WorldWideScience

Sample records for rendered aba-treated cells

  1. Parallel rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides a broad introduction to the subject of parallel rendering, encompassing both hardware and software systems. The focus is on the underlying concepts and the issues which arise in the design of parallel rendering algorithms and systems. We examine the different types of parallelism and how they can be applied in rendering applications. Concepts from parallel computing, such as data decomposition, task granularity, scalability, and load balancing, are considered in relation to the rendering problem. We also explore concepts from computer graphics, such as coherence and projection, which have a significant impact on the structure of parallel rendering algorithms. Our survey covers a number of practical considerations as well, including the choice of architectural platform, communication and memory requirements, and the problem of image assembly and display. We illustrate the discussion with numerous examples from the parallel rendering literature, representing most of the principal rendering methods currently used in computer graphics.

  2. Transcriptional Changes during Naturally Acquired Zika Virus Infection Render Dendritic Cells Highly Conducive to Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Hua, Stephane; Chen, Hsiao-Rong; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Einkauf, Kevin; Tse, Samantha; Ard, Kevin; Ciaranello, Andrea; Yawetz, Sigal; Sax, Paul; Rosenberg, Eric S; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Yu, Xu G

    2017-12-19

    Although dendritic cells are among the human cell population best equipped for cell-intrinsic antiviral immune defense, they seem highly susceptible to infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV). Using highly purified myeloid dendritic cells isolated from individuals with naturally acquired acute infection, we here show that ZIKV induces profound perturbations of transcriptional signatures relative to healthy donors. Interestingly, we noted a remarkable downregulation of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes and innate immune sensors, suggesting that ZIKV can actively suppress interferon-dependent immune responses. In contrast, several host factors known to support ZIKV infection were strongly upregulated during natural ZIKV infection; these transcripts included AXL, the main entry receptor for ZIKV; SOCS3, a negative regulator of ISG expression; and IDO-1, a recognized inducer of regulatory T cell responses. Thus, during in vivo infection, ZIKV can transform the transcriptome of dendritic cells in favor of the virus to render these cells highly conducive to ZIKV infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity renders cancer cells highly sensitive to mitoxantrone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Alpay

    Full Text Available Although c-Abl has increasingly emerged as a key player in the DNA damage response, its role in this context is far from clear. We studied the effect of inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by imatinib with chemotherapy drugs and found a striking difference in cell survival after combined mitoxantrone (MX and imatinib treatment compared to a panel of other chemotherapy drugs. The combinatory treatment induced apoptosis in HeLa cells and other cancer cell lines but not in primary fibroblasts. The difference in MX and doxorubicin was related to significant augmentation of DNA damage. Transcriptionally active p53 accumulated in cells in which human papillomavirus E6 normally degrades p53. The combination treatment resulted in caspase activation and apoptosis, but this effect did not depend on either p53 or p73 activity. Despite increased p53 activity, the cells arrested in G2 phase became defective in this checkpoint, allowing cell cycle progression. The effect after MX treatment depended partially on c-Abl: Short interfering RNA knockdown of c-Abl rendered HeLa cells less sensitive to MX. The effect of imatinib was decreased by c-Abl siRNA suggesting a role for catalytically inactive c-Abl in the death cascade. These findings indicate that MX has a unique cytotoxic effect when the kinase activity of c-Abl is inhibited. The treatment results in increased DNA damage and c-Abl-dependent apoptosis, which may offer new possibilities for potentiation of cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of [ 3 H]-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells

  5. Loss of functional E-cadherin renders cells more resistant to the apoptotic agent taxol in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Paulo; Oliveira, Maria Jose; Beraldi, Eliana; Mateus, Ana Rita; Nakajima, Takashi; Gleave, Martin; Yokota, Jun; Carneiro, Fatima; Huntsman, David; Seruca, Raquel; Suriano, Gianpaolo

    2005-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports a role for E-cadherin in suppressing invasion, metastasis, and proliferation. Germline mutations of the E-cadherin represent the genetic cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In this type of tumor, isolated cancer cells permeate the basal membrane and paradoxically survive in the gastric wall in the absence of contact with neighbor epithelial cells or with the extracellular matrix. This suggests that upon E-cadherin deregulation, cells acquired resistance to apoptosis. To test this hypothesis, CHO cells stably expressing either wild-type E-cadherin or the HDGC-related germline mutations T340A and V832M were seeded either on a thin layer of collagen type I or on plastic and then subjected to the apoptotic agent taxol. We found that in vitro functional E-cadherin renders cells more sensitive to the effect of taxol. Our results also indicate that this effect is associated to decreased level of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein

  6. Acute dyskerin depletion triggers cellular senescence and renders osteosarcoma cells resistant to genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ping; Mobasher, Maral E.; Alawi, Faizan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dyskerin depletion triggers cellular senescence in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. • Dyskerin-depleted cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by genotoxic stress. • Chromatin relaxation sensitizes dyskerin-depleted cells to apoptosis. - Abstract: Dyskerin is a conserved, nucleolar RNA-binding protein implicated in an increasing array of fundamental cellular processes. Germline mutation in the dyskerin gene (DKC1) is the cause of X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Conversely, wild-type dyskerin is overexpressed in sporadic cancers, and high-levels may be associated with poor prognosis. It was previously reported that acute loss of dyskerin function via siRNA-mediated depletion slowed the proliferation of transformed cell lines. However, the mechanisms remained unclear. Using human U2OS osteosarcoma cells, we show that siRNA-mediated dyskerin depletion induced cellular senescence as evidenced by proliferative arrest, senescence-associated heterochromatinization and a senescence-associated molecular profile. Senescence can render cells resistant to apoptosis. Conversely, chromatin relaxation can reverse the repressive effects of senescence-associated heterochromatinization on apoptosis. To this end, genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed in dyskerin-depleted cells. In contrast, agents that induce chromatin relaxation, including histone deacetylase inhibitors and the DNA intercalator chloroquine, sensitized dyskerin-depleted cells to apoptosis. Dyskerin is a core component of the telomerase complex and plays an important role in telomere homeostasis. Defective telomere maintenance resulting in premature senescence is thought to primarily underlie the pathogenesis of X-linked DC. Since U2OS cells are telomerase-negative, this leads us to conclude that loss of dyskerin function can also induce cellular senescence via mechanisms independent of telomere shortening

  7. FOXP3 renders activated human regulatory T cells resistant to restimulation-induced cell death by suppressing SAP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gil; Voss, Kelsey; Yan, Toria F; Kim, Yong Chan; Kortum, Robert L; Scott, David W; Snow, Andrew L

    2018-05-01

    Restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) is an apoptotic program that regulates effector T cell expansion, triggered by repeated stimulation through the T cell receptor (TCR) in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Although CD4 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) consume IL-2 and experience frequent TCR stimulation, they are highly resistant to RICD. Resistance in Tregs is dependent on the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, although the mechanism remains unclear. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP-1), that lack the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP), are also resistant to RICD. Here we demonstrate that normal Tregs express very low levels of SAP compared to conventional T cells. FOXP3 reduces SAP expression by directly binding to and repressing the SH2D1A (SAP) promoter. Indeed, ectopic SAP expression restores RICD sensitivity in human FOXP3 + Tregs. Our findings illuminate the mechanism behind FOXP3-mediated RICD resistance in Tregs, providing new insight into their long-term persistence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Cyclophilin Inhibitors Remodel the Endoplasmic Reticulum of HCV-Infected Cells in a Unique Pattern Rendering Cells Impervious to a Reinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayan Chatterji

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action by which cyclophilin inhibitors (CypI interfere with the HCV life cycle remain poorly understood. We reported that CypI and NS5A inhibitors (NS5Ai, but not other classes of anti-HCV agents, prevent assembly of double membrane vesicles (DMVs, which protect replication complexes. We demonstrated that both NS5A and the isomerase cyclophilin A (CypA are required for DMV formation. Here, we examined whether CypI mediate an additional antiviral effect that could further explain the high efficacy of CypI. We identified a unique action of CypI. CypI remodel the organization of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of HCV-infected cells, but not of uninfected cells. This effect is specific since it was not observed for other classes of anti-HCV agents including NS5Ai, and has no effect on the viability of CypI-treated cells. Since ER serves as platform for the establishment of HCV replication complexes, we asked whether the ER reorganization by CypI would prevent cells from being newly infected. Remarkably, CypI-treated HCV-pre-infected cells remain totally impervious to a reinfection, suggesting that the CypI-mediated ER reorganization prevents a reinfection. This block is not due to residual CypI since CypI-resistant HCV variants also fail to infect these cells. The ER reorganization by CypI is rapid and reversible. This study provides the first evidence that CypI trigger a unique ER reorganization of infected cells, rendering cells transiently impervious to a reinfection. This study further suggests that the HCV-induced ER rearrangement represents a key target for the development of new therapies.

  9. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A

    2005-01-01

    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en

  10. Rendering of Gemstones

    OpenAIRE

    Krtek, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive appearance of gemstones is caused by the way light reflects and refracts multiple times inside of them. The goal of this thesis is to design and implement an application for photorealistic rendering of gems. The most important effects we aim for are realistic dispersion of light and refractive caustics. For rendering we use well-known algorithm of path tracing with an experimental modification for faster computation of caustic effects. In this thesis we also design and impleme...

  11. Transcriptional Reprogramming during Effector-to-Memory Transition Renders CD4+ T Cells Permissive for Latent HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liang; Deng, Kai; Gao, Hongbo; Xing, Sifei; Capoferri, Adam A; Durand, Christine M; Rabi, S Alireza; Laird, Gregory M; Kim, Michelle; Hosmane, Nina N; Yang, Hung-Chih; Zhang, Hao; Margolick, Joseph B; Li, Linghua; Cai, Weiping; Ke, Ruian; Flavell, Richard A; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2017-10-17

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4 + T cells is the major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Studies of HIV-1 latency have focused on regulation of viral gene expression in cells in which latent infection is established. However, it remains unclear how infection initially becomes latent. Here we described a unique set of properties of CD4 + T cells undergoing effector-to-memory transition including temporary upregulation of CCR5 expression and rapid downregulation of cellular gene transcription. These cells allowed completion of steps in the HIV-1 life cycle through integration but suppressed HIV-1 gene transcription, thus allowing the establishment of latency. CD4 + T cells in this stage were substantially more permissive for HIV-1 latent infection than other CD4 + T cells. Establishment of latent HIV-1 infection in CD4 + T could be inhibited by viral-specific CD8 + T cells, a result with implications for elimination of latent HIV-1 infection by T cell-based vaccines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Deletion of IL-4Ralpha on CD4 T cells renders BALB/c mice resistant to Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Radwanska

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Effector responses induced by polarized CD4+ T helper 2 (Th2 cells drive nonhealing responses in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 are known susceptibility factors for L. major infection in BALB/c mice and induce their biological functions through a common receptor, the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Ralpha. IL-4Ralpha-deficient BALB/c mice, however, remain susceptible to L. major infection, indicating that IL-4/IL-13 may induce protective responses. Therefore, the roles of polarized Th2 CD4+ T cells and IL-4/IL-13 responsiveness of non-CD4+ T cells in inducing non-healer or healer responses have yet to be elucidated. CD4+ T cell-specific IL-4Ralpha (Lck(creIL-4Ralpha(-/lox deficient BALB/c mice were generated and characterized to elucidate the importance of IL-4Ralpha signaling during cutaneous leishmaniasis in the absence of IL-4-responsive CD4+ T cells. Efficient deletion was confirmed by loss of IL-4Ralpha expression on CD4+ T cells and impaired IL-4-induced CD4+ T cell proliferation and Th2 differentiation. CD8+, gammadelta+, and NK-T cells expressed residual IL-4Ralpha, and representative non-T cell populations maintained IL-4/IL-13 responsiveness. In contrast to IL-4Ralpha(-/lox BALB/c mice, which developed ulcerating lesions following infection with L. major, Lck(creIL-4Ralpha(-/lox mice were resistant and showed protection to rechallenge, similar to healer C57BL/6 mice. Resistance to L. major in Lck(creIL-4Ralpha(-/lox mice correlated with reduced numbers of IL-10-secreting cells and early IL-12p35 mRNA induction, leading to increased delayed type hypersensitivity responses, interferon-gamma production, and elevated ratios of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA/parasite, similar to C57BL/6 mice. These data demonstrate that abrogation of IL-4 signaling in CD4+ T cells is required to transform non-healer BALB/c mice to a healer phenotype. Furthermore, a beneficial role for IL-4Ralpha signaling in L

  13. Slow mitochondrial repair of 5'-AMP renders mtDNA susceptible to damage in APTX deficient cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Sykora, Peter; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-01-01

    deficient cells. Moreover, the removal of 5'-AMP from DNA was significantly slower in the mitochondrial extracts from human cell lines and mouse tissues compared with their corresponding nuclear extracts. These results suggest that, contrary to nuclear DNA repair, mitochondrial DNA repair is not able...... elucidated. Here, we monitored the repair of 5'-AMP DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts from human APTX(+/+) and APTX(-/-) cells. The efficiency of repair of 5'-AMP DNA was much lower in mitochondrial than in nuclear protein extracts, and resulted in persistent DNA repair intermediates in APTX......Aborted DNA ligation events in eukaryotic cells can generate 5'-adenylated (5'-AMP) DNA termini that can be removed from DNA by aprataxin (APTX). Mutations in APTX cause an inherited human disease syndrome characterized by early-onset progressive ataxia with ocular motor apraxia (AOA1). APTX...

  14. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  15. NF-κB RelA renders tumor-associated macrophages resistant to and capable of directly suppressing CD8+ T cells for tumor promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwen; Han, Lei; Sun, Fan; Zhou, Jingjiao; Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Tang, Xudong; Zang, Xingxing; Steinbrecher, Kris A; Qu, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Gutian

    2018-01-01

    Activation of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is assumed to contribute to tumor promotion. However, whether and how NF-κB drives the antitumor macrophages to become pro-tumorigenic have not been determined in any cancer type yet. Similarly, how TAMs repress CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) remains largely unknown, although their importance in regulatory T (Treg) cell regulation and tumor promotion has been well appreciated. Here, using an endogenous lung cancer model we uncover a direct crosstalk between TAMs and CTLs. TAMs suppress CTLs through the T-cell inhibitory molecule B7x (B7-H4/B7S1) in a cell-cell contact manner, whereas CTLs kill TAMs in a tumor antigen-specific manner. Remarkably, TAMs secrete the known T-cell suppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) to activate, but not to repress, CTLs. Notably, one major role of cell-intrinsic NF-κB RelA is to drive TAMs to suppress CTLs for tumor promotion. It induces B7x expression in TAMs directly, and restricts IL-10 expression indirectly by repressing expression of the NF-κB cofactor Bcl3 and subsequent Bcl3/NF-κB1-mediated transcription of IL-10. It also renders TAMs resistant to CTLs by up-regulating anti-apoptotic genes. These studies help understand how immunity is shaped in lung tumorigenesis, and suggest a RelA-targeted immunotherapy for this deadliest cancer.

  16. High Fidelity Haptic Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Otaduy, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The human haptic system, among all senses, provides unique and bidirectional communication between humans and their physical environment. Yet, to date, most human-computer interactive systems have focused primarily on the graphical rendering of visual information and, to a lesser extent, on the display of auditory information. Extending the frontier of visual computing, haptic interfaces, or force feedback devices, have the potential to increase the quality of human-computer interaction by accommodating the sense of touch. They provide an attractive augmentation to visual display and enhance t

  17. T cell receptor (TCR-transgenic CD8 lymphocytes rendered insensitive to transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling mediate superior tumor regression in an animal model of adoptive cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quatromoni Jon G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor antigen-reactive T cells must enter into an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, continue to produce cytokine and deliver apoptotic death signals to affect tumor regression. Many tumors produce transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, which inhibits T cell activation, proliferation and cytotoxicity. In a murine model of adoptive cell therapy, we demonstrate that transgenic Pmel-1 CD8 T cells, rendered insensitive to TGFβ by transduction with a TGFβ dominant negative receptor II (DN, were more effective in mediating regression of established B16 melanoma. Smaller numbers of DN Pmel-1 T cells effectively mediated tumor regression and retained the ability to produce interferon-γ in the tumor microenvironment. These results support efforts to incorporate this DN receptor in clinical trials of adoptive cell therapy for cancer.

  18. High-Efficiency and High-Color-Rendering-Index Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cells Induced by Photonic Crystals and Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Wang, Guoxin; Kang, Bonan; Guo, Wenbin; Shen, Liang

    2018-02-21

    Semitransparent polymer solar cells (ST-PSCs) show attractive potential in power-generating windows or building-integrated photovoltaics. However, the development of ST-PSCs is lagging behind opaque PSCs because of the contradiction between device efficiency and transmission. Herein, Ag/Au alloy nanoparticles and photonic crystals (PCs) were simultaneously introduced into ST-PSCs, acting compatibly as localized surface plasmon resonances and distributed Bragg reflectors to enhance light absorption and transmission. As a result, ST-PSCs based on a hybrid PTB7-Th:PC 71 BM active layer contribute an efficiency as high as 7.13 ± 0.15% and an average visible transmission beyond 20%, which are superior to most of the reported results. Furthermore, PCs can partly compensate valley range of transmission by balancing reflection and transmission regions, yielding a high color rendering index of 95. We believe that the idea of two light management methods compatibly enhancing the performance of ST-PSCs can offer a promising path to develop photovoltaic applications.

  19. ARE: Ada Rendering Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Penge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E' ormai pratica diffusa, nello sviluppo di applicazioni web, l'utilizzo di template e di potenti template engine per automatizzare la generazione dei contenuti da presentare all'utente. Tuttavia a volte la potenza di tali engine è€ ottenuta mescolando logica e interfaccia, introducendo linguaggi diversi da quelli di descrizione della pagina, o addirittura inventando nuovi linguaggi dedicati.ARE (ADA Rendering Engine è€ pensato per gestire l'intero flusso di creazione del contenuto HTML/XHTML dinamico, la selezione del corretto template, CSS, JavaScript e la produzione dell'output separando completamente logica e interfaccia. I templates utilizzati sono puro HTML senza parti in altri linguaggi, e possono quindi essere gestiti e visualizzati autonomamente. Il codice HTML generato è€ uniforme e parametrizzato.E' composto da due moduli, CORE (Common Output Rendering Engine e ALE (ADA Layout Engine.Il primo (CORE viene utilizzato per la generazione OO degli elementi del DOM ed è pensato per aiutare lo sviluppatore nella produzione di codice valido rispetto al DTD utilizzato. CORE genera automaticamente gli elementi del DOM in base al DTD impostato nella configurazioneIl secondo (ALE viene utilizzato come template engine per selezionare automaticamente in base ad alcuni parametri (modulo, profilo utente, tipologia del nodo, del corso, preferenze di installazione il template HTML, i CSS e i file JavaScript appropriati. ALE permette di usare templates di default e microtemplates ricorsivi per semplificare il lavoro del grafico.I due moduli possono in ogni caso essere utilizzati indipendentemente l'uno dall'altro. E' possibile generare e renderizzare una pagina HTML utilizzando solo CORE oppure inviare gli oggetti CORE al template engine ALE che provvede a renderizzare la pagina HTML. Viceversa è possibile generare HTML senza utilizzare CORE ed inviarlo al template engine ALECORE è alla prima release ed è€ già utilizzato all

  20. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  1. Transformative Rendering of Internet Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    using either the Firefox or Google Chrome rendering engine. The rendering server then captures a screen shot of the page and creates code that positions...be compromised at web pages the hackers had built for that hacking competition to exploit that particular OS /browser configuration. During...of risk with no benefit. They include: - The rendering server is hosted on a Linux-based operating system ( OS ). The OS is much more secure than the

  2. Deficiency in the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 renders pancreatic β-cells vulnerable to arsenic-induced cell damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bei; Fu, Jingqi; Zheng, Hongzhi; Xue, Peng; Yarborough, Kathy; Woods, Courtney G.; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2012-01-01

    Chronic human exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, where impairment of pancreatic β-cell function is a key pathogenic factor. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. However, persistent activation of Nrf2 in response to chronic oxidative stress, including inorganic arsenite (iAs 3+ ) exposure, blunts glucose-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In the current study, we found that MIN6 pancreatic β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf2 (Nrf2-KD) by lentiviral shRNA and pancreatic islets isolated from Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2−/−) mice exhibited reduced expression of several antioxidant and detoxification enzymes in response to acute iAs 3+ exposure. As a result, Nrf2-KD MIN6 cells and Nrf2−/− islets were more susceptible to iAs 3+ and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA 3+ )-induced cell damage, as measured by decreased cell viability, augmented apoptosis and morphological change. Pretreatment of MIN6 cells with Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone protected the cells from iAs 3+ -induced cell damage in an Nrf2-dependent fashion. In contrast, antioxidant N‐acetyl cysteine protected Nrf2-KD MIN6 cells against acute cytotoxicity of iAs 3+ . The present study demonstrates that Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response is critical in the pancreatic β-cell defense mechanism against acute cytotoxicity by arsenic. The findings here, combined with our previous results on the inhibitory effect of antioxidants on ROS signaling and GSIS, suggest that Nrf2 plays paradoxical roles in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction induced by environmental arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Lack of Nrf2 reduced expression of antioxidant genes induced by iAs 3+ in β-cells. ► Deficiency of Nrf2 in β-cells sensitized to iAs 3+ and MMA 3

  3. Deficiency in the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 renders pancreatic β-cells vulnerable to arsenic-induced cell damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bei [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Fu, Jingqi; Zheng, Hongzhi; Xue, Peng; Yarborough, Kathy; Woods, Courtney G.; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E. [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Chronic human exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, where impairment of pancreatic β-cell function is a key pathogenic factor. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. However, persistent activation of Nrf2 in response to chronic oxidative stress, including inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) exposure, blunts glucose-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In the current study, we found that MIN6 pancreatic β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf2 (Nrf2-KD) by lentiviral shRNA and pancreatic islets isolated from Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2−/−) mice exhibited reduced expression of several antioxidant and detoxification enzymes in response to acute iAs{sup 3+} exposure. As a result, Nrf2-KD MIN6 cells and Nrf2−/− islets were more susceptible to iAs{sup 3+} and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup 3+})-induced cell damage, as measured by decreased cell viability, augmented apoptosis and morphological change. Pretreatment of MIN6 cells with Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone protected the cells from iAs{sup 3+}-induced cell damage in an Nrf2-dependent fashion. In contrast, antioxidant N‐acetyl cysteine protected Nrf2-KD MIN6 cells against acute cytotoxicity of iAs{sup 3+}. The present study demonstrates that Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response is critical in the pancreatic β-cell defense mechanism against acute cytotoxicity by arsenic. The findings here, combined with our previous results on the inhibitory effect of antioxidants on ROS signaling and GSIS, suggest that Nrf2 plays paradoxical roles in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction induced by environmental arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Lack of Nrf2 reduced expression of antioxidant genes induced by iAs{sup 3+} in β-cells. ► Deficiency of Nrf2 in β-cells

  4. Sketchy Rendering for Information Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, Jo; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Dykes, Jason; Boukhelifa, Nadia; Slingsby, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for constructing sketchy style information visualizations that mimic data graphics drawn by hand. We provide an alternative renderer for the Processing graphics environment that redefines core drawing primitives including line, polygon and ellipse rendering. These

  5. Incorporation of [14C]-palmitate into lipids of Brassica cells during the induction of freezing tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.V.; Joseph, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in plasma membrane lipid composition have been causally related to increased freezing tolerance. Studies of lipid metabolism during ABA induction of freezing tolerance in Brassica napus suspension cultures were undertaken. Cells were labeled with [ 14 C]-palmitate four days after transfer to fresh medium (control) or medium containing ABA (which increases freezing tolerance). At times between one and 20 hrs after labeling, ABA-treated cells incorporated almost twice the amount of label as controls cells. Approximately 80% of the radioactivity was associated with neutral lipids in ABA-treated cells and controls. Incorporation of label into total cellular polar lipids was 4.9 x 10 5 dpm/mg protein for control cells and 1 x 10 6 dpm/mg protein for cells transferred to medium containing ABA. Analysis of lipids following alkaline hydrolysis indicated that incorporation of [ 14 C]-palmitate into glucosylceramide of ABA-treated cells was less than 60% of control values when expressed relative to that of the total polar lipids. Incorporation into ceramides was also depressed in ABA-treated cells

  6. Advanced Material Rendering in Blender

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatka, Martin; Haindl, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2012), s. 15-23 ISSN 1081-1451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0335; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:CESNET(CZ) 387/2010; CESNET(CZ) 409/2011 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : realistic material rendering * bidirectional texture function * Blender Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/haindl-advanced material rendering in blender.pdf

  7. Sketchy Rendering for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J; Isenberg, P; Isenberg, T; Dykes, J; Boukhelifa, N; Slingsby, A

    2012-12-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for constructing sketchy style information visualizations that mimic data graphics drawn by hand. We provide an alternative renderer for the Processing graphics environment that redefines core drawing primitives including line, polygon and ellipse rendering. These primitives allow higher-level graphical features such as bar charts, line charts, treemaps and node-link diagrams to be drawn in a sketchy style with a specified degree of sketchiness. The framework is designed to be easily integrated into existing visualization implementations with minimal programming modification or design effort. We show examples of use for statistical graphics, conveying spatial imprecision and for enhancing aesthetic and narrative qualities of visualization. We evaluate user perception of sketchiness of areal features through a series of stimulus-response tests in order to assess users' ability to place sketchiness on a ratio scale, and to estimate area. Results suggest relative area judgment is compromised by sketchy rendering and that its influence is dependent on the shape being rendered. They show that degree of sketchiness may be judged on an ordinal scale but that its judgement varies strongly between individuals. We evaluate higher-level impacts of sketchiness through user testing of scenarios that encourage user engagement with data visualization and willingness to critique visualization design. Results suggest that where a visualization is clearly sketchy, engagement may be increased and that attitudes to participating in visualization annotation are more positive. The results of our work have implications for effective information visualization design that go beyond the traditional role of sketching as a tool for prototyping or its use for an indication of general uncertainty.

  8. Tumor Cells Surviving Exposure to Proton or Photon Radiation Share a Common Immunogenic Modulation Signature, Rendering Them More Sensitive to T Cell–Mediated Killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gameiro, Sofia R.; Malamas, Anthony S. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bernstein, Michael B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsang, Kwong Y. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Vassantachart, April; Sahoo, Narayan; Tailor, Ramesh; Pidikiti, Rajesh [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guha, Chandan P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Hahn, Stephen M.; Krishnan, Sunil [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hodge, James W., E-mail: jh241d@nih.gov [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To provide the foundation for combining immunotherapy to induce tumor antigen–specific T cells with proton radiation therapy to exploit the activity of those T cells. Methods and Materials: Using cell lines of tumors frequently treated with proton radiation, such as prostate, breast, lung, and chordoma, we examined the effect of proton radiation on the viability and induction of immunogenic modulation in tumor cells by flow cytometric and immunofluorescent analysis of surface phenotype and the functional immune consequences. Results: These studies show for the first time that (1) proton and photon radiation induced comparable up-regulation of surface molecules involved in immune recognition (histocompatibility leukocyte antigen, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and the tumor-associated antigens carcinoembryonic antigen and mucin 1); (2) proton radiation mediated calreticulin cell-surface expression, increasing sensitivity to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of tumor cells; and (3) cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the direct cytolytic activity of proton radiation, nonetheless up-regulated calreticulin after radiation in a manner similar to non-cancer stem cells. Conclusions: These findings offer a rationale for the use of proton radiation in combination with immunotherapy, including for patients who have failed radiation therapy alone or have limited treatment options.

  9. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  10. Vorinostat Renders the Replication-Competent Latent Reservoir of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Vulnerable to Clearance by CD8 T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Sung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected cells are transcriptionally quiescent and invisible to clearance by the immune system. To demonstrate that the latency reversing agent vorinostat (VOR induces a window of vulnerability in the latent HIV reservoir, defined as the triggering of viral antigen production sufficient in quantity and duration to allow for recognition and clearance of persisting infection, we developed a latency clearance assay (LCA. The LCA is a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA that includes the addition of immune effectors capable of clearing cells expressing viral antigen. Here we show a reduction in the recovery of replication-competent virus from VOR exposed resting CD4 T cells following addition of immune effectors for a discrete period. Take home message: VOR exposure leads to sufficient production of viral protein on the cell surface, creating a window of vulnerability within this latent reservoir in antiretroviral therapy (ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals that allows the clearance of latently infected cells by an array of effector mechanisms.

  11. CCR5 Gene Disruption via Lentiviral Vectors Expressing Cas9 and Single Guided RNA Renders Cells Resistant to HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Di; Kimata, Jason T.; Zhou, Paul

    2014-01-01

    CCR5, a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry, is a major target for drug and genetic intervention against HIV-1. Genetic intervention strategies have knocked down CCR5 expression levels by shRNA or disrupted the CCR5 gene using zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) or Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN). In the present study, we silenced CCR5 via CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) and single guided RNAs (sgRNAs). We constructed lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and CCR5 sgRNAs. We show that a single round transduction of lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and CCR5 sgRNAs into HIV-1 susceptible human CD4+ cells yields high frequencies of CCR5 gene disruption. CCR5 gene-disrupted cells are not only resistant to R5-tropic HIV-1, including transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV-1 isolates, but also have selective advantage over CCR5 gene-undisrupted cells during R5-tropic HIV-1 infection. Importantly, using T7 endonuclease I assay we did not detect genome mutations at potential off-target sites that are highly homologous to these CCR5 sgRNAs in stably transduced cells even at 84 days post transduction. Thus we conclude that silencing of CCR5 via Cas9 and CCR5-specific sgRNAs could be a viable alternative strategy for engineering resistance against HIV-1. PMID:25541967

  12. Marked induction of the helix-loop-helix protein Id3 promotes the gammadelta T cell fate and renders their functional maturation Notch independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Wong, Gladys W; Lee, Sang-Yun

    2009-01-01

    )-inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (Id3) pathway plays a defining role in this process. In particular, Id3 expression served to regulate adoption of the gammadelta fate. Moreover, Id3 was both necessary and sufficient to enable gammadelta-lineage cells to differentiate independently of Notch signaling and become competent...

  13. IL-15 Renders Conventional Lymphocytes Resistant to Suppressive Functions of Regulatory T Cells through Activation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Melika Ben; Hmida, Nadia Belhadj; Moes, Nicolette; Buyse, Sophie; Abdeladhim, Maha; Louzir, Hechmi; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    IL-15 drives chronic inflammation in several human diseases. We have recently shown that IL-15 inhibits the immunosuppressive effects of TGF-beta through blockage of the Smad3-signaling pathway. Data pointing to reciprocal interactions between TGF-beta and CD4(+) regulatory T cells led us to

  14. Ectopic expression of X-linked lymphocyte-regulated protein pM1 renders tumor cells resistant to antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Heung; Noh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Hyun Cheol; Lin, Ken Y; Monie, Archana; Pai, Sara I; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C; Kim, Tae Woo

    2010-04-15

    Tumor immune escape is a major obstacle in cancer immunotherapy, but the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We have previously developed an immune evasion tumor model using an in vivo immune selection strategy and revealed Akt-mediated immune resistance to antitumor immunity induced by various cancer immunotherapeutic agents. In the current study, we used microarray gene analysis to identify an Akt-activating candidate molecule overexpressed in immune-resistant tumors compared with parental tumors. X-linked lymphocyte-regulated protein pM1 (XLR) gene was the most upregulated in immune-resistant tumors compared with parental tumor cells. Furthermore, the retroviral transduction of XLR in parental tumor cells led to activation of Akt, resulting in upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and the induction of immune resistance phenotype in parental tumor cells. In addition, we found that transduction of parental tumor cells with other homologous genes from the mouse XLR family, such as synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3) and XLR-related, meiosis-regulated protein (XMR) and its human counterpart of SCP3 (hSCP3), also led to activation of Akt, resulting in the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and induction of immune resistance phenotype. Importantly, characterization of a panel of human cervical cancers revealed relatively higher expression levels of hSCP3 in human cervical cancer tissue compared with normal cervical tissue. Thus, our data indicate that ectopic expression of XLR and its homologues in tumor cells represents a potentially important mechanism for tumor immune evasion and serves as a promising molecular target for cancer immunotherapy. (c) 2010 AACR.

  15. Anti-PD-L1/TGFβR2 (M7824) fusion protein induces immunogenic modulation of human urothelial carcinoma cell lines, rendering them more susceptible to immune-mediated recognition and lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenga, Italia; Donahue, Renee N; Gargulak, Morgan L; Lepone, Lauren M; Roselli, Mario; Bilusic, Marijo; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    Avelumab has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma. M7824 is a novel first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein comprising a monoclonal antibody against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, avelumab), fused to the extracellular domain of human transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) receptor 2, which functions as a TGFβ "trap." Advanced urothelial tumors have been shown to express TGFβ, which possesses immunosuppressive properties that promote cancer progression and metastasis. The rationale for a combined molecule is to block the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction between tumor cells and immune cell infiltrate and simultaneously reduce or eliminate TGFβ from the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we explored the effect of M7824 on invasive urothelial carcinoma cell lines. Human urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma cell lines HTB-4, HTB-1, and HTB-5 were treated with M7824, M7824mut (M7824 that is mutated in the anti-PD-L1 portion of the molecule and thus does not bind PD-L1), anti-PD-L1 (avelumab), or IgG1 isotype control monoclonal antibody, and were assessed for gene expression, cell-surface phenotype, and sensitivity to lysis by TRAIL, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. M7824 retains the ability to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of tumor cells, although in some cases to a lesser extent than anti-PD-L1. However, compared to anti-PD-L1, M7824 increases (A) gene expression of molecules involved in T-cell trafficking in the tumor (e.g., CXCL11), (B) TRAIL-mediated tumor cell lysis, and (C) antigen-specific CD8 + T-cell-mediated lysis of tumor cells. These studies demonstrate the immunomodulatory properties of M7824 on both tumor cell phenotype and immune-mediated lysis. Compared to anti-PD-L1 or M7824mut, M7824 induces immunogenic modulation of urothelial carcinoma cell lines, rendering them more susceptible to immune

  16. Overactivation of phospholipase C-gamma1 renders platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor-expressing cells independent of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway for chemotaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnstrand, L; Siegbahn, A; Rorsman, C

    1999-01-01

    ., Siegbahn, A. , Rorsman, C., Engström, U., Wernstedt, C., Heldin, C.-H., and Rönnstrand, L. (1996) EMBO J. 15, 5299-5313). Here we show that the increased chemotaxis correlates with increased activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), measured as inositol-1,4, 5-trisphosphate release. By two......-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping, the increase in phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 was shown not to be selective for any site, rather a general increase in phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 was seen. Specific inhibitors of protein kinase C, bisindolylmaleimide (GF109203X), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), LY294002......, did not affect the activation of PLC-gamma1. To assess whether increased activation of PLC-gamma1 is the cause of the hyperchemotactic behavior of the Y934F mutant cell line, we constructed cell lines expressing either wild-type or a catalytically compromised version of PLC-gamma1 under a tetracycline...

  17. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  18. RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasly, Benjamin S; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Lichtman, Daniel P; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H

    2014-02-07

    RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3.

  19. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  20. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...

  1. Physically based rendering from theory to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pharr, Matt

    2010-01-01

    "Physically Based Rendering, 2nd Edition" describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method - known as 'literate programming'- combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, you will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This book features new sections on subsurface scattering, Metropolis light transport, precomputed light transport, multispectral rendering, and much more. It includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux. Code and text are tightly woven together through a unique indexing feature that lists each function, variable, and method on the page that they are first described.

  2. RenderGAN: Generating Realistic Labeled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sixt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Convolutional Neuronal Networks (DCNNs are showing remarkable performance on many computer vision tasks. Due to their large parameter space, they require many labeled samples when trained in a supervised setting. The costs of annotating data manually can render the use of DCNNs infeasible. We present a novel framework called RenderGAN that can generate large amounts of realistic, labeled images by combining a 3D model and the Generative Adversarial Network framework. In our approach, image augmentations (e.g., lighting, background, and detail are learned from unlabeled data such that the generated images are strikingly realistic while preserving the labels known from the 3D model. We apply the RenderGAN framework to generate images of barcode-like markers that are attached to honeybees. Training a DCNN on data generated by the RenderGAN yields considerably better performance than training it on various baselines.

  3. Distributed rendering for multiview parallax displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annen, T.; Matusik, W.; Pfister, H.; Seidel, H.-P.; Zwicker, M.

    2006-02-01

    3D display technology holds great promise for the future of television, virtual reality, entertainment, and visualization. Multiview parallax displays deliver stereoscopic views without glasses to arbitrary positions within the viewing zone. These systems must include a high-performance and scalable 3D rendering subsystem in order to generate multiple views at real-time frame rates. This paper describes a distributed rendering system for large-scale multiview parallax displays built with a network of PCs, commodity graphics accelerators, multiple projectors, and multiview screens. The main challenge is to render various perspective views of the scene and assign rendering tasks effectively. In this paper we investigate two different approaches: Optical multiplexing for lenticular screens and software multiplexing for parallax-barrier displays. We describe the construction of large-scale multi-projector 3D display systems using lenticular and parallax-barrier technology. We have developed different distributed rendering algorithms using the Chromium stream-processing framework and evaluate the trade-offs and performance bottlenecks. Our results show that Chromium is well suited for interactive rendering on multiview parallax displays.

  4. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  5. Non-volatile MOS RAM cell with capacitor-isolated nodes that are radiation accessible for rendering a non-permanent programmed information in the cell of a non-volatile one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widdershoven, Franciscus P.; Annema, Anne J.; Storms, Maurits M.N.; Pelgrom, Marcellinus J.M.; Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2001-01-01

    A non-volatile, random access memory cell comprises first and second inverters each having an output node cross-coupled by cross-coupling means to an input node of the other inverter for forming a MOS RAM cell. The output node of each inverter is selectively connected via the conductor paths of

  6. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  7. Digital color acquisition, perception, coding and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also look at coding, compression, protection and quality of color images and videos.

  8. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  9. Blender cycles lighting and rendering cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Iraci, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth guide full of step-by-step recipes to explore the concepts behind the usage of Cycles. Packed with illustrations, and lots of tips and tricks; the easy-to-understand nature of the book will help the reader understand even the most complex concepts with ease.If you are a digital artist who already knows your way around Blender, and you want to learn about the new Cycles' rendering engine, this is the book for you. Even experts will be able to pick up new tips and tricks to make the most of the rendering capabilities of Cycles.

  10. GPU Pro 5 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In GPU Pro5: Advanced Rendering Techniques, section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Marius Bjorge have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book covers rendering, lighting, effects in image space, mobile devices, 3D engine design, and compute. It explores rasterization of liquids, ray tracing of art assets that would otherwise be used in a rasterized engine, physically based area lights, volumetric light

  11. Fast rendering of scanned room geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Room acoustics are rendered in Virtual Realities based on models of the real world. These are typically rather coarse representations of the true geometry resulting in room impulse responses with a lack of natural detail. This problem can be overcome by using data scanned by sensors, such as e...

  12. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  13. Free-viewpoint depth image based rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinger, S.; Do, Q.L.; With, de P.H.N.

    2010-01-01

    In 3D TV research, one approach is to employ multiple cameras for creating a 3D multi-view signal with the aim to make interactive free-viewpoint selection possible in 3D TV media. This paper explores a new rendering algorithm that enables to compute a free-viewpoint between two reference views from

  14. RAY TRACING RENDER MENGGUNAKAN FRAGMENT ANTI ALIASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriliyan Samopa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Rendering is generating surface and three-dimensional effects on an object displayed on a monitor screen. Ray tracing as a rendering method that traces ray for each image pixel has a drawback, that is, aliasing (jaggies effect. There are some methods for executing anti aliasing. One of those methods is OGSS (Ordered Grid Super Sampling. OGSS is able to perform aliasing well. However, this method requires more computation time since sampling of all pixels in the image will be increased. Fragment Anti Aliasing (FAA is a new alternative method that can cope with the drawback. FAA will check the image when performing rendering to a scene. Jaggies effect is only happened at curve and gradient object. Therefore, only this part of object that will experience sampling magnification. After this sampling magnification and the pixel values are computed, then downsample is performed to retrieve the original pixel values. Experimental results show that the software can implement ray tracing well in order to form images, and it can implement FAA and OGSS technique to perform anti aliasing. In general, rendering using FAA is faster than using OGSS

  15. Rendering Falling Leaves on Graphics Hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Balsa; Pere-Pau Vázquez

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount...

  16. Emission of VOC's from modified rendering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Z.A.; Raja, I.A.; Saddique, M.; Langenhove, H.V.

    2005-01-01

    Rendering technique for processing of dead animal and slaughterhouse wastes into valuable products. It involves cooking of raw material and later Sterilization was added to reduce the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). Studies have been carried out on rendering emission, with the normal cooking process. Our study shows, that the sterilization step in rendering process increases the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Gas samples, containing VOC's, were analyzed by the GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometry). The most important groups of compounds- alcohols and cyclic hydrocarbons were identified. In the group of alcohol; 1-butanol, l-pentanol and l-hexanol compounds were found while in the group of cyclic hydrocarbon; methyl cyclopentane and cyclohexane compounds were detected. Other groups like aldehyde, sulphur containing compounds, ketone and furan were also found. Some compounds, like l-pentanol, 2-methyl propanal, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, which belong to these groups, cause malodor. It is important to know these compounds to treat odorous gasses. (author)

  17. Haptic rendering foundations, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ming C

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, human beings have dreamed of a virtual world where it is possible to interact with synthetic entities as if they were real. It has been shown that the ability to touch virtual objects increases the sense of presence in virtual environments. This book provides an authoritative overview of state-of-theart haptic rendering algorithms and their applications. The authors examine various approaches and techniques for designing touch-enabled interfaces for a number of applications, including medical training, model design, and maintainability analysis for virtual prototyping, scienti

  18. GPU Pro 4 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    GPU Pro4: Advanced Rendering Techniques presents ready-to-use ideas and procedures that can help solve many of your day-to-day graphics programming challenges. Focusing on interactive media and games, the book covers up-to-date methods producing real-time graphics. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book begins with discussions on the abi

  19. GPU PRO 3 Advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    GPU Pro3, the third volume in the GPU Pro book series, offers practical tips and techniques for creating real-time graphics that are useful to beginners and seasoned game and graphics programmers alike. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again brought together a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced GPU programming. With contributions by more than 50 experts, GPU Pro3: Advanced Rendering Techniques covers battle-tested tips and tricks for creating interesting geometry, realistic sha

  20. Conservation of old renderings - the consolidation of rendering with loss of cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of external renderings in the scope of conservation and restoration has acquired in the last years great methodological, scientific and technical advances. These renderings are important elements of the built structure, for besides possessing a protection function, they possess often a decorative function of great relevance for the image of the monument. The maintenance of these renderings implies the conservation of traditional constructive techniques and the use of compatible materials, as similar to the originals as possible. The main objective of this study is to define a methodology of conservative restoration using strategies of maintenance of renderings and traditional constructive techniques. The minimum intervention principle is maintained as well as the use of materials compatible with the original ones. This paper describes the technique and products used for the consolidation of the loss of cohesion. The testing campaign was developed under controlled conditions, in laboratory, and in situ in order to evaluate their efficacy for the consolidation of old renders. A set of tests is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the process. The results are analysed and a reflection is added referring to the applicability of these techniques. Finally the paper presents a proposal for further research.

  1. Validation of a colour rendering index based on memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Kevin; Jost-Boissard, Sophie; Ryckaert, Wouter; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the performance of a colour rendering index based on memory colours is investigated in comparison with the current CIE Colour Rendering Index, the NIST Colour Quality Scale and visual appreciation results obtained at CNRS at Lyon University for a set of 3000K and 4000K LED light sources. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between each colour rendering metric and the two sets of visual results were calculated. It was found that the memory colour based colour render...

  2. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  3. Photon Differential Splatting for Rendering Caustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Schjøth, Lars; Erleben, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    We present a photon splatting technique which reduces noise and blur in the rendering of caustics. Blurring of illumination edges is an inherent problem in photon splatting, as each photon is unaware of its neighbours when being splatted. This means that the splat size is usually based...... on heuristics rather than knowledge of the local flux density. We use photon differentials to determine the size and shape of the splats such that we achieve adaptive anisotropic flux density estimation in photon splatting. As compared to previous work that uses photon differentials, we present the first method...... where no photons or beams or differentials need to be stored in a map. We also present improvements in the theory of photon differentials, which give more accurate results and a faster implementation. Our technique has good potential for GPU acceleration, and we limit the number of parameters requiring...

  4. Extreme simplification and rendering of point sets using algebraic multigrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, D.; Telea, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel approach for extreme simplification of point set models, in the context of real-time rendering. Point sets are often rendered using simple point primitives, such as oriented discs. However, this requires using many primitives to render even moderately simple shapes. Often, one

  5. Simple Coatings to Render Polystyrene Protein Resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Hecker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific protein adsorption is detrimental to the performance of many biomedical devices. Polystyrene is a commonly used material in devices and thin films. Simple reliable surface modification of polystyrene to render it protein resistant is desired in particular for device fabrication and orthogonal functionalisation schemes. This report details modifications carried out on a polystyrene surface to prevent protein adsorption. The trialed surfaces included Pluronic F127 and PLL-g-PEG, adsorbed on polystyrene, using a polydopamine-assisted approach. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D results showed only short-term anti-fouling success of the polystyrene surface modified with F127, and the subsequent failure of the polydopamine intermediary layer in improving its stability. In stark contrast, QCM-D analysis proved the success of the polydopamine assisted PLL-g-PEG coating in preventing bovine serum albumin adsorption. This modified surface is equally as protein-rejecting after 24 h in buffer, and thus a promising simple coating for long term protein rejection of polystyrene.

  6. Lighting design for globally illuminated volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    With the evolution of graphics hardware, high quality global illumination becomes available for real-time volume rendering. Compared to local illumination, global illumination can produce realistic shading effects which are closer to real world scenes, and has proven useful for enhancing volume data visualization to enable better depth and shape perception. However, setting up optimal lighting could be a nontrivial task for average users. There were lighting design works for volume visualization but they did not consider global light transportation. In this paper, we present a lighting design method for volume visualization employing global illumination. The resulting system takes into account view and transfer-function dependent content of the volume data to automatically generate an optimized three-point lighting environment. Our method fully exploits the back light which is not used by previous volume visualization systems. By also including global shadow and multiple scattering, our lighting system can effectively enhance the depth and shape perception of volumetric features of interest. In addition, we propose an automatic tone mapping operator which recovers visual details from overexposed areas while maintaining sufficient contrast in the dark areas. We show that our method is effective for visualizing volume datasets with complex structures. The structural information is more clearly and correctly presented under the automatically generated light sources.

  7. Hybrid rendering of the chest and virtual bronchoscopy [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, M D; Seemann, O; Luboldt, W; Gebicke, K; Prime, G; Claussen, C D

    2000-10-30

    Thin-section spiral computed tomography was used to acquire the volume data sets of the thorax. The tracheobronchial system and pathological changes of the chest were visualized using a color-coded surface rendering method. The structures of interest were then superimposed on a volume rendering of the other thoracic structures, thus producing a hybrid rendering. The hybrid rendering technique exploit the advantages of both rendering methods and enable virtual bronchoscopic examinations using different representation models. Virtual bronchoscopic examinations with a transparent color-coded shaded-surface model enables the simultaneous visualization of both the airways and the adjacent structures behind of the tracheobronchial wall and therefore, offers a practical alternative to fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Hybrid rendering and virtual endoscopy obviate the need for time consuming detailed analysis and presentation of axial source images.

  8. Innovative Lime Pozzolana Renders for Reconstruction of Historical Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejmelkova, E.; Maca, P.; Konvalinka, P.; Cerny, R.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk density, matrix density, open porosity, compressive strength, bending strength, water sorptivity, moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity of two innovative renovation renders on limepozzolana basis are analyzed. The obtained results are compared with reference lime plaster and two commercial renovation renders, and conclusions on the applicability of the particular renders in practical reconstruction works are drawn. (author)

  9. Fast algorithm for the rendering of three-dimensional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Mark D.

    1994-02-01

    It is often desirable to draw a detailed and realistic representation of surface data on a computer graphics display. One such representation is a 3D shaded surface. Conventional techniques for rendering shaded surfaces are slow, however, and require substantial computational power. Furthermore, many techniques suffer from aliasing effects, which appear as jagged lines and edges. This paper describes an algorithm for the fast rendering of shaded surfaces without aliasing effects. It is much faster than conventional ray tracing and polygon-based rendering techniques and is suitable for interactive use. On an IBM RISC System/6000TM workstation it renders a 1000 X 1000 surface in about 7 seconds.

  10. Real-time photorealistic stereoscopic rendering of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin M.; McAllister, David F.

    2007-02-01

    We propose a method for real-time photorealistic stereo rendering of the natural phenomenon of fire. Applications include the use of virtual reality in fire fighting, military training, and entertainment. Rendering fire in real-time presents a challenge because of the transparency and non-static fluid-like behavior of fire. It is well known that, in general, methods that are effective for monoscopic rendering are not necessarily easily extended to stereo rendering because monoscopic methods often do not provide the depth information necessary to produce the parallax required for binocular disparity in stereoscopic rendering. We investigate the existing techniques used for monoscopic rendering of fire and discuss their suitability for extension to real-time stereo rendering. Methods include the use of precomputed textures, dynamic generation of textures, and rendering models resulting from the approximation of solutions of fluid dynamics equations through the use of ray-tracing algorithms. We have found that in order to attain real-time frame rates, our method based on billboarding is effective. Slicing is used to simulate depth. Texture mapping or 2D images are mapped onto polygons and alpha blending is used to treat transparency. We can use video recordings or prerendered high-quality images of fire as textures to attain photorealistic stereo.

  11. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  12. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  13. Extreme Simplification and Rendering of Point Sets using Algebraic Multigrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel approach for extreme simplification of point set models in the context of real-time rendering. Point sets are often rendered using simple point primitives, such as oriented discs. However efficient, simple primitives are less effective in approximating large surface areas. A large

  14. Transform coding for hardware-accelerated volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hardware-accelerated volume rendering using the GPU is now the standard approach for real-time volume rendering, although limited graphics memory can present a problem when rendering large volume data sets. Volumetric compression in which the decompression is coupled to rendering has been shown to be an effective solution to this problem; however, most existing techniques were developed in the context of software volume rendering, and all but the simplest approaches are prohibitive in a real-time hardware-accelerated volume rendering context. In this paper we present a novel block-based transform coding scheme designed specifically with real-time volume rendering in mind, such that the decompression is fast without sacrificing compression quality. This is made possible by consolidating the inverse transform with dequantization in such a way as to allow most of the reprojection to be precomputed. Furthermore, we take advantage of the freedom afforded by off-line compression in order to optimize the encoding as much as possible while hiding this complexity from the decoder. In this context we develop a new block classification scheme which allows us to preserve perceptually important features in the compression. The result of this work is an asymmetric transform coding scheme that allows very large volumes to be compressed and then decompressed in real-time while rendering on the GPU.

