitative evaluation is useful for verifying acquired material appearance and reconstructed surface geometry, which is an important aspect of digital content......Transparent objects require acquisition modalities that are very different from the ones used for objects with more diffuse reflectance properties. Digitizing a scene where objects must be acquired with different modalities requires scene reassembly after reconstruction of the object surfaces....... This reassembly of a scene that was picked apart for scanning seems unexplored. We contribute with a multimodal digitization pipeline for scenes that require this step of reassembly. Our pipeline includes measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and high dynamic range imaging...

  11. Color design model of high color rendering index white-light LED module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei; Hsieh, Hsin-Hsin; Hsieh, Kun-Yang

    2017-05-10

    The traditional white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is packaged with a single chip and a single phosphor but has a poor color rendering index (CRI). The next-generation package comprises two chips and a single phosphor, has a high CRI, and retains high luminous efficacy. This study employs two chips and two phosphors to improve the diode's color tunability with various proportions of two phosphors and various densities of phosphor in the silicone used. A color design model is established for color fine-tuning of the white-light LED module. The maximum difference between the measured and color-design-model simulated CIE 1931 color coordinates is approximately 0.0063 around a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2500 K. This study provides a rapid method to obtain the color fine-tuning of a white-light LED module with a high CRI and luminous efficacy.

  12. Three-dimensional range data compression using computer graphics rendering pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-06-20

    This paper presents the idea of naturally encoding three-dimensional (3D) range data into regular two-dimensional (2D) images utilizing computer graphics rendering pipeline. The computer graphics pipeline provides a means to sample 3D geometry data into regular 2D images, and also to retrieve the depth information for each sampled pixel. The depth information for each pixel is further encoded into red, green, and blue color channels of regular 2D images. The 2D images can further be compressed with existing 2D image compression techniques. By this novel means, 3D geometry data obtained by 3D range scanners can be instantaneously compressed into 2D images, providing a novel way of storing 3D range data into its 2D counterparts. We will present experimental results to verify the performance of this proposed technique.

  13. Can thiolation render a low molecular weight polymer of just 20-kDa mucoadhesive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Arshad; Bonengel, Sonja; Laffleur, Flavia; Ijaz, Muhammad; Idrees, Muneeb Ahmad; Hussain, Shah; Huck, Christian W; Matuszczak, Barbara; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to investigate whether even low-molecular weight polymers (LMWPs) can be rendered mucoadhesive due to thiolation. Interceded by the double catalytic system carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide, cysteamine was covalently attached to a copolymer, poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSSA-MA) exhibiting a molecular weight of just 20 kDa. Depending on the amount of added N-hydroxysuccinimide and cysteamine, the resulting PSSA-MA-cysteamine (PC) conjugates exhibited increasing degree of thiolation, highest being "PC 2300" exhibiting 2300.16 ± 149.86 μmol thiol groups per gram of polymer (mean ± SD; n = 3). This newly developed thiolated polymer was evaluated regarding mucoadhesive, rheological and drug release properties as well from the toxicological point of view. Swelling behavior in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH 6.8 was improved up to 180-fold. Furthermore, due to thiolation, the mucoadhesive properties of the polymer were 240-fold improved. Rheological measurements of polymer/mucus mixtures confirmed results obtained by mucoadhesion studies. In comparison to unmodified polymer, PC 2300 showed 2.3-, 2.3- and 2.4-fold increase in dynamic viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus, respectively. Sustained release of the model drug codeine HCl out of the thiomer was provided for 2.5 h (p polymer. Moreover, the thiomer was found non-toxic over Caco-2 cells for a period of 6- and 24-h exposure. Findings of the present study provide evidence that due to thiolation LMWPs can be rendered highly mucoadhesive as well as cohesive and that a controlled drug release out of such polymers can be provided.

  14. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.T.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a {open_quotes}true 3D screen{close_quotes}. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches.

  15. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a open-quotes true 3D screenclose quotes. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches

  16. 3D reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine using differential volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khongsomboon, K.; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo

    2007-01-01

    3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the technique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians. (author)

  17. 3D-shaded surface rendering of gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, S.; Kikinis, R.; Dumanli, H.; Geva, T.; Powell, A.J.; Chung, T.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography is a useful imaging technique for patients with congenital heart disease. Objective. This study sought to determine the added value of creating 3D shaded surface displays compared to standard maximal intensity projection (MIP) and multiplanar reformatting (MPR) techniques when analyzing 3D MR angiography data. Materials and methods. Seventeen patients (range, 3 months to 51 years old) with a variety of congenital cardiovascular defects underwent gadolinium-enhanced 3D MR angiography of the thorax. Color-coded 3D shaded surface models were rendered from the image data using manual segmentation and computer-based algorithms. Models could be rotated, translocated, or zoomed interactively by the viewer. Information available from the 3D models was compared to analysis based on viewing standard MIP/MPR displays. Results. Median postprocessing time for the 3D models was 6 h (range, 3-25 h) compared to approximately 20 min for MIP/MPR viewing. No additional diagnostic information was gained from 3D model analysis. All major findings with MIP/MPR postprocessing were also apparent on the 3D models. Qualitatively, the 3D models were more easily interpreted and enabled adjacent vessels to be distinguished more readily. Conclusion. Routine use of 3D shaded surface reconstructions for visualization of contrast enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease cannot be recommended. 3D surface rendering may be more useful for presenting complex anatomy to an audience unfamiliar with congenital heart disease and as an educational tool. (orig.)

  18. Solubility study of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2 + . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L·d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  19. Influence of milling process on efavirenz solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Zaini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Materials and Methods: Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, spectroscopy infrared (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and solubility test. Results: The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20 as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.

  20. Solubility of lithium deuteride in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of LiD in liquid lithium between the eutectic and monotectic temperatures was measured using a direct sampling method. Solubilities were found to range from 0.0154 mol.% LiD at 199 0 C to 3.32 mol.% LiD at 498 0 C. The data were used in the derivation of an expression for the activity coefficient of LiD as a function of temperature and composition and an equation relating deuteride solubility and temperature, thus defining the liquidus curve. Similar equations were also derived for the Li-LiH system using the existing solubility data. Extrapolation of the liquidus curves yielded the eutectic concentrations (0.040 mol.% LiH and 0.035 mol.% LiD) and the freezing point depressions (0.23 0 C for Li-LiH and 0.20 0 C for Li-LiD) at the eutectic point. The results are compared with the literature data for hydrogen and deuterium. The implications of the relatively high solubility of hydrogen isotopes in lithium just above the melting point are discussed with respect to the cold trapping of tritium in fusion reactor blankets. (Auth.)

  1. Solubility studies of Np(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Jiao Haiyang; Ren Lihong; Zhou Duo; Fan Xianhua

    2001-01-01

    The solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water and redistilled water has been measured with the variations of pH(6-12) and storage time (0-100 d) in the presence of reductant (Na 2 S 2 O 4 , metallic Fe). All experiments are performed in a low oxygen concentration glove box containing high purity Ar(99.99%), with an oxygen content of less than 5 x 10 -6 mol/mol. Experimental results show that the variation of pH in solution has little effect on the solubility of Np(IV) in the two kinds of water; the measured solubility of Np(IV) is affected by the composition of solution; with Na 2 S 2 O 4 as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (9.23 +- 0.48) x 10 -10 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (8.31 +- 0.35) x 10 -10 mol/L; with metallic Fe as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (1.85 +- 0.56) x 10 -9 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (1.48 +- 0.66) x 10 -9 mol/L

  2. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model

  3. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1. 1,1,1...

  4. Interlaboratory validation of small-scale solubility and dissolution measurements of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Sara B. E.; Alvebratt, Caroline; Bevernage, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interlaboratory variability in determination of apparent solubility (Sapp) and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) using a miniaturized dissolution instrument. Three poorly water-soluble compounds were selected as reference compounds and measured at m...

  5. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on the aqueous solubility and solubility/dose ratio of praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, Stratos; Archontaki, Helen; Macheras, Panos; Valsami, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ), the primary drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis, is a highly lipophilic drug that possesses high permeability and low aqueous solubility and is, therefore, classified as a Class II drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In this work, beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) were used in order to determine whether increasing the aqueous solubility of a drug by complexation with CDs, a BCS-Class II compound like PZQ could behave as BCS-Class I (highly soluble/highly permeable) drug. Phase solubility and the kneading and lyophilization techniques were used for inclusion complex preparation; solubility was determined by UV spectroscopy. The ability of the water soluble polymer polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) to increase the complexation and solubilization efficiency of beta-CD and HP-beta-CD for PZQ was examined. Results showed significant improvement of PZQ solubility in the presence of both cyclodextrins but no additional effect in the presence of PVP. The solubility/dose ratios values of PZQ-cyclodextrin complexes calculated considering the low (150 mg) and the high dose (600 mg) of PZQ, used in practice, indicate that PZQ complexation with CDs may result in drug dosage forms that would behave as a BCS-Class I depending on the administered dose.

  6. Solubilities of boric acid in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Shigetsugu; Aoi, Hideki; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Katoh, Taizo; Watanabe, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    A gravimetric analysis using meta-boric acid (HBO 2 or DBO 2 ) as a weighing form has been developed for solubility measurement. The method gave satisfactory results in preliminary measurement of solubilities of boric acid in light water. By using this method, the solubilities of 10 B enriched D 3 BO 3 in heavy water were measured. The results are as follows; 2.67 (7deg C), 3.52 (15deg C), 5.70 (30deg C), 8.87 (50deg C) and 12.92 (70deg C) w/o, respectively. These values are about 10% lower than those in light water. Thermodynamical consideration based on the data shows that boric acid is the water structure breaker. (author)

  7. Resveratrol cocrystals with enhanced solubility and tabletability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Li, Wanying; Sun, Wei-Jhe; Lu, Tongbu; Tong, Henry H Y; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zheng, Ying

    2016-07-25

    Two new 1:1 cocrystals of resveratrol (RES) with 4-aminobenzamide (RES-4ABZ) and isoniazid (RES-ISN) were synthesized by liquid assisted grinding (LAG) and rapid solvent removal (RSR) methods using ethanol as solvent. Their physiochemical properties were characterized using PXRD, DSC, solid state and solution NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC. Pharmaceutically relevant properties, including tabletability, solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and hygroscopicity, were evaluated. Temperature-composition phase diagram for RES-ISN cocrystal system was constructed from DSC data. Both cocrystals show higher solubility than resveratrol over a broad range of pH. They are phase stable and non-hygroscopic even under high humidity conditions. Importantly, both cocrystals exhibit improved solubility and tabletability compared with RES, which make them more suitable candidates for tablet formulation development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan

  9. Solubility and stability of inorganic carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1987-01-01

    The chemistry of inorganic carbonates is reviewed, with emphasis on solubility and hydrolytic stability, in order to identify candidate waste forms for immobilization and disposal of 14 C. At present, CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 are the two most widely favoured wasted forms, primarily because they are the products of proven CO 2 -scrubbing technology. However, they have relatively high solubilities in non-alkaline solutions, necessitating care in selecting and assessing an appropriate disposal environment. Three compounds with better solubility characteristics in near-neutral waters are identified: bismutite, (BiO) 2 CO 3 ; hydrocerussite, Pb 3 (OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 ; and rhodochrosite, MnCO 3 . Some of the limitations of each of these alternative waste forms are discussed

  10. A framework for API solubility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Crafts, Peter

    . In addition, most of the models are not predictive and requires experimental data for the calculation of the needed parameters. This work aims at developing an efficient framework for the solubility modelling of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) in water and organic solvents. With this framework......-SAFT) are used for solubility calculations when the needed interaction parameters or experimental data are available. The CI-UNIFAC is instead used when the previous models lack interaction parameters or when solubility data are not available. A new GC+ model for APIs solvent selection based...... on the hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity and polarity information of the API and solvent is also developed, for performing fast solvent selection and screening. Eventually, all the previous developments are integrated in a framework for their efficient and integrated use. Two case studies are presented: the first...