  15. Light Field Rendering for Head Mounted Displays using Pixel Reprojection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Juhler; Klein, Jákup; Kraus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Light field displays have advantages over traditional stereoscopic head mounted displays, for example, because they can overcome the vergence-accommodation conflict. However, rendering light fields can be a heavy task for computers due to the number of images that have to be rendered. Since much ...

  16. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps. Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  17. Media Presentation Synchronisation for Non-monolithic Rendering Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vaishnavi (Ishan); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); B. Gao (Bo)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractNon-monolithic renderers are physically distributed media playback engines. Non-monolithic renderers may use a number of different underlying network connection types to transmit media items belonging to a presentation. There is therefore a need for a media based and inter-network- type

  18. Evaluating progressive-rendering algorithms in appearance design tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiawei Ou; Karlik, Ondrej; Křivánek, Jaroslav; Pellacini, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Progressive rendering is becoming a popular alternative to precomputational approaches to appearance design. However, progressive algorithms create images exhibiting visual artifacts at early stages. A user study investigated these artifacts' effects on user performance in appearance design tasks. Novice and expert subjects performed lighting and material editing tasks with four algorithms: random path tracing, quasirandom path tracing, progressive photon mapping, and virtual-point-light rendering. Both the novices and experts strongly preferred path tracing to progressive photon mapping and virtual-point-light rendering. None of the participants preferred random path tracing to quasirandom path tracing or vice versa; the same situation held between progressive photon mapping and virtual-point-light rendering. The user workflow didn’t differ significantly with the four algorithms. The Web Extras include a video showing how four progressive-rendering algorithms converged (at http://youtu.be/ck-Gevl1e9s), the source code used, and other supplementary materials.

  19. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  20. Simplification of Visual Rendering in Simulated Prosthetic Vision Facilitates Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnieux, Victor; Macé, Marc J-M; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    Visual neuroprostheses are still limited and simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) is used to evaluate potential and forthcoming functionality of these implants. SPV has been used to evaluate the minimum requirement on visual neuroprosthetic characteristics to restore various functions such as reading, objects and face recognition, object grasping, etc. Some of these studies focused on obstacle avoidance but only a few investigated orientation or navigation abilities with prosthetic vision. The resolution of current arrays of electrodes is not sufficient to allow navigation tasks without additional processing of the visual input. In this study, we simulated a low resolution array (15 × 18 electrodes, similar to a forthcoming generation of arrays) and evaluated the navigation abilities restored when visual information was processed with various computer vision algorithms to enhance the visual rendering. Three main visual rendering strategies were compared to a control rendering in a wayfinding task within an unknown environment. The control rendering corresponded to a resizing of the original image onto the electrode array size, according to the average brightness of the pixels. In the first rendering strategy, vision distance was limited to 3, 6, or 9 m, respectively. In the second strategy, the rendering was not based on the brightness of the image pixels, but on the distance between the user and the elements in the field of view. In the last rendering strategy, only the edges of the environments were displayed, similar to a wireframe rendering. All the tested renderings, except the 3 m limitation of the viewing distance, improved navigation performance and decreased cognitive load. Interestingly, the distance-based and wireframe renderings also improved the cognitive mapping of the unknown environment. These results show that low resolution implants are usable for wayfinding if specific computer vision algorithms are used to select and display appropriate

  1. Light Field Rendering for Head Mounted Displays using Pixel Reprojection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Juhler; Klein, Jákup; Kraus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    of the information of the different images is redundant, we use pixel reprojection from the corner cameras to compute the remaining images in the light field. We compare the reprojected images with directly rendered images in a user test. In most cases, the users were unable to distinguish the images. In extreme...... cases, the reprojection approach is not capable of creating the light field. We conclude that pixel reprojection is a feasible method for rendering light fields as far as quality of perspective and diffuse shading is concerned, but render time needs to be reduced to make the method practical....

  2. View compensated compression of volume rendered images for remote visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalgudi, Hariharan G; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2009-07-01

    Remote visualization of volumetric images has gained importance over the past few years in medical and industrial applications. Volume visualization is a computationally intensive process, often requiring hardware acceleration to achieve a real time viewing experience. One remote visualization model that can accomplish this would transmit rendered images from a server, based on viewpoint requests from a client. For constrained server-client bandwidth, an efficient compression scheme is vital for transmitting high quality rendered images. In this paper, we present a new view compensation scheme that utilizes the geometric relationship between viewpoints to exploit the correlation between successive rendered images. The proposed method obviates motion estimation between rendered images, enabling significant reduction to the complexity of a compressor. Additionally, the view compensation scheme, in conjunction with JPEG2000 performs better than AVC, the state of the art video compression standard.

  3. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre and ... Small, micro and medium entrepreneurs play an important role in economic ... such as production, marketing and management to adequately service the ...

  4. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  5. Experiencing "Macbeth": From Text Rendering to Multicultural Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Gail

    1993-01-01

    Shows how one teacher used innovative methods in teaching William Shakespeare's "Macbeth." Outlines student assignments including text renderings, rewriting a scene from the play, and creating a multicultural scrapbook for the play. (HB)

  6. Insurance of professional responsibility at medical aid rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abyzova N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of adoption of professional responsibility insurance act into the public health service. It is considered as the basic mechanism of compensation in case of damage to a patient at medical aid rendering

  7. Integral image rendering procedure for aberration correction and size measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Holger; Ihrig, Andreas; Ebenau, Melanie; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2014-05-20

    The challenge in rendering integral images is to use as much information preserved by the light field as possible to reconstruct a captured scene in a three-dimensional way. We propose a rendering algorithm based on the projection of rays through a detailed simulation of the optical path, considering all the physical properties and locations of the optical elements. The rendered images contain information about the correct size of imaged objects without the need to calibrate the imaging device. Additionally, aberrations of the optical system may be corrected, depending on the setup of the integral imaging device. We show simulation data that illustrates the aberration correction ability and experimental data from our plenoptic camera, which illustrates the capability of our proposed algorithm to measure size and distance. We believe this rendering procedure will be useful in the future for three-dimensional ophthalmic imaging of the human retina.

  8. Beaming teaching application: recording techniques for spatial xylophone sound rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...... to spatial improvements mainly in terms of the Apparent Source Width (ASW). Rendered examples are subjectively evaluated in listening tests by comparing them with binaural recording....

  9. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2011-01-01

    images using a 12.1 megapixel camera. Next, we extend the volume rendering pipeline by creating a transfer function which yields not only color and opacity from the input intensity, but also texture coordinates for our synthesized 3D texture. Thus, we add texture to the volume rendered images....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  10. Graphical User Interfaces for Volume Rendering Applications in Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, Lisa; Lindmark, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering applications are used in medical imaging in order to facilitate the analysis of three-dimensional image data. This study focuses on how to improve the usability of graphical user interfaces of these systems, by gathering user requirements. This is achieved by evaluations of existing systems, together with interviews and observations at clinics in Sweden that use volume rendering to some extent. The usability of the applications of today is not sufficient, according to the use...

  11. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  12. Fast DRR splat rendering using common consumer graphics hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoerk, Jakob; Bergmann, Helmar; Wanschitz, Felix; Dong, Shuo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) are a vital part of various medical image processing applications such as 2D/3D registration for patient pose determination in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. This paper presents a technique to accelerate DRR creation by using conventional graphics hardware for the rendering process. DRR computation itself is done by an efficient volume rendering method named wobbled splatting. For programming the graphics hardware, NVIDIAs C for Graphics (Cg) is used. The description of an algorithm used for rendering DRRs on the graphics hardware is presented, together with a benchmark comparing this technique to a CPU-based wobbled splatting program. Results show a reduction of rendering time by about 70%-90% depending on the amount of data. For instance, rendering a volume of 2x10 6 voxels is feasible at an update rate of 38 Hz compared to 6 Hz on a common Intel-based PC using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a conventional graphics adapter. In addition, wobbled splatting using graphics hardware for DRR computation provides higher resolution DRRs with comparable image quality due to special processing characteristics of the GPU. We conclude that DRR generation on common graphics hardware using the freely available Cg environment is a major step toward 2D/3D registration in clinical routine

  13. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  14. RenderSelect: a Cloud Broker Framework for Cloud Renderfarm Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, Annette J; Aisha, Banu W; Subash, Chandran P

    2016-01-01

    In the 3D studios the animation scene files undergo a process called as rendering, where the 3D wire frame models are converted into 3D photorealistic images. As the rendering process is both a computationally intensive and a time consuming task, the cloud services based rendering in cloud render farms is gaining popularity among the animators. Though cloud render farms offer many benefits, the animators hesitate to move from their traditional offline rendering to cloud services based render ...

  15. Architecture for high performance stereoscopic game rendering on Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Shetty, Sampath

    2014-03-01

    Stereoscopic gaming is a popular source of content for consumer 3D display systems. There has been a significant shift in the gaming industry towards casual games for mobile devices running on the Android™ Operating System and driven by ARM™ and other low power processors. Such systems are now being integrated directly into the next generation of 3D TVs potentially removing the requirement for an external games console. Although native stereo support has been integrated into some high profile titles on established platforms like Windows PC and PS3 there is a lack of GPU independent 3D support for the emerging Android platform. We describe a framework for enabling stereoscopic 3D gaming on Android for applications on mobile devices, set top boxes and TVs. A core component of the architecture is a 3D game driver, which is integrated into the Android OpenGL™ ES graphics stack to convert existing 2D graphics applications into stereoscopic 3D in real-time. The architecture includes a method of analyzing 2D games and using rule based Artificial Intelligence (AI) to position separate objects in 3D space. We describe an innovative stereo 3D rendering technique to separate the views in the depth domain and render directly into the display buffer. The advantages of the stereo renderer are demonstrated by characterizing the performance in comparison to more traditional render techniques, including depth based image rendering, both in terms of frame rates and impact on battery consumption.

  16. Volume rendering in treatment planning for moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Alexander [GSI-Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States); Wolfgang, John A.; Chen, George T.Y. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Advances in computer technologies have facilitated the development of tools for 3-dimensional visualization of CT-data sets with volume rendering. The company Fovia has introduced a high definition volume rendering engine (HDVR trademark by Fovia Inc., Palo Alto, USA) that is capable of representing large CT data sets with high user interactivity even on standard PCs. Fovia provides a software development kit (SDK) that offers control of all the features of the rendering engine. We extended the SDK by functionalities specific to the task of treatment planning for moving tumors. This included navigation of the patient's anatomy in beam's eye view, fast point-and-click measurement of lung tumor trajectories as well as estimation of range perturbations due to motion by calculation of (differential) water equivalent path lengths for protons and carbon ions on 4D-CT data sets. We present patient examples to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of volume rendered images as compared to standard 2-dimensional axial plane images. Furthermore, we show an example of a range perturbation analysis. We conclude that volume rendering is a powerful technique for the representation and analysis of large time resolved data sets in treatment planning.

  17. A kinesthetic washout filter for force-feedback rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieau, Fabien; Lecuyer, Anatole; Guillotel, Philippe; Fleureau, Julien; Mollet, Nicolas; Christie, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Today haptic feedback can be designed and associated to audiovisual content (haptic-audiovisuals or HAV). Although there are multiple means to create individual haptic effects, the issue of how to properly adapt such effects on force-feedback devices has not been addressed and is mostly a manual endeavor. We propose a new approach for the haptic rendering of HAV, based on a washout filter for force-feedback devices. A body model and an inverse kinematics algorithm simulate the user's kinesthetic perception. Then, the haptic rendering is adapted in order to handle transitions between haptic effects and to optimize the amplitude of effects regarding the device capabilities. Results of a user study show that this new haptic rendering can successfully improve the HAV experience.

  18. Clustered deep shadow maps for integrated polyhedral and volume rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Bornik, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hardware-accelerated approach for shadow computation in scenes containing both complex volumetric objects and polyhedral models. Our system is the first hardware accelerated complete implementation of deep shadow maps, which unifies the computation of volumetric and geometric shadows. Up to now such unified computation was limited to software-only rendering . Previous hardware accelerated techniques can handle only geometric or only volumetric scenes - both resulting in the loss of important properties of the original concept. Our approach supports interactive rendering of polyhedrally bounded volumetric objects on the GPU based on ray casting. The ray casting can be conveniently used for both the shadow map computation and the rendering. We show how anti-aliased high-quality shadows are feasible in scenes composed of multiple overlapping translucent objects, and how sparse scenes can be handled efficiently using clustered deep shadow maps. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Mucosal detail at CT virtual reality: surface versus volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, K D; Iyriboz, A T; Wise, S W; Neuman, J D; Mauger, D T; Kasales, C J

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate computed tomographic virtual reality with volumetric versus surface rendering. Virtual reality images were reconstructed for 27 normal or pathologic colonic, gastric, or bronchial structures in four ways: the transition zone (a) reconstructed separately from the wall by using volume rendering; (b) with attenuation equal to air; (c) with attenuation equal to wall (soft tissue); (d) with attenuation halfway between air and wall. The four reconstructed images were randomized. Four experienced imagers blinded to the reconstruction graded them from best to worst with predetermined criteria. All readers rated images with the transition zone as a separate structure as overwhelmingly superior (P Virtual reality is best with volume rendering, with the transition zone (mucosa) between the wall and air reconstructed as a separate structure.

  20. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias; Pascal Grosset, A.V.; Martin, Tobias; Pegoraro, Vincent; Smith, Sean T.; Hansen, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  1. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  2. Chromium Renderserver: Scalable and Open Source Remote RenderingInfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook,Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2007-12-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure thatprovides the ability for one or more users to run and view image outputfrom unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote,parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardwareaccelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocolsand clientviewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to theproblem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote deliveryof parallel hardware-accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis ofseveral different optimizations that are generally applicable to avariety of rendering architectures. CRRSis fully operational, Open Sourcesoftware.

  3. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... rendered. Upon request of any applicant, all or any part of the contents of any report issued to the...

  4. Frequency Analysis of Gradient Estimators in Volume Rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Lichtenbelt, Barthold B.A.; Malzbender, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Gradient information is used in volume rendering to classify and color samples along a ray. In this paper, we present an analysis of the theoretically ideal gradient estimator and compare it to some commonly used gradient estimators. A new method is presented to calculate the gradient at arbitrary

  5. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  6. The effects of multiview depth video compression on multiview rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkle, P.; Morvan, Y.; Smolic, A.; Farin, D.S.; Mueller, K.; With, de P.H.N.; Wiegang, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the interaction between different techniques for depth compression and view synthesis rendering with multiview video plus scene depth data. Two different approaches for depth coding are compared, namely H.264/MVC, using temporal and inter-view reference images for efficient

  7. The effect of depth compression on multiview rendering quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkle, P.; Morvan, Y.; Smolic, A.; Farin, D.S.; Mueller, K..; With, de P.H.N.; Wiegand, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on different techniques for depth-image compression and its implications on the quality of multiview video plus depth virtual view rendering. A novel coding algorithm for depth images that concentrates on their special characteristics, namely smooth regions

  8. The Peshitta Rendering of Psalm 25: Spelling, Synonyms, and Syntax’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyk, J.W.; Loopstra, J.; Sokoloff, M.

    2013-01-01

    The very act of making a translation implies that the rendered text will differ from the source text. The underlying presupposition is that the grammar, syntax, and semantics of the source and target languages are sufficiently divergent as to warrant a translation. Translations differ in how close

  9. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  11. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel; Dumusc, Raphael; Bilgili, Ahmet; Hernando, Juan; Eilemann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  12. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jü rgen P.; Acevedo-Feliz, Daniel; Mangan, John; Prudhomme, Andrew; Nguyen, Phi Khanh; Weber, Philip P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. A Real-Time Sound Field Rendering Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yiyu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time sound field renderings are computationally intensive and memory-intensive. Traditional rendering systems based on computer simulations suffer from memory bandwidth and arithmetic units. The computation is time-consuming, and the sample rate of the output sound is low because of the long computation time at each time step. In this work, a processor with a hybrid architecture is proposed to speed up computation and improve the sample rate of the output sound, and an interface is developed for system scalability through simply cascading many chips to enlarge the simulated area. To render a three-minute Beethoven wave sound in a small shoe-box room with dimensions of 1.28 m × 1.28 m × 0.64 m, the field programming gate array (FPGA-based prototype machine with the proposed architecture carries out the sound rendering at run-time while the software simulation with the OpenMP parallelization takes about 12.70 min on a personal computer (PC with 32 GB random access memory (RAM and an Intel i7-6800K six-core processor running at 3.4 GHz. The throughput in the software simulation is about 194 M grids/s while it is 51.2 G grids/s in the prototype machine even if the clock frequency of the prototype machine is much lower than that of the PC. The rendering processor with a processing element (PE and interfaces consumes about 238,515 gates after fabricated by the 0.18 µm processing technology from the ROHM semiconductor Co., Ltd. (Kyoto Japan, and the power consumption is about 143.8 mW.

  14. 3D rendering and interactive visualization technology in large industry CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yongshun; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Kang Kejun

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the applications of interactive 3D rendering technology in the large ICT. It summarizes and comments on the iso-surfaces rendering and the direct volume rendering methods used in ICT. The paper emphasizes on the technical analysis of the 3D rendering process of ICT volume data sets, and summarizes the difficulties of the inspection subsystem design in large ICT

  15. 3D rendering and interactive visualization technology in large industry CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yongshun; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Kang Kejun

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the applications of interactive 3D rendering technology in the large ICT. It summarizes and comments on the iso-surfaces rendering and the direct volume rendering methods used in ICT. The author emphasizes on the technical analysis of the 3D rendering process of ICT volume data sets, and summarizes the difficulties of the inspection subsystem design in large ICT

  16. Water driven leaching of biocides from paints and renders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Vollertsen, Jes; Bollmann, Ulla E

    ) were so high, that rather professional urban gardening (flower and greenhouses) than handling of biocides from construction materials seem to be able to explain the findings. While the use in agriculture is restricted, the use in greenhouses is currently considered legal in Denmark. Leaching....../partitioning: Considering material properties, it was found out that, for all of the compounds the sorption (and leaching) is highly pH-dependent. It must be take into account that the pH in the porewater of the tested render materials is between 9 and 10 while the rainwater is around 5, thus making prediction difficult...... at this stage. For some of the compounds the sorption is dependent on the amount of polymer in the render, while it is only rarely of importance which polymer is used. Considering the interaction of weather with the leaching of biocides from real walls it turned out that a lot of parameters such as irradiation...

  17. Emotion rendering in auditory simulations of imagined walking styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Rodá, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated how different emotional states of a walker can be rendered and recognized by means of footstep sounds synthesis algorithms. In a first experiment, participants were asked to render, according to imagined walking scenarios, five emotions (aggressive, happy, neutral, sad......, and tender) by manipulating the parameters of synthetic footstep sounds simulating various combinations of surface materials and shoes types. Results allowed to identify, for the involved emotions and sound conditions, the mean values and ranges of variation of two parameters, sound level and temporal...... distance between consecutive steps. Results were in accordance with those reported in previous studies on real walking, suggesting that expression of emotions in walking is independent from the real or imagined motor activity. In a second experiment participants were asked to identify the emotions...

  18. Visualization of plasma collision phenomenon by particle based rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Takagishi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kyoko; Nakata, Susumu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we visualize plasma collision phenomenon based on XYT-space (space and time) volume data for supporting research in plasma physics. We create 3D volume data in the XYT-space by piling up a time series of XY-plane photo images taken in experiment. As a result, we can visualize as one still image all the time behavior of the plasma plume. Besides, we adopt 'fused' visualization based on particle based rendering technique. Using that technique, we can easily fuse volume rendering different materials, and compare physics of different elements in flexible ways. In addition, we propose the method to generate pseudo-3D images from pictures shoot by ICCD of two perspectives on the upper and side. (author)

  19. Tactile display for virtual 3D shape rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Mansutti, Alessandro; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel system for the simultaneous visual and tactile rendering of product shapes which allows designers to simultaneously touch and see new product shapes during the conceptual phase of product development. This system offers important advantages, including potential cost and time savings, compared with the standard product design process in which digital 3D models and physical prototypes are often repeatedly modified until an optimal design is achieved. The system consists of a tactile display that is able to represent, within a real environment, the shape of a product. Designers can explore the rendered surface by touching curves lying on the product shape, selecting those curves that can be considered style features and evaluating their aesthetic quality. In order to physically represent these selected curves, a flexible surface is modeled by means of servo-actuated modules controlling a physical deforming strip. The tactile display is designed so as to be portable, low cost, modular,...

  20. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  1. Autostereoscopic image creation by hyperview matrix controlled single pixel rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasnick, Armin

    2017-06-01

    technology just with a simple equation. This formula can be utilized to create a specific hyperview matrix for a certain 3D display - independent of the technology used. A hyperview matrix may contain the references to loads of images and act as an instruction for a subsequent rendering process of particular pixels. Naturally, a single pixel will deliver an image with no resolution and does not provide any idea of the rendered scene. However, by implementing the method of pixel recycling, a 3D image can be perceived, even if all source images are different. It will be proven that several millions of perspectives can be rendered with the support of GPU rendering and benefit from the hyperview matrix. In result, a conventional autostereoscopic display, which is designed to represent only a few perspectives can be used to show a hyperview image by using a suitable hyperview matrix. It will be shown that a millions-of-views-hyperview-image can be presented on a conventional autostereoscopic display. For such an hyperview image it is required that all pixels of the displays are allocated by different source images. Controlled by the hyperview matrix, an adapted renderer can render a full hyperview image in real-time.

  2. Irregular Morphing for Real-Time Rendering of Large Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper proposes an alternative approach to the real-time adaptive triangulation problem. A new region-based multi-resolution approach for terrain rendering is described which improves on-the-fly the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile after selecting appropriate Level-Of-Detail by an adaptive sampling. This proposed approach organizes the heightmap into a QuadTree of tiles that are processed independently. This technique combines the benefits of both Triangular Irregular Network approach and region-based multi-resolution approach by improving the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile. Our technique morphs the initial regular grid of the tile to deformed grid in order to minimize approximation error. The proposed technique strives to combine large tile size and real-time processing while guaranteeing an upper bound on the screen space error. Thus, this approach adapts terrain rendering process to local surface characteristics and enables on-the-fly handling of large amount of terrain data. Morphing is based-on the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The use of the D2WT multi-resolution analysis of the terrain height-map speeds up processing and permits to satisfy an interactive terrain rendering. Tests and experiments demonstrate that Haar B-Spline wavelet, well known for its properties of localization and its compact support, is suitable for fast and accurate redistribution. Such technique could be exploited in client-server architecture for supporting interactive high-quality remote visualization of very large terrain.

  3. Rendering potential wearable robot designs with the LOPES gait trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, B; van Asseldonk, E H F; van der Kooij, H; van Dijk, W; Ronsse, R

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, wearable robots (WRs) for rehabilitation, personal assistance, or human augmentation are gaining increasing interest. To make these devices more energy efficient, radical changes to the mechanical structure of the device are being considered. However, it remains very difficult to predict how people will respond to, and interact with, WRs that differ in terms of mechanical design. Users may adjust their gait pattern in response to the mechanical restrictions or properties of the device. The goal of this pilot study is to show the feasibility of rendering the mechanical properties of different potential WR designs using the robotic gait training device LOPES. This paper describes a new method that selectively cancels the dynamics of LOPES itself and adds the dynamics of the rendered WR using two parallel inverse models. Adaptive frequency oscillators were used to get estimates of the joint position, velocity, and acceleration. Using the inverse models, different WR designs can be evaluated, eliminating the need to build several prototypes. As a proof of principle, we simulated the effect of a very simple WR that consisted of a mass attached to the ankles. Preliminary results show that we are partially able to cancel the dynamics of LOPES. Additionally, the simulation of the mass showed an increase in muscle activity but not in the same level as during the control, where subjects actually carried the mass. In conclusion, the results in this paper suggest that LOPES can be used to render different WRs. In addition, it is very likely that the results can be further optimized when more effort is put in retrieving proper estimations for the velocity and acceleration, which are required for the inverse models. © 2011 IEEE

  4. Software System for Vocal Rendering of Printed Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a software system architecture developed to render the printed documents in a vocal form. On the other hand, in the paper are described the software solutions that exist as software components and are necessary for documents processing as well as for multimedia device controlling used by the system. The usefulness of this system is for people with visual disabilities that can access the contents of documents without that they be printed in Braille system or to exist in an audio form.

  5. 3D Volume Rendering and 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, Rujuta A; Taft, Robert M; Grant, Gerald T

    2018-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered images allow 3D insight into the anatomy, facilitating surgical treatment planning and teaching. 3D printing, additive manufacturing, and rapid prototyping techniques are being used with satisfactory accuracy, mostly for diagnosis and surgical planning, followed by direct manufacture of implantable devices. The major limitation is the time and money spent generating 3D objects. Printer type, material, and build thickness are known to influence the accuracy of printed models. In implant dentistry, the use of 3D-printed surgical guides is strongly recommended to facilitate planning and reduce risk of operative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    The use of biocides as additives for building materials has gained importance in recent years. These biocides are, e.g., applied to renders and paints to prevent them from microbial spoilage. However, these biocides can leach out into the environment. In order to better understand this leaching...... compared. The partitioning constants for calcium carbonate varied between 0.1 (isoproturon) and 1.1 (iodocarb) and 84.6 (dichlorooctylisothiazolinone), respectively. The results for barite, kaolinite and mica were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high partitioning constants for one mineral...

  7. Radionuclide cisternography: SPECT and 3D-rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkes, H.; Huber, G.; Piepgras, U.; Hierholzer, J.; Cordes, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is indicated in the clinical work-up for hydrocephalus, when searching for CSF leaks, and when testing whether or not intracranial cystic lesions are communicating with the adjacent subarachnoid space. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and diagnostic value of SPECT and subsequent 3D surface rendering in addition to conventional rectilinear CSF imaging in eight patients. Planar images allowed the evaluation of CSF circulation and the detection of CSF fistula. They were advantageous in examinations 48 h after application of 111 In-DTPA. SPECT scans, generated 4-24 h after tracer application, were superior in the delineation of basal cisterns, especially in early scans; this was helpful in patients with pooling due to CSF fistula and in cystic lesions near the skull base. A major drawback was the limited image quality of delayed scans, when the SPECT data were degraded by a low count rate. 3D surface rendering was easily feasible from SPECT data and yielded high quality images. The presentation of the spatial distribution of nuclide-contaminated CSF proved especially helpful in the area of the basal cisterns. (orig.) [de

  8. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  9. Continuous Surface Rendering, Passing from CAD to Physical Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Covarrubias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a desktop-mechatronic interface that has been conceived to support designers in the evaluation of aesthetic virtual shapes. This device allows a continuous and smooth free hand contact interaction on a real and developable plastic tape actuated by a servo-controlled mechanism. The objective in designing this device is to reproduce a virtual surface with a consistent physical rendering well adapted to designers' needs. The desktop-mechatronic interface consists in a servo-actuated plastic strip that has been devised and implemented using seven interpolation points. In fact, by using the MEC (Minimal Energy Curve Spline approach, a developable real surface is rendered taking into account the CAD geometry of the virtual shapes. In this paper, we describe the working principles of the interface by using both absolute and relative approaches to control the position on each single control point on the MEC spline. Then, we describe the methodology that has been implemented, passing from the CAD geometry, linked to VisualNastran in order to maintain the parametric properties of the virtual shape. Then, we present the co-simulation between VisualNastran and MATLAB/Simulink used for achieving this goal and controlling the system and finally, we present the results of the subsequent testing session specifically carried out to evaluate the accuracy and the effectiveness of the mechatronic device.

  10. Hardware-accelerated autostereogram rendering for interactive 3D visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, Christoph; Goldluecke, Bastian; Magnor, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) are an attractive way of depicting three-dimensional objects using conventional display technology. Once trained in decoupling the eyes' convergence and focusing, autostereograms of this kind are able to convey the three-dimensional impression of a scene. We present in this work an algorithm that generates SIRDS at interactive frame rates on a conventional PC. The presented system allows rotating a 3D geometry model and observing the object from arbitrary positions in real-time. Subjective tests show that the perception of a moving or rotating 3D scene presents no problem: The gaze remains focused onto the object. In contrast to conventional SIRDS algorithms, we render multiple pixels in a single step using a texture-based approach, exploiting the parallel-processing architecture of modern graphics hardware. A vertex program determines the parallax for each vertex of the geometry model, and the graphics hardware's texture unit is used to render the dot pattern. No data has to be transferred between main memory and the graphics card for generating the autostereograms, leaving CPU capacity available for other tasks. Frame rates of 25 fps are attained at a resolution of 1024x512 pixels on a standard PC using a consumer-grade nVidia GeForce4 graphics card, demonstrating the real-time capability of the system.

  11. Rendering of HDR content on LDR displays: an objective approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasula, Lukáš; Narwaria, Manish; Fliegel, Karel; Le Callet, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic range compression (or tone mapping) of HDR content is an essential step towards rendering it on traditional LDR displays in a meaningful way. This is however non-trivial and one of the reasons is that tone mapping operators (TMOs) usually need content-specific parameters to achieve the said goal. While subjective TMO parameter adjustment is the most accurate, it may not be easily deployable in many practical applications. Its subjective nature can also influence the comparison of different operators. Thus, there is a need for objective TMO parameter selection to automate the rendering process. To that end, we investigate into a new objective method for TMO parameters optimization. Our method is based on quantification of contrast reversal and naturalness. As an important advantage, it does not require any prior knowledge about the input HDR image and works independently on the used TMO. Experimental results using a variety of HDR images and several popular TMOs demonstrate the value of our method in comparison to default TMO parameter settings.

  12. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  13. Tomographic image reconstruction and rendering with texture-mapping hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Cabral, B.K.; Foran, J.

    1994-07-01

    The image reconstruction problem, also known as the inverse Radon transform, for x-ray computed tomography (CT) is found in numerous applications in medicine and industry. The most common algorithm used in these cases is filtered backprojection (FBP), which, while a simple procedure, is time-consuming for large images on any type of computational engine. Specially-designed, dedicated parallel processors are commonly used in medical CT scanners, whose results are then passed to graphics workstation for rendering and analysis. However, a fast direct FBP algorithm can be implemented on modern texture-mapping hardware in current high-end workstation platforms. This is done by casting the FBP algorithm as an image warping operation with summing. Texture-mapping hardware, such as that on the Silicon Graphics Reality Engine (TM), shows around 600 times speedup of backprojection over a CPU-based implementation (a 100 Mhz R4400 in this case). This technique has the further advantages of flexibility and rapid programming. In addition, the same hardware can be used for both image reconstruction and for volumetric rendering. The techniques can also be used to accelerate iterative reconstruction algorithms. The hardware architecture also allows more complex operations than straight-ray backprojection if they are required, including fan-beam, cone-beam, and curved ray paths, with little or no speed penalties

  14. Efficient visibility encoding for dynamic illumination in direct volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronander, Joel; Jönsson, Daniel; Löw, Joakim; Ljung, Patric; Ynnerman, Anders; Unger, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    We present an algorithm that enables real-time dynamic shading in direct volume rendering using general lighting, including directional lights, point lights, and environment maps. Real-time performance is achieved by encoding local and global volumetric visibility using spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions stored in an efficient multiresolution grid over the extent of the volume. Our method enables high-frequency shadows in the spatial domain, but is limited to a low-frequency approximation of visibility and illumination in the angular domain. In a first pass, level of detail (LOD) selection in the grid is based on the current transfer function setting. This enables rapid online computation and SH projection of the local spherical distribution of visibility information. Using a piecewise integration of the SH coefficients over the local regions, the global visibility within the volume is then computed. By representing the light sources using their SH projections, the integral over lighting, visibility, and isotropic phase functions can be efficiently computed during rendering. The utility of our method is demonstrated in several examples showing the generality and interactive performance of the approach.

  15. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  16. Physically Based Rendering in the Nightshade NG Visualization Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Karrie; Larey-Williams, Trystan; Spearman, Rob; Bogard, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This poster describes our work on creating a physically based rendering model in Nightshade NG planetarium simulation and visualization software (project website: NightshadeSoftware.org). We discuss techniques used for rendering realistic scenes in the universe and dealing with astronomical distances in real time on consumer hardware. We also discuss some of the challenges of rewriting the software from scratch, a project which began in 2011.Nightshade NG can be a powerful tool for sharing data and visualizations. The desktop version of the software is free for anyone to download, use, and modify; it runs on Windows and Linux (and eventually Mac). If you are looking to disseminate your data or models, please stop by to discuss how we can work together.Nightshade software is used in literally hundreds of digital planetarium systems worldwide. Countless teachers and astronomy education groups run the software on flat screens. This wide use makes Nightshade an effective tool for dissemination to educators and the public.Nightshade NG is an especially powerful visualization tool when projected on a dome. We invite everyone to enter our inflatable dome in the exhibit hall to see this software in a 3D environment.

  17. Morphological pyramids in multiresolution MIP rendering of large volume data : Survey and new results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    We survey and extend nonlinear signal decompositions based on morphological pyramids, and their application to multiresolution maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering with progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The structure of the resulting multiresolution rendering

  18. Adaptive proxy map server for efficient vector spatial data rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The rapid transmission of vector map data over the Internet is becoming a bottleneck of spatial data delivery and visualization in web-based environment because of increasing data amount and limited network bandwidth. In order to improve both the transmission and rendering performances of vector spatial data over the Internet, we propose a proxy map server enabling parallel vector data fetching as well as caching to improve the performance of web-based map servers in a dynamic environment. Proxy map server is placed seamlessly anywhere between the client and the final services, intercepting users' requests. It employs an efficient parallelization technique based on spatial proximity and data density in case distributed replica exists for the same spatial data. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is proved at the end of the article by the application of creating map images enriched with earthquake seismic data records.

  19. Development of a virtual speaking simulator using Image Based Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J M; Kim, H; Oh, M J; Ku, J H; Jang, D P; Kim, I Y; Kim, S I

    2002-01-01

    The fear of speaking is often cited as the world's most common social phobia. The rapid growth of computer technology has enabled the use of virtual reality (VR) for the treatment of the fear of public speaking. There are two techniques for building virtual environments for the treatment of this fear: a model-based and a movie-based method. Both methods have the weakness that they are unrealistic and not controllable individually. To understand these disadvantages, this paper presents a virtual environment produced with Image Based Rendering (IBR) and a chroma-key simultaneously. IBR enables the creation of realistic virtual environments where the images are stitched panoramically with the photos taken from a digital camera. And the use of chroma-keys puts virtual audience members under individual control in the environment. In addition, real time capture technique is used in constructing the virtual environments enabling spoken interaction between the subject and a therapist or another subject.

  20. Artist rendering of dust grains colliding at low speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Clues to the formation of planets and planetary rings -- like Saturn's dazzling ring system -- may be found by studying how dust grains interact as they collide at low speeds. To study the question of low-speed dust collisions, NASA sponsored the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment (COLLIDE) at the University of Colorado. It was designed to spring-launch marble-size projectiles into trays of powder similar to space or lunar dust. COLLIDE-1 (1998) discovered that collisions below a certain energy threshold eject no material. COLLIDE-2 was designed to identify where the threshold is. In COLLIDE-2, scientists nudged small projectiles into dust beds and recorded how the dust splashed outward (video frame at top; artist's rendering at bottom). The slowest impactor ejected no material and stuck in the target. The faster impactors produced ejecta; some rebounded while others stuck in the target.

  1. Latency in Distributed Acquisition and Rendering for Telepresence Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Stephan; Willert, Malte; Staadt, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Telepresence systems use 3D techniques to create a more natural human-centered communication over long distances. This work concentrates on the analysis of latency in telepresence systems where acquisition and rendering are distributed. Keeping latency low is important to immerse users in the virtual environment. To better understand latency problems and to identify the source of such latency, we focus on the decomposition of system latency into sub-latencies. We contribute a model of latency and show how it can be used to estimate latencies in a complex telepresence dataflow network. To compare the estimates with real latencies in our prototype, we modify two common latency measurement methods. This presented methodology enables the developer to optimize the design, find implementation issues and gain deeper knowledge about specific sources of latency.

  2. Volumetric ambient occlusion for real-time rendering and games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirmay-Kalos, L; Umenhoffer, T; Toth, B; Szecsi, L; Sbert, M

    2010-01-01

    This new algorithm, based on GPUs, can compute ambient occlusion to inexpensively approximate global-illumination effects in real-time systems and games. The first step in deriving this algorithm is to examine how ambient occlusion relates to the physically founded rendering equation. The correspondence stems from a fuzzy membership function that defines what constitutes nearby occlusions. The next step is to develop a method to calculate ambient occlusion in real time without precomputation. The algorithm is based on a novel interpretation of ambient occlusion that measures the relative volume of the visible part of the surface's tangent sphere. The new formula's integrand has low variation and thus can be estimated accurately with a few samples.

  3. D.Vanwijnsberghe, Autour de la Madeleine Renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Verbeeck-Boutin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Institution fédérale belge de réputation internationale, l’Institut royal du Patrimoine artistique, à Bruxelles,  célèbre cette année son soixantième anniversaire: c’est l’occasion de rappeler le prestige dont jouit depuis des décennies cet institut de recherche, de formation et de diffusion du savoir. Pour souligner l’événement, l’IRPA publie le quatrième volume de la collection Scientia Artis. Il présente sous le titre Autour de la Madeleine Renders un ensemble de recherches qui documentent...

  4. On-the-Fly Decompression and Rendering of Multiresolution Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Cohen, J D

    2009-04-02

    We present a streaming geometry compression codec for multiresolution, uniformly-gridded, triangular terrain patches that supports very fast decompression. Our method is based on linear prediction and residual coding for lossless compression of the full-resolution data. As simplified patches on coarser levels in the hierarchy already incur some data loss, we optionally allow further quantization for more lossy compression. The quantization levels are adaptive on a per-patch basis, while still permitting seamless, adaptive tessellations of the terrain. Our geometry compression on such a hierarchy achieves compression ratios of 3:1 to 12:1. Our scheme is not only suitable for fast decompression on the CPU, but also for parallel decoding on the GPU with peak throughput over 2 billion triangles per second. Each terrain patch is independently decompressed on the fly from a variable-rate bitstream by a GPU geometry program with no branches or conditionals. Thus we can store the geometry compressed on the GPU, reducing storage and bandwidth requirements throughout the system. In our rendering approach, only compressed bitstreams and the decoded height values in the view-dependent 'cut' are explicitly stored on the GPU. Normal vectors are computed in a streaming fashion, and remaining geometry and texture coordinates, as well as mesh connectivity, are shared and re-used for all patches. We demonstrate and evaluate our algorithms on a small prototype system in which all compressed geometry fits in the GPU memory and decompression occurs on the fly every rendering frame without any cache maintenance.

  5. Rendering Future Vegetation Change across Large Regions of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna Dias, Felipe; Gu, Yuting; Agarwalla, Yashika; Cheng, Yiwei; Patil, Sopan; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg

    2015-04-01

    We use two Machine Learning techniques, Decision Trees (DT) and Neural Networks (NN), to provide classified images and photorealistic renderings of future vegetation cover at three large regions in the US. The training data used to generate current vegetation cover include Landsat surface reflectance images, USGS Land Cover maps, 50 years of mean annual temperature and precipitation for the period 1950 - 2000, elevation, aspect and slope data. Present vegetation cover was generated on a 100m grid. Future vegetation cover for the period 2061- 2080 was predicted using the 1 km resolution bias corrected data from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Global Climate Model E simulation. The three test regions encompass a wide range of climatic gradients, topographic variation, and vegetation cover. The central Oregon site covers 19,182 square km and includes the Ochoco and Malheur National Forest. Vegetation cover is 50% evergreen forest and 50% shrubs and scrubland. The northwest Washington site covers 14,182 square km. Vegetation cover is 60% evergreen forest, 14% scrubs, 7% grassland, and 7% barren land. The remainder of the area includes deciduous forest, perennial snow cover, and wetlands. The third site, the Jemez mountain region of north central New Mexico, covers 5,500 square km. Vegetation cover is 47% evergreen forest, 31% shrubs, 13% grasses, and 3% deciduous forest. The remainder of the area includes developed and cultivated areas and wetlands. Using the above mentioned data sets we first trained our DT and NN models to reproduce current vegetation. The land cover classified images were compared directly to the USGS land cover data. The photorealistic generated vegetation images were compared directly to the remotely sensed surface reflectance maps. For all three sites, similarity between generated and observed vegetation cover was quite remarkable. The three trained models were then used to explore what the equilibrium vegetation would look like for

  6. Artist Material BRDF Database for Computer Graphics Rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Justin C.

    The primary goal of this thesis was to create a physical library of artist material samples. This collection provides necessary data for the development of a gonio-imaging system for use in museums to more accurately document their collections. A sample set was produced consisting of 25 panels and containing nearly 600 unique samples. Selected materials are representative of those commonly used by artists both past and present. These take into account the variability in visual appearance resulting from the materials and application techniques used. Five attributes of variability were identified including medium, color, substrate, application technique and overcoat. Combinations of these attributes were selected based on those commonly observed in museum collections and suggested by surveying experts in the field. For each sample material, image data is collected and used to measure an average bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The results are available as a public-domain image and optical database of artist materials at art-si.org. Additionally, the database includes specifications for each sample along with other information useful for computer graphics rendering such as the rectified sample images and normal maps.

  7. TransCut: interactive rendering of translucent cutouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Sun, Xin; Ren, Zhong; Lin, Stephen; Tong, Yiying; Guo, Baining; Zhou, Kun

    2013-03-01

    We present TransCut, a technique for interactive rendering of translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations. As the object is fractured or cut open, the user can directly examine and intuitively understand the complex translucent interior, as well as edit material properties through painting on cross sections and recombining the broken pieces—all with immediate and realistic visual feedback. This new mode of interaction with translucent volumes is made possible with two technical contributions. The first is a novel solver for the diffusion equation (DE) over a tetrahedral mesh that produces high-quality results comparable to the state-of-art finite element method (FEM) of Arbree et al. but at substantially higher speeds. This accuracy and efficiency is obtained by computing the discrete divergences of the diffusion equation and constructing the DE matrix using analytic formulas derived for linear finite elements. The second contribution is a multiresolution algorithm to significantly accelerate our DE solver while adapting to the frequent changes in topological structure of dynamic objects. The entire multiresolution DE solver is highly parallel and easily implemented on the GPU. We believe TransCut provides a novel visual effect for heterogeneous translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations.

  8. Brain ageing changes proteoglycan sulfation, rendering perineuronal nets more inhibitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foscarin, Simona; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Fawcett, James W; Kwok, Jessica C F

    2017-06-28

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in perineuronal nets (PNNs) from the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in the control of plasticity and memory. Removing PNNs reactivates plasticity and restores memory in models of Alzheimer's disease and ageing. Their actions depend on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CS proteoglycans, which are mainly sulfated in the 4 (C4S) or 6 (C6S) positions. While C4S is inhibitory, C6S is more permissive to axon growth, regeneration and plasticity. C6S decreases during critical period closure. We asked whether there is a late change in CS-GAG sulfation associated with memory loss in aged rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed a progressive increase in C4S and decrease in C6S from 3 to 18 months. GAGs extracted from brain PNNs showed a large reduction in C6S at 12 and 18 months, increasing the C4S/C6S ratio. There was no significant change in mRNA levels of the chondroitin sulfotransferases. PNN GAGs were more inhibitory to axon growth than those from the diffuse extracellular matrix. The 18-month PNN GAGs were more inhibitory than 3-month PNN GAGs. We suggest that the change in PNN GAG sulfation in aged brains renders the PNNs more inhibitory, which lead to a decrease in plasticity and adversely affect memory.

  9. Moisture Transfer through Facades Covered with Organic Binder Renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen DICO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Year after year we witness the negative effect of water over buildings, caused by direct or indirect actions. This situation is obvious in case of old, historical building, subjected to this aggression for a long period of time, but new buildings are also affected. Moisture in building materials causes not only structural damage, but also reduces the thermal insulation capacity of building components.Materials like plasters or paints have been used historically for a long period of time, fulfilling two basics functions: Decoration and Protection. The most acute demands are made on exterior plasters, as they, besides being an important decorative element for the facade, must perform two different functions simultaneously: protect the substrate against weathering and moisture without sealing, providing it a certain ability to “breathe” (Heilen, 2005. In order to accomplish this aim, the first step is to understand the hygrothermal behavior of coating and substrate and define the fundamental principles of moisture transfer; According to Künzel’s Facade Protection Theory, two material properties play the most important role: Water absorption and Vapor permeability.In the context of recently adoption (2009 of the “harmonized” European standard EN 15824 – „Specifications for external renders and internal plasters based on organic binders”, this paper deals extensively with the interaction of the two mentioned above properties for the coating materials, covered by EN 15824.

  10. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  11. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  12. Digital tomosynthesis rendering of joint margins for arthritis assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Jeffrey W.; Neumann, Gesa; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Dobbins, James T., III

    2004-05-01

    PURPOSE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand is a significant healthcare problem. Techniques to accurately quantity the structural changes from RA are crucial for the development and prescription of therapies. Analysis of radiographic joint space width (JSW) is widely used and has demonstrated promise. However, radiography presents a 2D view of the joint. In this study we performed tomosynthesis reconstructions of proximal interphalangeal (PIP), and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints to measure the 3D joint structure. METHODS: We performed a reader study using simulated radiographs of 12 MCP and 12 PIP joints from skeletal specimens imaged with micro-CT. The tomosynthesis technique provided images of reconstructed planes with 0.75 mm spacing, which were presented to 2 readers with a computer tool. The readers were instructed to delineate the joint surfaces on tomosynthetic slices where they could visualize the margins. We performed a quantitative analysis of 5 slices surrounding the central portion of each joint. Reader-determined JSW was compared to a gold standard. As a figure of merit we calculated the average root-mean square deviation (RMSD). RESULTS: RMSD was 0.22 mm for both joints. For the individual joints, RMSD was 0.18 mm (MCP), and 0.26 mm (PIP). The reduced performance for the smaller PIP joints suggests that a slice spacing less than 0.75 mm may be more appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated the capability of limited 3D rendering of joint surfaces using digital tomosynthesis. This technique promises to provide an improved method to visualize the structural changes of RA.

  13. Enhancement method for rendered images of home decoration based on SLIC superpixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yutong; Jiang, Xiaotong

    2018-04-01

    Rendering technology has been widely used in the home decoration industry in recent years for images of home decoration design. However, due to the fact that rendered images of home decoration design rely heavily on the parameters of renderer and the lights of scenes, most rendered images in this industry require further optimization afterwards. To reduce workload and enhance rendered images automatically, an algorithm utilizing neural networks is proposed in this manuscript. In addition, considering few extreme conditions such as strong sunlight and lights, SLIC superpixels based segmentation is used to choose out these bright areas of an image and enhance them independently. Finally, these chosen areas are merged with the entire image. Experimental results show that the proposed method effectively enhances the rendered images when compared with some existing algorithms. Besides, the proposed strategy is proven to be adaptable especially to those images with obvious bright parts.

  14. Influence of rendering methods on yield and quality of chicken fat recovered from broiler skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Kun Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective In order to utilize fat from broiler byproducts efficiently, it is necessary to develop an appropriate rendering procedure and establish quality information for the rendered fat. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the influence of rendering methods on the amounts and general properties of the fat recovered from broiler skin. Methods The yield and quality of the broiler skin fat rendered through high and lower energy microwave rendering (3.6 W/g for 10 min and 2.4 W/g for 10 min for high power microwave rendering (HPMR and high power microwave rendering (LPMR, respectively, oven baking (OB, at 180°C for 40 min, and water cooking (WC, boiling for 40 min were compared. Results Microwave-rendered skin exhibited the highest yields and fat recovery rates, followed by OB, and WC fats (p<0.05. HPMR fat had the highest L*, a*, and b* values, whereas WC fat had the highest moisture content, acid values, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA values (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the acid value, peroxide value, and TBA values between HPMR and LPMR fats. Conclusion Microwave rendering at a power level of 3.6 W/g for 10 min is suggested base on the yield and quality of chicken fat.

  15. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  16. Can thiolation render a low molecular weight polymer of just 20-kDa mucoadhesive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Arshad; Bonengel, Sonja; Laffleur, Flavia; Ijaz, Muhammad; Idrees, Muneeb Ahmad; Hussain, Shah; Huck, Christian W; Matuszczak, Barbara; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to investigate whether even low-molecular weight polymers (LMWPs) can be rendered mucoadhesive due to thiolation. Interceded by the double catalytic system carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide, cysteamine was covalently attached to a copolymer, poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSSA-MA) exhibiting a molecular weight of just 20 kDa. Depending on the amount of added N-hydroxysuccinimide and cysteamine, the resulting PSSA-MA-cysteamine (PC) conjugates exhibited increasing degree of thiolation, highest being "PC 2300" exhibiting 2300.16 ± 149.86 μmol thiol groups per gram of polymer (mean ± SD; n = 3). This newly developed thiolated polymer was evaluated regarding mucoadhesive, rheological and drug release properties as well from the toxicological point of view. Swelling behavior in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH 6.8 was improved up to 180-fold. Furthermore, due to thiolation, the mucoadhesive properties of the polymer were 240-fold improved. Rheological measurements of polymer/mucus mixtures confirmed results obtained by mucoadhesion studies. In comparison to unmodified polymer, PC 2300 showed 2.3-, 2.3- and 2.4-fold increase in dynamic viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus, respectively. Sustained release of the model drug codeine HCl out of the thiomer was provided for 2.5 h (p polymer. Moreover, the thiomer was found non-toxic over Caco-2 cells for a period of 6- and 24-h exposure. Findings of the present study provide evidence that due to thiolation LMWPs can be rendered highly mucoadhesive as well as cohesive and that a controlled drug release out of such polymers can be provided.

  17. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment.

  18. Three-dimensional spiral CT during arterial portography: comparison of three rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D G; Soyer, P A; Kuszyk, B S; Bliss, D F; Calhoun, P S; Bluemke, D A; Choti, M A; Fishman, E K

    1995-07-01

    The three most common techniques for three-dimensional reconstruction are surface rendering, maximum-intensity projection (MIP), and volume rendering. Surface-rendering algorithms model objects as collections of geometric primitives that are displayed with surface shading. The MIP algorithm renders an image by selecting the voxel with the maximum intensity signal along a line extended from the viewer's eye through the data volume. Volume-rendering algorithms sum the weighted contributions of all voxels along the line. Each technique has advantages and shortcomings that must be considered during selection of one for a specific clinical problem and during interpretation of the resulting images. With surface rendering, sharp-edged, clear three-dimensional reconstruction can be completed on modest computer systems; however, overlapping structures cannot be visualized and artifacts are a problem. MIP is computationally a fast technique, but it does not allow depiction of overlapping structures, and its images are three-dimensionally ambiguous unless depth cues are provided. Both surface rendering and MIP use less than 10% of the image data. In contrast, volume rendering uses nearly all of the data, allows demonstration of overlapping structures, and engenders few artifacts, but it requires substantially more computer power than the other techniques.