  11. Solubility of iron in liquid lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Khan, I.

    1981-01-01

    The use of liquid lead in high temperature chemical and metallurgical processes is well known. The structural materials applied for the containment of these processes are either iron base alloys or possess iron as an alloying element. Besides that, lead itself is alloyed in some steels to achieve some very useful properties. For understanding the effect of liquid lead in such structural materials, it is important to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead which would also be indicative of the stability of these alloys. At the institute of reactor materials of KFA Juelich, investigations have been conducted to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead up to a temperature of about 1000 0 C. In this presentation the data concerning the solubility of iron in liquid lead are brought up to date and discussed including the results of our previous investigations. (orig.)

  12. Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium solubility of CO2 were measured in aqueous solutions of Monoethanolamine (MEA) and N,N-diethylethanolamine(DEEA). Equilibrium cells are generally used for these measurements. In this study, the equilibrium data were measured from the calorimetry. For this purpose a reaction calorimeter...... (model CPA 122 from ChemiSens AB, Sweden) was used. The advantage of this method is being the measurement of both heats of absorption and equilibrium solubility data of CO2 at the same time. The measurements were performed for 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA solutions as a function of CO2 loading at three...... different temperatures 40, 80 and 120 ºC. The measured 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA data were compared with the literature data obtained from different equilibrium cells which validated the use of calorimeters for equilibrium solubility measurements....

  13. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  14. SITE-94. Radionuclide solubilities for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [QuantiSci, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    In this report, solubility constraints are evaluated on radioelement source-term concentrations supporting the SITE-94 performance assessment. Solubility models are based on heterogeneous-equilibrium, mass- and charge-balance constraints incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical software package, which is used to calculate the aqueous speciation behavior and solubilities of U, Th, Pu, Np, Am, Ni, Ra, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc and Zr in site groundwaters and near-field solutions. The chemical evolution of the near field is approximated using EQ3/6 in terms of limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe{sup o} corrosion products of the canister, and spent fuel. The calculations consider both low-temperature (15 deg C) and high-temperature (80 deg C) conditions in the near field, and the existence of either reducing or strongly oxidizing conditions in each of the bentonite, canister, and spent-fuel barriers. Heterogeneities in site characteristics are evaluated through consideration of a range of initial groundwaters and their interactions with engineered barriers. Aqueous speciation models for many radioelements are constrained by thermodynamic data that are estimated with varying degrees of accuracy. An important question, however, is how accurate do these models need to be for purposes of estimating source-term concentrations? For example, it is unrealistic to expect a high degree of accuracy in speciation models if such models predict solubilities that are below the analytical detection limit for a given radioelement. From a practical standpoint, such models are irrelevant if calculated solubilities cannot be tested by direct comparison to experimental data. In the absence of models that are both accurate and relevant for conditions of interest, the detection limit could define a pragmatic upper limit on radioelement solubility 56 refs, 25 tabs, 10 figs

  15. SITE-94. Radionuclide solubilities for SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M.

    1996-12-01

    In this report, solubility constraints are evaluated on radioelement source-term concentrations supporting the SITE-94 performance assessment. Solubility models are based on heterogeneous-equilibrium, mass- and charge-balance constraints incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical software package, which is used to calculate the aqueous speciation behavior and solubilities of U, Th, Pu, Np, Am, Ni, Ra, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc and Zr in site groundwaters and near-field solutions. The chemical evolution of the near field is approximated using EQ3/6 in terms of limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe o corrosion products of the canister, and spent fuel. The calculations consider both low-temperature (15 deg C) and high-temperature (80 deg C) conditions in the near field, and the existence of either reducing or strongly oxidizing conditions in each of the bentonite, canister, and spent-fuel barriers. Heterogeneities in site characteristics are evaluated through consideration of a range of initial groundwaters and their interactions with engineered barriers. Aqueous speciation models for many radioelements are constrained by thermodynamic data that are estimated with varying degrees of accuracy. An important question, however, is how accurate do these models need to be for purposes of estimating source-term concentrations? For example, it is unrealistic to expect a high degree of accuracy in speciation models if such models predict solubilities that are below the analytical detection limit for a given radioelement. From a practical standpoint, such models are irrelevant if calculated solubilities cannot be tested by direct comparison to experimental data. In the absence of models that are both accurate and relevant for conditions of interest, the detection limit could define a pragmatic upper limit on radioelement solubility

  16. The modelling of 2-D migration patterns of soluble waste in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    A novel approach to the modelling of two-dimensional migration patterns of soluble waste in soils is presented. This approach, albeit very simple and straightforward, was found to be powerful enough to simulate several aspects of the migration of conservative tracers in non-sorptive soils. In brief, the finite-difference technique is adopted for the solution of the two-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. Since the simulated data were to be verified against experimental data obtained through the use of radioactive tracers, the numerical model was modified to take into account the corresponding experimental aspects, with special regard to the attenuation of radiation through the soil mass. The introduction of this correcting factor rendered the simulation quite faithful to the experimental data, thus suggesting the feasibility of the proposed approach for the two-dimensional analysis of waste migration. (author)

  17. Hydrogen solubility in austenite of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnova, V.V.; Mogutnov, B.M.; Tomilin, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in Fe-Ni-Cr alloys at 600-1000 deg C is determined. Hydrogen solubility in ternary alloys can not be predicted on the basis of the data on its solubility in binary Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr alloys. Chromium and nickel effect on hydrogen solubility in iron is insignificant in comparison with the effect of these elements on carbon or nitrogen solubility [ru

  18. Hydrogen terminal solubility in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abrahan D.

    1999-01-01

    Terminal solubility temperature of hydrogen in zirconium and its alloys is an important parameter because hydrides precipitation embrittled these materials making them susceptible to the phenomenon known as retarded hydrogen cracking. This work continues the study presented in the 25 AATN Meeting. Within this framework, a study focused on determining these curves in recrystallized Zircaloy-4, using scanning differential calorimetric technique. Terminal solubility curves for Zircaloy-4 were constructed within a concentration range from 40 to 640 ppm in hydrogen weight and comparisons with results obtained by other authors were made. (author)

  19. Nitrogen solubility in nickel base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, L.A.; Stomakhin, A.Ya.; Sokolov, V.M.; Teterin, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Applicability of various methods for calculation of nitrogen solubility in high-alloyed nickel base alloys, containing Cr, Fe, W, Mo, Ti, Nb, has been estimated. A possibility is shown to use the formUla, derived for the calculation of nitrogen solubility in iron on the basis of statistical theory for a grid model of solution which does not require limitations for the content of a solvent component. The calculation method has been used for nickel alloys, with the concentration of solvent, iron, being accepted equal to zero, and employing parameters of nitrogen interaction as determined for iron-base alloys

  20. Effect of amides on lithium tetraborate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsekhanskij, R S; Skvortsov, V C; Molodkin, A K; Sadetdi-pov, Sh V [Chuvashskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst., Cheboksary (USSR); Universitet Druzhby Narodov, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-03-01

    Using the methods of solubility, densi- and refractometry at 25 deg C, it has been established that the systems lithium tetraborate-formamide (acetamide, dimethyl-formamide)-water are of a simple eutonic type. Amides decrease the salt solubility. Lyotropic effect, as calculated for molar concentrations (-Lsub(M)) relative to the absolute value, increases from formamide to dimethyl-formamide. The sequence is determined by the fact that, when there is one or two hydrophilic methyl groups in amide molecules which are in contact with tetraborate, they decrease the hydration energy of lithium cations.

  1. Effect of amides on sodium tetraborate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Molodkin, A.K.; Sadetdinov, Sh.V.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C were applied to investigate sodium tetraborate - formamide (dimethylformamide) - water systems. It is stated that they are of simple eutonic type as well as the earlier described sodium tetraborate-acetamide-water system. Amides reduce solubility of the salt. The effect of contact interaction between dissolved substances on salt cation hydration and thus on the value of liotropic amide effect is confirmed. This value is found to be also depend on the number of molecules of coordination water in the initial crystalline hydrate

  2. Effect of amides on lithium tetraborate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Skvortsov, V.C.; Molodkin, A.K.; Sadetdi- pov, Sh.V.

    1983-01-01

    Using the methods of solubility, densi- and refractometry at 25 deg C, it has been established that the systemS lithium tetraborate-formamide (acetamide, dimethyl-formamide)-water are of a simple eutonic type. Amides decrease the salt solubility. Lyotropic effect, as calculated for molar concentrations (-Lsub(M)) relative to the absolute value, increases from formamide to dimethylformamide. The sequence is determined by the fact that, when there is one or two hydrophilic methyl groups in amide molecules which are in contact with tetraborate, they decrease the hydration energy of lithium cations

  3. Effect of amides on sodium tetraborate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsekhanskij, R S; Skvortsov, V G; Molodkin, A K; Sadetdinov, Sh V

    1986-11-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C were applied to investigate sodium tetraborate - formamide (dimethylformamide) - water systems. It is stated that they are of simple eutonic type as well as the earlier described sodium tetraborate-acetamide-water system. Amides reduce solubility of the salt. The effect of contact interaction between dissolved substances on salt cation hydration and thus on the value of liotropic amide effect is confirmed. This value is found to be also depend on the number of molecules of coordination water in the initial crystalline hydrate.

  4. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Volume Rendering Images of Multi-Detector CT for the Detection of Lumbar Transverse Process Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hak; Chun, Tong Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To compare the accuracy of three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D CT) volume rendering techniques with axial images of multi-detector row computed tomography to identify lumbar transverse process (LTP) fractures in trauma patients. We retrospectively evaluated 42 patients with back pain as a result of blunt trauma between January and June of 2010. Two radiologists examined the 3D CT volume rendering images independently. The confirmation of a LTP fracture was based on the consensus of the axial images by the two radiologists. The results of 3D CT volume rendering images were compared with the axial images and the diagnostic powers (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) were calculated. Seven of the 42 patients had twenty five lumbar transverse process fractures. The diagnostic power of the 3D CT volume rendering technique is as accurate as axial images. Reader 1, sensitivity 96%, specificity 100%, accuracy 99.9%; and Reader 2 sensitivity 100%, specificity 99.8%, accuracy 99.8%. The accordance of the two radiologists was 99.8%. 3D CT volume rendering images can alternate axial images to detect lumbar transverse process fractures with good image quality.

  6. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-01-01

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy

  7. Solubility of hydrogen in delta iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.I.; Trofimenko, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen in iron (less than 0.002 % impurities) at temperatures of 800-1510 deg C and a pressure of 100 atm was measured. The heat of solution of hydrogen in delta-Fe, equal to 73 kJ/g-atom, is by far greater than the corresponding values for α- and γ-Fe

  8. Solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate was measured within a temperature range of 283.5–464.8 K and pressures up to 10.7 MPa. Experiments were carried out using the Cailletet apparatus, which uses a synthetic method for the experiments. The critical points of several isopleths

  9. Radiculography with water-soluble contraste medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Pinheiro, R.S. de

    1987-01-01

    The etiologic diagnosis of the lumbar pain is discussed. The radiculography with water-soluble contrast medium is used and 250 cases are studied. Some practical criteria of indication executation and interpretation of the examination are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, H.M.; Lin, K.C.; Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z.; Lin, C.Y.; Liu, W.F.; Fang, G.C.; Lu, C.; Chiang, C.F.; Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO 3 and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K d (l g -1 ) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K d (l g -1 ) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions

  11. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, H.M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hmlo@cyut.edu.tw; Lin, K.C. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jiangguo N. Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.Y. [Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, W.F. [Department of Electronical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Fang, G.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Lu, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chiang, C.F. [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO{sub 3} and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions.