  19. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  20. On the design of a real-time volume rendering engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap; Wessels, H.L.F.; van der Horst, A.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    1992-01-01

    An architecture for a Real-Time Volume Rendering Engine (RT-VRE) is given, capable of computing 750 × 750 × 512 samples from a 3D dataset at a rate of 25 images per second. The RT-VRE uses for this purpose 64 dedicated rendering chips, cooperating with 16 RISC-processors. A plane interpolator

  1. On the design of a real-time volume rendering engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap; Wessels, H.J.; van der Horst, A.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    1995-01-01

    An architecture for a Real-Time Volume Rendering Engine (RT-VRE) is given, capable of computing 750 × 750 × 512 samples from a 3D dataset at a rate of 25 images per second. The RT-VRE uses for this purpose 64 dedicated rendering chips, cooperating with 16 RISC-processors. A plane interpolator

  2. Method and system for rendering and interacting with an adaptable computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil [Albuquerque, NM; Bouchard, Ann Marie [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-12

    An adaptable computing environment is implemented with software entities termed "s-machines", which self-assemble into hierarchical data structures capable of rendering and interacting with the computing environment. A hierarchical data structure includes a first hierarchical s-machine bound to a second hierarchical s-machine. The first hierarchical s-machine is associated with a first layer of a rendering region on a display screen and the second hierarchical s-machine is associated with a second layer of the rendering region overlaying at least a portion of the first layer. A screen element s-machine is linked to the first hierarchical s-machine. The screen element s-machine manages data associated with a screen element rendered to the display screen within the rendering region at the first layer.

  3. An improved method of continuous LOD based on fractal theory in terrain rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Li, Lijun

    2007-11-01

    With the improvement of computer graphic hardware capability, the algorithm of 3D terrain rendering is going into the hot topic of real-time visualization. In order to solve conflict between the rendering speed and reality of rendering, this paper gives an improved method of terrain rendering which improves the traditional continuous level of detail technique based on fractal theory. This method proposes that the program needn't to operate the memory repeatedly to obtain different resolution terrain model, instead, obtains the fractal characteristic parameters of different region according to the movement of the viewpoint. Experimental results show that the method guarantees the authenticity of landscape, and increases the real-time 3D terrain rendering speed.

  4. Design and Implementation of High-Performance GIS Dynamic Objects Rendering Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y.; Wang, S.; Li, R.; Yun, W.; Song, G.

    2017-12-01

    Spatio-temporal dynamic visualization is more vivid than static visualization. It important to use dynamic visualization techniques to reveal the variation process and trend vividly and comprehensively for the geographical phenomenon. To deal with challenges caused by dynamic visualization of both 2D and 3D spatial dynamic targets, especially for different spatial data types require high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine. The main approach for improving the rendering engine with vast dynamic targets relies on key technologies of high-performance GIS, including memory computing, parallel computing, GPU computing and high-performance algorisms. In this study, high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine is designed and implemented for solving the problem based on hybrid accelerative techniques. The high-performance GIS rendering engine contains GPU computing, OpenGL technology, and high-performance algorism with the advantage of 64-bit memory computing. It processes 2D, 3D dynamic target data efficiently and runs smoothly with vast dynamic target data. The prototype system of high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine is developed based SuperMap GIS iObjects. The experiments are designed for large-scale spatial data visualization, the results showed that the high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine have the advantage of high performance. Rendering two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic objects achieve 20 times faster on GPU than on CPU.

  5. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  6. Three-dimensional rendering of segmented object using matlab - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional rendering of microscopic objects is a difficult and challenging task that often requires specialized image processing techniques. Previous work has been described of a semi-automatic segmentation process of fluorescently stained neurons collected as a sequence of slice images with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Once properly segmented, each individual object can be rendered and studied as a three-dimensional virtual object. This paper describes the work associated with the design and development of Matlab files to create three-dimensional images from the segmented object data previously mentioned. Part of the motivation for this work is to integrate both the segmentation and rendering processes into one software application, providing a seamless transition from the segmentation tasks to the rendering and visualization tasks. Previously these tasks were accomplished on two different computer systems, windows and Linux. This transition basically limits the usefulness of the segmentation and rendering applications to those who have both computer systems readily available. The focus of this work is to create custom Matlab image processing algorithms for object rendering and visualization, and merge these capabilities to the Matlab files that were developed especially for the image segmentation task. The completed Matlab application will contain both the segmentation and rendering processes in a single graphical user interface, or GUI. This process for rendering three-dimensional images in Matlab requires that a sequence of two-dimensional binary images, representing a cross-sectional slice of the object, be reassembled in a 3D space, and covered with a surface. Additional segmented objects can be rendered in the same 3D space. The surface properties of each object can be varied by the user to aid in the study and analysis of the objects. This inter-active process becomes a powerful visual tool to study and understand microscopic objects.

  7. Color-coded volume rendering for three-dimensional reconstructions of CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, O.; Mildenberger, P.; Thelen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a technique of colored three-dimensional reconstructions without segmentation. Material and methods: Color-coded volume rendered images were reconstructed from the volume data of 25 thoracic, abdominal, musculoskeletal, and vascular helical CT scans using commercial software. The CT volume rendered voxels were encoded with color in the following manner. Opacity, hue, lightness, and chroma were assigned to each of four classes defined by CT number. Color-coded reconstructions were compared to the corresponding grey-scale coded reconstructions. Results: Color-coded volume rendering enabled realistic visualization of pathologic findings when there was sufficient difference in CT density. Segmentation was necessary in some cases to demonstrate small details in a complex volume. Conclusion: Color-coded volume rendering allowed lifelike visualisation of CT volumes without the need of segmentation in most cases. (orig.) [de

  8. Rendering Large-Scale Terrain Models and Positioning Objects in Relation to 3D Terrain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hittner, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... Rendering large scale landscapes based on 3D geometry generally did not occur because the scenes generated tended to use up too much system memory and overburden 3D graphics cards with too many polygons...

  9. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TerraBlocksTM 3D terrain data format and terrain-block-rendering methodology provides an enabling basis for successful commercial deployment of...

  10. Processing-in-Memory Enabled Graphics Processors for 3D Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Chenhao; Song, Shuaiwen; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Weigong; Fu, Xin

    2017-02-06

    The performance of 3D rendering of Graphics Processing Unit that convents 3D vector stream into 2D frame with 3D image effects significantly impact users’ gaming experience on modern computer systems. Due to the high texture throughput in 3D rendering, main memory bandwidth becomes a critical obstacle for improving the overall rendering performance. 3D stacked memory systems such as Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC) provide opportunities to significantly overcome the memory wall by directly connecting logic controllers to DRAM dies. Based on the observation that texel fetches significantly impact off-chip memory traffic, we propose two architectural designs to enable Processing-In-Memory based GPU for efficient 3D rendering.

  11. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TerraMetrics proposes an SBIR Phase I R/R&D effort to develop a key 3D terrain-rendering technology that provides the basis for successful commercial deployment...

  12. A point-based rendering approach for real-time interaction on mobile devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XiaoHui; ZHAO QinPing; HE ZhiYing; XIE Ke; LIU YuBo

    2009-01-01

    Mobile device is an Important interactive platform. Due to the limitation of computation, memory, display area and energy, how to realize the efficient and real-time interaction of 3D models based on mobile devices is an important research topic. Considering features of mobile devices, this paper adopts remote rendering mode and point models, and then, proposes a transmission and rendering approach that could interact in real time. First, improved simplification algorithm based on MLS and display resolution of mobile devices is proposed. Then, a hierarchy selection of point models and a QoS transmission control strategy are given based on interest area of operator, interest degree of object in the virtual environment and rendering error. They can save the energy consumption. Finally, the rendering and interaction of point models are completed on mobile devices. The experiments show that our method is efficient.

  13. Physically-Based Rendering of Particle-Based Fluids with Light Transport Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddiaf, Ali; Babahenini, Mohamed Chaouki

    2018-03-01

    Recent interactive rendering approaches aim to efficiently produce images. However, time constraints deeply affect their output accuracy and realism (many light phenomena are poorly or not supported at all). To remedy this issue, in this paper, we propose a physically-based fluid rendering approach. First, while state-of-the-art methods focus on isosurface rendering with only two refractions, our proposal (1) considers the fluid as a heterogeneous participating medium with refractive boundaries, and (2) supports both multiple refractions and scattering. Second, the proposed solution is fully particle-based in the sense that no particles transformation into a grid is required. This interesting feature makes it able to handle many particle types (water, bubble, foam, and sand). On top of that, a medium with different fluids (color, phase function, etc.) can also be rendered.

  14. Major Deficiencies Preventing Auditors From Rendering Audit Opinions on DOD General Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rauu, Russell

    1995-01-01

    .... We plan to issue a similar report each year. The audit objective was to identify and summarize the major deficiencies that prevented auditors from rendering audit opinions, other than disclaimers, on Army and Air Force general fund financial...

  15. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  16. Specification and time required for the application of a lime-based render inside historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Peixoto de Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervention in ancient buildings with historical and architectural value requires traditional techniques, such as the use of lime mortars for internal and external wall renderings. In order to ensure the desired performance, these rendering mortars must be rigorously specified and quality controls have to be performed during application. The choice of mortar composition should take account of factors such as compatibility with the substrate, mechanical requirements and water behaviour. The construction schedule, which used to be considered a second order variable, nowadays plays a decisive role in the selection of the rendering technique, given its effects upon costs. How should lime-based mortars be specified? How much time is required for the application and curing of a lime-based render? This paper reflects upon the feasibility of using traditional lime mortars in three-layer renders inside churches and monasteries under adverse hygrothermal conditions and when time is critical. A case study is presented in which internal lime mortar renderings were applied in a church in Northern Portugal, where the very high relative humidity meant that several months were necessary before the drying process was complete.

  17. On-the-fly generation and rendering of infinite cities on the GPU

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for shape-grammar-based generation and rendering of huge cities in real-time on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Traditional approaches rely on evaluating a shape grammar and storing the geometry produced as a preprocessing step. During rendering, the pregenerated data is then streamed to the GPU. By interweaving generation and rendering, we overcome the problems and limitations of streaming pregenerated data. Using our methods of visibility pruning and adaptive level of detail, we are able to dynamically generate only the geometry needed to render the current view in real-time directly on the GPU. We also present a robust and efficient way to dynamically update a scene\\'s derivation tree and geometry, enabling us to exploit frame-to-frame coherence. Our combined generation and rendering is significantly faster than all previous work. For detailed scenes, we are capable of generating geometry more rapidly than even just copying pregenerated data from main memory, enabling us to render cities with thousands of buildings at up to 100 frames per second, even with the camera moving at supersonic speed. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Using neutrosophic graph cut segmentation algorithm for qualified rendering image selection in thyroid elastography video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanhui; Jiang, Shuang-Quan; Sun, Baiqing; Siuly, Siuly; Şengür, Abdulkadir; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Recently, elastography has become very popular in clinical investigation for thyroid cancer detection and diagnosis. In elastogram, the stress results of the thyroid are displayed using pseudo colors. Due to variation of the rendering results in different frames, it is difficult for radiologists to manually select the qualified frame image quickly and efficiently. The purpose of this study is to find the qualified rendering result in the thyroid elastogram. This paper employs an efficient thyroid ultrasound image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic graph cut to find the qualified rendering images. Firstly, a thyroid ultrasound image is mapped into neutrosophic set, and an indeterminacy filter is constructed to reduce the indeterminacy of the spatial and intensity information in the image. A graph is defined on the image and the weight for each pixel is represented using the value after indeterminacy filtering. The segmentation results are obtained using a maximum-flow algorithm on the graph. Then the anatomic structure is identified in thyroid ultrasound image. Finally the rendering colors on these anatomic regions are extracted and validated to find the frames which satisfy the selection criteria. To test the performance of the proposed method, a thyroid elastogram dataset is built and totally 33 cases were collected. An experienced radiologist manually evaluates the selection results of the proposed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method finds the qualified rendering frame with 100% accuracy. The proposed scheme assists the radiologists to diagnose the thyroid diseases using the qualified rendering images.

  19. On-the-fly generation and rendering of infinite cities on the GPU

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberger, Markus; Kenzel, Michael; Kainz, Bernhard K.; Wonka, Peter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for shape-grammar-based generation and rendering of huge cities in real-time on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Traditional approaches rely on evaluating a shape grammar and storing the geometry produced as a preprocessing step. During rendering, the pregenerated data is then streamed to the GPU. By interweaving generation and rendering, we overcome the problems and limitations of streaming pregenerated data. Using our methods of visibility pruning and adaptive level of detail, we are able to dynamically generate only the geometry needed to render the current view in real-time directly on the GPU. We also present a robust and efficient way to dynamically update a scene's derivation tree and geometry, enabling us to exploit frame-to-frame coherence. Our combined generation and rendering is significantly faster than all previous work. For detailed scenes, we are capable of generating geometry more rapidly than even just copying pregenerated data from main memory, enabling us to render cities with thousands of buildings at up to 100 frames per second, even with the camera moving at supersonic speed. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Real-Time Location-Based Rendering of Urban Underground Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concealment and complex spatial relationships of urban underground pipelines present challenges in managing them. Recently, augmented reality (AR has been a hot topic around the world, because it can enhance our perception of reality by overlaying information about the environment and its objects onto the real world. Using AR, underground pipelines can be displayed accurately, intuitively, and in real time. We analyzed the characteristics of AR and their application in underground pipeline management. We mainly focused on the AR pipeline rendering procedure based on the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM technology. First, in aiming to improve the spatial accuracy of pipeline rendering, we used differential corrections received from the Ground-Based Augmentation System to compute the precise coordinates of users in real time, which helped us accurately retrieve and draw pipelines near the users, and by scene recognition the accuracy can be further improved. Second, in terms of pipeline rendering, we used Visual-Inertial Odometry (VIO to track the rendered objects and made some improvements to visual effects, which can provide steady dynamic tracking of pipelines even in relatively markerless environments and outdoors. Finally, we used the occlusion method based on real-time 3D reconstruction to realistically express the immersion effect of underground pipelines. We compared our methods to the existing methods and concluded that the method proposed in this research improves the spatial accuracy of pipeline rendering and the portability of the equipment. Moreover, the updating of our rendering procedure corresponded with the moving of the user’s location, thus we achieved a dynamic rendering of pipelines in the real environment.

  1. 3-D volume rendering visualization for calculated distributions of diesel spray; Diesel funmu kyodo suchi keisan kekka no sanjigen volume rendering hyoji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizaki, T; Imanishi, H; Nishida, K; Yamashita, H; Hiroyasu, H; Kaneda, K [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Three dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate calculated results of diesel combustion simulation into realistically spray and flame images. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A cache-friendly sampling strategy for texture-based volume rendering on GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The texture-based volume rendering is a memory-intensive algorithm. Its performance relies heavily on the performance of the texture cache. However, most existing texture-based volume rendering methods blindly map computational resources to texture memory and result in incoherent memory access patterns, causing low cache hit rates in certain cases. The distance between samples taken by threads of an atomic scheduling unit (e.g. a warp of 32 threads in CUDA of the GPU is a crucial factor that affects the texture cache performance. Based on this fact, we present a new sampling strategy, called Warp Marching, for the ray-casting algorithm of texture-based volume rendering. The effects of different sample organizations and different thread-pixel mappings in the ray-casting algorithm are thoroughly analyzed. Also, a pipeline manner color blending approach is introduced and the power of warp-level GPU operations is leveraged to improve the efficiency of parallel executions on the GPU. In addition, the rendering performance of the Warp Marching is view-independent, and it outperforms existing empty space skipping techniques in scenarios that need to render large dynamic volumes in a low resolution image. Through a series of micro-benchmarking and real-life data experiments, we rigorously analyze our sampling strategies and demonstrate significant performance enhancements over existing sampling methods.

  3. Evaluation and Improvement of the CIE Metameric and Colour Rendering Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Slavuj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All artificial light sources are intended to simulate daylight and its properties of color rendering or ability of colour discrimination. Two indices, defined by the CIE, are used to quantify quality of the artificial light sources. First is Color Rendering Index which quantifies ability of light sources to render colours and other is the Metemerism Index which describes metamerism potential of given light source. Calculation of both indices are defined by CIE and has been a subject of discussion and change in past. In this work particularly, the problem of sample number and type used in calculation is addressed here and evaluated. It is noticed that both indices depends on the choice and sample number and that they should be determined based on application.

  4. The Visualization Toolkit (VTK): Rewriting the rendering code for modern graphics cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanwell, Marcus D.; Martin, Kenneth M.; Chaudhary, Aashish; Avila, Lisa S.

    2015-09-01

    The Visualization Toolkit (VTK) is an open source, permissively licensed, cross-platform toolkit for scientific data processing, visualization, and data analysis. It is over two decades old, originally developed for a very different graphics card architecture. Modern graphics cards feature fully programmable, highly parallelized architectures with large core counts. VTK's rendering code was rewritten to take advantage of modern graphics cards, maintaining most of the toolkit's programming interfaces. This offers the opportunity to compare the performance of old and new rendering code on the same systems/cards. Significant improvements in rendering speeds and memory footprints mean that scientific data can be visualized in greater detail than ever before. The widespread use of VTK means that these improvements will reap significant benefits.

  5. Reflection curves—new computation and rendering techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Eugen Ulmet

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflection curves on surfaces are important tools for free-form surface interrogation. They are essential for industrial 3D CAD/CAM systems and for rendering purposes. In this note, new approaches regarding the computation and rendering of reflection curves on surfaces are introduced. These approaches are designed to take the advantage of the graphics libraries of recent releases of commercial systems such as the OpenInventor toolkit (developed by Silicon Graphics or Matlab (developed by The Math Works. A new relation between reflection curves and contour curves is derived; this theoretical result is used for a straightforward Matlab implementation of reflection curves. A new type of reflection curves is also generated using the OpenInventor texture and environment mapping implementations. This allows the computation, rendering, and animation of reflection curves at interactive rates, which makes it particularly useful for industrial applications.

  6. Cement-Based Renders Manufactured with Phase-Change Materials: Applications and Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Coppola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the evaluation of the rheological and mechanical performances of cement-based renders manufactured with phase-change materials (PCM in form of microencapsulated paraffin for innovative and ecofriendly residential buildings. Specifically, cement-based renders were manufactured by incorporating different amount of paraffin microcapsules—ranging from 5% to 20% by weight with respect to binder. Specific mass, entrained or entrapped air, and setting time were evaluated on fresh mortars. Compressive strength was measured over time to evaluate the effect of the PCM addition on the hydration kinetics of cement. Drying shrinkage was also evaluated. Experimental results confirmed that the compressive strength decreases as the amount of PCM increases. Furthermore, the higher the PCM content, the higher the drying shrinkage. The results confirm the possibility of manufacturing cement-based renders containing up to 20% by weight of PCM microcapsules with respect to binder.

  7. A concept of volume rendering guided search process to analyze medical data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianlong; Xiao, Chun; Wang, Zhiyan; Takatsuka, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    This paper firstly presents an approach of parallel coordinates based parameter control panel (PCP). The PCP is used to control parameters of focal region-based volume rendering (FRVR) during data analysis. It uses a parallel coordinates style interface. Different rendering parameters represented with nodes on each axis, and renditions based on related parameters are connected using polylines to show dependencies between renditions and parameters. Based on the PCP, a concept of volume rendering guided search process is proposed. The search pipeline is divided into four phases. Different parameters of FRVR are recorded and modulated in the PCP during search phases. The concept shows that volume visualization could play the role of guiding a search process in the rendition space to help users to efficiently find local structures of interest. The usability of the proposed approach is evaluated to show its effectiveness.

  8. Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin

    2013-11-05

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

  9. Use of volume-rendered images in registration of nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, J.W.; Miller, T.R.; Hsu, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A simple operator-guided alignment technique based on volume-rendered images was developed to register tomographic nuclear medicine studies. For each of 2 three-dimensional data sets to be registered, volume-rendered images were generated in 3 orthogonal projections (x,y,z) using the method of maximum-activity projection. Registration was achieved as follows: (a) One of the rendering orientations (e.g. x) was chosen for manipulation; (b) The two dimensional rendering was translated and rotated under operator control to achieve the best alignment as determined by visual assessment; (c) This rotation and translation was then applied to the underlying three-dimensional data set, with updating of the rendered images in each of the orthogonal projections; (d) Another orientation was chosen, and the process repeated. Since manipulation was performed on the small two-dimensional rendered image, feedback was instantaneous. To aid in the visual alignment, difference images and flicker images (toggling between the two data sets) were displayed. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of separate clinical data sets acquired without patient movement. After arbitrary rotation and translation of one of the two data sets, the 2 data sets were registered. Mean registration error was 0.36 pixels, corresponding to a 2.44 mm registration error. Thus, accurate registration can be achieved in under 10 minutes using this simple technique. The accuracy of registration was assessed with use of duplicate SPECT studies originating from separate reconstructions of the data from each of the detectors of a triple-head gamma camera

  10. ACCELERATION RENDERING METHOD ON RAY TRACING WITH ANGLE COMPARISON AND DISTANCE COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana liliana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In computer graphics applications, to produce realistic images, a method that is often used is ray tracing. Ray tracing does not only model local illumination but also global illumination. Local illumination count ambient, diffuse and specular effects only, but global illumination also count mirroring and transparency. Local illumination count effects from the lamp(s but global illumination count effects from other object(s too. Objects that are usually modeled are primitive objects and mesh objects. The advantage of mesh modeling is various, interesting and real-like shape. Mesh contains many primitive objects like triangle or square (rare. A problem in mesh object modeling is long rendering time. It is because every ray must be checked with a lot of triangle of the mesh. Added by ray from other objects checking, the number of ray that traced will increase. It causes the increasing of rendering time. To solve this problem, in this research, new methods are developed to make the rendering process of mesh object faster. The new methods are angle comparison and distance comparison. These methods are used to reduce the number of ray checking. The rays predicted will not intersect with the mesh, are not checked weather the ray intersects the mesh. With angle comparison, if using small angle to compare, the rendering process will be fast. This method has disadvantage, if the shape of each triangle is big, some triangles will be corrupted. If the angle to compare is bigger, mesh corruption can be avoided but the rendering time will be longer than without comparison. With distance comparison, the rendering time is less than without comparison, and no triangle will be corrupted.

  11. Construction and Evaluation of an Ultra Low Latency Frameless Renderer for VR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Sebastian; Steed, Anthony; Tilbury, Simon; Gaydadjiev, Georgi

    2016-04-01

    Latency - the delay between a user's action and the response to this action - is known to be detrimental to virtual reality. Latency is typically considered to be a discrete value characterising a delay, constant in time and space - but this characterisation is incomplete. Latency changes across the display during scan-out, and how it does so is dependent on the rendering approach used. In this study, we present an ultra-low latency real-time ray-casting renderer for virtual reality, implemented on an FPGA. Our renderer has a latency of ~1 ms from 'tracker to pixel'. Its frameless nature means that the region of the display with the lowest latency immediately follows the scan-beam. This is in contrast to frame-based systems such as those using typical GPUs, for which the latency increases as scan-out proceeds. Using a series of high and low speed videos of our system in use, we confirm its latency of ~1 ms. We examine how the renderer performs when driving a traditional sequential scan-out display on a readily available HMO, the Oculus Rift OK2. We contrast this with an equivalent apparatus built using a GPU. Using captured human head motion and a set of image quality measures, we assess the ability of these systems to faithfully recreate the stimuli of an ideal virtual reality system - one with a zero latency tracker, renderer and display running at 1 kHz. Finally, we examine the results of these quality measures, and how each rendering approach is affected by velocity of movement and display persistence. We find that our system, with a lower average latency, can more faithfully draw what the ideal virtual reality system would. Further, we find that with low display persistence, the sensitivity to velocity of both systems is lowered, but that it is much lower for ours.

  12. USER EVALUATION OF EIGHT LED LIGHT SOURCES WITH DIFFERENTSPECIAL COLOUR RENDERING INDICES R9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Iversen, Anne; Logadóttir, Ásta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the influence of the special colour rendering index R9 on subjective red colour perception and Caucasian skin appearance among untrained test subjects. The light sources tested are commercially available LED based light sources with similar correlated colour temperature...... and general colour rendering index, but with varying R9. It was found that the test subjects in general are more positive towards light sources with higher R9. The shift from a majority of negative responses to a majority of positive responses is found to occur at R9 values of ~20....

  13. Mastering Mental Ray Rendering Techniques for 3D and CAD Professionals

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Proven techniques for using mental ray effectively. If you're a busy artist seeking high-end results for your 3D, design, or architecture renders using mental ray, this is the perfect book for you. It distills the highly technical nature of rendering into easy-to-follow steps and tutorials that you can apply immediately to your own projects. The book uses 3ds Max and 3ds Max Design to show the integration with mental ray, but users of any 3D or CAD software can learn valuable techniques for incorporating mental ray into their pipelines.: Takes you under the hood of mental ray, a stand-alone or

  14. Towards the Availability of the Distributed Cluster Rendering System: Automatic Modeling and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kemin; Jiang, Zhengtao; Wang, Yongbin

    2012-01-01

    , whenever the number of node-n and related parameters vary, we can create the PRISM model file rapidly and then we can use PRISM model checker to verify ralated system properties. At the end of this study, we analyzed and verified the availability distributions of the Distributed Cluster Rendering System......In this study, we proposed a Continuous Time Markov Chain Model towards the availability of n-node clusters of Distributed Rendering System. It's an infinite one, we formalized it, based on the model, we implemented a software, which can automatically model with PRISM language. With the tool...

  15. Parametric model of the scala tympani for haptic-rendered cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine; Naghdy, Fazel

    2005-01-01

    A parametric model of the human scala tympani has been designed for use in a haptic-rendered computer simulation of cochlear implant surgery. It will be the first surgical simulator of this kind. A geometric model of the Scala Tympani has been derived from measured data for this purpose. The model is compared with two existing descriptions of the cochlear spiral. A first approximation of the basilar membrane is also produced. The structures are imported into a force-rendering software application for system development.

  16. Deep Exemplar 2D-3D Detection by Adapting from Real to Rendered Views

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Francisco; Russell, Bryan; Aubry, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an end-to-end convolutional neural network (CNN) for 2D-3D exemplar detection. We demonstrate that the ability to adapt the features of natural images to better align with those of CAD rendered views is critical to the success of our technique. We show that the adaptation can be learned by compositing rendered views of textured object models on natural images. Our approach can be naturally incorporated into a CNN detection pipeline and extends the accuracy and speed benefi...

  17. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  18. Hardware-accelerated Point Generation and Rendering of Point-based Impostors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme for generating points from triangle models. The method is fast and lends itself well to implementation using graphics hardware. The triangle to point conversion is done by rendering the models, and the rendering may be performed procedurally or by a black box API....... I describe the technique in detail and discuss how the generated point sets can easily be used as impostors for the original triangle models used to create the points. Since the points reside solely in GPU memory, these impostors are fairly efficient. Source code is available online....

  19. Leveraging Disturbance Observer Based Torque Control for Improved Impedance Rendering with Series Elastic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Holley, James; O'Malley, Marcia K.

    2015-01-01

    The fidelity with which series elastic actuators (SEAs) render desired impedances is important. Numerous approaches to SEA impedance control have been developed under the premise that high-precision actuator torque control is a prerequisite. Indeed, the design of an inner torque compensator has a significant impact on actuator impedance rendering. The disturbance observer (DOB) based torque control implemented in NASA's Valkyrie robot is considered here and a mathematical model of this torque control, cascaded with an outer impedance compensator, is constructed. While previous work has examined the impact a disturbance observer has on torque control performance, little has been done regarding DOBs and impedance rendering accuracy. Both simulation and a series of experiments are used to demonstrate the significant improvements possible in an SEA's ability to render desired dynamic behaviors when utilizing a DOB. Actuator transparency at low impedances is improved, closed loop hysteresis is reduced, and the actuator's dynamic response to both commands and interaction torques more faithfully matches that of the desired model. All of this is achieved by leveraging DOB based control rather than increasing compensator gains, thus making improved SEA impedance control easier to achieve in practice.

  20. Photometric and Colorimeric Comparison of HDR and Spctrally Resolved Rendering Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Soreze, Thierry Silvio Claude; Thorseth, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will demonstrate a comparison between measured colorimetric images, and simulated images from a physics based rendering engine. The colorimetric images are high dynamic range (HDR) and taken with a luminance and colour camera mounted on a goniometer. For the comparison, we have ...

  1. GRAPHICS-IMAGE MIXED METHOD FOR LARGE-SCALE BUILDINGS RENDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban 3D model data is huge and unstructured, LOD and Out-of-core algorithm are usually used to reduce the amount of data that drawn in each frame to improve the rendering efficiency. When the scene is large enough, even the complex optimization algorithm is difficult to achieve better results. Based on the traditional study, a novel idea was developed. We propose a graphics and image mixed method for large-scale buildings rendering. Firstly, the view field is divided into several regions, the graphics-image mixed method used to render the scene on both screen and FBO, then blending the FBO with scree. The algorithm is tested on the huge CityGML model data in the urban areas of New York which contained 188195 public building models, and compared with the Cesium platform. The experiment result shows the system was running smoothly. The experimental results confirm that the algorithm can achieve more massive building scene roaming under the same hardware conditions, and can rendering the scene without vision loss.

  2. Advanced Audiovisual Rendering, Gesture-Based Interaction and Distributed Delivery for Immersive and Interactive Media Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamut, O.A.; Kochale, A.; Ruiz Hidalgo, J.; Macq, J-F.; Kienast, G.

    2011-01-01

    The media industry is currently being pulled in the often-opposing directions of increased realism (high resolution, stereoscopic, large screen) and personalisation (selection and control of content, availability on many devices). A capture, production, delivery and rendering system capable of

  3. An economic analysis of localized pollution: rendering emissions in a residential setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; H.F. MacDonald

    1991-01-01

    The contingent value method is employed to estimate economic damages to households resulting from rendering plant emissions in a small town. Household willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) are estimated individually and in aggregate. The influence of household characteristics on WTP and WTA is examined via regression models. The perception of health...

  4. 3D-TV Rendering on a Multiprocessor System on a Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijndhoven, J.T.J.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the issue of mapping 3D-TV rendering applications to a multiprocessor platform. The target platform aims to address tomorrow's multi-media consumer market. The prototype chip, called Wasabi, contains a set of TriMedia processors that communicate viaa shared memory, fast

  5. Dynamic Resolution in GPU-Accelerated Volume Rendering to Autostereoscopic Multiview Lenticular Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruijters

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of multiview stereoscopic images of large volume rendered data demands an enormous amount of calculations. We propose a method for hardware accelerated volume rendering of medical data sets to multiview lenticular displays, offering interactive manipulation throughout. The method is based on buffering GPU-accelerated direct volume rendered visualizations of the individual views from their respective focal spot positions, and composing the output signal for the multiview lenticular screen in a second pass. This compositing phase is facilitated by the fact that the view assignment per subpixel is static, and therefore can be precomputed. We decoupled the resolution of the individual views from the resolution of the composited signal, and adjust the resolution on-the-fly, depending on the available processing resources, in order to maintain interactive refresh rates. The optimal resolution for the volume rendered views is determined by means of an analysis of the lattice of the output signal for the lenticular screen in the Fourier domain.

  6. An Extension of Fourier-Wavelet Volume Rendering by View Interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, Michel A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an extension to Fourier-wavelet volume rendering (FWVR), which is a Fourier domain implementation of the wavelet X-ray transform. This transform combines integration along the line of sight with a simultaneous 2-D wavelet transform in the view plane perpendicular to this line.

  7. User evaluation of eight led light sources with different special colour rendering indices R9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Iversen, Anne; Logadottir, Asta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the influence of the special colour rendering index R9 on subjective red colour perception and Caucasian skin appearance among untrained test subjects. The light sources tested are commercially available LED based light sources with similar correlated colour temperature...

  8. Uniform illumination rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Rietman, R.

    2009-01-01

    An array of a large number of LEDs will be widely used in future indoor illumination systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of rendering uniform illumination by a regular LED array on the ceiling of a room. We first present two general results on the scaling property of the basic

  9. Interactive dual-volume rendering visualization with real-time fusion and transfer function enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macready, Hugh; Kim, Jinman; Feng, David; Cai, Weidong

    2006-03-01

    Dual-modality imaging scanners combining functional PET and anatomical CT constitute a challenge in volumetric visualization that can be limited by the high computational demand and expense. This study aims at providing physicians with multi-dimensional visualization tools, in order to navigate and manipulate the data running on a consumer PC. We have maximized the utilization of pixel-shader architecture of the low-cost graphic hardware and the texture-based volume rendering to provide visualization tools with high degree of interactivity. All the software was developed using OpenGL and Silicon Graphics Inc. Volumizer, tested on a Pentium mobile CPU on a PC notebook with 64M graphic memory. We render the individual modalities separately, and performing real-time per-voxel fusion. We designed a novel "alpha-spike" transfer function to interactively identify structure of interest from volume rendering of PET/CT. This works by assigning a non-linear opacity to the voxels, thus, allowing the physician to selectively eliminate or reveal information from the PET/CT volumes. As the PET and CT are rendered independently, manipulations can be applied to individual volumes, for instance, the application of transfer function to CT to reveal the lung boundary while adjusting the fusion ration between the CT and PET to enhance the contrast of a tumour region, with the resultant manipulated data sets fused together in real-time as the adjustments are made. In addition to conventional navigation and manipulation tools, such as scaling, LUT, volume slicing, and others, our strategy permits efficient visualization of PET/CT volume rendering which can potentially aid in interpretation and diagnosis.

  10. Validation of Thermal Lethality against Salmonella enterica in Poultry Offal during Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Ibarra, Amie-Marie; Acuff, Gary R; Alvarado, Christine Z; Taylor, T Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Recent outbreaks of human disease following contact with companion animal foods cross-contaminated with enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica, have resulted in increased concern regarding the microbiological safety of animal foods. Additionally, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act and its implementing rules have stipulated the implementation of current good manufacturing practices and food safety preventive controls for livestock and companion animal foods. Animal foods and feeds are sometimes formulated to include thermally rendered animal by-product meals. The objective of this research was to determine the thermal inactivation of S. enterica in poultry offal during rendering at differing temperatures. Raw poultry offal was obtained from a commercial renderer and inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella serovars Senftenberg, Enteritidis, and Gallinarum (an avian pathogen) prior to being subjected to heating at 150, 155, or 160°F (65.5, 68.3, or 71.1°C) for up to 15 min. Following heat application, surviving Salmonella bacteria were enumerated. Mean D-values for the Salmonella cocktail at 150, 155, and 160°F were 0.254 ± 0.045, 0.172 ± 0.012, and 0.086 ± 0.004 min, respectively, indicative of increasing susceptibility to increased application of heat during processing. The mean thermal process constant (z-value) was 21.948 ± 3.87°F. Results indicate that a 7.0-log-cycle inactivation of Salmonella may be obtained from the cumulative lethality encountered during the heating come-up period and subsequent rendering of raw poultry offal at temperatures not less than 150°F. Current poultry rendering procedures are anticipated to be effective for achieving necessary pathogen control when completed under sanitary conditions.

  11. Developing a Tile-Based Rendering Method to Improve Rendering Speed of 3D Geospatial Data with HTML5 and WebGL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokchan Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dedicated plug-in has been installed to visualize three-dimensional (3D city modeling spatial data in web-based applications. However, plug-in methods are gradually becoming obsolete, owing to their limited performance with respect to installation errors, unsupported cross-browsers, and security vulnerability. Particularly, in 2015, the NPAPI service was terminated in most existing web browsers except Internet Explorer. To overcome these problems, the HTML5/WebGL (next-generation web standard, confirmed in October 2014 technology emerged. In particular, WebGL is able to display 3D spatial data without plug-ins in browsers. In this study, we attempted to identify the requirements and limitations of displaying 3D city modeling spatial data using HTML5/WebGL, and we propose alternative ways based on the bin-packing algorithm that aggregates individual 3D city modeling data including buildings in tile units. The proposed method reduces the operational complexity and the number and volume of transmissions required for rendering processing to improve the speed of 3D data rendering. The proposed method was validated on real data for evaluating its effectiveness in 3D visualization of city modeling data in web-based applications.

  12. VIDEO ANIMASI 3D PENGENALAN RUMAH ADAT DAN ALAT MUSIK KEPRI DENGAN MENGUNAKAN TEKNIK RENDER CEL-SHADING

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfranco Irfian Asnawi; Afdhol Dzikri

    2016-01-01

    Animasi ini berjudul "video animasi 3D rumah adat dan alat musik Kepulauan Riau dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading" merupakan video yang bertujuan memperkenalkan alat-alat musik yang berasal dari kepulauan riau, Animasi ini akan diterapkan dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading. Cel-shading adalah teknik render yang menampilkan grafik 3D yang menyerupai gambar tangan, seperti gambar komik dan kartun. Teknik ini juga sudah di terapkan dalam game 3D yang ternyata menarik banyak ...

  13. Custom OpenStreetMap Rendering – OpenTrackMap Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bartoň

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available After 5 years of its existence, the OpenSteetMap [1] is becoming to be an important and valuable source of a geographic data for all people on the world. Although initially targeted to provide a map of cities for routing services, it can be exploited to other and often unexpected purposes. Such an utilization is an effort to map a network of hiking tracks of the Czech Tourist Club [2].  To support and apply this endeavour, the OpenTrackMap [3] project was started. Its aim is to primarily provide a customized rendering style for Mapnik renderer which emphasizes map features important to tourists and displays a layer with hiking tracks. This article presents obstacles which such project must face and it can be used as a tutorial for other projects of similar type.

  14. Rendering LGBTQ+ Visible in Nursing: Embodying the Philosophy of Caring Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lisa; Rosenburg, Neal; Watson, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Although health care institutions continue to address the importance of diversity initiatives, the standard(s) for treatment remain historically and institutionally grounded in a sociocultural privileging of heterosexuality. As a result, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) communities in health care remain largely invisible. This marked invisibility serves as a call to action, a renaissance of thinking within redefined boundaries and limitations. We must therefore refocus our habits of attention on the wholeness of persons and the diversity of their storied experiences as embodied through contemporary society. By rethinking current understandings of LGBTQ+ identities through innovative representation(s) of the media, music industry, and pop culture within a caring science philosophy, nurses have a transformative opportunity to render LGBTQ+ visible and in turn render a transformative opportunity for themselves.

  15. 3D virtual rendering in thoracoscopic treatment of congenital malformation of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destro F.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the lung (CML are rare but potentially dangerous congenital malformations. Their identification is important in order to define the most appropriate management. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 37 patients affected by CML treated in our Pediatric Surgery Unit in the last four years with minimally invasive surgery (MIS. Results: Prenatal diagnosis was possible in 26/37 patients. Surgery was performed in the first month of life in 3 symptomatic patients and between 6 and 12 months in the others. All patients underwent radiological evaluation prior to thoracoscopic surgery. Images collected were reconstructed using the VR render software. Discussion and conclusions: Volume rendering gives high anatomical resolution and it can be useful to guide the surgical procedure. Thoracoscopy should be the technique of choice because it is safe, effective and feasible. Furthermore it has the benefit of a minimal access technique and it can be easily performed in children.

  16. Volume-Rendered 3D Display Of MR Angiograms in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Hachiya, J. [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Shiokawa, Y. [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2003-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether application of a volume-rendered display of 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography could assist the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Material and Methods: Volume-rendered 3D images of postcontrast 3D time-of-flight MR angiography were compared with conventional angiograms in 12 patients. The correlation between the 3D images and the operative findings was also analyzed in 5 patients. Results: The 3D-displayed images showed all of the feeders and drainers in 10 and 9 patients, respectively. In all patients, the nidus was three-dimensionally visualized. In 3 patients with hematomas, the relationship between the hematoma and the AVM was well demonstrated. The 3D images corresponded well with the operative findings in the 5 patients. Conclusion: This method is of help in assessing the relationship between the components of an AVM as well as that between an AVM and an associated hematoma.

  17. Volume-Rendered 3D Display Of MR Angiograms in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Hachiya, J.; Shiokawa, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether application of a volume-rendered display of 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography could assist the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Material and Methods: Volume-rendered 3D images of postcontrast 3D time-of-flight MR angiography were compared with conventional angiograms in 12 patients. The correlation between the 3D images and the operative findings was also analyzed in 5 patients. Results: The 3D-displayed images showed all of the feeders and drainers in 10 and 9 patients, respectively. In all patients, the nidus was three-dimensionally visualized. In 3 patients with hematomas, the relationship between the hematoma and the AVM was well demonstrated. The 3D images corresponded well with the operative findings in the 5 patients. Conclusion: This method is of help in assessing the relationship between the components of an AVM as well as that between an AVM and an associated hematoma

  18. Pyrite: A blender plugin for visualizing molecular dynamics simulations using industry-standard rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, Nivedita; Durrant, Jacob D

    2018-05-05

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide critical insights into many biological mechanisms. Programs such as VMD, Chimera, and PyMOL can produce impressive simulation visualizations, but they lack many advanced rendering algorithms common in the film and video-game industries. In contrast, the modeling program Blender includes such algorithms but cannot import MD-simulation data. MD trajectories often require many gigabytes of memory/disk space, complicating Blender import. We present Pyrite, a Blender plugin that overcomes these limitations. Pyrite allows researchers to visualize MD simulations within Blender, with full access to Blender's cutting-edge rendering techniques. We expect Pyrite-generated images to appeal to students and non-specialists alike. A copy of the plugin is available at http://durrantlab.com/pyrite/, released under the terms of the GNU General Public License Version 3. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Moisture transport properties of brick – comparison of exposed, impregnated and rendered brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2016-01-01

    In regards to internal insulation of preservation worthy brick façades, external moisture sources, such as wind-driven rain exposure, inevitably has an impact on moisture conditions within the masonry construction. Surface treatments, such as hydrophobation or render, may remedy the impacts...... of external moisture. In the present paper the surface absorption of liquid water on masonry façades of untreated, hydrophobated and rendered brick, are determined experimentally and compared. The experimental work focuses on methods that can be applied on-site, Karsten tube measurements. These measurements...... are supplemented with results from laboratory measurements of water absorption coefficient by partial immersion. Based on obtained measurement results, simulations are made with external liquid water loads for determination of moisture conditions within the masonry of different surface treatments. Experimental...

  20. Waqf as a Tool for Rendering Social Welfare Services in the Social Entrepreneurship Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmudul Alam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Islamic entrepreneurship centers on ensuring community well-being as the priority, which is one of the important objectives (Maqasid of the Islamic Shari’ah. Historically, waqf played a significant role in the Islamic economic system, particularly in rendering exemplary welfare services in the areas of healthcare, education, social welfare, environmental, and other community-based programs. However, only a few success stories in recent history have institutionally utilized the properties of waqf under proper management to achieve its substantial objectives. This study uses the literature review as basis to analyze the reasons behind the successful utilization of waqf as an effective tool to ensure social welfare services in the past, as well as how this model can be replicated by considering current contexts. This study will assist Islamic valuecentric entrepreneurs, regulatory authorities, investors, and researchers to gain an overall insight into the potentials of waqf as a tool for rendering commendable social welfare services.

  1. Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Steffler, Eric D.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2016-11-08

    Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include a containment structure having a first compartment that is configured to receive a device therein and a movable member configured to receive a cartridge having reactant material therein. The movable member is configured to be inserted into the first compartment of the containment structure and to ignite the reactant material within the cartridge. Methods of rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include disposing the device into the first compartment of the containment structure, inserting the movable member into the first compartment of the containment structure, igniting the reactant material in the cartridge, and expelling molten metal onto the device.

  2. Subsurface Scattering-Based Object Rendering Techniques for Real-Time Smartphone Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Sun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface scattering that simulates the path of a light through the material in a scene is one of the advanced rendering techniques in the field of computer graphics society. Since it takes a number of long operations, it cannot be easily implemented in real-time smartphone games. In this paper, we propose a subsurface scattering-based object rendering technique that is optimized for smartphone games. We employ our subsurface scattering method that is utilized for a real-time smartphone game. And an example game is designed to validate how the proposed method can be operated seamlessly in real time. Finally, we show the comparison results between bidirectional reflectance distribution function, bidirectional scattering distribution function, and our proposed subsurface scattering method on a smartphone game.

  3. A Semi-automated Approach to Improve the Efficiency of Medical Imaging Segmentation for Haptic Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pat; Hu, Mengqi; Kannan, Rahul; Krishnaswamy, Srinivasan

    2017-08-01

    The Sensimmer platform represents our ongoing research on simultaneous haptics and graphics rendering of 3D models. For simulation of medical and surgical procedures using Sensimmer, 3D models must be obtained from medical imaging data, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Image segmentation techniques are used to determine the anatomies of interest from the images. 3D models are obtained from segmentation and their triangle reduction is required for graphics and haptics rendering. This paper focuses on creating 3D models by automating the segmentation of CT images based on the pixel contrast for integrating the interface between Sensimmer and medical imaging devices, using the volumetric approach, Hough transform method, and manual centering method. Hence, automating the process has reduced the segmentation time by 56.35% while maintaining the same accuracy of the output at ±2 voxels.

  4. A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Greg [Anywhere Software, Albany, CA (United States); Kurt, Murat [International Computer Institute, Ege University (Turkey); Bonneel, Nicolas [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The utilization of real-world materials has been hindered by a lack of standards for sharing and interpreting measured data. This paper presents an XML representation and an Open Source C library to support bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) in data-driven lighting simulation and rendering applications.The library provides for the efficient representation, query, and Monte Carlo sampling of arbitrary BSDFs in amodel-free framework. Currently, we support two BSDF data representations: one using a fixed subdivision of thehemisphere, and one with adaptive density. The fixed type has advantages for certain matrix operations, while theadaptive type can more accurately represent highly peaked data. We discuss advanced methods for data-drivenBSDF rendering for both types, including the proxy of detailed geometry to enhance appearance and accuracy.We also present an advanced interpolation method to reduce measured data into these standard representations.We end with our plan for future extensions and sharing of BSDF data.

  5. Detection of Prion Proteins and TSE Infectivity in the Rendering and Biodiesel Manufacture Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.; Keller, B.; Oleschuk, R. [Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    This paper addresses emerging issues related to monitoring prion proteins and TSE infectivity in the products and waste streams of rendering and biodiesel manufacture processes. Monitoring is critical to addressing the knowledge gaps identified in 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction' (IEA's AMF Annex XXX, 2006) that prevent comprehensive risk assessment of TSE infectivity in products and waste. The most important challenge for monitoring TSE risk is the wide variety of sample types, which are generated at different points in the rendering/biodiesel production continuum. Conventional transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) assays were developed for specified risk material (SRM) and other biological tissues. These, however, are insufficient to address the diverse sample matrices produced in rendering and biodiesel manufacture. This paper examines the sample types expected in rendering and biodiesel manufacture and the implications of applying TSE assay methods to them. The authors then discuss a sample preparation filtration, which has not yet been applied to these sample types, but which has the potential to provide or significantly improve TSE monitoring. The main improvement will come from transfer of the prion proteins from the sample matrix to a matrix compatible with conventional and emerging bioassays. A second improvement will come from preconcentrating the prion proteins, which means transferring proteins from a larger sample volume into a smaller volume for analysis to provide greater detection sensitivity. This filtration method may also be useful for monitoring other samples, including wash waters and other waste streams, which may contain SRM, including those from abattoirs and on-farm operations. Finally, there is a discussion of emerging mass spectrometric methods, which Prusiner and others have shown to be suitable for detection and characterisation of prion proteins (Stahl

  6. LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

    2013-09-01

    The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

  7. FluoRender: joint freehand segmentation and visualization for many-channel fluorescence data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Otsuna, Hideo; Holman, Holly A; Bagley, Brig; Ito, Masayoshi; Lewis, A Kelsey; Colasanto, Mary; Kardon, Gabrielle; Ito, Kei; Hansen, Charles

    2017-05-26

    Image segmentation and registration techniques have enabled biologists to place large amounts of volume data from fluorescence microscopy, morphed three-dimensionally, onto a common spatial frame. Existing tools built on volume visualization pipelines for single channel or red-green-blue (RGB) channels have become inadequate for the new challenges of fluorescence microscopy. For a three-dimensional atlas of the insect nervous system, hundreds of volume channels are rendered simultaneously, whereas fluorescence intensity values from each channel need to be preserved for versatile adjustment and analysis. Although several existing tools have incorporated support of multichannel data using various strategies, the lack of a flexible design has made true many-channel visualization and analysis unavailable. The most common practice for many-channel volume data presentation is still converting and rendering pseudosurfaces, which are inaccurate for both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Here, we present an alternative design strategy that accommodates the visualization and analysis of about 100 volume channels, each of which can be interactively adjusted, selected, and segmented using freehand tools. Our multichannel visualization includes a multilevel streaming pipeline plus a triple-buffer compositing technique. Our method also preserves original fluorescence intensity values on graphics hardware, a crucial feature that allows graphics-processing-unit (GPU)-based processing for interactive data analysis, such as freehand segmentation. We have implemented the design strategies as a thorough restructuring of our original tool, FluoRender. The redesign of FluoRender not only maintains the existing multichannel capabilities for a greatly extended number of volume channels, but also enables new analysis functions for many-channel data from emerging biomedical-imaging techniques.

  8. An image-based approach to the rendering of crowds in real-time

    OpenAIRE

    Tecchia, Franco

    2007-01-01

    The wide use of computer graphics in games, entertainment, medical, architectural and cultural applications, has led it to becoming a prevalent area of research. Games and entertainment in general have become one of the driving forces of the real-time computer graphics industry, bringing reasonably realistic, complex and appealing virtual worlds to the mass-market. At the current stage of technology, an user can interactively navigate through complex, polygon-based scenes rendered with sophis...

  9. Efficient Algorithms for Real-Time GPU Volumetric Cloud Rendering with Enhanced Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Jiménez de Parga; Sebastián Rubén Gómez Palomo

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents several new techniques for volumetric cloud rendering using efficient algorithms and data structures based on ray-tracing methods for cumulus generation, achieving an optimum balance between realism and performance. These techniques target applications such as flight simulations, computer games, and educational software, even with conventional graphics hardware. The contours of clouds are defined by implicit mathematical expressions or triangulated structures inside which ...

  10. Unconscious neural processing differs with method used to render stimuli invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Victor Fogelson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF. In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.

  11. Unconscious neural processing differs with method used to render stimuli invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Sergey V; Kohler, Peter J; Miller, Kevin J; Granger, Richard; Tse, Peter U

    2014-01-01

    Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS) or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF). In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.

  12. CT portography by multidetector helical CT. Comparison of three rendering models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Imuta, Masanori; Funama, Yoshinori; Kadota, Masataka; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of multidetector CT portography in visualizing varices and portosystemic collaterals in comparison with conventional portography, and to compare the visualizations obtained by three rendering models (volume rendering, VR; minimum intensity projection, MIP; and shaded surface display, SSD). A total of 46 patients with portal hypertension were examined by CT and conventional portography for evaluation of portosystemic collaterals. CT portography was performed by multidetector CT (MD-CT) scanner with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm and table feed of 7.5 mm. Three types of CT portographic models were generated and compared with transarterial portography. Among 46 patients, 48 collaterals were identified on CT transverse images, while 38 collaterals were detected on transarterial portography. Forty-four of 48 collaterals identified on CT transverse images were visualized with the MIP model, while 34 and 29 collaterals were visualized by the VR and SSD methods, respectively. The average CT value for the portal vein and varices was 198 HU with data acquisition of 50 sec after contrast material injection. CT portography by multidetector CT provides excellent images in the visualization of portosystemic collaterals. The images of collaterals produced by MD-CT are superior to those of transarterial portography. Among the three rendering techniques, MIP provides the best visualization of portosystemic collaterals. (author)

  13. One-Dimensional Haptic Rendering Using Audio Speaker with Displacement Determined by Inductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avin Khera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report overall design considerations and preliminary results for a new haptic rendering device based on an audio loudspeaker. Our application models tissue properties during microsurgery. For example, the device could respond to the tip of a tool by simulating a particular tissue, displaying a desired compressibility and viscosity, giving way as the tissue is disrupted, or exhibiting independent motion, such as that caused by pulsations in blood pressure. Although limited to one degree of freedom and with a relatively small range of displacement compared to other available haptic rendering devices, our design exhibits high bandwidth, low friction, low hysteresis, and low mass. These features are consistent with modeling interactions with delicate tissues during microsurgery. In addition, our haptic rendering device is designed to be simple and inexpensive to manufacture, in part through an innovative method of measuring displacement by existing variations in the speaker’s inductance as the voice coil moves over the permanent magnet. Low latency and jitter are achieved by running the real-time simulation models on a dedicated microprocessor, while maintaining bidirectional communication with a standard laptop computer for user controls and data logging.

  14. Forensic 3D Visualization of CT Data Using Cinematic Volume Rendering: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars C; Schweitzer, Wolf; Gascho, Dominic; Ruder, Thomas D; Flach, Patricia M; Thali, Michael J; Ampanozi, Garyfalia

    2017-02-01

    The 3D volume-rendering technique (VRT) is commonly used in forensic radiology. Its main function is to explain medical findings to state attorneys, judges, or police representatives. New visualization algorithms permit the generation of almost photorealistic volume renderings of CT datasets. The objective of this study is to present and compare a variety of radiologic findings to illustrate the differences between and the advantages and limitations of the current VRT and the physically based cinematic rendering technique (CRT). Seventy volunteers were shown VRT and CRT reconstructions of 10 different cases. They were asked to mark the findings on the images and rate them in terms of realism and understandability. A total of 48 of the 70 questionnaires were returned and included in the analysis. On the basis of most of the findings presented, CRT appears to be equal or superior to VRT with respect to the realism and understandability of the visualized findings. Overall, in terms of realism, the difference between the techniques was statistically significant (p 0.05). CRT, which is similar to conventional VRT, is not primarily intended for diagnostic radiologic image analysis, and therefore it should be used primarily as a tool to deliver visual information in the form of radiologic image reports. Using CRT for forensic visualization might have advantages over using VRT if conveying a high degree of visual realism is of importance. Most of the shortcomings of CRT have to do with the software being an early prototype.

  15. CT portography by multidetector helical CT. Comparison of three rendering models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Imuta, Masanori; Funama, Yoshinori; Kadota, Masataka; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of multidetector CT portography in visualizing varices and portosystemic collaterals in comparison with conventional portography, and to compare the visualizations obtained by three rendering models (volume rendering, VR; minimum intensity projection, MIP; and shaded surface display, SSD). A total of 46 patients with portal hypertension were examined by CT and conventional portography for evaluation of portosystemic collaterals. CT portography was performed by multidetector CT (MD-CT) scanner with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm and table feed of 7.5 mm. Three types of CT portographic models were generated and compared with transarterial portography. Among 46 patients, 48 collaterals were identified on CT transverse images, while 38 collaterals were detected on transarterial portography. Forty-four of 48 collaterals identified on CT transverse images were visualized with the MIP model, while 34 and 29 collaterals were visualized by the VR and SSD methods, respectively. The average CT value for the portal vein and varices was 198 HU with data acquisition of 50 sec after contrast material injection. CT portography by multidetector CT provides excellent images in the visualization of portosystemic collaterals. The images of collaterals produced by MD-CT are superior to those of transarterial portography. Among the three rendering techniques, MIP provides the best visualization of portosystemic collaterals. (author)

  16. Simulation and training of lumbar punctures using haptic volume rendering and a 6DOF haptic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Matthias; Heller, Julika; Handels, Heinz

    2007-03-01

    The lumbar puncture is performed by inserting a needle into the spinal chord of the patient to inject medicaments or to extract liquor. The training of this procedure is usually done on the patient guided by experienced supervisors. A virtual reality lumbar puncture simulator has been developed in order to minimize the training costs and the patient's risk. We use a haptic device with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) to feedback forces that resist needle insertion and rotation. An improved haptic volume rendering approach is used to calculate the forces. This approach makes use of label data of relevant structures like skin, bone, muscles or fat and original CT data that contributes information about image structures that can not be segmented. A real-time 3D visualization with optional stereo view shows the punctured region. 2D visualizations of orthogonal slices enable a detailed impression of the anatomical context. The input data consisting of CT and label data and surface models of relevant structures is defined in an XML file together with haptic rendering and visualization parameters. In a first evaluation the visible human male data has been used to generate a virtual training body. Several users with different medical experience tested the lumbar puncture trainer. The simulator gives a good haptic and visual impression of the needle insertion and the haptic volume rendering technique enables the feeling of unsegmented structures. Especially, the restriction of transversal needle movement together with rotation constraints enabled by the 6DOF device facilitate a realistic puncture simulation.

  17. A Single Swede Midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Larva Can Render Cauliflower Unmarketable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Chase A; Hodgdon, Elisabeth A; Zuckerman, Samuel G; Shelton, Anthony M; Chen, Yolanda H

    2018-05-01

    Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is an invasive pest causing significant damage on Brassica crops in the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. Heading brassicas, like cauliflower, appear to be particularly susceptible. Swede midge is difficult to control because larvae feed concealed inside meristematic tissues of the plant. In order to develop damage and marketability thresholds necessary for integrated pest management, it is important to determine how many larvae render plants unmarketable and whether the timing of infestation affects the severity of damage. We manipulated larval density (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20) per plant and the timing of infestation (30, 55, and 80 d after seeding) on cauliflower in the lab and field to answer the following questions: 1) What is the swede midge damage threshold? 2) How many swede midge larvae can render cauliflower crowns unmarketable? and 3) Does the age of cauliflower at infestation influence the severity of damage and marketability? We found that even a single larva can cause mild twisting and scarring in the crown rendering cauliflower unmarketable 52% of the time, with more larvae causing more severe damage and additional losses, regardless of cauliflower age at infestation.

  18. Adaptive B-spline volume representation of measured BRDF data for photorealistic rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measured bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF data have been used to represent complex interaction between lights and surface materials for photorealistic rendering. However, their massive size makes it hard to adopt them in practical rendering applications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive method for B-spline volume representation of measured BRDF data. It basically performs approximate B-spline volume lofting, which decomposes the problem into three sub-problems of multiple B-spline curve fitting along u-, v-, and w-parametric directions. Especially, it makes the efficient use of knots in the multiple B-spline curve fitting and thereby accomplishes adaptive knot placement along each parametric direction of a resulting B-spline volume. The proposed method is quite useful to realize efficient data reduction while smoothing out the noises and keeping the overall features of BRDF data well. By applying the B-spline volume models of real materials for rendering, we show that the B-spline volume models are effective in preserving the features of material appearance and are suitable for representing BRDF data.

  19. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds.

  20. The lime renderings from plaza de la Corredera, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, T.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The causes of the pathologies found on the lime renderings from Plaza de la Corredera façades are analysed in this study. For this purpose, the mineralogical and chemical analyses of the building materials -brickwork and rendering mortar- has been carried out, as well as their physical, hydric and mechanical properties have been determined. The obtained results from both unaltered and altered materials, and the analysis of the rendering's raw materials, have allowed us to establish that rendering deterioration is connected to the presence of saline compounds (gypsum, halite, which existing in the brickwork substratum, have been removed due to the water saturation of such brickwork. The main cause responsible of the alteration forms - efflorescence, crusts, grain-disintegration, bulging, flaking found on the renderings, has been the salts precipitation (halite, hexahydrite, epsomite in their way towards the external surface.

    En este estudio se analizan las causas de las patologías de los revocos de cal de las fachadas de la Plaza de la Corredera. Para ello se ha realizado el análisis mineralógico y químico de los materiales de construcción - fábrica de ladrillo y mortero de revestimiento- y se han determinado sus propiedades físicas, hídricas y mecánicas. Mediante la comparación de los resultados obtenidos en los materiales inalterados y en los alterados, así como una vez analizadas las materias primas utilizadas en la realización del revoco, se ha podido establecer que la alteración de este último está relacionada con la existencia de compuestos salinos (yeso, halita que, presentes en el substrato de fábrica de ladrillo, se han exudado por saturación de agua de la misma. La precipitación de las sales (halita, hexahidrita, epsomita en su migración hacia el exterior ha sido la principal responsable de las formas de alteración -eflorescencias, costras, arenización, abombamientos, descamaciones- que aparecen sobre los

  1. Visualization of normal and abnormal inner ear with volume rendering technique using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hui; Han Ping; Liang Bo; Lei Ziqiao; Liu Fang; Tian Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of the volume rendering technique to display the normal and abnormal inner ear structures. Methods: Forty normal earand 61 abnormal inner ears (40 congenital inner ear malformations, 7 labyrinthitis ossificans, and 14 inner ear erosion caused by cholesteatomas) were examined with a MSCT scanner. Axial imaging were performed using the following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm slice thickness, a pitch factor of 1. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment and a FOV of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique on the workstation. Results: In the subjects without ear disorders a high quality 3D visualization of the inner ear could be achieved. In the patients with inner ear' disorders all inner ear malformations could be clearly displayed on 3D images as follows: (1) Michel deformity (one ear): There was complete absence of all cochlear and vestibular structures. (2) common cavity deformity (3 ears): The cochlea and vestibule were represented by a cystic cavity and couldn't be differentiated from each other. (3)incomplete partition type I (3 ears): The cochlea lacked the entire modiolus and cribriform area, resulting in a cystic appearance. (4) incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears): The cochlea consisted of 1.5 turns, in which the middle and apical turns coalesced to form a cystic apex. (5) vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears): Cochlea was normal, vestibule dilated, semicircular canals were absent, hypoplastic or enlarged. (6) dilated vestibular aqueduct (14 ears): The vestibular aqueduct was bell-mouthed. In 7 patients with labyrinthifis ossificans, 3D images failed to clearly show the completeinner ears in 4 ears because of too high ossifications in the membranous labyrinth. In the other 3 ears volume rendering could display the thin cochlea basal turn and the intermittent semicircular canals. In the patients

  2. VIDEO ANIMASI 3D PENGENALAN RUMAH ADAT DAN ALAT MUSIK KEPRI DENGAN MENGUNAKAN TEKNIK RENDER CEL-SHADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfranco Irfian Asnawi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Animasi ini berjudul "video animasi 3D rumah adat dan alat musik Kepulauan Riau dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading" merupakan video yang bertujuan memperkenalkan alat-alat musik yang berasal dari kepulauan riau, Animasi ini akan diterapkan dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading. Cel-shading adalah teknik render yang menampilkan grafik 3D yang menyerupai gambar tangan, seperti gambar komik dan kartun. Teknik ini juga sudah di terapkan dalam game 3D yang ternyata menarik banyak perhatian peminat. Teknik ini akan di terapkan kedalam animasi 3D "video animasi rumah adat dan alat musik kepulauan riau dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading" Animasi di rancang menggunakan skenario dan storyboard kemudian di implementasikan dalam software 3D MAYA AUTODESK dengan menggunakan teknik render cel-shading. Setelah diterapkan maka di dapatkan definisi keberhasilan dari teknik render cel shading di bandingkan dengan teknik render global illumination seperti dari kecepatan dalam merender dan tingkat kecerahan warna pada video. Kata kunci: animasi, game 3D, cel-shading.

  3. Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slapa Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR, applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v. 8.2. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of thyroid cancers identified by 3D ultrasound include: (a ill-defined borders of the nodule on MPR presentation, (b a lobulated shape of the nodule in the c-plane and (c a density of central vessels in the nodule within the minimal or maximal ranges. Combination of features provided sensitivity 100% and specificity 60-69% for thyroid cancer. Calcification/microcalcification-like echogenic foci on 3D ultrasound proved not to be a risk factor of thyroid cancer. Storage of the 3D data of the whole nodules enabled subsequent evaluation of new parameters and with new rendering algorithms. Conclusions Our results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. 3D ultrasound stores volumes comprising the whole lesion or organ. Future detailed evaluations of the data are possible, looking for features that were not fully appreciated at the time of collection or applying new algorithms for volume rendering in order to gain important information. Three-dimensional ultrasound data could be included in thyroid cancer databases. Further multicenter large scale studies are warranted.

  4. A Case Study of a Hybrid Parallel 3D Surface Rendering Graphics Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the design strategy used inbuilding a graphics computer, for drawing very complex 3Dgeometric surfaces. The goal is to build a PC based computer systemcapable of handling surfaces built from about 2 million triangles, andto be able to render a perspective view...... of these on a computer displayat interactive frame rates, i.e. processing around 50 milliontriangles per second. The paper presents a hardware/softwarearchitecture called HPGA (Hybrid Parallel Graphics Architecture) whichis likely to be able to carry out this task. The case study focuses ontechniques to increase...

  5. Three-dimensional rendering of otolith growth using phase contrast synchrotron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, J J I; Fisher, M H; Atwood, R C; Bell, G D; Greco, M K; Songer, S; Hunter, E

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional computer reconstruction of a plaice Pleuronectes platessa otolith is presented from data acquired by the Diamond Light synchrotron, beamline I12, X-ray source, a high energy (53-150 keV) source particularly well suited to the study of dense objects. The data allowed non-destructive rendering of otolith structure, and for the first time allows otolith annuli (internal ring structures) to be analysed in X-ray tomographic images. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. [Rendering surgical care to wounded with neck wounds in an armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, I M; Zavrazhnov, A A; Fakhrutdinov, A M; Sychev, M I

    2001-10-01

    The results of rendering of the medical care (the first aid, qualified and specialized) obtained in 172 servicemen with neck injuries who stayed in Republic of Chechnya during the period from 09.08.1999 to 28.07.2000 were analyzed. Basing on the results of analysis and experience of casualties' treatment the authors discuss the problems of sequence and volume of surgical care in this group of casualties with reference to available medical evacuation system, surgical tactics at the stage of specialized care. They also consider the peculiarities of operative treatment of the casualties with neck injuries.

  7. Experimental and rendering-based investigation of laser radar cross sections of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Bacher, Emmanuel; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Laser imaging systems are prominent candidates for detection and tracking of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in current and future security scenarios. Laser reflection characteristics for laser imaging (e.g., laser gated viewing) of small UAVs are investigated to determine their laser radar cross section (LRCS) by analyzing the intensity distribution of laser reflection in high resolution images. For the first time, LRCSs are determined in a combined experimental and computational approaches by high resolution laser gated viewing and three-dimensional rendering. An optimized simple surface model is calculated taking into account diffuse and specular reflectance properties based on the Oren-Nayar and the Cook-Torrance reflectance models, respectively.

  8. Peeling tests for assessing the cohesion and consolidation characteristics of mortar and render surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Lesák, Jaroslav; Niedoba, Krzysztof; Valach, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2015), s. 1947-1963 ISSN 1359-5997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : peeling test * rendered surface * surface consolidation * cohesion * non-destructive testing Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1617/s11527-014-0285-8

  9. Semiconductive 3-D haloplumbate framework hybrids with high color rendering index white-light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-E; Xu, Gang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Cai, Li-Zhen; Li, Wen-Hua; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2015-12-01

    Single-component white light materials may create great opportunities for novel conventional lighting applications and display systems; however, their reported color rendering index (CRI) values, one of the key parameters for lighting, are less than 90, which does not satisfy the demand of color-critical upmarket applications, such as photography, cinematography, and art galleries. In this work, two semiconductive chloroplumbate (chloride anion of lead(ii)) hybrids, obtained using a new inorganic-organic hybrid strategy, show unprecedented 3-D inorganic framework structures and white-light-emitting properties with high CRI values around 90, one of which shows the highest value to date.

  10. Use of multidetector row CT with volume renderings in right lobe living liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishifuro, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Kushima, Toshio; Horiguchi, Jun; Nakashige, Aya; Tamura, Akihisa; Marukawa, Kazushi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ono, Chiaki; Ito, Katsuhide

    2002-01-01

    Multidetector row CT is a feasible diagnostic tool in pre- and postoperative liver partial transplantation. We can assess vascular anatomy and liver parenchyma as well as volumetry, which provide useful information for both donor selection and surgical planning. Disorders of the vascular and biliary systems are carefully observed in recipients. In addition, we evaluate liver regeneration of both the donor and the recipient by serial volumetry. We present how multidetector row CT with state-of-the-art three-dimensional volume renderings may be used in right lobe liver transplantation. (orig.)

  11. Uniform illumination rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Rietman, R.

    2009-01-01

    An array of a large number of LEDs will be widely used in future indoor illumination systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of rendering uniform illumination by a regular LED array on the ceiling of a room. We first present two general results on the scaling property of the basic illumination pattern, i.e., the light pattern of a single LED, and the setting of LED illumination levels, respectively. Thereafter, we propose to use the relative mean squared error as the cost function ...

  12. Development of volume rendering module for real-time visualization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Takayuki; Muramatsu, Kazuhiro

    2000-03-01

    Volume rendering is a method to visualize the distribution of physical quantities in the three dimensional space from any viewpoint by tracing the ray direction on the ordinary two dimensional monitoring display. It enables to provide the interior information as well as the surfacial one by producing the translucent images. Therefore, it is regarded as a very useful means as well as an important one in the analysis of the computational results of the scientific calculations, although it has, unfortunately, disadvantage to need a large amount of computing time. This report describes algorithm and its performance of the volume rendering soft-ware which was developed as an important functional module in the real-time visualization system PATRAS. This module can directly visualize the computed results on BFC grid. Moreover, it has already realized the speed-up in some parts of the software by the use of a newly developed heuristic technique. This report includes the investigation on the speed-up of the software by parallel processing. (author)

  13. State of the Art in Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Ljung, Patric; Krü ger, Jens; Groller, Eduard; Hadwiger, Markus; Hansen, Charles D.; Ynnerman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A central topic in scientific visualization is the transfer function (TF) for volume rendering. The TF serves a fundamental role in translating scalar and multivariate data into color and opacity to express and reveal the relevant features present in the data studied. Beyond this core functionality, TFs also serve as a tool for encoding and utilizing domain knowledge and as an expression for visual design of material appearances. TFs also enable interactive volumetric exploration of complex data. The purpose of this state-of-the-art report (STAR) is to provide an overview of research into the various aspects of TFs, which lead to interpretation of the underlying data through the use of meaningful visual representations. The STAR classifies TF research into the following aspects: dimensionality, derived attributes, aggregated attributes, rendering aspects, automation, and user interfaces. The STAR concludes with some interesting research challenges that form the basis of an agenda for the development of next generation TF tools and methodologies. © 2016 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2016 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluating Approaches to Rendering Braille Text on a High-Density Pin Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash, Valerie S; Russomanno, Alexander; Gillespie, R Brent; OModhrain, Sile

    2017-10-13

    Refreshable displays for tactile graphics are typically composed of pins that have smaller diameters and spacing than standard braille dots. We investigated configurations of high-density pins to form braille text on such displays using non-refreshable stimuli produced with a 3D printer. Normal dot braille (diameter 1.5 mm) was compared to high-density dot braille (diameter 0.75 mm) wherein each normal dot was rendered by high-density simulated pins alone or in a cluster of pins configured in a diamond, X, or square; and to "blobs" that could result from covering normal braille and high-density multi-pin configurations with a thin membrane. Twelve blind participants read MNREAD sentences displayed in these conditions. For high-density simulated pins, single pins were as quickly and easily read as normal braille, but diamond, X, and square multi-pin configurations were slower and/or harder to read than normal braille. We therefore conclude that as long as center-to-center dot spacing and dot placement is maintained, the dot diameter may be open to variability for rendering braille on a high density tactile display.

  15. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of rendering plant and slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayr, Suvi; Rantanen, Marianne; Kaparaju, Prasad; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    Co-digestion of rendering and slaughterhouse wastes was studied in laboratory scale semi-continuously fed continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 35 and 55 °C. All in all, 10 different rendering plant and slaughterhouse waste fractions were characterised showing high contents of lipids and proteins, and methane potentials of 262-572 dm(3)CH(4)/kg volatile solids(VS)(added). In mesophilic CSTR methane yields of ca 720 dm(3) CH(4)/kg VS(fed) were obtained with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.0 and 1.5 kg VS/m(3) d, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d. For thermophilic process, the lowest studied OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m(3) d, turned to be unstable after operation of 1.5 HRT, due to accumulating ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and probably also long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In conclusion, mesophilic process was found to be more feasible for co-digestion than thermophilic process, methane yields being higher and process more stable in mesophilic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical application of three-dimensional spiral CT cerebral angiography with volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaoyin; Huang Xi'en; Kang Jianghe; Zhang Dantong; Lin Qingchi; Cai Guoxiang; Xu Meixin; Pang Ruilin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology and assess the clinical value of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) with volume rendering (VR) in cerebral vessels. Methods: Sixty-two patients were examined by means of 3D-CTA with volume rendering. VR was used in the reconstruction of 3D images, and the demonstration of normal vessels and vascular lesions were particularly analyzed. At the same time, comparisons were made between the images of VR and SSD, MIP, and also between the diagnosis of VR-CTA and DSA or postoperative results. Results: In VR images, cerebral vessel routes and vessel cavities were showed clearly, while the relationship among vascular lesions, surrounding vessels, and neighboring structure was distinguished. 50 cases (80.6%) were found positive, 48 of which were correct and 2 were false-positive compared with DSA or postoperative results. The accurate rate of diagnosis was 96.0%. There was no obvious difference in showing the cerebral vessel among the images of VR, SSD and MIP (P > 0.25). Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT cerebral angiography with VR is a new noninvasive effective method. It can even partly replace the DSA. The 3D-images have the characteristics of showing the cerebral vascular cavity and overlapped vessels without cutting the skull

  17. INCREASING SAVING BEHAVIOR THROUGH AGE-PROGRESSED RENDERINGS OF THE FUTURE SELF

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERSHFIELD, HAL E.; GOLDSTEIN, DANIEL G.; SHARPE, WILLIAM F.; FOX, JESSE; YEYKELIS, LEO; CARSTENSEN, LAURA L.; BAILENSON, JEREMY N.

    2014-01-01

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones. PMID:24634544

  18. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering Architectures, Techniques and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yin; Yu, Lu; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Riding on the success of 3D cinema blockbusters and advances in stereoscopic display technology, 3D video applications have gathered momentum in recent years. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering: Architectures, Techniques and Challenges surveys depth-image-based 3D-TV systems, which are expected to be put into applications in the near future. Depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) significantly enhances the 3D visual experience compared to stereoscopic systems currently in use. DIBR techniques make it possible to generate additional viewpoints using 3D warping techniques to adjust the perceived depth of stereoscopic videos and provide for auto-stereoscopic displays that do not require glasses for viewing the 3D image.   The material includes a technical review and literature survey of components and complete systems, solutions for technical issues, and implementation of prototypes. The book is organized into four sections: System Overview, Content Generation, Data Compression and Transmission, and 3D V...

  19. INCREASING SAVING BEHAVIOR THROUGH AGE-PROGRESSED RENDERINGS OF THE FUTURE SELF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershfield, Hal E; Goldstein, Daniel G; Sharpe, William F; Fox, Jesse; Yeykelis, Leo; Carstensen, Laura L; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2011-11-01

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.

  20. Virtual endoscopy and 3D volume rendering in the management of frontal sinus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belina, Stanko; Cuk, Viseslav; Klapan, Ivica

    2009-12-01

    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are commonly caused by traffic accidents, assaults, industrial accidents and gunshot wounds. Classical roentgenography has high proportion of false negative findings in cases of FSF and is not particularly useful in examining the severity of damage to the frontal sinus posterior table and the nasofrontal duct region. High resolution computed tomography was inavoidable during the management of such patients but it may produce large quantity of 2D images. Postprocessing of datasets acquired by high resolution computer tomography from patients with severe head trauma may offer a valuable additional help in diagnostics and surgery planning. We performed virtual endoscopy (VE) and 3D volume rendering (3DVR) on high resolution CT data acquired from a 54-year-old man with with both anterior and posterior frontal sinus wall fracture in order to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Data acquisition was done by Siemens Somatom Emotion scanner and postprocessing was performed with Syngo 2006G software. VE and 3DVR were performed in a man who suffered blunt trauma to his forehead and nose in an traffic accident. Left frontal sinus anterior wall fracture without dislocation and fracture of tabula interna with dislocation were found. 3D position and orientation of fracture lines were shown in by 3D rendering software. We concluded that VE and 3DVR can clearly display the anatomic structure of the paranasal sinuses and nasopharyngeal cavity, revealing damage to the sinus wall caused by a fracture and its relationship to surrounding anatomical structures.

  1. Radionuclide cisternography: SPECT and 3D-rendering. Radionuklidzisternographie: SPECT- und 3D-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkes, H; Huber, G; Piepgras, U [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hierholzer, J [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Cordes, M [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Belzberg Lab. of Neuroscience

    1991-10-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is indicated in the clinical work-up for hydrocephalus, when searching for CSF leaks, and when testing whether or not intracranial cystic lesions are communicating with the adjacent subarachnoid space. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and diagnostic value of SPECT and subsequent 3D surface rendering in addition to conventional rectilinear CSF imaging in eight patients. Planar images allowed the evaluation of CSF circulation and the detection of CSF fistula. They were advantageous in examinations 48 h after application of {sup 111}In-DTPA. SPECT scans, generated 4-24 h after tracer application, were superior in the delineation of basal cisterns, especially in early scans; this was helpful in patients with pooling due to CSF fistula and in cystic lesions near the skull base. A major drawback was the limited image quality of delayed scans, when the SPECT data were degraded by a low count rate. 3D surface rendering was easily feasible from SPECT data and yielded high quality images. The presentation of the spatial distribution of nuclide-contaminated CSF proved especially helpful in the area of the basal cisterns. (orig.).

  2. Ethylene signaling renders the jasmonate response of Arabidopsis insensitive to future suppression by salicylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Du, Yujuan; Koornneef, Annemart; Proietti, Silvia; Körbes, Ana P; Memelink, Johan; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ritsema, Tita

    2010-02-01

    Cross-talk between jasmonate (JA), ethylene (ET), and Salicylic acid (SA) signaling is thought to operate as a mechanism to fine-tune induced defenses that are activated in response to multiple attackers. Here, 43 Arabidopsis genotypes impaired in hormone signaling or defense-related processes were screened for their ability to express SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Mutant cev1, which displays constitutive expression of JA and ET responses, appeared to be insensitive to SA-mediated suppression of the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Accordingly, strong activation of JA and ET responses by the necrotrophic pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola prior to SA treatment counteracted the ability of SA to suppress the JA response. Pharmacological assays, mutant analysis, and studies with the ET-signaling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene revealed that ET signaling renders the JA response insensitive to subsequent suppression by SA. The APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factor ORA59, which regulates JA/ET-responsive genes such as PDF1.2, emerged as a potential mediator in this process. Collectively, our results point to a model in which simultaneous induction of the JA and ET pathway renders the plant insensitive to future SA-mediated suppression of JA-dependent defenses, which may prioritize the JA/ET pathway over the SA pathway during multi-attacker interactions.

  3. Signal Processing Implementation and Comparison of Automotive Spatial Sound Rendering Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai MingsianR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and implementation strategies of spatial sound rendering are investigated in this paper for automotive scenarios. Six design methods are implemented for various rendering modes with different number of passengers. Specifically, the downmixing algorithms aimed at balancing the front and back reproductions are developed for the 5.1-channel input. Other five algorithms based on inverse filtering are implemented in two approaches. The first approach utilizes binaural (Head-Related Transfer Functions HRTFs measured in the car interior, whereas the second approach named the point-receiver model targets a point receiver positioned at the center of the passenger's head. The proposed processing algorithms were compared via objective and subjective experiments under various listening conditions. Test data were processed by the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA method and the least significant difference (Fisher's LSD method as a post hoc test to justify the statistical significance of the experimental data. The results indicate that inverse filtering algorithms are preferred for the single passenger mode. For the multipassenger mode, however, downmixing algorithms generally outperformed the other processing techniques.

  4. Complex adaptation-based LDR image rendering for 3D image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Hyuk-Ju; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

    2014-07-01

    A low-dynamic tone-compression technique is developed for realistic image rendering that can make three-dimensional (3D) images similar to realistic scenes by overcoming brightness dimming in the 3D display mode. The 3D surround provides varying conditions for image quality, illuminant adaptation, contrast, gamma, color, sharpness, and so on. In general, gain/offset adjustment, gamma compensation, and histogram equalization have performed well in contrast compression; however, as a result of signal saturation and clipping effects, image details are removed and information is lost on bright and dark areas. Thus, an enhanced image mapping technique is proposed based on space-varying image compression. The performance of contrast compression is enhanced with complex adaptation in a 3D viewing surround combining global and local adaptation. Evaluating local image rendering in view of tone and color expression, noise reduction, and edge compensation confirms that the proposed 3D image-mapping model can compensate for the loss of image quality in the 3D mode.

  5. In Vivo CT Direct Volume Rendering: A Three-Dimensional Anatomical Description of the Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Bruschetta, Daniele; Trimarchi, Fabio; Cacciola, Alberto; Cinquegrani, Maria; Duca, Antonio; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Alati, Emanuela; Gaeta, Michele; Milardi, Demetrio

    2016-01-01

    Since cardiac anatomy continues to play an important role in the practice of medicine and in the development of medical devices, the study of the heart in three dimensions is particularly useful to understand its real structure, function and proper location in the body. This study demonstrates a fine use of direct volume rendering, processing the data set images obtained by Computed Tomography (CT) of the heart of 5 subjects with age range between 18 and 42 years (2 male, 3 female), with no history of any overt cardiac disease. The cardiac structure in CT images was first extracted from the thorax by marking manually the regions of interest on the computer, and then it was stacked to create new volumetric data. The use of a specific algorithm allowed us to observe with a good perception of depth the heart and the skeleton of the thorax at the same time. Besides, in all examined subjects, it was possible to depict its structure and its position within the body and to study the integrity of papillary muscles, the fibrous tissue of cardiac valve and chordae tendineae and the course of coronary arteries. Our results demonstrated that one of the greatest advantages of algorithmic modifications of direct volume rendering parameters is that this method provides much necessary information in a single radiologic study. It implies a better accuracy in the study of the heart, being complementary to other diagnostic methods and facilitating the therapeutic plans

  6. Efficient Algorithms for Real-Time GPU Volumetric Cloud Rendering with Enhanced Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jiménez de Parga

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several new techniques for volumetric cloud rendering using efficient algorithms and data structures based on ray-tracing methods for cumulus generation, achieving an optimum balance between realism and performance. These techniques target applications such as flight simulations, computer games, and educational software, even with conventional graphics hardware. The contours of clouds are defined by implicit mathematical expressions or triangulated structures inside which volumetric rendering is performed. Novel techniques are used to reproduce the asymmetrical nature of clouds and the effects of light-scattering, with low computing costs. The work includes a new method to create randomized fractal clouds using a recursive grammar. The graphical results are comparable to those produced by state-of-the-art, hyper-realistic algorithms. These methods provide real-time performance, and are superior to particle-based systems. These outcomes suggest that our methods offer a good balance between realism and performance, and are suitable for use in the standard graphics industry.

  7. 3D cinematic rendering of the calvarium, maxillofacial structures, and skull base: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Steven P; Zinreich, S James; Fishman, Elliot K

    2018-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualizations of volumetric data from CT have gained widespread clinical acceptance and are an important method for evaluating complex anatomy and pathology. Recently, cinematic rendering (CR), a new 3D visualization methodology, has become available. CR utilizes a lighting model that allows for the production of photorealistic images from isotropic voxel data. Given how new this technique is, studies to evaluate its clinical utility and any potential advantages or disadvantages relative to other 3D methods such as volume rendering have yet to be published. In this pictorial review, we provide examples of normal calvarial, maxillofacial, and skull base anatomy and pathological conditions that highlight the potential for CR images to aid in patient evaluation and treatment planning. The highly detailed images and nuanced shadowing that are intrinsic to CR are well suited to the display of the complex anatomy in this region of the body. We look forward to studies with CR that will ascertain the ultimate value of this methodology to evaluate calvarium, maxillofacial, and skull base morphology as well as other complex anatomic structures.

  8. State of the Art in Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Ljung, Patric

    2016-07-04

    A central topic in scientific visualization is the transfer function (TF) for volume rendering. The TF serves a fundamental role in translating scalar and multivariate data into color and opacity to express and reveal the relevant features present in the data studied. Beyond this core functionality, TFs also serve as a tool for encoding and utilizing domain knowledge and as an expression for visual design of material appearances. TFs also enable interactive volumetric exploration of complex data. The purpose of this state-of-the-art report (STAR) is to provide an overview of research into the various aspects of TFs, which lead to interpretation of the underlying data through the use of meaningful visual representations. The STAR classifies TF research into the following aspects: dimensionality, derived attributes, aggregated attributes, rendering aspects, automation, and user interfaces. The STAR concludes with some interesting research challenges that form the basis of an agenda for the development of next generation TF tools and methodologies. © 2016 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2016 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pulmonary nodules: sensitivity of maximum intensity projection versus that of volume rendering of 3D multidetector CT data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peloschek, Philipp; Sailer, Johannes; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian J.; Prokop, Mathias; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively compare maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) of multidetector computed tomographic (CT) data for the detection of small intrapulmonary nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved prospective study included 20 oncology

  10. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayr, S.; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH 3 inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N and/or free NH 3 ) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm 3 /kg VS fed . On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm 3 /kg VS fed ). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials

  11. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  12. [Hybrid 3-D rendering of the thorax and surface-based virtual bronchoscopy in surgical and interventional therapy control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, M D; Gebicke, K; Luboldt, W; Albes, J M; Vollmar, J; Schäfer, J F; Beinert, T; Englmeier, K H; Bitzer, M; Claussen, C D

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possibilities of a hybrid rendering method, the combination of a color-coded surface and volume rendering method, with the feasibility of performing surface-based virtual endoscopy with different representation models in the operative and interventional therapy control of the chest. In 6 consecutive patients with partial lung resection (n = 2) and lung transplantation (n = 4) a thin-section spiral computed tomography of the chest was performed. The tracheobronchial system and the introduced metallic stents were visualized using a color-coded surface rendering method. The remaining thoracic structures were visualized using a volume rendering method. For virtual bronchoscopy, the tracheobronchial system was visualized using a triangle surface model, a shaded-surface model and a transparent shaded-surface model. The hybrid 3D visualization uses the advantages of both the color-coded surface and volume rendering methods and facilitates a clear representation of the tracheobronchial system and the complex topographical relationship of morphological and pathological changes without loss of diagnostic information. Performing virtual bronchoscopy with the transparent shaded-surface model facilitates a reasonable to optimal, simultaneous visualization and assessment of the surface structure of the tracheobronchial system and the surrounding mediastinal structures and lesions. Hybrid rendering relieve the morphological assessment of anatomical and pathological changes without the need for time-consuming detailed analysis and presentation of source images. Performing virtual bronchoscopy with a transparent shaded-surface model offers a promising alternative to flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy.

  13. Real-time 3-dimensional fetal echocardiography with an instantaneous volume-rendered display: early description and pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark S; DeVore, Greggory R; Wong, Pierre C

    2004-02-01

    Random fetal motion, rapid fetal heart rates, and cumbersome processing algorithms have limited reconstructive approaches to 3-dimensional fetal cardiac imaging. Given the recent development of real-time, instantaneous volume-rendered sonographic displays of volume data, we sought to apply this technology to fetal cardiac imaging. We obtained 1 to 6 volume data sets on each of 30 fetal hearts referred for formal fetal echocardiography. Each volume data set was acquired over 2 to 8 seconds and stored on the system's hard drive. Rendered images were subsequently processed to optimize translucency, smoothing, and orientation and cropped to reveal "surgeon's eye views" of clinically relevant anatomic structures. Qualitative comparison was made with conventional fetal echocardiography for each subject. Volume-rendered displays identified all major abnormalities but failed to identify small ventricular septal defects in 2 patients. Important planes and views not visualized during the actual scans were generated with minimal processing of rendered image displays. Volume-rendered displays tended to have slightly inferior image quality compared with conventional 2-dimensional images. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography with instantaneous volume-rendered displays of the fetal heart represents a new approach to fetal cardiac imaging with tremendous clinical potential.

  14. A Screen Space GPGPU Surface LIC Algorithm for Distributed Memory Data Parallel Sort Last Rendering Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen; Karimabadi, Homa; Rortershteyn, Vadim

    2014-07-01

    The surface line integral convolution(LIC) visualization technique produces dense visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces. We present a screen space surface LIC algorithm for use in distributed memory data parallel sort last rendering infrastructures. The motivations for our work are to support analysis of datasets that are too large to fit in the main memory of a single computer and compatibility with prevalent parallel scientific visualization tools such as ParaView and VisIt. By working in screen space using OpenGL we can leverage the computational power of GPUs when they are available and run without them when they are not. We address efficiency and performance issues that arise from the transformation of data from physical to screen space by selecting an alternate screen space domain decomposition. We analyze the algorithm's scaling behavior with and without GPUs on two high performance computing systems using data from turbulent plasma simulations.

  15. MRI of the labyrinth with volume rendering for cochlear implants candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Motomichi; Harada, Kuniaki; Shirase, Ryuji; Suzuki, Junpei; Nagahama, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated three-dimensional models of the labyrinth by volume rendering (VR) in preoperative assessment for cochlear implantation. MRI data sets were acquired in selected subjects using three-dimensional-fast spin echo sequences (3D-FSE). We produced the three-dimensional models of the labyrinth from axial heavily T2-weighted images. The three-dimensional models distinguished the scala tympani and scala vestibuli and provided multidirectional images. The optimal threshold three-dimensional models clearly showed the focal region of signal loss in the cochlear turns (47.1%) and the presence of inner ear anomalies (17.3%) in our series of patients. This study was concluded that these three-dimensional models by VR provide the oto-surgeon with precise, detailed, and easily interpreted information about the cochlear turns for cochlear implants candidates. (author)

  16. Screen Space Ambient Occlusion Based Multiple Importance Sampling for Real-Time Rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerari, Abd El Mouméne; Babahenini, Mohamed Chaouki

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new approximation technique for accelerating the Global Illumination algorithm for real-time rendering. The proposed approach is based on the Screen-Space Ambient Occlusion (SSAO) method, which approximates the global illumination for large, fully dynamic scenes at interactive frame rates. Current algorithms that are based on the SSAO method suffer from difficulties due to the large number of samples that are required. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the SSAO technique by integrating it with a Multiple Importance Sampling technique that combines a stratified sampling method with an importance sampling method, with the objective of reducing the number of samples. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our technique can produce high-quality images in real time and is significantly faster than traditional techniques.

  17. Rendering Intelligence at Physical Layer for Smart Addressing and Multiple Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, Rajarshi; Prasad, Ramjee; Cianca, Ernestina

    2010-01-01

    addressing of a node. For a typical closed user group type of network, we propose a multiple access mechanism and network topology which will not only eliminate the need of intelligent core network equipments in the network area , but to use this intelligent physical layer to directly reach any node over......The primary objective of this work is to propose a technique of wireless communication, where we render intelligence to the physical layer. We aim to realize a physical layer that can take part in some processes which is otherwise confined to higher layer signalling activities, like for example...... the fundamentals behind the proposed multiple access scheme and draws out the benefits compared to the existing multiple access processes based on cellular approach....

  18. Chromium: A Stress-Processing Framework for Interactive Rendering on Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, G.; Houston, M.; Ng, Y.-R.; Frank, R.; Ahern, S.; Kirchner, P.D.; Klosowski, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    We describe Chromium, a system for manipulating streams of graphics API commands on clusters of workstations. Chromium's stream filters can be arranged to create sort-first and sort-last parallel graphics architectures that, in many cases, support the same applications while using only commodity graphics accelerators. In addition, these stream filters can be extended programmatically, allowing the user to customize the stream transformations performed by nodes in a cluster. Because our stream processing mechanism is completely general, any cluster-parallel rendering algorithm can be either implemented on top of or embedded in Chromium. In this paper, we give examples of real-world applications that use Chromium to achieve good scalability on clusters of workstations, and describe other potential uses of this stream processing technology. By completely abstracting the underlying graphics architecture, network topology, and API command processing semantics, we allow a variety of applications to run in different environments

  19. The Role of the Patrimonial Result Account in Rendering Performance in the Secondary Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vitan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its tools, in particular through patrimonial result account, accounting gives information about the performance in the secondary educational institutions and beyond. In the work ”Informational valence regarding the role of the patrimonial result account in rendering performance at secondary educational institutions” it is presented an analysis model of the performance in the pre-university education institutions based on the economic-financial indicators. These indicator simply an analysis of the dynamics and structure of revenues, costs, results and enable the knowledge of the resource management in order to cover expenses from the revenue, their evolution and their total balance. The analysis was based on hypothetical data over a period of two years, and after this period it was determined that the institution has managed to maintain its level of efficiency in resource management.

  20. Feed-forward volume rendering algorithm for moderately parallel MIMD machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagel, Roni

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms for direct volume rendering on parallel and vector processors are investigated. Volumes are transformed efficiently on parallel processors by dividing the data into slices and beams of voxels. Equal sized sets of slices along one axis are distributed to processors. Parallelism is achieved at two levels. Because each slice can be transformed independently of others, processors transform their assigned slices with no communication, thus providing maximum possible parallelism at the first level. Within each slice, consecutive beams are incrementally transformed using coherency in the transformation computation. Also, coherency across slices can be exploited to further enhance performance. This coherency yields the second level of parallelism through the use of the vector processing or pipelining. Other ongoing efforts include investigations into image reconstruction techniques, load balancing strategies, and improving performance.

  1. Scene reassembly after multimodal digitization and pipeline evaluation using photorealistic rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Dal Corso, Alessandro; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2017-01-01

    of the lighting environment. This enables pixelwise comparison of photographs of the real scene with renderings of the digital version of the scene. Such quantitative evaluation is useful for verifying acquired material appearance and reconstructed surface geometry, which is an important aspect of digital content......Transparent objects require acquisition modalities that are very different from the ones used for objects with more diffuse reflectance properties. Digitizing a scene where objects must be acquired with different modalities requires scene reassembly after reconstruction of the object surfaces....... This reassembly of a scene that was picked apart for scanning seems unexplored. We contribute with a multimodal digitization pipeline for scenes that require this step of reassembly. Our pipeline includes measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and high dynamic range imaging...

  2. Color design model of high color rendering index white-light LED module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei; Hsieh, Hsin-Hsin; Hsieh, Kun-Yang

    2017-05-10

    The traditional white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is packaged with a single chip and a single phosphor but has a poor color rendering index (CRI). The next-generation package comprises two chips and a single phosphor, has a high CRI, and retains high luminous efficacy. This study employs two chips and two phosphors to improve the diode's color tunability with various proportions of two phosphors and various densities of phosphor in the silicone used. A color design model is established for color fine-tuning of the white-light LED module. The maximum difference between the measured and color-design-model simulated CIE 1931 color coordinates is approximately 0.0063 around a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2500 K. This study provides a rapid method to obtain the color fine-tuning of a white-light LED module with a high CRI and luminous efficacy.

  3. Three-dimensional range data compression using computer graphics rendering pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-06-20

    This paper presents the idea of naturally encoding three-dimensional (3D) range data into regular two-dimensional (2D) images utilizing computer graphics rendering pipeline. The computer graphics pipeline provides a means to sample 3D geometry data into regular 2D images, and also to retrieve the depth information for each sampled pixel. The depth information for each pixel is further encoded into red, green, and blue color channels of regular 2D images. The 2D images can further be compressed with existing 2D image compression techniques. By this novel means, 3D geometry data obtained by 3D range scanners can be instantaneously compressed into 2D images, providing a novel way of storing 3D range data into its 2D counterparts. We will present experimental results to verify the performance of this proposed technique.

  4. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.T.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a {open_quotes}true 3D screen{close_quotes}. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches.

  5. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a open-quotes true 3D screenclose quotes. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches

  6. 3D reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine using differential volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khongsomboon, K.; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo

    2007-01-01

    3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the technique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians. (author)

  7. 3D-shaded surface rendering of gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, S.; Kikinis, R.; Dumanli, H.; Geva, T.; Powell, A.J.; Chung, T.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography is a useful imaging technique for patients with congenital heart disease. Objective. This study sought to determine the added value of creating 3D shaded surface displays compared to standard maximal intensity projection (MIP) and multiplanar reformatting (MPR) techniques when analyzing 3D MR angiography data. Materials and methods. Seventeen patients (range, 3 months to 51 years old) with a variety of congenital cardiovascular defects underwent gadolinium-enhanced 3D MR angiography of the thorax. Color-coded 3D shaded surface models were rendered from the image data using manual segmentation and computer-based algorithms. Models could be rotated, translocated, or zoomed interactively by the viewer. Information available from the 3D models was compared to analysis based on viewing standard MIP/MPR displays. Results. Median postprocessing time for the 3D models was 6 h (range, 3-25 h) compared to approximately 20 min for MIP/MPR viewing. No additional diagnostic information was gained from 3D model analysis. All major findings with MIP/MPR postprocessing were also apparent on the 3D models. Qualitatively, the 3D models were more easily interpreted and enabled adjacent vessels to be distinguished more readily. Conclusion. Routine use of 3D shaded surface reconstructions for visualization of contrast enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease cannot be recommended. 3D surface rendering may be more useful for presenting complex anatomy to an audience unfamiliar with congenital heart disease and as an educational tool. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of L-system applications towards plant modelling, music rendering and score generation using visual language programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chen Kim; Tan, Kian Lam; Yusran, Hazwanni; Suppramaniam, Vicknesh

    2017-10-01

    Visual language or visual representation has been used in the past few years in order to express the knowledge in graphic. One of the important graphical elements is fractal and L-Systems is a mathematic-based grammatical model for modelling cell development and plant topology. From the plant model, L-Systems can be interpreted as music sound and score. In this paper, LSound which is a Visual Language Programming (VLP) framework has been developed to model plant to music sound and generate music score and vice versa. The objectives of this research has three folds: (i) To expand the grammar dictionary of L-Systems music based on visual programming, (ii) To design and produce a user-friendly and icon based visual language framework typically for L-Systems musical score generation which helps the basic learners in musical field and (iii) To generate music score from plant models and vice versa using L-Systems method. This research undergoes a four phases methodology where the plant is first modelled, then the music is interpreted, followed by the output of music sound through MIDI and finally score is generated. LSound is technically compared to other existing applications in the aspects of the capability of modelling the plant, rendering the music and generating the sound. It has been found that LSound is a flexible framework in which the plant can be easily altered through arrow-based programming and the music score can be altered through the music symbols and notes. This work encourages non-experts to understand L-Systems and music hand-in-hand.

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Volume Rendering Images of Multi-Detector CT for the Detection of Lumbar Transverse Process Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hak; Chun, Tong Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To compare the accuracy of three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D CT) volume rendering techniques with axial images of multi-detector row computed tomography to identify lumbar transverse process (LTP) fractures in trauma patients. We retrospectively evaluated 42 patients with back pain as a result of blunt trauma between January and June of 2010. Two radiologists examined the 3D CT volume rendering images independently. The confirmation of a LTP fracture was based on the consensus of the axial images by the two radiologists. The results of 3D CT volume rendering images were compared with the axial images and the diagnostic powers (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) were calculated. Seven of the 42 patients had twenty five lumbar transverse process fractures. The diagnostic power of the 3D CT volume rendering technique is as accurate as axial images. Reader 1, sensitivity 96%, specificity 100%, accuracy 99.9%; and Reader 2 sensitivity 100%, specificity 99.8%, accuracy 99.8%. The accordance of the two radiologists was 99.8%. 3D CT volume rendering images can alternate axial images to detect lumbar transverse process fractures with good image quality.

  10. Cloud-based Monte Carlo modelling of BSSRDF for the rendering of human skin appearance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Rushmeier, Holly E.; Meglinski, Igor; Bykov, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo based approach for the modelling of Bidirectional Scattering-Surface Reflectance Distribution Function (BSSRDF) for accurate rendering of human skin appearance. The variations of both skin tissues structure and the major chromophores are taken into account correspondingly to the different ethnic and age groups. The computational solution utilizes HTML5, accelerated by the graphics processing units (GPUs), and therefore is convenient for the practical use at the most of modern computer-based devices and operating systems. The results of imitation of human skin reflectance spectra, corresponding skin colours and examples of 3D faces rendering are presented and compared with the results of phantom studies.

  11. Virtual Whipple: preoperative surgical planning with volume-rendered MDCT images to identify arterial variants relevant to the Whipple procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Darren D; Zamboni, Giulia; Sosna, Jacob; Callery, Mark P; Vollmer, Charles M V; Raptopoulos, Vassilios D; Kruskal, Jonathan B

    2007-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to combine a thorough understanding of the technical aspects of the Whipple procedure with advanced rendering techniques by introducing a virtual Whipple procedure and to evaluate the utility of this new rendering technique in prediction of the arterial variants that cross the anticipated surgical resection plane. The virtual Whipple is a novel technique that follows the complex surgical steps in a Whipple procedure. Three-dimensional reconstructed angiographic images are used to identify arterial variants for the surgeon as part of the preoperative radiologic assessment of pancreatic and ampullary tumors.

  12. A Study of Layout, Rendering, and Interaction Methods for Immersive Graph Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Hyun; Muelder, Chris; Lee, Kyungwon; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2016-07-01

    Information visualization has traditionally limited itself to 2D representations, primarily due to the prevalence of 2D displays and report formats. However, there has been a recent surge in popularity of consumer grade 3D displays and immersive head-mounted displays (HMDs). The ubiquity of such displays enables the possibility of immersive, stereoscopic visualization environments. While techniques that utilize such immersive environments have been explored extensively for spatial and scientific visualizations, contrastingly very little has been explored for information visualization. In this paper, we present our considerations of layout, rendering, and interaction methods for visualizing graphs in an immersive environment. We conducted a user study to evaluate our techniques compared to traditional 2D graph visualization. The results show that participants answered significantly faster with a fewer number of interactions using our techniques, especially for more difficult tasks. While the overall correctness rates are not significantly different, we found that participants gave significantly more correct answers using our techniques for larger graphs.