  12. Anomalous Solubility Behavior of Several Acidic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avdeef

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The “anomalous solubility behavior at higher pH values” of several acidic drugs originally studied by Higuchi et al. in 1953 [1], but hitherto not fully rationalized, has been re-analyzed using a novel solubility-pH analysis computer program, pDISOL-XTM. The program internally derives implicit solubility equations, given a set of proposed equilibria and constants (iteratively refined by weighted nonlinear regression, and does not require explicit Henderson-Hasselbalch equations. The re-analyzed original barbital, phenobarbital, oxytetracycline, and sulfathiazole solubility-pH data of Higuchi et al. is consistent with the presence of dimers in saturated solutions. In the case of barbital, phenobarbital and sulfathiazole, anionic dimers, reaching peak concentrations near pH 8. However, oxytetracycline indicated a pronounced tendency to form a cationic dimer, peaking near pH 2. Under the conditions of the original study, only barbital indicated a slight tendency to form a salt precipitate at pH > 6.8, with a highly unusual stoichiometry (consistent with a slope of 0.55 in the log S – pH plot: K+ + A2H- + 3HA D KA5H4(s. Thus the “anomaly” in the Higuchi data can be rationalized by invoking specific aggregated species.

  13. Changes in protein solubility, fermentative capacity, viscoelasticity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frozen dough should be stored for fewer than 21 days; time in which the loaf volume of bread made from frozen dough was approximately 40.84% smaller than that of fresh bread dough formulation. Keywords: French type bread, frozen dough, protein solubility, baking quality, viscoelasticity. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  14. Solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility of Tc(IV) is used as a source term in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is about (1.49∼1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L.d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide decreases with the increase of pH at pH 10 and is pH independent in the range 2 -8 to 10 -9 mol/L at 2 3 2- concentration. These data could be used to estimate the Tc(IV) solubility for cases where solubility limits transport of technetium in reducing environments of high-level waste repositories. (authors)

  15. Cloud-based Monte Carlo modelling of BSSRDF for the rendering of human skin appearance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Rushmeier, Holly E.; Meglinski, Igor; Bykov, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo based approach for the modelling of Bidirectional Scattering-Surface Reflectance Distribution Function (BSSRDF) for accurate rendering of human skin appearance. The variations of both skin tissues structure and the major chromophores are taken into account correspondingly to the different ethnic and age groups. The computational solution utilizes HTML5, accelerated by the graphics processing units (GPUs), and therefore is convenient for the practical use at the most of modern computer-based devices and operating systems. The results of imitation of human skin reflectance spectra, corresponding skin colours and examples of 3D faces rendering are presented and compared with the results of phantom studies.

  16. Virtual Whipple: preoperative surgical planning with volume-rendered MDCT images to identify arterial variants relevant to the Whipple procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Darren D; Zamboni, Giulia; Sosna, Jacob; Callery, Mark P; Vollmer, Charles M V; Raptopoulos, Vassilios D; Kruskal, Jonathan B

    2007-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to combine a thorough understanding of the technical aspects of the Whipple procedure with advanced rendering techniques by introducing a virtual Whipple procedure and to evaluate the utility of this new rendering technique in prediction of the arterial variants that cross the anticipated surgical resection plane. The virtual Whipple is a novel technique that follows the complex surgical steps in a Whipple procedure. Three-dimensional reconstructed angiographic images are used to identify arterial variants for the surgeon as part of the preoperative radiologic assessment of pancreatic and ampullary tumors.

  17. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO, 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html.

  18. Molybdenum solubility in aluminium nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, X.; Sans, D.; Bertrand, M.; Eysseric, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DRCP, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Brackx, E.; Domenger, R.; Excoffier, E. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DTEC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Valery, J.F. [AREVA-NC, DOR/RDP, Paris - La Defense (France)

    2016-07-01

    For over 60 years, research reactors (RR or RTR for research testing reactors) have been used as neutron sources for research, radioisotope production ({sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc), nuclear medicine, materials characterization, etc... Currently, over 240 of these reactors are in operation in 56 countries. They are simpler than power reactors and operate at lower temperature (cooled to below 100 C. degrees). The fuel assemblies are typically plates or cylinders of uranium alloy and aluminium (U-Al) coated with pure aluminium. These fuels can be processed in AREVA La Hague plant after batch dissolution in concentrated nitric acid and mixing with UOX fuel streams. The aim of this study is to accurately measure the solubility of molybdenum in nitric acid solution containing high concentrations of aluminium. The higher the molybdenum solubility is, the more flexible reprocessing operations are, especially when the spent fuels contain high amounts of molybdenum. To be most representative of the dissolution process, uranium-molybdenum alloy and molybdenum metal powder were dissolved in solutions of aluminium nitrate at the nominal dissolution temperature. The experiments showed complete dissolution of metallic elements after 30 minutes long stirring, even if molybdenum metal was added in excess. After an induction period, a slow precipitation of molybdic acid occurs for about 15 hours. The data obtained show the molybdenum solubility decreases with increasing aluminium concentration. The solubility law follows an exponential relation around 40 g/L of aluminium with a high determination coefficient. Molybdenum solubility is not impacted by the presence of gadolinium, or by an increasing concentration of uranium. (authors)

  19. A Study of Layout, Rendering, and Interaction Methods for Immersive Graph Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Hyun; Muelder, Chris; Lee, Kyungwon; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2016-07-01

    Information visualization has traditionally limited itself to 2D representations, primarily due to the prevalence of 2D displays and report formats. However, there has been a recent surge in popularity of consumer grade 3D displays and immersive head-mounted displays (HMDs). The ubiquity of such displays enables the possibility of immersive, stereoscopic visualization environments. While techniques that utilize such immersive environments have been explored extensively for spatial and scientific visualizations, contrastingly very little has been explored for information visualization. In this paper, we present our considerations of layout, rendering, and interaction methods for visualizing graphs in an immersive environment. We conducted a user study to evaluate our techniques compared to traditional 2D graph visualization. The results show that participants answered significantly faster with a fewer number of interactions using our techniques, especially for more difficult tasks. While the overall correctness rates are not significantly different, we found that participants gave significantly more correct answers using our techniques for larger graphs.

  20. Rendering Systems Visible for Design: Synthesis Maps as Constructivist Design Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    Full Text Available Synthesis maps integrate research evidence, system expertise, and design proposals into visual narratives. These narratives support communication and decision-making among stakeholders. Synthesis maps evolved from earlier visualization tools in systemics and design. They help stakeholders to understand design options for complex sociotechnical systems. Other visual approaches map complexity for effective collaboration across perspectives and knowledge domains. These help stakeholder groups to work in higher-order design contexts for sociotechnical or human-ecological systems. This article describes a constructivist pedagogy for collaborative learning in small teams of mixed-discipline designers. Synthesis mapping enables these teams to learn systems methods for design research in complex problem domains. Synthesis maps integrate knowledge from research cycles and iterative sensemaking to define a coherent design narrative. While synthesis maps may include formal system modeling techniques, they do not require them. Synthesis maps tangibly render research observations and design choices. As a hybrid system design method, synthesis maps are a contribution to the design genre of visual systems thinking.

  1. In-Situ Three-Dimensional Shape Rendering from Strain Values Obtained Through Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for rendering the shape of a multi-core optical fiber or multi-fiber bundle in three-dimensional space in real time based on measured fiber strain data. Three optical fiber cores arc arranged in parallel at 120.degree. intervals about a central axis. A series of longitudinally co-located strain sensor triplets, typically fiber Bragg gratings, are positioned along the length of each fiber at known intervals. A tunable laser interrogates the sensors to detect strain on the fiber cores. Software determines the strain magnitude (.DELTA.L/L) for each fiber at a given triplet, but then applies beam theory to calculate curvature, beading angle and torsion of the fiber bundle, and from there it determines the shape of the fiber in s Cartesian coordinate system by solving a series of ordinary differential equations expanded from the Frenet-Serrat equations. This approach eliminates the need for computationally time-intensive curve-tilting and allows the three-dimensional shape of the optical fiber assembly to be displayed in real-time.

  2. Clinical Recommendations on Emergency Medical Care Rendering to Children with Acute Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baranov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the issue of intoxication in children. Acute accidental intoxication appears to be especially relevant for pediatric practice. Drugs, various chemicals frequently used in everyday life and in farming, as well as animal poisons, including snake poisons, may have a toxic effect on children. Specialists of professional associations of physicians “Russian Society of Emergency Medicine” and pediatricians “Union of Pediatricians of Russia” formulated and briefly described the main causes of acute intoxication in children, clinical manifestations and the most significant laboratory indicators of toxic manifestations for various substances, as well as therapy principles and algorithms for such conditions in compliance with principles of the evidence-based medicine. The article presents pathognomonic symptoms and peculiarities of drug intoxication, provides a description of mediator symptoms of intoxication with various substances, as well as the symptoms that may indicate toxic effect. The article contains a description of principles of correction of vital body functions, measures for removing toxic substances from the body and information on the main antidotes. Special attention is given to the most frequent types of intoxication (with organic acids, lye, naphazoline, paracetamol, snake poisons [viper bite]. The article lists stage of medical care rendering to children suffering from acute intoxication and presents prognosis and further management of pediatric patients suffering from such conditions. 

  3. Transcriptional Changes during Naturally Acquired Zika Virus Infection Render Dendritic Cells Highly Conducive to Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Hua, Stephane; Chen, Hsiao-Rong; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Einkauf, Kevin; Tse, Samantha; Ard, Kevin; Ciaranello, Andrea; Yawetz, Sigal; Sax, Paul; Rosenberg, Eric S; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Yu, Xu G

    2017-12-19

    Although dendritic cells are among the human cell population best equipped for cell-intrinsic antiviral immune defense, they seem highly susceptible to infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV). Using highly purified myeloid dendritic cells isolated from individuals with naturally acquired acute infection, we here show that ZIKV induces profound perturbations of transcriptional signatures relative to healthy donors. Interestingly, we noted a remarkable downregulation of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes and innate immune sensors, suggesting that ZIKV can actively suppress interferon-dependent immune responses. In contrast, several host factors known to support ZIKV infection were strongly upregulated during natural ZIKV infection; these transcripts included AXL, the main entry receptor for ZIKV; SOCS3, a negative regulator of ISG expression; and IDO-1, a recognized inducer of regulatory T cell responses. Thus, during in vivo infection, ZIKV can transform the transcriptome of dendritic cells in favor of the virus to render these cells highly conducive to ZIKV infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Seeing More by Showing Less: Orientation-Dependent Transparency Rendering for Fiber Tractography Visualization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal M W Tax

    Full Text Available Fiber tractography plays an important role in exploring the architectural organization of fiber trajectories, both in fundamental neuroscience and in clinical applications. With the advent of diffusion MRI (dMRI approaches that can also model "crossing fibers", the complexity of the fiber network as reconstructed with tractography has increased tremendously. Many pathways interdigitate and overlap, which hampers an unequivocal 3D visualization of the network and impedes an efficient study of its organization. We propose a novel fiber tractography visualization approach that interactively and selectively adapts the transparency rendering of fiber trajectories as a function of their orientation to enhance the visibility of the spatial context. More specifically, pathways that are oriented (locally or globally along a user-specified opacity axis can be made more transparent or opaque. This substantially improves the 3D visualization of the fiber network and the exploration of tissue configurations that would otherwise be largely covered by other pathways. We present examples of fiber bundle extraction and neurosurgical planning cases where the added benefit of our new visualization scheme is demonstrated over conventional fiber visualization approaches.

  5. Interactive definition of transfer functions in volume rendering based on image markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teistler, Michael; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Breiman, Richard S.; Liong, Sauw Ming; Ho, Liang Yoong; Shahab, Atif

    2007-01-01

    Objectives A user interface for transfer function (TF) definition in volume rendering (VR) was developed that allows the user to intuitively assign color and opacity to the original image intensities. This software may surpass solutions currently deployed in clinical practice by simplifying the use of TFs beyond predefined settings that are not always applicable. Materials and methods The TF definition is usually a cumbersome task that requires the user to manipulate graphical representations of the TF (e.g. trapezoids). A new method that allows the user to place markers at points of interest directly on CT and MRI images or orthogonal reformations was developed based on two-dimensional region growing and a few user-definable marker-related parameters. For each user defined image marker, a segment of the transfer function is computed. The resulting TF can also be applied to the slice image views. Results were judged subjectively. Results Each individualized TF can be defined interactively in a few simple steps. For every user interaction, immediate visual feedback is given. Clinicians who tested the application appreciated being able to directly work on familiar slice images to generate the desired 3D views. Conclusion Interactive TF definition can increase the actual utility of VR, help to understand the role of the TF with its variations, and increase the acceptance of VR as a clinical tool. (orig.)

  6. Common crus aplasia: diagnosis by 3D volume rendering imaging using 3DFT-CISS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Song, J.W.; Chon, K.-M.; Goh, E.-K.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the findings of three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering (VR) imaging in common crus aplasia (CCA) of the inner ear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using 3D VR imaging of temporal bone constructive interference in steady state (CISS) magnetic resonance (MR) images, we retrospectively reviewed seven inner ears of six children who were candidates for cochlear implants and who had been diagnosed with CCA. As controls, we used the same method to examine 402 inner ears of 201 patients who had no clinical symptoms or signs of sensorineural hearing loss. Temporal bone MR imaging (MRI) was performed with a 1.5 T MR machine using a CISS sequence, and VR of the inner ear was performed on a work station. Morphological image analysis was performed on rotation views of 3D VR images. RESULTS: In all seven cases, CCA was diagnosed by the absence of the common crus. The remaining superior semicircular canal (SCC) was normal in five and hypoplastic in two inner ears, while the posterior SCC was normal in all seven. One patient showed bilateral symmetrical CCA. Complicated combined anomalies were seen in the cochlea, vestibule and lateral SCC. CONCLUSION: 3D VR imaging findings with MR CISS sequence can directly diagnose CCA. This technique may be useful in delineating detailed anomalies of SCCs

  7. Painterly rendered portraits from photographs using a knowledge-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Steve

    2007-02-01

    Portrait artists using oils, acrylics or pastels use a specific but open human vision methodology to create a painterly portrait of a live sitter. When they must use a photograph as source, artists augment their process, since photographs have: different focusing - everything is in focus or focused in vertical planes; value clumping - the camera darkens the shadows and lightens the bright areas; as well as color and perspective distortion. In general, artistic methodology attempts the following: from the photograph, the painting must 'simplify, compose and leave out what's irrelevant, emphasizing what's important'. While seemingly a qualitative goal, artists use known techniques such as relying on source tone over color to indirect into a semantic color temperature model, use brush and tonal "sharpness" to create a center of interest, lost and found edges to move the viewers gaze through the image towards the center of interest as well as other techniques to filter and emphasize. Our work attempts to create a knowledge domain of the portrait painter process and incorporate this knowledge into a multi-space parameterized system that can create an array of NPR painterly rendering output by analyzing the photographic-based input which informs the semantic knowledge rules.

  8. 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL Rendering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennoi Atitayaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An HMI, or Human-Machine Interface, is a software allowing users to communicate with a machine or automation system. It usually serves as a display section in SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system for device monitoring and control. In this papper, a 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL (Web-based Graphics Library rendering performance is presented. The main purpose of this work is to attempt to reduce the limitations of traditional 3D web HMI using the advantage of WebGL. To evaluate the performance, frame rate and frame time metrics were used. The results showed 3D Web-based HMI can maintain the frame rate 60FPS for #cube=0.5K/0.8K, 30FPS for #cube=1.1K/1.6K when it was run on Internet Explorer and Chrome respectively. Moreover, the study found that 3D Web-based HMI using WebGL contains similar frame time in each frame even though the numbers of cubes are up to 5K. This indicated stuttering incurred less in the proposed 3D Web-based HMI compared to the chosen commercial HMI product.

  9. Metals for bone implants. Part 1. Powder metallurgy and implant rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andani, Mohsen Taheri; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael J; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    New metal alloys and metal fabrication strategies are likely to benefit future skeletal implant strategies. These metals and fabrication strategies were looked at from the point of view of standard-of-care implants for the mandible. These implants are used as part of the treatment for segmental resection due to oropharyngeal cancer, injury or correction of deformity due to pathology or congenital defect. The focus of this two-part review is the issues associated with the failure of existing mandibular implants that are due to mismatched material properties. Potential directions for future research are also studied. To mitigate these issues, the use of low-stiffness metallic alloys has been highlighted. To this end, the development, processing and biocompatibility of superelastic NiTi as well as resorbable magnesium-based alloys are discussed. Additionally, engineered porosity is reviewed as it can be an effective way of matching the stiffness of an implant with the surrounding tissue. These porosities and the overall geometry of the implant can be optimized for strain transduction and with a tailored stiffness profile. Rendering patient-specific, site-specific, morphology-specific and function-specific implants can now be achieved using these and other metals with bone-like material properties by additive manufacturing. The biocompatibility of implants prepared from superelastic and resorbable alloys is also reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for volume-rendered computed tomography portovenography. Improvement of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Izuru; Hanaoka, Shohei; Akahane, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a reconstruction technique for computed tomography (CT) that reduces image noise. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether ASIR improves the quality of volume-rendered (VR) CT portovenography. Institutional review board approval, with waived consent, was obtained. A total of 19 patients (12 men, 7 women; mean age 69.0 years; range 25-82 years) suspected of having liver lesions underwent three-phase enhanced CT. VR image sets were prepared with both the conventional method and ASIR. The required time to make VR images was recorded. Two radiologists performed independent qualitative evaluations of the image sets. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical analysis. Contrast-noise ratios (CNRs) of the portal and hepatic vein were also evaluated. Overall image quality was significantly improved by ASIR (P<0.0001 and P=0.0155 for each radiologist). ASIR enhanced CNRs of the portal and hepatic vein significantly (P<0.0001). The time required to create VR images was significantly shorter with ASIR (84.7 vs. 117.1 s; P=0.014). ASIR enhances CNRs and improves image quality in VR CT portovenography. It also shortens the time required to create liver VR CT portovenographs. (author)

  11. High color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode using levofloxacin as blue emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yan-Qin; Zhang Ai-Qin; Li Yuan-Hao; Wang Hua; Jia Hu-Sheng; Liu Xu-Guang; Gao Zhi-Xiang; Tsuboi Taijuf

    2015-01-01

    Levofloxacin (LOFX), which is well-known as an antibiotic medicament, was shown to be useful as a 452-nm blue emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, the fabricated white OLED contains a 452-nm blue emitting layer (thickness of 30 nm) with 1 wt% LOFX doped in CBP (4,4’-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl) host and a 584-nm orange emitting layer (thickness of 10 nm) with 0.8 wt% DCJTB (4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7, 7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran) doped in CBP, which are separated by a 20-nm-thick buffer layer of TPBi (2,2’,2”-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole). A high color rendering index (CRI) of 84.5 and CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.32), which is close to ideal white emission CIE (0.333, 0.333), are obtained at a bias voltage of 14 V. Taking into account that LOFX is less expensive and the synthesis and purification technologies of LOFX are mature, these results indicate that blue fluorescence emitting LOFX is useful for applications to white OLEDs although the maximum current efficiency and luminance are not high. The present paper is expected to become a milestone to using medical drug materials for OLEDs. (paper)

  12. Heterogeneous Deformable Modeling of Bio-Tissues and Haptic Force Rendering for Bio-Object Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiyong; Lee, Yuan-Shin; Narayan, Roger J.

    This paper presents a novel technique for modeling soft biological tissues as well as the development of an innovative interface for bio-manufacturing and medical applications. Heterogeneous deformable models may be used to represent the actual internal structures of deformable biological objects, which possess multiple components and nonuniform material properties. Both heterogeneous deformable object modeling and accurate haptic rendering can greatly enhance the realism and fidelity of virtual reality environments. In this paper, a tri-ray node snapping algorithm is proposed to generate a volumetric heterogeneous deformable model from a set of object interface surfaces between different materials. A constrained local static integration method is presented for simulating deformation and accurate force feedback based on the material properties of a heterogeneous structure. Biological soft tissue modeling is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed techniques. By integrating the heterogeneous deformable model into a virtual environment, users can both observe different materials inside a deformable object as well as interact with it by touching the deformable object using a haptic device. The presented techniques can be used for surgical simulation, bio-product design, bio-manufacturing, and medical applications.

  13. High-fidelity haptic and visual rendering for patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sonny; Li, Peter; Locketz, Garrett; Salisbury, Kenneth; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2016-12-01

    Medical imaging techniques provide a wealth of information for surgical preparation, but it is still often the case that surgeons are examining three-dimensional pre-operative image data as a series of two-dimensional images. With recent advances in visual computing and interactive technologies, there is much opportunity to provide surgeons an ability to actively manipulate and interpret digital image data in a surgically meaningful way. This article describes the design and initial evaluation of a virtual surgical environment that supports patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery using pre-operative medical image data. Computational methods are presented that enable six degree-of-freedom haptic feedback during manipulation, and that simulate virtual dissection according to the mechanical principles of orthogonal cutting and abrasive wear. A highly efficient direct volume renderer simultaneously provides high-fidelity visual feedback during surgical manipulation of the virtual anatomy. The resulting virtual surgical environment was assessed by evaluating its ability to replicate findings in the operating room, using pre-operative imaging of the same patient. Correspondences between surgical exposure, anatomical features, and the locations of pathology were readily observed when comparing intra-operative video with the simulation, indicating the predictive ability of the virtual surgical environment.

  14. Determination of radionuclide solubility limits to be used in SR 97. Uncertainties associated to calculated solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Duro, L.; Jordana, S. [QuantiSci S.L., Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, J. de [DEQ-UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-01

    The thermochemical behaviour of 24 critical radionuclides for the forthcoming SR97 PA exercise is discussed. The available databases are reviewed and updated with new data and an extended database for aqueous and solid species of the radionuclides of interest is proposed. We have calculated solubility limits for the radionuclides of interest under different groundwater compositions. A sensitivity analysis of the calculated solubilities with the composition of the groundwater is presented. Besides selecting the most likely solubility limiting phases, in this work we have used coprecipitation approaches in order to calculate more realistic solubility limits for minor radionuclides, such as Ra, Am and Cm. The comparison between the calculated solubilities and the concentrations measured in relevant natural systems (NA) and in spent fuel leaching experiments helps to assess the validity of the methodology used and to derive source term concentrations for the radionuclides studied. The uncertainties associated to the solubilities of the main radionuclides involved in the spent nuclear fuel have also been discussed in this work. The variability of the groundwater chemistry; redox conditions and temperature of the system have been considered the main factors affecting the solubilities. In this case, a sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to study solubility changes as a function of these parameters. The uncertainties have been calculated by including the values found in a major extent in typical granitic groundwaters. The results obtained from this analysis indicate that there are some radionuclides which are not affected by these parameters, i.e. Ag, Cm, Ho, Nb, Ni, Np, Pu, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc and U

  15. Solubility behavior and biopharmaceutical classification of novel high-solubility ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin pharmaceutical derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Susana A; Jimenez-Kairuz, Alvaro F; Manzo, Ruben H; Olivera, María E

    2009-04-17

    The hydrochlorides of the 1:3 aluminum:norfloxacin and aluminum:ciprofloxacin complexes were characterized according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) premises in comparison with their parent compounds. The pH-solubility profiles of the complexes were experimentally determined at 25 and 37 degrees C in the range of pH 1-8 and compared to that of uncomplexed norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Both complexes are clearly more soluble than the antibiotics themselves, even at the lowest solubility pHs. The increase in solubility was ascribed to the species controlling solubility, which were analyzed in the solid phases at equilibrium at selected pHs. Additionally, permeability was set as low, based on data reported in the scientific literature regarding oral bioavailability, intestinal and cell cultures permeabilities and also considering the influence of stoichiometric amounts of aluminum. The complexes fulfill the BCS criterion to be classified as class 3 compounds (high solubility/low permeability). Instead, the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) currently used in solid dosage forms, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, proved to be BCS class 4 (low solubility/low permeability). The solubility improvement turns the complexes as potential biowaiver candidates from the scientific point of view and may be a good way for developing more dose-efficient formulations. An immediate release tablet showing very rapid dissolution was obtained. Its dissolution profile was compared to that of the commercial ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablets allowing to dissolution of the complete dose at a critical pH such as 6.8.