  13. Rendering Systems Visible for Design: Synthesis Maps as Constructivist Design Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    Full Text Available Synthesis maps integrate research evidence, system expertise, and design proposals into visual narratives. These narratives support communication and decision-making among stakeholders. Synthesis maps evolved from earlier visualization tools in systemics and design. They help stakeholders to understand design options for complex sociotechnical systems. Other visual approaches map complexity for effective collaboration across perspectives and knowledge domains. These help stakeholder groups to work in higher-order design contexts for sociotechnical or human-ecological systems. This article describes a constructivist pedagogy for collaborative learning in small teams of mixed-discipline designers. Synthesis mapping enables these teams to learn systems methods for design research in complex problem domains. Synthesis maps integrate knowledge from research cycles and iterative sensemaking to define a coherent design narrative. While synthesis maps may include formal system modeling techniques, they do not require them. Synthesis maps tangibly render research observations and design choices. As a hybrid system design method, synthesis maps are a contribution to the design genre of visual systems thinking.

  14. In-Situ Three-Dimensional Shape Rendering from Strain Values Obtained Through Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for rendering the shape of a multi-core optical fiber or multi-fiber bundle in three-dimensional space in real time based on measured fiber strain data. Three optical fiber cores arc arranged in parallel at 120.degree. intervals about a central axis. A series of longitudinally co-located strain sensor triplets, typically fiber Bragg gratings, are positioned along the length of each fiber at known intervals. A tunable laser interrogates the sensors to detect strain on the fiber cores. Software determines the strain magnitude (.DELTA.L/L) for each fiber at a given triplet, but then applies beam theory to calculate curvature, beading angle and torsion of the fiber bundle, and from there it determines the shape of the fiber in s Cartesian coordinate system by solving a series of ordinary differential equations expanded from the Frenet-Serrat equations. This approach eliminates the need for computationally time-intensive curve-tilting and allows the three-dimensional shape of the optical fiber assembly to be displayed in real-time.

  15. Clinical Recommendations on Emergency Medical Care Rendering to Children with Acute Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baranov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the issue of intoxication in children. Acute accidental intoxication appears to be especially relevant for pediatric practice. Drugs, various chemicals frequently used in everyday life and in farming, as well as animal poisons, including snake poisons, may have a toxic effect on children. Specialists of professional associations of physicians “Russian Society of Emergency Medicine” and pediatricians “Union of Pediatricians of Russia” formulated and briefly described the main causes of acute intoxication in children, clinical manifestations and the most significant laboratory indicators of toxic manifestations for various substances, as well as therapy principles and algorithms for such conditions in compliance with principles of the evidence-based medicine. The article presents pathognomonic symptoms and peculiarities of drug intoxication, provides a description of mediator symptoms of intoxication with various substances, as well as the symptoms that may indicate toxic effect. The article contains a description of principles of correction of vital body functions, measures for removing toxic substances from the body and information on the main antidotes. Special attention is given to the most frequent types of intoxication (with organic acids, lye, naphazoline, paracetamol, snake poisons [viper bite]. The article lists stage of medical care rendering to children suffering from acute intoxication and presents prognosis and further management of pediatric patients suffering from such conditions. 

  16. Seeing More by Showing Less: Orientation-Dependent Transparency Rendering for Fiber Tractography Visualization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal M W Tax

    Full Text Available Fiber tractography plays an important role in exploring the architectural organization of fiber trajectories, both in fundamental neuroscience and in clinical applications. With the advent of diffusion MRI (dMRI approaches that can also model "crossing fibers", the complexity of the fiber network as reconstructed with tractography has increased tremendously. Many pathways interdigitate and overlap, which hampers an unequivocal 3D visualization of the network and impedes an efficient study of its organization. We propose a novel fiber tractography visualization approach that interactively and selectively adapts the transparency rendering of fiber trajectories as a function of their orientation to enhance the visibility of the spatial context. More specifically, pathways that are oriented (locally or globally along a user-specified opacity axis can be made more transparent or opaque. This substantially improves the 3D visualization of the fiber network and the exploration of tissue configurations that would otherwise be largely covered by other pathways. We present examples of fiber bundle extraction and neurosurgical planning cases where the added benefit of our new visualization scheme is demonstrated over conventional fiber visualization approaches.

  17. Interactive definition of transfer functions in volume rendering based on image markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teistler, Michael; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Breiman, Richard S.; Liong, Sauw Ming; Ho, Liang Yoong; Shahab, Atif

    2007-01-01

    Objectives A user interface for transfer function (TF) definition in volume rendering (VR) was developed that allows the user to intuitively assign color and opacity to the original image intensities. This software may surpass solutions currently deployed in clinical practice by simplifying the use of TFs beyond predefined settings that are not always applicable. Materials and methods The TF definition is usually a cumbersome task that requires the user to manipulate graphical representations of the TF (e.g. trapezoids). A new method that allows the user to place markers at points of interest directly on CT and MRI images or orthogonal reformations was developed based on two-dimensional region growing and a few user-definable marker-related parameters. For each user defined image marker, a segment of the transfer function is computed. The resulting TF can also be applied to the slice image views. Results were judged subjectively. Results Each individualized TF can be defined interactively in a few simple steps. For every user interaction, immediate visual feedback is given. Clinicians who tested the application appreciated being able to directly work on familiar slice images to generate the desired 3D views. Conclusion Interactive TF definition can increase the actual utility of VR, help to understand the role of the TF with its variations, and increase the acceptance of VR as a clinical tool. (orig.)

  18. Common crus aplasia: diagnosis by 3D volume rendering imaging using 3DFT-CISS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Song, J.W.; Chon, K.-M.; Goh, E.-K.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the findings of three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering (VR) imaging in common crus aplasia (CCA) of the inner ear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using 3D VR imaging of temporal bone constructive interference in steady state (CISS) magnetic resonance (MR) images, we retrospectively reviewed seven inner ears of six children who were candidates for cochlear implants and who had been diagnosed with CCA. As controls, we used the same method to examine 402 inner ears of 201 patients who had no clinical symptoms or signs of sensorineural hearing loss. Temporal bone MR imaging (MRI) was performed with a 1.5 T MR machine using a CISS sequence, and VR of the inner ear was performed on a work station. Morphological image analysis was performed on rotation views of 3D VR images. RESULTS: In all seven cases, CCA was diagnosed by the absence of the common crus. The remaining superior semicircular canal (SCC) was normal in five and hypoplastic in two inner ears, while the posterior SCC was normal in all seven. One patient showed bilateral symmetrical CCA. Complicated combined anomalies were seen in the cochlea, vestibule and lateral SCC. CONCLUSION: 3D VR imaging findings with MR CISS sequence can directly diagnose CCA. This technique may be useful in delineating detailed anomalies of SCCs

  19. Painterly rendered portraits from photographs using a knowledge-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Steve

    2007-02-01

    Portrait artists using oils, acrylics or pastels use a specific but open human vision methodology to create a painterly portrait of a live sitter. When they must use a photograph as source, artists augment their process, since photographs have: different focusing - everything is in focus or focused in vertical planes; value clumping - the camera darkens the shadows and lightens the bright areas; as well as color and perspective distortion. In general, artistic methodology attempts the following: from the photograph, the painting must 'simplify, compose and leave out what's irrelevant, emphasizing what's important'. While seemingly a qualitative goal, artists use known techniques such as relying on source tone over color to indirect into a semantic color temperature model, use brush and tonal "sharpness" to create a center of interest, lost and found edges to move the viewers gaze through the image towards the center of interest as well as other techniques to filter and emphasize. Our work attempts to create a knowledge domain of the portrait painter process and incorporate this knowledge into a multi-space parameterized system that can create an array of NPR painterly rendering output by analyzing the photographic-based input which informs the semantic knowledge rules.

  20. 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL Rendering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennoi Atitayaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An HMI, or Human-Machine Interface, is a software allowing users to communicate with a machine or automation system. It usually serves as a display section in SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system for device monitoring and control. In this papper, a 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL (Web-based Graphics Library rendering performance is presented. The main purpose of this work is to attempt to reduce the limitations of traditional 3D web HMI using the advantage of WebGL. To evaluate the performance, frame rate and frame time metrics were used. The results showed 3D Web-based HMI can maintain the frame rate 60FPS for #cube=0.5K/0.8K, 30FPS for #cube=1.1K/1.6K when it was run on Internet Explorer and Chrome respectively. Moreover, the study found that 3D Web-based HMI using WebGL contains similar frame time in each frame even though the numbers of cubes are up to 5K. This indicated stuttering incurred less in the proposed 3D Web-based HMI compared to the chosen commercial HMI product.

  1. Metals for bone implants. Part 1. Powder metallurgy and implant rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andani, Mohsen Taheri; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael J; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    New metal alloys and metal fabrication strategies are likely to benefit future skeletal implant strategies. These metals and fabrication strategies were looked at from the point of view of standard-of-care implants for the mandible. These implants are used as part of the treatment for segmental resection due to oropharyngeal cancer, injury or correction of deformity due to pathology or congenital defect. The focus of this two-part review is the issues associated with the failure of existing mandibular implants that are due to mismatched material properties. Potential directions for future research are also studied. To mitigate these issues, the use of low-stiffness metallic alloys has been highlighted. To this end, the development, processing and biocompatibility of superelastic NiTi as well as resorbable magnesium-based alloys are discussed. Additionally, engineered porosity is reviewed as it can be an effective way of matching the stiffness of an implant with the surrounding tissue. These porosities and the overall geometry of the implant can be optimized for strain transduction and with a tailored stiffness profile. Rendering patient-specific, site-specific, morphology-specific and function-specific implants can now be achieved using these and other metals with bone-like material properties by additive manufacturing. The biocompatibility of implants prepared from superelastic and resorbable alloys is also reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for volume-rendered computed tomography portovenography. Improvement of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Izuru; Hanaoka, Shohei; Akahane, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a reconstruction technique for computed tomography (CT) that reduces image noise. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether ASIR improves the quality of volume-rendered (VR) CT portovenography. Institutional review board approval, with waived consent, was obtained. A total of 19 patients (12 men, 7 women; mean age 69.0 years; range 25-82 years) suspected of having liver lesions underwent three-phase enhanced CT. VR image sets were prepared with both the conventional method and ASIR. The required time to make VR images was recorded. Two radiologists performed independent qualitative evaluations of the image sets. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical analysis. Contrast-noise ratios (CNRs) of the portal and hepatic vein were also evaluated. Overall image quality was significantly improved by ASIR (P<0.0001 and P=0.0155 for each radiologist). ASIR enhanced CNRs of the portal and hepatic vein significantly (P<0.0001). The time required to create VR images was significantly shorter with ASIR (84.7 vs. 117.1 s; P=0.014). ASIR enhances CNRs and improves image quality in VR CT portovenography. It also shortens the time required to create liver VR CT portovenographs. (author)

  3. High color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode using levofloxacin as blue emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yan-Qin; Zhang Ai-Qin; Li Yuan-Hao; Wang Hua; Jia Hu-Sheng; Liu Xu-Guang; Gao Zhi-Xiang; Tsuboi Taijuf

    2015-01-01

    Levofloxacin (LOFX), which is well-known as an antibiotic medicament, was shown to be useful as a 452-nm blue emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, the fabricated white OLED contains a 452-nm blue emitting layer (thickness of 30 nm) with 1 wt% LOFX doped in CBP (4,4’-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl) host and a 584-nm orange emitting layer (thickness of 10 nm) with 0.8 wt% DCJTB (4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7, 7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran) doped in CBP, which are separated by a 20-nm-thick buffer layer of TPBi (2,2’,2”-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole). A high color rendering index (CRI) of 84.5 and CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.32), which is close to ideal white emission CIE (0.333, 0.333), are obtained at a bias voltage of 14 V. Taking into account that LOFX is less expensive and the synthesis and purification technologies of LOFX are mature, these results indicate that blue fluorescence emitting LOFX is useful for applications to white OLEDs although the maximum current efficiency and luminance are not high. The present paper is expected to become a milestone to using medical drug materials for OLEDs. (paper)

  4. Heterogeneous Deformable Modeling of Bio-Tissues and Haptic Force Rendering for Bio-Object Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiyong; Lee, Yuan-Shin; Narayan, Roger J.

    This paper presents a novel technique for modeling soft biological tissues as well as the development of an innovative interface for bio-manufacturing and medical applications. Heterogeneous deformable models may be used to represent the actual internal structures of deformable biological objects, which possess multiple components and nonuniform material properties. Both heterogeneous deformable object modeling and accurate haptic rendering can greatly enhance the realism and fidelity of virtual reality environments. In this paper, a tri-ray node snapping algorithm is proposed to generate a volumetric heterogeneous deformable model from a set of object interface surfaces between different materials. A constrained local static integration method is presented for simulating deformation and accurate force feedback based on the material properties of a heterogeneous structure. Biological soft tissue modeling is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed techniques. By integrating the heterogeneous deformable model into a virtual environment, users can both observe different materials inside a deformable object as well as interact with it by touching the deformable object using a haptic device. The presented techniques can be used for surgical simulation, bio-product design, bio-manufacturing, and medical applications.

  5. High-fidelity haptic and visual rendering for patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sonny; Li, Peter; Locketz, Garrett; Salisbury, Kenneth; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2016-12-01

    Medical imaging techniques provide a wealth of information for surgical preparation, but it is still often the case that surgeons are examining three-dimensional pre-operative image data as a series of two-dimensional images. With recent advances in visual computing and interactive technologies, there is much opportunity to provide surgeons an ability to actively manipulate and interpret digital image data in a surgically meaningful way. This article describes the design and initial evaluation of a virtual surgical environment that supports patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery using pre-operative medical image data. Computational methods are presented that enable six degree-of-freedom haptic feedback during manipulation, and that simulate virtual dissection according to the mechanical principles of orthogonal cutting and abrasive wear. A highly efficient direct volume renderer simultaneously provides high-fidelity visual feedback during surgical manipulation of the virtual anatomy. The resulting virtual surgical environment was assessed by evaluating its ability to replicate findings in the operating room, using pre-operative imaging of the same patient. Correspondences between surgical exposure, anatomical features, and the locations of pathology were readily observed when comparing intra-operative video with the simulation, indicating the predictive ability of the virtual surgical environment.

  6. Pretreatment with UV light renders the chromatin in human fibroblasts more susceptible to the DNA-damaging agents bleomycin, gamma radiation and 8-methoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungman, Mats

    1989-01-01

    Confluent human fibroblast cultures were pretreated with either 254 nm UV light (UV) or methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), incubated at 37 0 C and subsequently challenged on ice with bleomycin (BLM), gamma-radiation or 8-methoxy-psoralen (MOP). The resulting number of challenge-induced DNA damages (measured as DNA strand breaks or cross-links) were compared with the numbers induced in similarly challenged but non-pretreated control cells. It was found that the timing of the subsequent challenge of cells pretreated with UV did significantly affect the amount of induced DNA damage. When the challenging agents were administered after a 10-20 min incubation period following UV pretreatment, the amount of induced DNA damage was increased 50% over control cells. In contrast, the timing of the subsequent challenge of cells pretreated with MMS has no influence on the level of challenge-induced damage. It is hypothesized that UV-irradiated chromatin undergoes a time-dependent decondensation that renders it more susceptible to the induction of strand breaks and cross-links by BLM, gamma-radiation and MOP. A possible role for chromatin decondensation in UV-induced excision repair is discussed. (author)

  7. Towards an e-Model for the enhancement of service rendering by SMMEs supporting agencies in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available of the existing model to an e-model may lead to an effective and efficient service delivery, which in turn could positively impact on SMMEs operational objectives. The proposed e-model forms the basis for the enhancement of the quality of service rendered...

  8. A two-metric proposal to specify the color-rendering properties of light sources for retail lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Rea, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Lighting plays an important role in supporting retail operations, from attracting customers, to enabling the evaluation of merchandise, to facilitating the completion of the sale. Lighting also contributes to the identity, comfort, and visual quality of a retail store. With the increasing availability and quality of white LEDs, retail lighting specifiers are now considering LED lighting in stores. The color rendering of light sources is a key factor in supporting retail lighting goals and thus influences a light source's acceptance by users and specifiers. However, there is limited information on what consumers' color preferences are, and metrics used to describe the color properties of light sources often are equivocal and fail to predict preference. The color rendering of light sources is described in the industry solely by the color rendering index (CRI), which is only indirectly related to human perception. CRI is intended to characterize the appearance of objects illuminated by the source and is increasingly being challenged because new sources are being developed with increasingly exotic spectral power distributions. This paper discusses how CRI might be augmented to better use it in support of the design objectives for retail merchandising. The proposed guidelines include the use of gamut area index as a complementary metric to CRI for assuring good color rendering.

  9. Effect of nanostructured lime-based and silica-based products on the consolidation of historical renders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsoi, G.; Veiga, R.; Santos Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    An important operation for the conservation of historical renders is the cohesion restitution of the binderaggregate system, based on the use of materials with consolidating properties. Inorganic consolidants are usually preferred to organic ones due to better compatibility and durability. The aim

  10. Curved reconstructions versus three-dimensional surface rendering in the demonstration of cortical lesions in patients with extratemporal epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiners, LC; Scheffers, JM; De Kort, GAP; Burger, H; Van Huffelen, AC; Van Rijen, PC; Van Veelen, CWM

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. TO compare the visibility and localization of extratemporal cortical lesions in extratemporal epilepsy by using curved reconstruction (CR) and three-dimensional surface rendering (3D SR) of 3D-acquired MR images and to study the degree of confidence with which localizations

  11. Polyacrylate–water partitioning of biocidal compounds: Enhancing the understanding of biocide partitioning between render and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    -N-octylisothiazolinone). The correlation of the polyacrylate-water partition constants with the octanol-water partition constants is significant, but the polyacrylate-water partition constants were predominantly below octanol-water partition constants (Kow). The comparison with render-water distribution constants showed that estimating...

  12. 31 CFR 500.585 - Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. 500.585 Section 500.585 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.585 Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. Payments...

  13. Wobbled splatting-a fast perspective volume rendering method for simulation of x-ray images from CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Seemann, Rudolf; Figl, Michael; Hummel, Johann; Ede, Christopher; Homolka, Peter; Yang Xinhui; Niederer, Peter; Bergmann, Helmar

    2005-01-01

    3D/2D registration, the automatic assignment of a global rigid-body transformation matching the coordinate systems of patient and preoperative volume scan using projection images, is an important topic in image-guided therapy and radiation oncology. A crucial part of most 3D/2D registration algorithms is the fast computation of digitally rendered radiographs (DRRs) to be compared iteratively to radiographs or portal images. Since registration is an iterative process, fast generation of DRRs-which are perspective summed voxel renderings-is desired. In this note, we present a simple and rapid method for generation of DRRs based on splat rendering. As opposed to conventional splatting, antialiasing of the resulting images is not achieved by means of computing a discrete point spread function (a so-called footprint), but by stochastic distortion of either the voxel positions in the volume scan or by the simulation of a focal spot of the x-ray tube with non-zero diameter. Our method generates slightly blurred DRRs suitable for registration purposes at framerates of approximately 10 Hz when rendering volume images with a size of 30 MB. (note)

  14. Dynamic miniature lighting system with low correlated colour temperature and high colour rendering index for museum lighting of fragile artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2013-01-01

    of historical artefacts in display cases at museums and other exhibitions, which can replace 3-5 Watt incandescent light bulbs with a correlated colour temperature (CCT) from 2000 K to 2400 K. The solution decreases the energy consumption by up to 80 %, while maintaining colour rendering indices (Ra) above 90...

  15. Conservation of the historical render in the Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção in Elvas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Salema

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a practical case of conservation of the historical renders in the pyramidal tower of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção in Elvas (Portugal, carried out by the former IPPAR (Portuguese Institute of Architectonic Heritage, now Regional Direction of Culture of Alentejo. Awareness of the value and of the risks facing these renders points towards the necessity to safeguard their material authenticity. During the works of conservation of the main façade, under the layers of non decorated recovering render, a previous decorated render, simulating stone masonry, with raised joints reproducing stone divisions and the internal structure in solid brick, was discovered. After material and historical analysis we came to the conclusion that it was highly probable that this render was contemporary to the construction of the Church and, as such, it seemed essential to conserve and restore this covering as historical evidence and cultural heritage. Treatment of the pyramidal tower render included removal of the non original recover mortars, survey of ancient materials, execution of technical and decorative scheme, surfaces' cleaning and consolidation of the weaker original old mortars. In order to fill the gaps in the original surface, specific lime mortars, prepared with washed sand and standard grain size, were used. Restoration techniques were used to reconstitute and integrate the lacunas. These actions not only conserved the workmanship, but also reconstructed the decorative structure and a reading clarity, allowing the identification of restoration without the connotation of a mimetic integration. This joint action, only possible with the help of the conservation and restoration team, puts into evidence the possibility of continuous evaluation and learning. It is clear that, in cases where there are unknown, unpredictable factors, due to the specific work and value of the materials, it is possible to change the course

  16. Automating Geospatial Visualizations with Smart Default Renderers for Data Exploration Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenes, K.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will outline the process of creating a web application for exploring large amounts of scientific geospatial data using modern automated cartographic techniques. Traditional cartographic methods, including data classification, may inadvertently hide geospatial and statistical patterns in the underlying data. This presentation demonstrates how to use smart web APIs that quickly analyze the data when it loads, and provides suggestions for the most appropriate visualizations based on the statistics of the data. Since there are just a few ways to visualize any given dataset well, it is imperative to provide smart default color schemes tailored to the dataset as opposed to static defaults. Since many users don't go beyond default values, it is imperative that they are provided with smart default visualizations. Multiple functions for automating visualizations are available in the Smart APIs, along with UI elements allowing users to create more than one visualization for a dataset since there isn't a single best way to visualize a given dataset. Since bivariate and multivariate visualizations are particularly difficult to create effectively, this automated approach removes the guesswork out of the process and provides a number of ways to generate multivariate visualizations for the same variables. This allows the user to choose which visualization is most appropriate for their presentation. The methods used in these APIs and the renderers generated by them are not available elsewhere. The presentation will show how statistics can be used as the basis for automating default visualizations of data along continuous ramps, creating more refined visualizations while revealing the spread and outliers of the data. Adding interactive components to instantaneously alter visualizations allows users to unearth spatial patterns previously unknown among one or more variables. These applications may focus on a single dataset that is frequently updated, or configurable

  17. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-08-28

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  18. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus; Al-Awami, Ali K.; Beyer, Johanna; Agus, Marco; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  19. Clinical Application of an Open-Source 3D Volume Rendering Software to Neurosurgical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes de Oliveira Santos, Bruno; Silva da Costa, Marcos Devanir; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Antônio de Paiva Neto, Manoel; Lawton, Michael T; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2018-02-01

    Preoperative recognition of the anatomic individualities of each patient can help to achieve more precise and less invasive approaches. It also may help to anticipate potential complications and intraoperative difficulties. Here we describe the use, accuracy, and precision of a free tool for planning microsurgical approaches using 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used the 3D volume rendering tool of a free open-source software program for 3D reconstruction of images of surgical sites obtained by MRI volumetric acquisition. We recorded anatomic reference points, such as the sulcus and gyrus, and vascularization patterns for intraoperative localization of lesions. Lesion locations were confirmed during surgery by intraoperative ultrasound and/or electrocorticography and later by postoperative MRI. Between August 2015 and September 2016, a total of 23 surgeries were performed using this technique for 9 low-grade gliomas, 7 high-grade gliomas, 4 cortical dysplasias, and 3 arteriovenous malformations. The technique helped delineate lesions with an overall accuracy of 2.6 ± 1.0 mm. 3D reconstructions were successfully performed in all patients, and images showed sulcus, gyrus, and venous patterns corresponding to the intraoperative images. All lesion areas were confirmed both intraoperatively and at the postoperative evaluation. With the technique described herein, it was possible to successfully perform 3D reconstruction of the cortical surface. This reconstruction tool may serve as an adjunct to neuronavigation systems or may be used alone when such a system is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Technical Note: A 3-D rendering algorithm for electromechanical wave imaging of a beating heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Melki, Lea; Wan, Elaine; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-09-01

    Arrhythmias can be treated by ablating the heart tissue in the regions of abnormal contraction. The current clinical standard provides electroanatomic 3-D maps to visualize the electrical activation and locate the arrhythmogenic sources. However, the procedure is time-consuming and invasive. Electromechanical wave imaging is an ultrasound-based noninvasive technique that can provide 2-D maps of the electromechanical activation of the heart. In order to fully visualize the complex 3-D pattern of activation, several 2-D views are acquired and processed separately. They are then manually registered with a 3-D rendering software to generate a pseudo-3-D map. However, this last step is operator-dependent and time-consuming. This paper presents a method to generate a full 3-D map of the electromechanical activation using multiple 2-D images. Two canine models were considered to illustrate the method: one in normal sinus rhythm and one paced from the lateral region of the heart. Four standard echographic views of each canine heart were acquired. Electromechanical wave imaging was applied to generate four 2-D activation maps of the left ventricle. The radial positions and activation timings of the walls were automatically extracted from those maps. In each slice, from apex to base, these values were interpolated around the circumference to generate a full 3-D map. In both cases, a 3-D activation map and a cine-loop of the propagation of the electromechanical wave were automatically generated. The 3-D map showing the electromechanical activation timings overlaid on realistic anatomy assists with the visualization of the sources of earlier activation (which are potential arrhythmogenic sources). The earliest sources of activation corresponded to the expected ones: septum for the normal rhythm and lateral for the pacing case. The proposed technique provides, automatically, a 3-D electromechanical activation map with a realistic anatomy. This represents a step towards a

  1. High color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode using levofloxacin as blue emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yan-Qin; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Hua; Jia, Hu-Sheng; Liu, Xu-Guang; Tsuboi, Taijuf

    2015-05-01

    Levofloxacin (LOFX), which is well-known as an antibiotic medicament, was shown to be useful as a 452-nm blue emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, the fabricated white OLED contains a 452-nm blue emitting layer (thickness of 30 nm) with 1 wt% LOFX doped in CBP (4,4’-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl) host and a 584-nm orange emitting layer (thickness of 10 nm) with 0.8 wt% DCJTB (4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran) doped in CBP, which are separated by a 20-nm-thick buffer layer of TPBi (2,2’,2”-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole). A high color rendering index (CRI) of 84.5 and CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.32), which is close to ideal white emission CIE (0.333, 0.333), are obtained at a bias voltage of 14 V. Taking into account that LOFX is less expensive and the synthesis and purification technologies of LOFX are mature, these results indicate that blue fluorescence emitting LOFX is useful for applications to white OLEDs although the maximum current efficiency and luminance are not high. The present paper is expected to become a milestone to using medical drug materials for OLEDs. Project supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0927), the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFR50460), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21101111 and 61274056), and the Shanxi Provincial Key Innovative Research Team in Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012041011).

  2. Bleed-through correction for rendering and correlation analysis in multi-colour localization microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dahan; Curthoys, Nikki M; Parent, Matthew T; Hess, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Multi-colour localization microscopy has enabled sub-diffraction studies of colocalization between multiple biological species and quantification of their correlation at length scales previously inaccessible with conventional fluorescence microscopy. However, bleed-through, or misidentification of probe species, creates false colocalization and artificially increases certain types of correlation between two imaged species, affecting the reliability of information provided by colocalization and quantified correlation. Despite the potential risk of these artefacts of bleed-through, neither the effect of bleed-through on correlation nor methods for its correction in correlation analyses have been systematically studied at typical rates of bleed-through reported to affect multi-colour imaging. Here, we present a reliable method of bleed-through correction applicable to image rendering and correlation analysis of multi-colour localization microscopy. Application of our bleed-through correction shows that our method accurately corrects the artificial increase in both types of correlation studied (Pearson coefficient and pair correlation), at all rates of bleed-through tested, in all types of correlation examined. In particular, anti-correlation could not be quantified without our bleed-through correction, even at rates of bleed-through as low as 2%. While it is demonstrated with dichroic-based multi-colour FPALM here, our presented method of bleed-through correction can be applied to all types of localization microscopy (PALM, STORM, dSTORM, GSDIM, etc), including both simultaneous and sequential multi-colour modalities, provided the rate of bleed-through can be reliably determined. (special issue article)

  3. New impressive capabilities of SE-workbench for EO/IR real-time rendering of animated scenarios including flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Alain; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2015-10-01

    To provide technical assessments of EO/IR flares and self-protection systems for aircraft, DGA Information superiority resorts to synthetic image generation to model the operational battlefield of an aircraft, as viewed by EO/IR threats. For this purpose, it completed the SE-Workbench suite from OKTAL-SE with functionalities to predict a realistic aircraft IR signature and is yet integrating the real-time EO/IR rendering engine of SE-Workbench called SE-FAST-IR. This engine is a set of physics-based software and libraries that allows preparing and visualizing a 3D scene for the EO/IR domain. It takes advantage of recent advances in GPU computing techniques. The recent past evolutions that have been performed concern mainly the realistic and physical rendering of reflections, the rendering of both radiative and thermal shadows, the use of procedural techniques for the managing and the rendering of very large terrains, the implementation of Image- Based Rendering for dynamic interpolation of plume static signatures and lastly for aircraft the dynamic interpolation of thermal states. The next step is the representation of the spectral, directional, spatial and temporal signature of flares by Lacroix Defense using OKTAL-SE technology. This representation is prepared from experimental data acquired during windblast tests and high speed track tests. It is based on particle system mechanisms to model the different components of a flare. The validation of a flare model will comprise a simulation of real trials and a comparison of simulation outputs to experimental results concerning the flare signature and above all the behavior of the stimulated threat.

  4. Characterization of ftsZ mutations that render Bacillus subtilis resistant to MinC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, I.F.F.; Sousa Borges, A.; Kooij, V.; Bartosiak-Jentys, J.; Luirink, S.; Scheffers, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cell division in Bacillus subtilis occurs precisely at midcell. Positional control of cell division is exerted by two mechanisms: nucleoid occlusion, through Noc, which prevents division through nucleoids, and the Min system, where the combined action of the MinC, D and J proteins

  5. Platelet and Erythrocyte Sources of S1P Are Redundant for Vascular Development and Homeostasis, but Both Rendered Essential After Plasma S1P Depletion in Anaphylactic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Salomé L; Mariko, Boubacar; Thérond, Patrice; Decouture, Benoit; Xiong, Yuquan; Couty, Ludovic; Bonnin, Philippe; Baudrie, Véronique; Le Gall, Sylvain M; Dizier, Blandine; Zoghdani, Nesrine; Ransinan, Jessica; Hamilton, Justin R; Gaussem, Pascale; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Chun, Jerold; Coughlin, Shaun R; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Hla, Timothy; Ho-Tin-Noé, Benoit; Camerer, Eric

    2016-09-30

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling is essential for vascular development and postnatal vascular homeostasis. The relative importance of S1P sources sustaining these processes remains unclear. To address the level of redundancy in bioactive S1P provision to the developing and mature vasculature. S1P production was selectively impaired in mouse platelets, erythrocytes, endothelium, or smooth muscle cells by targeted deletion of genes encoding sphingosine kinases -1 and -2. S1P deficiency impaired aggregation and spreading of washed platelets and profoundly reduced their capacity to promote endothelial barrier function ex vivo. However, and in contrast to recent reports, neither platelets nor any other source of S1P was essential for vascular development, vascular integrity, or hemostasis/thrombosis. Yet rapid and profound depletion of plasma S1P during systemic anaphylaxis rendered both platelet- and erythrocyte-derived S1P essential for survival, with a contribution from blood endothelium observed only in the absence of circulating sources. Recovery was sensitive to aspirin in mice with but not without platelet S1P, suggesting that platelet activation and stimulus-response coupling is needed. S1P deficiency aggravated vasoplegia in this model, arguing a vital role for S1P in maintaining vascular resistance during recovery from circulatory shock. Accordingly, the S1P2 receptor mediated most of the survival benefit of S1P, whereas the endothelial S1P1 receptor was dispensable for survival despite its importance for maintaining vascular integrity. Although source redundancy normally secures essential S1P signaling in developing and mature blood vessels, profound depletion of plasma S1P renders both erythrocyte and platelet S1P pools necessary for recovery and high basal plasma S1P levels protective during anaphylactic shock. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. ClipCard: Sharable, Searchable Visual Metadata Summaries on the Cloud to Render Big Data Actionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, P.; Davis, D.; Cunningham, R.

    2013-12-01

    Research firm IDC estimates that approximately 90 percent of the Enterprise Big Data go un-analyzed, as 'dark data' - an enormous corpus of undiscovered, untagged information residing on data warehouses, servers and Storage Area Networks (SAN). In the geosciences, these data range from unpublished model runs to vast survey data assets to raw sensor data. Many of these are now being collected instantaneously, at a greater volume and in new data formats. Not all of these data can be analyzed, nor processed in real time, and their features may not be well described at the time of collection. These dark data are a serious data management problem for science organizations of all types, especially ones with mandated or required data reporting and compliance requirements. Additionally, data curators and scientists are encouraged to quantify the impact of their data holdings as a way to measure research success. Deriving actionable insights is the foremost goal of Big Data Analytics (BDA), which is especially true with geoscience, given its direct impact on most of the pressing global issues. Clearly, there is a pressing need for innovative approaches to making dark data discoverable, measurable, and actionable. We report on ClipCard, a Cloud-based SaaS analytic platform for instant summarization, quick search, visualization and easy sharing of metadata summaries form the Dark Data at hierarchical levels of detail, thus rendering it 'white', i.e., actionable. We present a use case of the ClipCard platform, a cloud-based application which helps generate (abstracted) visual metadata summaries and meta-analytics for environmental data at hierarchical scales within and across big data containers. These summaries and analyses provide important new tools for managing big data and simplifying collaboration through easy to deploy sharing APIs. The ClipCard application solves a growing data management bottleneck by helping enterprises and large organizations to summarize, search

  7. Rendering mortars in Medina Azahara, Part II: Material characterization and alteration causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Varela, M. T.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the depicted coat that covers some of the mortars exposed to weathering in the Medina Azahara archaeological site is .studied. That coat is characterized from the compositional and physical viewpoint and the main causes for its decay are determined. The depicted coat is formed by cal cite and iron oxides. It is quite compact and homogeneous. It is approximately 0.1 to 1 mm thick. The depicted coats supposed by lime mortars have CaCO3 deposits over polychromy rests. Depicted coats supported by gypsum mortars or mixed lime and gypsum mortars have gypsum deposits over polychromy rests. The processes of rendering mortars dissolution and the later crystallization of salts on their surface, together with biological growth, are the main causes of the decay of the depicted coats.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la capa de policromía que recubre algunos de los morteros conservados a la intemperie en la ciudad de Medina Azahara. Dicha capa se caracteriza desde el punto de vista composicional y físico, determinándose las principales causas de su deterioro. La capa de policromía está formada por calcita y óxidos de hierro. Dicha capa es bastante homogénea y compacta. Su espesor es de 0,1 a 1 mm aproximadamente. Las capas de pintura sustentadas por morteros de cal tienen un depósito de CaCO sobre los restos de policromía. Las capas de pintura sustentadas por morteros de yeso o bastardos de cal y yeso tienen depósitos de yeso sobre los restos de policromía. Los procesos de disolución de los revocos y la posterior cristalización de las sales en su superficie, junto con la colonización biológica, son las principales causas de deterioro de la capa de policromía de su superficie.

  8. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  9. Using rare earth doped thiosilicate phosphors in white light emitting LEDs: Towards low colour temperature and high colour rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, P.F.; Korthout, K.; Haecke, J.E. van; Poelman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth doped thiosilicates are promising materials for use in phosphor converted light emitting diodes (pcLEDs). These phosphors (including the hosts Ca 2 SiS 4 , BaSi 2 S 5 and Ba 2 SiS 4 in combination with Ce 3+ and/or Eu 2+ doping) cover the entire visible part of the spectrum, as the emission colour can be changed from deep blue to red. The photoluminescence emission spectrum and the overlap of the excitation spectrum with the emission of pumping LEDs is evaluated. The trade-off between high colour rendering and high electrical-to-optical power efficiency is discussed by simulation with both blue and UV emitting LEDs. Finally, a phosphor combination with low colour temperature (3000 K) and high colour rendering (CRI = 93) is proposed

  10. Segmentation, surface rendering, and surface simplification of 3-D skull images for the repair of a large skull defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weibing; Shi, Pengfei; Li, Shuguang

    2009-10-01

    Given the potential demonstrated by research into bone-tissue engineering, the use of medical image data for the rapid prototyping (RP) of scaffolds is a subject worthy of research. Computer-aided design and manufacture and medical imaging have created new possibilities for RP. Accurate and efficient design and fabrication of anatomic models is critical to these applications. We explore the application of RP computational methods to the repair of a pediatric skull defect. The focus of this study is the segmentation of the defect region seen in computerized tomography (CT) slice images of this patient's skull and the three-dimensional (3-D) surface rendering of the patient's CT-scan data. We see if our segmentation and surface rendering software can improve the generation of an implant model to fill a skull defect.

  11. Role of volume rendered 3-D computed tomography in conservative management of trauma-related thoracic injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OʼLeary, Donal Peter

    2012-09-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are a tool used commonly in the construction industry and are widely available. Accidental injuries from nail guns are common, and several cases of suicide using a nail gun have been reported. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging, together with echocardiography, has been shown to be the gold standard for investigation of these cases. We present a case of a 55-year-old man who presented to the accident and emergency unit of a community hospital following an accidental pneumatic nail gun injury to his thorax. Volume-rendered CT of the thorax allowed an accurate assessment of the thoracic injuries sustained by this patient. As there was no evidence of any acute life-threatening injury, a sternotomy was avoided and the patient was observed closely until discharge. In conclusion, volume-rendered 3-dimensional CT can greatly help in the decision to avoid an unnecessary sternotomy in patients with a thoracic nail gun injury.

  12. Method for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases and sulfur-carrying waste water from pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspegren, O E.A.; Eklund, A J

    1951-03-15

    A method is described for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases, which are formed in processes for the manufacture of solid, liquid, or gaseous products by pyrolysis of oil shale, and thereby to extract valuable products, characterized in that the sulfur dioxide-carrying gases are washed with a solution or sludge obtained by leaching wholly or partly burned-out residues from the pyrolysis.

  13. The use of oak chips and coconut fiber as biofilter media to remove vocs in rendering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymczyna, Leszek; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Dobrowolska, Magadalena; Banach, Marcin; Pulit, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effectiveness of air biofiltration in rendering plants. The biofilter material comprised compost soil (40%) and peat (40%) mixed up with coconut fiber (medium A) and oak bark (medium B). During biofiltration average VOCs reduction reached 88.4% for medium A and 89.7% for medium B. A positive relationship of aldehyde reduction from material humidity (r = 0.502; α<0.05) was also noted. Other biomaterial parameters did not affect the treatment efficiency.

  14. Usefulness of PC based 3D volume rendering technique in the evaluation of suspected aneurysm on brain MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Il; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Bang, Sun Woo; Ryu, Seok Jong; Kim, Ho Kyun

    2002-01-01

    To evaluated usefulness of volume rending technique using 3D visualization software on PC in patients with suspected intracranial aneurysm on brain MRA. We analyzed prospectively 21 patients with suspected aneurysms on the routine MIP images which were obtained 15 .deg. C increment along axial and sagittal plane, among 135 patients in whom brain MRA was done due to stroke symptoms for recent 5 months. The locations were the anterior communicating artery (A-com) in 8 patients, the posterior communicating artery (P-com) in 3, the ICA bifurcation in 5, the MCA bifurcation in 4, and the basilar tip in one. Male to female ratio was 14:7 and mean age was 62 years. MRA source images were sent to PC through LAN, and the existence of aneurysm was evaluated with volume rendering technique using 3D visualization software on PC. The presence or absence of aneurysm on MIP and volume rendering images was decided by the consensus of two radiologists. We found the aneurysms with volume rendering technique, from 1 patient among 8 patients with suspected aneurysm at A-com and also 1 patient among 3 patients with suspected aneurysm at P=com on routine MIP images. Confirmative angiography and interventional procedures were done in these 2 patients. The causes for mimicking the aneurysm on MIP were flow displacement artifact in 9, normal P-com infundibulum in 2, and overlapped or narrowed vessels in 8 patients, and among them confirmative angiography was done in 2 patient. Volume rendering technique using visualization software on PC is useful to scrutinize the suspected aneurysm on routine MIP images and to avoid further invasive angiography

  15. In situ peeling tests for assessing the cohesion and consolidation characteristic of historic plaster and render surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 121-130 ISSN 0039-3630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : peeling test * historic render * surface consolidation * cohesion * non-destructive testing Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.323, year: 2015

  16. Photorealistic lighting and rendering of a small apartment interior : a case study with 3DS Max and V-Ray

    OpenAIRE

    Kämä, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the process of creating photorealistic lighting for a small apartment interior and the process of rendering that interior. Both nighttime and daytime lighting was created for the 3D interior scene modeled beforehand. The 3D interior scene was comprised the walls, windows and the largest furniture of the apartment excluding the bathroom. The theoretical section of the thesis focuses on different settings and features which in combination influence...

  17. Modeling a color-rendering operator for high dynamic range images using a cone-response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ho-Hyoung; Kim, Gi-Seok; Yun, Byoung-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Tone-mapping operators are the typical algorithms designed to produce visibility and the overall impression of brightness, contrast, and color of high dynamic range (HDR) images on low dynamic range (LDR) display devices. Although several new tone-mapping operators have been proposed in recent years, the results of these operators have not matched those of the psychophysical experiments based on the human visual system. A color-rendering model that is a combination of tone-mapping and cone-response functions using an XYZ tristimulus color space is presented. In the proposed method, the tone-mapping operator produces visibility and the overall impression of brightness, contrast, and color in HDR images when mapped onto relatively LDR devices. The tone-mapping resultant image is obtained using chromatic and achromatic colors to avoid well-known color distortions shown in the conventional methods. The resulting image is then processed with a cone-response function wherein emphasis is placed on human visual perception (HVP). The proposed method covers the mismatch between the actual scene and the rendered image based on HVP. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields an improved color-rendering performance compared to conventional methods.

  18. The Chromatin Scaffold Protein SAFB1 Renders Chromatin Permissive for DNA Damage Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmeyer, Matthias; Toledo Lazaro, Luis Ignacio; Gudjonsson, Thorkell

    2013-01-01

    Although the general relevance of chromatin modifications for genotoxic stress signaling, cell-cycle checkpoint activation, and DNA repair is well established, how these modifications reach initial thresholds in order to trigger robust responses remains largely unexplored. Here, we identify...... the chromatin-associated scaffold attachment factor SAFB1 as a component of the DNA damage response and show that SAFB1 cooperates with histone acetylation to allow for efficient γH2AX spreading and genotoxic stress signaling. SAFB1 undergoes a highly dynamic exchange at damaged chromatin in a poly......(ADP-ribose)-polymerase 1- and poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent manner and is required for unperturbed cell-cycle checkpoint activation and guarding cells against replicative stress. Altogether, our data reveal that transient recruitment of an architectural chromatin component is required in order to overcome physiological...

  19. Abscisic acid ameliorates atherosclerosis by suppressing macrophage and CD4+ T cell recruitment into the aortic wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Misyak, Sarah A; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hasty, Alyssa; Liu, Dongmin; Si, Hongwei; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural phytohormone which improves insulin sensitivity and reduces adipose tissue inflammation when supplemented into diets of obese mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which ABA prevents or ameliorates atherosclerosis. apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed high-fat diets with or without ABA for 84 days. Systolic blood pressure was assessed on Days 0, 28, 56 and 72. Gene expression, immune cell infiltration and histological lesions were evaluated in the aortic root wall. Human aortic endothelial cells were used to examine the effect of ABA on 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro. We report that ABA-treated mice had significantly improved systolic blood pressure and decreased accumulation of F4/80(+)CD11b(+) macrophages and CD4(+) T cells in aortic root walls. At the molecular level, ABA significantly enhanced aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and tended to suppress aortic vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression and plasma MCP-1 concentrations. ABA also caused a dose-dependent increase in intracellular concentrations of cAMP and NO and up-regulated eNOS mRNA expression in human aortic endothelial cells. This is the first report showing that ABA prevents or ameliorates atherosclerosis-induced hypertension, immune cell recruitment into the aortic root wall and up-regulates aortic eNOS expression in ApoE(-/-) mice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabinoid treatment renders neurons less vulnerable than oligodendrocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasseldam, Henrik; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2011-01-01

    and demyelination. Furthermore, the cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, RANTES, and TGF-ß were significantly reduced as were the cellular infiltration with regulatory T cells. We suggest that cannabinoids in low doses are neuroprotective through a reduction in calpain 1 expression. Our study implies that long-term low...

  1. An interactive tool for CT volume rendering and sagittal plane-picking of the prostate for radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jani, Ashesh B.; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Chen, George T.Y.; Grzezcszuk, Robert P.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and precise target volume and critical structure definition is a basic necessity in radiotherapy. The prostate, particularly the apex (an important potential site of recurrence in prostate cancer patients), is a challenging structure to define using any modality, including conventional axial CT. Invasive or expensive techniques, such as retrograde urethrography or MRI, could be avoided if localization of the prostate were possible using information already available on the planning CT. Our primary objective was to build a software tool to determine whether volume rendering and sagittal plane-picking, which are CT-based, noninvasive visualization techniques, were of utility in radiotherapy treatment planning for the prostate. Methods: Using AVS (Application Visualization System) on a Silicon Graphics Indigo 2 High Impact workstation, we have developed a tool that enables the clinician to efficiently navigate a CT volume and to use volume rendering and sagittal plane-picking to better define structures at any anatomic site. We applied the tool to the specific example of the prostate to compare the two visualization techniques with the current standard of axial CT. The prostate was defined on 80-slice CT scans (scanning thickness 4mm, pixel size 2mm x 2mm) of prostate cancer patients using axial CT images, volume-rendered CT images, and sagittal plane-picked images. Results: The navigation of the prostate using the different visualization techniques qualitatively demonstrated that the sagittal plane-picked images, and even more so the volume-rendered images, revealed the prostate (particularly the lower border) better in relationship to the surrounding regional anatomy (bladder, rectum, pelvis, and penile structures) than did the axial images. A quantitative comparison of the target volumes obtained by navigating using the different visualization techniques demonstrated that, when compared to the prostate volume defined on axial CT, a larger volume

  2. North American Rendering: processing high quality protein and fats for feed North American Rendering: processamento de proteínas e gorduras de alta qualidade para alimentos para animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Meeker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One third to one half of each animal produced for meat, milk, eggs, and fiber is not consumed by humans. These raw materials are subjected to rendering processes resulting in many useful products. Meat and bone meal, meat meal, poultry meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, fish meal, and animal fats are the primary products resulting from the rendering process. The most important and valuable use for these animal by-products is as feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and companion animals. There are volumes of scientific references validating the nutritional qualities of these products, and there are no scientific reasons for altering the practice of feeding rendered products to animals. Government agencies regulate the processing of food and feed, and the rendering industry is scrutinized often. In addition, industry programs include good manufacturing practices, HACCP, Codes of Practice, and third-party certification. The rendering industry clearly understands its role in the safe and nutritious production of animal feed ingredients and has done it very effectively for over 100 years. The availability of rendered products for animal feeds in the future depends on regulation and the market. Regulatory agencies will determine whether certain raw materials can be used for animal feed. The National Renderers Association (NRA supports the use of science as the basis for regulation while aesthetics, product specifications, and quality differences should be left to the market place. Without the rendering industry, the accumulation of unprocessed animal by-products would impede the meat industries and pose a serious potential hazard to animal and human health.De um terço a metade da produção animal para carne, leite, ovos e fibra, não são consumidos pelos seres humanos. Estes materiais não consumidos são sujeitos a processamento em graxarias e indústrias de alimentos de origem animal, resultando em uma série de produtos

  3. Three dimensional volume rendering virtual endoscopy of the ossicles using a multi-row detector CT: applications and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Choi, Sun Seob; Kang, Myung Jin; Shin, Tae Beom; Lee, Ki Nam; Kang, Myung Koo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to know the applications and limitations of three dimensional volume rendering virtual endoscopy of the ossicles using a multi-row detector CT. This study examined 25 patients who underwent temporal bone CT using a 16-row detector CT as a result of hearing problems or trauma. The axial CT scan of the temporal bone was performed with a 0.6 mm collimation, and a reconstruction was carried out with a U70u sharp of kernel value, a 1 mm thickness and 0.5-1.0 mm increments. After observing the ossicles in the axial and coronal images, virtual endoscopy was performed using a three dimensional volume rendering technique with a threshold value of-500 HU. The intra-operative otoendoscopy was performed in 12 ears, and was compared with the virtual endoscopy findings. Virtual endoscopy of the 29 ears without hearing problems demonstrated hypoplastic or an incomplete depiction of the stapes superstructures in 25 ears and a normal depiction in 4 ears. Virtual endoscopy of 21 ears with hearing problems demonstrated no ossicles in 1 ears, no malleus in 3 ears, a malleoincudal subluxation in 6 ears, a dysplastic incus in 5 ears, an incudostapedial subluxation in 9 ears, dysplastic stapes in 2 ears, a hypoplastic or incomplete depiction of the stapes in 16 ears and no stapes in 1 ears. In contrast to the intra-operative otoendoscopy, 8 out of 12 ears showed a hypoplastic or deformed stapes in the virtual endoscopy. Volume rendering virtual endoscopy using a multi-row detector CT is an excellent method for evaluation the ossicles in three dimension, even thought the partial volume effect for the stapes superstructures needs to be considered

  4. GenExp: an interactive web-based genomic DAS client with client-side data rendering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Gel Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Distributed Annotation System (DAS offers a standard protocol for sharing and integrating annotations on biological sequences. There are more than 1000 DAS sources available and the number is steadily increasing. Clients are an essential part of the DAS system and integrate data from several independent sources in order to create a useful representation to the user. While web-based DAS clients exist, most of them do not have direct interaction capabilities such as dragging and zooming with the mouse. RESULTS: Here we present GenExp, a web based and fully interactive visual DAS client. GenExp is a genome oriented DAS client capable of creating informative representations of genomic data zooming out from base level to complete chromosomes. It proposes a novel approach to genomic data rendering and uses the latest HTML5 web technologies to create the data representation inside the client browser. Thanks to client-side rendering most position changes do not need a network request to the server and so responses to zooming and panning are almost immediate. In GenExp it is possible to explore the genome intuitively moving it with the mouse just like geographical map applications. Additionally, in GenExp it is possible to have more than one data viewer at the same time and to save the current state of the application to revisit it later on. CONCLUSIONS: GenExp is a new interactive web-based client for DAS and addresses some of the short-comings of the existing clients. It uses client-side data rendering techniques resulting in easier genome browsing and exploration. GenExp is open source under the GPL license and it is freely available at http://gralggen.lsi.upc.edu/recerca/genexp.

  5. Syringyl-Rich Lignin Renders Poplars More Resistant to Degradation by Wood Decay Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Oleksandr; Douglas, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of lignin composition on the resistance of wood to degradation by decay fungi, wood specimens from two transgenic poplar lines expressing an Arabidopsis gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) driven by the cinnimate-4-hydroxylase promoter (C4H::F5H) that increased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) monolignol ratios relative to those in the untransformed control wood were incubated with six different wood decay fungi. Alterations in wood weight and chemical composition were monitored over the incubation period. The results showed that transgenic poplar lines extremely rich in syringyl lignin exhibited a drastically improved resistance to degradation by all decay fungi evaluated. Lignin monomer composition and its distribution among cell types and within different cell layers were the sole wood chemistry parameters determining wood durability. Since transgenic poplars with exceedingly high syringyl contents were recalcitrant to degradation, where wood durability is a critical factor, these genotypes may offer improved performance. PMID:23396333

  6. Enhancement of Color Rendering Index for White Light LED Lamps by Red Y2O3:EU3+ Phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoang Quang Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of the red Y2O3:Eu3+ dopant phosphor compound for reaching the color rendering index as high as 86. The Multi-Chip White LED lamps (MCW-LEDs with high Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs including 7000 K and 8500 K are employed in this study. Besides, the impacts of the Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor on the attenuation of light through phosphor layers of the various packages is also demonstrated based on the Beer-Lambert law. Simulation results provide important conclusion for selecting and developing the phosphor materials in MCW-LEDs manufacturing.

  7. Formation of potential radiation risk groups to render timely targeted medical care: Lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V. K.; Kashcheev, V. V.; Zamulaeva, I. A.; Saenko, A. S.; Orlova, N. V.; Smirnova, S. G.; Korelo, A. M.; Gorsky, A. I.; Maksioutov, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses technology for establishing potential cancer risk groups, based on methods of molecular and radiation epidemiology. Assay of gene mutations at the T-cell receptor (TCR) locus as the method of molecular epidemiology was used for measuring the frequency of TCR-mutations in 320 nuclear workers of the Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). The method of radiation epidemiology was applied to the estimation of attributable risk fraction (ARF) for solid cancers in these groups. The main estimates of radiation risk after the Chernobyl accident are in close agreement with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication, 103 models published in 2007. In nuclear workers of the IPPE with ARF ≥ 10%, the increased level of TCR-mutations occurs more often (risk ratio=9.7; 95% CI: 2.9; 32.1). (authors)

  8. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Wickenhauser, Patrick; Rautek, Peter; Reina, Guido; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  9. Detection of pesticides and dioxins in tissue fats and rendering oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multari, Rosalie A; Cremers, David A; Scott, Thomas; Kendrick, Peter

    2013-03-13

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), a series of powerful laser pulses are directed at a surface to form microplasmas from which light is collected and spectrally analyzed to identify the surface material. In most cases, no sample preparation is needed, and results can be automated and made available within seconds to minutes. Advances in LIBS spectral data analysis using multivariate regression techniques have led to the ability to detect organic chemicals in complex matrices such as foods. Here, the use of LIBS to differentiate samples contaminated with aldrin, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, chlorpyrifos, and dieldrin in the complex matrices of tissue fats and rendering oils is described. The pesticide concentrations in the samples ranged from 0.005 to 0.1 μg/g. All samples were successfully differentiated from each other and from control samples. Sample concentrations could also be differentiated for all of the pesticides and the dioxin included in this study. The results presented here provide first proof-of-principle data for the ability to create LIBS-based instrumentation for the rapid analysis of pesticide and dioxin contamination in tissue fat and rendered oils.

  10. A localized flare of dermatitis may render patch tests uninterpretable in some patients with recently controlled widespread dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magembe, Anna J; Davis, Mark D P; Richardson, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    Patch testing rarely is confounded by localized dermatitis induced in the area being tested (usually the back). Its occurrence renders the interpretation of patch tests impossible. To review our experience of the circumstances in which this phenomenon occurs during patch testing. We retrospectively reviewed patients with this phenomenon who underwent patch testing from January 1, 2002, through June 30, 2006. Of the 3,569 patients tested, 12 (0.34% [9 men and 3 women]) had development of this phenomenon. All patients previously had recent widespread dermatitis that was suppressed temporarily with topical corticosteroids and wet dressings at the time of patch testing. The period between control of the dermatitis and the initiation of patch testing was less than 1 week for all patients. Three patients (25%) had recently discontinued therapy with systemic corticosteroids (less than 1 week earlier). In patients with irritable skin either immediately after widespread dermatitis is controlled or after the cessation of systemic corticosteroid treatment, a flare of dermatitis induced by patch testing may render patch tests unreadable and therefore uninterpretable. To avoid this confounding occurrence, a waiting period between control of widespread dermatitis and initiation of patch testing is advised.

  11. Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering system based on thin-film AlN actuators on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F.; Casset, F.; Danel, J. S.; Chappaz, C.; Basrour, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering system based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film AlN transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm2. Electrical and mechanical parameters of the system are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating system to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the AlN transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped system.

  12. Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering system based on thin-film AlN actuators on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F; Basrour, S; Casset, F; Danel, J S; Chappaz, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering system based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film AlN transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm 2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm 2 . Electrical and mechanical parameters of the system are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating system to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the AlN transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped system. (paper)

  13. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2017-08-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  14. A Virtual Reality System for PTCD Simulation Using Direct Visuo-Haptic Rendering of Partially Segmented Image Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmeier, Dirk; Mastmeyer, Andre; Schröder, Julian; Handels, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new visuo-haptic virtual reality (VR) training and planning system for percutaneous transhepatic cholangio-drainage (PTCD) based on partially segmented virtual patient models. We only use partially segmented image data instead of a full segmentation and circumvent the necessity of surface or volume mesh models. Haptic interaction with the virtual patient during virtual palpation, ultrasound probing and needle insertion is provided. Furthermore, the VR simulator includes X-ray and ultrasound simulation for image-guided training. The visualization techniques are GPU-accelerated by implementation in Cuda and include real-time volume deformations computed on the grid of the image data. Computation on the image grid enables straightforward integration of the deformed image data into the visualization components. To provide shorter rendering times, the performance of the volume deformation algorithm is improved by a multigrid approach. To evaluate the VR training system, a user evaluation has been performed and deformation algorithms are analyzed in terms of convergence speed with respect to a fully converged solution. The user evaluation shows positive results with increased user confidence after a training session. It is shown that using partially segmented patient data and direct volume rendering is suitable for the simulation of needle insertion procedures such as PTCD.

  15. Evaluation of obstructive airway lesions in complex congenital heart disease using composite volume-rendered images from multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Ki Seok; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Tae Hong; Kim, Suk; Kim, Kun Il; Lee, Hyoung Doo; Ban, Ji Eun; Sung, Si Chan; Chang, Yun Hee

    2006-01-01

    Multislice CT (MSCT) allows high-quality volume-rendered (VR) and composite volume-rendered images. To investigate the clinical usefulness of composite VR images in the evaluation of the relationship between cardiovascular structures and the airway in children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Four- or 16-slice MSCT scanning was performed consecutively in 77 children (mean age 6.4 months) with CHD and respiratory symptoms, a chest radiographic abnormality, or abnormal course of the pulmonary artery on ECHO. MSCT scanning was performed during breathing or after sedation. Contrast medium (2 ml/kg) was administered through a pedal venous route or arm vein in all patients. The VR technique was used to reconstruct the cardiovascular structures and airway, and then both VR images were composed using the commercial software (VoxelPlus 2 ; Daejeon, Korea). Stenoses were seen in the trachea in 1 patient and in the bronchi in 14 patients (19%). Other patients with complex CHD did not have significant airway stenoses. Composite VR images with MSCT can provide more exact airway images in relationship to the surrounding cardiovascular structures and thus help in optimizing management strategies in treating CHD. (orig.)

  16. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model; Analisi tecnica degli algoritmi di volume rendering: applicazione alle strutture a basso contrsto usando come modello la vascolarizzazione epatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Luccichenti, Giacomo [Fondazione Biomedica Europea ONLUS, Roma (Italy); Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Sezione di scienze radiologiche; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). UO di prevenzione e riabilitazione vascolare, Fondazione Don C. Gnocchi ONLUS; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics. [Italian] Scopo: Valutare l'influenza delle curve di opacit� (CO) preimpostate del volume-rendering sulla qualit� delle immagini, ed identificare quali parametri assoluti (attenzione dell'aorta, del parenchima epatico e della vena porta) influenzano la

  17. Cell membranes in radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cell membrane-related phenomena caused by low linear energy transfer radiation with doses lower than those producing cell killing are outlined. Micromorphological alterations as well as functional activities appearing with the receptors and in binding sites render it possible to reveal early and temporary changes. The cell injuries are suggested to transfer damaging conditions to surviving cells and to contribute to further development of non-stochastic effects in tissues

  18. Computer-assisted operational planning for pediatric abdominal surgery. 3D-visualized MRI with volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.; Holland-Cunz, S.; Waag, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Exact surgical planning is necessary for complex operations of pathological changes in anatomical structures of the pediatric abdomen. 3D visualization and computer-assisted operational planning based on CT data are being increasingly used for difficult operations in adults. To minimize radiation exposure and for better soft tissue contrast, sonography and MRI are the preferred diagnostic methods in pediatric patients. Because of manifold difficulties 3D visualization of these MRI data has not been realized so far, even though the field of embryonal malformations and tumors could benefit from this. A newly developed and modified raycasting-based powerful 3D volume rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.2) for the planning of pediatric abdominal surgery is presented. With the help of specifically developed algorithms, a useful surgical planning system is demonstrated. Thanks to the easy handling and high-quality visualization with enormous gain of information, the presented system is now an established part of routine surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  19. [Computer-assisted operational planning for pediatric abdominal surgery. 3D-visualized MRI with volume rendering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, P; Tröger, J; Holland-Cunz, S; Waag, K L; Schenk, J P

    2006-08-01

    Exact surgical planning is necessary for complex operations of pathological changes in anatomical structures of the pediatric abdomen. 3D visualization and computer-assisted operational planning based on CT data are being increasingly used for difficult operations in adults. To minimize radiation exposure and for better soft tissue contrast, sonography and MRI are the preferred diagnostic methods in pediatric patients. Because of manifold difficulties 3D visualization of these MRI data has not been realized so far, even though the field of embryonal malformations and tumors could benefit from this.A newly developed and modified raycasting-based powerful 3D volume rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.2) for the planning of pediatric abdominal surgery is presented. With the help of specifically developed algorithms, a useful surgical planning system is demonstrated. Thanks to the easy handling and high-quality visualization with enormous gain of information, the presented system is now an established part of routine surgical planning.

  20. Red carbon dots-based phosphors for white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yuechen; Wang, Yi; Li, Di; Zhou, Ding; Jing, Pengtao; Shen, Dezhen; Qu, Songnan

    2018-05-29

    Exploration of solid-state efficient red emissive carbon dots (CDs) phosphors is strongly desired for the development of high performance CDs-based white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). In this work, enhanced red emissive CDs-based phosphors with photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 25% were prepared by embedding red emissive CDs (PLQYs of 23%) into polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Because of the protection of PVP, the phosphors could preserve strong luminescence under long-term UV excitation or being mixed with conventional packaging materials. By applying the red emissive phosphors as the color conversion layer, WLEDs with high color rendering index of 92 and color coordinate of (0.33, 0.33) are fabricated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can we overcome the effect of conflicts in rendering palliative care? An introduction to the Middle Eastern Cancer Consortium (MECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, Michael; Khleif, Amal; Tuncer, Murat; Pitsillides, Barbara; Shad, Aziza; Oberman, Amitai; Elshami, Mohammad; Gultekin, Murat; Daher, Michel; Tarawneh, Mohammed; Harford, Joe

    2011-08-01

    The Middle East has been experiencing an ongoing political conflict for the past several decades. This situation has been characterized by hostility often leading to violence of all sources. At times, such a conflict led to the outbreak of a military war, which was followed by an enmity between religious, ethnic, cultural, and national populations. In such environmental situations, palliative care professionals often confront major challenges including bias, mistrust, and mutual suspicion between patients and their treating clinicians. In order to overcome such obstacles, while rendering palliative care services, all professionals involved need careful planning and execution of their treatment plans. The latter is however possible, and sometimes successful even across lines of conflict, thereby promoting understanding, mutual respect, and tolerance between the involved communities and individuals.

  2. Submucosal chromoendoscopy: a technique that highlights epithelia and differentiates histological components, and renders colon polypectomy easier and safer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dolz-Abadía

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Submucosal chromoendoscopy involves the injection of a solution containing a vital stain, usually indigo carmine, into the intestinal wall submucosal layer. This allows to: Better delimit and characterize the various epithelia present (colonic mucosa, adenoma, hyperplastic polyp, serrated polyp, small bowel mucosa; expose and delimit lesion implantation areas; cooperate in the lifting of resectable lesions; ensure section across the submucosal plane; identify intestinal wall structures; render complex polypectomy feasible; and facilitate the identification of perforations. The present paper offers information on the endoscopic technique for submucosal injection, solution preparation and concentration, and on the potential benefits it may provide for polypectomy or endocopic mucosal resection whether en block or piecemeal. This endoscopic technique simultaneously combines a diagnostic and a therapeutic aspect, since lesion lifting in association with better delimited contours may improve not only accuracy but also endoscopic resection safety and feasibility.

  3. Estimating the influence of social-economic factors on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsiya Sayetovna Gatina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define the group of factors influencing on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal services organization. Methods methods of systemic analysis and synthesis economicstatistical analysis. Results using the statistical methods of analysis a group of factors is defined which should be taken into account when developing the strategy of services market in housing and communal sphere. The objective of the strategy is to increase the level of quality services to the population of Russia in the housing and communal industry. Scientific novelty the indicators are revealed of the quality of communal services formed under socialeconomic factors. When analyzing the data of the matrix of interfactoral influence those were extinguished which show the largest influence on the level of services market development in housing and communal sphere. Practical value is the ability to use the assessment results to develop measures to improve the quality of housing and communal services organizations. nbsp

  4. True Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes as Phosphor for Tunable Color-Rendering Index Laser-Based White Light

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Zhao, Chao; Prabaswara, Aditya; Consiglio, Giuseppe Bernardo; Priante, Davide; Shen, Chao; Elafandy, Rami T.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Alhamoud, Abdullah A.; Alatawi, Abdullah A.; Yang, Yang; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    An urgent challenge for the lighting research community is the lack of efficient optical devices emitting in between 500 and 600 nm, resulting in the “green-yellow gap”. In particular, true green (∼555 nm) and true yellow (∼590 nm), along with blue and red, constitute four technologically important colors. The III-nitride material system, being the most promising choice of platform to bridge this gap, still suffers from high dislocation density and poor crystal quality in realizing high-power, efficient devices. Particularly, the high polarization fields in the active region of such 2D quantum confined structures prevent efficient recombination of carriers. Here we demonstrate a true yellow nanowire (NW) light emitting diode (LED) with peak emission of 588 nm at 29.5 A/cm2 (75 mA in a 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 device) and a low turn-on voltage of ∼2.5 V, while having an internal quantum efficiency of 39%, and without “efficiency droop” up to an injection current density of 29.5 A/cm2. By mixing yellow light from a NW LED in reflective configuration with that of a red, green, and blue laser diode (LD), white light with a correlated color temperature of ∼6000 K and color-rendering index of 87.7 was achieved. The nitride-NW-based device offers a robust, long-term stability for realizing yellow light emitters for tunable color-rendering index solid-state lighting, on a scalable, low-cost, foundry-compatible titanium/silicon substrate, suitable for industry uptake.

  5. Volume rendering based on magnetic resonance imaging: advances in understanding the three-dimensional anatomy of the human knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Di Bella, Paolo; Favaloro, Angelo; Trimarchi, Fabio; Magaudda, Ludovico; Gaeta, Michele; Scribano, Emanuele; Bruschetta, Daniele; Milardi, Demetrio

    2007-01-01

    The choice of medical imaging techniques, for the purpose of the present work aimed at studying the anatomy of the knee, derives from the increasing use of images in diagnostics, research and teaching, and the subsequent importance that these methods are gaining within the scientific community. Medical systems using virtual reality techniques also offer a good alternative to traditional methods, and are considered among the most important tools in the areas of research and teaching. In our work we have shown some possible uses of three-dimensional imaging for the study of the morphology of the normal human knee, and its clinical applications. We used the direct volume rendering technique, and created a data set of images and animations to allow us to visualize the single structures of the human knee in three dimensions. Direct volume rendering makes use of specific algorithms to transform conventional two-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging sets of slices into see-through volume data set images. It is a technique which does not require the construction of intermediate geometric representations, and has the advantage of allowing the visualization of a single image of the full data set, using semi-transparent mapping. Digital images of human structures, and in particular of the knee, offer important information about anatomical structures and their relationships, and are of great value in the planning of surgical procedures. On this basis we studied seven volunteers with an average age of 25 years, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, we analysed the structure of the knee in detail. The aim of our investigation was the three-dimensional image, in order to comprehend better the interactions between anatomical structures. We believe that these results, applied to living subjects, widen the frontiers in the areas of teaching, diagnostics, therapy and scientific research. PMID:17645453

  6. Extraction by Dry Rendering Methode and Characterization Fish Oil of Catfish Viscera Fat by Product of Smooked Fish Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kamini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe catfish viscera fat, is cathfish processing by-products, has potential to be used as a source of rawmaterial for production of fish oil. This study aimed to analyze the value of proximate, heavy metal contentand fatty acid profile of catfish viscera fat (Pangasius hypopthalmus and characterized fish oil extracted bydry rendering in various temperature and time than compared it to fish oil extracted by stove heating toobtain the best treatment. Proximate, heavy metal residue, and the fatty acid profile analysis were conductedfor characterizing catfish viscera fat. Fish oil extraction was conducted by dry rendering in varioustemperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 °C for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemicalcharacteristics i.e. PV, FFA, anisidin and TOTOX. The results of the study showed that fat content of catfishfat viscera was 88.19 %, the heavy metals content was below SNI standart to be consumed, and fatty acidprofile composition was SFA>MUFA>PUFA. The highest fatty acid content was oleic acid. The best fish oilquality was resulted on temperature extraction of 50°C for 2 hours with yield value, PV, FFA, anisidin, andTOTOX were 45.17 %, 2.77 meq/kg, 0.83 %, 2.86 meq/kg, 8.39 meq/kg respectively. This result was notsignificantly different with fish oil extracted by the stove heating expect for yield and PV were 80.11% and6.52 meq/kg, respectively.

  7. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Luccichenti, Giacomo; Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics [it

  8. Formulating CdSe quantum dots for white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fei; Li, Wan-Nan; Fu, Shao-Yun; Xiao, Hong-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Generation of white light using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) alone presents exciting possibilities for solid state lighting technology. In this work, Cd(Ac) 2 ·2H 2 O and Na 2 SeSO 3 are used as precursors to synthesize CdSe-QDs with an average diameter ranging from 2.77 to 4.65 nm at the low temperature from 60 to 180 °C. Smaller CdSe-QDs with an average diameter of 2.29 nm are got by an oxidation etching process using H 2 O 2 as oxidant. The structural and optical properties of these QDs are investigated and proper formulation of CdSe QDs with various sizes is carefully designed to achieve white light with a high color rendering index (CRI). It is observed for the first time that the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from single CdSe-QDs show the Commission Inernationale del’Eclairage coordinate (CIE) of (0.30,0.34) very close to that (0.33,0.33) of pure white light and a high CRI of 84. Owing to these advantages, the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from a single compound are promising for lighting applications. - Highlights: • CdSe-quantum dots (QDs) with a continuously changing size from 2.31 to 4.74 nm are prepared. • The obtained CdSe-QDs emit lights with tunable colors in the whole visible range. • The obtained mixture sample generates white light with a high color rendering index of 84. • The sample yields white light with the CIE coordinate (0.30, 0.34) very close to that of pure white light

  9. Customization, control, and characterization of a commercial haptic device for high-fidelity rendering of weak forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurari, Netta; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel

    2014-09-30

    The emergence of commercial haptic devices offers new research opportunities to enhance our understanding of the human sensory-motor system. Yet, commercial device capabilities have limitations which need to be addressed. This paper describes the customization of a commercial force feedback device for displaying forces with a precision that exceeds the human force perception threshold. The device was outfitted with a multi-axis force sensor and closed-loop controlled to improve its transparency. Additionally, two force sensing resistors were attached to the device to measure grip force. Force errors were modeled in the frequency- and time-domain to identify contributions from the mass, viscous friction, and Coulomb friction during open- and closed-loop control. The effect of user interaction on system stability was assessed in the context of a user study which aimed to measure force perceptual thresholds. Findings based on 15 participants demonstrate that the system maintains stability when rendering forces ranging from 0-0.20 N, with an average maximum absolute force error of 0.041 ± 0.013 N. Modeling the force errors revealed that Coulomb friction and inertia were the main contributors to force distortions during respectively slow and fast motions. Existing commercial force feedback devices cannot render forces with the required precision for certain testing scenarios. Building on existing robotics work, this paper shows how a device can be customized to make it reliable for studying the perception of weak forces. The customized and closed-loop controlled device is suitable for measuring force perceptual thresholds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. True Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes as Phosphor for Tunable Color-Rendering Index Laser-Based White Light

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2016-10-11

    An urgent challenge for the lighting research community is the lack of efficient optical devices emitting in between 500 and 600 nm, resulting in the “green-yellow gap”. In particular, true green (∼555 nm) and true yellow (∼590 nm), along with blue and red, constitute four technologically important colors. The III-nitride material system, being the most promising choice of platform to bridge this gap, still suffers from high dislocation density and poor crystal quality in realizing high-power, efficient devices. Particularly, the high polarization fields in the active region of such 2D quantum confined structures prevent efficient recombination of carriers. Here we demonstrate a true yellow nanowire (NW) light emitting diode (LED) with peak emission of 588 nm at 29.5 A/cm2 (75 mA in a 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 device) and a low turn-on voltage of ∼2.5 V, while having an internal quantum efficiency of 39%, and without “efficiency droop” up to an injection current density of 29.5 A/cm2. By mixing yellow light from a NW LED in reflective configuration with that of a red, green, and blue laser diode (LD), white light with a correlated color temperature of ∼6000 K and color-rendering index of 87.7 was achieved. The nitride-NW-based device offers a robust, long-term stability for realizing yellow light emitters for tunable color-rendering index solid-state lighting, on a scalable, low-cost, foundry-compatible titanium/silicon substrate, suitable for industry uptake.

  11. High-performance GPU-based rendering for real-time, rigid 2D/3D-image registration and motion prediction in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerk, Jakob; Gendrin, Christelle; Weber, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Furtado, Hugo; Fabri, Daniella; Bloch, Christoph; Bergmann, Helmar; Gröller, Eduard; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    A common problem in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of lung cancer as well as other malignant diseases is the compensation of periodic and aperiodic motion during dose delivery. Modern systems for image-guided radiation oncology allow for the acquisition of cone-beam computed tomography data in the treatment room as well as the acquisition of planar radiographs during the treatment. A mid-term research goal is the compensation of tumor target volume motion by 2D/3D Registration. In 2D/3D registration, spatial information on organ location is derived by an iterative comparison of perspective volume renderings, so-called digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) from computed tomography volume data, and planar reference x-rays. Currently, this rendering process is very time consuming, and real-time registration, which should at least provide data on organ position in less than a second, has not come into existence. We present two GPU-based rendering algorithms which generate a DRR of 512×512 pixels size from a CT dataset of 53 MB size at a pace of almost 100 Hz. This rendering rate is feasible by applying a number of algorithmic simplifications which range from alternative volume-driven rendering approaches - namely so-called wobbled splatting - to sub-sampling of the DRR-image by means of specialized raycasting techniques. Furthermore, general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) programming paradigms were consequently utilized. Rendering quality and performance as well as the influence on the quality and performance of the overall registration process were measured and analyzed in detail. The results show that both methods are competitive and pave the way for fast motion compensation by rigid and possibly even non-rigid 2D/3D registration and, beyond that, adaptive filtering of motion models in IGRT. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. High-performance GPU-based rendering for real-time, rigid 2D/3D-image registration and motion prediction in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerk, Jakob; Gendrin, Christelle; Weber, Christoph [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Center of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering] [and others

    2012-07-01

    A common problem in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of lung cancer as well as other malignant diseases is the compensation of periodic and aperiodic motion during dose delivery. Modern systems for image-guided radiation oncology allow for the acquisition of cone-beam computed tomography data in the treatment room as well as the acquisition of planar radiographs during the treatment. A mid-term research goal is the compensation of tumor target volume motion by 2D/3D Registration. In 2D/3D registration, spatial information on organ location is derived by an iterative comparison of perspective volume renderings, so-called digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) from computed tomography volume data, and planar reference X-rays. Currently, this rendering process is very time consuming, and real-time registration, which should at least provide data on organ position in less than a second, has not come into existence. We present two GPU-based rendering algorithms which generate a DRR of 512 x 512 pixels size from a CT dataset of 53 MB size at a pace of almost 100 Hz. This rendering rate is feasible by applying a number of algorithmic simplifications which range from alternative volume-driven rendering approaches - namely so-called wobbled splatting - to sub-sampling of the DRR-image by means of specialized raycasting techniques. Furthermore, general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) programming paradigms were consequently utilized. Rendering quality and performance as well as the influence on the quality and performance of the overall registration process were measured and analyzed in detail. The results show that both methods are competitive and pave the way for fast motion compensation by rigid and possibly even non-rigid 2D/3D registration and, beyond that, adaptive filtering of motion models in IGRT. (orig.)

  13. 09 Renders 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2009-03-02

    Mar 2, 2009 ... to divide the African spoils amongst the European nations, the Congo became the fiefdom of ..... Europe nothing but diseases and death. .... A more authentic representation of the African and of African society can be found.

  14. Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jose Luis

    The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized

  15. FluoRender: An application of 2D image space methods for 3D and 4D confocal microscopy data visualization in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yong; Otsuna, Hideo; Chien, Chi-Bin; Hansen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists' demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. FluoRender: An application of 2D image space methods for 3D and 4D confocal microscopy data visualization in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yong

    2012-02-01

    2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists\\' demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Fabrication of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Su, Yu-Sheng; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Among solid-state lighting technology, phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are excellent candidates to replace incandescent lamps for their merit of high energy conservation, long lifetime, high luminous efficiency as well as polarized emissions. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging color tunable emissive light converters. They have shown significant promise as light emitters, as solar cells, and in biological imaging. It has been demonstrated that the pc-WLED devices integrated with red emissive ZnCdSe QDs show improved color rendering index of device. However, cadmium-based QDs have limited future owing to the well-known toxicity. Recently, non-cadmium luminescence materials, i.e. CuInS2-based QDs, are investigated as desirable low toxic alternatives. Particularly, CuInS2-based QDs exhibit very broad emissions spectra with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 100-120 nm, large Stokes shifts of 200 300 meV and finely-tunable emissions. In order to adjust emission wavelengths and improved quantum yield (QY), CuInS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core/shell structure was introduced. Therefore, CIS/ZnS QDs have been extensively investigated and be used as color converter in solid-state lighting. Synthesis and application of CuInS2/ZnS core/shell QDs are conducted using a hot injection route. CIS/ZnS core/shell QDs with molar ratio of Cu:In equal to 1:4 are prepared. For WLED fabrication, the CIS/ZnS QD is dispersed in toluene first, and then it is blended with transparent acrylic-based UV resin. Subsequently, the commercial green-emitting Lu3Al5O12: Ce3+ (LuAG) phosphors are mixed with QDs-resin mixture. After that, the QDs-phosphors-resin mixtures are put in the oven at 140 °C for 1 h to evaporate the toluene. Subsequently, the homogeneous QDs-phosphors-resin mixture is dropped on the top of a blue LED chip (InGaN). Then, the device is cured by 400 W UV light to form WLED. The emission wavelength of CIS/ZnS QD exhibits yellow region of 552 nm with QY

  18. Parametric Analysis to Study the Influence of Aerogel-Based Renders' Components on Thermal and Mechanical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Sofia; Silva, Ana; Soares, António; Flores-Colen, Inês; de Brito, Jorge

    2016-05-04

    Statistical models using multiple linear regression are some of the most widely used methods to study the influence of independent variables in a given phenomenon. This study's objective is to understand the influence of the various components of aerogel-based renders on their thermal and mechanical performance, namely cement (three types), fly ash, aerial lime, silica sand, expanded clay, type of aerogel, expanded cork granules, expanded perlite, air entrainers, resins (two types), and rheological agent. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), based on 85 mortar mixes produced in the laboratory and on their values of thermal conductivity and compressive strength obtained using tests in small-scale samples. The results showed that aerial lime assumes the main role in improving the thermal conductivity of the mortars. Aerogel type, fly ash, expanded perlite and air entrainers are also relevant components for a good thermal conductivity. Expanded clay can improve the mechanical behavior and aerogel has the opposite effect.

  19. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the orbital floor by volume-rendering of multidetector-row CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Miyajima, Akira; Fujita, Yuko; Yamada, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    The advent of 3D-CT has made the evaluation of complicated facial fractures much easier than before. However, its use in injuries involving the orbital floor has been limited by the difficulty of visualizing the thin bony structures given artifacts caused by the partial volume effect. Nevertheless, high-technology machines such as multidetector-row CT (MDCT) and new-generation software have improved the quality of 3D imaging, and this paper describes a procedure for obtaining better visualization of the orbital floor using a MDCT scanner. Forty trauma cases were subject to MDCT: 13 with injury to the orbital floor, and 27 without. All scans were performed in the standard manner, at slice thicknesses of 0.5 mm. 3D-CT images were created overlooking the orbital floor including soft tissue to minimize the pseudo-foramen artifacts produced through volume rendering. Bone deficits, fracture lines, and grafted bone were visible in the 3D images, and visualization was supported by the ready creation of stereoscopic images from MDCT volume data. Measurement of the pseudo-foramen revealed approximately half the artifacts to be less than 5 mm in diameter, suggesting practicality of this method without subjecting the patient to undue increases in radiation exposure in the treatment of cases involving injury to the orbital floor. (author)

  20. Virtual reality system for treatment of the fear of public speaking using image-based rendering and moving pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae M; Ku, Jeong H; Jang, Dong P; Kim, Dong H; Choi, Young H; Kim, In Y; Kim, Sun I

    2002-06-01

    The fear of speaking is often cited as the world's most common social phobia. The rapid growth of computer technology enabled us to use virtual reality (VR) for the treatment of the fear of public speaking. There have been two techniques used to construct a virtual environment for the treatment of the fear of public speaking: model-based and movie-based. Virtual audiences and virtual environments made by model-based technique are unrealistic and unnatural. The movie-based technique has a disadvantage in that each virtual audience cannot be controlled respectively, because all virtual audiences are included in one moving picture file. To address this disadvantage, this paper presents a virtual environment made by using image-based rendering (IBR) and chroma keying simultaneously. IBR enables us to make the virtual environment realistic because the images are stitched panoramically with the photos taken from a digital camera. And the use of chroma keying allows a virtual audience to be controlled individually. In addition, a real-time capture technique was applied in constructing the virtual environment to give the subjects more interaction, in that they can talk with a therapist or another subject.

  1. A Feasibility Study with Image-Based Rendered Virtual Reality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manera

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality (VR has emerged as a promising tool in many domains of therapy and rehabilitation, and has recently attracted the attention of researchers and clinicians working with elderly people with MCI, Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Here we present a study testing the feasibility of using highly realistic image-based rendered VR with patients with MCI and dementia. We designed an attentional task to train selective and sustained attention, and we tested a VR and a paper version of this task in a single-session within-subjects design. Results showed that participants with MCI and dementia reported to be highly satisfied and interested in the task, and they reported high feelings of security, low discomfort, anxiety and fatigue. In addition, participants reported a preference for the VR condition compared to the paper condition, even if the task was more difficult. Interestingly, apathetic participants showed a preference for the VR condition stronger than that of non-apathetic participants. These findings suggest that VR-based training can be considered as an interesting tool to improve adherence to cognitive training in elderly people with cognitive impairment.

  2. Users’ Perceptions Using Low-End and High-End Mobile-Rendered HMDs: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-Carmen Juan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is possible to combine Mobile-Rendered Head-Mounted Displays (MR HMDs with smartphones to have Augmented Reality platforms. The differences between these types of platforms can affect the user’s experiences and satisfaction. This paper presents a study that analyses the user’s perception when using the same Augmented Reality app with two MR HMD (low-end and high-end. Our study evaluates the user’s experience taking into account several factors (control, sensory, distraction, ergonomics and realism. An Augmalpha-lowerented Reality app was developed to carry out the comparison for two MR HMDs. The application had exactly the same visual appearance and functionality for both devices. Forty adults participated in our study. From the results, there were no statistically significant differences for the users’ experience for the different factors when using the two MR HMDs, except for the ergonomic factors in favour of the high-end MR HMD. Even though the scores for the high-end MR HMD were higher in nearly all of the questions, both MR HMDs provided a very satisfying viewing experience with very high scores. The results were independent of gender and age. The participants rated the high-end MR HMD as the best one. Nevertheless, when they were asked which MR HMD they would buy, the participants chose the low-end MR HMD taking into account its price.

  3. Force Rendering and its Evaluation of a Friction-Based Walking Sensation Display for a Seated User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ginga; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Haruo

    2018-04-01

    Most existing locomotion devices that represent the sensation of walking target a user who is actually performing a walking motion. Here, we attempted to represent the walking sensation, especially a kinesthetic sensation and advancing feeling (the sense of moving forward) while the user remains seated. To represent the walking sensation using a relatively simple device, we focused on the force rendering and its evaluation of the longitudinal friction force applied on the sole during walking. Based on the measurement of the friction force applied on the sole during actual walking, we developed a novel friction force display that can present the friction force without the influence of body weight. Using performance evaluation testing, we found that the proposed method can stably and rapidly display friction force. Also, we developed a virtual reality (VR) walk-through system that is able to present the friction force through the proposed device according to the avatar's walking motion in a virtual world. By evaluating the realism, we found that the proposed device can represent a more realistic advancing feeling than vibration feedback.

  4. EFFECT OF UNRIPE GRAPE JUICE (VERJUICE ON PLASMA LIPID LEVELS IN RABBITS RENDERED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC BY FEEDING EGG YOLK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aminian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Since many years it has been a general belief in Iranian traditional medicine that unripe grape juice (verjuice has lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. Fifty rabbits were selected and divided into 5 groups with 10 rabbits in each. Group 1 had no supplemental diet. Group 2 were fed 10 ml egg yolk daily and group 3 were fed 10 ml egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for six weeks. In the second part of study, 20 rabbits rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding egg yolk for six weeks, then they were divided into two groups: Group 4 received 10 ml of the egg yolk daily, and group 5 received 10 ml of the egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for the next 6 weeks. The plasma lipid profiles were measured at the beginning and then every two weeks. In the first part of study total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations in group 2 rose 10 times in comparison with group 1, but addition of verjuice in group 3 did not prevent rising of these values. In the second part of study, TC and LDL-C values rose in groups 4 and 5 in a parallel fashion. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG were not statistically significant throughout the study. In conclusion, this study did not support preventive or therapeutic effect of verjuice in hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Choice-Making in Rendering Culture-Bound Elements in Literary Translation: A Case Study on the English Translation Of «????»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meihua, Song

    2014-01-01

    How to render culture-bound elements into a foreign language remains one of the most challenging tasks for all translators, especially, when the source text is a literary one. To retain the aesthetic effects and other stylistic features of importance, some argue that choice can be made from either domestication or foreignization with…

  6. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix R to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. R Appendix R to Subpart B of Part...

  7. Freely-available, true-color volume rendering software and cryohistology data sets for virtual exploration of the temporal bone anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrs, Lüder Alexander; Labadie, Robert Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Cadaveric dissection of temporal bone anatomy is not always possible or feasible in certain educational environments. Volume rendering using CT and/or MRI helps understanding spatial relationships, but they suffer in nonrealistic depictions especially regarding color of anatomical structures. Freely available, nonstained histological data sets and software which are able to render such data sets in realistic color could overcome this limitation and be a very effective teaching tool. With recent availability of specialized public-domain software, volume rendering of true-color, histological data sets is now possible. We present both feasibility as well as step-by-step instructions to allow processing of publicly available data sets (Visible Female Human and Visible Ear) into easily navigable 3-dimensional models using free software. Example renderings are shown to demonstrate the utility of these free methods in virtual exploration of the complex anatomy of the temporal bone. After exploring the data sets, the Visible Ear appears more natural than the Visible Human. We provide directions for an easy-to-use, open-source software in conjunction with freely available histological data sets. This work facilitates self-education of spatial relationships of anatomical structures inside the human temporal bone as well as it allows exploration of surgical approaches prior to cadaveric testing and/or clinical implementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The efficacy of Aspergillus niger phytase in rendering phytate phosphorus available for absorption in pigs is influenced by pig physiological status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, P.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Mroz, Z.; Beynen, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    We performed an experiment with 112 piglets, 32 growing-finishing pigs, and 12 sows during pregnancy and lactation to test the hypotheses that apparent total tract digestibilities of P and Ca as well as the efficacy of Aspergillus niger phytase in rendering phytate P available in pigs depend on pig

  9. Differences in Nicotine Metabolism of Two Nicotiana attenuata Herbivores Render Them Differentially Susceptible to a Common Native Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Rathi, Preeti; Schöttner, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Pandit, Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotiana attenuata is attacked by larvae of both specialist (Manduca sexta) and generalist (Spodoptera exigua) lepidopteran herbivores in its native habitat. Nicotine is one of N. attenuata's important defenses. M. sexta is highly nicotine tolerant; whether cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidative detoxification and/or rapid excretion is responsible for its exceptional tolerance remains unknown despite five decades of study. Recently, we demonstrated that M. sexta uses its nicotine-induced CYP6B46 to efflux midgut-nicotine into the hemolymph, facilitating nicotine exhalation that deters predatory wolf spiders (Camptocosa parallela). S. exigua's nicotine metabolism is uninvestigated. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the ability of these two herbivores to metabolize, tolerate and co-opt ingested nicotine for defense against the wolf spider. In addition, we analyzed the spider's excretion to gain insights into its nicotine metabolism. Contrary to previous reports, we found that M. sexta larvae neither accumulate the common nicotine oxides (cotinine, cotinine N-oxide and nicotine N-oxide) nor excrete them faster than nicotine. In M. sexta larvae, ingestion of nicotine as well as its oxides increases the accumulation of CYP6B46 transcripts. In contrast, S. exigua accumulates nicotine oxides and exhales less (66%) nicotine than does M. sexta. Spiders prefer nicotine-fed S. exigua over M. sexta, a preference reversed by topical or headspace nicotine supplementation, but not ingested or topically-coated nicotine oxides, suggesting that externalized nicotine but not the nicotine detoxification products deter spider predation. The spiders also do not accumulate nicotine oxides. Conclusions Nicotine oxidation reduces S. exigua's headspace-nicotine and renders it more susceptible to predation by spiders than M. sexta, which exhales unmetabolized nicotine. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that generalist herbivores incur costs of

  10. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-07-28

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95).

  11. CdSe white quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2016-09-01

    A white light emission CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can be prepared by chemical route under 180°C. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to react with CdO to form Cd-OA complex. Hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-Octadecene (ODE) were used as co-surfactants. By controlling the reaction time, a white light emission CdSe QDs can be obtained after reacts for 3 to 10 min. The luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light ranges from 400 to 650 nm. Based on TEM measurement result, spherical morphologies with particle size 2.39+/-0.27 nm can be obtained. The quantum yields (QYs) of white CdSe QD are between 20 and 60 %, which depends on reaction time. A white CdSe QDs were mixed with UV cured gel (OPAS-226) with weight ratios 50.0 wt. %, and putted the mixture into reflective cup (3020, 13 mil) as convert type. The white LEDs have controllable CIE coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT). The luminous efficacy of the device is less than 3 lm/W, but the color rendering index (CRI) for all devices are higher than 80. Since the luminous efficacy of hybrid devices has a direct dependence on the external QY of the UV-LED as well, the luminous efficacy can be improved by well dispersion of CdSe QDs in UV gel matrix and using optimized LED chips. Therefore, in this study, we provide a new and simple method to prepare high QY of white CdSe QDs and its have a potential to applicate in solid-state lighting.

  12. Methylation of 23S rRNA nucleotide G748 by RlmAII methyltransferase renders Streptococcus pneumoniae telithromycin susceptible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Akiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Shoji, Tatsuma; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2013-08-01

    Several posttranscriptional modifications of bacterial rRNAs are important in determining antibiotic resistance or sensitivity. In all Gram-positive bacteria, dimethylation of nucleotide A2058, located in domain V of 23S rRNA, by the dimethyltransferase Erm(B) results in low susceptibility and resistance to telithromycin (TEL). However, this is insufficient to produce high-level resistance to TEL in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Inactivation of the methyltransferase RlmA(II), which methylates the N-1 position of nucleotide G748, located in hairpin 35 of domain II of 23S rRNA, results in increased resistance to TEL in erm(B)-carrying S. pneumoniae. Sixteen TEL-resistant mutants (MICs, 16 to 32 μg/ml) were obtained from a clinically isolated S. pneumoniae strain showing low TEL susceptibility (MIC, 2 μg/ml), with mutation resulting in constitutive dimethylation of A2058 because of nucleotide differences in the regulatory region of erm(B) mRNA. Primer extension analysis showed that the degree of methylation at G748 in all TEL-resistant mutants was significantly reduced by a mutation in the gene encoding RlmA(II) to create a stop codon or change an amino acid residue. Furthermore, RNA footprinting with dimethyl sulfate and a molecular modeling study suggested that methylation of G748 may contribute to the stable interaction of TEL with domain II of 23S rRNA, even after dimethylation of A2058 by Erm(B). This novel finding shows that methylation of G748 by RlmA(II) renders S. pneumoniae TEL susceptible.

  13. Enabling Real-Time Volume Rendering of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on an iOS Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2017-12-01

    Powerful non-invasive imaging technologies like computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used daily by medical professionals to diagnose and treat patients. While 2D slice viewers have long been the standard, many tools allowing 3D representations of digital medical data are now available. The newest imaging advancement, functional MRI (fMRI) technology, has changed medical imaging from viewing static to dynamic physiology (4D) over time, particularly to study brain activity. Add this to the rapid adoption of mobile devices for everyday work and the need to visualize fMRI data on tablets or smartphones arises. However, there are few mobile tools available to visualize 3D MRI data, let alone 4D fMRI data. Building volume rendering tools on mobile devices to visualize 3D and 4D medical data is challenging given the limited computational power of the devices. This paper describes research that explored the feasibility of performing real-time 3D and 4D volume raycasting on a tablet device. The prototype application was tested on a 9.7" iPad Pro using two different fMRI datasets of brain activity. The results show that mobile raycasting is able to achieve between 20 and 40 frames per second for traditional 3D datasets, depending on the sampling interval, and up to 9 frames per second for 4D data. While the prototype application did not always achieve true real-time interaction, these results clearly demonstrated that visualizing 3D and 4D digital medical data is feasible with a properly constructed software framework.

  14. 高显色指数LED合成白光光源的研究%Study on LEDs Synthesized High Color Rendering Index White Light Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡奕彬; 庄其仁; 刘士伟; 赖传杜

    2016-01-01

    针对目前白光发光二极管(LED)照明灯具显色性不高的问题,基于测色法研究了LED合成白光显色指数的计算模型,根据参与合成的LED光源光谱及其数量,软件编程计算得出合成光源的色温、显色指数等参数.采用优化的遍历范围,将实验测量得到的冷、暖白光及单色LED的光谱导入程序进行模拟计算,得到不同色温下合成光源的显色指数最大值以及所对应的各种LED配比数量.结果表明,暖白光LED与红、绿、蓝LED合成可以获得色温L介于3500 K~12300 K、显色指数见介于92.0~97.7的白光;与红、绿、青LED合成可以获得Ra介于95.0~97.8的低色温白光(3500 K~4500 K).冷白光LED与红、绿、青LED合成可以获得Ra介于90.9~98.4的高色温白光(8200 K~13000 K).对理论计算的Tc=7803 K、Ra=97.29的LED配比进行实际制作,实验测量得到Tc=7992 K,Ra=97.1,理论计算结果与实验结果吻合.%Targeting poor color rendering property of current white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps,based on the colorimetry method,the calculation model for color rendering index of synthetic white light is studied and the parameters like color temperature and color rendering index of the synthetic LED light source are obtained based on the spectrum and quantity of light sources involved in the synthesis process.By using optimized traversal range,the spectra of cold and warm white light and single-color LEDs are imported into the program for simulating calculation,obtaining the maximum value of color rendering index of the synthesized light source under different color temperatures as well as corresponding matched quantity of various LEDs.The results show that the synthesis with warm white LEDs and red,green and blue LEDs can lead to white light whose color temperature falls in the range of 3500 K~12300 K and color rendering index Ra ranges between 92.0 and 97.7.The synthesis with warm white LEDs and red,green and bluish

  15. Analytical characterization of technical animal fat from a rendering plant; Chemisch-analytische Charakterisierung technischen tierischen Fettes aus einer Tierkoerperbeseitigungsanstalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadir, M.; Jopke, P.; Matthies, B.; Schmidt-Naedler, C.; Wichmann, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Bock, R.; Dettmer, T.; Hesselbach, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik; Falk, O.; Meyer-Pittroff, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik der Lebensmittelindustrie

    2004-07-01

    Aims and Scope. German rendering plants produce 300,000 tons of animal fat per year. Until recently, these raw products have been in wide use as nutritional additive for cattle and other animals fodder but now they have been banned due to their assumed role in BSE infection. Therefore, alternative fields of usage are required. In this context the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) is sponsoring a joint research project which deals with the production and testing of cooling lubricants based on animal fat esters. Methods. In a first step, characteristics and quality of the animal fat were analyzed and monitored for a whole year in order to identify e.g. seasonal variations. The investigations covered the following fat specific and trace analytical parameters: total contamination, sulfates ash, water content, peroxide number, iodine value, kinematical viscosity, neutralisation number (free fatty acids), fatty acid spectra, elements / heavy metals (Al, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sn, V, W and Zn), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Results. Valuable hints on the design of the technical process of fatty acid methylesters production were gained by regarding the fat specific parameters. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund und Ziel. Von den deutschen Tierkoerperbeseitigungsanstalten werden z.Z. rund 300.000 t/a technisches tierisches Fett produziert. Ausgeloest durch die BSE-Krise wird dieser Rohstoff nicht mehr als Tierfutterergaenzungsmittel eingesetzt. Nun wird nach neuen Verwertungswegen fuer diese Fette gesucht. In diesem Zusammenhang wird von der DBU ein Verbundprojekt finanziert, in dessen Rahmen durch Umesterung der Fette Grundoele fuer Kuehlschmierstoffe (KSS) hergestellt und die KSS-Produkte in der spanenden Bearbeitung von Metallen in der industriellen Praxis getestet werden sollen. Methoden. Als erster Schritt sollten durch chemisch

  16. Effects of mechanical cleaning by manual brushing and abrasive blasting on lime render coatings on Architectural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias-Campos, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the effects of mechanical cleaning by brushing and by abrasive blasting on the lime render coating of a façade. After analysing the properties of the material, the deposits to be removed and their possible influence on the treatment, different cleaning tests were made by manual brushing and by blasting with three varieties of abrasives at 45° and 75° angles, keeping the other parameters constant. Taking the restorer’s perspective as a starting point, and in order to fulfil the practical requirements of an intervention, tests were evaluated with macro-photography, USB digital microscope and stereomicroscope with 3D visualization and measurement. From the results can be concluded that abrasives with low friability and greater grain size than the space between mortar aggregates blasted at a 75° angle reduce the differential erosion compared to other abrasives; although manual brushing has less impact on the surface.En este trabajo se estudian los efectos de las limpiezas mecánicas con cepillado y con proyección de abrasivos sobre un revestimiento exterior de cal. Tras documentar las propiedades del material, de los depósitos superficiales y de su posible influencia en el tratamiento, se realizaron diferentes catas de limpieza con cepillado manual y con proyección de tres abrasivos con ángulos de 45° y 75° manteniendo constantes el resto de parámetros. Partiendo de la visión del conservador-restaurador y de un carácter práctico según las necesidades reales de intervención, los ensayos se evaluaron con macrofotografía, microscopio digital USB y microscopio estereoscópico con visualización y medición en 3D. De los resultados se determina que los abrasivos de baja friabilidad y granulometría mayor que el espacio entre los áridos del mortero proyectados con un ángulo de 75° reducen la erosión diferencial en comparación a otros abrasivos, aunque el cepillado manual altera menos la superficie.

  17. Transplantation Tolerance Induction: Cell Therapies and Their Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Scalea, Joseph R.; Tomita, Yusuke; Lindholm, Christopher R.; Burlingham, William

    2016-01-01

    Cell based therapies have been studied extensively in the context of transplantation tolerance induction. The most successful protocols have relied on transfusion of bone marrow prior to the transplantation of a renal allograft. However, it is not clear that stem cells found in bone marrow are required in order to render a transplant candidate immunologically tolerant. Accordingly, mesenchymal stem cells, regulatory myeloid cells, T regulatory cells, and other cell types, are being tested as ...

  18. Susceptibility of ATM-deficient pancreatic cancer cells to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Michael; Eshleman, James; Goggins, Michael

    2017-05-19

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is inactivated in a significant minority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and may be predictor of treatment response. We determined if ATM deficiency renders pancreatic cancer cells more sensitive to fractionated radiation or commonly used chemotherapeutics. ATM expression was knocked down in three pancreatic cancer cell lines using ATM-targeting shRNA. Isogenic cell lines were tested for sensitivity to several chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. DNA repair kinetics were analyzed in irradiated cells using the comet assay. We find that while rendering pancreatic cancer cells ATM-deficient did not significantly change their sensitivity to several chemotherapeutics, it did render them exquisitely sensitized to radiation. Pancreatic cancer ATM status may help predict response to radiotherapy.

  19. SPATIOTEMPORAL VISUALIZATION OF TIME-SERIES SATELLITE-DERIVED CO2 FLUX DATA USING VOLUME RENDERING AND GPU-BASED INTERPOLATION ON A CLOUD-DRIVEN DIGITAL EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ocean carbon cycle has a significant influence on global climate, and is commonly evaluated using time-series satellite-derived CO2 flux data. Location-aware and globe-based visualization is an important technique for analyzing and presenting the evolution of climate change. To achieve realistic simulation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ocean carbon, a cloud-driven digital earth platform is developed to support the interactive analysis and display of multi-geospatial data, and an original visualization method based on our digital earth is proposed to demonstrate the spatiotemporal variations of carbon sinks and sources using time-series satellite data. Specifically, a volume rendering technique using half-angle slicing and particle system is implemented to dynamically display the released or absorbed CO2 gas. To enable location-aware visualization within the virtual globe, we present a 3D particlemapping algorithm to render particle-slicing textures onto geospace. In addition, a GPU-based interpolation framework using CUDA during real-time rendering is designed to obtain smooth effects in both spatial and temporal dimensions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method, a series of satellite data is applied to simulate the air-sea carbon cycle in the China Sea. The results show that the suggested strategies provide realistic simulation effects and acceptable interactive performance on the digital earth.