  16. Effect of Cyclodextrin Complexation on the Aqueous Solubility and Solubility/Dose Ratio of Praziquantel

    OpenAIRE

    Maragos, Stratos; Archontaki, Helen; Macheras, Panos; Valsami, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ), the primary drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis, is a highly lipophilic drug that possesses high permeability and low aqueous solubility and is, therefore, classified as a Class II drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In this work, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) were used in order to determine whether increasing the aqueous solubility of a drug by complexation with CDs, a BCS-Class II compound ...

  17. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil(®) M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of water-soluble fenofibrate.

  18. Towards an e-Model for the enhancement of service rendering by SMMEs supporting agencies in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available of the existing model to an e-model may lead to an effective and efficient service delivery, which in turn could positively impact on SMMEs operational objectives. The proposed e-model forms the basis for the enhancement of the quality of service rendered...

  19. A two-metric proposal to specify the color-rendering properties of light sources for retail lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Rea, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Lighting plays an important role in supporting retail operations, from attracting customers, to enabling the evaluation of merchandise, to facilitating the completion of the sale. Lighting also contributes to the identity, comfort, and visual quality of a retail store. With the increasing availability and quality of white LEDs, retail lighting specifiers are now considering LED lighting in stores. The color rendering of light sources is a key factor in supporting retail lighting goals and thus influences a light source's acceptance by users and specifiers. However, there is limited information on what consumers' color preferences are, and metrics used to describe the color properties of light sources often are equivocal and fail to predict preference. The color rendering of light sources is described in the industry solely by the color rendering index (CRI), which is only indirectly related to human perception. CRI is intended to characterize the appearance of objects illuminated by the source and is increasingly being challenged because new sources are being developed with increasingly exotic spectral power distributions. This paper discusses how CRI might be augmented to better use it in support of the design objectives for retail merchandising. The proposed guidelines include the use of gamut area index as a complementary metric to CRI for assuring good color rendering.

  20. Effect of nanostructured lime-based and silica-based products on the consolidation of historical renders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsoi, G.; Veiga, R.; Santos Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    An important operation for the conservation of historical renders is the cohesion restitution of the binderaggregate system, based on the use of materials with consolidating properties. Inorganic consolidants are usually preferred to organic ones due to better compatibility and durability. The aim

  1. Curved reconstructions versus three-dimensional surface rendering in the demonstration of cortical lesions in patients with extratemporal epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiners, LC; Scheffers, JM; De Kort, GAP; Burger, H; Van Huffelen, AC; Van Rijen, PC; Van Veelen, CWM

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. TO compare the visibility and localization of extratemporal cortical lesions in extratemporal epilepsy by using curved reconstruction (CR) and three-dimensional surface rendering (3D SR) of 3D-acquired MR images and to study the degree of confidence with which localizations

  2. Polyacrylate–water partitioning of biocidal compounds: Enhancing the understanding of biocide partitioning between render and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    -N-octylisothiazolinone). The correlation of the polyacrylate-water partition constants with the octanol-water partition constants is significant, but the polyacrylate-water partition constants were predominantly below octanol-water partition constants (Kow). The comparison with render-water distribution constants showed that estimating...

  3. 31 CFR 500.585 - Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. 500.585 Section 500.585 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.585 Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. Payments...

  4. Wobbled splatting-a fast perspective volume rendering method for simulation of x-ray images from CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Seemann, Rudolf; Figl, Michael; Hummel, Johann; Ede, Christopher; Homolka, Peter; Yang Xinhui; Niederer, Peter; Bergmann, Helmar

    2005-01-01

    3D/2D registration, the automatic assignment of a global rigid-body transformation matching the coordinate systems of patient and preoperative volume scan using projection images, is an important topic in image-guided therapy and radiation oncology. A crucial part of most 3D/2D registration algorithms is the fast computation of digitally rendered radiographs (DRRs) to be compared iteratively to radiographs or portal images. Since registration is an iterative process, fast generation of DRRs-which are perspective summed voxel renderings-is desired. In this note, we present a simple and rapid method for generation of DRRs based on splat rendering. As opposed to conventional splatting, antialiasing of the resulting images is not achieved by means of computing a discrete point spread function (a so-called footprint), but by stochastic distortion of either the voxel positions in the volume scan or by the simulation of a focal spot of the x-ray tube with non-zero diameter. Our method generates slightly blurred DRRs suitable for registration purposes at framerates of approximately 10 Hz when rendering volume images with a size of 30 MB. (note)

  5. Dynamic miniature lighting system with low correlated colour temperature and high colour rendering index for museum lighting of fragile artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2013-01-01

    of historical artefacts in display cases at museums and other exhibitions, which can replace 3-5 Watt incandescent light bulbs with a correlated colour temperature (CCT) from 2000 K to 2400 K. The solution decreases the energy consumption by up to 80 %, while maintaining colour rendering indices (Ra) above 90...

  6. Conservation of the historical render in the Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção in Elvas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Salema

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a practical case of conservation of the historical renders in the pyramidal tower of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção in Elvas (Portugal, carried out by the former IPPAR (Portuguese Institute of Architectonic Heritage, now Regional Direction of Culture of Alentejo. Awareness of the value and of the risks facing these renders points towards the necessity to safeguard their material authenticity. During the works of conservation of the main façade, under the layers of non decorated recovering render, a previous decorated render, simulating stone masonry, with raised joints reproducing stone divisions and the internal structure in solid brick, was discovered. After material and historical analysis we came to the conclusion that it was highly probable that this render was contemporary to the construction of the Church and, as such, it seemed essential to conserve and restore this covering as historical evidence and cultural heritage. Treatment of the pyramidal tower render included removal of the non original recover mortars, survey of ancient materials, execution of technical and decorative scheme, surfaces' cleaning and consolidation of the weaker original old mortars. In order to fill the gaps in the original surface, specific lime mortars, prepared with washed sand and standard grain size, were used. Restoration techniques were used to reconstitute and integrate the lacunas. These actions not only conserved the workmanship, but also reconstructed the decorative structure and a reading clarity, allowing the identification of restoration without the connotation of a mimetic integration. This joint action, only possible with the help of the conservation and restoration team, puts into evidence the possibility of continuous evaluation and learning. It is clear that, in cases where there are unknown, unpredictable factors, due to the specific work and value of the materials, it is possible to change the course

  7. Inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity renders cancer cells highly sensitive to mitoxantrone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Alpay

    Full Text Available Although c-Abl has increasingly emerged as a key player in the DNA damage response, its role in this context is far from clear. We studied the effect of inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by imatinib with chemotherapy drugs and found a striking difference in cell survival after combined mitoxantrone (MX and imatinib treatment compared to a panel of other chemotherapy drugs. The combinatory treatment induced apoptosis in HeLa cells and other cancer cell lines but not in primary fibroblasts. The difference in MX and doxorubicin was related to significant augmentation of DNA damage. Transcriptionally active p53 accumulated in cells in which human papillomavirus E6 normally degrades p53. The combination treatment resulted in caspase activation and apoptosis, but this effect did not depend on either p53 or p73 activity. Despite increased p53 activity, the cells arrested in G2 phase became defective in this checkpoint, allowing cell cycle progression. The effect after MX treatment depended partially on c-Abl: Short interfering RNA knockdown of c-Abl rendered HeLa cells less sensitive to MX. The effect of imatinib was decreased by c-Abl siRNA suggesting a role for catalytically inactive c-Abl in the death cascade. These findings indicate that MX has a unique cytotoxic effect when the kinase activity of c-Abl is inhibited. The treatment results in increased DNA damage and c-Abl-dependent apoptosis, which may offer new possibilities for potentiation of cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Automating Geospatial Visualizations with Smart Default Renderers for Data Exploration Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenes, K.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will outline the process of creating a web application for exploring large amounts of scientific geospatial data using modern automated cartographic techniques. Traditional cartographic methods, including data classification, may inadvertently hide geospatial and statistical patterns in the underlying data. This presentation demonstrates how to use smart web APIs that quickly analyze the data when it loads, and provides suggestions for the most appropriate visualizations based on the statistics of the data. Since there are just a few ways to visualize any given dataset well, it is imperative to provide smart default color schemes tailored to the dataset as opposed to static defaults. Since many users don't go beyond default values, it is imperative that they are provided with smart default visualizations. Multiple functions for automating visualizations are available in the Smart APIs, along with UI elements allowing users to create more than one visualization for a dataset since there isn't a single best way to visualize a given dataset. Since bivariate and multivariate visualizations are particularly difficult to create effectively, this automated approach removes the guesswork out of the process and provides a number of ways to generate multivariate visualizations for the same variables. This allows the user to choose which visualization is most appropriate for their presentation. The methods used in these APIs and the renderers generated by them are not available elsewhere. The presentation will show how statistics can be used as the basis for automating default visualizations of data along continuous ramps, creating more refined visualizations while revealing the spread and outliers of the data. Adding interactive components to instantaneously alter visualizations allows users to unearth spatial patterns previously unknown among one or more variables. These applications may focus on a single dataset that is frequently updated, or configurable

  9. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-08-28

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  10. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus; Al-Awami, Ali K.; Beyer, Johanna; Agus, Marco; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  11. Clinical Application of an Open-Source 3D Volume Rendering Software to Neurosurgical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes de Oliveira Santos, Bruno; Silva da Costa, Marcos Devanir; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Antônio de Paiva Neto, Manoel; Lawton, Michael T; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2018-02-01

    Preoperative recognition of the anatomic individualities of each patient can help to achieve more precise and less invasive approaches. It also may help to anticipate potential complications and intraoperative difficulties. Here we describe the use, accuracy, and precision of a free tool for planning microsurgical approaches using 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used the 3D volume rendering tool of a free open-source software program for 3D reconstruction of images of surgical sites obtained by MRI volumetric acquisition. We recorded anatomic reference points, such as the sulcus and gyrus, and vascularization patterns for intraoperative localization of lesions. Lesion locations were confirmed during surgery by intraoperative ultrasound and/or electrocorticography and later by postoperative MRI. Between August 2015 and September 2016, a total of 23 surgeries were performed using this technique for 9 low-grade gliomas, 7 high-grade gliomas, 4 cortical dysplasias, and 3 arteriovenous malformations. The technique helped delineate lesions with an overall accuracy of 2.6 ± 1.0 mm. 3D reconstructions were successfully performed in all patients, and images showed sulcus, gyrus, and venous patterns corresponding to the intraoperative images. All lesion areas were confirmed both intraoperatively and at the postoperative evaluation. With the technique described herein, it was possible to successfully perform 3D reconstruction of the cortical surface. This reconstruction tool may serve as an adjunct to neuronavigation systems or may be used alone when such a system is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical Note: A 3-D rendering algorithm for electromechanical wave imaging of a beating heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Melki, Lea; Wan, Elaine; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-09-01