  20. Color Rendering Index Thermal Stability Improvement of Glass-Based Phosphor-Converted White Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chin Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High color rendering index performance has been required for phosphor-converted warm-white light-emitting diodes (PC-WWLEDs in lighting industry. The characteristics of low-temperature fabricated phosphor (yellow: Ce3+:YAG, green: Tb3+:YAG, and red: CaAlClSiN3:Eu2+ doped glass were presented for applications to high color rendering index warm-white-light-emitting diodes. Color coordinates (x, y = (0.36, 0.29, quantum yield (QY = 55.6%, color rending index (CRI = 85.3, and correlated color temperature (CCT = 3923 K were characterized. Glass-based PC-WWLEDs was found able to maintain good thermal stability for long-time high-temperature operation. QY decay, CRI remenance, and chromaticity shift were also analyzed for glass- and silicone-based high-power PC-WLEDs by thermal aging at 150°C and 250°C for industrial test standard’s aging time 1008 hours. Better than the silicone’s, thermal stability of glass-based PC-WLEDs has been improved. The resulted high color rendering index (CRI glass phosphor potentially can be used as a phosphor layer for high-performance and low-cost PC-WLEDs used in next-generation indoor solid-state lighting applications.

  1. TLR3 deficiency renders astrocytes permissive to herpes simplex virus infection and facilitates establishment of CNS infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line; Harder, Louis Andreas; Holm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are highly prevalent neurotropic viruses. While they can replicate lytically in cells of the epithelial lineage, causing lesions on mucocutaneous surfaces, HSVs also establish latent infections in neurons, which act as reservoirs of virus for subsequent reactivation......, it is not known what cell type mediates the role of TLR3 in the immunological control of HSV, and it is not known whether TLR3 sensing occurs prior to or after CNS entry. Here, we show that in mice TLR3 provides early control of HSV-2 infection immediately after entry into the CNS by mediating type I IFN...... responses in astrocytes. Tlr3-/- mice were hypersusceptible to HSV-2 infection in the CNS after vaginal inoculation. HSV-2 exhibited broader neurotropism in Tlr3-/- mice than it did in WT mice, with astrocytes being most abundantly infected. Tlr3-/- mice did not exhibit a global defect in innate immune...

  2. Predicting the long-term durability of hemp-lime renders in inland and coastal areas using Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climatic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi, Anna; Viles, Heather; Martín-Sanchez, Inés; Cultrone, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    Hemp-based composites are eco-friendly building materials as they improve energy efficiency in buildings and entail low waste production and pollutant emissions during their manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the organic nature of hemp enhances the bio-receptivity of the material, with likely negative consequences for its long-term performance in the building. The main purpose of this study was to study the response at macro- and micro-scale of hemp-lime renders subjected to weathering simulations in an environmental cabinet (one year was condensed in twelve days), so as to predict their long-term durability in coastal and inland areas with Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climates, also in relation with the lime type used. The simulated climatic conditions caused almost unnoticeable mass, volume and colour changes in hemp-lime renders. No efflorescence or physical breakdown was detected in samples subjected to NaCl, because the salt mainly precipitates on the surface of samples and is washed away by the rain. Although there was no visible microbial colonisation, alkaliphilic fungi (mainly Penicillium and Aspergillus) and bacteria (mainly Bacillus and Micrococcus) were isolated in all samples. Microbial growth and diversification were higher under Tropical climate, due to heavier rainfall. The influence of the bacterial activity on the hardening of samples has also been discussed here and related with the formation and stabilisation of vaterite in hemp-lime mixes. This study has demonstrated that hemp-lime renders show good durability towards a wide range of environmental conditions and factors. However, it might be useful to take some specific preventive and maintenance measures to reduce the bio-receptivity of this material, thus ensuring a longer durability on site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mutations Abrogating VP35 Interaction with Double-Stranded RNA Render Ebola Virus Avirulent in Guinea Pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prins, Kathleen C.; Delpeut, Sebastien; Leung, Daisy W.; Reynard, Olivier; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Reid, St. Patrick; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Basler, Christopher F. (CNRS-INSERM); (Mount Sinai Hospital); (LB-Ecuador); (Iowa State)

    2010-10-11

    Ebola virus (EBOV) protein VP35 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding inhibitor of host interferon (IFN)-{alpha}/{beta} responses that also functions as a viral polymerase cofactor. Recent structural studies identified key features, including a central basic patch, required for VP35 dsRNA binding activity. To address the functional significance of these VP35 structural features for EBOV replication and pathogenesis, two point mutations, K319A/R322A, that abrogate VP35 dsRNA binding activity and severely impair its suppression of IFN-{alpha}/{beta} production were identified. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography reveal minimal structural perturbations in the K319A/R322A VP35 double mutant and suggest that loss of basic charge leads to altered function. Recombinant EBOVs encoding the mutant VP35 exhibit, relative to wild-type VP35 viruses, minimal growth attenuation in IFN-defective Vero cells but severe impairment in IFN-competent cells. In guinea pigs, the VP35 mutant virus revealed a complete loss of virulence. Strikingly, the VP35 mutant virus effectively immunized animals against subsequent wild-type EBOV challenge. These in vivo studies, using recombinant EBOV viruses, combined with the accompanying biochemical and structural analyses directly correlate VP35 dsRNA binding and IFN inhibition functions with viral pathogenesis. Moreover, these studies provide a framework for the development of antivirals targeting this critical EBOV virulence factor.

  4. Predicting the long-term durability of hemp–lime renders in inland and coastal areas using Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climatic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arizzi, Anna; Viles, Heather; Martín-Sanchez, Inés; Cultrone, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Hemp-based composites are eco-friendly building materials as they improve energy efficiency in buildings and entail low waste production and pollutant emissions during their manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the organic nature of hemp enhances the bio-receptivity of the material, with likely negative consequences for its long-term performance in the building. The main purpose of this study was to study the response at macro- and micro-scale of hemp–lime renders subjected to weathering simulations in an environmental cabinet (one year was condensed in twelve days), so as to predict their long-term durability in coastal and inland areas with Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climates, also in relation with the lime type used. The simulated climatic conditions caused almost unnoticeable mass, volume and colour changes in hemp–lime renders. No efflorescence or physical breakdown was detected in samples subjected to NaCl, because the salt mainly precipitates on the surface of samples and is washed away by the rain. Although there was no visible microbial colonisation, alkaliphilic fungi (mainly Penicillium and Aspergillus) and bacteria (mainly Bacillus and Micrococcus) were isolated in all samples. Microbial growth and diversification were higher under Tropical climate, due to heavier rainfall. The influence of the bacterial activity on the hardening of samples has also been discussed here and related with the formation and stabilisation of vaterite in hemp–lime mixes. This study has demonstrated that hemp–lime renders show good durability towards a wide range of environmental conditions and factors. However, it might be useful to take some specific preventive and maintenance measures to reduce the bio-receptivity of this material, thus ensuring a longer durability on site. - Highlights: • Realistic simulations in the cabinet of one-year exposure to environmental conditions • Influence of the lime type on the durability of hemp–lime renders

  5. Predicting the long-term durability of hemp–lime renders in inland and coastal areas using Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climatic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizzi, Anna, E-mail: anna.arizzi@ouce.ox.ac.uk [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Viles, Heather [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Martín-Sanchez, Inés [Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Cultrone, Giuseppe [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Hemp-based composites are eco-friendly building materials as they improve energy efficiency in buildings and entail low waste production and pollutant emissions during their manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the organic nature of hemp enhances the bio-receptivity of the material, with likely negative consequences for its long-term performance in the building. The main purpose of this study was to study the response at macro- and micro-scale of hemp–lime renders subjected to weathering simulations in an environmental cabinet (one year was condensed in twelve days), so as to predict their long-term durability in coastal and inland areas with Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climates, also in relation with the lime type used. The simulated climatic conditions caused almost unnoticeable mass, volume and colour changes in hemp–lime renders. No efflorescence or physical breakdown was detected in samples subjected to NaCl, because the salt mainly precipitates on the surface of samples and is washed away by the rain. Although there was no visible microbial colonisation, alkaliphilic fungi (mainly Penicillium and Aspergillus) and bacteria (mainly Bacillus and Micrococcus) were isolated in all samples. Microbial growth and diversification were higher under Tropical climate, due to heavier rainfall. The influence of the bacterial activity on the hardening of samples has also been discussed here and related with the formation and stabilisation of vaterite in hemp–lime mixes. This study has demonstrated that hemp–lime renders show good durability towards a wide range of environmental conditions and factors. However, it might be useful to take some specific preventive and maintenance measures to reduce the bio-receptivity of this material, thus ensuring a longer durability on site. - Highlights: • Realistic simulations in the cabinet of one-year exposure to environmental conditions • Influence of the lime type on the durability of hemp–lime renders

  6. Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the influence of antireflective sub-wavelength structures on a monolithic white light-emitting diode (LED). The simulation is based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm, and both cylinder and moth-eye structures have been studied in the work. Our...... simulation results show that a moth-eye structure enhances the light extraction efficiency over the entire visible light range with an extraction efficiency enhancement of up to 26 %. Also for the first time to our best knowledge, the influence of sub-wavelength structures on both the color rendering index...

  7. One small step for a yeast--microevolution within macrophages renders Candida glabrata hypervirulent due to a single point mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Brunke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is one of the most common causes of candidemia, a life-threatening, systemic fungal infection, and is surpassed in frequency only by Candida albicans. Major factors contributing to the success of this opportunistic pathogen include its ability to readily acquire resistance to antifungals and to colonize and adapt to many different niches in the human body. Here we addressed the flexibility and adaptability of C. glabrata during interaction with macrophages with a serial passage approach. Continuous co-incubation of C. glabrata with a murine macrophage cell line for over six months resulted in a striking alteration in fungal morphology: The growth form changed from typical spherical yeasts to pseudohyphae-like structures - a phenotype which was stable over several generations without any selective pressure. Transmission electron microscopy and FACS analyses showed that the filamentous-like morphology was accompanied by changes in cell wall architecture. This altered growth form permitted faster escape from macrophages and increased damage of macrophages. In addition, the evolved strain (Evo showed transiently increased virulence in a systemic mouse infection model, which correlated with increased organ-specific fungal burden and inflammatory response (TNFα and IL-6 in the brain. Similarly, the Evo mutant significantly increased TNFα production in the brain on day 2, which is mirrored in macrophages confronted with the Evo mutant, but not with the parental wild type. Whole genome sequencing of the Evo strain, genetic analyses, targeted gene disruption and a reverse microevolution experiment revealed a single nucleotide exchange in the chitin synthase-encoding CHS2 gene as the sole basis for this phenotypic alteration. A targeted CHS2 mutant with the same SNP showed similar phenotypes as the Evo strain under all experimental conditions tested. These results indicate that microevolutionary processes in host-simulative conditions

  8. Three-dimensional volume rendering of the ankle based on magnetic resonance images enables the generation of images comparable to real anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Bruschetta, Daniele; Trimarchi, Fabio; Ielitro, Giuseppe; Cammaroto, Simona; Duca, Antonio; Bramanti, Placido; Favaloro, Angelo; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Milardi, Demetrio

    2009-11-01

    We have applied high-quality medical imaging techniques to study the structure of the human ankle. Direct volume rendering, using specific algorithms, transforms conventional two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance image (MRI) series into 3D volume datasets. This tool allows high-definition visualization of single or multiple structures for diagnostic, research, and teaching purposes. No other image reformatting technique so accurately highlights each anatomic relationship and preserves soft tissue definition. Here, we used this method to study the structure of the human ankle to analyze tendon-bone-muscle relationships. We compared ankle MRI and computerized tomography (CT) images from 17 healthy volunteers, aged 18-30 years (mean 23 years). An additional subject had a partial rupture of the Achilles tendon. The MRI images demonstrated superiority in overall quality of detail compared to the CT images. The MRI series accurately rendered soft tissue and bone in simultaneous image acquisition, whereas CT required several window-reformatting algorithms, with loss of image data quality. We obtained high-quality digital images of the human ankle that were sufficiently accurate for surgical and clinical intervention planning, as well as for teaching human anatomy. Our approach demonstrates that complex anatomical structures such as the ankle, which is rich in articular facets and ligaments, can be easily studied non-invasively using MRI data.

  9. Lack of Methylated Hopanoids Renders the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme Sensitive to Osmotic and pH Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garby, Tamsyn J; Matys, Emily D; Ongley, Sarah E; Salih, Anya; Larkum, Anthony W D; Walter, Malcolm R; Summons, Roger E; Neilan, Brett A

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the function of 2-methylhopanoids in modern cyanobacteria, the hpnP gene coding for the radical S -adenosyl methionine (SAM) methylase protein that acts on the C-2 position of hopanoids was deleted from the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133S. The resulting Δ hpnP mutant lacked all 2-methylhopanoids but was found to produce much higher levels of two bacteriohopanepentol isomers than the wild type. Growth rates of the Δ hpnP mutant cultures were not significantly different from those of the wild type under standard growth conditions. Akinete formation was also not impeded by the absence of 2-methylhopanoids. The relative abundances of the different hopanoid structures in akinete-dominated cultures of the wild-type and Δ hpnP mutant strains were similar to those of vegetative cell-dominated cultures. However, the Δ hpnP mutant was found to have decreased growth rates under both pH and osmotic stress, confirming a role for 2-methylhopanoids in stress tolerance. Evidence of elevated photosystem II yield and NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase activity in the Δ hpnP mutant under stress conditions, compared to the wild type, suggested that the absence of 2-methylhopanoids increases cellular metabolic rates under stress conditions. IMPORTANCE As the first group of organisms to develop oxygenic photosynthesis, Cyanobacteria are central to the evolutionary history of life on Earth and the subsequent oxygenation of the atmosphere. To investigate the origin of cyanobacteria and the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, geobiologists use biomarkers, the remnants of lipids produced by different organisms that are found in geologic sediments. 2-Methylhopanes have been considered indicative of cyanobacteria in some environmental settings, with the parent lipids 2-methylhopanoids being present in many contemporary cyanobacteria. We have created a Nostoc punctiforme Δ hpnP mutant strain that does not produce 2-methylhopanoids to assess the

  10. Should a doctor stop rendering medical services? Principles of conduct towards patients attempting to commit suicide. Part 1 -- the Polish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Justyna; Zajdel, Radoslaw; Krakowiak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    According to the general idea a doctor can start the medical management process in an adult and not legally incapacitated patient after the patient has given consent to initiate such a process. The patient's refusal makes rendering medical services impossible, irrespective of their scope and kind. It should be emphasized that such a refusal is respected if it is expressed fully, clearly and consciously. Cases in which such a refusal is expressed by an intoxicated suicidal patient, remaining under the influence of narcotics, drugs or medicaments which characterize with a similar activity should be particularly analysed. Although such a person is able to verbally declare his objection, his ability to process the information given by the doctor before initiating medical procedures is limited, or even non-existant. The refusal therefore cannot be regarded as reliable, which results in rendering medical services to the patient. An analysis was made of Acts of Law and the opinions of the judiciar by comparing and excluding contradictory and incoherent elements. Despite the lack of clear regulations of a patient rejecting procedures aimed at saving the patient's life, or the prevention of serious health impairment or sustaining injury, it should be assumed that the objection expressed by the patient who does not demonstrate the ability to process the information provided by the doctor is not reliable, and the doctor is therefore still obliged to render medical services. External factors, such as consumption of alcohol, narcotics and drugs, which characterize with a similar activity impair perception and make the taking of a conscious decision impossible. Not providing medical help and introducing direct compulsion would mean neglecting provision of due diligence in the process of treatment and, as a consequence, placing the patient's health at risk, and suffering from negative implications for the patient's life and/or health in the future. Current provisions should

  11. Evaluation of the relationship between extremity soft tissue sarcomas and adjacent major vessels using contrast-enhanced multidetector CT and three-dimensional volume-rendered CT angiography - A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, YangKang; Lin, JianBang; Cai, AiQun; Zhou, XiuGuo; Zheng, Yu; Wei, XiaoLong; Cheng, Ying; Liu, GuoRui

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accurate description of the relationship between extremity soft tissue sarcoma and the adjacent major vessels is crucial for successful surgery. In addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or in patients who cannot undergo MRI, two-dimensional (2D) postcontrast computed tomography (CT) images and three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered CT angiography may be valuable alternative imaging techniques for preoperative evaluation of extremity sarcomas. Purpose: To preoperatively assess extremity sarcomas using multidetector CT (MDCT), with emphasis on postcontrast MDCT images and 3D volume-rendered MDCT angiography in evaluating the relationship between tumors and adjacent major vessels. Material and Methods: MDCT examinations were performed on 13 patients with non-metastatic extremity sarcomas. Conventional CT images and 3D volume-rendered CT angiography were evaluated, with focus on the relationship between tumors and adjacent major vessels. Kappa consistency statistics were performed with surgery serving as the reference standard. Results: The relationship between sarcomas and adjacent vessels was described as one of three patterns: proximity, adhesion, and encasement. Proximity was seen in five cases on postcontrast CT images or in eight cases on volume-rendered images. Adhesion was seen in three cases on both postcontrast CT images and volume-rendered images. Encasement was seen in five cases on postcontrast CT images or in two cases on volume-rendered images. Compared to surgical results, postcontrast CT images had 100% sensitivity, 83.3% specificity, 87.5% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 92.3% accuracy in the detection of vascular invasion (κ = 0.843, P = 0.002). 3D volume-rendered CT angiography had 71.4% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 75% negative predictive value, and 84.6% accuracy in the detection of vascular invasion (κ = 0.698, P = 0.008). On volume-rendered images, all cases

  12. Knowledge level estimation of medical workers participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children at a pre-hospital stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Popkov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Estimation of qualifying preparation of the doctors participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children. Material: On the basis of the developed test cards the analysis of doctors' knowledge level of the first help on the basic questions of emergency medicine is carried out. 120 doctors are interrogated. Results compared depending on age, work experience and presence of a qualifying professional category. Results: As a whole answers of respondents were distributed as follows: unsatisfactorily - 2,6 %; satisfactorily - 7,9 %; well - 18,4 %; perfectly - 71,1 %. Distinctions in a dale of right answers on separate sections of knowledge depending on the experience and a qualifying professional category are established. The conclusion: The weakest places in preparation of experts of the first help on which it is necessary to pay special attention in courses of postdegree preparation are revealed

  13. Surface Rendering of External Genitalia of a Fetus at the 32nd Week of Gestation Affected by Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Mazza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To demonstrate the feasibility of the prenatal diagnosis of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome by 3D-4D ultrasound. Methods. To report prenatal diagnosis of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome at 32nd week of gestation by 3D-4D ultrasound in a fetus with a 46XY karyotype, testing negative to the mutation analysis of SRY gene and the 5α-reductase 2 gene (SRD5A2. Results. 3D-4D surface rendering allows the detection of external and internal genital malformations and can address the prenatal diagnosis of PAIS and can exclude associated complications. Conclusions. Prenatal diagnosis of PAIS allows an adequate parental counseling and an early optimal management of the condition, not only for the psychological and social reflections but also for the avoidance of complications and postnatal morbidity due to misdiagnosis or delays in the treatment of the genital ambiguity.

  14. Intranasal Pharmacokinetic Data for Triptans Such as Sumatriptan and Zolmitriptan Can Render Area Under the Curve (AUC) Predictions for the Oral Route: Strategy Development and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R.; Syed, Muzeeb

    2016-01-01

    Limited pharmacokinetic sampling strategy may be useful for predicting the area under the curve (AUC) for triptans and may have clinical utility as a prospective tool for prediction. Using appropriate intranasal pharmacokinetic data, a Cmax vs. AUC relationship was established by linear regression...... models for sumatriptan and zolmitriptan. The predictions of the AUC values were performed using published mean/median Cmax data and appropriate regression lines. The quotient of observed and predicted values rendered fold-difference calculation. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean positive error (MPE......), mean negative error (MNE), root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (r), and the goodness of the AUC fold prediction were used to evaluate the two triptans. Also, data from the mean concentration profiles at time points of 1 hour (sumatriptan) and 3 hours (zolmitriptan) were used...

  15. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Detection of compression vessels in trigeminal neuralgia by surface-rendering three-dimensional reconstruction of 1.5- and 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masahiro; Imai, Hideaki; Kagoshima, Kaiei; Umezawa, Eriko; Shimizu, Tsuneo; Yoshimoto, Yuhei

    2013-01-01

    Surface-rendered three-dimensional (3D) 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is useful for presurgical simulation of microvascular decompression. This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of 1.5- and 3.0-T surface-rendered 3D MR imaging for preoperative identification of the compression vessels of trigeminal neuralgia. One hundred consecutive patients underwent microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Forty and 60 patients were evaluated by 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging, respectively. Three-dimensional MR images were constructed on the basis of MR imaging, angiography, and venography data and evaluated to determine the compression vessel before surgery. MR imaging findings were compared with the microsurgical findings to compare the sensitivity and specificity of 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging. The agreement between MR imaging and surgical findings depended on the compression vessels. For superior cerebellar artery, 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging had 84.4% and 82.7% sensitivity and 100% and 100% specificity, respectively. For anterior inferior cerebellar artery, 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging had 33.3% and 50% sensitivity and 92.9% and 95% specificity, respectively. For the petrosal vein, 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging had 75% and 64.3% sensitivity and 79.2% and 78.1% specificity, respectively. Complete pain relief was obtained in 36 of 40 and 55 of 60 patients undergoing 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging, respectively. The present study showed that both 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging provided high sensitivity and specificity for preoperative assessment of the compression vessels of trigeminal neuralgia. Preoperative 3D imaging provided very high quality presurgical simulation, resulting in excellent clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Avaliando a capacidade de governo: reflexões sobre a experiência do prêmio "Municípios que Fazem Render Mais" (2010 e 2011 Evaluación de la capacidad de gobierno: reflexiones sobre la experiencia del premio "Municípios que Fazem Render Mais" (2010 e 2011 Assessing the government capacity: reflections on the experience award "Municipalities that Make More Render" (2010 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fonseca

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa conceitualmente a experiência do Prêmio "Municípios que Fazem Render Mais", desenvolvido por pesquisadores do Centro de Estudos em Administração Pública e Governo da Fundação Getulio Vargas de São Paulo, em dois momentos: nos estados do Sul em 2010 e no estado de São Paulo em 2011. A partir do conceito de "triângulo de governo", desenvolvido por Carlos Matus em seu construto sobre o Planejamento Estratégico Situacional (PES, analisa-se especialmente a "capacidade de governo" - um dos vértices do triângulo - dos municípios inscritos no Prêmio. O artigo descreve os pressupostos que informam o Prêmio, assim como os critérios e a metodologia adotados, e reflete sobre as escolhas realizadas para premiar os municípios ao analisar os desafios que representa avaliar gestões municipais. Por fim, o artigo analisa especificamente os municípios paulistas, o que implica estabelecer parâmetros para a comparação de contextos e gestões bastante distintos.En este artículo examina conceptualmente la experiencia del Premio "Municípios que Fazem Render Mais", desarrollado por investigadores del Centro de Estudos em Administração Pública e Governo de la Fundação Getulio Vargas de São Paulo, en dos etapas: en los estados del Sur en 2010 y en el estado de São Paulo en 2011. Desde el concepto de "triángulo de gobierno", desarrollado por Carlos Matus en su construcción de Planificación Estratégica Situacional (PES, analiza especialmente la "capacidad de gobernar" - uno de los vértices del triángulo - en los municipios incluidos en el premio. El artículo describe los supuestos que informan al premio, así como los criterios y la metodología adoptados, y reflexiona sobre las decisiones tomadas para recompensar a los municipios para analizar los retos de la evaluación de las administraciones municipales. Por último, el artículo analiza especificamente los municipios de São Paulo, lo que implica el

  18. Properties of myelin altered peptide ligand cyclo(87-99)(Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 render it a promising drug lead for immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraos, George; Rodi, Maria; Kalbacher, Hubert; Chatzantoni, Kokona; Karagiannis, Fotios; Synodinos, Loukas; Plotas, Panayiotis; Papalois, Apostolos; Dimisianos, Nikolaos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Tselios, Theodore; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Matsoukas, John

    2015-08-28

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and it has been established that autoreactive T helper (Th) cells play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Myelin basic protein (MBP) epitopes are major autoantigens in MS, and the sequence MBP87-99 is an immunodominant epitope. We have previously reported that MBP87-99 peptides with modifications at principal T-cell receptor (TCR) contact sites suppressed the induction of EAE symptoms in rats and SJL/J mice, diverted the immune response from Th1 to Th2 and generated antibodies that did not cross react with the native MBP protein. In this study, the linear and cyclic analogs of the MBP87-99 epitope, namely linear (Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 (P2) and cyclo(87-99)(Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 (P3), were evaluated for their binding to HLA-DR4, stability to lysosomal enzymes, their effect on cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from MS patients or healthy subjects (controls), and their effect in rat EAE. P1 peptide (wild-type, MBP87-99) was used as control. P2 and P3 did not alter significantly the cytokine secretion by control PBMC, in contrast to P1 that induced moderate IL-10 production. In MS PBMC, P2 and P3 induced the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ, with a simultaneous decrease of IL-10, whereas P1 caused a reduction of IL-10 secretion only. The cellular response to P3 indicated that cyclization did not affect the critical TCR contact sites in MS PBMC. Interestingly, the cyclic P3 analog was found to be a stronger binder to HLA-DR4 compared to linear P2. Moreover, cyclic P3 was more stable to proteolysis compared to linear P2. Finally, both P2 and P3 suppressed EAE induced by an encephalitogenic guinea pig MBP74-85 epitope in Lewis rats whereas P1 failed to do so. In conclusion, cyclization of myelin altered peptide ligand (Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 improved binding affinity to HLA-DR4, resistance to proteolysis and antigen-specific immunomodulation

  19. Consolidation of renders and plasters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Hees, R.; Veiga, R.; Slížková, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2017), s. 50-65 ISSN 1359-5997 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : consolidants * plasters * requirements * selection * assessment Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.607, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1617/s11527-016-0894-5

  20. An extensive microarray analysis of AAL-toxin-induced cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana brings new insights into the complexity of programmed cell death in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T.S.; Gadjev, I.Z.; Hille, J.

    2004-01-01

    A T-DNA knockout of the Arabidopsis homologue of the tomato disease resistance gene Asc was obtained. The asc gene renders plants sensitive to programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by the fungal AAL toxin. To obtain more insights into the nature of AAL-toxin-induced cell death and to identify genes

  1. Oxygen enhancement ratios in synchronous HeLa cells exposed to low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozink, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    HeLa cells were synchronized by the mitotic selection method and rendered hypoxic by coincubation with an excess of heavily irradiated, but metabolically active, feeder cells. An oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of about 3 was obtained in interphase HeLa cells irradiated with x or gamma rays. A significantly lower OER was obtained with cells in, or close to, mitosis. The significance of this decrease in the oxygen effect in mitotic cells is discussed

  2. Preoperative evaluation of living renal donors: value of contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography and comparison of three rendering algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.; Hallscheidt, P.J.; Hosch, W.P.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Duex, M.; Ott, R.C.; Wiesel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography (CE 3D MRA) in the preoperative assessment of potential living renal donors, and to compare the accuracy for the depiction of the vascular anatomy using three different rendering algorithms. Twenty-three potential living renal donors were examined with CE 3D MRA (TE/TR=1.3 ms/3.7 ms, field of view 260-320 x 350 mm, 384-448 x 512 matrix, slab thickness 9.4 cm, 72 partitions, section thickness 1.3 mm, scan time 24 s, 0.1 mmol/kg body weight gadobenate dimeglumine). Magnetic resonance angiography data sets were processed with maximum intensity projection (MIP), volume rendering (VR), and shaded-surface display (SSD) algorithms. The image analysis was performed independently by three MR-experienced radiologists recording the number of renal arteries, the presence of early branching or vascular pathology. The combination of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and intraoperative findings served as the gold standard for the image analysis. In total, 52 renal arteries were correspondingly observed in 23 patients at DSA and surgery. Other findings were 3 cases of early branching of the renal arteries, 4 cases of arterial stenosis and 1 case of bilateral fibromuscular dysplasia. With MRA source data all 52 renal arteries were correctly identified by all readers, compared with 51 (98.1%), 51-52 (98.1-100%) and 49-50 renal arteries (94.2-96.2%) with the MIP, VR and SSD projections, respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy was highest with the MRA source data followed by MIP, VR and SSD. Time requirements were lowest for the MIP reconstructions and highest for the VR reconstructions. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA is a reliable, non-invasive tool for the preoperative evaluation of potential living renal donors. Maximum intensity projection is favourable for the processing of 3D MRA data, as it has minimal time and computational requirements, while having

  3. Preoperative evaluation of living renal donors: value of contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography and comparison of three rendering algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C. [Abteilung Radiologische Diagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Abteilung Onkologische Diagnostik und Therapie, Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hallscheidt, P.J.; Hosch, W.P.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Duex, M. [Abteilung Radiologische Diagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ott, R.C.; Wiesel, M. [Abteilung Urologie und Poliklinik, Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography (CE 3D MRA) in the preoperative assessment of potential living renal donors, and to compare the accuracy for the depiction of the vascular anatomy using three different rendering algorithms. Twenty-three potential living renal donors were examined with CE 3D MRA (TE/TR=1.3 ms/3.7 ms, field of view 260-320 x 350 mm, 384-448 x 512 matrix, slab thickness 9.4 cm, 72 partitions, section thickness 1.3 mm, scan time 24 s, 0.1 mmol/kg body weight gadobenate dimeglumine). Magnetic resonance angiography data sets were processed with maximum intensity projection (MIP), volume rendering (VR), and shaded-surface display (SSD) algorithms. The image analysis was performed independently by three MR-experienced radiologists recording the number of renal arteries, the presence of early branching or vascular pathology. The combination of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and intraoperative findings served as the gold standard for the image analysis. In total, 52 renal arteries were correspondingly observed in 23 patients at DSA and surgery. Other findings were 3 cases of early branching of the renal arteries, 4 cases of arterial stenosis and 1 case of bilateral fibromuscular dysplasia. With MRA source data all 52 renal arteries were correctly identified by all readers, compared with 51 (98.1%), 51-52 (98.1-100%) and 49-50 renal arteries (94.2-96.2%) with the MIP, VR and SSD projections, respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy was highest with the MRA source data followed by MIP, VR and SSD. Time requirements were lowest for the MIP reconstructions and highest for the VR reconstructions. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA is a reliable, non-invasive tool for the preoperative evaluation of potential living renal donors. Maximum intensity projection is favourable for the processing of 3D MRA data, as it has minimal time and computational requirements, while having

  4. Single minimum incision endoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal tumors with preoperative virtual navigation using 3D-CT volume-rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shioyama Yasukazu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single minimum incision endoscopic surgery (MIES involves the use of a flexible high-definition laparoscope to facilitate open surgery. We reviewed our method of radical nephrectomy for renal tumors, which is single MIES combined with preoperative virtual surgery employing three-dimensional CT images reconstructed by the volume rendering method (3D-CT images in order to safely and appropriately approach the renal hilar vessels. We also assessed the usefulness of 3D-CT images. Methods Radical nephrectomy was done by single MIES via the translumbar approach in 80 consecutive patients. We performed the initial 20 MIES nephrectomies without preoperative 3D-CT images and the subsequent 60 MIES nephrectomies with preoperative 3D-CT images for evaluation of the renal hilar vessels and the relation of each tumor to the surrounding structures. On the basis of the 3D information, preoperative virtual surgery was performed with a computer. Results Single MIES nephrectomy was successful in all patients. In the 60 patients who underwent 3D-CT, the number of renal arteries and veins corresponded exactly with the preoperative 3D-CT data (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These 60 nephrectomies were completed with a shorter operating time and smaller blood loss than the initial 20 nephrectomies. Conclusions Single MIES radical nephrectomy combined with 3D-CT and virtual surgery achieved a shorter operating time and less blood loss, possibly due to safer and easier handling of the renal hilar vessels.

  5. Does item overlap render measured relationships between pain and challenging behaviour trivial? Results from a multicentre cross-sectional study in 13 German nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschar, Patrick; Bauer, Zsuzsa; Gnass, Irmela; Osterbrink, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Several studies suggest that pain is a trigger for challenging behaviour in older adults with cognitive impairment. However, such measured relationships might be confounded due to item overlap as instruments share similar or identical items. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequently observed association between pain and challenging behaviour might be traced back to item overlap. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 nursing homes and examined pain (measure: Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale) and challenging behaviour (measure: Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory) in 150 residents with severe cognitive impairment. The extent of item overlap was determined by juxtaposition of both measures' original items. As expected, comparison between these instruments revealed an extensive item overlap. The statistical relationship between the two phenomena can be traced back mainly to the contribution of the overlapping items, which renders the frequently stated relationship between pain and challenging behaviour trivial. The status quo of measuring such associations must be contested: constructs' discrimination and instruments' discrimination have to be discussed critically as item overlap may lead to biased conclusions and assumptions in research as well as to inadequate care measures in nursing practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Value of three-dimensional volume rendering images in the assessment of the centrality index for preoperative planning in patients with renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, C; Magno, C; Silipigni, S; Cantisani, V; Mucciardi, G; Sottile, F; Inferrera, A; Mazziotti, S; Ascenti, G

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the precision of the centrality index (CI) measurement on three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering technique (VRT) images in patients with renal masses, compared to its standard measurement on axial images. Sixty-five patients with renal lesions underwent contrast-enhanced multidetector (MD) computed tomography (CT) for preoperative imaging. Two readers calculated the CI on two-dimensional axial images and on VRT images, measuring it in the plane that the tumour and centre of the kidney were lying in. Correlation and agreement of interobserver measurements and inter-method results were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients and the Bland-Altman method. Time saving was also calculated. The correlation coefficients were r=0.99 (ppresent study showed that VRT and axial images produce almost identical values of CI, with the advantages of greater ease of execution and a time saving of almost 50% for 3D VRT images. In addition, VRT provides an integrated perspective that can better assist surgeons in clinical decision making and in operative planning, suggesting this technique as a possible standard method for CI measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Value of 3D-Volume Rendering in the Assessment of Coronary Arteries with Retrospectively Ecg-Gated Multislice Spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Wildberger, J.E.; Dedden, K.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Guenther, R.W.; Sinha, A.M.; Hoffmann, R.; Stanzel, S.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic value and measurement precision of 3D volume rendering technique (3D-VRT) from retrospectively ECG-gated multislice spiral CT (MSCT) data sets for imaging of the coronary arteries. Material and Methods: In 35 patients, retrospectively ECG-gated MSCT of the heart using a four detector row MSCT scanner with a standardized examination protocol was performed as well as quantitative X-ray coronary angiography (QCA). The MSCT data was assessed on segmental basis using 3D-VRT exclusively. The coronary artery diameters were measured at the origin of each main coronary branch and 1 cm, 3 cm and 5 cm distally. The minimum, maximum and mean diameters were determined from MSCT angiography and compared to QCA. Results: A total of 353 of 525 (67.2%) coronary artery segments were assessable by MSCT angiography. The proximal segments were more often assessable when compared to the distal segments. Stenoses were detected with a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 92.8%. According to the Bland-Altman method the mean differences between QCA and MSCT ranged from 0.55 to 1.07 mm with limits of agreement from 2.2 mm to 2.7 mm. Conclusion: When compared to QCA, the ability of 3D-VRT to quantitatively assess coronary artery diameters and coronary artery stenoses is insufficient for clinical purposes

  8. Contrast-enhanced MDCT gastrography for detection of early gastric cancer: Initial assessment of “wall-carving image”, a novel volume rendering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Masahiro; Kawanami, Satoshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Matsuura, Shuji; Hiraka, Kiyohisa; Nishie, Akihiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We developed a new volume rendering technique, the CT gastrography wall carving image (WC) technique, which provides a clear visualization of localized enhanced tumors in the gastric wall. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the WC as an adjunct to conventional images in detecting early gastric cancer (EGC). Materials and methods: Thirty-nine patients with 43 EGCs underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT gastrography for preoperative examination. Two observers independently reviewed the images under three different conditions: term 1, Axial CT; term 2, Axial CT, MPR and VE; and term 3, Axial CT, MPR, VE and WC for the detection of EGC. The accuracy of each condition as reviewed by each of the two observers was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Interobserver agreement was calculated using weighted-κ statistics. Results: The best diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement were obtained in term 3. The AUCs of the two observers for terms 1, 2, and 3 were 0.63, 0.73, and 0.84, and 0.57, 0.73, and 0.76, respectively. The interobserver agreement improved from fair at term 1 to substantial at term 3. Conclusions: The addition of WC to conventional MDCT display improved the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reproducibility for the detection of ECG. WC represents a suitable alternative for the visualization of localized enhanced tumors in the gastric wall.

  9. Intranasal Pharmacokinetic Data for Triptans Such as Sumatriptan and Zolmitriptan Can Render Area Under the Curve (AUC) Predictions for the Oral Route: Strategy Development and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Syed, Muzeeb

    2016-01-01

    Limited pharmacokinetic sampling strategy may be useful for predicting the area under the curve (AUC) for triptans and may have clinical utility as a prospective tool for prediction. Using appropriate intranasal pharmacokinetic data, a Cmax vs. AUC relationship was established by linear regression models for sumatriptan and zolmitriptan. The predictions of the AUC values were performed using published mean/median Cmax data and appropriate regression lines. The quotient of observed and predicted values rendered fold-difference calculation. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean positive error (MPE), mean negative error (MNE), root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (r), and the goodness of the AUC fold prediction were used to evaluate the two triptans. Also, data from the mean concentration profiles at time points of 1 hour (sumatriptan) and 3 hours (zolmitriptan) were used for the AUC prediction. The Cmax vs. AUC models displayed excellent correlation for both sumatriptan (r = .9997; P AUCs (83%-85%) were within 0.76-1.25-fold difference using the regression model. The prediction of AUC values for sumatriptan or zolmitriptan using the concentration data that reflected the Tmax occurrence were in the proximity of the reported values. In summary, the Cmax vs. AUC models exhibited strong correlations for sumatriptan and zolmitriptan. The usefulness of the prediction of the AUC values was established by a rigorous statistical approach.

  10. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography and volume-rendered imaging for evaluation of cellophane banding in a dog with extrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yoon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old, 1.8 kg, male, castrated Maltese was presented for evaluation of urolithiasis. Urinary calculi were composed of ammonium biurate. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 44.2 and 187.3 μmol/ , respectively (reference ranges 0–10 and 0–20 μmol/ , respectively. Single-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA with volume-rendered imaging (VRI was obtained. VRI revealed a portocaval shunt originating just cranial to a tributary of the gastroduodenal vein and draining into the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen. CTA revealed a 3.66 mm-diameter shunt measured at the level of the termination of the shunt and a 3.79 mm-diameter portal vein measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Surgery was performed using cellophane banding without attenuation. Follow-up single-phase CTA with VRI was obtained 10 weeks after surgery. VRI revealed no evidence of portosystemic communication on the level of a cellophane band and caudal to the cellophane band. CTA demonstrated an increased portal vein diameter (3.79–5.27 mm measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 25 and 12.5 μmol/ , respectively (aforementioned respective reference ranges, 3 months post-surgery. No problems were evident at 6 months.

  11. Generation of “Off-the-Shelf” Natural Killer Cells from Peripheral Blood Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieming Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Current donor cell-dependent strategies can only produce limited “made-to-order” therapeutic natural killer (NK cells for limited patients. To provide unlimited “off-the-shelf” NK cells that serve many recipients, we designed and demonstrated a holistic manufacturing scheme to mass-produce NK cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Starting with a highly accessible human cell source, peripheral blood cells (PBCs, we derived a good manufacturing practice-compatible iPSC source, PBC-derived iPSCs (PBC-iPSCs for this purpose. Through our original protocol that excludes CD34+ cell enrichment and spin embryoid body formation, high-purity functional and expandable NK cells were generated from PBC-iPSCs. Above all, most of these NK cells expressed no killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs, which renders them unrestricted by recipients' human leukocyte antigen genotypes. Hence, we have established a practical “from blood cell to stem cells and back with less (less KIRs” strategy to generate abundant “universal” NK cells from PBC-iPSCs for a wide range of patients. : To provide unlimited “off-the-shelf” NK cells that serve many recipients, Zeng and colleagues demonstrate a manufacturing scheme to mass-produce NK cells from peripheral blood cell-derived iPSCs (PBC-iPSCs. Through their original protocol, high-purity functional NK cells are generated from PBC-iPSCs. Most of these NK cells express no killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, which renders them unrestricted by recipients' HLA genotypes. Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells, peripheral blood cells, natural killer cells, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, cell therapy, immunotherapy, cancer, cytotoxicity

  12. A Simple Hydrophilic Treatment of SU-8 Surfaces for Cell Culturing and Cell Patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Stangegaard, Michael; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2005-01-01

    SU-8, an epoxy-based photoresist, widely used in constitution different mTAS systems, is incompatible with mammalian cell adhesion and culture in its native form. Here, we demonstrate a simple, cheap and robust two-step method to render a SU-8 surface hydrophilic and compatible with cell culture........ The contact angle of SU-8 surface was significantly reduced from 90° to 25° after the surface modification. The treated SU-8 surfaces provided a cell culture environment that was comparable with cell culture flask surface in terms of generation time and morphology....

  13. Volume-rendered hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created by 64 multidetector-row CT during aortography: utility for catheterization in transcatheter arterial embolization for acute arterial bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Ikoma, Akira; Sanda, Hiroki; Nakata, Kouhei; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Nakai, Motoki; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Murotani, Kazuhiro; Hosokawa, Seiki; Nishioku, Tadayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Aortography for detecting hemorrhage is limited when determining the catheter treatment strategy because the artery responsible for hemorrhage commonly overlaps organs and non-responsible arteries. Selective catheterization of untargeted arteries would result in repeated arteriography, large volumes of contrast medium, and extended time. A volume-rendered hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created with 64 multidetector-row CT (64MDCT) during aortography (MDCTAo) can be used both for hemorrhage mapping and catheter navigation. The MDCTAo depicted hemorrhage in 61 of 71 cases of suspected acute arterial bleeding treated at our institute in the last 3 years. Complete hemostasis by embolization was achieved in all cases. The hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram was used for navigation during catheterization, thus assisting successful embolization. Hemorrhage was not visualized in the remaining 10 patients, of whom 6 had a pseudoaneurysm in a visceral artery; 1 with urinary bladder bleeding and 1 with chest wall hemorrhage had gaze tamponade; and 1 with urinary bladder hemorrhage and 1 with uterine hemorrhage had spastic arteries. Six patients with pseudoaneurysm underwent preventive embolization and the other 4 patients were managed by watchful observation. MDCTAo has the advantage of depicting the arteries responsible for hemoptysis, whether from the bronchial arteries or other systemic arteries, in a single scan. MDCTAo is particularly useful for identifying the source of acute arterial bleeding in the pancreatic arcade area, which is supplied by both the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. In a case of pelvic hemorrhage, MDCTAo identified the responsible artery from among numerous overlapping visceral arteries that branched from the internal iliac arteries. In conclusion, a hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created by 64MDCT immediately before catheterization is useful for deciding the catheter treatment strategy for acute arterial bleeding.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of a volume-rendered computed tomography movie and other computed tomography-based imaging methods in assessment of renal vascular anatomy for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shingo; Tanooka, Masao; Ando, Kumiko; Yamano, Toshiko; Ishikura, Reiichi; Nojima, Michio; Hirota, Shozo; Shima, Hiroki

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT)-based imaging methods for assessing renal vascular anatomy, imaging studies, including standard axial CT, three-dimensional volume-rendered CT (3DVR-CT), and a 3DVR-CT movie, were performed on 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (10 right side, 20 left side) for predicting the location of the renal arteries and renal, adrenal, gonadal, and lumbar veins. These findings were compared with videos obtained during the operation. Two of 37 renal arteries observed intraoperatively were missed by standard axial CT and 3DVR-CT, whereas all arteries were identified by the 3DVR-CT movie. Two of 36 renal veins were missed by standard axial CT and 3DVR-CT, whereas 1 was missed by the 3DVR-CT movie. In 20 left renal hilar anatomical structures, 20 adrenal, 20 gonadal, and 22 lumbar veins were observed during the operation. Preoperatively, the standard axial CT, 3DVR-CT, and 3DVR-CT movie detected 11, 19, and 20 adrenal veins; 13, 14, and 19 gonadal veins; and 6, 11, and 15 lumbar veins, respectively. Overall, of 135 renal vascular structures, the standard axial CT, 3DVR-CT, and 3DVR-CT movie accurately detected 99 (73.3%), 113 (83.7%), and 126 (93.3%) vessels, respectively, which indicated that the 3DVR-CT movie demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate than other CT-based imaging methods (P renal vascular anatomy before laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

  15. Extraction by Dry Rendering Methode and Characterization Fish Oil of Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus Viscera Fat by Product of Smooked Fish Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kamini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The catfish viscera fat, is cathfish processing by-products, has potential to be used as a source ofraw material for production of fish oil. This study aimed to analyze the value of proximate, heavy metalcontent and fatty acid profile of catfish viscera fat (Pangasius hypopthalmus and characterized fish oilextracted by dry rendering in various temperature and time than compared it to fish oil extracted by stoveheating to obtain the best treatment. Proximate, heavy metal residue, and the fatty acid profile analysiswere conducted for characterizing catfish viscera fat. Fish oil extraction was conducted by dry renderingin various temperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 °C for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Fish oil quality was determined by thechemical characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, anisidin and TOTOX. The results of the study showed that fat contentof catfish fat viscera was 88.19 %, the heavy metals content was below SNI standart to be consumed, and fattyacid profile composition was SFA>MUFA>PUFA. The highest fatty acid content was oleic acid. The best fishoil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 50°C for 2 hours with yield value, PV, FFA, anisidin,and TOTOX were 45.17 %, 2.77 meq/kg, 0.83 %, 2.86 meq/kg, 8.39 meq/kg respectively. This result was notsignificantly different with fish oil extracted by the stove heating expect for yield and PV were 80.11% and6.52 meq/kg, respectively.

  16. Three-dimensional volume rendering of tibiofibular joint space and quantitative analysis of change in volume due to tibiofibular syndesmosis diastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taser, F.; Shafiq, Q.; Ebraheim, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of ankle syndesmosis injuries is made by various imaging techniques. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the three-dimensional reconstruction of axial CT images and calculation of the volume of tibiofibular joint space enhances the sensitivity of diastases diagnoses or not. Six adult cadaveric ankle specimens were used for spiral CT-scan assessment of tibiofibular syndesmosis. After the specimens were dissected, external fixation was performed and diastases of 1, 2, and 3 mm was simulated by a precalibrated device. Helical CT scans were obtained with 1.0-mm slice thickness. The data was transferred to the computer software AcquariusNET. Then the contours of the tibiofibular syndesmosis joint space were outlined on each axial CT slice and the collection of these slices were stacked using the computer software AutoCAD 2005, according to the spatial arrangement and geometrical coordinates between each slice, to produce a three-dimensional reconstruction of the joint space. The area of each slice and the volume of the entire tibiofibular joint space were calculated. The tibiofibular joint space at the 10th-mm slice level was also measured on axial CT scan images at normal, 1, 2 and 3-mm joint space diastases. The three-dimensional volume-rendering of the tibiofibular syndesmosis joint space from the spiral CT data demonstrated the shape of the joint space and has been found to be a sensitive method for calculating joint space volume. We found that, from normal to 1 mm, a 1-mm diastasis increases approximately 43% of the joint space volume, while from 1 to 3 mm, there is about a 20% increase for each 1-mm increase. Volume calculation using this method can be performed in cases of syndesmotic instability after ankle injuries and for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of the integrity of the tibiofibular syndesmosis. (orig.)

  17. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  18. Computer-assisted operational planning for pediatric abdominal surgery. 3D-visualized MRI with volume rendering; Die computerassistierte Operationsplanung in der Abdominalchirurgie des Kindes. 3D-Visualisierung mittels ''volume rendering'' in der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, P.; Holland-Cunz, S.; Waag, K.L. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Kinderchirurgie; Troeger, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, (Germany). Paediatrische Radiologie; Schenk, J.P. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, (Germany). Paediatrische Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum, Paediatrische Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Exact surgical planning is necessary for complex operations of pathological changes in anatomical structures of the pediatric abdomen. 3D visualization and computer-assisted operational planning based on CT data are being increasingly used for difficult operations in adults. To minimize radiation exposure and for better soft tissue contrast, sonography and MRI are the preferred diagnostic methods in pediatric patients. Because of manifold difficulties 3D visualization of these MRI data has not been realized so far, even though the field of embryonal malformations and tumors could benefit from this. A newly developed and modified raycasting-based powerful 3D volume rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.2) for the planning of pediatric abdominal surgery is presented. With the help of specifically developed algorithms, a useful surgical planning system is demonstrated. Thanks to the easy handling and high-quality visualization with enormous gain of information, the presented system is now an established part of routine surgical planning. (orig.) [German] Komplexe Operationen bei ausgepraegten pathologischen Veraenderungen anatomischer Strukturen des kindlichen Abdomens benoetigen eine exakte Operationsvorbereitung. 3D-Visualisierung und computerassistierte Operationsplanung anhand von CT-Daten finden fuer schwierige chirurgische Eingriffe bei Erwachsenen in zunehmendem Masse Anwendung. Aus strahlenhygienischen Gruenden und bei besserer Weichteildifferenzierung ist jedoch neben der Sonographie die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) bei Kindern das Diagnostikum der Wahl. Die 3D-Visualisierung dieser MRT-Daten ist dabei jedoch aufgrund vielfaeltiger Schwierigkeiten bisher nicht durchgefuehrt worden, obwohl sich das Gebiet embryonaler Fehlbildungen und Tumoren geradezu anbietet. Vorgestellt wird eine weiterentwickelte und an die Fragestellungen der abdominellen Kinderchirurgie angepasste, sehr leistungsstarke raycastingbasierte 3D-volume-rendering-Software (VG Studio Max 1

  19. From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells: Comparison between Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Abdel-Rahman, Engy A; Reda, Asmaa M; Ali, Sameh S; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Ismail, Amani M; Ismail, Hossam El-Din A; El-Badri, Nagwa; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs), for their differentiation potentials to form insulin-producing cells. BM-MSCs were obtained during elective orthotopic surgery and AT-MSCs from fatty aspirates during elective cosmetics procedures. Following their expansion, cells were characterized by phenotyping, trilineage differentiation ability, and basal gene expression of pluripotency genes and for their metabolic characteristics. Cells were differentiated according to a Trichostatin-A based protocol. The differentiated cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry staining for insulin and c-peptide. In addition the expression of relevant pancreatic endocrine genes was determined. The release of insulin and c-peptide in response to a glucose challenge was also quantitated. There were some differences in basal gene expression and metabolic characteristics. After differentiation the proportion of the resulting insulin-producing cells (IPCs), was comparable among both cell sources. Again, there were no differences neither in the levels of gene expression nor in the amounts of insulin and c-peptide release as a function of glucose challenge. The properties, availability, and abundance of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine. Conclusion . BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs are comparable regarding their differential potential to form IPCs. The availability and properties of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine.