    Arrhythmias can be treated by ablating the heart tissue in the regions of abnormal contraction. The current clinical standard provides electroanatomic 3-D maps to visualize the electrical activation and locate the arrhythmogenic sources. However, the procedure is time-consuming and invasive. Electromechanical wave imaging is an ultrasound-based noninvasive technique that can provide 2-D maps of the electromechanical activation of the heart. In order to fully visualize the complex 3-D pattern of activation, several 2-D views are acquired and processed separately. They are then manually registered with a 3-D rendering software to generate a pseudo-3-D map. However, this last step is operator-dependent and time-consuming. This paper presents a method to generate a full 3-D map of the electromechanical activation using multiple 2-D images. Two canine models were considered to illustrate the method: one in normal sinus rhythm and one paced from the lateral region of the heart. Four standard echographic views of each canine heart were acquired. Electromechanical wave imaging was applied to generate four 2-D activation maps of the left ventricle. The radial positions and activation timings of the walls were automatically extracted from those maps. In each slice, from apex to base, these values were interpolated around the circumference to generate a full 3-D map. In both cases, a 3-D activation map and a cine-loop of the propagation of the electromechanical wave were automatically generated. The 3-D map showing the electromechanical activation timings overlaid on realistic anatomy assists with the visualization of the sources of earlier activation (which are potential arrhythmogenic sources). The earliest sources of activation corresponded to the expected ones: septum for the normal rhythm and lateral for the pacing case. The proposed technique provides, automatically, a 3-D electromechanical activation map with a realistic anatomy. This represents a step towards a

  13. High color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode using levofloxacin as blue emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yan-Qin; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Hua; Jia, Hu-Sheng; Liu, Xu-Guang; Tsuboi, Taijuf

    2015-05-01

    Levofloxacin (LOFX), which is well-known as an antibiotic medicament, was shown to be useful as a 452-nm blue emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, the fabricated white OLED contains a 452-nm blue emitting layer (thickness of 30 nm) with 1 wt% LOFX doped in CBP (4,4’-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl) host and a 584-nm orange emitting layer (thickness of 10 nm) with 0.8 wt% DCJTB (4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran) doped in CBP, which are separated by a 20-nm-thick buffer layer of TPBi (2,2’,2”-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole). A high color rendering index (CRI) of 84.5 and CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.32), which is close to ideal white emission CIE (0.333, 0.333), are obtained at a bias voltage of 14 V. Taking into account that LOFX is less expensive and the synthesis and purification technologies of LOFX are mature, these results indicate that blue fluorescence emitting LOFX is useful for applications to white OLEDs although the maximum current efficiency and luminance are not high. The present paper is expected to become a milestone to using medical drug materials for OLEDs. Project supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0927), the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFR50460), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21101111 and 61274056), and the Shanxi Provincial Key Innovative Research Team in Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012041011).

  14. Bleed-through correction for rendering and correlation analysis in multi-colour localization microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dahan; Curthoys, Nikki M; Parent, Matthew T; Hess, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Multi-colour localization microscopy has enabled sub-diffraction studies of colocalization between multiple biological species and quantification of their correlation at length scales previously inaccessible with conventional fluorescence microscopy. However, bleed-through, or misidentification of probe species, creates false colocalization and artificially increases certain types of correlation between two imaged species, affecting the reliability of information provided by colocalization and quantified correlation. Despite the potential risk of these artefacts of bleed-through, neither the effect of bleed-through on correlation nor methods for its correction in correlation analyses have been systematically studied at typical rates of bleed-through reported to affect multi-colour imaging. Here, we present a reliable method of bleed-through correction applicable to image rendering and correlation analysis of multi-colour localization microscopy. Application of our bleed-through correction shows that our method accurately corrects the artificial increase in both types of correlation studied (Pearson coefficient and pair correlation), at all rates of bleed-through tested, in all types of correlation examined. In particular, anti-correlation could not be quantified without our bleed-through correction, even at rates of bleed-through as low as 2%. While it is demonstrated with dichroic-based multi-colour FPALM here, our presented method of bleed-through correction can be applied to all types of localization microscopy (PALM, STORM, dSTORM, GSDIM, etc), including both simultaneous and sequential multi-colour modalities, provided the rate of bleed-through can be reliably determined. (special issue article)

  15. Solubility of cobalt in primary circuit solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.; Joyer, F.

    1992-01-01

    The solubility of cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2 O 4 ) was measured in PWR primary circuit conditions, in the temperature range 250-350 deg C, and the results were compared with the ones obtained on magnetite and nickel ferrite. As in the former cases, it was found that, in the prevailing primary circuit conditions, the solubility of the cobalt ferrite was minimum at temperatures around 300 deg C, for cobalt as well as for iron. The equilibrium iron concentration is significantly lower than in the case of magnetite. The results are discussed in relation with the POTHY code, based only on thermodynamic laws and data, used for the prediction of the primary circuit chemistry

  16. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  17. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F., E-mail: Ferdinando-Bruno@uml.edu [US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Bernabei, Manuele [ITAF, Test Flight Centre, Chemistry Dept. Pratica di Mare AFB, 00071 Pomezia (Rome), Italy (UE) (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  18. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  19. Soluble organic nanotubes for catalytic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Linfeng; Yang, Kunran; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Kun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a novel method for constructing a soluble organic nanotube supported catalyst system based on single-molecule templating of core-shell bottlebrush copolymers. Various organic or metal catalysts, such as sodium prop-2-yne-1-sulfonate (SPS), 1-(2-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)ethyl)-1H-imidazole (PEI) and Pd(OAc)2 were anchored onto the tube walls to functionalize the organic nanotubes via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Depending on the ‘confined effect’ and the accessible cavity microenvironments of tubular structures, the organic nanotube catalysts showed high catalytic efficiency and site-isolation features. We believe that the soluble organic nanotubes will be very useful for the development of high performance catalyst systems due to their high stability of support, facile functionalization and attractive textural properties.

  20. Soluble organic nanotubes for catalytic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Linfeng; Yang, Kunran; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Kun

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we report a novel method for constructing a soluble organic nanotube supported catalyst system based on single-molecule templating of core–shell bottlebrush copolymers. Various organic or metal catalysts, such as sodium prop-2-yne-1-sulfonate (SPS), 1-(2-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)ethyl)-1H-imidazole (PEI) and Pd(OAc)2 were anchored onto the tube walls to functionalize the organic nanotubes via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Depending on the 'confined effect' and the accessible cavity microenvironments of tubular structures, the organic nanotube catalysts showed high catalytic efficiency and site-isolation features. We believe that the soluble organic nanotubes will be very useful for the development of high performance catalyst systems due to their high stability of support, facile functionalization and attractive textural properties.

  1. Hydrogen solubility measurements of analyzed tall oil fractions and a solubility model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Pakkanen, Minna; Linnekoski, Juha; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen solubility was measured in four tall oil fractions between 373 and 597 K. • Continuous flow synthetic isothermal and isobaric method was used. • A Henry’s law model was developed for the distilled tall oil fractions. • The complex composition of the samples was analyzed and is presented. - Abstract: Knowledge of hydrogen solubility in tall oil fractions is important for designing hydrotreatment processes of these complex nonedible biobased materials. Unfortunately measurements of hydrogen solubility into these fractions are missing in the literature. This work reports hydrogen solubility measured in four tall oil fractions between 373 and 597 K and at pressures from 5 to 10 MPa. Three of the fractions were distilled tall oil fractions their resin acids contents are respectively 2, 20 and 23 in mass-%. Additionally one fraction was a crude tall oil (CTO) sample containing sterols as the main neutral fraction. Measurements were performed using a continuous flow synthetic isothermal and isobaric method based on the visual observation of the bubble point. Composition of the flow was changed step-wise for the bubble point composition determination. We assume that the tall oil fractions did not react during measurements, based on the composition analysis performed before and after the measurements. Additionally the densities of the fractions were measured at atmospheric pressure from 293.15 to 323.15 K. A Henry’s law model was developed for the distilled tall oil fractions describing the solubility with an absolute average deviation of 2.1%. Inputs of the solubility model are temperature, total pressure and the density of the oil at 323.15 K. The solubility of hydrogen in the CTO sample can be described with the developed model with an absolute average deviation of 3.4%. The solubility of hydrogen increases both with increasing pressure and/or increasing temperature. The more dense fractions of the tall oil exhibit lower hydrogen

  2. Solubility and Permeability Studies of Aceclofenac in Different Oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solubility and permeability of aceclofenac were compared with the hydroalcoholic solution of ... the use of lipid based systems such as micro- or .... carriers/vehicles for enhanced solubility and permeability ... modifications: A recent review.

  3. Soluble L-selectin levels predict survival in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Nielsen, Ole H; Strøm, Jens

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate serum soluble L-selectin as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with sepsis.......To evaluate serum soluble L-selectin as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with sepsis....

  4. New impressive capabilities of SE-workbench for EO/IR real-time rendering of animated scenarios including flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Alain; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2015-10-01

    To provide technical assessments of EO/IR flares and self-protection systems for aircraft, DGA Information superiority resorts to synthetic image generation to model the operational battlefield of an aircraft, as viewed by EO/IR threats. For this purpose, it completed the SE-Workbench suite from OKTAL-SE with functionalities to predict a realistic aircraft IR signature and is yet integrating the real-time EO/IR rendering engine of SE-Workbench called SE-FAST-IR. This engine is a set of physics-based software and libraries that allows preparing and visualizing a 3D scene for the EO/IR domain. It takes advantage of recent advances in GPU computing techniques. The recent past evolutions that have been performed concern mainly the realistic and physical rendering of reflections, the rendering of both radiative and thermal shadows, the use of procedural techniques for the managing and the rendering of very large terrains, the implementation of Image- Based Rendering for dynamic interpolation of plume static signatures and lastly for aircraft the dynamic interpolation of thermal states. The next step is the representation of the spectral, directional, spatial and temporal signature of flares by Lacroix Defense using OKTAL-SE technology. This representation is prepared from experimental data acquired during windblast tests and high speed track tests. It is based on particle system mechanisms to model the different components of a flare. The validation of a flare model will comprise a simulation of real trials and a comparison of simulation outputs to experimental results concerning the flare signature and above all the behavior of the stimulated threat.

  5. Soluble polymer conjugates for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minko, Tamara

    2005-01-01

    The use of water-soluble polymeric conjugates as drug carriers offers several possible advantages. These advantages include: (1) improved drug pharmacokinetics; (2) decreased toxicity to healthy organs; (3) possible facilitation of accumulation and preferential uptake by targeted cells; (4) programmed profile of drug release. In this review, we will consider the main types of useful polymeric conjugates and their role and effectiveness as carriers in drug delivery systems.: © 2005 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal degradation of organo-soluble polyimides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俐研; 史燚; 金熹高

    1999-01-01

    The thermal degradation behavior of two organo-soluble polyimides was investigated by high resolution pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The pyrolyzates of the polymers at various temperatures were identified and characterized quantitatively. The relationship between the polymer structure and pyrolyzate distribution was discussed. The kinetic parameters of the thermal degradation were calculated based on thermogravimetric measurements. Finally, the thermal degradation mechanism for the polymers was suggested.

  7. Measurement of Soluble Biomarkers by Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Antal-Szalm?s, P?ter; Nagy, B?la; Debreceni, Ildik? Beke; Kappelmayer, J?nos

    2013-01-01

    Microparticle based flow cytometric assays for determination of the level of soluble biomarkers are widely used in several research applications and in some diagnostic setups. The major advantages of these multiplex systems are that they can measure a large number of analytes (up to 500) at the same time reducing assay time, costs and sample volume. Most of these assays are based on antigen-antibody interactions and work as traditional immunoassays, but nucleic acid alterations ? by using spe...

  8. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji; Guru V. Betageri

    2011-01-01

    Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1) synthetic and (2) natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogel...