  20. From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells: Comparison between Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Gabr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs, for their differentiation potentials to form insulin-producing cells. BM-MSCs were obtained during elective orthotopic surgery and AT-MSCs from fatty aspirates during elective cosmetics procedures. Following their expansion, cells were characterized by phenotyping, trilineage differentiation ability, and basal gene expression of pluripotency genes and for their metabolic characteristics. Cells were differentiated according to a Trichostatin-A based protocol. The differentiated cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry staining for insulin and c-peptide. In addition the expression of relevant pancreatic endocrine genes was determined. The release of insulin and c-peptide in response to a glucose challenge was also quantitated. There were some differences in basal gene expression and metabolic characteristics. After differentiation the proportion of the resulting insulin-producing cells (IPCs, was comparable among both cell sources. Again, there were no differences neither in the levels of gene expression nor in the amounts of insulin and c-peptide release as a function of glucose challenge. The properties, availability, and abundance of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs are comparable regarding their differential potential to form IPCs. The availability and properties of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine.

  1. Mitochondrial role in cell aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Fleming, J.; Economos, A. C.; Johnson, J. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental studies on the mitochondria of insect and mammalian cells are examined with a view to an analysis of intrinsic mitochondrial senescence, and its relation to the age-related changes in other cell organelles. The fine structural and biochemical data support the concept that the mitochondria of fixed postmitotic cells may be the site of intrinsic aging because of the attack by free radicals and lipid peroxides originating in the organelles as a by-product of oxygen reduction during respiration. Although the cells have numerous mechanisms for counteracting lipid peroxidation injury, there is a slippage in the antioxidant protection. Intrinsic mitochondrial aging could thus be considered as a specific manifestation of oxygen toxicity. It is proposed that free radical injury renders an increasing number of the mitochondria unable to divide, probably because of damage to the lipids of the inner membrane and to mitochondrial DNA.

  2. Differentiating aneurysm from infundibular dilatation by volume rendering MRA. Techniques for improving depiction of the posterior communicating and anterior choroidal arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takaaki; Ito, Takeo; Hasunuma, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Kohama, Ikuhide; Yonemori, Terutake; Izumo, Masaki [Hakodate Shintoshi Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    With the spread of brain dock procedures, non-invasive magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is being utilized to broadly screen for brain blood vessel diseases. However, diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm can be difficult by routine MRA. In particular, differentiating aneurysms and infundibular dilatations (IDS) of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) at their bifurcations with the internal carotid artery (ICA) is extremely difficult and additional studies are frequently necessary. In this situation, three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) and cerebral angiography have been utilized, but both techniques are invasive. Furthermore, images from cerebral angiography are only two-dimensional, and 3D-CTA requires differentiation between aneurysm and ID by observing configurational changes at the apex of the protrusion and by following gradual changes to the threshold. We therefore undertook the following steps to improve both depiction of the PCoA and AChA and differential diagnosis between aneurysm and ID: reduced slice thickness and increased number of excitations; utilized volume rendering methods to construct images; lowered thresholds for the beginning of the PCoA and AChA arteries, which represent the regions of interest. In all 11 cases that we operated on, cerebral aneurysms were diagnosed correctly and the minimum neck diameter of the cerebral aneurysm was 1.2 mm. In addition, the number of AChAs and PCoAs present in target MRA and in operational views were evaluated. In one case with an AChA aneurysm, a PCoA was not detected by target MRA, because the ICA deviated posterolaterally and pushed the PCoA to the posterior clinoid process, and blood flow was poor in operational views. In another 2 cases with AChA aneurysms, only one AChA was described in target MRA, whereas two aneurysms were present. However, one of these had a diameter less than 1 mm. In conclusion, this method offers an extremely useful aid

  3. Differentiating aneurysm from infundibular dilatation by volume rendering MRA. Techniques for improving depiction of the posterior communicating and anterior choroidal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takaaki; Ito, Takeo; Hasunuma, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Kohama, Ikuhide; Yonemori, Terutake; Izumo, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    With the spread of brain dock procedures, non-invasive magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is being utilized to broadly screen for brain blood vessel diseases. However, diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm can be difficult by routine MRA. In particular, differentiating aneurysms and infundibular dilatations (IDS) of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) at their bifurcations with the internal carotid artery (ICA) is extremely difficult and additional studies are frequently necessary. In this situation, three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) and cerebral angiography have been utilized, but both techniques are invasive. Furthermore, images from cerebral angiography are only two-dimensional, and 3D-CTA requires differentiation between aneurysm and ID by observing configurational changes at the apex of the protrusion and by following gradual changes to the threshold. We therefore undertook the following steps to improve both depiction of the PCoA and AChA and differential diagnosis between aneurysm and ID: reduced slice thickness and increased number of excitations; utilized volume rendering methods to construct images; lowered thresholds for the beginning of the PCoA and AChA arteries, which represent the regions of interest. In all 11 cases that we operated on, cerebral aneurysms were diagnosed correctly and the minimum neck diameter of the cerebral aneurysm was 1.2 mm. In addition, the number of AChAs and PCoAs present in target MRA and in operational views were evaluated. In one case with an AChA aneurysm, a PCoA was not detected by target MRA, because the ICA deviated posterolaterally and pushed the PCoA to the posterior clinoid process, and blood flow was poor in operational views. In another 2 cases with AChA aneurysms, only one AChA was described in target MRA, whereas two aneurysms were present. However, one of these had a diameter less than 1 mm. In conclusion, this method offers an extremely useful aid

  4. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Luo

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT and its multiplanar reformation (MPR, volume rendering (VR and virtual bronchoscopy (VB postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors.Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology.Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6, tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16, extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm-56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1, longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm-68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1, morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1 and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10, and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n = 1; low density

  5. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingyue; Duan, Chaijie; Qiu, Jianping; Li, Wenru; Zhu, Dongyun; Cai, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT) and its multiplanar reformation (MPR), volume rendering (VR) and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors. Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology. Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6), tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16), extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm-56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1), longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm-68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1), morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1) and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19), distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10), and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n = 1; low density without

  6. Light induces Fos expression via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in melanopsin-expressing PC12 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldrup, Marie-Louise Bülow; Georg, Birgitte; Falktoft, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The photopigment melanopsin is expressed in a subtype of mammalian ganglion cells in the retina that project to the circadian clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus to mediate non-visual light information. Melanopsin renders these retinal ganglion cells intrinsically photosensitive...

  7. Stem Cell Microencapsulation for Phenotypic Control, Bioprocessing, and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jenna L.

    2014-01-01

    Cell microencapsulation has been utilized for decades as a means to shield cells from the external environment while simultaneously permitting transport of oxygen, nutrients, and secretory molecules. In designing cell therapies, donor primary cells are often difficult to obtain and expand to appropriate numbers, rendering stem cells an attractive alternative due to their capacities for self-renewal, differentiation, and trophic factor secretion. Microencapsulation of stem cells offers several benefits, namely the creation of a defined microenvironment which can be designed to modulate stem cell phenotype, protection from hydrodynamic forces and prevention of agglomeration during expansion in suspension bioreactors, and a means to transplant cells behind a semi-permeable barrier, allowing for molecular secretion while avoiding immune reaction. This review will provide an overview of relevant microencapsulation processes and characterization in the context of maintaining stem cell potency, directing differentiation, investigating scalable production methods, and transplanting stem cells for clinically relevant disorders. PMID:23239279

  8. Use of an Optical Trap for Study of Host-Pathogen Interactions for Dynamic Live Cell Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Jenny M.; Castro, Carlos E.; Heath, Robert J. W.; Mansour, Michael K.; Cardenas, Michael L.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Lang, Matthew J.; Vyas, Jatin M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic live cell imaging allows direct visualization of real-time interactions between cells of the immune system1, 2; however, the lack of spatial and temporal control between the phagocytic cell and microbe has rendered focused observations into the initial interactions of host response to pathogens difficult. Historically, intercellular contact events such as phagocytosis3 have been imaged by mixing two cell types, and then continuously scanning the field-of-view to find serendipitous int...

  9. Nitrosoureas Inhibit the Stathmin Mediated Migration and Invasion of Malignant Glioma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xing-Jie; Choi, Yong; Sackett, Dan L.; Park, John K.

    2008-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary intrinsic brain tumors and are highly lethal. The widespread migration and invasion of neoplastic cells from the initial site of tumor formation into the surrounding brain render these lesions refractory to definitive surgical treatment. Stathmin, a microtubule destabilizing protein that mediates cell cycle progression, can also regulate directed cell movement. Nitrosoureas, traditionally viewed as DNA alkylating agents, can also covalently modify...

  10. Pokemon Silencing Leads to Bim-Mediated Anoikis of Human Hepatoma Cell QGY7703

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Shiying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of P...

  11. Recombinant human interleukin 2 acts as a B cell growth and differentiation promoting factor

    OpenAIRE

    Emmrich, F.; Moll, Heidrun; Simon, Markus M.

    2009-01-01

    Human B cells appropriately activated by a B cell mitogen are rendered susceptible to human Interleukin 2 (IL-2) as demonstrated with recombinant human IL-2 (rec. h IL-2). They show increased proliferation and drastically enhanced immunoglobulin secretion. Susceptibility to IL-2 is accompanied with the expression of the IL-2 receptor (Tac antigen) on B cells. The data suggest that IL-2 is one of the lymphokines directly involved in the activation of B lymphocytes.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Potent Cell Source for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zomorodian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While small bone defects heal spontaneously, large bone defects need surgical intervention for bone transplantation. Autologous bone grafts are the best and safest strategy for bone repair. An alternative method is to use allogenic bone graft. Both methods have limitations, particularly when bone defects are of a critical size. In these cases, bone constructs created by tissue engineering technologies are of utmost importance. Cells are one main component in the manufacture of bone construct. A few cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs, adult osteoblast, and adult stem cells, can be used for this purpose. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, as adult stem cells, possess characteristics that make them good candidate for bone repair. This paper discusses different aspects of MSCs that render them an appropriate cell type for clinical use to promote bone regeneration.

  13. 基于矩形分割的局部渲染技术在无线图像通信中的应用%Application of Rectangle Incision Based on Part Render Technology in Wireless Picture Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德胜

    2012-01-01

    为了提升无线图像通信中的图像渲染性能和减小数据的传输量,提出了一种优化算法,将基于矩形分割的局部渲染技术引入到无线图像通信中,以此减小每一帧的渲染区域和传输数据,以达到在节约CPU计算资源的同时,降低电量消耗和带宽依赖的目的.通过实验发现,该算法在图像相对变化较小的时候,最多能将渲染性能提升一倍,同时传输数据量和需要重新渲染的单个对象数量基本呈正比.实验结果证明,该算法有其适用范围,当图像较稳定的时候,平均能够提升30%以上计算性能,并减少50%以上的数据传输.%For optimizing the performance of picture render and reduce the size of transfer data, this paper proposed an algorithm which can cut down the render area and the size of data to be transferred by part rendering. It is expected that this algoritms can save computational resources and reduce consumption of electricity and bandwidth at the same time. According to the experiment, this algorithm can optimize the render performance up to 100 percent when picture is not changing too much and the size of transferred data is directly proportional to the number of objects need to be re-rendered. This result proved that when the picture is relatively stable this algorithm can speed up the renderi performance by at least 30% and reduce 50% transferred data in the common cases.

  14. Transplantation Tolerance Induction: Cell Therapies and their Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Scalea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell based therapies have been studied extensively in the context of transplantation tolerance induction. The most successful protocols have relied on transfusion of bone marrow prior to the transplantation of a renal allograft. However, it is not clear that stem cells found in bone marrow are required in order to render a transplant candidate immunologically tolerant. Accordingly, mesenchymal stem cells, regulatory myeloid cells, T regulatory cells, and other cell types, are being tested as possible routes to tolerance induction, in the absence of donor derived stem cells. Early data with each of these cell types have been encouraging. However, the induction regimen capable of achieving consistent tolerance, whilst avoiding unwanted sided effects, and which is scalable to the human patient, has yet to be identified. Here we present the status of investigations of various tolerogenic cell types and the mechanistic rationale for their use in in tolerance induction protocols.

  15. Museum lighting for golden artifacts, with low correlated color temperature, high color uniformity and high color rendering index, using diffusing color mixing of red, cyan, and white-light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2012-01-01

    at the Royal Danish Collection at Rosenborg Castle. Color mixing of red, cyan, and white LEDs was employed to achieve the spectral power distribution needed for the required CCT and a CRI above 90. Color uniformity is achieved by the use of a highly diffusing reflector. The system has shown energy saving above......Museum lighting presents challenges mainly due to the demand for precise color rendering and the damaging effects of radiation. Golden objects must normally be illuminated by the non-standard CCT of 2200 K. An LED system that conforms to these requirements has been developed and implemented...

  16. Development of a cell microarray chip for detection of circulating tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, S.; Yatsushiro, S.; Abe, K.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of metastatic cancer patients has clinical significance in earlier diagnosis of metastases. In this study, a novel cell microarray chip for accurate and rapid detection of tumor cells from human leukocytes was developed. The chip with 20,944 microchambers (105 μm diameter and 50 μm depth) was made from polystyrene, and the surface was rendered to hydrophilic by means of reactive-ion etching, which led to the formation of mono-layers of leukocytes on the microchambers. As the model of CTCs detection, we spiked human bronchioalveolar carcinoma (H1650) cells into human T lymphoblastoid leukemia (CEM) cells suspension and detected H1650 cells using the chip. A CEM suspension contained with H1650 cells was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 10 min standing to allow the cells to settle down into the microchambers. About 30 CEM cells were accommodated in each microchamber, over 600,000 CEM cells in total being on a chip. We could detect 1 H1650 cell per 106 CEM cells on the microarray by staining with fluorescence-conjugated antibody (Anti-Cytokeratin) and cell membrane marker (DiD). Thus, this cell microarray chip has highly potential to be a novel tool of accurate and rapid detection of CTCs.

  17. Identification of different subsets of lung cells using Raman microspectroscopy and whole cell nucleus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanka, Jacek K; Stone, Nicholas; Rutter, Abigail V; Forsyth, Nicholas; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Yang, Ying; Sulé-Suso, Josep

    2013-09-07

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used to study its possible clinical application in cancer diagnosis. However, in order to make it into clinical practice, it is important that this technique is able not only to identify cancer cells from their normal counterparts, but also from the array of cells present in human tissues. To this purpose, we used Raman spectroscopy to assess whether this technique was able to differentiate not only between lung cancer cells and lung epithelial cells but also from lung fibroblasts. Furthermore, we studied whether the differences were due to cell lineage (epithelial versus fibroblast) or to different proliferative characteristics of cells, and where in the cell compartment these differences might reside. To answer these questions we studied cell cytoplasm, cell nucleus and isolated whole cell nuclei. Our data suggests that Raman spectroscopy can differentiate between lung cancer, lung epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts. More important, it can also differentiate between 2 cells from the same lineage (fibroblast) but with one of them rendered immortal and with an increased proliferative activity. Finally, it seems that the main spectral differences reside in the cell nucleus and that the study of isolated nuclei strengthens the differences between cells.

  18. One-Step Preparation of Blue-Emitting (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ Phosphors for High-Color Rendering White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Atsuro; Suehiro, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Hirosaki, Naoto

    2011-02-01

    Highly phase-pure (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ blue-emitting phosphors were successfully synthesized via the one-step solid-state reaction from the system La2O3-CaO-CeO2-Si3N4. The synthesized (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ exhibits tunable blue broadband emission with the dominant wavelength of 466-479 nm and the external quantum efficiency up to ˜45% under 380 nm near-UV (NUV) excitation. Spectral simulations of the trichromatic white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ demonstrated markedly higher color rendering index Ra values of 93-95, compared to 76-90 attained by the systems using a conventional BAM:Eu2+ phosphor or InGaN blue LED. The present achievement indicates the promising applicability of (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ as a blue luminescent source for NUV-converting high-color rendering white LEDs.

  19. Functionalization of deproteinized bovine bone with a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 renders the material efficiently osteoinductive and suppresses foreign-body reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Hunziker, Ernst B; Zheng, Yuanna; Wismeijer, Daniel; Liu, Yuelian

    2011-12-01

    The repair of critical-sized bony defects remains a challenge in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. As an alternative bone-defect filler to autologous bone grafts, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is highly osteoconductive and clinically now widely used. However, this product suffers from the disadvantage of not being intrinsically osteoinductive. In the present study, this property was conferred by coating DBB with a layer of calcium phosphate into which bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was incorporated. Granules of DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2--together with the appropriate controls (DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing no BMP-2)--were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Five weeks later, the implants were withdrawn for a histomorphometric analysis of the volume densities of (i) bone, (ii) bone marrow, (iii) foreign-body giant cells and (iv) fibrous capsular tissue. Parameters (i) and (ii) were highest, whilst parameters (iii) and (iv) were lowest in association with DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. Hence, this mode of functionalization not only confers DBB with the property of osteoinductivity but also improves its biocompatibility--thus dually enhancing its clinical potential in the repair of bony defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of the interplay between all-trans retinoic acid and histone deacetylase inhibitors in leukemic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Katrin; Mahendrarajah, Nisintha; Hennig, Dorle

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces granulocytic differentiation. This process renders APL cells resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapies. Epigenetic regulators of the histone deacetylases (HDACs) family, which comprise four classes (I–IV),...

  1. Measurement of binding of adenine nucleotides and phosphate to cytosolic proteins in permeabilized rat-liver cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gankema, H. S.; Groen, A. K.; Wanders, R. J.; Tager, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    1. A method is described for measuring the binding of metabolites to cytosolic proteins in situ in isolated rat-liver cells treated with filipin to render the plasma membrane permeable to compounds of low molecular weight. 2. There is no binding of ATP or inorganic phosphate to cytosolic proteins,

  2. How to depolarise the ethical debate over human embryonic stem cell research (and other ethical debates too!)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinoza, N.; Peterson, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    The contention of this paper is that the current ethical debate over embryonic stem cell research is polarised to an extent that is not warranted by the underlying ethical conflict. It is argued that the ethical debate can be rendered more nuanced, and less polarised, by introducing non-binary

  3. Cdc42 is a key regulator of B cell differentiation and is required for antiviral humoral immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbage, Marianne; Keppler, Selina J; Gasparrini, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The small Rho GTPase Cdc42, known to interact with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein, is an important regulator of actin remodeling. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Cdc42 exclusively in the B cell lineage is sufficient to render mice unable to mount antibody responses. Indeed Cdc42-de...

  4. Fluoride exposure abates pro-inflammatory response and induces in vivo apoptosis rendering zebrafish (Danio rerio) susceptible to bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Khatri, Preeti; Srivastava, Nidhi; Jain, Shruti; Brahmachari, Vani; Mukhopadhyay, Asish; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2017-04-01

    The present study describes the immunotoxic effect of chronic fluoride exposure on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were exposed to fluoride (71.12 mg/L; 1/10 LC 50 ) for 30 d and the expression of selected genes studied. We observed significant elevation in the detoxification pathway gene cyp1a suggesting chronic exposure to non-lethal concentration of fluoride is indeed toxic to fish. Fluoride mediated pro-oxidative stress is implicated with the downregulation in superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (sod1/2) genes. Fluoride affected DNA repair machinery by abrogating the expression of the DNA repair gene rad51 and growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta a gene gadd45ba. The upregulated expression of casp3a coupled with altered Bcl-2 associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 ratio (baxa/bcl2a) clearly suggested chronic fluoride exposure induced the apoptotic cascade in zebrafish. Fluoride-exposed zebrafish when challenged with non-lethal dose of fish pathogen A. hydrophila revealed gross histopathology in spleen, bacterial persistence and significant mortality. We report that fluoride interferes with system-level output of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interferon-γ, as a consequence, bacteria replicate efficiently causing significant fish mortality. We conclude, chronic fluoride exposure impairs the redox balance, affects DNA repair machinery with pro-apoptotic implications and suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines expression abrogating host immunity to bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Streaming Model Based Volume Ray Casting Implementation for Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusub Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactive high quality volume rendering is becoming increasingly more important as the amount of more complex volumetric data steadily grows. While a number of volumetric rendering techniques have been widely used, ray casting has been recognized as an effective approach for generating high quality visualization. However, for most users, the use of ray casting has been limited to datasets that are very small because of its high demands on computational power and memory bandwidth. However the recent introduction of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell B.E. processor, which consists of 9 heterogeneous cores designed to handle extremely demanding computations with large streams of data, provides an opportunity to put the ray casting into practical use. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parallel implementation of volume ray casting on the Cell B.E. The implementation is designed to take full advantage of the computational power and memory bandwidth of the Cell B.E. using an intricate orchestration of the ray casting computation on the available heterogeneous resources. Specifically, we introduce streaming model based schemes and techniques to efficiently implement acceleration techniques for ray casting on Cell B.E. In addition to ensuring effective SIMD utilization, our method provides two key benefits: there is no cost for empty space skipping and there is no memory bottleneck on moving volumetric data for processing. Our experimental results show that we can interactively render practical datasets on a single Cell B.E. processor.

  6. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, C. M.; Fritz, S.; Vollherbst, D.; Zelzer, S.; Wachter, M. F.; Bellemann, N.; Gockner, T.; Mokry, T.; Schmitz, A.; Aulmann, S.; Stampfl, U.; Pereira, P.; Kauczor, H. U.; Werner, J.; Radeleff, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm 3 , and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm 3 , and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver

  7. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Fritz, S., E-mail: stefan.fritz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Vollherbst, D., E-mail: dominikvollherbst@web.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Zelzer, S., E-mail: s.zelzer@dkfz-heidelberg.de [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Medical and Biological Informatics (Germany); Wachter, M. F., E-mail: fredericwachter@googlemail.com; Bellemann, N., E-mail: nadine.bellemann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Gockner, T., E-mail: theresa.gockner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Mokry, T., E-mail: theresa.mokry@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmitz, A., E-mail: anne.schmitz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Aulmann, S., E-mail: sebastian.aulmann@mail.com [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Pathology (Germany); Stampfl, U., E-mail: ulrike.stampfl@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Pereira, P., E-mail: philippe.pereira@slk-kliniken.de [SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology, Minimally-invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Kauczor, H. U., E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Werner, J., E-mail: jens.werner@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Radeleff, B. A., E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver.

  8. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, Christopher, E-mail: cchiaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Lazarova, Darina L., E-mail: dlazarova@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Bordonaro, Michael, E-mail: mbordonaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that

  9. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, Christopher; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. ► Tcf3 modulates butyrate’s effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. ► Tcf3 modulation of butyrate’s effects differ by cell context. ► Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. ► Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G 1 to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or reverse butyrate resistance.

  10. Demonstration of NK cell-mediated lysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-infected cells: characterization of the effector cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilden, A.B.; Cauda, R.; Grossi, C.E.; Balch, C.M.; Lakeman, A.D.; Whitley, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) rendered RAJI cells more susceptible to lysis by non-adherent blood lymphocytes. At an effector to target ratio of 80:1 the mean percentage of /sup 51/Cr release of VZV-infected RAJI cells was 41 +/- 12%, whereas that of uninfected RAJI cells was 15 +/- 6%. The increased susceptibility to lysis was associated with increased effector to target conjugate formation in immunofluorescence binding assays. The effector cells cytotoxic for VZV-infected RAJI cells were predominantly Leu-11a/sup +/ Leu-4/sup -/ granular lymphocytes as demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The effector cell active against VZV-infected RAJI cells appeared similar to those active against herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, because in cold target competition experiments the lysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled VZV-infected RAJI cells was efficiently inhibited by either unlabeled VZV-infected RAJI cells (mean 71% inhibition, 2:1 ratio unlabeled to labeled target) or HSV-infected RAJI cells (mean 69% inhibition) but not by uninfected RAJI cells (mean 10% inhibition). In contrast, competition experiments revealed donor heterogeneity in the overlap between effector cells for VZV- or HSV-infected RAJI vs K-562 cells.

  11. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  12. Accelerated and Rational Design of Improved CHO Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grav, Lise Marie

    Recombinant production of therapeutic proteins provides huge benefits to human health and promises solutions to some of the most devastating and currently untreatable diseases in healthcare. Key to the development of new therapeutic proteins is to optimize and engineer living cells, namely cell...... of a number of novel tools is reported that aim to accelerate the construction of production cell lines for therapeutic proteins with optimal phenotypic attributes for industrial processes. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the predominant production host for therapeutic proteins, and are the cell factory...... of interest in this thesis. The core of the thesis is revolved around the development and application of genome editing techniques that enable us to precisely engineer the genome of CHO cells by either rendering specific-targeted genes unfunctional or inserting new genes in precise genomic locations...

  13. Transfer of mRNA Encoding Invariant NKT Cell Receptors Imparts Glycolipid Specific Responses to T Cells and γδT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kanako; Shinga, Jun; Yamasaki, Satoru; Kawamura, Masami; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Sato, Yusuke; Iyoda, Tomonori; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapies using genetically engineered lymphocytes expressing antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) hold promise for the treatment of several types of cancers. Almost all studies using this modality have focused on transfer of TCR from CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The transfer of TCR from innate lymphocytes to other lymphocytes has not been studied. In the current study, innate and adaptive lymphocytes were transfected with the human NKT cell-derived TCRα and β chain mRNA (the Vα24 and Vβ11 TCR chains). When primary T cells transfected with NKT cell-derived TCR were subsequently stimulated with the NKT ligand, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), they secreted IFN-γ in a ligand-specific manner. Furthermore when γδT cells were transfected with NKT cell-derived TCR mRNA, they demonstrated enhanced proliferation, IFN-γ production and antitumor effects after α-GalCer stimulation as compared to parental γδT cells. Importantly, NKT cell TCR-transfected γδT cells responded to both NKT cell and γδT cell ligands, rendering them bi-potential innate lymphocytes. Because NKT cell receptors are unique and universal invariant receptors in humans, the TCR chains do not yield mispaired receptors with endogenous TCR α and β chains after the transfection. The transfection of NKT cell TCR has the potential to be a new approach to tumor immunotherapy in patients with various types of cancer.

  14. Engineering the Interface Between Inorganic Materials and Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, David

    2014-05-31

    To further optimize cell function in hybrid “living materials”, it would be advantageous to render mammalian cells responsive to novel “orthogonal” cues, i.e. signals they would not ordinarily respond to but that can be engineered to feed into defined intracellular signaling pathways. We recently developed an optogenetic method, based on A. thaliana Cry2, for rapid and reversible protein oligomerization in response to blue light. We also demonstrated the ability to use this method to channel the light input into several defined signaling pathways, work that will enhance communication between inorganic devices and living systems.

  15. Rejection of class I MHC-deficient haemopoietic cells by irradiated MHC-matched mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bix, M.; Nanshih Liao; Raulet, D.; Zijlstra, M.; Loring, J.; Jaenisch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiated MHC-heterozygous mice often reject bone marrow cells transplanted from one of the homozygous parental strains, a phenomenon ('hybrid resistance') that appears to violate the laws of transplantation. Rejection of parental and allogeneic marrow cells also differs from conventional T cell-mediated rejection mechanisms as it is effected by NK1.1 + cells. To account for the unusual specificity of bone marrow rejection, it has been proposed that NK1.1 + cells destroy marrow cells that fail to express the full complement of self MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules. We show here that NK1.1 + cells in normal mice reject haemopoietic transplants from mice that are deficient for normal cell-surface MHC-I expression because of a targeted mutation in the β 2 -microglobulin gene. These findings demonstrate that deficient expression of MHC-I molecules renders marrow cells susceptible to rejection. (author)

  16. The small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 sensitizes cervical cancer cells, but not normal fibroblasts, to heavy-ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kataoka, Keiko; Sora, Sakura; Hara, Takamitsu; Omura-Minamisawa, Motoko; Funayama, Tomoo; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Nakano, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to demonstrate that the small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 renders human cervical cancer cells and their Bcl-2 overexpressing radioresistant counterparts, but not normal fibroblasts, more susceptible to heavy ions. Thus, Bcl-2 may be an attractive target for improving the efficacy of heavy-ion therapy

  17. Screening for potential targets for therapy in mesenchymal, clear cell, and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma reveals Bcl-2 family members and TGFβ as potential targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Oosterwijk, Jolieke G; Meijer, Danielle; van Ruler, Maayke A J H

    2013-01-01

    . As in conventional chondrosarcoma, antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, and/or Bcl-xl) were highly expressed in all subtypes. Inhibition with the BH-3 mimetic ABT-737 rendered dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell lines sensitive to doxorubicin or cisplatin. Our data indicate that antiapoptotic proteins may play...

  18. [The mean timing of periodontic care rendering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorina, O A; Abaev, Z M; Domashev, D I; Boriskina, O A

    2012-01-01

    The time-studies demonstrated that the periodontologist spend 30.3 +/- 2.6 minutes on the primary ambulatory visit of patient and 16.4 +/- 0.9 minutes on the revisit of patient (non-registering time spending on preventive and curative activities). Time spending on curative preventive activities in each group of patients with periodontal diseases depended on both the severity of inflammatory destructive processes in periodontium and therapy stage.

  19. Interactive Volume Rendering of Diffusion Tensor Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawitschka, Mario; Weber, Gunther; Anwander, Alfred; Carmichael, Owen; Hamann, Bernd; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2007-03-30

    As 3D volumetric images of the human body become an increasingly crucial source of information for the diagnosis and treatment of a broad variety of medical conditions, advanced techniques that allow clinicians to efficiently and clearly visualize volumetric images become increasingly important. Interaction has proven to be a key concept in analysis of medical images because static images of 3D data are prone to artifacts and misunderstanding of depth. Furthermore, fading out clinically irrelevant aspects of the image while preserving contextual anatomical landmarks helps medical doctors to focus on important parts of the images without becoming disoriented. Our goal was to develop a tool that unifies interactive manipulation and context preserving visualization of medical images with a special focus on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. At each image voxel, DTI provides a 3 x 3 tensor whose entries represent the 3D statistical properties of water diffusion locally. Water motion that is preferential to specific spatial directions suggests structural organization of the underlying biological tissue; in particular, in the human brain, the naturally occuring diffusion of water in the axon portion of neurons is predominantly anisotropic along the longitudinal direction of the elongated, fiber-like axons [MMM+02]. This property has made DTI an emerging source of information about the structural integrity of axons and axonal connectivity between brain regions, both of which are thought to be disrupted in a broad range of medical disorders including multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and autism [Mos02, FCI+01, JLH+99, BGKM+04, BJB+03].

  20. Temporally rendered automatic cloud extraction (TRACE) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrero, Dennis M.; Yale, James G.; Davis, Roger E.; Rollins, John M.

    1999-10-01

    Smoke/obscurant testing requires that 2D cloud extent be extracted from visible and thermal imagery. These data are used alone or in combination with 2D data from other aspects to make 3D calculations of cloud properties, including dimensions, volume, centroid, travel, and uniformity. Determining cloud extent from imagery has historically been a time-consuming manual process. To reduce time and cost associated with smoke/obscurant data processing, automated methods to extract cloud extent from imagery were investigated. The TRACE system described in this paper was developed and implemented at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, UT by the Science and Technology Corporation--Acuity Imaging Incorporated team with Small Business Innovation Research funding. TRACE uses dynamic background subtraction and 3D fast Fourier transform as primary methods to discriminate the smoke/obscurant cloud from the background. TRACE has been designed to run on a PC-based platform using Windows. The PC-Windows environment was chosen for portability, to give TRACE the maximum flexibility in terms of its interaction with peripheral hardware devices such as video capture boards, removable media drives, network cards, and digital video interfaces. Video for Windows provides all of the necessary tools for the development of the video capture utility in TRACE and allows for interchangeability of video capture boards without any software changes. TRACE is designed to take advantage of future upgrades in all aspects of its component hardware. A comparison of cloud extent determined by TRACE with manual method is included in this paper.

  1. Dataset Curation through Renders and Ontology Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    government .001 services .246 furniture store .299 health salon .998 assoc./organization* .029 insurance agency .103 gastronomy .001 gas & automotive .219...Stanley Michael Bileschi. StreetScenes: Towards scene understanding in still images. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 2006. 3.5, 4.4...computer animation]. In Compcon’96.’ Technologies for the Information Superhigh- way’Digest of Papers. IEEE, 1996. 2.1 Aharon Bar Hillel and Daphna Weinshall

  2. Image based rendering of iterated function systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Saupe, D.

    2004-01-01

    A fast method to generate fractal imagery is presented. Iterated function systems (IFS) are based on repeatedly copying transformed images. We show that this can be directly translated into standard graphics operations: Each image is generated by texture mapping and blending copies of the previous

  3. Rendering Muḥammad Human Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riexinger, Martin Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (1703–1792), the founder of the puritan Wahhābī movement in Islam, has written a biography of the prophet that difffers markedly from other later works of this genre. He passes over many episodes that are supposed to elevate the status of Muḥammad beyond...

  4. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam

    2014-01-01

    adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at ≥40°C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol......Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ≥40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used...... desaturase gene, and increased expression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. Additionally, large chromosome III rearrangements and mutations in genes associated with DNA damage and respiration were found, but contributed less to the thermotolerant phenotype....

  5. Unusual presentation and inconclusive biopsy render fibroadenoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two young, nonlactating, nulliparous women presented with acutely painful breast masses. Sonographic features showed mixed echogenic masses. Core biopsies were not diagnostic, and surgical excision revealed infarcted fibroadenomas in both cases. Although fibroadenomas are common, they do not commonly infarct, ...

  6. 3D Plant Cell Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Using Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  7. Effects of sensitizers on cell respiration. 3. The effects of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers on oxidative metabolism and the radiation response of an in vitro tumour model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, R E [Wisconsin Clinical Cancer Center, Madison (USA). Dept. of Human Oncology; Biaglow, J E; Greenstock, C L

    1978-06-01

    Physiological factors are important when considering the effects of radiosensitizers on the radiation response of complex systems such as multi-cellular spheroids. In this system, under conditions of unlimited nutrient supply, cells are rendered hypoxic by metabolism. Thus, using the spheroid system as an in vitro model of the tumour-cell microenvironment, we have determined the relative contribution of radiosensitization and respiratory effects of a number of electron-affinic sensitizers having potential clinical use. These studies are indicative of physiological responses at the cellular level, and suggest optimal drug administration schemes for obtaining maximal radiation response in vivo with hypoxic cell sensitizers.

  8. Massive granular cell ameloblastoma with dural extension and atypical morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are rare histologically benign, locally aggressive tumors arising from the oral ectoderm that occasionally reach a gigantic size. Giant ameloblastomas are a rarity these days with the advent of panoramic radiography in routine dental practice. Furthermore, the granular cell variant is an uncommon histological subtype of ameloblastoma where the central stellate reticulum like cells in tumor follicles is replaced by granular cells. Although granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA is considered to be a destructive tumor with a high recurrence rate, the significance of granular cells in predicting its biologic behavior is debatable. However, we present a rare case of giant GCA of remarkable histomorphology showing extensive craniofacial involvement and dural extension that rendered a good prognosis following treatment.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Carrier for Targeting Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Mishra, Arun Kumar; Verma, Navneet; Verma, Anurag; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility, and specificity to cells, various cancer cells have been explored with CNTs for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, cell viability, cytotoxicty, and drug delivery in tumor cells. This review attempts to highlight all aspects of CNTs which render them as an effective anticancer drug carrier and imaging agent. Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has been covered in this review. PMID:24872894

  10. Qualidade na prestação de serviços fisioterápicos: estudo de caso sobre expectativas e percepções de clientes Rendered fisioterapy quality services: expectations and perceptions of customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mendonça Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda a qualidade na prestação de serviços fisioterápicos, através da comparação entre expectativas e percepções de clientes de uma clínica de Fisioterapia da cidade de Santa Maria, RS. Para avaliação da qualidade, utilizou-se a Escala SERVQUAL, composta por vinte e duas questões, sendo que, em doze delas, a percepção de qualidade foi superior às expectativas. Três questões apresentaram médias semelhantes entre expectativas e percepções e, em sete questões, as expectativas foram superiores às percepções. Os dados também foram submetidos à Análise Estatística Multivariada, a fim de verificar a presença ou não de questões redundantes na Escala SERVQUAL adaptada à Fisioterapia. Mediante critérios de exclusão, nove questões foram eliminadas do questionário sem perda significativa em sua abrangência e confiabilidade. Este estudo possibilitou detectar pontos de melhoria nos serviços prestados pela clínica constituinte do caso, além de sugerir uma versão mais enxuta para a Escala SERVQUAL.The present study approaches quality in the physiotherapy services rendered through the comparison between expectations and customers' perceptions. The study was developed in a Physiotherapy clinic from Santa Maria's city - RS. SERVQUAL scale composed by twenty two questions was used to evaluate the quality services. Quality perception was higher than expectations in twelve questions. Three questions presented have a similar average behavior between the expectations and perceptions and in seven the expectations were higher than perceptions. Data were also submitted to Multivariate Exploratory Techniques, with the purpose to verify the presence or not of redundant subjects in the SERVQUAL scale adapted to Physiotherapy. Multivariate Exploratory Techniques allowed retreat redundant questions through exclusion criteria. Nine questions were eliminated to the questionnaire without confiability and abrangence loss

  11. Novel yellow-emitting Sr8MgLn(PO4)7:Eu2+ (Ln=Y, La) phosphors for applications in white LEDs with excellent color rendering index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hao; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2011-06-20

    Eu(2+)-activated Sr(8)MgY(PO(4))(7) and Sr(8)MgLa(PO(4))(7) yellow-emitting phosphors were successfully synthesized by solid-state reactions for applications in excellent color rendering index white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The excitation and reflectance spectra of these phosphors show broad band excitation and absorption in the 250-450 nm near-ultraviolet region, which is ascribed to the 4f(7) → 4f(6)5d(1) transitions of Eu(2+). Therefore, these phosphors meet the application requirements for near-UV LED chips. Upon excitation at 400 nm, the Sr(8)MgY(PO(4))(7):Eu(2+) and Sr(8)MgLa(PO(4))(7):Eu(2+) phosphors exhibit strong yellow emissions centered at 518, 610, and 611 nm with better thermal stability than (Ba,Sr)(2)SiO(4) (570 nm) commodity phosphors. The composition-optimized concentrations of Eu(2+) in Sr(8)MgLa(PO(4))(7):Eu(2+) and Sr(8)MgY(PO(4))(7):Eu(2+) phosphors were determined to be 0.01 and 0.03 mol, respectively. A warm white-light near-UV LED was fabricated using a near-UV 400 nm chip pumped by a phosphor blend of blue-emitting BaMgAl(10)O(17):Eu(2+) and yellow-emitting Sr(8)MgY(PO(4))(7):0.01Eu(2+) or Sr(8)MgLa(PO(4))(7):0.03Eu(2+), driven by a 350 mA current. The Sr(8)MgY(PO(4))(7):0.01Eu(2+) and Sr(8)MgLa(PO(4))(7):0.03Eu(2+) containing LEDs produced a white light with Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (0.348, 0.357) and (0.365, 0.328), warm correlated color temperatures of 4705 and 4100 K, and excellent color rendering indices of 95.375 and 91.75, respectively. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. RB1 is the crucial target of the Merkel cell polyomavirus Large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesbacher, Sonja; Pfitzer, Lisa; Wiedorfer, Katharina; Angermeyer, Sabrina; Borst, Andreas; Haferkamp, Sebastian; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Wobser, Marion; Schrama, David; Houben, Roland

    2016-05-31

    The pocket protein (PP) family consists of the three members RB1, p107 and p130 all possessing tumor suppressive properties. Indeed, the PPs jointly control the G1/S transition mainly by inhibiting E2F transcription factors. Notably, several viral oncoproteins are capable of binding and inhibiting PPs. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is considered as etiological factor for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with expression of the viral Large T antigen (LT) harboring an intact PP binding domain being required for proliferation of most MCC cells. Therefore, we analyzed the interaction of MCPyV-LT with the PPs. Co-IP experiments indicate that MCPyV-LT binds potently only to RB1. Moreover, MCPyV-LT knockdown-induced growth arrest in MCC cells can be rescued by knockdown of RB1, but not by p107 or p130 knockdown. Accordingly, cell cycle arrest and E2F target gene repression mediated by the single PPs can only in the case of RB1 be significantly reverted by MCPyV-LT expression. Moreover, data from an MCC patient indicate that loss of RB1 rendered the MCPyV-positive MCC cells LT independent. Thus, our results suggest that RB1 is the dominant tumor suppressor PP in MCC, and that inactivation of RB1 by MCPyV-LT is largely sufficient for its growth supporting function in established MCPyV-positive MCC cells.

  13. Mycoplasma hyorhinis-Contaminated Cell Lines Activate Primary Innate Immune Cells via a Protease-Sensitive Factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Heidegger

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma are a frequent and occult contaminant of cell cultures, whereby these prokaryotic organisms can modify many aspects of cell physiology, rendering experiments that are conducted with such contaminated cells problematic. Chronic Mycoplasma contamination in human monocytic cells lines has been associated with suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR function. In contrast, we show here that components derived from a Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell line can activate innate immunity in non-infected primary immune cells. Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 by dendritic cells in response to Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell components was critically dependent on the adapter protein MyD88 but only partially on TLR2. Unlike canonical TLR2 signaling that is triggered in response to the detection of Mycoplasma infection, innate immune activation by components of Mycoplasma-infected cells was inhibited by chloroquine treatment and sensitive to protease treatment. We further show that in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, soluble factors from Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cells induce the production of large amounts of IFN-α. We conclude that Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell lines release protein factors that can potently activate co-cultured innate immune cells via a previously unrecognized mechanism, thus limiting the validity of such co-culture experiments.

  14. CT two-dimensional reformation versus three-dimensional volume rendering with regard to surgical findings in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yong; Liu, Yang; Lu, Qiao-hui; Zheng, Kui-hong; Shi, Li-jing; Wang, Qing-jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of three-dimensional volume rendering (3DVR) in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). Materials and methods: Sixty-six patients with CSOM were included in this prospective study. Temporal bone was scanned with a 128-channel multidetector row CT and the axial data was transferred to the workstation for multiplanar reformation (MPR) and 3DVR reconstructions. Evaluation of the ossicular chain according to a three-point scoring system on two-dimensional reformation (2D) and 3DVR was performed independently by two radiologists. The evaluation results were compared with surgical findings. Results: 2D showed over 89% accuracy in the assessment of segmental absence of the ossicular chain in CSOM, no matter how small the segmental size was. 3DVR was as accurate as 2D for the assessment of segmental absence. However, 3DVR was found to be more accurate than 2D in the evaluation of partial erosion of segments. Conclusion: Both 3DVR and 2D are accurate and reliable for the assessment of the ossicular chain in CSOM. The inclusion of 3DVR images in the imaging protocol improves the accuracy of 2D in detecting ossicular erosion from CSOM

  15. Multidetector-row computed tomography in the preoperative diagnosis of intestinal complications caused by clinically unsuspected ingested dietary foreign bodies: a case series emphasizing the use of volume rendering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Augusto Cesar Vieira; Torres, Ulysses dos Santos; Oliveira, Eduardo Portela de; Gual, Fabiana; Bauab Junior, Tufik, E-mail: usantor@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base. Serv. de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem; Westin, Carlos Eduardo Garcia [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base. Cirurgia Geral; Cardoso, Luciana Vargas [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base. Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada

    2013-11-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at describing a case series where a preoperative diagnosis of intestinal complications secondary to accidentally ingested dietary foreign bodies was made by multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), with emphasis on complementary findings yielded by volume rendering techniques (VRT) and curved multiplanar reconstructions (MPR). Materials and Methods: The authors retrospectively assessed five patients with surgically confirmed intestinal complications (perforation and/or obstruction) secondary to unsuspected ingested dietary foreign bodies, consecutively assisted in their institution between 2010 and 2012. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were analyzed. VRT and curved MPR were subsequently performed. Results: preoperative diagnosis of intestinal complications was originally performed in all cases. In one case the presence of a foreign body was not initially identified as the causal factor, and the use of complementary techniques facilitated its retrospective identification. In all cases these tools allowed a better depiction of the entire foreign bodies on a single image section, contributing to the assessment of their morphology. Conclusion: although the use of complementary techniques has not had a direct impact on diagnostic performance in most cases of this series, they may provide a better depiction of foreign bodies' morphology on a single image section. (author)

  16. CT two-dimensional reformation versus three-dimensional volume rendering with regard to surgical findings in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoyong27@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyangdoc@sina.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Lu, Qiao-hui, E-mail: Luqiaohui465@126.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Zheng, Kui-hong, E-mail: zhengkuihong1971@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Shi, Li-jing, E-mail: Shilijing2003@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Wang, Qing-jun, E-mail: wangqingjun77@163.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the role of three-dimensional volume rendering (3DVR) in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). Materials and methods: Sixty-six patients with CSOM were included in this prospective study. Temporal bone was scanned with a 128-channel multidetector row CT and the axial data was transferred to the workstation for multiplanar reformation (MPR) and 3DVR reconstructions. Evaluation of the ossicular chain according to a three-point scoring system on two-dimensional reformation (2D) and 3DVR was performed independently by two radiologists. The evaluation results were compared with surgical findings. Results: 2D showed over 89% accuracy in the assessment of segmental absence of the ossicular chain in CSOM, no matter how small the segmental size was. 3DVR was as accurate as 2D for the assessment of segmental absence. However, 3DVR was found to be more accurate than 2D in the evaluation of partial erosion of segments. Conclusion: Both 3DVR and 2D are accurate and reliable for the assessment of the ossicular chain in CSOM. The inclusion of 3DVR images in the imaging protocol improves the accuracy of 2D in detecting ossicular erosion from CSOM.

  17. Stereoscopy in diagnostic radiology and procedure planning: does stereoscopic assessment of volume-rendered CT angiograms lead to more accurate characterisation of cerebral aneurysms compared with traditional monoscopic viewing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Nikolas; Lock, Gregory; Coucher, John; Hopcraft, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic vision is a critical part of the human visual system, conveying more information than two-dimensional, monoscopic observation alone. This study aimed to quantify the contribution of stereoscopy in assessment of radiographic data, using widely available three-dimensional (3D)-capable display monitors by assessing whether stereoscopic viewing improved the characterisation of cerebral aneurysms. Nine radiology registrars were shown 40 different volume-rendered (VR) models of cerebral computed tomography angiograms (CTAs), each in both monoscopic and stereoscopic format and then asked to record aneurysm characteristics on short multiple-choice answer sheets. The monitor used was a current model commercially available 3D television. Responses were marked against a gold standard of assessments made by a consultant radiologist, using the original CT planar images on a diagnostic radiology computer workstation. The participants' results were fairly homogenous, with most showing no difference in diagnosis using stereoscopic VR models. One participant performed better on the monoscopic VR models. On average, monoscopic VRs achieved a slightly better diagnosis by 2.0%. Stereoscopy has a long history, but it has only recently become technically feasible for stored cross-sectional data to be adequately reformatted and displayed in this format. Scant literature exists to quantify the technology's possible contribution to medical imaging - this study attempts to build on this limited knowledge base and promote discussion within the field. Stereoscopic viewing of images should be further investigated and may well eventually find a permanent place in procedural and diagnostic medical imaging.

  18. Stimulation of allogeneic lymphocytes by skin epidermal cells in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of skin epidermal cells to induce allogeneic lymphocytes into proliferation was examined in mixed skin cell-lymphocyte culture reaction (MSLR). The stimulatng capacity of skin cells was reduced significantly by trypsin digestion, although the damage was repaired by incubation at 37 C for 3 hr. The optimal concentration of mitomycin C for treatment of stimulating cells in the MSLR differed from that in mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLR). Irradiation rendered them three to four times more stimulatory than did mitomycin C. Removal of adherent cells from responding cells by passage through a nylon-wool column gave a substantial elevation of the MSLR. The lymphocytes cocultured with skin cells in the primary MSLR incorporated 3 H-thymidine, with the peak at the 6th day of culture. If the lymphocytes primed in the MSLR were restimulated with skin cells from the same stimulating strain, the primed lymphocytes responded promptly and in great magnitude

  19. Steady state peripheral blood provides cells with functional and metabolic characteristics of real hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Antonin; Avalon, Maryse; Lapostolle, Véronique; Ismail, Sadek; Mombled, Margaux; Debeissat, Christelle; Guérinet, Marianne; Duchez, Pascale; Chevaleyre, Jean; Vlaski-Lafarge, Marija; Villacreces, Arnaud; Praloran, Vincent; Ivanovic, Zoran; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are located in the bone marrow, also circulate in cord and peripheral blood. Despite high availability, HSCs from steady state peripheral blood (SSPB) are little known and not used for research or cell therapy. We thus aimed to characterize and select HSCs from SSPB by a direct approach with a view to delineating their main functional and metabolic properties and the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance. We chose to work on Side Population (SP) cells which are highly enriched in HSCs in mouse, human bone marrow, and cord blood. However, no SP cells from SSBP have as yet been characterized. Here we showed that SP cells from SSPB exhibited a higher proliferative capacity and generated more clonogenic progenitors than non-SP cells in vitro. Furthermore, xenotransplantation studies on immunodeficient mice demonstrated that SP cells are up to 45 times more enriched in cells with engraftment capacity than non-SP cells. From a cell regulation point of view, we showed that SP activity depended on O 2 concentrations close to those found in HSC niches, an effect which is dependent on both hypoxia-induced factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Moreover SP cells displayed a reduced mitochondrial mass and, in particular, a lower mitochondrial activity compared to non-SP cells, while they exhibited a similar level of glucose incorporation. These results provided evidence that SP cells from SSPB displayed properties of very primitive cells and HSC, thus rendering them an interesting model for research and cell therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Burkholderia type VI secretion systems have distinct roles in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Sandra; West, T Eoin; Boyer, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    . From a group of 31 diverse bacteria, we identified several organisms that competed less effectively against wild-type B. thai than a strain lacking T6SS-1 function. Inactivation of T6SS-1 renders B. thai greatly more susceptible to cell contact-induced stasis by Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas...... fluorescens and Serratia proteamaculans-leaving it 100- to 1000-fold less fit than the wild-type in competition experiments with these organisms. Flow cell biofilm assays showed that T6S-dependent interbacterial interactions are likely relevant in the environment. B. thai cells lacking T6SS-1 were rapidly...