  9. Solubility of plutonium and waste evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical processing of irradiated reactor elements at the Savannah River Site separates uranium, plutonium and fission products; fission products and process-added chemicals are mixed with an excess of NaOH and discharged as a basic slurry into large underground tanks for temporary storage. The slurry is composed of base-insoluble solids that settle to the bottom of the tank; the liquid supemate contains a mixture of base-soluble chemicals--nitrates, nitrites aluminate, sulfate, etc. To conserve space in the waste tanks, the supemate is concentrated by evaporation. As the evaporation proceeds, the solubilities of some components are exceeded, and these species crystallize from solution. Normally, these components are soluble in the hot solution discharged from the waste tank evaporator and do not crystallize until the solution cools. However, concern was aroused at West Valley over the possibility that plutonium would precipitate and accumulate in the evaporator, conceivably to the point that a nuclear accident was possible. There is also a concern at SRS from evaporation of sludge washes, which arise from washing the base-insoluble solids (open-quote sludge close-quote) with ca. 1M NaOH to reduce the Al and S0 4 -2 content. The sludge washes of necessity extract a low level of Pu from the sludge and are evaporated to reduce their volume, presenting the possibility of precipitating Pu. Measurements of the solubility of Pu in synthetic solutions of similar composition to waste supernate and sludge washes are described in this report

  10. Aluminum Solubility in Complex Electrolytes - 13011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, S.F. [Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc., 1806 Terminal Dr., Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Johnston, C.T. [Dept. of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Predicting aluminum solubility for Hanford and Savannah River waste liquids is very important for their disposition. It is a key mission goal at each Site to leach as much aluminum as practical from sludges in order to minimize the amount of vitrified high level waste. And it is correspondingly important to assure that any soluble aluminum does not precipitate during subsequent decontamination of the liquid leachates with ion exchange. This report shows a very simple and yet thermodynamic model for aluminum solubility that is consistent with a wide range of Al liquors, from simple mixtures of hydroxide and aluminate to over 300 Hanford concentrates and to a set of 19 Bayer liquors for temperatures from 20-100 deg. C. This dimer-dS{sub mix} (DDS) model incorporates an ideal entropy of mixing along with previous reports for the Al dimer, water activities, gibbsite, and bayerite thermodynamics. We expect this model will have broad application for nuclear wastes as well as the Bayer gibbsite process industry. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen adsorption on and solubility in graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashenko, S.L.; Wampler, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental data on adsorption and solubility of hydrogen isotopes in graphite over a wide range of temperatures and pressures are reviewed. Langmuir adsorption isotherms are proposed for the hydrogen-graphite interaction. The entropy and enthalpy of adsorption are estimated, allowing for effects of relaxation of dangling sp 2 bonds. Three kinds of traps are proposed: edge carbon atoms of interstitial loops with an adsorption enthalpy relative to H 2 gas of -4.4 eV/H 2 (unrelaxed, Trap 1), edge carbon atoms at grain surfaces with an adsorption enthalpy of -2.3 eV/H 2 (relaxed, Trap 2), and basal plane adsorption sites with an enthalpy of +2.43 eV/H 2 (Trap 3). The adsorption capacity of different types of graphite depends on the concentration of traps which depends on the crystalline microstructure of the material. The number of potential sites for the 'true solubility' (Trap 3) is assumed to be about one site per carbon atom in all types of graphite, but the endothermic character of this solubility leads to a negligible H inventory compared to the concentration of hydrogen in type 1 and type 2 traps for temperatures and gas pressures used in the experiments. Irradiation with neutrons or carbon atoms increases the concentration of type 1 and type 2 traps from about 20 and 200 appm respectively for unirradiated (POCO AXF-5Q) graphite to about 1500 and 5000 appm, respectively, at damage levels above 1 dpa. (orig.)

  12. Soluble Aβ aggregates can inhibit prion propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarell, Claire J; Quarterman, Emma; Yip, Daniel C-M; Terry, Cassandra; Nicoll, Andrew J; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Farrow, Mark A; Walsh, Dominic M; Collinge, John

    2017-11-01

    Mammalian prions cause lethal neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and consist of multi-chain assemblies of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrP C ). Ligands that bind to PrP C can inhibit prion propagation and neurotoxicity. Extensive prior work established that certain soluble assemblies of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated amyloid β-protein (Aβ) can tightly bind to PrP C , and that this interaction may be relevant to their toxicity in AD. Here, we investigated whether such soluble Aβ assemblies might, conversely, have an inhibitory effect on prion propagation. Using cellular models of prion infection and propagation and distinct Aβ preparations, we found that the form of Aβ assemblies which most avidly bound to PrP in vitro also inhibited prion infection and propagation. By contrast, forms of Aβ which exhibit little or no binding to PrP were unable to attenuate prion propagation. These data suggest that soluble aggregates of Aβ can compete with prions for binding to PrP C and emphasize the bidirectional nature of the interplay between Aβ and PrP C in Alzheimer's and prion diseases. Such inhibitory effects of Aβ on prion propagation may contribute to the apparent fall-off in the incidence of sporadic CJD at advanced age where cerebral Aβ deposition is common. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Solubility of plutonium dioxide aerosols, in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Kanapilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of plutonium aerosols is an important parameter in establishing risk estimates for industrial workers who might accidentally inhale these materials and in evaluating environmental health impacts associated with Pu. In vitro solubility of industrial plutonium aerosols in a simulated lung fluid is compared to similar studies with ultrafine aerosols from laser ignition of delta phase plutonium metal and laboratory-produced spherical particles of 238 PuO 2 and 239 PuO 2 . Although relatively insoluble, industrial plutonium-mixed oxide aerosols were much more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium dioxide particles. Chain agglomerate aerosols from laser ignition of metallic Pu indicated in vitro dissolution half-times of 10 and 50 days for activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 0.7 and 2.3 μm, respectively. Plutonium-containing mixed oxide aerosols indicated dissolution half-times of 40 to 500 days for particles formed by industrial powder comminution and blending. Centerless grinding of fuel pellets yielded plutonium-containing aerosols with dissolution half-times of 1200 to 8000 days. All mixed oxide particles were in the size range 1.0 μm to 2.5 μm AMAD

  14. Atmospheric Processing of Volcanic Glass: Effects on Iron Solubility and Redox Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maters, Elena C; Delmelle, Pierre; Bonneville, Steeve

    2016-05-17

    Volcanic ash from explosive eruptions can provide iron (Fe) to oceanic regions where this micronutrient limits primary production. Controls on the soluble Fe fraction in ash remain poorly understood but Fe solubility is likely influenced during atmospheric transport by condensation-evaporation cycles which induce large pH fluctuations. Using glass powder as surrogate for ash, we experimentally simulate its atmospheric processing via cycles of pH 2 and 5 exposure. Glass fractional Fe solubility (maximum 0.4%) is governed by the pH 2 exposure duration rather than by the pH fluctuations, however; pH 5 exposure induces precipitation of Fe-bearing nanoparticles which (re)dissolve at pH 2. Glass leaching/dissolution release Fe(II) and Fe(III) which are differentially affected by changes in pH; the average dissolved Fe(II)/Fetot ratio is ∼0.09 at pH 2 versus ∼0.18 at pH 5. Iron release at pH 2 from glass with a relatively high bulk Fe(II)/Fetot ratio (0.5), limited aqueous Fe(II) oxidation at pH 5, and possibly glass-mediated aqueous Fe(III) reduction may render atmospherically processed ash a significant source of Fe(II) for phytoplankton. By providing new insight into the form(s) of Fe associated with ash as wet aerosol versus cloud droplet, we improve knowledge of atmospheric controls on volcanogenic Fe delivery to the ocean.

  15. Solubility of Meloxicam in Mixed Solvent Systems | Babu | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solubility of meloxicam is higher in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) compared to water, probably due to ionization of the drug. The solubility of meloxicam is marginally enhanced in surfactant systems (Tween 80 and Brij 35) at concentrations higher than cmc, proving the micellar solubilization. Meloxicam solubility studies in ...

  16. The Hildebrand Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids—Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The Hildebrand solubility parameters have been calculated for eight ionic liquids. Retention data from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution were used for the calculation. From the solubility parameters, the enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. Results are compared with solubility parameters estimated by different methods. PMID:21747694

  17. The Hildebrand solubility parameters of ionic liquids-part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The Hildebrand solubility parameters have been calculated for eight ionic liquids. Retention data from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution were used for the calculation. From the solubility parameters, the enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. Results are compared with solubility parameters estimated by different methods.

  18. The Hildebrand Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids—Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marciniak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hildebrand solubility parameters have been calculated for eight ionic liquids. Retention data from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution were used for the calculation. From the solubility parameters, the enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. Results are compared with solubility parameters estimated by different methods.

  19. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Lumley, T.C.; Landriault, M.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.

    2007-01-01

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  20. Effect of composition of simulated intestinal media on the solubility of poorly soluble compounds investigated by design of experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Feng, Kung-I; Leithead, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The composition of the human intestinal fluids varies both intra- and inter-individually. This will influence the solubility of orally administered drug compounds, and hence, the absorption and efficacy of compounds displaying solubility limited absorption. The purpose of this study was to assess...... studies feasible compared to single SIF solubility studies. Applying this DoE approach will lead to a better understanding of the impact of intestinal fluid composition on the solubility of a given drug compound....

  1. ClipCard: Sharable, Searchable Visual Metadata Summaries on the Cloud to Render Big Data Actionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, P.; Davis, D.; Cunningham, R.

    2013-12-01

    Research firm IDC estimates that approximately 90 percent of the Enterprise Big Data go un-analyzed, as 'dark data' - an enormous corpus of undiscovered, untagged information residing on data warehouses, servers and Storage Area Networks (SAN). In the geosciences, these data range from unpublished model runs to vast survey data assets to raw sensor data. Many of these are now being collected instantaneously, at a greater volume and in new data formats. Not all of these data can be analyzed, nor processed in real time, and their features may not be well described at the time of collection. These dark data are a serious data management problem for science organizations of all types, especially ones with mandated or required data reporting and compliance requirements. Additionally, data curators and scientists are encouraged to quantify the impact of their data holdings as a way to measure research success. Deriving actionable insights is the foremost goal of Big Data Analytics (BDA), which is especially true with geoscience, given its direct impact on most of the pressing global issues. Clearly, there is a pressing need for innovative approaches to making dark data discoverable, measurable, and actionable. We report on ClipCard, a Cloud-based SaaS analytic platform for instant summarization, quick search, visualization and easy sharing of metadata summaries form the Dark Data at hierarchical levels of detail, thus rendering it 'white', i.e., actionable. We present a use case of the ClipCard platform, a cloud-based application which helps generate (abstracted) visual metadata summaries and meta-analytics for environmental data at hierarchical scales within and across big data containers. These summaries and analyses provide important new tools for managing big data and simplifying collaboration through easy to deploy sharing APIs. The ClipCard application solves a growing data management bottleneck by helping enterprises and large organizations to summarize, search

  2. Rendering mortars in Medina Azahara, Part II: Material characterization and alteration causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Varela, M. T.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the depicted coat that covers some of the mortars exposed to weathering in the Medina Azahara archaeological site is .studied. That coat is characterized from the compositional and physical viewpoint and the main causes for its decay are determined. The depicted coat is formed by cal cite and iron oxides. It is quite compact and homogeneous. It is approximately 0.1 to 1 mm thick. The depicted coats supposed by lime mortars have CaCO3 deposits over polychromy rests. Depicted coats supported by gypsum mortars or mixed lime and gypsum mortars have gypsum deposits over polychromy rests. The processes of rendering mortars dissolution and the later crystallization of salts on their surface, together with biological growth, are the main causes of the decay of the depicted coats.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la capa de policromía que recubre algunos de los morteros conservados a la intemperie en la ciudad de Medina Azahara. Dicha capa se caracteriza desde el punto de vista composicional y físico, determinándose las principales causas de su deterioro. La capa de policromía está formada por calcita y óxidos de hierro. Dicha capa es bastante homogénea y compacta. Su espesor es de 0,1 a 1 mm aproximadamente. Las capas de pintura sustentadas por morteros de cal tienen un depósito de CaCO sobre los restos de policromía. Las capas de pintura sustentadas por morteros de yeso o bastardos de cal y yeso tienen depósitos de yeso sobre los restos de policromía. Los procesos de disolución de los revocos y la posterior cristalización de las sales en su superficie, junto con la colonización biológica, son las principales causas de deterioro de la capa de policromía de su superficie.

  3. Oral formulation strategies to improve solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2011-10-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a spiraling increase in the complexity and specificity of drug-receptor targets. It is possible to design drugs for these diverse targets with advances in combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening. Unfortunately, but not entirely unexpectedly, these advances have been accompanied by an increase in the structural complexity and a decrease in the solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, the importance of formulation strategies to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs is inevitable, thus making it crucial to understand and explore the recent trends. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as solid dispersions, soluble complexes, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), nanocrystals and mesoporous inorganic carriers, are discussed briefly in this review, along with examples of marketed products. This article provides the reader with a concise overview of currently relevant formulation strategies and proposes anticipated future trends. Today, the pharmaceutical industry has at its disposal a series of reliable and scalable formulation strategies for poorly soluble drugs. However, due to a lack of understanding of the basic physical chemistry behind these strategies, formulation development is still driven by trial and error.

  4. The solubility-permeability interplay and its implications in formulation design and development for poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Miller, Jonathan M

    2012-06-01

    While each of the two key parameters of oral drug absorption, the solubility and the permeability, has been comprehensively studied separately, the relationship and interplay between the two have been largely ignored. For instance, when formulating a low-solubility drug using various solubilization techniques: what are we doing to the apparent permeability when we increase the solubility? Permeability is equal to the drug's diffusion coefficient through the membrane times the membrane/aqueous partition coefficient divided by the membrane thickness. The direct correlation between the intestinal permeability and the membrane/aqueous partitioning, which in turn is dependent on the drug's apparent solubility in the GI milieu, suggests that the solubility and the permeability are closely associated, exhibiting a certain interplay between them, and the current view of treating the one irrespectively of the other may not be sufficient. In this paper, we describe the research that has been done thus far, and present new data, to shed light on this solubility-permeability interplay. It has been shown that decreased apparent permeability accompanies the solubility increase when using different solubilization methods. Overall, the weight of the evidence indicates that the solubility-permeability interplay cannot be ignored when using solubility-enabling formulations; looking solely at the solubility enhancement that the formulation enables may be misleading with regards to predicting the resulting absorption, and hence, the solubility-permeability interplay must be taken into account to strike the optimal solubility-permeability balance, in order to maximize the overall absorption.

  5. Head-To-Head Comparison of Different Solubility-Enabling Formulations of Etoposide and Their Consequent Solubility-Permeability Interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Avital; Miller, Jonathan M; Lindley, David; Carr, Robert A; Zocharski, Philip; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison of different solubility-enabling formulations, and their consequent solubility-permeability interplay. The low-solubility anticancer drug etoposide was formulated in several strengths of four solubility-enabling formulations: hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, the cosolvent polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400), the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate, and an amorphous solid dispersion formulation. The ability of these formulations to increase the solubility of etoposide was investigated, followed by permeability studies using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and examination of the consequent solubility-permeability interplay. All formulations significantly increased etoposide's apparent solubility. The cyclodextrin-, surfactant-, and cosolvent-based formulations resulted in a concomitant decreased permeability that could be modeled directly from the proportional increase in the apparent solubility. On the contrary, etoposide permeability remained constant when using the ASD formulation, irrespective of the increased apparent solubility provided by the formulation. In conclusion, supersaturation resulting from the amorphous form overcomes the solubility-permeability tradeoff associated with other formulation techniques. Accounting for the solubility-permeability interplay may allow to develop better solubility-enabling formulations, thereby maximizing the overall absorption of lipophilic orally administered drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Estimation of aqueous solubility of TODGA using group contribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramonian, S.; Kumar, Shekhar; Sampath, M.; Sivakumar, D.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2017-01-01

    The aqueous solubility of N, N, N', N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentanediamide normally referred as TODGA is experimentally measured. The aqueous solubility was also predicted using Marrero and Gani group contribution method. The modification of original Marrero and Gani method was proposed to accurately predict TODGA solubility. The predicted solubility of TODGA using original Marrero and Gani method, Modified Marrero and Gani method and UNIFAC Model was compared. The predicted solubility of TODGA using modified Marrero and Gani method is 0.0237 g/l against the experimentally measured value of 0.0226 g/l. (author)

  7. Study of solubility of some metal cyclohexane carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazov, A.N.; Amanov, K.B.; Trapeznikova, V.F.; Kul'maksimov, A.; Kolosova, N.

    1978-01-01

    The solubility of calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium, cabalt, copper and aluminium cyclohexane, carbonates (CHC) in water has been studied at 25 deg C. The salt solubility has been calculated according to the metal ion concentration in saturated solutions. It has been established, that the cobalt and rare earth cyclohexane carbonates are relatively very soluble in water and have solubility products of SP > 1x10 -5 . The solubility of CHC of multivalent metals increases with the decrease of pH values. Each salt has some ''limiting'' pH value of a solution, below which it decomposes completely and can not exist in a solution in the form of solid phase

  8. Micelles from lipid derivatives of water-soluble polymers as delivery systems for poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, Anatoly N; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2004-05-07

    Polymeric micelles have a whole set of unique characteristics, which make them very promising drug carriers, in particular, for poorly soluble drugs. Our review article focuses on micelles prepared from conjugates of water-soluble polymers, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), with phospholipids or long-chain fatty acids. The preparation of micelles from certain polymer-lipid conjugates and the loading of these micelles with various poorly soluble anticancer agents are discussed. The data on the characterization of micellar preparations in terms of their morphology, stability, longevity in circulation, and ability to spontaneously accumulate in experimental tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect are presented. The review also considers the preparation of targeted immunomicelles with specific antibodies attached to their surface. Available in vivo results on the efficiency of anticancer drugs incorporated into plain micelles and immunomicelles in animal models are also discussed.

  9. Overcoming the solubility limit with solubility-enhancement tags: successful applications in biomolecular NMR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Pei; Wagner, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although the rapid progress of NMR technology has significantly expanded the range of NMR-trackable systems, preparation of NMR-suitable samples that are highly soluble and stable remains a bottleneck for studies of many biological systems. The application of solubility-enhancement tags (SETs) has been highly effective in overcoming solubility and sample stability issues and has enabled structural studies of important biological systems previously deemed unapproachable by solution NMR techniques. In this review, we provide a brief survey of the development and successful applications of the SET strategy in biomolecular NMR. We also comment on the criteria for choosing optimal SETs, such as for differently charged target proteins, and recent new developments on NMR-invisible SETs.

  10. Diagnosing solubility limitations – the example of hydrate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Berghausen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solubility is regarded as one of the key challenges in many drug discovery projects. Thus, it’s essential to support the lead finding and optimization efforts by appropriate solubility data. In silico solubility prediction remains challenging and therefore a screening assay is used as a first filter, followed by selected follow-up assays to reveal what causes the low solubility of a specific compound or chemotype. Results from diagnosing the underlying reason for solubility limitation are discussed. As lipophilicity and crystal lattice forces are regarded as main contributors to limiting solubility, changes in solid state are important to be recognized. Solubility limitation by various factors will be presented and the impact of the solid-state is exemplified by compounds that are able to form hydrates.

  11. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion

  12. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  13. Using rare earth doped thiosilicate phosphors in white light emitting LEDs: Towards low colour temperature and high colour rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, P.F.; Korthout, K.; Haecke, J.E. van; Poelman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth doped thiosilicates are promising materials for use in phosphor converted light emitting diodes (pcLEDs). These phosphors (including the hosts Ca 2 SiS 4 , BaSi 2 S 5 and Ba 2 SiS 4 in combination with Ce 3+ and/or Eu 2+ doping) cover the entire visible part of the spectrum, as the emission colour can be changed from deep blue to red. The photoluminescence emission spectrum and the overlap of the excitation spectrum with the emission of pumping LEDs is evaluated. The trade-off between high colour rendering and high electrical-to-optical power efficiency is discussed by simulation with both blue and UV emitting LEDs. Finally, a phosphor combination with low colour temperature (3000 K) and high colour rendering (CRI = 93) is proposed

  14. Segmentation, surface rendering, and surface simplification of 3-D skull images for the repair of a large skull defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weibing; Shi, Pengfei; Li, Shuguang

    2009-10-01

    Given the potential demonstrated by research into bone-tissue engineering, the use of medical image data for the rapid prototyping (RP) of scaffolds is a subject worthy of research. Computer-aided design and manufacture and medical imaging have created new possibilities for RP. Accurate and efficient design and fabrication of anatomic models is critical to these applications. We explore the application of RP computational methods to the repair of a pediatric skull defect. The focus of this study is the segmentation of the defect region seen in computerized tomography (CT) slice images of this patient's skull and the three-dimensional (3-D) surface rendering of the patient's CT-scan data. We see if our segmentation and surface rendering software can improve the generation of an implant model to fill a skull defect.

  15. Role of volume rendered 3-D computed tomography in conservative management of trauma-related thoracic injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OʼLeary, Donal Peter

    2012-09-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are a tool used commonly in the construction industry and are widely available. Accidental injuries from nail guns are common, and several cases of suicide using a nail gun have been reported. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging, together with echocardiography, has been shown to be the gold standard for investigation of these cases. We present a case of a 55-year-old man who presented to the accident and emergency unit of a community hospital following an accidental pneumatic nail gun injury to his thorax. Volume-rendered CT of the thorax allowed an accurate assessment of the thoracic injuries sustained by this patient. As there was no evidence of any acute life-threatening injury, a sternotomy was avoided and the patient was observed closely until discharge. In conclusion, volume-rendered 3-dimensional CT can greatly help in the decision to avoid an unnecessary sternotomy in patients with a thoracic nail gun injury.

  16. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf AM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abid Mehmood Yousaf,1,2 Omer Mustapha,1 Dong Wuk Kim,1 Dong Shik Kim,1 Kyeong Soo Kim,1 Sung Giu Jin,1 Chul Soon Yong,3 Yu Seok Youn,4 Yu-Kyoung Oh,5 Jong Oh Kim,3 Han-Gon Choi1 1College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Johar, Lahore, Pakistan; 3College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, North Gyeongsang, 4School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 5College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.Methods: Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion.Results: All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1

  17. Radioimmunological determination of soluble immune complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, P; Meffert, H; Diezel, W; Schmidt, E; Soennichsen, N [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite)

    1979-04-01

    Soluble immune complexes were determined in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, using /sup 125/I-labelled anti-Ig-antibody and plastics-fixed C1q (component of complement). The detection limit of the method is 0.1 ..mu..g of aggregated human IgG and the range is between 0.1 ..mu..g and 10 ..mu..g per 0.5 ml serum. In 58% of the sera tested an increase of the number of immune complexes was found.

  18. Method for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases and sulfur-carrying waste water from pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspegren, O E.A.; Eklund, A J

    1951-03-15

    A method is described for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases, which are formed in processes for the manufacture of solid, liquid, or gaseous products by pyrolysis of oil shale, and thereby to extract valuable products, characterized in that the sulfur dioxide-carrying gases are washed with a solution or sludge obtained by leaching wholly or partly burned-out residues from the pyrolysis.

  19. The use of oak chips and coconut fiber as biofilter media to remove vocs in rendering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymczyna, Leszek; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Dobrowolska, Magadalena; Banach, Marcin; Pulit, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effectiveness of air biofiltration in rendering plants. The biofilter material comprised compost soil (40%) and peat (40%) mixed up with coconut fiber (medium A) and oak bark (medium B). During biofiltration average VOCs reduction reached 88.4% for medium A and 89.7% for medium B. A positive relationship of aldehyde reduction from material humidity (r = 0.502; α<0.05) was also noted. Other biomaterial parameters did not affect the treatment efficiency.

  20. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment.