Sample records for renal transplant rejection

  1. Effect of nifedipine on renal transplant rejection.

    Nicholson, M L; Dennis, M J; Beckingham, I J; Smith, S J


    The effect of early nifedipine therapy on acute renal allograft rejection was studied in 170 adult cadaveric transplant recipients. Acute rejection occurring in the first 3 months after transplantation was diagnosed by Tru-cut biopsy and the severity of each rejection episode assessed histologically. The incidence of acute rejection was significantly lower in patients treated with nifedipine (29 of 80; 36 per cent) than in controls (52 of 90; 58 per cent) (P nifedipine exerted a significant independent effect on the incidence of early acute rejection. Other factors identified in the multivariate model as influencing rejection were human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the DR locus, blood level of cyclosporin during the first week, HLA matching at the B locus, donor age and donor sex. The 1-year graft survival rate was 88.6 per cent in patients given nifedipine and 63.8 per cent in controls (P nifedipine therapy has a useful role in human renal transplantation.

  2. Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection

    Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Itoh, Hisao (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine)


    From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author).

  3. Acute Rejection after Human Renal Transplantation

    Ana Roussoulières


    Full Text Available Genes involved in acute rejection (AR after organ transplantation remain to be further elucidated. In a previous work we have demonstrated the under-expression of VE-Cadherin by endothelial cells (EC in AR following murine and human heart transplantation. Serial sections from 15 human kidney Banff-graded transplant biopsies were examined for the presence of VE-Cadherin and CD34 staining by immunohistochemistry (no AR (n=5, AR grade IA (n=5, or AR grade IIA (n=5. Quantification of peritubular EC staining were evaluated and results were expressed by the percentage of stained cells per surface analysed. There was no difference in CD34 staining between the 3 groups. VE-Cadherin expression was significantly reduced in AR Grade IIA when compared to no AR (P=.01 and to AR grade IA (P=.02. This study demonstrates a reduced VE-Cadherin expression by EC in AR after renal transplantation. The down-regulation of VE-Cadherin may strongly participate in human AR.

  4. Transplant rejection

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  5. Shotgun Proteomics Identifies Proteins Specific for Acute Renal Transplant Rejection

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Kaushal, Amit; Gritsenko, Marina; Norbeck, Angela D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Xiao, Wenzhong; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Sarwal, Minnie M.


    Acute rejection (AR) remains the primary risk factor for renal transplant outcome; development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for AR is an unmet need. We used shotgun proteomics applying LC-MS/MS and ELISA to analyze a set of 92urine samples, from patients with AR, stable grafts (STA), proteinuria (NS), and healthy controls (HC). A total of 1446 urinary proteins were identified along with a number of NS specific, renal transplantation specific and AR specific proteins. Relative abundance of identified urinary proteins was measured by protein-level spectral counts adopting a weighted fold-change statistic, assigning increased weight for more frequently observed proteins. We have identified alterations in a number of specific urinary proteins in AR, primarily relating to MHC antigens, the complement cascade and extra-cellular matrix proteins. A subset of proteins (UMOD, SERPINF1 and CD44), have been further cross-validated by ELISA in an independent set of urine samples, for significant differences in the abundance of these urinary proteins in AR. This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after kidney transplantation. PMID:20543976

  6. Acute appendicitis mistaken as acute rejection in renal transplant recipients.

    Talwalkar N


    Full Text Available Case histories of 2 renal transplant recipients are reported who had presenting features of fever, leukocytosis and pain/tenderness over right iliac fossa and were diagnosed to be due to acute appendicitis rather than more commonly suspected acute rejection episode which has very similar features. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis was suspected on the basis of rectal examination and later confirmed by laparotomy. The purpose of this communication is to emphasize the need for proper diagnosis in patient with such presentation; otherwise wrong treatment may be received.

  7. Shotgun Proteomics Identifies Proteins Specific for Acute Renal Transplant Rejection

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Kaushal, Amit; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Qian, Weijun; Xiao, Wenzhong; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Sarwal, Minnie M.


    Acute rejection (AR) remains the primary risk factor for renal transplant outcome; development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for AR is an unmet need. We used shotgun proteomics using LC-MS/MS and ELISA to analyze a set of 92 urine samples, from patients with AR, stable grafts (STA), proteinuria (NS), and healthy controls (HC). A total of 1446 urinary proteins were identified along with a number of NS specific, renal transplantation specific and AR specific proteins. Relative abundance of identified urinary proteins was measured by protein-level spectral counts adopting a weighted fold-change statistic, assigning increased weight for more frequently observed proteins. We have identified alterations in a number of specific urinary proteins in AR, primarily relating to MHC antigens, the complement cascade and extra-cellular matrix proteins. A subset of proteins (UMOD, SERPINF1 and CD44), have been further cross-validated by ELISA in an independent set of urine samples, for significant differences in the abundance of these urinary proteins in AR. This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after

  8. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of renal tissue proteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    Dai Yong


    Full Text Available At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renal biopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved if rapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. This study is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be found in renal-graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344 or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one is allograft (from F344 to Lewis rats; another is syngrafts (from Lewis to Lewis rats serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. As many as 18 samples were analyzed by 2-D Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. In conclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins as diagnostic markers for rejection in patients′ urine or sera may be useful and non-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targets that also help to improve the understanding of mechanism of renal rejection.

  9. Is Serum Transforming Growth Factor beta-1 Superior to Serum Creatinine for assessing Renal Failure and Renal Transplant Rejection

    Gyanendra Kumar Sonkar, Usha; R.G. Singh


    A sustained overexpression of Transforming Growth Factor beta1 (TGF beta1), a cytokine has beenimplicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis of kidney leading to end stage . The main aim of present studywas to find the utility of TGF beta1 and serum creatinine in differentiating chronic renal failure (CRF)from acute renal failure (ARF), renal transplant rejection (Tx Rej) and stable renal transplant (Tx Stb)and to study has attempted histopathological correlation of rejection cases with TGF beta...

  10. Critical appraisal on the use of everolimus in renal transplantation as an immunosuppressant to prevent organ transplant rejection

    Fernando Giron


    Full Text Available Fernando Giron, Yenny BaezKidney Transplant Service, Colombiana de Trasplantes, Bogota, ColombiaAbstract: Everolimus is a proliferation inhibitor designed to target chronic allograft nephropathy including prevention of acute rejection. Acute renal allograft rejection incidence varies with the therapy used for immunosuppression. Registry data show that 15% to 35% of kidney recipients will undergo treatment for at least one episode of acute rejection within the first post-transplant year. Everolimus has been used as therapy with full- or reduced-dose cyclosporine A without evidence of increasing the acute rejection incidence. This review will summarize the available clinical trial data on the use of everolimus and its role in preventing acute rejection incidence in renal transplantation.Keywords: calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine, everolimus, biopsy-proven acute rejection, renal transplantation, acute rejection

  11. Chronic Renal Transplant Rejection and Possible Anti-Proliferative Drug Targets.

    Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Usman, Muhammad


    The global prevalence of renal transplants is increasing with time, and renal transplantation is the only definite treatment for end-stage renal disease. We have limited the acute and late acute rejection of kidney allografts, but the long-term survival of renal tissues still remains a difficult and unanswered question as most of the renal transplants undergo failure within a decade of their transplantation. Among various histopathological changes that signify chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), tubular atrophy, fibrous thickening of the arteries, fibrosis of the kidney interstitium, and glomerulosclerosis are the most important. Moreover, these structural changes are followed by a decline in the kidney function as well. The underlying mechanism that triggers the long-term rejection of renal transplants involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. T cells, with their related cytokines, cause tissue damage. In addition, CD 20+ B cells and their antibodies play an important role in the long-term graft rejection. Other risk factors that predispose a recipient to long-term graft rejection include HLA-mismatching, acute episodes of graft rejection, mismatch in donor-recipient age, and smoking. The purpose of this review article is the analyze current literature and find different anti-proliferative agents that can suppress the immune system and can thus contribute to the long-term survival of renal transplants. The findings of this review paper can be helpful in understanding the long-term survival of renal transplants and various ways to improve it.

  12. PD1-Expressing T Cell Subsets Modify the Rejection Risk in Renal Transplant Patients

    Pike, Rebecca; Thomas, Niclas; Workman, Sarita; Ambrose, Lyn; Guzman, David; Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Johnson, Margaret; Thorburn, Douglas; Harber, Mark; Chain, Benny; Stauss, Hans J.


    We tested whether multi-parameter immune phenotyping before or after renal ­transplantation can predict the risk of rejection episodes. Blood samples collected before and weekly for 3 months after transplantation were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry to define 52 T cell and 13 innate lymphocyte subsets in each sample, producing more than 11,000 data points that defined the immune status of the 28 patients included in this study. Principle component analysis suggested that the patients with histologically confirmed rejection episodes segregated from those without rejection. Protein death 1 (PD-1)-expressing subpopulations of regulatory and conventional T cells had the greatest influence on the principal component segregation. We constructed a statistical tool to predict rejection using a support vector machine algorithm. The algorithm correctly identified 7 out of 9 patients with rejection, and 14 out of 17 patients without rejection. The immune profile before transplantation was most accurate in determining the risk of rejection, while changes of immune parameters after transplantation were less accurate in discriminating rejection from non-rejection. The data indicate that pretransplant immune subset analysis has the potential to identify patients at risk of developing rejection episodes, and suggests that the proportion of PD1-expressing T cell subsets may be a key indicator of rejection risk. PMID:27148254

  13. Aminoaciduria as a marker of acute renal transplant rejection--a patient study.

    Macpherson, N A; Moscarello, M A; Goldberg, D M; Ish-Shalom, N; Arbus, G S


    Over 12 months, urine samples were systematically collected from 40 children who underwent renal transplantation for the treatment of end-stage renal disease. Sequential determinations of the excretion of individual amino acids relative to that of creatinine were carried out on 15 subjects. Nine of these (including three who sustained episodes of acute rejection) retained a native kidney in-situ, while in six patients (including three who underwent an episode of acute rejection) both native kidneys had been removed. In both subgroups, the amino acid/creatinine ratios of early morning urine samples were higher shortly before clinical manifestations of acute rejection became evident than in patients who, following renal transplantation, had stable kidney function, chronic graft rejection, or acute tubular necrosis, with one exception: a patient with one native kidney in-situ in whom acute tubular necrosis developed immediately after transplantation. The amino acids showing the greatest increase included Thr, Ser, Gly, and Ala. These values fell dramatically immediately prior to the clinical episode of acute rejection, with Thr, Ala, and Phe showing the most consistent changes. These alterations in urinary amino acid excretion occurred several days before changes in urinary protein excretion or the serum concentrations of urea and creatinine, and may have a role to play in the monitoring of renal transplant recipients.

  14. Anti-T-cell antibodies for the treatment of acute rejection after renal transplantation.

    Hoogen, M.W.F. van den; Hoitsma, A.J.; Hilbrands, L.B.


    INTRODUCTION: Given the central role of T cells in the alloimmune response, anti-T-cell antibodies retain a prominent place in the treatment of renal allograft rejection. During the past decades, many anti-T-cell antibodies have emerged and subsequently left the field of solid organ transplantation,

  15. Myoglobinuria masquerading as acute rejection in a renal allograft recipient with recurrent post transplant diabetic nephropathy.

    Gupta, Pallav; Sharma, Amit; Khullar, Dinesh


    Rhabdomyolysis contributes to 7-10% of total AKI cases. Myoglobinuria as a cause of acute renal allograft dysfunction is extremely uncommon. Renal allograft recipient on cyclosporine or tacrolimus can develop myoglobinuria in presence of other precipitating factors. Present case describes an interesting report of myoglobinuria in a patient with post transplant diabetic nephropathy mimicking acute graft rejection. Clinically myoglobinuria presenting as renal allograft dysfunction is diagnosis of exclusion and renal biopsy is extremely important in making a correct diagnosis and planning optimal management in such cases.

  16. Accurate diagnosis of renal transplant rejection by indium-111 platelet imaging despite postoperative cyclosporin therapy

    Collier, B.D.; Adams, M.B.; Kauffman, H.M.; Trembath, L.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Tisdale, P.L.; Rao, S.A.; Hellman, R.S.; Isitman, A.T.


    Previous reports indicate that In-111 platelet scintigraphy (IPS) is a reliable test for the early diagnosis of acute post-operative renal transplant rejection (TR). However, the recent introduction of cyclosporin for post-transplantation immunosuppression requires that the diagnostic efficacy of IPS once again be established. Therefore, a prospective IPS study of 73 post-operative renal transplant recipients was conducted. Fourty-nine patients received cyclosporin and 24 patients did not receive this drug. Between these two patient groups, there were no significant differences in the diagnostic sensitivities (0.86 vs 0.80) and specificities (0.93 vs 0.84) with which TR was identified. We conclude that during the first two weeks following renal transplantation the cyclosporin treatment regimen used at our institution does not limit the reliability of IPS as a test for TR.

  17. Reviewing the pathogenesis of antibody-mediated rejection and renal graft pathology after kidney transplantation.

    Morozumi, Kunio; Takeda, Asami; Otsuka, Yasuhiro; Horike, Keiji; Gotoh, Norihiko; Narumi, Shunji; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Takaaki


    The clinicopathological context of rejection after kidney transplantation was well recognized. Banff conferences greatly contributed to elucidate the pathogenesis and to establish the pathologic criteria of rejection after kidney transplantation. The most important current problem of renal transplantation is de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA) production leading chronic rejection and graft loss. Microvascular inflammation is considered as a reliable pathological marker for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in the presence of DSA. Electron microscopic study allowed us to evaluate early changes in peritubular capillaries in T-lymphocyte mediated rejection and transition to antibody-mediated rejection. Severe endothelial injuries with edema and activated lymphocyte invaded into subendothelial space with early multi-layering of peritubular capillary basement membrane suggest T-lymphocyte mediated rejection induce an unbounded chain of antibody-mediated rejection. The risk factors of AMR after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation are important issues. Anti-ABO blood type antibody titre of IgG excess 32-fold before transplant operation is the only predictable factor for acute AMR. Characteristics of chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAAMR) are one of the most important problems. Light microscopic findings and C4d stain of peritubular capillary and glomerular capillary are useful diagnostic criteria of CAAMR. Microvascular inflammation, double contour of glomerular capillary and thickening of peritubular capillary basement are good predictive factors of the presence of de novo DSA. C4d stain of linear glomerular capillary is a more sensitive marker for CAAMR than positive C4d of peritubular capillary. Early and sensitive diagnostic attempts of diagnosing CAAMR are pivotal to prevent chronic graft failure.

  18. Towards non-invasive diagnostic techniques for early detection of acute renal transplant rejection: A review

    Elizabeth Hollis


    Full Text Available The kidney is a very important complicated filtering organ of the body. When the kidney reaches stage 5 chronic kidney disease, end stage renal failure, the preeminent therapy is renal transplantation. Although it is the best form of treatment, lack of kidney donors is still challenging. Therefore, all efforts should be employed to prolong the survival rate of the transplanted kidney. However, graft dysfunction (e.g., acute rejection is one of the serious barriers to long term kidney transplant survival. Currently, graft dysfunction’s gold standard of diagnosis is renal biopsy. Although renal biopsy is helpful, it is not preferred due to its invasive nature, high morbidity rates, and expensiveness. Therefore, noninvasive imaging techniques have become the subject of extensive research and interest, giving a strong promise to replace, or at least to decrease, biopsy usage in diagnosing graft dysfunction. This survey will discuss not only the current diagnosis and treatment of graft dysfunction but also the state-of-the-art imaging techniques in detecting acute renal transplant rejection.

  19. Graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants: a randomized study

    Pilepich, M.V.; Anderson, C.B.; Etheredge, E.E.; Sicard, G.A.; Melzer, J.S.; Blum, J.


    A randomized study of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients developing clinical signs of an acute graft rejection received customary antirejection treatment in the form of intravenous administration of high-dose (1 gm per day) of methylprednisolone. They were at the same time randomized to either receive therapeutic irradiation (175 rad every other day to a total of 525 rad) or sham irradiation. Neither the patient nor the Transplant Service surgeons knew at any time whether the radiation treatment had been given. Eighty-three rejection episodes occurring in 64 grafts were entered into the study. Acute rejection was reversed in 84.5% of grafts in the control and 75% in the treated group. The incidence of recurrent rejection was higher in the treated group (66 vs. 46%) and graft survival was lower (22% vs. 54%). The study failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection, when used in conjunction with high dose steriods.

  20. Doppler sonography in renal transplants; differential diagnosis of normal from acute rejection

    Lim, Gyeh Yon; Lee, M. H.; Son, K. M.; Shin, K. S.; Park, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We undertook a combined retrospective and prospective analysis of duplex Doppler examinations performed over a perion of 10 months in order to assess the value of Doppler study(DS)in evaluating renal allograft dysfunction. A total of 110 DS on 82 transplant patients were performed including 79 normal transplants, 29 acute rejections and 2 acute tubular necrosis(ATN). Resistive Index(RI) in 79 normal transplants ranged from 0.44 to 0.7 (Mean;0.59+0.07) in the arcuate artery, and from 0.45 to 0.75(mean;0.61+0.08) in the interlobar artery. RI in 29 cases of acute rejection ranged from 0.61 to 1.0 (mean; 0.77+0.10) in the interlobar artery. In ATNRI ranged from 0.59 to 0.63 (mean 0.62) in the arcuate artery, and from 0.59 to 0.62(mean 0.61) in the interlobar artery. The RI in acute rejection is significantly higher than that of the normal transplants (p<0.001). With a resistive index greater than 0.8, 100% positive predictive value was obtained for the diagnosis of acute rejection. The value less than 0.7 was unlikely to suggest acute rejection(negative predictive value 92%)

  1. Long-term experience of plasmapheresis in antibody-mediated rejection in renal transplantation.

    Brown, C M


    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) continues to pose a serious challenge in renal transplantation with potentially devastating consequences. Treatment options for this condition include plasmapheresis, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis with low-dose IVIG, and the use of rituximab (anti-CD20 chimeric antibody). We previously reported on the short-term outcome of plasmapheresis as a rescue therapy for AMR in our centre. We now report on the long-term follow up.

  2. Development of chronic allograft rejection and arterial hypertension in Brown Norway rats after renal transplantation.

    Vaskonen, T; Mervaala, E; Nevala, R; Soots, A; Krogerus, L; Lähteenmäki, T; Karppanen, H; Vapaatalo, H; Ahonen, J


    The cardiovascular and renal pathophysiology associated with chronic renal allograft rejection under triple drug immunosuppressive treatment was studied using a recently developed model (Brown Norway (BN) rats) in a 6-week experiment. Renal transplantation was performed to 10-week-old rats in a rat strain combination of Dark Agouti (DA) --> BN. The right kidney was removed from another group of BN rats (uninephrectomized). A triple drug treatment comprising cyclosporine (10 mg/kg subcutaneously, s.c.), azathioprine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and methylprednisolone (1.6 mg/kg s.c.) was given to each rat daily for 6 weeks. A control group underwent no operations nor drug treatment. After the transplantation, the systolic blood pressure in this group was increased from 116 +/- 2 to 166 +/- 2 mmHg, while in the uninephrectomized group the rise was from 115 +/- 4 to 146 +/- 4 mmHg, and no change was observed in the blood pressures of the control group. The vascular relaxation responses of mesenteric arterial rings in vitro to acetylcholine were inhibited in both the transplantation group and the uninephrectomized group as compared with the control group, but few significant differences were found in the contraction responses to noradrenaline and potassium chloride. Graft histology was examined after 6 weeks, quantified by using the chronic allograft damage index (CADI). Changes specific to a chronic rejection reaction were observed in the allografts (CADI mean 6.0) but no injuries were seen in the rats' own kidneys (CADI mean 1.2). Our findings show that allograft rejection in BN rats after renal transplantation is associated with the development of arterial hypertension. The combination of cyclosporine, methylprednisolone and azathioprine also rises blood pressure in uninephrectomized BN rats. The hypertensive effects of the drug treatment and graft rejection are associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  3. Patient-reported non-adherence and immunosuppressant trough levels are associated with rejection after renal transplantation

    Jennifer Scheel; Sandra Reber; Lisa Stoessel; Elisabeth Waldmann; Sabine Jank; Kai-Uwe Eckardt; Franziska Grundmann; Frank Vitinius; Martina de Zwaan; Anna Bertram; Yesim Erim


    .... The aim of the current study was to investigate whether graft rejection after renal transplantation is associated with patient-reported IS medication non-adherence and IS trough level variables...


    A. I. Sushkov


    Full Text Available Much attention has been placed recently in transplantation in highly HLA-sensitized patients. In attempts to remove these antibodies and enable successful renal transplantation, several approaches have been developed. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG was found to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders (e. g. Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome. Recently, a beneficial effect of IVIG on the reduc- tion of anti-HLA antibodies was described. The anti-inflammatory effect of IVIG provides hopeful opportunities in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR management. There are several protocols of IVIG administration for pre-transplant desensitization and AMR treatment: high-dose IVIG, low-dose IVIG + plasmapheresis, IVIG + plasmapheresis + rituximab. These advancements have enabled transplantation in patients previously considered untransplantable and in concert with new diagnostic techniques has resulted in new approaches to management of AMR. 

  5. Exploring genetic and non-genetic risk factors for delayed graft function, acute and subclinical rejection in renal transplant recipients

    Moes, Dirk Jan A R; Press, Rogier R; Ackaert, Oliver; Ploeger, Bart A; Bemelman, Frederike J; Diack, Cheikh; Wessels, Judith A M; van der Straaten, Tahar; Danhof, Meindert; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J; Guchelaar, Henk Jan; de Fijter, Johan W


    AIMS: This study aimed at identifying pharmacological factors such as pharmacogenetics and drug exposure as new predictive biomarkers for delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection (AR) and/or subclinical rejection (SCR). METHODS: Adult renal transplant recipients (n = 361) on cyclosporine-based

  6. Immunological monitoring of renal transplant recipients to predict acute allograft rejection following the discontinuation of tacrolimus.

    Ellen Kreijveld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transplant patients would benefit from reduction of immunosuppression providing that graft rejection is prevented. We have evaluated a number of immunological markers in blood of patients in whom tacrolimus was withdrawn after renal transplantation. The alloreactive precursor frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, the frequency of T cell subsets and the functional capacity of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg were analyzed before transplantation and before tacrolimus reduction. In a case-control design, the results were compared between patients with (n = 15 and without (n = 28 acute rejection after tacrolimus withdrawal. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prior to tacrolimus reduction, the ratio between memory CD8+ T cells and Treg was higher in rejectors compared to non-rejectors. Rejectors also had a higher ratio between memory CD4+ T cells and Treg, and ratios <20 were only observed in non-rejectors. Between the time of transplantation and the start of tacrolimus withdrawal, an increase in naive T cell frequencies and a reciprocal decrease of effector T cell percentages was observed in rejectors. The proportion of Treg within the CD4+ T cells decreased after transplantation, but anti-donor regulatory capacity of Treg remained unaltered in rejectors and non-rejectors. CONCLUSIONS: Immunological monitoring revealed an association between acute rejection following the withdrawal of tacrolimus and 1 the ratio of memory T cells and Treg prior to the start of tacrolimus reduction, and 2 changes in the distribution of naive, effector and memory T cells over time. Combination of these two biomarkers allowed highly specific identification of patients in whom immunosuppression could be safely reduced.




    Background. Dietary fish oil exerts effects on renal hemodynamics and the immune response that may benefit renal-transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine. To evaluate this possibility, we studied the effect of fish oil on renal function, blood pressure, and the incidence of acute rejection ep

  8. Patient-reported non-adherence and immunosuppressant trough levels are associated with rejection after renal transplantation.

    Scheel, Jennifer; Reber, Sandra; Stoessel, Lisa; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Jank, Sabine; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Grundmann, Franziska; Vitinius, Frank; de Zwaan, Martina; Bertram, Anna; Erim, Yesim


    Different measures of non-adherence to immunosuppressant (IS) medication have been found to be associated with rejection episodes after successful transplantation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether graft rejection after renal transplantation is associated with patient-reported IS medication non-adherence and IS trough level variables (IS trough level variability and percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels). Patient-reported non-adherence, IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels, and acute biopsy-proven late allograft rejections were assessed in 267 adult renal transplant recipients who were ≥12 months post-transplantation. The rate of rejection was 13.5%. IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels as well as patient-reported non-adherence were all significantly and positively associated with rejection, but not with each other. Logistic regression analyses revealed that only the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels and age at transplantation remained significantly associated with rejection. Particularly, the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels is associated with acute rejections after kidney transplantation whereas IS trough level variability and patient-reported non-adherence seem to be of subordinate importance. Patient-reported non-adherence and IS trough level variables were not correlated; thus, non-adherence should always be measured in a multi-methodological approach. Further research concerning the best combination of non-adherence measures is needed.

  9. The imbalance of helper T lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in acute renal transplantation rejection



    To investigate the imbalance state of helper T lymphocytes (Th) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc) and the roles of Th1/Th2/Th3 and Tc1/Tc2 cells in renal transplantation rejection, the percentages of these cells in peripheral blood of 24 cases of renal transplantation recipients with acute rejection and the dynamic changes of the CD4/CD8 ratio were determined by flow cytometry analysis,while 30 cases of healthy individuals were set up as controls. In these healthy controls, the percentages of the Th1, Th2 and Th3 cells were (10.45±8.15)%, (5.05±4.15)% and (3.90±3.21)%,and those of Tc1 and Tc2 cells were (9.83±7.03)% and (4.51±2.17)%, respectively. However,the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 cells in peripheral blood of the stable recipients after transplantation were (7.29±5.62)% and (7.04±5.15)%, showing definite reduction, while those of Th2, Th3and Tc2 cells showed significant increase, (6.34±5.67)%, (4.94±4.14) % and ( 6.86 ±4.42) %, respectively. In case of recipients with acute rejection, the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 cells appeared to be (18.55±13.21)% and (15.84±11.72)%, also showing significant increase, but those of Th2,Th3 and Tc2 cells appeared to be reduced, (4.19±3.62)%, (3.02±2.83)% and (3.88±1.63) %, respectively. Significant differences could be detected among these three groups (P <0.05). The CD4/CD8 ratio in cases with acute rejection was higher than those of stable recipients (2.24±0.59 vs 1.95±0.45), but that of the stable recipients and healthy controls (1.98±0.31 )showed no any significant difference. From the above observation, it is evident that imbalance between Th1, Th2 and Th3 with Te1 and Tc2 cells may exist after renal transplantation and probably, the immune imbalance may be induced through the secretion of cytokines INF-γ by Th1 or Te1 cells , I1-4 by Th2 and Tc2 cells and TGF-β by Th3.

  10. NFATC1 genotypes affect acute rejection and long-term graft function in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients.

    Xu, Qinxia; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Jiao, Zheng; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Jianping; Zhong, Mingkang


    To investigate the effects of SNPs in the cyclophilin A/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATs) pathway genes (PPIA, PPP3CB, PPP3R1, NFATC1 and NFATC2) on cyclosporine (CsA) efficacy in renal transplant recipients. Seventy-six tag SNPs were detected in 155 CsA-treated renal recipients with at least a 5-year follow-up. The associations of SNPs with acute rejection, nephrotoxicity, pneumonia and estimated glomerular filtration rate post transplant were explored. NFATC1 rs3894049 GC was a risk factor for acute rejection compared with CC carriers (p = 0.0005). NFATC1 rs2280055 TT carriers had a more stable estimated glomerular filtration rate level than CC (p = 0.0004). Detecting NFATC1 polymorphisms could help predict CsA efficacy in renal transplant patients.

  11. Circulating angiotensin type II receptor: Possible marker for antibody mediated rejection after renal transplantation?

    Kimball, Pamela M; Gupta, Gaurav; McDougan, Felecia


    Presence of antibody [Ab] against angiotensin receptor [AT1R] indicates heightened risk for antibody mediated rejection [AMR] after transplantation but is insufficient as a marker. We speculated AT1R might be released systemically because of AMR and might be a useful biomarker. AT1R was measured in blood from 73 Normals and 72 renal patients pre- and post-transplantation. Patients were stratified as AMR-free [Gp1], AMR1yr [Gp3]. AT1R was higher [13±26vs.367±537, p<0.01)] and more prevalent [20% vs. 92%, p<0.01] among renal patients than Normals. Pretransplant levels were similar [p=ns] between groups. One-year posttransplant levels approached [p<0.01] normalcy for Gps1+3 but spiked during AMR and remained elevated [155±58, p<0.01] for 50% Gp2 patients. One-year AT1R levels were higher among subsequent graft failures than surviving grafts [171±267vs. 38±50, p<0.01]. Pretransplant AT1R was abnormally elevated: possibly indicating ongoing tissue injury. Pretransplant AT1R didn't predict risk for AMR. However, AT1R spiked during early AMR and sustained elevations were associated with poorer outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Renal allograft rejection. Unusual scintigraphic findings

    Desai, A.G.; Park, C.H.


    During sequential renal imagining for evaluation of clinically suspected rejection, focal areas of functioning renal tissue were seen in two cases of renal transplant in the midst of severe and irreversible renal allograft rejection. A probable explanation for this histopathologically confirmed and previously unreported finding is discussed.

  13. Power doppler sonography in early renal transplantation: Does it differentiate acute graft rejection from acute tubular necrosis?

    Haytham M Shebel


    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of power Doppler in the identification and differentiation bet-ween acute renal transplant rejection and acute tubular necrosis (ATN, we studied 67 live donor renal transplant recipients. All patients were examined by spectral and power Doppler sono-graphy. Assessment of cortical perfusion (CP by power Doppler was subjective, using our grading score system: P0 (normal CP; homogenous cortical blush extending to the capsule, P1 (reduced CP; cortical vascular cut-off at interlobular level, P2 (markedly reduced CP; scattered cortical color flow at the interlobar level. Renal biopsies were performed during acute graft dysfunction. Pathological diagnoses were based on Banff classification 1997. The Mann- Whitney test was used to test the difference between CP grades with respect to serum creatinine (SCr, and resistive index (RI. For 38 episodes of acute graft rejection grade I, power Doppler showed that CP was P1 and RI ranging from 0.78 to 0.89. For 21 episodes of acute graft rejection grade II, power Doppler showed that CP was P1, with RI ranging from 0.88 to >1. Only one case of grade III rejection had a CP of P2. Twelve biopsies of ATN had CP of P0 and RI ranging from 0.80 to 0.89 There was a statistically significant correlation between CP grading and SCr (P <0.01 as well as between CP grading and RI (P <0.05. CP grading had a higher sensitivity in the detection of early acute rejection compared with RI and cross-sectional area measurements. We conclude that power Doppler is a non-invasive sensitive technique that may help in the detection and differentiation between acute renal transplant rejection and ATN, particularly in the early post-transplantation period.

  14. Association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 +49A/G gene polymorphism with acute rejection risk in renal transplantation.

    Yang, Chun-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xia; Chen, Li; Zheng, Dong-Hua; Liu, Qiong-Shan; Xie, Wen-Feng


    The conclusions on the association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) +49A/G gene polymorphism and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation are still debated. This meta-analysis was performed to update the association between CTLA4 +49A/G and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation. The association investigations were identified from PubMed and Cochrane Library, and eligible studies were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. Fourteen reports were included into this meta-analysis for the association of CTLA4 A/G gene polymorphism and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation, consisting of 962 acute rejection patients and 2084 non-acute rejection controls. The association between CTLA4 G allele/GG genotype and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation was found in this meta-analysis (G allele: OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.44, P=.02; GG genotype: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.10-1.69, P=.004). However, the AA genotype was not associated with acute rejection risk in renal transplantation. In conclusion, CTLA4 G allele/GG genotype is associated with the acute rejection risk in renal transplantation.

  15. Prevention of organ rejection in renal and liver transplantation with extended release tacrolimus

    Reschen ME


    Full Text Available Michael E Reschen, Christopher A O’Callaghan Henry Wellcome Building, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Abstract: Tacrolimus is the key immunosuppressant used to prevent allograft rejection in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Despite the efficacy of tacrolimus and adjunctive immunosuppressants, a substantial number of patients experience episodes of acute rejection and late graft loss. Nonadherence is an etiological factor in both acute rejection and graft loss. In 2007, a prolonged release version of tacrolimus became available that allows once daily administration, thus halving the pill burden compared to the standard twice-daily tacrolimus. An increasing number of studies in de novo transplantation and in treatment conversion have evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of prolonged-release tacrolimus. We have reviewed the literature on the use of prolonged-release tacrolimus and hope that this will be of value in the design of protocols for transplant immunosuppression.Keywords: immunosuppression, kidney, hepatic, allograft, adherence

  16. Diagnosing rejection in renal transplants: a comparison of molecular- and histopathology-based approaches.

    Reeve, J; Einecke, G; Mengel, M; Sis, B; Kayser, N; Kaplan, B; Halloran, P F


    The transcriptome has considerable potential for improving biopsy diagnoses. However, to realize this potential the relationship between the molecular phenotype of disease and histopathology must be established. We assessed 186 consecutive clinically indicated kidney transplant biopsies using microarrays, and built a classifier to distinguish rejection from nonrejection using predictive analysis of microarrays (PAM). Most genes selected by PAM were interferon-gamma-inducible or cytotoxic T-cell associated, for example, CXCL9, CXCL11, GBP1 and INDO. We then compared the PAM diagnoses to those from histopathology, which are based on the Banff diagnostic criteria. Disagreement occurred in approximately 20% of diagnoses, principally because of idiosyncratic limitations in the histopathology scoring system. The problematic diagnosis of 'borderline rejection' was resolved by PAM into two distinct classes, rejection and nonrejection. The diagnostic discrepancies between Banff and PAM in these cases were largely due to the Banff system's requirement for a tubulitis threshold in defining rejection. By examining the discrepancies between gene expression and histopathology, we provide external validation of the main features of the histopathology diagnostic criteria (the Banff consensus system), recommend improvements and outline a pathway for introducing molecular measurements.

  17. A diagnostic conundrum: acute interstitial nephritis due to armodafinil versus acute cellular rejection in a renal transplant recipient--a case report.

    Baradhi, K M; Gohh, R


    Acute interstitial nephritis is a well-recognized cause of acute kidney injury in native kidneys. While the most common etiology being drug-induced, other causes are infectious, autoimmune, and idiopathic forms of disease. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis is not only uncommon in renal transplant recipients but is difficult to diagnose as it mimics acute cellular rejection histologically. We have described herein a renal transplant recipient with acute kidney injury to highlight the difficulties to distinguish acute interstitial nephritis from acute cellular rejection.

  18. Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection

    Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.


    To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

  19. Differential diagnosis of acute rejection and chronic cyclosporine nephropathy after rat renal transplantation by detection of endothelial microparticles (EMP).

    Cui, Jiewei; Yang, Jing; Cao, Weike; Sun, Yi


    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are small vesicles smaller than 1.0μm, released from endothelial cells (EC) during their activation and (or) apoptosis. The assay of the level of elevated EMP is a new approach to evaluate the dysfunction of endothelial cell. EMP can be classified into several types according to their membrane molecular, and the levels of various types of EMP may be different. As the most cost-effective immunodepressant, cyclosporine A (CsA) has been used widely in organ transplantation. But its dose is hard to control, under-medication may cause the acute rejection (AR) and overdose may cause chronic cyclosporine nephropathy (CCN). The cyclosporine A (CsA) caused CCN and the AR caused renal injury after renal transplantation are both vascular diseases related with endothelial dysfunction, and up to now, there is still no effective method to distinguish the two kinds of diseases. Owing to distinct pathogenesis of the two kinds of vascular diseases, the level of each type of EMP originated from vascular endothelial cells may be different. We hypothesize that maybe we can distinguish them by detecting the different levels of some types of EMP which is also related with vascular disease, and we propose to prove our hypothesis through animal experiment. If our hypothesis is proved, it will be more helpful for clinicians to adjust the dose of CsA promptly according to the differential diagnosis of the two kinds of diseases.


    E.S. Stolyarevich


    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d− was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection

  1. Allograft rejection-related gene expression in the endothelial cells of renal transplantation recipients after cytomegalovirus infection

    Yang LI; Jun HOU; Hang YAN; Wu-jun XUE; Pu-xun TIAN; Xiao-ming DING; Xiao-ming PAN; Xin-shun FENG; Xiao-hui TIAN; He-li XIANG


    Objective: To explore the effects of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on rejection-related gene expression in the endothelial cells of renal transplantation recipients. Methods: Endothelial cells (ECs) were cultured and stimulated by a variety of factors: A, normal control group; B, inactivated human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection group; C, HCMV infection group; D, HCMV supematant infection group; and E, ganciclovir HCMV group. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and major histocompability complex (MHC) class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ antigens was detected by flow cytometry (FCM) and immuno-histochemistry. Results: We found characteristic CMV-infected ECs in this study. There were no significant differences among groups A, B and D (P>0.05). Although the expression levels of ICAM-1 were not significantly different between groups C and E (P>0.05), the ICAM-1 expression in these two groups was significantly higher than that in group A (P0.05). Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC expression was detected in all the groups, while HLA-DR expression was only detected in groups C and E. There were no significant dif-ferences of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR expression among groups A, B and D (P>0.05). However, the HLA-ABC and HLA-DR expression levels in groups C and D were higher than those of the remaining groups previously reported (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the HLA-ABC and HLA-DR expression levels in group E were lower than those of group C (P<0.05). Conclusion: CMV could up-regulate the expression levels of ICAM-1 and MHC antigens, which was closely related to allograft rejection.

  2. Renal allograft rejection: sonography and scintigraphy

    Singh, A.; Cohen, W.N.


    A total of 30 renal allograft patients who had sonographic B scanning and radionuclide studies of the transplant was studied as to whether: (1) the allograft rejection was associated with any consistent and reliable sonographic features and (2) the sonograms complemented the radionuclide studies. Focal areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistent sonographic finding in chymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistens sonographic finding in allograft rejection. This was observed in most of the patients exhibiting moderate or severe rejection, but was frequently absent with mild rejection. Areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were not seen during episodes of acute tubular necrosis. Therefore, sonography showing zones of decreased parenchymal echogenicity was complementary to radionuclide studies in the diagnosis of allograft rejection versus acute tubular necrosis. Corticomedullary demarcation was difficult to interpret because of technical variables, and was inconsistently related to rejection in this series.

  3. Rupture of Renal Transplant

    Shona Baker


    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L. LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

  4. Haemostatic aspects of renal transplantation.

    Sørensen, P J; Schmidt, E B; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Kristensen, S D; Dyerberg, J; Kornerup, H J


    Platelet function and protein C activity and antigen level was studied in 31 renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy controls. The patients were divided into three groups: (I) cyclosporin treated, (II) azathioprine treated, and (III) azathioprine treated patients with chronic rejection. The platelet function in the renal transplant patients was normal and there was no difference between groups I and II. The specific activity of protein C was decreased in patients after renal transplantation and decreasing protein C activity and progressive renal failure was found to be positively correlated in the azathioprine treated groups.

  5. Pregnancy and renal transplantation.

    Başaran, O; Emiroğlu, R; Seçme, S; Moray, G; Haberal, M


    Ovarian dysfunction, anovulatory vaginal bleeding, amenorrhea, high prolactin levels, and loss of libido are the causes of infertility in women with chronic renal failure. After renal transplantation, endocrine function generally improves after recovery of renal function. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the prepregnancy and postdelivery renal function, outcome of gestation, as well as maternal and fetal complications for eight pregnancies in eight renal transplant recipients between November 1975 and March 2003 of 1095 among 1425. Eight planned pregnancies occurred at a mean of 3.6 years posttransplant. Spontaneous abortion occured in the first trimester in one case. One intrauterine growth retardation was observed with a full-term pregnancy; one intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery; one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and urinary tract infection; and one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and oligohydramnios. The mean gestation period was 35.5 +/- 3.0 weeks (31.2 to 38.0). Pregnancy had no negative impact on renal function during a 2-year follow-up. No significant proteinuria or acute rejection episodes were observed. Among the seven deliveries, no congenital anomaly was documented and no postpartum problems for the child and the mother were observed. Our study suggests that successful pregnancy is possible in renal transplant recipients. In cases with good graft function and absence of severe proteinuria or hypertension, pregnancy does not affect graft function or patient survival; however, fetal problems are encountered such as intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preeclampsia.

  6. European Transplant Registry of Senior Renal Transplant Recipients on Advagraf


    Graft Failure; Death; Acute Rejection of Renal Transplant; Infections; Bone Disease; Post Transplant Diabetes Mellitus; Quality of Life; HLA Antibody Production; Cardiovascular Risk Factors; Non-HLA Antibody Production

  7. Pediatric renal transplantation: Results and prognostic factors

    Po-Cheng Huang


    Conclusion: For pediatric patients, we found that renal transplantation is now a safe and effective surgical procedure for children with end-stage renal disease. Acute rejection and male gender were identified as prognostic factors for poor graft survival.

  8. Dual Role of Natural Killer Cells on Graft Rejection and Control of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Renal Transplantation

    López-Botet, Miguel; Vilches, Carlos; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Muntasell, Aura; Pupuleku, Aldi; Yélamos, José; Pascual, Julio; Crespo, Marta


    Allograft rejection constitutes a major complication of solid organ transplantation requiring prophylactic/therapeutic immunosuppression, which increases susceptibility of patients to infections and cancer. Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) cells may display alloreactive potential in case of mismatch between recipient inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and graft HLA class I molecules. Several studies have addressed the impact of this variable in kidney transplant with conflicting conclusions; yet, increasing evidence supports that alloantibody-mediated NK cell activation via FcγRIIIA (CD16) contributes to rejection. On the other hand, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection constitutes a risk factor directly associated with the rate of graft loss and reduced host survival. The levels of HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells have been reported to predict the risk of posttransplant infection, and KIR-B haplotypes containing activating KIR genes have been related with protection. HCMV infection promotes to a variable extent an adaptive differentiation and expansion of a subset of mature NK cells, which display the CD94/NKG2C-activating receptor. Evidence supporting that adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells may contribute to control the viral infection in kidney transplant recipients has been recently obtained. The dual role of NK cells in the interrelation of HCMV infection with rejection deserves attention. Further phenotypic, functional, and genetic analyses of NK cells may provide additional insights on the pathogenesis of solid organ transplant complications, leading to the development of biomarkers with potential clinical value. PMID:28261220

  9. Currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology for the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection.

    Kanzaki, Go; Shimizu, Akira


    Renal allograft dysfunction may be induced by various causes, including alloimmune rejection, viral infection, urinary tract obstruction, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity and/or recurrent renal disease. In order to determine the underlying cause, a renal biopsy is performed and the renal transplant pathology is diagnosed using the internationally consensus Banff classification. Although a progressive understanding of allograft rejection has provided numerous immunohistochemical markers, only the C4d is regarded to be a sufficiently useful marker for antibody-mediated allograft rejection according to the Banff classification. This review summarizes currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal transplant pathology, including C4d, with diagnostic implications for human renal allograft rejection. In particular, we discuss immunohistochemical markers in the following three categories: immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology used to (i) analyze the mechanisms of alloimmune rejection, (ii) monitor cell injury and/or inflammation associated with rejection and (iii) identify renal components in order to improve the diagnosis of rejection. In addition, recent progress in the field of renal transplant pathology includes the development of a new method for assessing molecular pathology using OMICS analyses. As the recent findings of various studies in patients undergoing renal transplantation are very encouraging, novel immunohistochemical markers must be also developed and combined with new technologies for the diagnosis of human renal allograft rejection.

  10. The kSORT assay to detect renal transplant patients at high risk for acute rejection: results of the multicenter AART study.

    Silke Roedder


    Full Text Available Development of noninvasive molecular assays to improve disease diagnosis and patient monitoring is a critical need. In renal transplantation, acute rejection (AR increases the risk for chronic graft injury and failure. Noninvasive diagnostic assays to improve current late and nonspecific diagnosis of rejection are needed. We sought to develop a test using a simple blood gene expression assay to detect patients at high risk for AR.We developed a novel correlation-based algorithm by step-wise analysis of gene expression data in 558 blood samples from 436 renal transplant patients collected across eight transplant centers in the US, Mexico, and Spain between 5 February 2005 and 15 December 2012 in the Assessment of Acute Rejection in Renal Transplantation (AART study. Gene expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR in one center. A 17-gene set--the Kidney Solid Organ Response Test (kSORT--was selected in 143 samples for AR classification using discriminant analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.94; 95% CI 0.91-0.98, validated in 124 independent samples (AUC = 0.95; 95% CI 0.88-1.0 and evaluated for AR prediction in 191 serial samples, where it predicted AR up to 3 mo prior to detection by the current gold standard (biopsy. A novel reference-based algorithm (using 13 12-gene models was developed in 100 independent samples to provide a numerical AR risk score, to classify patients as high risk versus low risk for AR. kSORT was able to detect AR in blood independent of age, time post-transplantation, and sample source without additional data normalization; AUC = 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.99. Further validation of kSORT is planned in prospective clinical observational and interventional trials.The kSORT blood QPCR assay is a noninvasive tool to detect high risk of AR of renal transplants. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  11. The kSORT Assay to Detect Renal Transplant Patients at High Risk for Acute Rejection: Results of the Multicenter AART Study

    Hsieh, Sue; Dai, Hong; Bestard, Oriol; Metes, Diana; Zeevi, Andrea; Gritsch, Albin; Cheeseman, Jennifer; Macedo, Camila; Peddy, Ram; Medeiros, Mara; Vincenti, Flavio; Asher, Nancy; Salvatierra, Oscar; Shapiro, Ron; Kirk, Allan; Reed, Elaine; Sarwal, Minnie M.


    Background Development of noninvasive molecular assays to improve disease diagnosis and patient monitoring is a critical need. In renal transplantation, acute rejection (AR) increases the risk for chronic graft injury and failure. Noninvasive diagnostic assays to improve current late and nonspecific diagnosis of rejection are needed. We sought to develop a test using a simple blood gene expression assay to detect patients at high risk for AR. Methods and Findings We developed a novel correlation-based algorithm by step-wise analysis of gene expression data in 558 blood samples from 436 renal transplant patients collected across eight transplant centers in the US, Mexico, and Spain between 5 February 2005 and 15 December 2012 in the Assessment of Acute Rejection in Renal Transplantation (AART) study. Gene expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) in one center. A 17-gene set—the Kidney Solid Organ Response Test (kSORT)—was selected in 143 samples for AR classification using discriminant analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.94; 95% CI 0.91–0.98), validated in 124 independent samples (AUC = 0.95; 95% CI 0.88–1.0) and evaluated for AR prediction in 191 serial samples, where it predicted AR up to 3 mo prior to detection by the current gold standard (biopsy). A novel reference-based algorithm (using 13 12-gene models) was developed in 100 independent samples to provide a numerical AR risk score, to classify patients as high risk versus low risk for AR. kSORT was able to detect AR in blood independent of age, time post-transplantation, and sample source without additional data normalization; AUC = 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–0.99). Further validation of kSORT is planned in prospective clinical observational and interventional trials. Conclusions The kSORT blood QPCR assay is a noninvasive tool to detect high risk of AR of renal transplants. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID

  12. Immuno-histological assessment of sub-clinical acute and borderline rejection in renal allograft recipients: Data from a transplant center in India

    Sonia Badwal


    Full Text Available This single-center study was carried out on living related and unrelated renal transplant recipients (RTRs to evaluate the usefulness of surveillance biopsies in monitoring stable renal allografts using immuno-histological markers for immune-activation. This is a prospective, longitudinal study. Protocol biopsies of 60 RTRs with stable graft function were evaluated at three, six and 12 months post-transplant. Immuno-histological evaluation was carried out using immune-activation markers (perforins, granzyme and interleukin-2R, phenotypic markers (CD-3 and CD-20, viral markers and C4d. The demographic and clinical profile was recorded for each patient. All cases of acute sub-clinical rejection (SCR were treated and borderline SCR cases were followed-up without treatment. SCR at three and six months post-transplant was evident in 16.7% and 3.7% of RTRs, respectively. Positive statistical association of SCR was seen with HLA-DR mismatches, whereas patients receiving induction therapy and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression exhibited a lower incidence of SCR. T cell phenotype with persistent expression of immune-activation markers exhibited positive statistical association with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy at 12-month follow-up biopsy. The mean creatinine levels were significantly lower in the protocol biopsy group than the non-protocol biopsy group. No significant difference was found between the mean creatinine levels of the SCR group after treatment and the non-SCR cases within the protocol biopsy group. Early treatment of sub-clinical acute rejection leads to better functional outcomes. However, persistent immune-activation is associated with chronicity and may have implications on long-term graft survival.

  13. Immuno-histological assessment of sub-clinical acute and borderline rejection in renal allograft recipients: Data from a transplant center in India.

    Badwal, Sonia; Kumar, Arun; Hooda, A K; Varma, P P


    This single-center study was carried out on living related and unrelated renal transplant recipients (RTRs) to evaluate the usefulness of surveillance biopsies in monitoring stable renal allografts using immuno-histological markers for immune-activation. This is a prospective, longitudinal study. Protocol biopsies of 60 RTRs with stable graft function were evaluated at three, six and 12 months post-transplant. Immuno-histological evaluation was carried out using immune-activation markers (perforins, granzyme and interleukin-2R), phenotypic markers (CD-3 and CD-20), viral markers and C4d. The demographic and clinical profile was recorded for each patient. All cases of acute sub-clinical rejection (SCR) were treated and borderline SCR cases were followed-up without treatment. SCR at three and six months post-transplant was evident in 16.7% and 3.7% of RTRs, respectively. Positive statistical association of SCR was seen with HLA-DR mismatches, whereas patients receiving induction therapy and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression exhibited a lower incidence of SCR. T cell phenotype with persistent expression of immune-activation markers exhibited positive statistical association with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy at 12-month follow-up biopsy. The mean creatinine levels were significantly lower in the protocol biopsy group than the non-protocol biopsy group. No significant difference was found between the mean creatinine levels of the SCR group after treatment and the non-SCR cases within the protocol biopsy group. Early treatment of sub-clinical acute rejection leads to better functional outcomes. However, persistent immune-activation is associated with chronicity and may have implications on long-term graft survival.

  14. Renal transplantation in developing countries.

    Akoh, Jacob A


    Patients with established renal failure, living in developing countries, face many obstacles including lack of access to transplantation centers, quality and safety issues, and exploittation associated with transplant tourism. This review aims to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation performed in developing countries and to recommend some solutions. The lack of suitable legislation and infrastructure has prevented growth of deceased donor programs; so, living donors have continued to be the major source of transplantable kidneys. Transplant tourism and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection, which cause major morbidity and mortality. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving the results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool, making transplant tourism unnecessary and granting various governments the moral courage to fight unacceptable practices. A private-public partnership underpinned by transparency, public audit and accountability is a prerequisite for effective transplant services in the developing world. Finally, lack of dialysis facilities coupled with better outcomes in patients spending <6 months on dialysis prior to transplantation favor pre-emptive transplantation in developing countries.

  15. Gastrointestinal complications in renal transplantation

    Kamal Jeet Singh


    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal complications are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality among renal allograft recipients. We retrospectively analyzed incidence of these complications and their impact on the patient outcome. Materials & Methods: Between 1998 to Aug 2002, 558 live related renal transplants were performed at our center. The immunosuppression used consisted mainly of cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisolone, though varied in some patients. These patients were followed for any occurrence of significant gastrointestinal problems. Results: Out of the of 538 renal transplant recipients studied, gastro esophageal ulcerations were seen in 3% patients. Acute pancreatitis was observed in twelve (2.2% patients and four patients had acute intestinal obstruction secondary to fecal impaction. Infectious complications included acute diarrheas in 18% of patients. Three patients developed abdominal tuberculosis. Acute rejection episodes were encountered in 26% of the patients. During these episodes, 58% of patients experienced prolonged ileus. Most of these complications (66% occurred within first one-year post transplant. Three patients presenting with acute intestinal obstruction required laparotomy (two- bands, one-intussusception. There were four mortalities -two patients had severe pancreatitis, one patient had massive upper GI bleed and one succumbed due to perforation peritonitis. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal complications account for significant morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. Paralytic ileus secondary to acute vascular rejection is quite common and resolves spontaneously with recovery of renal function.

  16. Protocol biopsies for renal transplantation

    Rush David


    Full Text Available Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation are those that are procured at predetermined times post renal transplantation, regardless of renal function. These biopsies have been useful to study the natural history of the transplanted kidney as they have detected unexpected - i.e. "subclinical" pathology. The most significant subclinical pathologies that have been detected with protocol biopsies have been acute lesions, such as cellular and antibody mediated rejection, and chronic lesions, such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and transplant glomerulopathy. The potential benefit of early recognition of the above lesions is that their early treatment may result in improved long-term outcomes. Conversely, the identification of normal histology on a protocol biopsy, may inform us about the safety of reduction in overall immunosuppression. Our centre, as well as others, is attempting to develop non-invasive methods of immune monitoring of renal transplant patients. However, we believe that until such methods have been developed and validated, the protocol biopsy will remain an indispensable tool for the complete care of renal transplant patients.

  17. Uremic escape of renal allograft rejection

    van Schilfgaarde, R. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); van Breda Vriesman, P.J.C. (Rijksuniversiteit Limburg Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Immunopathology)


    It is demonstrated in rats that, in the presence of early postoperative severe but transient uremia, the survival of first set Brown-Norway (BN) renal allografts in Lewis (LEW) recipients is at least three times prolonged when compared to non-uremic controls. This phenomenon is called 'uremic escape of renal allograft rejection'. By means of lethal X-irradiation of donors of BN kidneys transplanted into transiently uremic and non-uremic LEW recipients, the presence of passenger lymphocyte immunocompetence is demonstrated to be obilgatory for this phenomenon to occur. As a result of mobile passenger lymphocyte immunocompetence, a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction is elicited in the spleens of LEW recipients of BN kidneys which amplifies the host response. The splenomegaly observed in LEW recipients of BN kidneys is caused not only by this GVH reaction, which is shown to be exquisitely sensitive to even mild uremia. It is also contributed to by a proliferative response of the host against the graft (which latter response is equated with an in vivo equivalent of a unilateral mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR)), since the reduction in spleen weights caused by abrogation of mobile passenger lymphocyte immunocompetence brought about by lethal donor X-irradiation is increased significantly by early postoperative severe but transient uremia. It is concluded that in uremic escape of renal allograft rejection both reactions are suppressed by uremia during the early post-operative period.


    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes


    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  19. Daclizumab prevents acute renal allograft rejection: 1 year analysis

    Xiaoming Pan; Wujun Xue; Puxun Tian; Xiaoming Ding


    Objective :To investigate the clinical effect of Daclizumab on preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients.Methods:71 patients were randomly divided into two groups:Daclizumab group (n =26) and control group (n = 45). Baseline regimen of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin (CsA), methylprednisolone (MPD) and prednisone (Pred) were administered to all patients. The treatment of Daclizumab was based on baseline regimen. The Daclizumab group received Daclizumab twice before and after renal transplant. The occurrence of post-transplantation acute rejection, renal function and T lymphocyte subtypes were sequentially monitored; meanwhile adverse events, infection episode, and patient and graft survival were observed.All of patients received a follow-up of 12 months at least. Results :The occurrence of acute rejection in Daclizumab group in 1,3, 6 and 12 months after renal transplantation was 7.7%, 19.2%, 23.1% and 30.8%, respectively,while it was 15.6% ,28.9%,35.6% and 46.7% in the control group. There was significant difference between the two group(P < 0.05). There was no difference in infection episodes and adverse events between the Daclizumab group and control group. One year patient survival was 92.3% in Daclizumab group, 91.1% in control group (P > 0.05), compared with graft survival of 96.2 % and 93.3 % for Daclizumab and control group, respectively (P > 0. 05). The renal function in Daclizumab group in 1, 6 and 12 months after renal transplantation was better than that in control group (P < 0.05). The CD3+ and CD4+ subtypes decreased in both two groups after operation but no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion:Daclizumab combined with MMF, CsA, MPD and Pred therapeutic regimen was effective to reduce the occurrence of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients and have no influence on T lymphocyte subtypes.

  20. Preformed Donor HLA-DP-Specific Antibodies Mediate Acute and Chronic Antibody-Mediated Rejection Following Renal Transplantation

    Jolly, E. C.; Key, T; H. Rasheed; Morgan, H; Butler, A; Pritchard, N.; Taylor, C J; Clatworthy, M. R.


    Donor-specific HLA alloantibodies may cause acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and significantly compromise allograft survival. The clinical relevance of antibodies directed against some HLA class II antigens, particularly HLA-DP, is less clear with conflicting reports on their pathogenicity. We report two patients with high levels of pretransplant donor-specific HLA-DP antibodies who subsequently developed recurrent acute AMR and graft failure. In both cases, there were no o...

  1. Preformed donor HLA-DP-specific antibodies mediate acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection following renal transplantation.

    Jolly, E C; Key, T; Rasheed, H; Morgan, H; Butler, A; Pritchard, N; Taylor, C J; Clatworthy, M R


    Donor-specific HLA alloantibodies may cause acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and significantly compromise allograft survival. The clinical relevance of antibodies directed against some HLA class II antigens, particularly HLA-DP, is less clear with conflicting reports on their pathogenicity. We report two patients with high levels of pretransplant donor-specific HLA-DP antibodies who subsequently developed recurrent acute AMR and graft failure. In both cases, there were no other donor-specific HLA alloantibodies, suggesting that the HLA-DP-specific antibodies may be directly pathogenic.

  2. Acute pancreatitis, acute hepatitis and acute renal failure favourably resolved in two renal transplant recipients.

    Voiculescu, Mihai; Ionescu, Camelia; Ismail, Gener; Mandache, Eugen; Hortopan, Monica; Constantinescu, Ileana; Iliescu, Olguta


    Renal transplantation is often associated with severe complications. Except for acute rejection, infections and toxicity of immunosuppressive treatment are the most frequent problems observed after transplantation. Infections with hepatic viruses (HBV, HDV, HCV, HGV) and cytomegalic virus (CMV) are the main infectious complications after renal transplantation. Cyclosporine toxicity is not unusual for a patient with renal transplantation and is even more frequent for patients with hepatic impairment due to viral infections. The subjects of this report are two renal transplant recipients with acute pancreatitis, severe hepatitis and acute renal failure on graft, receiving immunosuppressive therapy for maintaining renal graft function

  3. [Pediatric renal transplantation in Toulouse (author's transl)].

    Juskiewenski, S; Barthe, P; Vaysse, P; Bouissou, F; Guitard, J; Bacque, P; Moscovivi, J; Cao-Van, C


    The regional group of renal transplantation in Toulouse includes a medico-surgical team which participates to all the activities of this group. Dialysis and transplantation are covered in a center organized for the care of children. This branch is part of the Regional Hospital. From 15 years old on patients are moved from the pediatric branch to the medico-surgical center taking care of adults. Both teams within the regional hospital share the responsability of taking off kidneys from cadaveric donors and collaborate to France-Transplant and Euro-Transplant. Since the pediatric center in charge of renal failure has opened, 32 children underwent chronic hemodialysis. Some of these patients are presently treated in the center for adults. Fourteen children were grafted and seven are at this moment waiting to receive transplantation. The average number of transplantations per year is from 1 to 4. These fourteen children underwent renal transplantation with kidneys from cadaveric donors. Only one has been provided by Toulouse. Diuresis resumed immediately in 8 cases, later in 5. An extremely acute reject was observed in one case and transplantectomy had to be performed 10 days after transplantation. Eight children presented acute reversible reject which, for 4 of them, evoluated towards chronicle reject. Eight children presented a chronicle reject: 4 of them are again in dialysis. Altogether 8 kidneys are functioning (seven years in the longest case). Five children resumed chronic dialysis. One patient died of acute pancreatitis. He underwent a portocaval shunt for type I glycogenosis which ended in a hyperuricemic nephropathy evoluating towards renal failure forcing a transplantation. The rehabilitation of transplanted children was always satisfactory.

  4. Characterization of acute renal allograft rejection by proteomic analysis of renal tissue in rat.

    Chen, Gang; Huang, Jing-Bin; Mi, Jie; He, Yun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hou; Luo, Chun-Li; Liang, Si-Min; Li, Jia-Bing; Tang, Ya-Xiong; Li, Jie


    Rapid and reliable biomarkers of renal allograft rejection have not been available. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers in renal allograft tissue using proteomic analysis. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344) or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Syngenic control group (Group I) constituted F344-to-F344 orthotopic kidney allo-transplantations (n = 8); and allogenic group (Group II) consisted of F344-to-Lewis orthotopic kidney allo-transplantations (n = 8). Renal tissues were harvested 7 days after transplantation. Samples were analyzed using 2-D electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. 6 differentially expressed proteins were identified between allogenic group and syngenic control group. A rat model of acute renal allograft rejection was successfully set up. Differentially expressed proteins in renal allograft tissue of rat were detected using proteomic analysis and might serve as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets in human. Quantitative proteomics, using MALDL-TOF-MS methodology has the potential to provide a profiling and a deeper understanding of acute renal rejection.

  5. Gene Expression Profiling on Acute Rejected Transplant Kidneys with Microarray

    Deping LI; Kang WANG; Yong DAI; Tianyu LV


    To investigate the gene expression profiles in acute allograft rejection of renal trans- plantation, and identify the markers for the early diagnosis of acute rejection, heterotopic kidney transplantation was performed by using F344 or Lewis donors and Lewis recipients. No immunosup- pressant was used. Renal grafts were harvested on days 3, 7, and 14. A commercial microarray was used to measure gene expression levels in day-7 grafts. The expression levels of 48 genes were up-regulated in the allograft in comparison with the isograft control, and interferon-y-induced GTPase gene was most significantly up-regulated in allografts. It is concluded that a variety of pathways are involved in organ transplant rejection which is dynamic and non-balanced. IFN-inducible genes, such as IGTP, may play an important role in the rejection. A lot of important factors involved in acute re- jection are unnecessary but sufficient conditions for the rejection. We are led to conclude that it is virtually impossible to make an early diagnosis based on a single gene marker, but it could he achieved on the basis of a set of markers.

  6. Acute rejection episodes after kidney transplantation

    Hamida Fethi


    Full Text Available Acute rejection episodes (AREs are a major determinant of renal allograft survival. The incorporation of new immunosuppressive agents explains, at least partially, the improvement seen in the results of transplantation in recent years. The objectives of this study are to analyze the incidence and severity of AREs, their risk factors and their influence on graft and patient survival. We retrospectively studied 280 kidney transplants performed in adults at the Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, between 1986 and 2004. The diagnosis of ARE was based on clinical data and response to treatment. Allograft biopsies were performed in ten cases. The treatment of AREs consisted of pulse methylprednisolone and anti-thymocyte globulin. There were 186 males (66.4% and 94 females (33.6%, and their mean age was 31 ± 8.9 years. Overall, the 280 study patients experienced a total of 113 AREs. Of them, 85 had only one ARE, 28 had two to three and none had more than three AREs. A total of 68 AREs were completely re-versible, 42 were partially reversible while three could not be reversed with treatment. The mean inci-dence of AREs was 40.4%. The incidence was > 45% between 1986 and 1997, decreased to 20.5% between 1998 and 2000 and to 9% between 2001 and 2004. Graft survival rates in patients with and without AREs were respectively 91% and 93% at three years, 82% and 90% at five years and 73% and 83% at 10 years. We found a decrease in the incidence of AREs in recent years in our study patients, and this was related to the introduction of sensitized cross-match and the newer immunosuppressive agents, particularly MMF. Additionally, AREs had a deleterious impact on late graft survival in our study population.

  7. Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Presence of MICA-DSA and Successful Renal Re-Transplant with Negative-MICA Virtual Crossmatch.

    Yingzi Ming

    Full Text Available The presence of donor-specific alloantibodies (DSAs against the MICA antigen results in high risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR of a transplanted kidney, especially in patients receiving a re-transplant. We describe the incidence of acute C4d+ AMR in a patient who had received a first kidney transplant with a zero HLA antigen mismatch. Retrospective analysis of post-transplant T and B cell crossmatches were negative, but a high level of MICA alloantibody was detected in sera collected both before and after transplant. The DSA against the first allograft mismatched MICA*018 was in the recipient. Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity tests with five samples of freshly isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrated the alloantibody nature of patient's MICA-DSA. Prior to the second transplant, a MICA virtual crossmatch and T and B cell crossmatches were used to identify a suitable donor. The patient received a second kidney transplant, and allograft was functioning well at one-year follow-up. Our study indicates that MICA virtual crossmatch is important in selection of a kidney donor if the recipient has been sensitized with MICA antigens.

  8. Acute mixed cellular and humoral rejection of renal allograft with leucopenia.

    Agarwal, D K; Hota, J K; Malhotra, V


    Diagnosis and management of acute renal allograft dysfunction often pose challenge to nephrologists during practice. Acute rejection is a major cause of acute graft dysfunction but is rare in patients with leucopenia. Acute rejection can have either humoral or cellular components or sometimes mixed components. Mixed acute cellular and humoral rejection often present as steroid resistant rejection. Here we report a patient with live related renal transplant recipient with acute graft dysfunction with leucopenia who was found to have mixed acute cellular and humoral rejection.

  9. Ultrastructural basis of acute renal allograft rejection

    V.D. Vuzevski (Vojislav)


    textabstractAn attempt was made: I. to demonstrate the evolution and the time of onset of the ultrastructural morphological changes in the renal parenchyma and blood vessels, as well as the ultrastructural feature of the interstitial cellular infiltration in acute rejection of kidney allografts; 2.



    Objective.The purpose of this study was to assess the renal graft expression of ICAM-1(intercellular adhesion molecule-1) nd LFA-1(lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1)molecule with relation to graft rejection.Methods.Rat kiney transplantation was performed according to the procedure of Kamada with some modification.Experimental rats were divided into 5 groups.The survival time of recipient rats and function of grafts after renal transplantation were observed.The sections of renal graft were stained for monoclonal antibody ICAM-1 and LFA-1, and then quantification of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 expression was accomplished by computer image analysis.Results.ICAM-1 and LFA-1 increased significantly in the renal allograft rejection group as compared with the non-rejection groups(P<0.05).Conluson.Both biopsy of renal graft and monitoring of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 are useful tools in diagnosing and treating acute rejection.

  11. Challenges in renal transplantation in Yemen.

    El-Nono, Ibrahiem H; Telha, Khaled A; Al-Alimy, Gamil M; Ghilan, Abdulilah M; Abu Asba, Nagieb W; Al-Zkri, Abdo M; Al-Adimi, Abdulilah M; Al-Ba'adani, Tawfiq H


    Background Renal replacement therapy was first introduced in Yemen in 1978 in the form of hemodialysis. Twenty years later, the first renal transplantation was performed. Kidney transplantations were started in socially and financially challenging circumstances in Yemen in 1998. A structured program was established and has been functioning regularly since 2005. A pediatric transplantation program was started in 2011. Material and Methods This was a prospective study of 181 transplants performed at the Urology and Nephrology Center between May 1998 and 2012. All transplants were from living related donors. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted initially of double therapy with steroid and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Subsequently, triple therapy with addition of a calcineurin inhibitor was introduced. Primary graft function was achieved in 176 (97.2%) recipients. Results Cold ischemia time was 48-68 min. Episodes of acute rejection in 12 patients were treated with high-dose steroids. Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) was used in cases of vascular or steroid-resistant rejection in 2 patients. The post-transplant complications, either surgical or medical, were comparable to those recorded in the literature. Conclusions Renal transplantation is a good achievement in our country. The patients and graft survival rates are comparable to other reports.

  12. Successful Pregnancies Post Renal Transplantation

    Alfi Adnan


    Full Text Available To evaluate the maternal and fetal outcomes in renal transplant female recipients who became pregnant from 1989 to 2005 in our center, we retrospectively studied 20 incident pregnancies in 12 renal transplant recipients; 5 (41.7 % of them from living related, 4 (33.3% from deceased, and 3 (25% from living unrelated donors. The mean age at pregnancy was 30.5 ± 4.5 years and mean interval from transplantation to pregnancy was 21 ± 5.7 months with the interval was < 1 year in one patient. The mean serum creatinine (SCr before pregnancy vs 6 months post delivery was 110 ± 24.3, and 156 ± 190 µmol/ L, respectively, (p = 0.2. All patients were normotensive during the prenatal period except two who were hypertensive, none was markedly proteinuric, and only one acute rejection episode occurred during one pregnancy. Graft loss one year post delivery occurred in 2 patients; one with elevated prenatal SCr > 132 µmol/L, and another with short interval from transplantation to pregnancy < 1 year, while the remaining 10 patients revealed current mean SCr of 105 ± 18.2 µmol/L. Complications during pregnancy inclu-ded pre-eclampsia in (25%, UTI (25%, preterm delivery < 37 weeks (30%, however, none of the pregnancies ended by abortion. Normal vaginal delivery vs cesarean section was 70% vs 30%, respectively. Gestational age at delivery was 36.3 ± 3.9 weeks, and mean fetal birth weight was 2349 ± 574 gm. Apgar score was 9-10 in all of the 20 babies, and none revealed intrauterine growth retardation or congenital anomalies. We conclude that consecutive pregnancies demons-trate long-term maternal and fetal survival and function. The major risk factors are elevated starting serum creatinine, hypertension, and short time interval from transplantation to pregnancy.

  13. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection

    Johnson, L.L.; Cannon, P.J. (Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York (United States))


    Fab fragments of antibodies specific for cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium-111 and injected intravenously into animals and into patients with heart transplants. The antibodies, developed by Khaw, Haber, and co-workers, localize in cardiac myocytes that have been damaged irreversibly by ischemia, myocarditis, or the rejection process. After clearance of the labeled antibody from the cardiac blood pool, planar imaging or single photon emission computed tomography is performed. Scintigrams reveal the uptake of the labeled antimyosin in areas of myocardium undergoing transplant rejection. In animal studies, the degree of antimyosin uptake appears to correlate significantly with the degree of rejection assessed at necropsy. In patients, the correlation between scans and pathologic findings from endomyocardial biopsy is not as good, possibly because of sampling error in the endomyocardial biopsy technique. The scan results at 1 year correlate with either late complications (positive) or benign course (negative). Current limitations of the method include slow blood clearance, long half-life of indium-111, and hepatic uptake. Overcoming these limitations represents a direction for current research. It is possible that from these efforts a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac transplantation may evolve that will decrease the number of endomyocardial biopsies required to evaluate rejection. This would be particularly useful in infants and children. 31 references.

  14. Sporotrichosis in Renal Transplant Patients

    Paulo Gewehr


    Full Text Available The current report describes two renal transplant recipients who presented with sporotrichosis. In addition, the authors review the general aspects of sporotrichosis in renal transplant recipients reported in the literature. Sporotrichosis is a rare fungal infection in transplant patients and has been reported primarily in renal transplant recipients not treated with antifungal prophylaxis. Extracutaneous forms of sporotrichosis without skin manifestations and no previous history of traumatic injuries have been described in such patients and are difficult to diagnose. Renal transplant recipients with sporotrichosis described in the present report were successfully treated with antifungal therapy including amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid amphotericin B formulations, fluconazole and itraconazole.

  15. Late-onset acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Keneko; Yuichi Matsui; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi


    AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of late-onset acute rejection (LAR) and to clarify the effectiveness of our immunosuppressive regime consisting of life-long administration of tacrolimus and steroids.METHODS: Adult living donor liver transplantation recipients (n = 204) who survived more than 6 mo after living donor liver transplantation were enrolled.Immunosuppression was achieved using tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. When adverse effects of tacrolimus were detected, the patient was switched to cyclosporine. Six months after transplantation,tacrolimus or cyclosporine was carefully maintained at a therapeutic level. The methylprednisolone dosage was maintained at 0.05 mg/kg per day by oral administration.Acute rejections that occurred more than 6 mo after the operation were defined as late-onset. The median followup period was 34 mo.RESULTS: LAR was observed in 15 cases (7%) and no chronic rejection was observed. The incidence of hyperlipidemia, chronic renal failure, new-onset posttransplantation diabetes, and deep fungal infection were 13%, 2%, 24%, and 17%, respectively. Conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine was required in 38 patients (19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a cyclosporinebased regimen was significantly associated with LAR.CONCLUSION: Both LAR and drug-induced adverse events happen at a low incidence, supporting the safety and efficacy of the present immunosuppression regimen for living donor liver transplantation.

  16. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    Sigdel, Tara K.; NG, Yolanda; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.


    Background: Urine exosomes, vesicles exocytosed into urine by all renal epithelial cell types, occur under normal physiologic and disease states. Exosome contents may mirror disease-specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed and for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration from mid-stream, second morning void, urine samples collected from kidney transplant recipients with and without biopsy matched acute rejection. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw) and urine exosomes (Uexo) underwent mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR). Results: Identifications of 1018 and 349 proteins, Uw and Uexo fractions, respectively, demonstrated a 279 protein overlap between the two urinary compartments with 25%(70) of overlapping proteins unique to Uexoand represented membrane bound proteins (p=9.31e-7). Of 349 urine exosomal proteins identified in transplant patients 220 were not previously identified in the normal urine exosomal fraction. Uexo proteins (11), functioning in the inflammatory / stress response, were more abundant in patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, 3 of which were exclusive to Uexo. Uexo AR-specific biomarkers (8) were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. Conclusions: A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Uexo proteins was applied. Urine proteins specific to the exosomal fraction were detected either in unfractionated urine (at low abundances) or by Uexo fraction analysis. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were

  17. [Renal transplantation and urinary lithiasis].

    Lechevallier, E; Saussine, C; Traxer, O


    Renal lithiasis in renal donors is rare. A renal stone in a donor, or in a renal transplant, is not a contraindication for harvesting nor transplantation. If possible, the stone must be removed at the time of the transplantation. The risk of lithiasis is increased in the renal transplant recipient, with a frequency of 2-6%. Metabolic abnormalities for lithiasis are frequent and can be induced by the immunosuppressive treatment, anticalcineurins. Lithiasis can have a poor prognosis in the renal recipient with a risk for infection or renal dysfunction. Small (renal transplant can be followed-up. Stones of 0.5-1.5cm need an extracorporeal lithotripsy with a previous safety JJ stent. Stones greater than 1.5cm can be treated by ureteroscopy or percutaneous surgery.

  18. Renal and urinary levels of endothelial protein C receptor correlate with acute renal allograft rejection.

    Lionel Lattenist

    Full Text Available The Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR is expressed on leukocytes, on endothelium of large blood vessels and to a lesser extent on capillaries. Membrane bound EPCR plays an important role in the activation of protein C which has anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. After cleavage by a protease EPCR is also found as a soluble protein. Acute rejection of kidney allografts can be divided in T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR and antibody-mediated (ABMR rejection. The latter is characterized by strong activation of coagulation. Currently no reliable non-invasive biomarkers are available to monitor rejection. Renal biopsies were available from 81 renal transplant patients (33 without rejection, 26 TCMR and 22 ABMR, we had access to mRNA material, matched plasma and urine samples for a portion of this cohort. Renal EPCR expression was assessed by RT-PCR and immunostaining. Plasma and urine sEPCR levels were measured by ELISA. ABMR patients showed higher levels of EPCR mRNA than TCMR patients. EPCR expression on glomeruli was significantly elevated in ABMR patients than in TCMR or control patients. In the peritubular capillaries EPCR expression was higher in ABMR patients than in control patients. EPCR expression was higher in tubules and arteries of rejection patients than in control patients. Plasma sEPCR levels did not differ. Urine sEPCR levels were more elevated in the ABMR group than in patients with TCMR or without rejection. ROC analysis demonstrated that urinary sEPCR is appropriate to discriminate between ABMR patients and TCMR or control patients. We conclude that urinary sEPCR could be a novel non-invasive biomarker of antibody mediated rejection in renal transplantation.

  19. [Challenges in renal transplantation].

    Thuret, R; Kleinclauss, F; Terrier, N; Karam, G; Timsit, M O


    To describe kidney transplantation surgical techniques and to propose strategies in high-risk recipients. Relevant publications were identified through Medline ( and Embase ( database using the following keywords, alone or in association, "renal transplantation; peripheral arterial disease; obesity; third and fourth transplantation; robotic-assisted kidney transplant; anticoagulant therapy; dual kidney transplant". Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. The reference lists were used to identify additional historical studies of interest. Both prospective and retrospective series, in French and English, as well as review articles and case-reports were selected. A total of 1949 articles were analyzed for arterial disease and anticoagulant therapy, 1083 for obesity, 663 for dual kidney transplants, 458 for third and subsequent procedures and 84 for robotic-assisted kidney transplantation. After careful selection, 304 publications were eligible for our review. Surgical assessment of future recipients is a pivotal step to anticipate technical difficulties, to interrupt clopidogrel or direct oral anticoagulants and to propose a revascularization procedure when necessary. Lack of data regarding obese recipients does not allow us to conclude about best surgical care or optimal timing but suggest that an early global management of obesity in chronic kidney disease patients is mandatory to improve access to a successful transplantation. In neurologic bladder and congenital anomalies, urodynamics and bladder function must be assessed prior to the onset of oliguria to intend an early treatment. Urinary diversion may be performed prior to or after transplantation with similar survival outcome and comparable rates of infections. Because of a rigorous selection of donors, the French dual kidney transplant program provides satisfactory outcomes, but fails in convincing surgical

  20. Gravidez e transplante renal

    Andrade, Joana Rita Ferreira


    Enquadramento: A gravidez é rara em mulheres com Doença Renal Crónica, sobretudo em estadio avançado, em virtude de várias condicionantes como a disfunção ovárica, hemorragias vaginais anovulatórias e amenorreia. Contudo, após transplante renal é possível alimentar o sonho de constituir família, mas é preciso considerar os riscos aumentados para o enxerto e a maior susceptibilidade para complicações da gravidez. Objectivo: Avaliar os riscos e identificar as variáveis que influenciam o suce...

  1. Proteinuria in Egyptian renal transplant recipients

    Essam Khedr


    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, possible etiology, prognosis and management of proteinuria in renal transplant recipients, we studied 435 adult renal transplant recipient patients randomly selected from our center; 394 patients were reviewed retrospectively and 41 patients were followed-up prospectively for a period of one year. The patients were classified into three groups according to the results of urinalysis and spot urinary albumin creatinine ratio: Group A patients with normoalbuminuria; Group B patients with microalbuminuria; and Group C patients with macroalbuminuria. Persistent post-transplantation proteinuria was detected in 125 (28.8% patients. The etiology of post-transplantation proteinuria included chronic allograft dysfunction in 44 (35.2% patients, acute rejection in 40 (32% patients, transplant glomerulopathy in eight (6.4% patients, glomerular disease in 16 (12.8% patients and other etiology in 17 (13.6% patients. Proteinuric patients demonstrated significantly lower graft survival rates than did those without proteinuria (48.3% versus 51.7%, respectively; P = 0.017; Risk Ratio = 0.403; 95% confidence interval 0.188-0.862. We conclude that proteinuria is prevalent after kidney transplant in our population, and that it is most commonly associated with chronic allograft nephropathy, transplant glomerulopathy, glomerulonephritis and acute rejection. Post-transplant proteinuria is associated with decreased allograft survival.

  2. Dyslipoproteinemia in renal transplantation.

    Gunjotikar R


    Full Text Available Twenty-seven live related donor renal allograft recipients were evaluated for dyslipoproteinemia. Twenty-two patients received dual immunosuppression with prednisolone and azathioprine. Five patients received cyclosporin as well. Total cholesterol (Tch, triglycerides (TG, HDL cholesterol (HDLch, LDL cholesterol (LDLch and VLDL cholesterol (VLDLch levels were estimated. Fifteen (56% patients showed significant lipoprotein abnormalities. Renal allograft recipients showed significantly lower levels of Tch (p < 0.05 and LDLch (p < 0.05 and higher levels of TG (p < 0.005 and HDLch (p < 0.05. Diet and beta blockers did not influence lipoprotein levels. A significant negative correlation was noted between post-transplant duration and Tch, TG and VLDLch levels. Increased TG levels were associated with increase in weight and higher daily prednisolone dosage at the time of evaluation. The study confirms the existence of dyslipoproteinemia in renal allograft recipients.

  3. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B


    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  4. Trasplante renal Kidney transplant

    P. Martín


    Full Text Available El trasplante renal es la terapia de elección para la mayoría de las causas de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal porque mejora la calidad de vida y la supervivencia frente a la diálisis. El trasplante renal de donante vivo es una excelente alternativa para el paciente joven en situación de prediálisis porque ofrece mejores resultados. El tratamiento inmunosupresor debe ser individualizado buscando la sinergia inmunosupresora y el mejor perfil de seguridad, y debe adaptarse a las diferentes etapas del trasplante renal. En el seguimiento del trasplante renal hay que tener muy en cuenta los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los tumores puesto que la muerte del paciente con injerto funcionante es la segunda causa de pérdida del injerto tras el primer año del trasplante. La función alterada del injerto es un factor de mortalidad cardiovascular independiente que requerirá seguimiento y control de todas sus complicaciones para retrasar la entrada en diálisis.The kidney transplant is the therapy of choice for the majority of the causes of chronic terminal kidney insufficiency, because it improves the quality of life and survival in comparison with dialysis. A kidney transplant from a live donor is an excellent alternative for the young patient in a state of pre-dialysis because it offers the best results. Immunosuppressive treatment must be individualised, seeking immunosuppressive synergy and the best safety profile, and must be adapted to the different stages of the kidney transplant. In the follow-up to the kidney transplant, cardiovascular risk factors and tumours must be especially taken into account, given that the death of the patient with a working graft is the second cause of loss of the graft following the first year of the transplant. The altered function of the graft is a factor of independent cardiovascular mortality that will require follow-up and the control of all its complications to postpone the entrance in dialysis.

  5. Rejection is a strong graft survival predictor in live donor pediatric renal transplantation using cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids: 5-year outcomes in a single Mexican center.

    Martinez-Mier, G; Enriquez-De Los Santos, H; Méndez-López, M T; Avila-Pardo, S F; Budar-Fernandez, L F; Gonzalez-Velazquez, F


    Long-term graft function and survival are of particular importance in children assuming that they have a longer transplantation life span than most adults. Because acute rejection episodes (ARE) continue to have a serious impact on graft loss, we analyzed the effects of ARE on 5-year survival and function in our population. Fifty-seven living donor kidney transplant recipients (34 males) younger than 18 years of age (13.5 ± 2.6 years; range, 5-17) were follow up for at feast 12 months using cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid therapy with or without induction treatment between February 2003 and December 2010. ARE incidence during the first 12 months following transplantation was 14%. One-, 3- and 5-year serum creatinine values were 1.24 ± 0.39, 2.16 ± 2.39, and 1.76 ± 0.9 mg/dL, respectively. Mean calculated creatinine clearances (Schwartz) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 82.5 ± 24.8, 64.7 ± 24.1, and 67 ± 27.5 mL/min*1.73 m(2), respectively. Patient/graft survival rates were 96/85%, 90/72%, and 88/65% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Patients who experienced an ARE within 12 months following transplantation displayed a reduced 5-year graft survival rate (37.5%) versus those who did not (78%; P = .005). Patients who did not have an ARE during 60 months had a higher graft survival rate (76%) than those who had ARE (33%; P = .001). Patient without basiliximab induction showed a lower 5-year graft survival rate (61% vs 100%; P = not significant [NS]). ARE is an important risk factor for graft loss in the pediatric kidney transplant population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Renal-sparing strategies in cardiac transplantation

    Gustafsson, Finn; Ross, Heather J


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal dysfunction due to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity is a major clinical problem in cardiac transplantation. The aim of the article is to review the efficacy and safety of various renal sparing strategies in cardiac transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Small studies have...... documented that late initiation of CNI is safe in patients treated with induction therapy at the time of transplantation. Use of mycophenolate is superior when compared with azathioprine to allow for CNI reduction. More substantial reduction in CNI levels is safe and effective with the introduction...... of sirolimus or everolimus. However, studies that use very early CNI discontinuation have found an increased risk of allograft rejection, and this strategy requires further study before it can be routinely recommended. CNI discontinuation late after cardiac transplantation seems more effective than CNI...

  7. Higher tacrolimus trough levels on days 2-5 post-renal transplant are associated with reduced rates of acute rejection.

    O'Seaghdha, C M


    We analyzed the association between whole-blood trough tacrolimus (TAC) levels in the first days post-kidney transplant and acute cellular rejection (ACR) rates. Four hundred and sixty-four consecutive, deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were included. All were treated with a combination of TAC, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Patients were analyzed in four groups based on quartiles of the mean TAC on days 2 and 5 post-transplant: Group 1: median TAC 11 ng\\/mL (n = 122, range 2-13.5 ng\\/mL), Group 2: median 17 ng\\/mL (n = 123, range 14-20 ng\\/mL), Group 3: median 24 ng\\/mL (n = 108, range 20.5-27 ng\\/mL) and Group 4: median 33.5 ng\\/mL (n = 116, range 27.5-77.5 ng\\/mL). A graded reduction in the rates of ACR was observed for each incremental days 2-5 TAC. The one-yr ACR rate was 24.03% (95% CI 17.26-32.88), 22.20% (95% CI 15.78-30.70), 13.41% (95% CI 8.15-21.63) and 8.69% (95% CI 4.77-15.55) for Groups 1-4, respectively (p = 0.003). This study suggests that higher early TACs are associated with reduced rates of ACR at one yr.

  8. [Multiple complications after renal transplantation].

    Manrique, J; Rossich, E; Hernández Sierra, A


    This is the case of a 32-year-old male patient, diagnosed with end stage renal disease secondary to a focal and segmental glomerulonephritis. After four years of haemodialysis, he received a renal graft from a cadaveric donor. During the following sixteen years, he developped many different complications. In the early post-transplant period, he developed a severe acute tubular necrosis and two episodes of acute rejection took place, both of them with later recovery. Among the outstanding infectious complications were a virus herpes zoster dorsal infection and a Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial pneumonia. Twelve months later, a series of severe digestive complications took place: cholecystitis that required cholecystectomy, pancreatic pseudocyst which required laparotomy because of an abdominal complication, two separate episodes of upper digestive bleeding that finally required gastric surgery, and an hemorrhagic subphrenic abscess that required a second laparotomy. Currently he has developed a calcified chronic pancreatitis. Moreover, metabolic complications must be mentioned carbohydrate intolerance, cataracts and an avascular bone necrosis, all of them closely related to the immunosuppressive therapy. In spite of these multiple complications, he mantains a good renal function and his quality of life is acceptable.

  9. Doppler Ultrasound in Chronic Renal Allograft Dysfunction : Can Acute Rejection be Predicted

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Ki Ill; Chung, Hyun Joo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To investigate Doppler sonographic findings valuable for detecting acute rejection in transplanted kidney with chronic allograft dysfunction. Forty-three renal allografts who underwent renal Doppler sonography and renal biopsy due to chronic allograft dysfunction were included. According to histopathologic findings, patients were classified into 2 groups: chronic component only(group 1, n=30) and acute rejection with or without chronic component 2 groups were performed. No definite difference in radio of renal size, cortical echogenecity, corticomedullary differentiation was noted between group 1 and group 2.Resistive index was 0.61{+-}0.18 in group 1 and 0.64{+-}0.22 in group 2, which showed no statistically significant difference. Characteristic Doppler sonographic findings suggesting acute rejection in cases of chronic allograft dysfunction were not found inauther's study. Therefore, minimal invasive renal biopsy to determine histopathologic status of transplanted kidney is essential in evaluation of the chronic allograft dysfunction

  10. Efficacy of ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation

    Kim, Young Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Min, Seon Jeong; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness and complications of renal biopsy under ultrasonography-guidance in renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy was done in 47 patients with the transplanted kidney. The subjects consisted of 30 males and 17 females, age ranged from 16 to 66 years (average age=38 years). Biopsies were done once in 27 patients, twice in 17 patients, three times in 3 patients, a total of 70 biopsies. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis and the incidence and types of complications following biopsy were evaluated. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis was 96%(67/70). Pathologic diagnosis included 27 cases of acute rejection (39%), 8 cases of acute tubular necrosis (11%), 4 cases of acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis (6%), 4 cases of cyclosporin toxicity (6%), 4 cases of primary disease recurrence (6%), 4 cases of infection (6%) and others. Complications after renal biopsy included 15 cases of microscopic hematuria (21%), 1 case of gross hematuria with spontaneous cessation and 1 case of life threatening hemorrhage. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy is a safe and effective diagnostic method for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation.


    黄孝伦; 沈文律; 李幼平; 周泽清; 谭建三


    Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the renal graft expression of ICAM-I (intercellular adhesion moleculeq) and LFA l(lymphocyte function-aa.soziated antigen-1)molecule with relation to graft rejection. Methods. Rat kidney traansplantation was performed according to the procedure of Kamada with some modification. Experimental rats were dividod into 5 groups. The survival time of recipient rats and function of grafts after renal transplantation were observed. The sections of renal graft were mined forantibody ICAM-1 and LFA-1, and then quantification of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 expression was accomplished by computer image analysis. Results. ICAM-1 and LFA-1 increased significantly in the renal allograft rejection group as compared with the non-rejection groups(P<0. 05). Conclustion. Both biopsy of renal graft and monitoring of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 are useful tools in diagnosing and treating acute rejection.

  12. Differentiation between renal allograft rejection and acute tubular necrosis by renal scan

    Delmonico, F.L.; McKusick, K.A.; Cosimi, A.B.; Russell, P.S.


    The usefulness of the renal scan in diagnosing technical complications in the transplant patient is well established. However, the ability of the renal scan to differentiate between acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis has remained uncertain. We have evaluated the effectiveness of the /sup 99m/Tc DTPA computer-derived time-activity curve of renal cortical perfusion, as well as data obtained from scintillation camera images, in making such diagnoses. Fifteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of either acute rejection or acute tubular necrosis, or both, were studied retrospectively. Technetium scan diagnoses did not agree with the clinical assessment in nine of the patients. Thus selection of a course of treatment should not be based on data obtained from the scan alone.

  13. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    Tara eSigdel


    Full Text Available Urine exosomes are small vesicles exocytosed into the urine by all renal epithelial cell types under normal physiologic and disease states. Urine exosomal proteins may mirror disease specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration of urine samples collected from kidney transplant patients with and without acute rejection, which were biopsy matched. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw and urine exosomes (Ue underwent mass spectroscopy-based quantitative proteonomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR. A total of 1018 proteins were identified in Uw and 349 proteins in Ue. 279 overlapped between the two urinary compartments and 70 proteins were unique to the Ue compartment. Of 349 exosomal proteins identified from transplant patients,220 had not been previously identified in the normal Ue fraction. 11 Ue proteins, functionally involved in an inflammatory and stress response, were more abundant in urine samples from patients with acute rejection, 3 of which are exclusive to the Ue fraction. Ue AR-specific biomarkers(8 were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Ue proteins was applied. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were specific to inflammatory responses, and were not observed in the Ue fraction from normal healthy subjects. Ue specific protein alterations in renal disease provide potential mechanistic insights and offer a unique panel of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring AR.

  14. Serum beta-2-Microglobulin level: A parameter for early diagnosis of renal allograft rejection

    Rezai A


    Full Text Available For monitoring of renal transplant function, serum B2m was evaluated in 23 recipients. According to clinical diagnosis the patients were in four groups: 1 Successful renal transplant; the mean concentration of SB2m pretransplantation was 73.1±26.1 mg/L but decreased to nearly normal level (4.43±1.17 mg/L within 24-48h and then reached to 3.1 mg/L duting 20 days after transplantation. 2 Renal dysfunction (except rejection; the maximum changes of SB2m was 1.1 mg/L/day and no significant changes of SB2m were found between this group and group 1. 3 Accelerated and acute rejection; during immunological rejection crisis, SB2m level increased and after response to antirejection therapy decreased. The daily changes of SB2m allowed to diffrentiate renal dysfunction fom rejection in 84% of cases. Moreover according to SB2m fluctuation levels, SB2m had a prognostic pattern for acute rejection due to significant differences between the level of SB2m on the day of clinical diagnosis of rejection and 4 days previously (P<0.025, and also 2 days before rejection (P<0.025, while this pattern was not found for serum creatinin and BUN.


    A. I. Sushkov


    Full Text Available Belatacept is a novel immunosuppressive agent that inhibits T-cell activation by blocking CD28 signaling pa- thway. It was developed based on abatacept (CTLA-4Ig, the first recombinant immunoglobulin fusion protein which contains extracellular part of CTLA-4 molecule and Fc domain of IgG. First clinical trials have shown the comparable patient and graft survival in group of kidney recipients with belatacept-based maintenance im- munosuppressive therapy versus Cyclosporin A-based therapy. Advantages observed with belatacept include superior glomerular filtration rate and improved cardiovascular risk profile. Belatacept is a potential option for maintenance immunosuppressive therapy without calcineurin inhibitors. Concerns associated with belatacept use are higher rates of acute cellular rejection episodes and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder cases. 

  16. Prevalence and association of post-renal transplant anemia

    Hesham Elsayed


    Full Text Available In some renal allograft recipients, anemia persists or develops following transplantation. Anemia is associated with pre-operative blood loss and allograft dysfunction, including delayed graft function, acute rejection and chronic allograft dysfunction. To study the prevalence and association of post-renal transplant anemia, we studied 200 renal transplant recipients; 131 (65.5% patients were males and 69 (34.5% patients were females, and age ranged from 17 to 67 years, with a mean of 37.7 ± 10.8 years. All patients were receiving cyclosporine, prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF. Complete blood count was done at two times: three and six months post-renal transplant. There were 74% anemic patients three months after renal transplantation and 45% anemic patients six months after renal transplantation. High creatinine value, female gender, delayed graft function, episodes of acute rejection, perioperative blood loss and infections were the only significant independent risk factors for prevalence of anemia post-renal transplant. In our study, we did not find an association between MMF and cyclosporine nor angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs or angiotensin receptors blocker (ARBs with anemia. This study demonstrates that anemia is a common complication during the first six months after kidney transplantation, with several risk factors precipitating this complication.

  17. The value of urine cytologic examination findings in the diagnosis of the acute renal allograft rejection

    Tatomirović Željka


    Full Text Available Background. Acute rejection of allograft is one of the most serious complications of renal transplantation that requires fast and precise diagnostic approach. In this paper our experience in cytologic urinalysis as a diagnostic method of the acute renal allograft rejection was reviewed. Methods. The study group included 20 of 56 patients with transplanted kidneys who were assumed for the acute allograft rejection according to allograft dysfunction and/or urine cytology findings. Histological findings confirmed allograft rejection in 4 patients. Urine sediment obtained in cytocentrifuge was air-dried and stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Acute allograft rejection was suspected if in 10 fields under high magnification 15 or more lymphocytes with renal tubular cells were found. Results. Acute transplant rejection occured in 32.1% patients. In 15 patients clinical findings of the acute renal allograft rejection corresponded with cytological and histological findings (in the cases in which it was performed. Three patients with clinical signs of the acute allograft rejection were without cytological confirmation, and in 2 patients cytological findings pointed to the acute rejection, but allograft dysfunction was of different etiology (acute tubular necrosis, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. In patients with clinical, cytological and histological findings of the acute allograft rejection urine finding consisted of 58% lymphocytes, 34% neutrophilic leucocytes and 8% monocytes/macrophages on the average. The accuracy of cytologic urinalysis related to clinical and histological finding was 75%. Conclusion. Urine cytology as the reliable noninvasive, fast and simple method is appropriate as the a first diagnostic line of renal allograft dysfunction, as well as for monitoring of the graft function.

  18. Cadaveric renal transplantation: the Chennai experience.

    Prabahar, M R; Soundararajan, P


    Transplantation of human organs is undoubtedly one of the greatest medical breakthroughs of this century. However, few Indian patients are able to benefit from this medical advance. It is estimated that in India every year over 152,000 people are diagnosed to have end-stage renal failure needing renal transplantation. The Transplantation of Human Organs Act passed by the Indian parliament in 1994 was subsequently ratified by the state legislature of Tamil Nadu in May 1995. It accepted brain death as a form of death and prohibited commerce in organs. The first cadaveric kidney transplant in Sri Ramachandra medical college was performed in 1995 with 68 cadaveric kidney transplants thereafter. The mean age of the donors was 36 +/- 12.8 years. The mean cold ischemia time was 5.6 +/- 3.2 hours. As many as 14 donors displayed acute renal failure (serum creatinine more than 1.2 mg/dL). Immediate graft function was established in 34 patients (50%). Four had graft rupture, two of which were successfully repaired. Postoperatively 12 patients (17.6%) displayed delayed graft function requiring dialysis. During the first year, 18 patients (26.4%) experienced acute rejection episodes, of which 14 were cellular and four vascular rejection types. As many as eight patients were lost to follow-up within one year; the mean follow-up time was 968 +/- 86 days. Patient survival at 1 year was 88.2% and that of the graft 73.5%. The 5-year patient and graft survival rates were 61.7% and 58.8%, respectively. The mean serum creatinine of patients currently followed is 2.2 +/- 0.86 mg/dL. The rate of cadaver kidney transplantation in India is low despite initiatives by our university to promote donation. Creating a positive public attitude, early brain death identification, and certification, prompt consent for organ donation, adequate hospital infrastructure, and support logistics are prerequisites for successful organ transplantation.

  19. Successful renal transplantation during pregnancy.

    Hold, Phoebe M; Wong, Christopher F; Dhanda, Raman K; Walkinshaw, Steve A; Bakran, Ali


    Little is known about the implications of performing a renal transplant on a patient who is already pregnant. This case study reports a successful outcome of pregnancy, diagnosed coincidentally following renal transplantation at 13 weeks gestation. The recipient was a 23-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease who received a live-related renal transplant from her father. Pregnancy was discovered at routine ultrasound scanning of the renal allograft at 5 days posttransplant and estimated at 13 weeks gestation. She received ciclosporin monotherapy as immunosuppression throughout the pregnancy, and was given valacyclovir as prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Renal function remained stable throughout the pregnancy, which progressed normally, resulting in the vaginal delivery of a healthy, liveborn male infant at 37 weeks gestation. This case study demonstrates that transplantation during pregnancy can have a successful outcome.

  20. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B


    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  1. Psychological rejection of the transplanted organ and graft dysfunction in kidney transplant patients

    Látos M


    Full Text Available Melinda Látos,1 György Lázár,1 Zoltán Horváth,1 Victoria Wittmann,1 Edit Szederkényi,1 Zoltán Hódi,1 Pál Szenohradszky,1 Márta Csabai2 1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Psychology Institute, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Interdisciplinary studies suggest that the mental representations of the transplanted organ may have a significant effect on the healing process. The objective of this study was to examine the representations of the transplanted organ and their relationship with emotional and mood factors, illness perceptions, and the functioning of the transplanted organ. One hundred and sixty-four kidney transplant patients were assessed using the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, the Beck’s Depression Scale, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and the Transplanted Organ Questionnaire. Medical parameters were collected from the routine clinical blood tests (serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels and biopsy results. Our most outstanding results suggest that kidney-transplanted patients’ illness representations are associated with health outcomes. The Transplanted Organ Questionnaire “psychological rejection” subscale was connected with higher serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that psychological rejection subscale, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Posttraumatic Growth Questionnaire total scores were associated with graft rejection. These results may serve as a basis for the development of complex treatment interventions, which could help patients to cope with the bio-psycho-social challenges of integrating the new organ as part of their body and self. Keywords: anxiety, depression, illness representations, posttraumatic growth, psychological rejection, renal transplantation

  2. Prevention trumps treatment of antibody-mediated transplant rejection.

    Knechtle, Stuart J; Kwun, Jean; Iwakoshi, Neal


    Belying the spectacular success of solid organ transplantation and improvements in immunosuppressive therapy is the reality that long-term graft survival rates remain relatively unchanged, in large part due to chronic and insidious alloantibody-mediated graft injury. Half of heart transplant recipients develop chronic rejection within 10 years - a daunting statistic, particularly for young patients expecting to achieve longevity by enduring the rigors of a transplant. The current immunosuppressive pharmacopeia is relatively ineffective in preventing late alloantibody-associated chronic rejection. In this issue of the JCI, Kelishadi et al. report that preemptive deletion of B cells prior to heart transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys, in addition to conventional posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, markedly attenuated not only acute graft rejection but also alloantibody elaboration and chronic graft rejection. The success of this preemptive strike implies a central role for B cells in graft rejection, and this approach may help to delay or prevent chronic rejection after solid organ transplantation.


    N. V. Purlo


    Full Text Available We report the case of successful renal allogeneic transplantation and treatment in a 56-year-old patient with haemophilia B at Hematology Research Center. He has received replacement therapy by factor IX since 2010. The transplant is marked with good renal function during 13 post-transplant months without episodes of rejection or bleeding complications. The complicated surgical interventions are possible in patients with haemophilia В аnd end-stage chronic renal failure in the presence of replacement therapy of IX factor for the purpose of achievement of optimum hemostasis.

  4. Programmed death 1 mRNA in peripheral blood as biomarker of acute renal allograft rejection

    WANG Ya-wen; WANG Zhen; SHI Bing-yi


    Background Invasive kidney biopsy is a priority diagnostic method for the acute rejection after renal transplantation for the past decades. However, no effective and noninvasive assay for predicting the severity of acute rejection is in wide use at present. This study was designed to investigate the predictive value of programmed death 1 (PD-1) mRNA for acute rejection after renal transplantation with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A noninvasive diagnostic method has been expected to replace the tranditional kidney biopsy for the diagnosis of acute rejection and prediction of the outcome after kidney transplantation.Methods The whole blood samples from 19 subjects with acute rejection, 20 subjects with delayed graft function (DGF)and 21 subjects with stable recipients after kidney transplantation in a single kidney transplantation center between 2006 and 2009 were collected. The messenger RNA (mRNA) of PD-1 was analyzed with real-time RT-PCR. The associations of PD-1 mRNA levels with acute rejection and disease severity were investigated.Results The log-transformed ratio of PD-1 mRNA to GAPDH mRNA was higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from the group with acute rejection (4.52±1.1) than that from the group with DGF (1.12±0.6) or the group with normal biopsy results (0.7±0.4) (P <0.01, by the Kruskal-Wallis test). PD-1 mRNA levels were correlated with serum creatinine levels measured at the time of biopsy in the acute rejection group (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r=0.81,P=0.03), but not in the group with DGF or the group with normal biopsy results. PD-1 mRNA levels identified subjects at risk for graft failure within six months after the incident episode of acute rejection.Conclusions Our data suggest that PD-1 status may be a new predictor of acute rejection and the levels of PD-1mRNA in whole blood cells may positively correlate with the severity of acute rejection after renal transplantation

  5. Evaluation of allograft perfusion by radionuclide first-pass study in renal failure following renal transplantation

    Baillet, G.; Ballarin, J.; Urdaneta, N.; Campos, H.; Vernejoul, P. de; Fermanian, J.; Kellershohn, C.; Kreis, H.


    To assess the diagnostic value of indices measured on a first-pass curve, we performed 72 radionuclide renal first-pass studies (RFP) in 21 patients during the early weeks following renal allograft transplantation. The diagnosis was based on standard clinical and biochemical data and on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the transplant. Aortic and renal first-pass curves were filtered using a true low-pass filter and five different indices of renal perfusion were computed, using formulae from the literature. Statistical analysis performed on the aortic and renal indices indicated excellent reproducibility of the isotopic study. Although renal indices presented a rather large scatter, they all discriminated well between normal and rejection. Three indices have a particularly good diagnostic value. In the discrimination between rejection and Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN), only one index gave satisfying results. The indices, however, indicate that there are probably ATN with an alternation of renal perfusion and rejection episodes where perfusion is almost intact. We conclude that radionuclide first-pass study allows accurate and reproducible quantitation of renal allograft perfusion. The measured parameters are helpful to follow up the course of a post-transplantation renal failure episode and to gain more insight into renal ischemia following transplantation.

  6. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation.

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M


    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  7. Multivisceral transplantation in pigs: a clinicopathological analysis of tissue rejection.



    Full Text Available In this study, we established the surgical procedure and postoperative care of multivisceral transplantation (MVTX in pigs, and examined the functional changes and rejection pattern of transplanted organs in MVTX. Twenty-two MVTXs were performed without immunosuppression, and nine cases (41% that survived for 5 days or more after MVTX were used for evaluation. Rejection in grafts including the liver, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract were assessed histopathologically. On day 5 after transplantation, the duodenum and small bowel already showed signs of mild rejection. On the other hand, in the liver, pancreas and stomach, rejection occurred later and was still mild on day 16. Hepatic rejection in MVTX appeared to occur later than in simple liver transplantation (LTX. These results showed that the susceptibility to rejection of individual visceral organs varies.

  8. Physical Activity and Renal Transplantation

    Vincenzo Bellizzi


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is burdened by high cardiovascular risk because of increased prevalence of traditional and disease-specific cardiovascular risk factors and, consequently, patients are affected by greater morbidity and mortality. In renal transplanted patients, healthy lifestyle and physical activity are recommended to improve overall morbidity and cardiovascular outcomes. According to METs (Metabolic Equivalent Task; i.e. the amount of energy consumed while sitting at rest, physical activities are classified as sedentary (<3.0 METs, of moderate-(3.0 to 5.9 METs or vigorous-intensity (≥6.0 METs. Guidelines suggest for patients with chronic kidney disease an amount of physical activity of at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity five times per week (min 450 MET-minutes/week. Data on physical activity in renal transplanted patients, however, are limited and have been mainly obtained by mean of non-objective methods. Available data suggest that physical activity is low either at the start or during renal transplantation and this may be associated with poor patient and graft outcomes. Therefore, in renal transplanted patients more data on physical activity obtained with objective, accelerometer-based methods are needed. In the meanwhile, physical activity have to be considered as an essential part of the medical care for renal transplanted recipients.

  9. [Neurologic complications induced by the treatment of the acute renal allograft rejection with the monoclonal antibody OKT3].

    Fernández, O; Romero, F; Bravo, M; Burgos, D; Cabello, M; González-Molina, M


    The treatment of the acute renal allograft rejection with the monoclonal antibody orthoclone OKT3 produces both systemic and neurologic alterations. In a series of 21 patients with an acute renal allograft rejection treated with this monoclonal antibody, 20 with a renal allograft transplantation and one with a renal and pancreatic allograft transplantation, 29% referred headache associated with fever and vomiting, and 14.2% presented severe neurological alterations induced by the treatment. We stress the need to know these secondary effects to differentiate them from other central nervous system disorders, particularly those of infectious origin.

  10. Differential diagnosis of kidney transplant rejection and cyclosporin/tacrolimus nephropathy using urine cytology.

    Kyo, Masahiro; Toki, Kiyohide; Nishimura, Kennichi; Fukunishi, Takanobu; Nagano, Shunsuke; Namba, Yukiomi; Gudat, Fred; Dalquen, Peter; Mihatsch, M J


    A total of 9000 urine samples from 69 kidney transplant recipients were studied for differential diagnoses of transplant rejection and cyclosporin/tacrolimus toxicity. New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou staining were used to differentiate cells in urine. We also employed an immunocytochemical technique for further identification of exfoliated cells. With New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou staining, the predominance of proximal tubular cells was useful to differentiate cyclosporin/tacrolimus toxicity from acute rejection in cases of increased serum creatinine level. During rejection episodes, an increased number of mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells were found. Immunocytochemical analysis showed a significant increase of CD2-, CD4- CD8-, CD25- and HLA-DR-positive cells with rejection. However, there was no relationship between Banff criteria rejection grade and the increase of mononuclear cells.

  11. Endothelial activation, lymphangiogenesis, and humoral rejection of kidney transplants.

    Phillips, Sharon; Kapp, Meghan; Crowe, Deborah; Garces, Jorge; Fogo, Agnes B; Giannico, Giovanna A


    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is implicated in 45% of renal allograft failure and 57% of late allograft dysfunction. Peritubular capillary C4d is a specific but insensitive marker of ABMR. The 2013 Banff Conference ABMR revised criteria included C4d-negative ABMR with evidence of endothelial-antibody interaction. We hypothesized that endothelial activation and lymphangiogenesis are increased with C4d-negative ABMR and correlate with intragraft T-regulatory cells and T-helper 17. Seventy-four renal transplant biopsies were selected to include (a) ABMR with C4d Banff scores ≥2 (n = 35), (b) variable microvascular injury and C4d score 0-1 (n = 24), and (c) variable microvascular injury and C4d score = 0 (n = 15). Controls included normal preimplantation donor kidneys (n = 5). Immunohistochemistry for endothelial activation (P- and E-selectins [SEL]), lymphangiogenesis (D2-40), T-regulatory cells (FOXP3), and T-helper 17 (STAT3) was performed. Microvessel and inflammatory infiltrate density was assessed morphometrically in interstitium and peritubular capillaries. All transplants had significantly higher microvessel and lymph vessel density compared with normal. Increased expression of markers of endothelial activation predicted transplant glomerulopathy (P-SEL, P = .003). Increased P-SEL and D2-40 were associated with longer interval from transplant to biopsy (P = .005). All 3 markers were associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and graft failure (P-SEL, P < .001; E-SEL, P = .0011; D2-40, P = .012). There was no association with the intragraft FOXP3/STAT3 ratio. We conclude that endothelial activation and lymphangiogenesis could represent a late response to injury leading to fibrosis and progression of kidney damage, and are independent of the intragraft FOXP3/STAT3 ratio. Our findings support the therapeutic potential of specifically targeting endothelial activation.

  12. Early peri-operative hyperglycaemia and renal allograft rejection in patients without diabetes

    Russ Graeme R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with diabetes have an increased risk for allograft rejection, possibly related to peri-operative hyperglycaemia. Hyperglycaemia is also common following transplantation in patients without diabetes. We hypothesise that exposure of allograft tissue to hyperglycaemia could influence the risk for rejection in any patient with high sugars. To investigate the relationship of peri-operative glucose control to acute rejection in renal transplant patients without diabetes, all patients receiving their first cadaveric graft in a single center were surveyed and patients without diabetes receiving cyclosporin-based immunosuppression were reviewed (n = 230. Records of the plasma blood glucose concentration following surgery and transplant variables pertaining to allograft rejection were obtained. All variables suggestive of association were entered into multivariate logistic regression analysis, their significance analysed and modeled. Results Hyperglycaemia (>8.0 mmol/L occurs in over 73% of non-diabetic patients following surgery. Glycaemic control immediately following renal transplantation independently predicted acute rejection (Odds ratio=1.08. 42% of patients with a glucose Conclusion Hyperglycaemia is associated with an increased risk for allograft rejection. This is consistent with similar findings in patients with diabetes. We hypothesise a causal link concordant with epidemiological and in vitro evidence and propose further clinical research.

  13. Lymphocele – urological complication after renal transplantation

    Wojciech Krajewski


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the best renal replacement treatment. It provides longer survival and a better quality of life. The outcome of renal transplantation is influenced by the occurrence of various complications, including urological. One of the most frequently occurring complicationsis lymphocele. Most cases of lymphocele develop during a period of several weeks after the procedure of transplantation. However, there are some literature reports concerning lymphocele diagnosis in the later period, even after several years. Most cases of lymphocele are asymptomatic and are diagnosed accidentally. Nevertheless, a large lymphocele may press the kidney, ureter, urinary bladder or neighbouring blood vessels, causing deterioration of renal function, leg oedema and thrombosis of iliac vessels. Among other complications there are infections. The cause of lymphocele is collection of the lymph drained from damaged lymph vessels surrounding iliac blood vessels and/or lymph vessels of the graft. Important factors predisposing to lymphocele are immunosuppressive treatment, including mTOR inhibitors, mycophenolic acid derivatives and high doses of glucosteroids. Factors favouring occurrence of lymphocele comprise obesity, diabetes, elderly age of recipient, long time of warm ischaemia, acute rejection episodes and delayed graft function. The authors describe presently available treatment methods including aspiration and percutaneous drainage, with or without sclerotisation, drainage using the Tenckhoff catheter and laparoscopic or open fenestration. At present, laparoscopic fenestration is considered to be the most efficient and the safest method. However, there are clinical cases where open surgical treatment is necessary.

  14. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

    Jacob A. Akoh


    Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.

  15. Plasma cell-rich acute rejection of the renal allograft: A distinctive morphologic form of acute rejection?

    Gupta, R; Sharma, A; Mahanta, P J; Agarwal, S K; Dinda, A K


    This study was aimed at evaluating the clinicopathologic features of plasma cell-rich acute rejection (PCAR) of renal allograft and comparing them with acute cellular rejection (ACR), non-plasma cell-rich type. During a 2-year period, eight renal allograft biopsies were diagnosed as PCAR (plasma cells >10% of interstitial infiltrate). For comparison, 14 biopsies with ACR were included in the study. Detailed pretransplant data, serum creatinine at presentation, and other clinical features of all these cases were noted. Renal biopsy slides were reviewed and relevant immunohistochemistry performed for characterization of plasma cell infiltrate. The age range and duration of transplantation to diagnosis of acute rejection were comparable in both the groups. Histologically, the proportion of interstitial plasma cells, mean interstitial inflammation, and tubulitis score were higher in the PCAR group compared with cases with ACR. A significant difference was found in the outcome at last follow-up, being worse in patients with PCAR. This study shows that PCAR portends a poor outcome compared with ACR, with comparable Banff grade of rejection. Due to its rarity and recent description, nephrologists and renal pathologists need to be aware of this entity.

  16. Diabetes and Renal Transplantation: Saudi Experience

    Souqiyyeh Muhammad


    Full Text Available We conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus (DM in our renal transplant population. We retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, transplanted between 1979 and November 1998. The recipients were grouped according to the diagnosis of diabetes; group I: diabetes developed before transplantation (BTDM, group II: diabetes developed only after transplantation (ATDM and group III: did not have diabetes (NDM. There were 1112 patients′ records included in the study. The mean age was 38.2 years and the mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 months. There were 113(10.2% patients in BTDM group, 134 (12.1% patients in the ATDM group and 865 (77.8% patients in the NDM group. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension among the study groups. In comparison to the other groups, the BTDM group had significantly more males (78.8%, more patients who were transplanted after 1990 (pre-cyclosporin era, more patients with grafts from living non-related donors (46%, higher incidence of acute rejection episodes (39%, higher mean serum creatinine and more patients treated with azathioprine (71%. The ATDM group had significantly higher mean age (46.4 years, higher mean duration of transplantation (91.5 months, higher rate of retransplantation (8.2%, higher mean serum cholesterol level (6.0mmol/L and more frequently abnormal electrocardiogram (24.6% than the other two groups. The ATDM group had comparable mean weight (70.2 kg to the BTDM group but significantly higher than the NDM group (66.1kg. The NDM group had significantly higher mean dose of cyclosporine (3.3 mg/kg/day and higher mean dose of prednisone (0.16 mg/kg/day than the other groups. The only independent risk factor for developing DM after transplantation was advancing age. The currently used low-dose steroid therapy was not

  17. Drugs in development for prophylaxis of rejection in kidney-transplant recipients

    Sanders ML


    Full Text Available Marion Lee Sanders,1 Anthony James Langone2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for individuals with end-stage renal disease. Individuals who undergo transplantation must chronically be maintained on an immunosuppression regimen for rejection prophylaxis to help ensure graft survival. Current rejection prophylaxis consists of using a combination of calcineurin inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, antimetabolite agents, and/or corticosteroids. These agents have collectively improved the short-term outcomes of renal transplantation, but improvements in late/chronic graft loss and recipient survival have lagged significantly behind challenging the field of transplantation to develop novel prophylactic agents. There have been several clinical trials conducted within the last 5 years in an attempt to bring such novel agents to the commercial market. These trials have resulted in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval of extended-release tacrolimus, as well as belatacept, which has the potential to replace calcineurin inhibitors for rejection prophylaxis. Other trials have focused on the development of novel calcineurin inhibitors (voclosporin, costimulation blockade (ASKP1240 and alefacept, kinase inhibitors (tofacitinib and sotrastaurin, and inhibitors of leukocyte migration (efalizumab. While these later agents have not been FDA-approved for use in transplantation, they remain noteworthy, as these agents explore pathways not previously targeted for allograft-rejection prophylaxis. The purpose of this review was to consolidate available clinical trial data with regard to the recent developments in rejection prophylaxis in kidney transplantation. Keywords: rejection, prophylaxis, immunosuppression

  18. Microvascular Disease After Renal Transplantation

    Qi Lun Ooi


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Individuals who reach end-stage kidney disease (CKD5 have a high risk of vascular events that persists even after renal transplantation. This study compared the prevalence and severity of microvascular disease in transplant recipients and patients with CKD5. Methods: Individuals with a renal transplant or CKD5 were recruited consecutively from renal clinics, and underwent bilateral retinal photography (Canon CR5-45, Canon. Their retinal images were deidentified and reviewed for hypertensive/microvascular signs by an ophthalmologist and a trained grader (Wong and Mitchell classification, and for vessel caliber at a grading centre using a computer-assisted method and Knudtson's modification of the Parr-Hubbard formula. Results: Ninety-two transplant recipients (median duration 6.4 years, range 0.8 to 28.8 and 70 subjects with CKD5 were studied. Transplant recipients were younger (pConclusions: Hypertensive/microvascular disease occurred just as often and was generally as severe in transplant recipients and subjects with CKD5. Microvascular disease potentially contributes to increased cardiac events post- transplantation.

  19. Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys without Anti-Rejection Drugs

    ... page: Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs Scientists say goal is to create banks of stem cells that could be used for any human patient ...

  20. Pregnancy in renal transplant recipients.

    Fuchs, Karin M; Wu, Danny; Ebcioglu, Zeynep


    Women with renal disease face increasing infertility and high-risk pregnancy as they approach end-stage renal disease due to uremia. Renal transplantation has provided these patients the ability to return to a better quality of life, and for a number of women who are of child bearing age with renal disease, it has restored their fertility and provided the opportunity to have children. But, although fertility is restored, pregnancy in these women still harbors risk to the mother, graft, and fetus. Selected patients who have stable graft function can have successful pregnancies under the supervision of a multidisciplinary team involving maternal fetal medicine specialists and transplant nephrologists. Careful observation and management are required to optimize outcome for mother and fetus.

  1. Acute leukaemia following renal transplantation.

    Subar, M; Gucalp, R; Benstein, J; Williams, G; Wiernik, P H


    Four renal transplant patients on immunosuppressive therapy who presented with acute myeloid leukaemia are described. In two cases, azathioprine may have played an important role as a cofactor in leukaemogenesis. In a third case, the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide may have contributed. All patients were treated for leukaemia with full doses of cytotoxic chemotherapy and, in each case, a functioning renal allograft was preserved throughout the treatment despite attenuation of immunosuppressive therapy. Three patients achieved complete remission. Of the three, one is surviving at 2 years and two expired during the pancytopenic phase of their treatment with no active leukaemia present, and with intact renal function. As increasing expertise in the field of organ transplantation allows patients to survive longer, such patients' exposure to immunosuppressive and potentially leukaemogenic drugs is prolonged. The risk of secondary neoplasia has been previously documented in this population. Two of the four cases reported here suffered from polycystic kidney disease as their underlying condition. While this report suggests that the leukaemias are related to renal transplantation, we cannot rule out an association with the underlying disease which led to the transplant. This report further suggests that the leukaemia that develops in such patients may respond to standard therapy, and that such treatment does not compromise the transplanted kidney.

  2. Pregnancy in a patient with Goodpasture syndrome and renal transplantation.

    Wells, S R; Kuller, J A; Thorp, J M


    Patients with Goodpasture syndrome have classically had decreased fertility and associated pregnancy wastage. Renal transplantation can increase the likelihood of successful pregnancy. We describe a patient who carried a pregnancy into the third trimester and had a good neonatal outcome. However, she developed superimposed preeclampsia with subsequent graft rejection.

  3. Hypertension in Renal Transplantation: Saudi Arabian Experience

    Souqiyyeh Muhammad


    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors and therapy of hypertension in actively followed up transplant population in Saudi Arabia; we retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. These subjects were transplanted between January 1979 and November 1998. The patients were grouped according to the measurement of blood pressure; group 1 (considered normo-tensive: blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg, group2: blood pressure between 140-159/90-99, group 3: blood pressure 160-179/100-109 group 4: equal to or above 180/110. There were 1115 patients′ records included in the study. The mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 ± 50.1 months. According to the level of measured blood pressure, there were 641 (57.5% patients in the normotensive group (group 1, 404 (36.3% patients in the mildly hypertensive group (group 2 64 (5.7% patients in the moderately severe hypertension group (group 3 and only six (0.5% patients in the severe hypertension group (group 4. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in this study was almost 85%. We found no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension in terms of gender, year of transplantation, duration of transplantation, type of donor, number of previous transplants, diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, etiology of kidney disease, diagnosis of diabetes after transplantation, diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents, or mean dose of prednisolone and cyclosporine. There was a statistically significant association between increased level of blood pressure and old age (above 50 years, original disease associated with hypertension, history of hypertension on dialysis, acute rejection (once or more, presence of protienuria (more than 0.3 mg/day, abnormality of ECG, or serum creatinine above 300 µmol/L. We conclude that hypertension is highly prevalent in the renal transplant population in Saudi Arabia. Risk

  4. The mechanisms of rejection in solid organ transplantation.

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Colpo, Anna; De Silvestro, Giustina


    Organ transplantation represents the preferred treatment option for many patients in terminal organ failure. The half-life of transplanted organs, however, is still far from being satisfactory with the vast majority of the organs failing within the first two decades following transplantation. At this stage, it has become apparent that rejection (prevalently mediated by humoral events) remains the primary cause of graft loss after the first year. In this light, studies are underway to better comprehend the immune events underlying graft rejection and novel immunosuppressive strategies are being explored. In this context, therapeutic apheresis techniques, that include therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), immunoadsorption (IA) and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP), represent an important adjunct in the current immunosuppressive armamentarium. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the immune process underlying rejection of a solid organ transplant and describes the principal areas of application of therapeutic apheresis techniques in transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. [Surgical complications in 479 renal transplantations].

    Borrego, J; Burgos, F J; Galmes, I; Orofino, L; Rodríguez Luna, J M; Marcen, R; Fernández, E; Escudero, A; Ortuño, J


    Exposition of results obtained from the review of the surgical complications found in a series of 479 renal transplantations performed between 1978 and 1992 in our centre, although some of them lack clinical relevance. There was fluid accumulation in 69 patients, distributed between 31 perirenal haematoma. 17 lymphocele, 13 urinoma, 5 perirenal abscesses and 3 mixed. 27.7% required no action. Frequency of renal rupture was 18 cases, 9 due to acute rejection and 9 to vascular thrombosis. Incidence of urinary obstruction was 4.8% with 5.8% of urinary fistula. With regard to the surgical wound, 9 infections, 7 haematomas, 1 eventration and 1 necrotizing fasciitis were observed. Vascular complications consisted in 10 arterial thrombosis, 10 venous thrombosis, 5 mixed thrombosis and 31 arterial stenosis. Treatment instituted for the various cases, its evolution, and an statistical study of risk factors are illustrated.


    贾长库; 郑树森; 朱有法


    Objective To study the effects of liver specific antigen (LSA) on liver allotransplantation rejection. Methods Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in this study. Group Ⅰ: syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ: acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar). Group Ⅲ: thymic inoculation of SD rat LSA day 7 before transplantation. The observation of general condition and survival time, rejection grades and the NF-κB activity of splenocytes were used to analyze severity of acute rejection and immune state of animals in different groups. Results The general condition of group Ⅰ was fair post transplantation with no sign of rejection. All recipients of group Ⅱ died within days 9 to 13 post transplantation with median survival time of 10.7 ±1.37 days. As for group Ⅲ, 5 out of 6 recipients survived for a long period with remarkably better general condition than that of group Ⅱ. Its rejection grades were significantly lower than group Ⅱ (P< 0.05).NF-κB activity was only detected in group Ⅰ between days 5 and 7 after transplantation, whereas high activity of NF-κB was detected at all points in group Ⅱ and low NF-κB activity was detected in group Ⅲ which was significantly lower than that of group Ⅱ (P < 0.05). Conclusions LSA is an important transplantation antigen directly involved in the immunorejection of liver transplantation. Intrathymic inoculation of LSA can alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation,grafts survive for a period of time thereby, allowing a novel way to liver transplantation immunotolerance.

  7. Chronic Rejection in the Aorta Transplantation Model

    R.A. Geerling


    textabstractSince the first successful heart transplantation in man in 1967, cardiac transplantation has become an accepted form of therapy for certain types of end-stage heart diseases.! After transplantation of a cadaveric heart graft, the immune system of the recipient will come in contact with

  8. [Tubulointerstitial rejection of renal allografts].

    Malušková, Jana; Honsová, Eva


    Tubulo-intersticial rejection represents T-cell mediated rejection of kidney allografts with the morphology of immune-mediated interstitial nephritis. Diagnosis is dependent on the histopathological evaluation of a graft biopsy sample. The key morphological features are interstitial inflammatory infiltrate and damage to tubular epithelial cell which in severe cases can result in the ruptures of the tubular basement membranes. The differential diagnosis of tubulo-interstitial rejection includes acute interstitial nephritis and viral inflammatory kidney diseases, mainly polyomavirus nephropathy.

  9. Impact of acute rejection episodes on long-term renal allograft survival

    吴建永; 陈江华; 王逸民; 张建国; 朱琮; 寿张飞; 王苏娅; 张萍; 黄洪锋; 何强


    Objective To assess the impact of the number, and time of acute rejection (AR) and outcome of anti-rejection therapy on the long-term survival of renal allografts and the relative risk factors. Methods The Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test were used to calculate the survival rates of patients and grafts in no acute rejection group (NAR, 895 patients), 1 rejection episode group (1AR, 183), 2 and more than 2 rejection episodes group (2AR, 17), acute rejection group [AR (1AR+2AR), 200], early acute rejection group (within 90 days after transplantation, EAR, 125), late acute rejection group (91 days later, LAR, 58), completely AR reversed group (CAR, 105), and incompletely AR reversed group (IAR, 68). The relative risk factors were analyzed by the Cox proportional hazards regression. Results The 5- and 10-year survival rates of renal allografts were 75.4% and 17.1% in AR and 93.2% and 86.5% in the NAR group (P<0.0001). The long-term graft survival was much lower in the 2AR group than in the NAR or 1AR groups (P<0.0001 and P=0.002, respectively). It was similar in either the NAR or CAR groups (P=0.31), but it was significantly lower (P<0.0001) in the IAR group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the outcome of anti-rejection therapy is an important risk factor affecting the long-term survival of allografts.Conclusions AR is significantly associated with poor long-term survival of renal allografts. But the long-term graft survival of patients with one acute rejection but completely reversed is not significantly different from that of patients without acute rejection.

  10. Late concentration-controlled calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal with mycophenolate mofetil in renal transplant recipients

    Mourer, Jacqueline Sarah


    Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy is associated with nephrotoxicity and cardiovascular adverse effects in renal transplant recipients. Early CNI withdrawal with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has not become routine practice, due to concerns about acute rejection. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TD

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Acute Renal Transplant Dysfunction with Low-Dose Three-dimensional MR Renography

    Yamamoto, Akira; Zhang, Jeff L.; Rusinek, Henry; Chandarana, Hersh; Vivier, Pierre-Hugues; Babb, James S.; Diflo, Thomas; John, Devon G.; Benstein, Judith A.; Barisoni, Laura; Stoffel, David R.; Lee, Vivian S.


    Our new quantitative analysis method of MR renography, which includes our multicompartmental tracer kinetic renal model, may help to diagnose noninvasively acute rejection or acute tubular necrosis after kidney transplantation.

  12. Emphysematous prostatitis in renal transplant

    Krishnaswamy Sampathkumar


    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are common following renal transplant. The spectrum varies from asymptomatic bacteriuria to septicemia. Gas-producing infections of the urinary tract are rare but tend to have a grave prognosis when they do occur. We report a 57-year-old gentleman who underwent a renal transplant 20 months earlier. He presented to us with fever and dysuria. Clinical examination revealed a febrile and ill-looking patient with severe graft tenderness. An emergency pelvic CT scan revealed presence of emphysematous prostatitis, cystitis and pyelitis. Urine and blood cultures grew E. coli . Endoscopic abscess drainage was done and antibiotics given but he succumbed to his illness due to multiorgan failure within 48h. This is the first reported case of emphysematous prostatitis in a renal allograft recipient.

  13. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    Phelan, P J


    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  14. OX40 mRNA in peripheral blood as a biomarker of acute renal allograft rejection

    WANG Yu-liang; FU Ying-xin; ZHU Zhi-jun; WANG Hui; SHEN Zhong-yang


    Background Acute rejection remains an important cause of renal allograft dysfunction and the need for accurate diagnosis is essential to successfully treat transplant recipients.The purpose of this study was to determine the costimulatory molecules OX40 and OX40L messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to predict acute renal transplant rejection.Methods The whole blood samples from 20 recipients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (rejection group),20 recipients with stable graft function and normal biopsy results (stable group) after kidney transplantation,and 20 healthy volunteers (control group) were collected.The mRNA levels of OX40 and OX40L were analyzed with TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The association of OX40 and OX40L mRNA levels with disease severity was investigated.Results There was no significant difference of OX40,OX40L mRNA levels in PBMCs between the stable group and control group (P>0.05).The levels of OX40 and OX40L mRNA were significantly higher in the rejection group than in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05,respectively).Non-significantly higher OX40L mRNA and significantly higher OX40 mRNA in PBMCs were observed in subjects in the rejection group compared with the stable group (P >0.05 and P <0.01,respectively).Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that OX40 mRNA levels could discriminate recipients who subsequently suffered acute allograft rejection (area under the curve,0.908).OX40 and OX40L mRNA levels did not significantly correlate with serum creatinine levels in the rejection group (P >0.05).Levels of OX40 mRNA after anti-rejection therapy were lower than those at the time of protocol biopsy in the rejection group (P<0.05).Conclusion Our data suggest that measurement of OX40 mRNA levels after transplant might offer a noninvasive means for recognizing recipients at risk of acute renal allograft rejection.

  15. Cytomegalovirus and chronic allograft rejection in liver transplantation

    Liang-Hui Gao; Shu-Sen Zheng


    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains one of the most frequent viral infections and the most common cause of death after liver transplantation (LT). Chronic allograft liver rejection remains the major obstacle to long-term allograft survival and CMV infection is one of the suggested risk factors for chronic allograft rejection. The precise relationship between cytomegalovirus and chronic rejection remains uncertain.This review addresses the morbidity of cytomegalovirus infection and the risk factors associated with it, the relationship between cytomegalovirus and chronic allograft liver rejection and the potential mechanisms of it.

  16. Uses and limitations of renal scintigraphy in renal transplantation monitoring

    Heaf, J.G. [Department of Nephrology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Iversen, J. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)


    The value of thrice weekly technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography after renal transplantation was investigated in 213 consecutive transplants. A grading system was used: 0 = normal renogram; 1 = normal uptake, reduced excretion; 2 = normal uptake, flat excretion curve; 3 = rising curve; 4 = reduced rate of uptake, rising curve and reduced absolute uptake; 5 = minimal uptake. The initial renogram grade (RG) was primarily a marker of ischaemic damage, being poorer with cadaver donation, long cold ischaemia (>24 h), and high donor and recipient age. High primary RG predicted primary graft non-function, long time to graft function, low discharge Cr EDTA clearance and low 1- and 5-year graft survival. Discharge RG predicted late (>6 months) graft loss. RG was highly correlated (P<0.001) with creatinine and creatinine clearance, and changes in RG were correlated with changes in renal function. A change in RG of 0.5 was non-specific, while a change of 1 or more predicted clinical complications in 95% of cases. The negative predictive value was low (58%). RG change antedated clinical diagnosis in only 38% of cases, and in only 14% of acute rejections did an RG change of 1 or more antedate a rising creatinine. RG did not contribute to the differential diagnosis between acute rejection, acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy and cyclosporine toxicity. In conclusion, an initial renography after transplantation is valuable as it measures ischaemic damage and predicts duration of graft non-function and both short and long-term graft survival. A review of the literature suggests that the indication for serial scintigraphic monitoring for functioning grafts is less certain: the diagnostic specificity is insufficient for it to be the definitive investigation for common diagnostic problems and it does not give sufficient advance warning of impending problems. (orig.)

  17. Current perspectives on antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation

    Witt CA


    Full Text Available Chad A Witt, Ramsey R Hachem Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA Abstract: The role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA to human leukocyte antigens and the burden of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR in lung transplantation remain enigmatic. Over the past several years, evidence has been emerging that humoral immunity plays an important role in the development of both acute and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD. Multiple case reports and case series have identified lung allograft recipients with clinical findings consistent with acute AMR. However, there is currently no widely accepted definition for AMR in lung transplantation, and this has been a significant barrier to furthering our understanding of this form of rejection. Nonetheless, the development of DSA after transplantation has consistently been identified as an independent risk factor for persistent and high-grade acute cellular rejection and CLAD. This has raised the possibility that chronic AMR may be a distinct phenotype of CLAD although evidence supporting this paradigm is still lacking. Additionally, antibodies to lung-restricted self-antigens (collagen V and K-α 1 tubulin have been associated with primary graft dysfunction early and the development of CLAD late after transplantation, and emerging evidence underscores significant interactions between autoimmunity and alloimmunity after transplantation. There is currently an active International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working group that is developing an operational definition for AMR in lung transplantation. This will be critical to improve our understanding of this form of rejection and conduct clinical trials to identify optimal treatment strategies. This review will summarize the literature on DSA and AMR in lung transplantation and discuss the impact of antibodies to self-antigens on lung

  18. Economic analysis of basiliximab in renal transplantation.

    Keown, P A; Balshaw, R; Krueger, H; Baladi, J F


    Basiliximab is a chimeric monoclonal directed against the alpha-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. International studies have shown that it is highly effective in preventing acute rejection in patients receiving Neoral, and causes no measurable incremental toxicity, but its economic value remains unknown. This study employed an economic model to examine the potential economic benefit of basiliximab. Parameter estimates were derived from a randomized, prospective, double-blind study conducted in 21 renal transplant centers in seven countries in which 380 adult primary allograft recipients were randomized within center to receive basiliximab (20 mg i.v.) on days 0 and 4 or placebo in addition to dual immunosuppression with Neoral and steroids. Key clinical events included primary hospitalization, immunosuppressive drug use, patient and graft survival, graft rejection, treatment of rejection, dialysis, and repeat hospitalization. Health resources were valued via a comprehensive electronic cost dictionary, based upon a detailed economic evaluation of renal transplantation in Canada. Medication costs were calculated from hospital pharmacy acquisition costs; basiliximab was assessed a zero cost. The average estimated cost per patient for the first year after transplant was $55,393 (Canadian dollars) for placebo and $50,839 for basiliximab, rising to $141,690 and $130,592, respectively, after 5 years. A principal component of the cost in both groups was accrued during the initial transplant hospitalization ($14,663 for standard therapy and $14,099 for basiliximab). An additional $15,852 and $14,130 was attributable to continued care, graft loss, and dialysis in the two groups, whereas follow-up hospitalization consumed an additional $15,538 for placebo and $13,916 for basiliximab. The mean incremental cost of dialysis was $5,397 for placebo compared with $3,821 for basiliximab, whereas incremental costs of graft loss were $2,548 compared with $2,295 in the two treatment

  19. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)


    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  20. Patterns of Early Rejection in Renal Retransplantation: A Single-Center Experience

    Lan Zhu


    Full Text Available It has been reported that kidney retransplant patients had high rates of early acute rejection due to previous sensitization. In addition to the acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR that has received widespread attention, the early acute T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR may be another important issue in renal retransplantation. In the current single-center retrospective study, we included 33 retransplant patients and 90 first transplant patients with similar protocols of induction and maintenance therapy. Analysis focused particularly on the incidence and patterns of early acute rejection episodes, as well as one-year graft and patient survival. Excellent short-term clinical outcomes were obtained in both groups, with one-year graft and patient survival rates of 93.9%/100% in the retransplant group and 92.2%/95.6% in the first transplant group. Impressively, with our strict immunological selection and desensitization criteria, the retransplant patients had a very low incidence of early acute ABMR (6.1%, which was similar to that in the first transplant patients (4.4%. However, a much higher rate of early acute TCMR was observed in the retransplant group than in the first transplant group (30.3% versus 5.6%, P<0.001. Acute TCMR that develops early after retransplantation should be monitored in order to obtain better transplant outcomes.

  1. Utility of Double Filtration Plasmapheresis in Acute Antibody Mediated Renal Allograft Rejection: Report of Three Cases

    Yalçın SOLAK


    Full Text Available Plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal procedure, which is often employed to rapidly lower circulating titers of autoantibodies, immune complexes or toxins. There are two types of plasmapheresis namely, regular plasmapheresis (RPP by centrifugation and membrane filtration, and double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP which is a special form of membrane filtration in which two membranes called as plasma separator and plasma fractionator are employed to filter macromolecules more selectively. DFPP have several advantages over RP. Despite widespread utilization of DFPP in the setting of ABO blood group incompatible kidney transplantation, there is no report regarding DFPP in patients with antibody mediated acute renal allograft rejection who are good candidates for beneficial effects of DFPP. Here we report three renal transplant recipients in whom DFPP was applied as a component of anti-rejection treatment regimen.

  2. Transplante renal na anemia falciforme

    Friedrisch, Joao Ricardo; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti; Bittar,Christina Matzenbacher; Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha


    Embora a anemia falciforme e as síndromes falciformes freqüentemente causem várias alterações funcionais renais, não é comum a insuficiência renal terminal. Nestes casos, o transplante renal é uma alternativa que se acompanha de resultados comparáveis aos obtidos em receptores sem hemoglobinopatias. Esta estratégia terapêutica tem sido, no entanto, pouco relatada para portadores de hemoglobinopatia SC. Este relato descreve a evolução de dois pacientes portadores de hemoglobinopatia SC que for...

  3. Commercial cadaveric renal transplant: an ethical rather than medical issue.

    Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lee, Chin-Chan; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Hung, Cheng-Chih; Wu, Mai-Szu


    Donor organ shortage is a universal problem. The organ source has been extended to controversial death-penalty outlaws in certain countries. It was claimed that commercial transplant had a worse short-term clinical outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term outcome of patients receiving commercial cadaveric renal transplant. Seventy-five renal transplant recipients receiving long-term follow-up were included. Thirty-one patients received overseas commercial cadaveric transplant. Forty-four patients had legal domestic transplant in Taiwan. The age of the patients receiving the commercial cadaveric transplant was significantly older than those with legal domestic transplant (commerical vs. legal: 46.1 +/- 11.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 9.0 yr old, p < 0.001). The renal function estimated by creatinine and 1/creatinine up to eight yr showed no significant difference between the two groups. The graft survivals of the two groups were not different. The mortality rate between the two groups was comparable in 10 yr (91.1% in domestic and 88.9% in overseas). There was no significant difference in de novo viral hepatitis, cytomegalovirus infection, and acute rejection. The clinical outcome of overseas commercial cadaveric transplant was not different from the domestic legal transplant. To stop the unethical procedure, ethnicity and humanity are the major concerns.

  4. [Pregnancy in patients with renal transplantation].

    Chocair, P R; Ianhez, L E; de Paula, F J; Sabbaga, E; Arap, S


    From 1969 to 1987, 35 pregnancies occurred in 31 women with renal transplant. Four of them were still pregnant when this study was concluded. There was one ectopic pregnancy. All patients received azathioprine and prednisone. In the majority of patients the glomerular filtration rate increased in a way similar to normal pregnant women. In five cases there was a progressive loss in renal function. In four of them this was attributed to preexistent renal damage. No toxemia occurred. Anemia developed during 11 pregnancies and blood transfusion was required for five women. Four patients had urinary tract infection which was easily controlled with antibiotics. One patient had severe arterial hypertension, secondary to chronic rejection. One patient developed jaundice reverted with reduction in azathioprine doses. One woman died of septicemia secondary to fetal death, during the 6th month of pregnancy. Twenty children were born with no abnormalities, although many of them were underweighted. Two thirds of pregnancies were delivered by cesarean section. No harm to the pelvic allograft occurred in vaginal deliveries. There have been 4 abortions (2 of them were induced with no medical indication). Four pregnancies (26 to 39 gestational weeks) ended in stillborn babies: the mothers had impaired renal function associated with hypertension and proteinuria. One newborn died of pulmonary infection two days after delivery. Another was born with microcephaly and polydactilia and survived 6 years. No breast feeding was allowed.

  5. Renography and biopsy-verified acute rejection in renal allotransplanted patients receiving cyclosporin A

    Thomsen, H.S.; Nielsen, S.L.; Larsen, S.; Lokkegaard, H.


    Acute impairment of renal function caused by cyclosporin A can be hard to differentiate from acute rejection. Therefore, kidney function after cadaveric allograft transplantation was repeatedly determined by renography in 42 patients receiving either high dose cyclosporin A (32 patients) or azathioprine and prednisone (10 patients) until a graft biopsy showed either acute rejection or no rejection within the first 5 postoperative weeks. The graft function as judged from the renograms was significantly poorer when cyclosporin A was used than when azathioprine and prednisone were the immunosuppressants. In the azathioprine and prednisone group a biopsy showing acute rejection was always preceded by a deterioration in the renogram. In cyclosporin A treated patients a graft biopsy following an early deterioration in the renogram showed acute rejection in only 56% of the biopsies. It was not possible to identify a time course or a function level of the renogram that could predict rejection in these patients. It is concluded that graft biopsies should be used liberally to diagnose rejection during cyclosporin A treatment if surgical complications after transplantations have been ruled out. Radionuclide studies may offer an invaluable aid in determining a nonnephrotoxic initial dose of the drug.

  6. Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplantation: a single center experience.

    Raheem, Omer A


    We assessed our long-term experience with regards to the safety and efficacy of MMF in our pediatric renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to our previous non-MMF immunosuppressive regimen. Forty-seven pediatric renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol in the period from January 1997 till October 2006 (MMF group). A previously reported non-MMF group of 59 pediatric renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (non-MMF group). The MMF group comprised 29 boys and 18 girls, whereas the non-MMF group comprised 34 boys and 25 girls. Mean age was 11.7 and 12 yr in the MMF and non-MMF groups, respectively. The incidence of acute rejection episodes was 11 (23.4%) and 14 (24%) in the MMF and non-MMF group, respectively. Two (3.3%) grafts were lost in the non-MMF group compared with one (2.1%) in the MMF group. Twenty-one (44.68%) patients in the MMF group developed post-transplant infections compared with 12 (20.33%) in the non-MMF group (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the use of MMF in pediatric renal transplantation was not associated with a lower rejection rate or immunological graft loss. It did, however, result in a significantly higher rate of viral infections.

  7. Mycophenolate mofetil for prevention and treatment of rejection of the graft and its safety in renal transplant recipients%霉酚酸酯防治肾移植后排斥反应的效果及安全性

    马俊杰; 于立新; 徐健; 白喜文


    Objectives To investigate the efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil(MMF)for prevention and treatment of rejection in renal transplants.Methods A totaI of 124 renal transplant recipiAzathioprine 50 mg/d(n=76).All of the patients generally administered ATG,CsA and Pred as basic immunosuppression.The morbidity of acute rejection(AR),corticosteroid-resistant rejection(CRR)and complication in the patients of the two groups 2 months after transplantation were observed.Results There was no significant differenee in morbidity,3-month-graft loss between two groups.Morbidity of acute rejection and CRR was 31.2%and 6.2%respectively in MMF group,significantly lower than in Aza group(both P<0.05).The efficacy of MMF 3.0 g/d to treat CRR was similar to that of OKT3.The side effects related to MMF and Aza included vomiting,diarrhea,leukocytopenia,panhematopenia,infection and medicamentous liver lesion,and its morbidity in MMF group and Aza group was 8.3%vs 2.6%(P>0.05),62.5% vs 39.5%(P<0.05),31.2%vs 13.2%(P<0.05),6.3%vs 0(P<0.001),50.0%vs 46.0%(P>0.05),4.2%、vs 11.8(P>0.05),respectively.58.3% of the patients experienced at least one adverse events and 25.0% of the patients had to reduce or withdraw MMF in MMF group compared with 19.7% and 9.2% in Aza group(P<0.001 and 0.05)respectively.Conclusions MMF could significantly decrease the incidence of early AR and CRR respectively.Large dose of MMF (3.0 g/d)to treat CRR had a good efficacy.The side effects of MMF were more severe than those of Aza and one fourth was compelled to decrease or withdraw MMF in MMF group.%目的 探讨霉酚酸酯(MMF)防治肾移植术后急性排斥反应(AR)的效果和安全性.方法 124例.肾移植受者随机分为MMF组(48例)及硫唑嘌呤组(Aza组,76例),观察2个组患者术后3个月内AR、难治性急性排斥(CRR)的发生率及并发症.结果 MMF组及Aza组在患者死亡率、移植肾失功率等方面的差异无显著性;MMF组的AR发生率、CRR

  8. Opportunistic infections following renal transplantation

    Rao K


    Full Text Available Opportunistic infection is common following renal transplantation. Prompt diagnosis and management can be life saving. Four different types of opportunistic respiratory infections diagnosed at our center during the period of January 1998 to December 2000 are discussed. Of the four cases one had Aspergillus, second had Sporothrix, third had Nocardia and fourth case Actinomyces species. Microbiologist has an important role to play by being aware of such opportunistic infections and helping the clinician to make early aetiological diagnosis.

  9. The Effect of Combination Therapy with Rituximab and Intravenous Immunoglobulin on the Progression of Chronic Antibody Mediated Rejection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Gun Hee An


    Full Text Available The treatment for chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR remains controversial. We investigated the efficacy of rituximab (RTX and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg for CAMR. Eighteen patients with CAMR were treated with RTX (375 mg/m2 and IVIg (0.4 g/kg for 4 days. The efficacy of RTX/IVIg combination therapy (RIT was assessed by decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate per month (ΔeGFR before and after RIT. Patients were divided into responder and nonresponder groups based on decrease and no decrease in ΔeGFR, respectively, and their clinical and histological characteristics were compared. Response rate to RIT was 66.7% (12/18, and overall ΔeGFR decreased significantly to 0.4± 1.7 mL·min−1·1.73 m−2 per month 6 months after RIT compared to that observed 6 months before RIT (1.8±1.0, P<0.05. Clinical and histological features between the 12 responders and the 6 nonresponders were not significantly different, but nonresponders had a significantly higher proteinuria levels at the time of RIT (2.5±2.5 versus 7.0±3.5 protein/creatinine (g/g, P<0.001. The effect of the RIT on ΔeGFR had dissipated in all patients by 1 year post-RIT. Thus, RIT delayed CAMR progression, and baseline proteinuria level was a prognostic factor for response to RIT.

  10. Tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients.

    Lattes, R; Radisic, M; Rial, M; Argento, J; Casadei, D


    Tuberculosis (TB) has been described in kidney transplant recipients as an infection with predominantly pulmonary involvement. We report the impact of TB in kidney transplantation. Clinical records of adult kidney recipients, transplanted between 1 January 1986 and 31 December 1995 were analyzed for sex, age, graft origin, immunosuppressive therapy, TB sites, diagnostic methods and concomitant infections. Annual incidence, mean time of onset, relation to rejection treatment, tuberculin skin test (PPD) and outcome were analyzed. Patients with a history of TB or graft loss in the first month were excluded. TB was diagnosed in 14 of 384 (3.64%). Mean age at transplantation was 35 years. Twelve of these received the graft from a living donor. All had triple immunosuppression with cyclosporine. Ten had pulmonary TB, three extrapulmonary infection and one disseminated disease. In 13 cases an invasive diagnostic procedure was performed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures were positive in all cases; microscopy revealed acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 6, and adenosine deaminase was elevated in CSF and pleural effusion in 2. Annual incidence varied from 0% to 3.1%. At the time of TB presentation 8 patients had other concomitant infections (cytomegalovirus, nocardia, Pneumocystis carinii, disseminated herpes simplex virus). Median time of onset was 13 months. Diagnostic results became available post-mortem in 2 cases, and one had TB in a failing allograft. TB was treated with 4 drugs including rifampin in 10 patients. Cyclosporine was discontinued in one, lowered in one and increased in 8. During treatment 5 patients had rejection episodes. At 1 year, graft survival was 72.7% and patient survival 90.9%. TB was more prevalent when recipient and donor were both PPD positive. In summary: although TB is a growing threat in the transplant setting, early and aggressive diagnosis with meticulous monitoring of immunosuppression allows a successful outcome for both patient and graft

  11. Pulmonary complications in renal transplantation

    Choi, Jung Bin; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Seung Rho; Hahm, Chang Kok; Joo, Kyung Bin [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the radiographic and CT findings of pulmonary complications other than pulmonary edema arising from renal transplantation. Among 393 patients who had undergone renal transplantation at our hospital during a previous ten-year period, 23 with pulmonary complications other than pulmonary edema were included in this study. The complications involved were infection caused by CMV (n=6), bacteria (n=4), fungus (n=4), tuberculosis (n=2), varicella (n=1) or chlamydia (n=1), and malignancy involving lung cancer (n=4) or Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1). Two chest radiologists reviewed all images. The complications manifesting mainly as pulmonary nodules were lung cancer (4/4), tuberculosis (1/2), and Kaposi's sarcoma (1/1). Pulmonary consolidation was a main feature in bacterial infection (4/4), fungal infection (3/4), tuberculosis (1/2), chlamydial infection (1/1), and varicellar pneumonia (1/1). Ground-glass attenuation was a main CT feature in CMV pneumonia (4/6), and increased interstitial making was a predominant radiographic feature in CMV pneumonia (2/6). The main radiologic features described above can be helpful for differential diagnosis of the pulmonary complications of renal transplantation.

  12. Use of local allograft irradiation following renal transplantation

    Halperin, E.C.; Delmonico, F.L.; Nelson, P.W.; Shipley, W.U.; Cosimi, A.B.


    Over a 10 year period, 67 recipients of 71 renal allografts received graft irradiation following the diagnosis of rejection. The majority of kidneys were treated with a total dose of 600 rad, 150 rad per fraction, in 4 daily fractions. Fifty-three kidneys were irradiated following the failure of standard systemic immunosuppression and maximally tolerated antirejection measures to reverse an episode of acute rejection. Twenty-two (42%) of these allografts were noted to have stable (i.e. no deterioration) or improved function 1 month following the treatment with irradiation. Eleven (21%) of these allografts maintained function 1 year following transplantation. Biopsies were obtained of 41 allografts. Of the 24 renal allografts with predominantly cellular rejection, 10 (42%) had the process reversed or stabilized at 1 month following irradiation. Five (21%) of these allografts were functioning at 1 year following irradiation. Rejection was reversed or stabilized in 6 of 17 (35%) allografts at 1 month when the histologic features of renal biopsy suggested predominantly vascular rejection. Local graft irradiation has helped maintain a limited number of allografts in patients whose rejection has failed to respond to systemic immunosuppression. Irradiation may also benefit patients with ongoing rejection in whom further systemic immunosuppression is contra-indicated.

  13. Pretransplant identification of acute rejection risk following kidney transplantation.

    Lebranchu, Yvon; Baan, Carla; Biancone, Luigi; Legendre, Christophe; Morales, José Maria; Naesens, Maarten; Thomusch, Oliver; Friend, Peter


    Lack of an accepted definition for 'high immunological risk' hampers individualization of immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. For recipient-related risk factors for acute rejection, the most compelling evidence points to younger age and African American ethnicity. Recipient gender, body mass, previous transplantation, and concomitant infection or disease do not appear to be influential. Deceased donation now has only a minor effect on rejection risk, but older donor age remains a significant predictor. Conventional immunological markers (human leukocyte antigen [HLA] mismatching, pretransplant anti-HLA alloantibodies, and panel reactive antibodies) are being reassessed in light of growing understanding about the role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). At the time of transplant, delayed graft function is one of the most clear-cut risk factors for acute rejection. Extended cold ischemia time (≥ 24 h) may also play a contributory role. While it is not yet possible to establish conclusively the relative contribution of different risk factors for acute rejection after kidney transplantation, the available data point to variables that should be taken into account at the time of transplant. Together, these offer a realistic basis for planning an appropriate immunosuppression regimen in individual patients.

  14. Recurrence and rejection in liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Bjarte Fosby; Tom H Karlsen; Espen Melum


    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease affecting the bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis in most patients. Its etiology is unknown and so far no effective medical therapy is available. Liver transplantation (LTX) is the only curative treatment and at present PSC is the main indication for LTX in the Scandinavian countries. Close to half of the PSC patients experience one or more episodes of acute cellular rejection (ACR) following transplantation and approximately 1/5 of the transplanted patients develop recurrent disease in the graft. In addition, some reports indicate that ACR early after LTX for PSC can influence the risk for recurrent disease. For these important post-transplantation entities affecting PSC patients, we have reviewed the current literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment and the possible influence of rejection on the risk of recurrent disease in the allograft.

  15. Cardiac function and rejection following transplantation of the heart

    Schober, O.; Schuler, S.; Gratz, K.; Warnecke, H.; Lang, W.; Hetzer, R.; Creutzig, H.


    It was the purpose of the study to evaluate the noninvasive detection of rejection following cardiac transplantation. Multigated cardiac blood pool imaging (MUGA) at rest with assessment of ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall motion was determined prospectively in 14 patients with 180 studies (follow up 5.1 +- 3.2 months) following orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The results were compared with histological examination of a percutaneous endocardial biopsy specimen (EMB) from the right ventricle. Diagnosis of rejection by EF measurement was defined by a decrease of 10% if EF < 70%, and 15% if EF > 70%. In 152 studies a normal MUGA study correlated with none rejection as defined by EMB. In 14 of 22 studies with moderate or severe rejection decrease of EF followed the rejection with a delay of 5 days. Septal wall motion abnormalities were typical. In 6 studies an abnormal temporal course of EF was not related to a similar finding in EMB. A sensitivity of 69% and a specifity of 96% can be estimated in the investigated group, in which all patients survived during the period of the study. It is concluded that rejection can be excluded by noninvasive MUGA (specifity 96%) and that MUGA is predictive of rejection (sensitivity 67%) mostly with a delay of 5 days.

  16. /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance study of renal allograft rejection in the rat

    Shapiro, J.I.; Haug, C.E.; Shanley, P.F.; Weil, R. III; Chan, L.


    Phosphorus (/sup 31/P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to serially evaluate heterotopic renal allograft rejection in the rat. Renal allografts transplanted to the groin of recipient animals were studied using a 1.89 Tesla horizontal bore magnet. The relative intracellular concentrations of phosphorus metabolites such as adenosine triphosphate and inorganic phosphate as well as intracellular pH were determined by /sup 31/P NMR on days 4, 7, 10, and 14 following transplantation across a major histocompatibility mismatch. Recipient rats chosen to be rejectors received no immunosuppression while animals chosen to be nonrejectors received cyclosporine during the first 7 days following transplantation. By day 7, all rejector rats could be distinguished from nonrejector rats by their higher relative concentration of inorganic phosphate and their lower relative concentration of adenosine triphosphate. These NMR findings correlated with histologic findings of renal infarction probably related to vascular rejection in the allografts. /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy may have application as a noninvasive tool in the differential diagnosis of posttransplantation renal insufficiency.

  17. Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplantation: A single center experience.

    Raheem, Omer A


    Raheem OA, Kamel MH, Daly PJ, Mohan P, Little DM, Awan A, Hickey DP. Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplantation: A single center experience. Pediatr Transplantation 2011: 15:240-244. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A\\/S. Abstract:  We assessed our long-term experience with regards to the safety and efficacy of MMF in our pediatric renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to our previous non-MMF immunosuppressive regimen. Forty-seven pediatric renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol in the period from January 1997 till October 2006 (MMF group). A previously reported non-MMF group of 59 pediatric renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (non-MMF group). The MMF group comprised 29 boys and 18 girls, whereas the non-MMF group comprised 34 boys and 25 girls. Mean age was 11.7 and 12 yr in the MMF and non-MMF groups, respectively. The incidence of acute rejection episodes was 11 (23.4%) and 14 (24%) in the MMF and non-MMF group, respectively. Two (3.3%) grafts were lost in the non-MMF group compared with one (2.1%) in the MMF group. Twenty-one (44.68%) patients in the MMF group developed post-transplant infections compared with 12 (20.33%) in the non-MMF group (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the use of MMF in pediatric renal transplantation was not associated with a lower rejection rate or immunological graft loss. It did, however, result in a significantly higher rate of viral infections.

  18. Clinical role of the renal transplant biopsy

    Williams, Winfred W.; Taheri, Diana; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Colvin, Robert B.


    Percutaneous needle core biopsy is the definitive procedure by which essential diagnostic and prognostic information on acute and chronic renal allograft dysfunction is obtained. The diagnostic value of the information so obtained has endured for over three decades and has proven crucially important in shaping strategies for therapeutic intervention. This Review provides a broad outline of the utility of performing kidney graft biopsies after transplantation, highlighting the relevance of biopsy findings in the immediate and early post-transplant period (from days to weeks after implantation), the first post-transplant year, and the late period (beyond the first year). We focus on how biopsy findings change over time, and the wide variety of pathological features that characterize the major clinical diagnoses facing the clinician. This article also includes a discussion of acute cellular and humoral rejection, the toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors, and the widely varying etiologies and characteristics of chronic lesions. Emerging technologies based on gene expression analyses and proteomics, the in situ detection of functionally relevant molecules, and new bioinformatic approaches that hold the promise of improving diagnostic precision and developing new, refined molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention are also presented. PMID:22231130

  19. De novo glomerular diseases after renal transplantation.

    Ponticelli, Claudio; Moroni, Gabriella; Glassock, Richard J


    Glomerular diseases developing in the kidney allograft are more often recurrences of the original disease affecting the native kidneys. However, in an undefined number of cases de novo, glomerular diseases unrelated to the original disease in the native kidneys can develop in the transplanted kidney. The clinical presentation and histologic features of de novo diseases are often similar to those features observed in patients with primary or secondary GN in the native kidneys. However, in transplanted kidneys, the glomerular, vascular, and tubulointerstitial changes are often intertwined with structural abnormalities already present at the time of transplant or caused by antibody- or cell-mediated allograft rejection, immunosuppressive drugs, or superimposed infection (most often of a viral nature). The pathophysiology of de novo glomerular diseases is quite variable. In rare cases of de novo minimal change disease, circulating factors increasing the glomerular permeability likely participate. Maladaptive hemodynamic changes and tissue fibrosis caused by calcineurin inhibitors or other factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of de novo FSGS. The exposure of cryptic podocyte antigens may favor the development of de novo membranous nephropathy. Many cases of de novo membranoproliferative GN are related to hepatitis C virus infection. Patients with Alport syndrome lacking antigenic epitopes in their glomerular basement membrane may develop antibodies against these glomerular basement membrane antigens expressed in the transplanted kidney. Infection may cause acute GN to have a heterogeneous clinical presentation and outcome. De novo pauci-immune GN in renal transplant is rare. Preexisting or acquired intolerance to glucose may, in the long term, cause diabetic nephropathy. The prognosis of de novo diseases depends on the type of GN, the severity of lesions caused by the alloimmune response, or the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy. In most cases, the management

  20. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy and Renal Transplantation: Focus on Adverse Effects

    Gianluigi Zaza


    Full Text Available A series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are commonly utilized in renal transplantation as induction therapy (a period of intense immunosuppression immediately before and following the implant of the allograft, to treat steroid-resistant acute rejections, to decrease the incidence and mitigate effects of delayed graft function, and to allow immunosuppressive minimization. Additionally, in the last few years, their use has been proposed for the treatment of chronic antibody-mediated rejection, a major cause of late renal allograft loss. Although the exact mechanism of immunosuppression and allograft tolerance with any of the currently used induction agents is not completely defined, the majority of these medications are targeted against specific CD proteins on the T or B cells surface (e.g., CD3, CD25, CD52. Moreover, some of them have different mechanisms of action. In particular, eculizumab, interrupting the complement pathway, is a new promising treatment tool for acute graft complications and for post-transplant hemolytic uremic syndrome. While it is clear their utility in renal transplantation, it is also unquestionable that by using these highly potent immunosuppressive agents, the body loses much of its innate ability to mount an adequate immune response, thereby increasing the risk of severe adverse effects (e.g., infections, malignancies, haematological complications. Therefore, it is extremely important for clinicians involved in renal transplantation to know the potential side effects of monoclonal antibodies in order to plan a correct therapeutic strategy minimizing/avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications.

  1. Clinical observation of the effect of tacrolimus (Prograf) against renal allograft rejection in 294 cases

    YU Li-xin; YE Gui-rong; DENG Wen-feng; FU Shao-jie; DU Chuan-fu; MIAO Yun; YAO Bing


    Objective: To study the effect of tacrolimus (Prograf, FK506) in preventing renal allograft rejection. Methods: The curative effect, therapy index, toxicity and side effects of FK506 were observed in 294renal transplant recipients among whom 268 received FK506 24 h after the operation and the other 26 with cyclosporine (CsA) developed acute rejection after transplantation and were given FK506 to replace methylprednisolone (MP) when the latter did not result. All the patients were given oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, 1.0 g/d) and meticorten (Pred, 30 mg/d) 24 h later after operation. Results: In the 268 recipients previously mentioned, the incidence of acute rejection was 10. 45%, glycometabolism disorder 9.33%, nervous system disturbance 1.59%, liver function abnormality 2.99%, nephrotoxicity 1.87%, gastrointestinal disorder 17. 5%, cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia 2.99%, and non-CMV pulmonary infection 1. 59%(4/268), with 1 fatal case for cerebral hemorrhage with normal allograft function and another 2 non-fatal cases in which function loss resulted in removal of the allografts. The blood trough concentrations of FK506were between 5 and 20μg/L. In the 26 cases of steroid-resistant rejection, 23 (88. 46%, 23/26) were reversed and the rest 3 required plasma exchange and application of OKT3 before recovery. Conclusion: As a safe and effective immunosuppressant, FK506 can reduce the incidence of allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients with little side effects or toxicity, which is particularly applicable in patients with steroid-resistant rejection or CsA nephrotoxicity. Attention should to be paid to glycometabolism disorder due to FK506, however, the long-term effects of FK506 need further investigation.

  2. Pretransplant identification of acute rejection risk following kidney transplantation

    Y. Lebranchu (Yvon); C.C. Baan (Carla); L. Biancone (Luigi); C. Legendre (Christophe); J.M. Morales (José Maria); L. Naesens; O. Thomusch (Oliver); P. Friend (Peter)


    textabstractLack of an accepted definition for 'high immunological risk' hampers individualization of immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. For recipient-related risk factors for acute rejection, the most compelling evidence points to younger age and African American ethnicity. Rec

  3. Cortical perfusion index: A predictor of acute rejection in transplanted kidneys

    Atkins, H.L.; Oster, Z.H.; Anaise, D.; Wein, S.; Waltzer, W.; Gonder, A.; Cooch, E.; Rapaport, F.T.


    The presently available non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of acute rejection crisis (ARC) of renal transplants are not satisfactory. However, the need for such a test is of paramount clinical importance. A prospective study of 74 post-transplantation events in renal allograft recipients was performed. Clinical, surgical exploration and biopsy data were correlated with TC-99m DTPA scintigraphy using the following indices: Global perfusion index (GPI), cortical perfusion index (CPI), medullary perfusion index (MPI), the peak-to-plateau ratio (P/P), iliac artery peak to renal peak time (delta-P) and washout half-time (T1/2). Of the 74 events, 24 were proven to be due to acute rejection crisis (ARC), 13 were of ureteral obstruction, 18 various nephropathies and 19 in stable renal transplant function. The P/P, delta-P and T1/2 were not good predictors of ARC; the sensitivity was 79%, 79% and 80% respectively. The sensitivity of the GPI was 58% and the specificity was 87%. The cortical perfusion index rated better: specificity=84% and sensitivity=87%. However, the best indicator of ARC seemed to be the percent increase in cortical perfusion index over previous values obtained during stable graft function. Thus the sensitivity was found to be 91% and specificity was 96%. The difference between global and cortical perfusion indices reflects shunting of blood for cortex to medulla. This study suggest that the cortical perfusion index (CPI) and the percent increase in CPI can be used to non-invasively diagnose acute renal allograft rejection.

  4. A novel noninvasive method to detect rejection after heart transplantation

    Jun Hu


    Full Text Available Prompt and accurate detection of rejection prior to pathological changes after organ transplantation is vital for monitoring rejections. Although biopsy remains the current gold standard for rejection diagnosis, it is an invasive method and cannot be repeated daily. Thus, noninvasive monitoring methods are needed. In this study, by introducing an IL-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (IL-2 N-mAb and immunosuppressants into the culture with the presence of specific stimulators and activated lymphocytes, an activated lymphocyte-specific assay (ALSA system was established to detect the specific activated lymphocytes. This assay demonstrated that the suppression in the ALSA test was closely related to the existence of specific activated lymphocytes. The ALSA test was applied to 47 heart graft recipients and the proliferation of activated lymphocytes from all rejection recipients proven by endomyocardial biopsies was found to be inhibited by spleen cells from the corresponding donors, suggesting that this suppression could reflect the existence of activated lymphocytes against donor antigens, and thus the rejection of a heart graft. The sensitivity of the ALSA test in these 47 heart graft recipients was 100%; however, the specificity was only 37.5%. It was also demonstrated that IL-2 N-mAb was indispensible, and the proper culture time courses and concentrations of stimulators were essential for the ALSA test. This preliminary study with 47 grafts revealed that the ALSA test was a promising noninvasive tool, which could be used in vitro to assist with the diagnosis of rejection post-heart transplantation.


    O. P. Shevchenko


    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current literature devoted to the analysis of prognostic role of ST2 biomarker in rejection of the transplanted heart. ST2 is one of the most promising diagnostic markers of the development and severity of heart failure as well as the mortality risk in patients with cardiovascular diseases. ST2 is expressed in cardiomyocytes in response to a variety of pathological processes and mechanical damage to the heart, which allows diagnosing cardiovascular diseases before clinical manifestations. Presumably, measuring the level of ST2 in heart transplant may have diagnostic and prognostic value in the assessment of graft and risk of rejection. Currently, accumulated clinical data on the role of given biomarker in heart transplantation are not enough, and further research on the relation of ST2 levels with different clinical and laboratory parameters in heart recipients is necessary. 

  6. Fungal infection following renal transplantation.

    Gallis, H A; Berman, R A; Cate, T R; Hamilton, J D; Gunnells, J C; Stickel, D L


    Twenty-seven deep fungal infections developed in 22 of 171 patients following renal transplantation. These infections included cryptococcosis (ten), nocardiosis (seven), candidiasis (four), aspergillosis (two), phycomycosis (two), chromomycosis (one), and subcutaneous infection with Phialophora gougeroti (one). Twelve infections occurred in living-related and ten in cadaveric recipients. Nineteen of the 22 patients were male. Infections occurred from 0 to 61 months after transplantation. Complicating non-fungal infections were present concomitantly in 15 patients. Thirteen patients died, eight probably as a result of fungal infection. Appropriate diagnostic procedures yielded a diagnosis in 20 of 27 infections, and therapy was begun in 18 patients. Serologic, culture, and biopsy procedures useful in making rapid diagnoses are advocated in the hope of increasing survival.

  7. Noninvasive Imaging of Acute Renal Allograft Rejection by Ultrasound Detection of Microbubbles Targeted to T-lymphocytes in Rats.

    Grabner, A.; Kentrup, D.; Mühlmeister, M.; Pawelski, H.; Biermann, C.; Bettinger, T.; Pavenstadt, H.; Schlatter, E.; Tiemann, K.; Reuter, S.


    PURPOSE: We propose CD3-antibody-mediated contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using human T-lymphocytes for image-based diagnosis of acute allograft rejection (AR) established in a rat renal transplantation model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 15 minutes after tail vein injection of 30 x 10(6) human T-lympho

  8. Renal transplantation in Mapuche people.

    Ardiles, R; Beltrán, R; Jerez, V; Droguett, M A; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L


    Previous studies have demonstrated higher concentrations of some histocompatibility antigens in Mapuche people compared with non-Mapuche Chileans in the renal transplantation program. With the aim of evaluating whether those antigenic differences might induce differences in the outcomes of renal transplantation among patients belonging to that ethnic group, we reviewed HLA studies and at least 6 months follow-up of all patients with a first kidney transplant between 1980 and 2006. The 248 patients had a mean age of 37.6 years, 40% were females, and 48% had living related donors. The mean kidney follow-up was 90 months and patient follow-up was 106 months. Thirty-nine patients (16%) were classified as Mapuche, according to their surnames, including 16 women with overall mean age of 34.5 years, and 14 had been transplanted from a living related donor. Mapuche patients received organs with better HLA matching expressed as number of identities (3.4 +/- 0.1 versus 2.8 +/- 0.1 among non-Mapuche; P or = 3 compatibilities was significantly higher (Mapuche 38% versus non-Mapuche 22%; P Mapuche; and 83% and 65%, respectively, for non-Mapuche. Patient survival rates were 97% at 5 years and 86% at 10 years in the Mapuche group versus 91% and 79%, respectively, in the non-Mapuche group; both results were not significantly different. Our results showed similar outcomes of kidney and patient survivals among Mapuche people even when they received organs with better HLA matches.

  9. Hyperthyroidism in a renal transplant recipient.

    Peces, R; Navascués, R A; Baltar, J; Laurés, A S; Ortega, F; Alvarez-Grande, J


    We report a case of toxic multinodular goiter with severe symptomatic hyperthyroidism in a female diagnosed 5 months after successful renal transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first well-documented case of hyperthyroidism in a renal transplant recipient that responded well to methimazole. Special attention should be made to the use of methimazole and the possible interaction with immunosuppressive drugs.

  10. False iliac artery aneurysm following renal transplantation

    Levi, N; Sønksen, Jens Otto Reimers; Schroeder, T V;


    We report a very rare case of a false iliac artery aneurysm following renal transplantation. The patient was a 51-year-old women who presented with a painful 10 x 10 cm pulsating mass in her left iliac fossa. The patient had received a second cadaveric renal transplantation 5 years previously...

  11. Clinical application of real time-polymerase chain reaction in determining cytomegalovirus viral DNA load in renal transplant recipients

    ZHANG Chuan-bao; LAI Hui-ying; XU Hong-tao; WANG Da-guang; XIAO Fei


    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a significant clinical problem among immunosuppressed renal transplant patients.Quantitative PCR assays have become the most common methods in the determination of CMV infections in transplant patients.This study was to determine the relationship between CMV infection and the acute rejection of the transplanted kidney.Methods Plasma samples from 77 renal transplant patients that were pre-transplant negative for CMV infection were tested using real-time quantitative PCR and CMV gene-specific primers.The detected viral loads were retrospectively compared with the acute rejection rate and the chronic or mild rejection rates of the renal transplant.Results CMV-DNA was detected in 29 of 77 recipients,yielding a positive rate of detection of 37.7% for this procedure.Twelve of the 21 recipients (57.1%) who suffered acute rejection had positive CMV-DNA.Among the 56 recipients suffered from chronic or mild rejection,17 (30.4%) had positive CMV-DNA plasma.Moreover,of the 29 recipients who had detectable CMV-DNA after transplant,12 (41.4%) suffered from acute rejection; of the 48 recipients with undetectable CMV-DNA,only nine (18.8%) developed acute rejection.Post-transplant patients with acute rejection had a higher rate (57.1% vs.30.4%,P=0.03) of post-transplant CMV infection than those with chronic or mild rejection.Conclusion CMV infection is a risk factor of acute renal transplant rejection and CMV infection should be prevented and treated in renal transplant recipients.Chin Med J 2012; 125(19):3575-3577

  12. Doppler spectrum analysis to diagnose rejection during posttransplant acute renal failure.

    Merkus, J W; Hoitsma, A J; van Asten, W N; Koene, R A; Skotnicki, S H


    During posttransplant acute renal failure (ARF), the diagnosis of allograft rejection constitutes a major problem. We evaluated the value of Doppler ultrasonography in identifying grafts at risk of rejection during ARF. In 184 recipients of a renal allograft, Doppler examinations were performed on the first and fifth postoperative day. Doppler spectra were quantitatively analyzed with a user-written computer program. Doppler findings were not used in clinical decision making. ARF was defined as a diuresis cadaveric grafts (n = 123), while living related donor grafts (n = 20) showed a lower RI (0.55 +/- 0.07; P 4 days (n = 24), RI was not significantly different (0.63 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.15; NS). However, the acceleration time of the systolic deflection of the spectrum waveform (Tmax) was shorter in grafts with ARF > 4 days (86 +/- 47 msec vs. 128 +/- 39 msec; P 4 days (n = 24) showed a Tmax or = 90 msec, only 2 rejections occurred (negative predictive value, 13/15 = 87%). For the RI (> 0.85), positive predictive value was 4/5 = 80% and negative predictive value (RI identification of patients at risk for rejection and in the timing of allograft biopsy during ARF. Persistently short Tmax values on the fifth day after transplantation perform better in identifying grafts at risk of rejection than high RI values.

  13. Obesity and urologic complications after renal transplantation

    Ashkan Heshmatzadeh Behzadi


    Full Text Available Although obesity has been associated with improved survival on dialysis, its short-and long-term effects on renal transplantation outcomes remain unclear. Herein, we evaluate the short-term and intermediate long-term effects of obesity on first-time renal transplant patients. A retrospective analysis was performed on 180 consecutive renal transplant recipients from living unrelated donors during 2006-2008 in a major transplantation center in Tehran, Iran. Among these, 34 (18% patients were found to be obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 . Obese patients were more likely to develop post-transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS (17.6% vs. 2.8%, P <0.001, hematoma (47.9% vs. 17.6, P = 0.009, surgical wound complications (64.7% vs. 9.6%, P <0.001 and renal vein thrombosis (2% vs. 0%, P <0.001. However, the incidence of delayed graft function, lymphocele, urologic complications of ureterovesical junction stenosis or urinary leakage, surgical complications of excessive bleeding or renal artery thrombosis and duration of hospitalization were similar between the two groups. The two-year patient and graft survival were also statistically not different. Renal transplantation in obese recipients is associated with a higher incidence of post-transplant RAS, hematoma, surgical wound complications and renal vein thrombosis, but similar two-year patient and graft survival.


    R. Suganya Gnanadeepam


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The kidney and the skin are the two large networks of the body with abundant blood supply associated with various cutaneous manifestations. This study aims to detect the various cutaneous manifestations and its incidence in patients with chronic renal failure and renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done for a period of 1 year from January 2016 to December 2016 at Nephrology OPD ward and Medicine wards, Government KAPV Medical College Hospital, Trichy. During this period, 100 patients who had the presence of skin manifestations were selected and studied (80 renal failure patients and 20 renal transplantation patients. RESULTS Most of the specific cutaneous manifestations of chronic renal failure and renal transplantation were noted in this study. Pruritus and xerosis were the most common manifestations noted in chronic renal failure while infections was commonly noted in renal transplantation patients. CONCLUSION Pruritus and xerosis were the most common among the specific cutaneous manifestations in chronic renal failure followed by nail abnormalities and pigmentary changes. Cutaneous manifestations of renal transplantation were mostly due to infections of which fungal infection is the most common followed by viral infection.

  15. The Complement System and Antibody-Mediated Transplant Rejection.

    Stites, Erik; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Thurman, Joshua M


    Complement activation is an important cause of tissue injury in patients with Ab-mediated rejection (AMR) of transplanted organs. Complement activation triggers a strong inflammatory response, and it also generates tissue-bound and soluble fragments that are clinically useful markers of inflammation. The detection of complement proteins deposited within transplanted tissues has become an indispensible biomarker of AMR, and several assays have recently been developed to measure complement activation by Abs reactive to specific donor HLA expressed within the transplant. Complement inhibitors have entered clinical use and have shown efficacy for the treatment of AMR. New methods of detecting complement activation within transplanted organs will improve our ability to diagnose and monitor AMR, and they will also help guide the use of complement inhibitory drugs.

  16. Demodicosis in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Chovatiya, R J; Colegio, O R


    Solid organ transplant recipients have an increased incidence of skin infections resulting from immunosuppression. Common pathogens include herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Gram-positive bacteria and dermatophytes; however, the contribution of multicellular parasitic organisms to dermatologic disease in this population remains less studied. Demodex folliculorum and brevis are commensal mites that reside on human skin. Proliferation of Demodex mites, or demodicosis, is associated with rosacea and rosacea-like disorders, particularly in immunocompromised populations, although their ability to cause disease is still the subject of debate. We present a case series of four renal transplant recipients with the singular chief complaint of acne rosacea who we diagnosed with demodicosis. Although one of the four patients showed complete resolution following initial antiparasitic therapy, the other three required subsequent antibacterial treatment to fully resolve their lesions. We suggest that demodicosis may be more prevalent than once thought in solid organ transplant recipients and showed that Demodex-associated acne rosacea can be effectively treated in this population.

  17. Spleen tyrosine kinase contributes to acute renal allograft rejection in the rat.

    Ramessur Chandran, Sharmila; Tesch, Greg H; Han, Yingjie; Woodman, Naomi; Mulley, William R; Kanellis, John; Blease, Kate; Ma, Frank Y; Nikolic-Paterson, David J


    Kidney allografts induce strong T-cell and antibody responses which mediate acute rejection. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is expressed by most leucocytes, except mature T cells, and is involved in intracellular signalling following activation of the Fcγ-receptor, B-cell receptor and some integrins. A role for Syk signalling has been established in antibody-dependent native kidney disease, but little is known of Syk in acute renal allograft rejection. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral nephrectomy and received an orthotopic Wistar renal allograft. Recipient rats were treated with a Syk inhibitor (CC0482417, 30 mg/kg/bid), or vehicle, from 1 h before surgery until being killed 5 days later. Vehicle-treated recipients developed severe allograft failure with marked histologic damage in association with dense leucocyte infiltration (T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK cells) and deposition of IgM, IgG and C3. Immunostaining identified Syk expression by many infiltrating leucocytes. CC0482417 treatment significantly improved allograft function and reduced histologic damage, although allograft injury was still clearly evident. CC0482417 failed to prevent T-cell infiltration and activation within the allograft. However, CC0482417 significantly attenuated acute tubular necrosis, infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and thrombosis of peritubular capillaries. In conclusion, this study identifies a role for Syk in acute renal allograft rejection. Syk inhibition may be a useful addition to T-cell-based immunotherapy in renal transplantation.

  18. Renal function after solid organ transplantation

    Broekroelofs, Jan


    The studies described in this thesis focus on the problem of renal chronic function loss following solid organ transplantation form a nephrologist point of view. Nephrologists have been and are still confionted with renal function loss in native kidney diseases. The last 3 decades chronic renal func

  19. Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant

    Chi, Jingmao; Chen, Hui; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry


    We have explored the use of a fiber-optic probe with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing modality for early, noninvasive and, rapid diagnosis of potential renal acute rejection (AR) and other renal graft dysfunction of kidney transplant patients. Multimode silica optical fiber immobilized with colloidal Ag nanoparticles at the distal end was used for SERS measurements of as-collected urine samples at 632.8 nm excitation wavelength. All patients with abnormal renal graft function (3 AR episodes and 2 graft failure episodes) who were clinically diagnosed independently show common unique SERS spectral features in the urines collected just one day after transplant. SERS-based fiber-optic probe has excellent potential to be a bedside tool for early diagnosis of kidney transplant patients for timely medical intervention of patients at high risk of transplant dysfunction.

  20. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.


    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts.

  1. [BK virus infection in a pediatric renal transplant recipient].

    Bonaventura, R; Vázquez, A; Exeni, A; Rivero, K; Freire, M C


    BK Human Polyomavirus causes an asymptomatic primary infection in children, then establishing latency mainly in the urinary tratt. Viral reactivation can lead to renal pathology in individuals with impaired cellular immune response. This is particularly important in pediatric transplant recipients, who can suffer a primary infection when immunosupressed. We followed up the case of a 5 years old patient who received a renal transplant in October 2003, and presented damaged graft 45 days after the intervention. The patient suffered 3 episodes of renal function failure between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood, urine, renal biopsy and lymphocele liquid samples were analyzed. A differential diagnosis between acute rejection and infectious causes was established by testing for BK, CMV and ADV viruses, and the cytological study of renal tissue. Laboratory findings together with clinical signs suggest the patient was infected by BK virus. As a final consideration, the great importance of differentiating between acute rejection and BK infection is emphasized, since immunosuppressant management is opposite in each case.

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Mehdi Azami


    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  4. Renal graft biopsy assists diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft dysfunction after kidney transplantation: a report of 106 cases.

    Han, Yong; Guo, Hui; Cai, Ming; Xiao, Li; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Haiyan; Shi, Bingyi


    Acute antibody mediated rejection (AMR) is one of the most important complications after kidney transplantation. Renal graft biopsy is safe and reliable without adverse effects on the patients and transplanted kidneys, which was of great instructive significance in diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft dysfunction after renal transplantation. This paper reported a case series of 106 patients underwent renal allograft biopsies. All biopsies were evaluated according to the Banff 2007 schema. 52 examples were obtained within 1 month after transplantation, and there were another 20 examples in one to two months and other 34 examples in two to three months. Appropriate therapy was applied and clinical outcomes were observed. All patients received renal biopsies and anti-inflammatory and hemostasis treatment without complications. There were 2 cases of hyperacute rejection, and 15 cases of acute AMR. All Paraffin-embedded samples were stained by HE, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Masson, and immunohistochemistry (C4d, cd20, cd45RO, SV40). All samples were found C4d immunohistochemical staining positive. Patients with acute AMR were managed by steroid intravenous pulse therapy, Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin intravenous pulse therapy, anti CD20 monoclonal antibody intravenous therapy and so on. Two cases of hyperacute rejection had renal failure, and received kidney excision; 12 cases in 15 cases of AMR recovered, another 2 cases did not recover with high-level creatine, and other 2 cases of renal allograft received excision.

  5. Outcomes of Renal Transplantation in HIV-1 Associated Nephropathy.

    Sana Waheed

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that renal transplantation in HIV positive patients is both safe and effective. However, none of these studies have specifically examined outcomes in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN.Medical records of all HIV-infected patients who underwent kidney transplantation at Johns Hopkins Hospital between September 2006 and January 2014 were reviewed. Data was collected to examine baseline characteristics and outcomes of transplant recipients with HIVAN defined pathologically as collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS with tubulo-interstitial disease.During the study period, a total of 16 patients with HIV infection underwent renal transplantation. Of those, 11 patients were identified to have biopsy-proven HIVAN as the primary cause of their end stage renal disease (ESRD and were included in this study. They were predominantly African American males with a mean age of 47.6 years. Seven (64% patients developed delayed graft function (DGF, and 6 (54% patients required post-operative dialysis within one week of transplant. Graft survival rates at 1 and 3 years were 100% and 81%, respectively. Acute rejection rates at 1 and 3 years were 18% and 27%, respectively. During a mean follow up of 3.4 years, one patient died.Acute rejection rates in HIVAN patients in this study are higher than reported in the general ESRD population, which is similar to findings from prior studies of patients with HIV infection and ESRD of various causes. The high rejection rates appear to have no impact on short or intermediate term graft survival.

  6. Treatment of steroid-resistant acute renal allograft rejection with alemtuzumab.

    van den Hoogen, M W F; Hesselink, D A; van Son, W J; Weimar, W; Hilbrands, L B


    Steroid-resistant renal allograft rejections are commonly treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG), but alemtuzumab could be an effective, safe and more convenient alternative. Adult patients with steroid-resistant renal allograft rejection treated with alemtuzumab (15-30 mg s.c. on 2 subsequent days) from 2008 to 2012 (n = 11) were compared to patients treated with RATG (2.5-4.0 mg/kg bodyweight i.v. for 10-14 days; n = 20). We assessed treatment-failure (graft loss, lack of improvement of graft function or need for additional anti-rejection treatment), infections during the first 3 months after treatment and infusion-related side effects. In both groups, the median time-interval between rejection and transplantation was 2 weeks, and approximately 75% of rejections were classified as Banff-IIA or higher. Three alemtuzumab-treated patients (27%) experienced treatment failure, compared to eight RATG treated patients (40%, p = 0.70). There was no difference in the incidence of infections. There were mild infusion-related side-effects in three alemtuzumab-treated patients (27%), and more severe infusion-related side effects in 17 RATG-treated patients (85%, p = 0.013). Drug related costs of alemtuzumab-treatment were lower than of RATG-treatment (€1050 vs. €2024; p Alemtuzumab might be an effective therapy for steroid-resistant renal allograft rejections. In contrast to RATG, alemtuzumab is nearly devoid of infusion-related side-effects. These data warrant a prospective trial.

  7. Avoiding steroids in pediatric renal transplantation: long-term experience from a single centre

    Pedersen, Erik Bo; El-Faramawi, Mohamad; Foged, Nils


    We report our experience in pediatric renal transplantation avoiding steroids whenever possible. Immunosuppression consisted of an initial induction with antithymocyte globulin followed by maintenance therapy with a calcineurin inhibitor and MMF. Steroids were only given to selected patients......). Unfortunately PTLD occurred in three patients, but all survived with functioning grafts. Accordingly, our findings indicate that steroid avoidance in pediatric renal transplantation is possible with good results with respect to acute graft rejection as well as long-term graft survival....

  8. Overlapped glomerular lesions of chronic rejection and recurrent lupus nephritis in transplanted kidney: a case report.

    Masuzawa, Naoko; Urasaki, Koji; Okamoto, Masahiko; Nobori, Shuji; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Yoshimura, Norio; Yanagisawa, Akio


    We describe a renal transplant recipient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who showed continuous proteinuria and low complement levels without clinical evidence of active SLE. Her first renal allograft biopsy, performed nine yr and eight months after transplantation, revealed unusual histological change of glomeruli, and it initially led us to make a contradictory diagnosis based on light and electron microscopic examinations. Diffuse global double- or multi-contour glomerular basement membrane was caused by chronic endothelial injury owing to chronic rejection, and mesangial proliferation associated with mesangial electron-dense deposit was a histological change characteristic of recurrent lupus nephritis (RLN). Immunofluorescence study displayed weak mesangial staining of IgM and C1q. We concluded that this case presented overlapped chronic rejection and RLN. Because both transplant nephropathy and lupus nephritis present constellations of various histologies, it is difficult to diagnose their overlap. Complete morphologic studies with both immunofluorescence and electron microscopic evaluations in addition to microscopic examination should be performed to elucidate complex histological findings.

  9. [Post-renal transplant pregnancy: a project to plan carefully].

    Trubian, Alessandra; Zaza, Gianluca; Rugiu, Carlo; Tomei, Paola; Lupo, Antonio


    Kidney transplant is the best treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as it improves the quality of life and reduces the mortality risk for most patients compared with maintenance dialysis. Additionally, evidence from the literature suggests that renal function, endocrine status and libido rapidly improve after kidney transplant, and one in 50 women of childbearing age become pregnant. Therefore, it seems clear that pregnancy after transplant is a great challenge for physicians involved in this field. The available information on pregnancy outcomes is largely derived from case reports and single-center series, which are unlikely to be representative. Moreover, poor results are less likely to be reported. Many of the reports on long-term outcome show the results of past medical, obstetric, and neonatal care, which may be very different from current practice. Attempts are being made to provide more up-to-date, representative data through national transplantation pregnancy registries. A great number of researchers worldwide have analyzed the biological and endocrinological machinery associated with this event. Additionally, several strategies have been introduced to avoid unplanned pregnancies and to minimize maternal and fetal complications in renal transplant recipients. It seems evident that the return to fertility soon after transplant is often associated with unplanned pregnancy, which can expose both mother and fetus to considerable risks. This underpins the necessity to recommend contraceptive counseling and start clinical follow-up in order to early identify possible pregnancy-related risk factors. In general, pregnancy should not be recommended within the first year after kidney transplant because the risk of acute rejection is greatest and immunosuppressive therapy the most aggressive. It should be planned when organ function and immunosuppressive therapy are stabilized and there is no sign of rejection, hypertension, or chronic infection. Additionally

  10. Impact of combined acute rejection on BK virus-associated nephropathy in kidney transplantation.

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Koo, Tai Yeon; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Han, Miyeun; Jeon, Hee Jung; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok


    BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is one of the major causes of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant (KT) patients. We compared BKVAN combined with acute rejection (BKVAN/AR) with BKVAN alone in KT patients. We retrospectively analyzed biopsy-proven BKVAN in KT patients from 2000 to 2011 at Seoul National University Hospital. Among 414 biopsies from 951 patients, biopsy-proven BKVAN was found in 14 patients. Nine patients had BKVAN alone, while 5 patients had both BKVAN and acute cellular rejection. BKVAN in the BKVAN alone group was detected later than in BKVAN/AR group (21.77 vs 6.39 months after transplantation, P=0.03). Serum creatinine at diagnosis was similar (2.09 vs 2.00 mg/dL). Histological grade was more advanced in the BKVAN/AR group (P=0.034). Serum load of BKV, dose of immunosuppressants, and tacrolimus level showed a higher tendency in the BKVAN alone group; however it was not statistically significant. After anti-rejection therapy, immunosuppression was reduced in the BKVAN/AR group. Renal functional deterioration over 1 yr after BKVAN diagnosis was similar between the two groups (P=0.665). These findings suggest that the prognosis of BKVAN/AR after anti-rejection therapy followed by anti-BKV therapy might be similar to that of BKVAN alone after anti-BKV therapy.

  11. Antibodies directed against antigens on the endothelium of peritubular capillaries in patients with rejecting renal allografts.

    Paul, L C; van Es, L A; van Rood, J J; van Leeuwen, A; de la Rivière, G B; de Graeff, J


    This study was undertaken to examine the humoral immune response against endothelial antigens of the donor kidney in human renal allograft recipients. Sera from 61 transplant recipients who received 62 grafts were studied for the presence of circulating endothelial antibodies (CEAb) using an indirect immunofluorescence technique with a pretransplant biopsy of the graft as a substrate. IgG antibodies directed against the endothelium of peritubular capillaries were found in the sera of 6 of the 10 patients with graft rejection within 7 weeks after transplantation, whereas these antibodies were not found in the absence of rejection (P less than 0.001). Immunofluorescence studies of post-transplant biopsies showed IgG along the endothelium of peritubular capillaries only in the grafts of patients with CEAb. Eluates from these grafts contained IgG antibodies that bound to the endothelium of the donor as shown by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. Absorption of endothelial antibody (EAb)-positive sera with human platelets or Wistar strain rat erythrocytes showed that the EAb were not directed against serologically defined HLA antigens or against heterophile antigens on rat erythrocytes. We conclude from this study that the presence of antibodies directed against endothelial antigens is associated with poor graft prognosis and that these antibodies may be responsible for the rejection process.

  12. Renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients: 2010 update.

    Trullas, Joan C; Cofan, Federico; Tuset, Montse; Ricart, María J; Brunet, Mercedes; Cervera, Carlos; Manzardo, Christian; López-Dieguez, María; Oppenheimer, Federico; Moreno, Asuncion; Campistol, Josep M; Miro, Jose M


    The prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved in recent years with the introduction of antiretroviral treatment. While the frequency of AIDS-defining events has decreased as a cause of death, mortality from non-AIDS-related events including end-stage renal diseases has increased. The etiology of chronic kidney disease is multifactorial: immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, HIV-associated nephropathy, thrombotic microangiopathies, and so on. HIV infection is no longer a contraindication to transplantation and is becoming standard therapy in most developed countries. The HIV criteria used to select patients for renal transplantation are similar in Europe and North America. Current criteria state that prior opportunistic infections are not a strict exclusion criterion, but patients must have a CD4+ count above 200 cells/mm(3) and a HIV-1 RNA viral load suppressible with treatment. In recent years, more than 200 renal transplants have been performed in HIV-infected patients worldwide, and mid-term patient and graft survival rates have been similar to that of HIV-negative patients. The main issues in post-transplant period are pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and immunosuppressants, a high rate of acute rejection, the management of hepatitis C virus coinfection, and the high cardiovascular risk after transplantation. More studies are needed to determine the most appropriate antiretroviral and immunosuppressive regimens and the long-term outcome of HIV infection and kidney graft.

  13. Changing Paradigms in the Management of Rejection in Kidney Transplantation

    Maier, Mirela; Takano, Tomoko; Sapir-Pichhadze, Ruth


    Purpose of review: P4 medicine denotes an evolving field of medicine encompassing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. Using the example of kidney allograft rejection because of donor-recipient incompatibility in human leukocyte antigens, this review outlines P4 medicine’s relevance to the various stages of the kidney transplant cycle. Sources of information: A search for English articles was conducted in Medline via OvidSP (up to August 18, 2016) using a combination of subject headings (MeSH) and free text in titles, abstracts, and author keywords for the concepts kidney transplantation and P4 medicine. The electronic database search was expanded further on particular subject headings. Findings: Available histocompatibility methods exemplify current applications of the predictive and preventive domains of P4 medicine in kidney transplant recipients’ care. Pharmacogenomics are discussed as means to facilitate personalized immunosuppression regimens and promotion of active patient participation as a means to improve adherence. Limitations: For simplicity, this review focuses on rejection. P4 medicine, however, should more broadly address health concerns in kidney transplant recipients, including competing outcomes such as infections, malignancies, and cardiovascular disease. This review highlights how biomarkers to evaluate these competing outcomes warrant validation and standardization prior to their incorporation into clinical practice. Implications: Consideration of all 4 domains of the P4 medicine framework when caring for and/or studying kidney transplant recipients has the potential of increasing therapeutic efficiency, minimizing adverse effects, decreasing health care costs, and maximizing wellness. Technologies to gauge immune competency, immunosuppression requirements, and early/reversible immune-mediated injuries are required to optimize kidney transplant care. PMID:28270929

  14. Low-grade proteinuria and microalbuminuria in renal transplantation.

    Halimi, Jean-Michel


    Nephrotic-range proteinuria has been known for years to be associated with poor renal outcome. Newer evidence indicates that early (1-3 months after transplantation) low-grade proteinuria and microalbuminuria (1) provide information on the graft in terms of donor characteristics and ischemia/reperfusion injury, (2) may occur before the development of donor-specific antibodies, (3) predict the development of diabetes and cardiovascular events, and (4) are associated with reduced long-term graft and patient survivals. Low-grade proteinuria and microalbuminuria are also predictive of diabetes, cardiovascular morbidity, and death in nontransplanted populations, which may help us to understand the pathophysiology of low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria in renal transplantation. The impact of immunosuppressive medications, including mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, on graft survival is still discussed, and the effect on proteinuria is crucial to the debate. The fact that chronic allograft rejection may exist as early as 3 months after renal transplantation indicates that optimal management of low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria should occur very early after transplantation to improve long-term renal function and the overall outcome of renal transplant recipients. The presence of low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria early after transplantation must be taken into account to choose adequate immunosuppressive and antihypertensive medications. Limited information exists regarding the benefit of therapeutic interventions to reduce low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria. Whether renin angiotensin blockade results in optimal nephroprotection in patients with low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria is not proven, especially in the absence of chronic allograft nephropathy. Observational studies and randomized clinical trials yield conflicting results. Finally, randomized clinical trials are urgently needed.

  15. Review of Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TMA, and Post- Renal Transplant TMA

    Ardalan Mohammad


    Full Text Available Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA is a rare but devastating disorder; it involves small vessels and is characterized by intravascular thrombi of aggregated platelets leading to thrombocytopenia and variable degrees of organ ischemia and anemia, which is due to erythrocyte fragmentation in microcirculation. Childhood cases with predominant renal involvement are referred as the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, and adults with major central neurological involvement are labeled as thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP. Endothelial damage due to toxins and/or lack of defense against complement activation have a central role. Recent discovery of the von Willebrand Factor cleaving protease (ADAMTS 13 has offered new insight into the pathogenesis of TMA. TMA is also a well-recognized serious complication of renal transplantation. Clinical features of intravascular hemolysis are not always found. It may occur as de novo or recurrent and the majority of de novo cases are related to cyclosporin therapy. Viral infections, severe renal ischemia and acute vascular rejection are less frequent causes. Recurrence is negligible in diarrhea-associated HUS in childhood, but non-diarrheal HUS recurs in majority of adults following renal transplantation. Renal transplantation is contraindicated in familial/relapsing recurrent forms of HUS.

  16. The new technique of using the epigastric arteries in renal transplantation with multiple renal arteries

    Mohammad Ali Amirzargar


    Full Text Available The most common anatomic variant seen in the donor kidneys for renal transplantation is multiple renal arteries (MRA, which can cause an increased risk of complications. We describe the long-term outcomes of 16 years of experience in 76 kidney transplantations with MRAs. In a new reconstruction technique, we remove arterial clamps after anastomosing the donor to the recipient′s main renal vessels, which cause backflow from accessory arteries to prevent thrombosis. By this technique, we reduce the ischemic times as well as the operating times. Both in live or cadaver donor kidneys, lower polar arteries were anastomosed to the inferior epigastric artery and upper polar arteries were anastomosed to the superior epigastric arteries. Injection of Papaverine and ablation of sympathic nerves of these arteries dilate and prevent them from post-operative spasm. Follow-up DTPA renal scan in all patients showed good perfusion and function of the transplanted kidney, except two cases of polar arterial thrombosis. Mean creatinine levels during at least two years of follow-up remained acceptable. Patient and graft survival were excellent. No cases of ATN, hypertension, rejection and urologic complications were found. In conclusion, this technique can be safely and successfully utilized for renal transplantation with kidneys having MRAs, and may be associated with a lower complication rate and better graft function compared with the existing techniques.

  17. Clinical relevance of post-transplant pharmacodynamic analysis of cyclosporine in renal transplantation.

    Kurata, Yoko; Kuzuya, Takafumi; Miwa, Yuko; Iwasaki, Kenta; Haneda, Masataka; Amioka, Katsuo; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Katayama, Akio; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kobayashi, Takaaki


    Although therapeutic drug monitoring based on blood concentration has been widely implemented in transplant recipients treated with immunosuppressive agents, clinical adverse events such as rejection, infection or drug-induced toxicity caused by inappropriate dosage cannot be completely controlled. Development of an effective assay for optimized immunosuppression would be desirable, which can potentially lead to personalized medicine in renal transplantation. Cyclosporine (CSA) pharmacodynamic analysis using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based T cell proliferation assay was examined in 66 kidney transplant recipients before and after transplantation. Two parameters, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the percentage of T-cell proliferation values at the lower plateau (bottom), were compared with clinical events. A significant relation in CSA pharmacodynamic parameters was observed between pre- and post-transplantation. Analysis of the association between clinical outcomes and pharmacodynamic parameters in post-transplant samples demonstrated the following findings: (i) cytomegalovirus (CMV)/varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation and CSA-induced nephrotoxicity were significantly associated with high sensitivity to CSA (low bottom or low IC50), (ii) acute T cell-mediated rejection (ATMR) was significantly related to low sensitivity to CSA (high bottom), and (iii) de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody production was associated with lower bottom and IC50 values, although the elucidation of those mechanisms is still in progress. It was suggested that CSA pharmacodynamics applied at post-transplantation would be useful for optimizing immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Early diagnosis of kidney transplant rejection and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity by urine cytology.

    Kyo, M; Gudat, F; Dalquen, P; Huser, B; Thiel, G; Fujimoto, N; Ichikawa, Y; Fukunishi, T; Nagano, S; Mihatsch, M J


    A total of 2000 urine samples from 53 kidney transplant recipients were studied to develop a routine method for the early diagnosis of rejection and cyclosporin (CSA) nephrotoxicity in urine. New-Sternheimer staining and an immunocytochemical technique were used together with classical Papanicolaou staining to differentiate cells in the urine. After cell count and differentiation of second morning urine samples with New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou stains, immunocytochemistry was performed using antibodies against the following antigens: CD2, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD71 (transferrin receptor), HLA-DR and cytokeratin (Lu-5). Cell counts were obtained for the positively-reacting cells per millilitre of urine. By New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou staining, CSA nephrotoxicity was characterized by the predominance of proximal tubular cells. During rejection episodes, increased numbers of mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells were found. Immunocytochemical analysis showed a significant increase in CD2-, CD4-, CD8-, CD25-, CD71-, and HLA-DR-positive epithelial cells and in the ratio HLA-DR/cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells in rejection. CD25-positive cells had the highest sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of rejection. Our urine cytology technique proved to be a useful and non-invasive method for the early diagnosis of rejection and CSA nephrotoxicity.

  19. Pediatric renal transplantation: Jordan′s experience

    Issa Hazza


    Full Text Available To evaluate our experience with pediatric renal transplantation at King Hussein Medical Center, the medical records of 71 pediatric patients who underwent a renal transplantation procedure between the years 2004 and 2010 or started follow-up at our center within one week of transplantation done elsewhere were reviewed. Over the seven-year period, 71 children under the age of 14 years who received their first renal transplant were studied. About 56% (40 were males. The mean age was 9.44 ± 2.86 years. Dysplastic kidney was the most common cause of end-stage renal failure in our group, followed by glomerulonephritis. Mothers were the donors in 39.4% of the cases, followed by fathers. Twenty-three patients (32.4% were transplanted preemptively. The overall one-year graft survival was 96%, three-year survival was 95%, and the five-year survival was 88%. Prednisone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil formed the main-stay of immunosuppressive agents. We have developed a successful live donor program for renal transplantation in children at King Hussein Medical Center in Amman. Although our experience is still short, the graft survival is similar to that achieved in the developed world, especially with preemptive transplant.

  20. Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction in renal transplantation: review of the literature

    Andress L


    Full Text Available Leah Andress,1 Anjali Gupta,2 Nida Siddiqi,3 Kwaku Marfo2,3 1University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Buffalo, 2Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Department of Abdominal Organ Transplant Program, Bronx, 3Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pharmacy, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG has proven benefit as induction therapy in renal transplant recipients, achieving reduced acute rejection rates and better short-term allograft function, with slightly higher rates of complications such as infections and malignancy. Compared with other agents, the most benefit from rATG induction has been observed in renal transplant recipients at high immunologic risk for rejection. However, in special populations, such as pediatrics, the elderly, and hepatitis C-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-positive renal transplant recipients, additional information is needed to delineate the absolute benefit of rATG induction compared with other induction agents. Selection of rATG as the choice of induction therapy in renal transplant recipients should be guided by a cost-effective approach in balancing efficacy, safety, and cost. This review summarizes the published literature on efficacy, safety, and cost of rATG induction in renal transplantation. Keywords: anti-thymocyte globulin, renal transplantation, induction therapy

  1. Noninvasive methods of rejection diagnosis after heart transplantation.

    Kemkes, B M; Schütz, A; Engelhardt, M; Brandl, U; Breuer, M


    For clinical follow-up and prognosis in heart transplant patients, it is important to understand accurately the presence and extent of cardiac allograft rejection. Since the introduction of endomyocardial biopsy, almost 40 different noninvasive diagnostic procedures for the recognition of myocardial rejection have been proposed. However, endomyocardial biopsy is invasive and not suitable for frequent monitoring. If the pattern of rejection shows a focal distribution, false-negative results can be expected. Discrepancies between biopsy findings and allograft function are obviously possible. State-of-the-art information will be given on the most reliable noninvasive methods for rejection diagnosis, which can be differentiated from electrophysiology (fast-Fourier-transformed electrocardiography and intramyocardial electrocardiography), echocardiography, immunologic methods (cytoimmunologic monitoring, transferrin receptors, and interleukin-2 receptors), various biochemical markers (neopterines, prolactin, urinary polyamines, and beta 2-microglobulins), radioisotopic techniques (antimyosin-monoclonal antibodies, thallium, technetium, and gallium scintigraphy and indium-labeled cells), as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Thus modified and patient-adapted antirejection therapy can be provided if the decision for or against antirejection therapy is not based on biopsy findings alone but rather is confirmed along with histologic, electrophysiologic, biochemical, immunologic, and functional parameters.

  2. Non-invasive imaging of acute renal allograft rejection in rats using small animal F-FDG-PET.

    Stefan Reuter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At present, renal grafts are the most common solid organ transplants world-wide. Given the importance of renal transplantation and the limitation of available donor kidneys, detailed analysis of factors that affect transplant survival are important. Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection (AR is still a major risk for graft survival. Nowadays, AR can only be definitively by renal biopsy. However, biopsies carry a risk of renal transplant injury and loss. Most important, they can not be performed in patients taking anticoagulant drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a non-invasive, entirely image-based method to assess AR in an allogeneic rat renal transplantation model using small animal positron emission tomography (PET and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG. 3 h after i.v. injection of 30 MBq FDG into adult uni-nephrectomized, allogeneically transplanted rats, tissue radioactivity of renal parenchyma was assessed in vivo by a small animal PET-scanner (post operative day (POD 1,2,4, and 7 and post mortem dissection. The mean radioactivity (cps/mm(3 tissue as well as the percent injected dose (%ID was compared between graft and native reference kidney. Results were confirmed by histological and autoradiographic analysis. Healthy rats, rats with acute CSA nephrotoxicity, with acute tubular necrosis, and syngeneically transplanted rats served as controls. FDG-uptake was significantly elevated only in allogeneic grafts from POD 1 on when compared to the native kidney (%ID graft POD 1: 0.54+/-0.06; POD 2: 0.58+/-0.12; POD 4: 0.81+/-0.06; POD 7: 0.77+/-0.1; CTR: 0.22+/-0.01, n = 3-28. Renal FDG-uptake in vivo correlated with the results obtained by micro-autoradiography and the degree of inflammatory infiltrates observed in histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that graft FDG-PET imaging is a new option to non-invasively, specifically, early detect, and follow

  3. Anesthesia for parturient with renal transplantation

    Beena K Parikh


    Full Text Available Management of successful pregnancy after renal transplantation is a unique challenge to nephrologist, obstetrician, and anesthesiologist, as these patients have altered physiology and are immune-compromised. We present the anesthetic management of three postrenal transplant patients scheduled for cesarean section. While conducting such cases, cardiovascular status, hematological status, and function of transplanted kidney should be assessed thoroughly. Side effects of immunosuppressant drugs and their interaction with anesthetic agents should be taken into consideration. Main goal of anesthetic management is to maintain optimum perfusion pressure of renal allograft to preserve its function.

  4. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    Phelan, P J


    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, ≤5 mg\\/day, >5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  5. Colovesical Fistula After Renal Transplantation: Case Report.

    Imafuku, A; Tanaka, K; Marui, Y; Sawa, N; Ubara, Y; Takaichi, K; Ishii, Y; Tomikawa, S


    Colovesical fistula is a relatively rare condition that is primarily related to diverticular disease. There are few reports of colovesical fistula after renal transplantation. We report of a 53-year-old man who was diagnosed with colovesical fistula after recurrent urinary tract infection, 5 months after undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Laparoscopic partial resection of the sigmoid colon with the use of the Hartmann procedure was performed. Six months after that surgery, there was no evidence of recurrent urinary tract infection and the patient's renal graft function was preserved. Physicians should keep colovesical fistula in mind as a cause of recurrent urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients, especially in those with a history of diverticular disease.

  6. Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C after Liver and Renal Transplantation

    CH Dale


    Full Text Available Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV is rare in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation. It has been recognized that patients receiving liver transplantation for HCV-related disease have decreased graft and patient survival compared with those transplanted for other etiologies. There is a growing trend toward treating HCV recurrence aggressively after liver transplantation. For other organ transplant recipients with concurrent HCV, treatment is not often an option, given the high rates of graft rejection and loss secondary to interferon and its immunomodulatory effects. Although spontaneous clearance of HCV has been reported in recipients of solitary liver and renal transplants, a common factor arising in these cases has been previous exposure to interferon. To date, no reports of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA have been reported in a multiorgan transplant recipient. A case of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA in an immunocompromised patient, within five months of simultaneous liver and kidney retransplantation is described. Importantly, this patient had no previous exposure to interferon.

  7. Changes at the glomerulo-tubular junction in renal transplants.

    Lee, S J; Howie, A J


    We studied by microscopy 377 biopsies, nephrectomies, and necropsy kidneys from 123 human renal transplants. We discovered two common abnormalities of the renal corpuscle, both affecting the glomerulo-tubular junction. Adhesion of the tip of the glomerular tuft to the origin of the tubule, as reported in various non-transplant glomerulopathies, was seen in 197 specimens (52 per cent). This change was common in material showing acute or chronic vascular rejection and glomerulopathy, and was almost universal in transplants that had been in place for over 1 year. Another change at the glomerulo-tubular junction, not previously highlighted, consisted of an infiltrate of lymphocytes or neutrophil polymorphs into the epithelium at the tubular origin. This change was seen in 145 specimens (38 per cent) and was associated with cellular rejection and ascending infection. These changes are of importance because they show two responses of the kidney to injury that involve the glomerulo-tubular junction and thus suggest that this part of the kidney has some specific properties that have been largely neglected up to now.

  8. Deceased donor renal transplantation: A single center experience

    Gopalakrishnan, N.; Dineshkumar, T.; Dhanapriya, J.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Srinivasa Prasad, N. D.; Thirumalvalavan, K.; Murugananth, S.; Kawaskar, K.


    Deceased donor renal transplantation (DDRT) constitutes less than 5% of all kidney transplantats in India. A retrospective analysis of 173 deceased donor renal transplants performed in a public funded government hospital was done. Mean age of the recipients was 36 years (male:female ratio 2.4:1), and that of the donors was 32.3 years (male:female ratio 6:1). The cold ischemic time was 340 ± 170 minutes. Mean follow-up period was 36 months. Forty one patients died, 75% of them in the first post – transplant year. Sepsis and cardiovascular disease were the most common causes of death. Twenty two percent had acute rejection. There was no significant difference in the incidence in the rate of acute rejection, bacterial, fungal infections and death rate between the cohorts of induction and non induction immunosuppression. The patient and death censored graft survival at 1 year were 80 and 82.6% and at 5 years were 76 and 80% respectively. PMID:28182043

  9. Treatment of tuberculosis with rifabutin in a renal transplant recipient.

    López-Montes, Aurora; Gallego, Eduardo; López, Esperanza; Pérez, Juan; Lorenzo, Inmaculada; Llamas, Francisco; Serrano, Ana; Andrés, Elena; Illescas, Luisa; Gómez, Carmen


    Development of tuberculosis infection in a renal transplant patient is infrequent in Spain, although the prevalence is higher than in the general population. These patients usually receive calcineurin inhibitors as the main component of their immunosuppressive treatment. The metabolism of these drugs, whether cyclosporine or tacrolimus, involves cytochrome P-450 3A. Rifampin, a widely used agent in the treatment of tuberculosis, is also an important inducer of cytochrome P-450 3A metabolism and has the capacity to decrease serum levels of the calcineurin inhibitors. This metabolic interaction makes pharmacologic management of tuberculosis-infected transplant patients more complex and can result in a higher risk of acute rejection caused by decreased levels of the immunosuppressant in the blood. The authors present a case of a renal transplant patient with a soft tissue infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis who was treated with rifabutin instead of rifampin, with excellent results in terms of graft survival and overall survival. The use of rifabutin allowed the authors to achieve better control of circulating immunosuppressant levels and a lower probability of acute graft rejection.

  10. [Complications of pediatric renal transplantation].

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Sandes, Ana Rita; Azevedo, Sara; Stone, Rosário; Almeida, Margarida


    Introdução: A transplantação renal é a terapêutica de eleição na criança com doença renal crónica terminal, evidenciando impacto positivo na sobrevida e qualidade de vida dos doentes. Não é, no entanto, isenta de complicações, algumas com importante morbilidade. Os autores pretendem caracterizar o perfil de complicações pós transplantação renal em doentes pediátricos (até 18 anos).Material e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos doentes submetidos a transplantação renal e seguidos na Unidade de Nefrologia Pediátrica entre Setembro de 1995 e Agosto de 2010. Dados obtidos dos processos clínicos: características demográficas, etiologia da doença renal crónica terminal, terapêutica de substituição renal, mortalidade e perda de enxertos, complicações cirúrgicas, infecciosas e não infecciosas (rejeição aguda e crónica, recidiva da doença de base, alterações metabólicas e factores de risco cardiovascular). Análise estatística descritiva simples.Resultados: Foram incluídas 78 crianças transplantadas (48,7% sexo masculino), com idade mediana à data da transplantaçãorenal de 12 anos (2 - 18). A maioria fez previamente diálise peritoneal: 49 (62,6%). Cinco doentes (6,4%) foram transplantados sem diálise prévia. A mediana do tempo de seguimento após transplante foi 37,5 meses (1 - 169). As principais etiologias de doença renal crónica terminal foram: uronefropatias (41%) e glomerulopatias (28,2%). As complicações infecciosas ocorreram em 74,4%; infecçõesvirais em 56,4%, sendo a mais prevalente a infecção citomegalovírus (39,7%); infecções bacterianas em 53,8% (na maioria infecções urinárias em doentes urológicos). Outras complicações: 1) factores de risco para doença cardiovascular: hipertensão arterial em 85,9%; dislipidémia em 16,7% e diabetes de novo em 7,7%; 2) episódios de rejeição aguda em 32,1% e nefropatia crónica do enxerto em 17,9%; 3) complicações relacionáveis com a cirurgia em 16

  11. Pulmonary Infection In Renal Transplant Recipients

    Rassulineiad M


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is ideal treatment of chronic renal failure. Pulmonary infection is a common and serious post transplant infection requiring hospitalization and is associated with high mortality. Increased susceptibility to infection is due to a decrease in the patients' immunological response caused by immunosuppression through drug administration, and by other influences."nMaterials and Methods: This study was case series and prospective, from July 2001 to July 2002 in Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran."nResults: 164 renal transplant recipients were studied, 14 patients (8.5% had pulmonary infection, 11 of them (78.6% were female and 3 (21.4% were male. The mean age of them was 42.6 years. The patients were followed up for 9 to 12 months. All patients were on triple immunosuppressive regimens. The interval between transplantation and the appearance of pneumonia was 2 months to 10 years. The time of beginning infection in 3 cases (21.4% was between 1 to 6 months post transplantation, 11 cases (78.6% were occurred beyond 6 months after transplantation. In 7 cases (50%, pulmonary infection was occurred during first year after transplantation. None of the 14 patients developed pulmonary infection in first month after transplantation. BAL were used in 6 cases (42.8% of pulmonary infection, and organism were detected in 5 of them (83.3%. The most common clinical feature was fever. Six cases were due to mycobacterium tuberculosis (42.9%, this organism was the most common ethiology of pneumonia. In this study tuberculosis was seen in 3.6% of renal transplant recipients. One patient had pulmonary mucormycosis. All patients with pulmonary TB were cured, and other cases with unknown case, were cured with empirical treatment."nConclusion: Our finding indicate the invasive diagnostic procedures are required in order to earlier and reliable diagnosis and then better outcome of transplantation."n"n"n"n"n"n"n 

  12. Opportunistic infections in a renal transplant recipient

    Vijaya V. Mysorekar


    Full Text Available With the present progress in transplantation procedures, there is an improvement in patient and allograft survival. However, the immunosuppression necessary to sustain the allograft predisposes these transplant recipients to infection, which is now a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a 30-year-old renal transplant recipient with two opportunistic infections, namely, primary cutaneous aspergillosis and intestinal tuberculosis, with terminal enterococcal pleuritis and peritonitis. Control of the degree of immunosuppression, and prompt recognition and treatment of infection are vital for successful organ transplantation.

  13. Use of PCR and PCR-SSP for detection of urinary donor-origin DNA in renal tran splant recipients with acute rejection

    张志宏; 大河内信弘; 岗崎肇; 郭应禄


    Objective To analyze the urine of renal recipients for the presence of donor DNA in an attempt to establish an alternative diagnostic means of acute rejection.Methods Sixty-four renal transplant recipients were examined. Thirty-seven were norma lafter transplantation, while 22 others developed acute rejection, based on ser um creatinine levels and/or needle biopsy findings of the graft. Five developed drug-induced renal dysfunction. In female recipients with a male graft, we ex amined urine for the presence of Y chromosome (SRY and DYZ-1) and in recipients receiving an HLA mismatched graft, we looked for HLA-DR gene (DRB1) using PCR .Results Among the 14 female recipients with male grafts demonstrating stable renal function, only one was positive for SRY and DYZ-1 on the Y chromosome. However, SRY and DYZ-1 were found in the urine of four female patients with acute rejection , but these DNA fragments were not detected in 3 of the 4 after anti-rejection therap y. The last patient was referred to hemodialysis. Of 23 recipients of a graft from HLA mismatch donors with stable renal function, DRB1 was negative in 21 (91 %). Of 18 patients with acute rejection, DRB1 was positive in 16 (89%) and nega tive in 2. These DNA fragments were no longer found in 13 patients after anti -rejection therapy. In all patients with drug induced renal dysfunction, donor -derived DNA was negative.Conclusions Presence of door specific DNA in the urine of the recipient is strongly associat ed with acute rejection. Analysis of DNA derived from donor cells in urine was an effective and accurate method for the diagnosis of acute rejection of a renal transplant.

  14. Five years renal transplantation data: Single-center experience from Iraq

    Ala A Ali


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. In Iraq, renal transplantation started in 1973 and has continued until now with live donor transplantation, since deceased donor transplant program is not approved as yet. Long-term transplant data are still scarce. The aim of our study is to present data on transplantation and medical follow-up at one year and, survival analysis at one, three and five years. A total of 250 renal transplantations were performed at the Nephrology and Renal Transplantation Center, Baghdad between January 2009 and January 2014. It is a living donor, blood group compatible donor program. All patients received triple immunosuppression (calcineurine inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolic acid, and steroid. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the survival rate. There were 92 live related donors, 143 unrelated donors, and 15 spouse donors. The mean age was 34.07 ± 12.2 years. The one-year graft survival for related and unrelated donor transplants was 98.9% and 91.8%, respectively. Graft survival was lower (82.9% in recipients with acute rejection episodes. The patient survival at one-year was 94%. The three-year graft and patient survival was 91% and 90%, respectively, and five-year survival for grafts and patients was 87.1% and 88%, respectively. The outcome of the renal transplantation in Iraq is improving. Long-term patient follow-up needs more meticulous attention. The development of renal transplant registry is critical for future planning. Moreover, renal transplantation practice in Iraq needs more social, religious, and governmental support.

  15. Nephro and neurotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors and mechanisms of rejections: A review on tacrolimus and cyclosporin in organ transplantation.

    Tolou-Ghamari, Zahra


    In the meadow of medical sciences substituting a diseased organ with a healthy one from another individual, dead or alive, to allow a human to stay alive could be consider as the most string event. In this article we review the history of transplantation, mechanisms of rejection, nephro-neurotoxicity of tacrolimus and cyclosporin in organ transplantations. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. The first reference to the concept of organ transplantation and replacement for therapeutic purposes appears to be to Hua-To (136 to 208 A.D), who replaced diseased organs with healthy ones in patients under analgesia induced with a mixture of Indian hemp. In 1936, the first human renal transplant performed by Voronoy in Russia. The first liver transplant in humans was performed on March 1, 1963 by Starzl in Denver, USA. Medawar was the first to assert that rejection was an immunological response, with the inflammatory reaction due to lymphocyte infiltration. Consequently, rational immunosuppressive therapies could inhibit deleterious T-cell responses in an antigen specific manner. Searching related to the history of organ transplantation from mythic to modern times suggests that, to prevent graft rejection, minimize nephro and neuro toxicity monitoring of immunosupressive concentrations could provide an invaluable and essential aid in adjusting dosage to ensure adequate immunosuppression.

  16. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo


    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Pregnancy outcome in renal transplant recipients.

    Kuvacić, I; Sprem, M; Skrablin, S; Kalafatić, D; Bubić-Filipi, L; Milici D


    To correlate pregnancy outcome with complications in pregnancy and transplantation-to-pregnancy interval in renal transplant recipients in Croatia. Data on 23 pregnancies after prepregnancy stabilization of blood pressure and normalization of graft function were retrospectively analyzed. The mean interval between transplantation and conception was 3.1 years. Primary renal disease was chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, chronic pyelonephritis in 7 and agenesis of right kidney and stenosis of left renal artery in 1 patient. There were 10 term and 5 preterm deliveries, 6 induced and 2 spontaneous abortions. The mean gestational age was 38.1 weeks and the mean newborn birthweight was 3015 g. The prematurity rate was 21.7%. Patients with arterial hypertension in pregnancy, elevated serum creatinine level and bacteriuria, as well as those with conception occurring less than 2 years after transplantation, had a higher rate of therapeutic and spontaneous abortions, preterm deliveries and low birth weight infants. The interval between transplantation and conception, as well as allograft function during pregnancy, seem to be of great importance for successful obstetric outcome in renal transplant patients.

  18. Renal transplantation in Nepal: The first year′s experience

    Chalise Pawan


    Full Text Available A successful renal transplantation service was started in Nepal at the Tribhuvan Univer-sity Teaching Hospital in August 2008, and a continuing regular service is being provided currently to needy people. We report here our experience in thirty five end stage renal disease patients who re-ceived kidneys from close relatives during a one year period. The mean age of donors was 46.7 years. Seventeen (49% donations were from parents, 13 (37% from spouses, four (11% between siblings and one (3% between mother and daughter in law. Although the left kidney was given preference, right sided donor nephrectomy was needed in five (14% cases. Six (17% donors had minor post-operative problems. The mean age of recipients was 33.2 years, four (11% of whom had pre-emptive renal transplantation. Recipients were immunosuppressed with dacluzimab, prednisolone, mycophena-late, and cyclosporine or tacrolimus. The average time taken for graft implantation was 137 minutes. The mean cold ischemia time and second warm ischemia time were 133 and 36 minutes respectively. Four (11% patients developed urinary tract infection, three (9% had significant hematuria, one (3% developed a peri-transplant abscess, and one (3% had ureteric ischemia and urine leak which required re-exploration in the early post-operative period. Four patients (11% developed acute rejection of which three were cell- mediated rejection and one was antibody-mediated. There were two (6% deaths, one due to transplant-related sepsis and the other due to subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of a posterior communicating artery aneurysm. No kidney has been lost otherwise.

  19. Living donor renal transplantation in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome

    Choi, Ji Yoon; Jung, Joo Hee; Shin, Sung; Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Duck Jong


    Abstract Introduction: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), autoantibodies directed against phospholipid-binding proteins are associated with cause vascular thrombosis. Patients with APS requiring renal transplantation are at risk of early graft loss due to arterial or venous thrombosis, or thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Here, we report 3 cases of successful renal transplantation in patients with APS. Clinical Findings: A 53-year-old man with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) had experienced bilateral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities 16 years ago and was administered warfarin. However, he frequently experienced recurrent DVT despite of anticoagulation therapy. Before the surgery, APS was confirmed based on positive results lupus anticoagulant in serological tests. A 40-year-old man with polycystic kidney disease and a history recurrent DVT tested positive for lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. Lastly, a 42-year-old woman with ESRD was diagnosed with APS 7 years ago. She also developed DVT and tested positive for lupus anticoagulant and anti-B2-glycoprotein 1. The anticoagulation protocol was as follows in all cases: Warfarin was stopped 5 days before living donor renal transplantation and intravenous heparin therapy was started. During surgery, bolus heparin injections (3000 U) were administered to prevent arterial or venous thrombosis. Heparin was substituted with warfarin on postoperative day 4. The third patient (42/F) developed clinical rejection indicated by increased serum creatinine levels and donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and received steroid pulse therapy, plasmapheresis, and rituximab. This treatment restored graft function to within the normal range. The latest graft function in all patients was maintained at normal levels in the outpatient clinic. Conclusions: Living donor renal transplantation may be successful in patients with APS following perioperative anticoagulation therapy. However, because of the high risk of

  20. Effect of pre-transplantation hemoglobin concentration on prognosis of renal transplant recipients

    NA Ning; HONG Liang-qing; MIAO Bin; HUA Xue-feng; HUANG Zheng-yu


    Background For the renal transplant recipients, anemia is one of the common complications and becomes a major medical issue before transplantation. Haemoglobin (Hb) is used as a prognostic indicator, although the optimal pre-transplantation Hb concentration associated with positive prognosis is still controversial. The aim of this study was to detect the optimal Hb concentration on predicting the graft survival and function.Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of the patients who received renal transplantations at our center from January 2004 to June 2008. Patients were divided into two groups: high Hb group (>100 g/L, n=79) and low Hb group (<100 g/L, n=63). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding sex, age, blood type and tissue types. Renal function among the two groups was measured and compared.Panel reacting antigens (PRA) of all the recipients were negative. The effect of preoperative hemoglobin concentration on the postoperative renal function recovery in both groups was further analyzed.Results A total of 14 acute rejection episodes occurred, including 5 patients in the high Hb group (7.9%) and 9 in the low Hb group (11.4%, P >0.05). The serum creatinine level at one-year post-transplantation of the low Hb group was significantly higher than that of the high Hb group ((117.8±36.3) μmol/L vs. (103.1±35.5) μmol/L, P <0.05). For one-year actuarial patient and graft survival, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF), serum creatinine concentrations at 1, 3, 6 months post-transplantation, the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, post-transplantation anemia (PTA) and post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) of both groups, there were no statistically significant differences.Conclusion Pre-transplantation Hb concentration has significant effect on one-year creatinine concentration, but can not significantly affect acute rejection episodes, DGF, PTA, CMV infection

  1. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Jozicic Mirela


    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  2. Head and neck malignancies in Croatian renal transplant recipients

    Basić-Jukić, Nikolina; Bubić-Filipi, Ljubica; Prgomet, Drago; Djanić Hadzibegović, Ana; Bilić, Mario; Kovac, Lana; Kastelan, Zeljko; Pasini, Josip; Mokos, Ivica; Basić-Koretić, Martina; Kes, Petar


    Renal transplantation is associated with increased incidence of cancer. We reviewed a large series of renal transplant recipients to determine the incidence and outcome of patients with malignant changes located at the head and neck...

  3. Renal transplantation in a child with thrombosed inferior vena cava

    Surjeet Kumar


    Full Text Available The external iliac vein is commonly used in renal transplantation for vascular anastomosis of the allograft renal vein. However, there are rare instances when the transplant surgeon may encounter thrombosis of the ilio-caval vein during surgery, making renal transplantation a challenge. Often, these patients are considered unsuitable for renal transplantation. We report a case of thrombosis of the inferior vena cava in an asymptomatic pediatric patient in whom the splenic vein was used, at transplantation, for venous drainage. This case highlights that pre-operative Doppler screening should be performed in all potential renal transplant recipients.

  4. Microsurgical techniques for experimental kidney transplantation and general guidelines to establish studies about transplantation immunology Técnicas microcirúrgicas para transplante renal experimental e condutas para estabelecer experimentos sobre imunologia do transplante

    Paulo Ney Aguiar Martins; Alexander Filatenkov


    Experimental models of organ transplantation played a crucial role to establish the principles of transplantation immunology. The renal transplantation in rodents became the most used model to study the mechanisms of allograft rejection. To perform it, it is necessary to master the microsurgery techniques and the research group should cooperate with other specialists in the field. In this article we review the surgical techniques employed in rats, and we draw guidelines to establish studies a...

  5. 肾移植一年后急性排斥反应时移植肾组织中C4d表达阳性的临床研究%Effects of C4d deposition in peritubular capillary of patients with acute renal allograft rejection one year post-transplant on the prognosis of renal allograft

    蔡明; 许亮; 许晓光; 王强; 李州利; 韩永; 石炳毅


    Objective To analyze C4d deposition in the patients with late acute renal allograft rejection,and explore the role of C4d in grafts survival and grafts loss. Methods Thirty-six patients clinical and pathologically diagnosed as having acute rejection more than one year post-transplant were selected. C4d was detected by immunohistochemistry in renal allograft biopsies. The effect of C4d deposition on long-term graft survival was studied. Results Among 36 recipients with late acute renal allograft rejection, 16 cases were positive for C4d (44.4 %) and 20 negative for C4d (55.6 %). Five cases experienced graft loss in C4d positive group (31.3 %), while 6 cases in C4d negative group (30.0%). There was no significant difference in the graft loss rate between C4d-positive group and C4d-negative group. Log-Rank test demonstrated there was no significant difference in graft survival between C4d-positive group and C4d-negative group. The count of the interstitial infiltrated eosinophils in renal allograft was (9.4 + 4.5) and (2.6 + 1.8) respectively in the C4d-positive group and C4dnegative group (P<0.05). Conclusion C4d deposition in peritubular capillary of the recipients with late acute renal allograft rejection might not be a prognostic marker for graft outcome.%目的 观察肾移植1年后发生急性排斥反应时移植肾组织中补体片段C4d的表达情况,分析其对移植肾功能及预后的影响.方法 选择肾移植时间超过1年,临床诊断为急性排斥反应并经病理穿刺活检证实的肾移植受者36例为研究对象.以第1例受者移植肾组织穿刺时间为观察起点(2006年3月),以此项研究结束时间为观察终点(2010年4月).应用C4d多克隆抗体对移植肾穿刺组织行免疫组织化学染色,检测C4d在移植肾组织中的表达情况;根据检测结果,分为C4d阳性组和阴性组,分析和比较两组在观察时间段内移植肾功能的变化及存活时间.结果 在36例受者

  6. Urolithiasis in renal transplantation: Diagnosis and management

    Elisa Cicerello


    Full Text Available Obiectives: To report our experience of diagnosis and multimodal management of urolithiasis in renal transplantation. Patients and Methods: From January 1995 to December 2012, 953 patients underwent renal transplantation in the Kidney Transplant Unit of Treviso General Hospital. Ten (10% of them developed urinary calculi and were referred at our institution. Their mode of presentation, investigation and treatment were recorded. Results: Seven had renal and 3 ureteral calculi. Urolithiasis was incidentally discovered on routine ultrasound in 6 patients, 1 presented with oliguria, 1 with anuria and acute renal failure and in 2 urolithiasis was found at removal of the ureteral stent. Nephrostomy tube was placed in 5 patients. Hypercalcemia with hyperparathyroidism (HPT was present in 5 patients and hyperuricemia in 3. Two patients were primary treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL and one of them was stone-free after two sessions. Two patients, one with multiple pielocaliceal calculi and the other with staghorn calculus in the lower calyx, were treated with percutaneous nephrolitothotomy (PCNL. Three patients were treated by ureteroscopy (URS and in one of them two treatments were carried out. One patient had calculus impacted in the uretero-vesical anastomosis and surgical ureterolithotomy with re-do ureterocystoneostomy was performed after failure of URS. Two patients with calculi discovered at removal of the ureteral stent were treated by URS. Conclusions: The incidence of urolithiasis in renal transplantation is uncommon. In the most of patients the condition occurs without pain. Metabolic anomalies and medical treatment after renal transplantation may cause stone formation. Advancements in endourology and interventional radiology have influenced the management of urolithiasis that can be actually treated with a minimal incidence of risk for the renal allograft.

  7. Pregnancy and contraceptive issues in renal transplant recipients.

    Karkar, Ayman


    Fertility is improved within months and conception is achieved within one to six years after kidney transplantation. Pregnancy is safe and has little effect on long-term graft survival, but has increased maternal and fetal risks. Pregnancy is contraindicated in the first two years post-kidney transplantation due to increased risk of acute rejections and higher doses of immunosuppressive drugs. Poor renal function, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and hypertension are other contraindications. Family planning and counseling, and consideration of a suitable contraceptive method are essential before transplantation. Tubal ligation and vasectomy are permanent contraceptives with the least failure results. Combined pills are highly effective and are among the lowest failure rate contraceptives, but they interact with cyclosporine, and are contraindicated in patients with thromboembolism and deep vein thrombosis. Progesterone-only minipill has the advantage of avoiding the risks associated with estrogen, but has a higher failure rate than the combined pills. The barrier methods (condom and diaphragm) are effective and safe contraceptives and can prevent sexually transmitted diseases, but require motivated couples. Intra uterine devices are convenient contraceptives, but have higher failure rate and are associated with increased incidence of pelvic infection. Pregnancy in renal transplant recipients should be managed by a multidisciplinary approach in a tertiary centre.

  8. Pregnancy and Contraceptive Issues in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Karkar Ayman


    Full Text Available Fertility is improved within months and conception is achieved within one to six years after kidney transplantation. Pregnancy is safe and has little effect on long-term graft survival, but has increased maternal and fetal risks. Pregnancy is contraindicated in the first two years post-kidney transplantation due to increased risk of acute rejections and higher doses of immunosuppressive drugs. Poor renal function, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and hypertension are other contraindications. Family planning and counseling, and consideration of a suitable contraceptive method are essential before transplantation. Tubal ligation and vasectomy are permanent contraceptives with the least failure results. Combined pills are highly effective and are among the lowest failure rate contraceptives, but they interact with cyclosporine, and are contraindicated in patients with thromboembolism and deep vein thrombosis. Progesterone-only minipill has the advantage of avoiding the risks associated with estrogen, but has a higher failure rate than the combined pills. The barrier methods (condom and diaphragm are effective and safe contraceptives and can prevent sexually transmitted diseases, but require motivated couples. Intra uterine devices are convenient contraceptives, but have higher failure rate and are associated with increased incidence of pelvic infection. Pregnancy in renal transplant recipients should be managed by a multidisciplinary approach in a tertiary centre.

  9. Renal transplantation using external continent urinary diversion.

    Lucon, A M; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Pestana, J O; Arap, S


    A 29-year-old man born with bladder exstrophy presented with end stage renal failure many years after ileal conduit diversion. Bilateral nephrectomy and continent external urinary diversion were performed, and 1.5 months later a cadaveric kidney was grafted into the right iliac fossa. The patient was well at 18 months with a serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg./dl. and he was completely dry with 4 or 5 daily catheterizations. Although followup is still short, renal transplantation with drainage into an external continent urinary diversion permits excellent quality of life and good renal function. Therefore, this alternative is worth consideration whenever other reconstructive alternatives are not possible in candidates for renal transplantation.

  10. [De novo tumours of renal transplants].

    Hétet, J F; Rigaud, J; Dorel-Le Théo, M; Láuté, F; Karam, G; Blanchet, P


    Kidney cancer occurs rarely and late in renal transplants. The lack of grafts and the increasing age of the cadaver donors are likely to result in an increasing number of such cancers. To date, the treatment of choice is the transplant removal. Nevertheless partial nephrectomy may be discussed in selected cases. Ultrasonographic screening should allow detection of low volume tumours suitable for partial nephrectomy. Alternative techniques (radiofrequency, cryoablation) are to be assessed in such patients.

  11. Cutaneous histoplasmosis in renal transplant recipients.

    Sun, N Z; Augustine, J J; Gerstenblith, M R


    Cutaneous histoplasmosis is a rare entity, although it can be seen in a substantial portion of renal transplant recipients with disseminated disease. The prognosis of disseminated disease is worse than isolated cutaneous involvement, and significant delays in diagnosis are reported. We reviewed reports of cutaneous histoplasmosis with and without dissemination in the setting of renal transplantation to examine incidence, timing of diagnosis, clinical features, and prognosis. Remarkable morphologic variability and the non-specific appearance of skin findings suggest that tissue culture is required for definitive diagnosis. Cutaneous lesions represent an easily accessible source for early diagnosis.

  12. Brucellosis in a renal transplant recipient.

    Ting, I W; Ho, M W; Sung, Y J; Tien, N; Chi, C Y; Ho, H C; Huang, C C


    Brucellosis is one of the most common systemic zoonotic diseases transmitted by consumption of unpasteurized dairy products or by occupational contact with infected animals. Brucellosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. Only 3 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of brucellosis with hematologic and hepatobiliary complications in a patient 3 years after renal transplantation. The mean time from transplantation to the diagnosis of brucellosis in these 4 reported patients was 5.1 years (range 17 months to 13 years). All patients had fever and constitutional symptoms, and all attained clinical cure after combination antibiotic therapy. Given the small number of patients, further study is needed to identify the characteristics of brucellosis in renal transplant recipients. Drug interactions and acute renal failure developed in our patient during antibiotic treatment. Therefore, we should monitor the levels of immunosuppressive agents frequently. Several studies have shown in vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis to tigecycline. In our patient, fever finally subsided after tigecycline administration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tigecycline using Etest was 0.094 μg/mL. Tigecycline may be a potential option for treatment of brucellosis in the setting of transplantation.

  13. Bilateral Psoas Haematomata Complicating Renal Transplantation

    Jacob A. Akoh


    Full Text Available Background. The challenge in managing patients undergoing renal transplantation is how to achieve optimum levels of anticoagulation to avoid both clotting and postoperative bleeding. We report a rare case of severe postoperative retroperitoneal bleeding including psoas haematomata complicating renal transplantation. Case Report. SM, a 55-year-old female, had a past history of aortic valve replacement, cerebrovascular event, and thoracic aortic aneurysm and was on long-term warfarin that was switched to enoxaparin 60 mg daily a week prior to her living donor transplantation. Postoperatively, she was started on a heparin infusion, but this was complicated by a large retroperitoneal bleed requiring surgical evacuation on the first postoperative day. Four weeks later, she developed features compatible with acute femoral neuropathy and a CT scan revealed bilateral psoas haematomata. Following conservative management, she made steady progress and was discharged home via a community hospital 94 days after transplantation. At her last visit 18 months after transplantation, she had returned to full fitness with excellent transplant function. Conclusion. Patients in established renal failure who require significant anticoagulation are at increased risk of bleeding that may involve prolonged hospitalisation and more protracted recovery and patients should be carefully counselled about this.

  14. Expression of Cytokines in Acute Heart Transplantation Rejection

    XIA Jiahong; XU Lei; YANG Chenyuan


    The expression and changes of local cytokines network were detected in heart transplantation in rats, so as to determine the role of cytokines in the acute rejection of rats of heart transplantation. Allografts were divided into 4 groups (n=12 in each group): group A (control), group B (IL-2 monoclonal antibody-treated), group C (CsA-treated) and group D (IL-2 monoclonal antibody+CsA-treated). Hearts from DA rats were transplanted into a cervical location in Wistar recipients. The local expression of IL-1β, IL-2, CD25, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα and INFγ was detected at day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 14 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the survival time of allografts was 8.3±1.7, 29.2±7.1 (P<0.05), 26.4±5.7 (P<0.05) and 55.0±10.6 (P<0.01) days respectively in groups A, B, C and D. The expression of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10and IFNγ was up-regulated, and that of IL-2, CD25, IL-5, IL-6 and TNFα was significantly inhibited in group A; The expression of IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IFNγ was up-regulated, and that of IL-2,IL-4 and TNFα was significantly down-regulated in group B; The expression of IL-1β, IL-2, CD25,IL-5, TNFα and IFNγ was up-regulated, and that of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 was significantly down-regulated in group C; The expression of IL-14, Il-5, IL-6 and Il-10 was up-regulated, and that of IL-1β, IL-2, CD25, TNFα and IFNγ was significantly down-regulated in group D. In conclusion,cytokines play an important role in the development of acute transplantation rejection. Different cytokines play different roles in different local environments.

  15. Total lymphoid irradiation in heart transplantation: Adjunctive treatment for recurrent rejection

    Frist, W.H.; Winterland, A.W.; Gerhardt, E.B.; Merrill, W.H.; Atkinson, J.B.; Eastburn, T.E.; Stewart, J.R.; Eisert, D.R. (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (USA))


    In the face of recurrent heart transplant graft rejection refractory to all conventional immunotherapy, retransplantation is customary treatment. The case of a heart transplant recipient unsuitable for retransplantation whose recurrent rejection was successfully treated with postoperative total lymphoid irradiation is described.

  16. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: An Evolving Entity in Heart Transplantation

    Sharon Chih


    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is gaining increasing recognition as a major complication after heart transplantation, posing a significant risk for allograft failure, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and poor survival. AMR results from activation of the humoral immune arm and the production of donor-specific antibodies (DSA that bind to the cardiac allograft causing myocardial injury predominantly through complement activation. The diagnosis of AMR has evolved from a clinical diagnosis involving allograft dysfunction and the presence of DSA to a primarily pathologic diagnosis based on histopathology and immunopathology. Treatment for AMR is multifaceted, targeting inhibition of the humoral immune system at different levels with emerging agents including proteasome and complement inhibitors showing particular promise. While there have been significant advances in our current understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of AMR, further research is required to determine optimal diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and timing of treatment.

  17. Clinical and pathological analysis of acute rejection following orthotopic liver transplantation

    MA Yi; WANG Guo-dong; HE Xiao-shun; LI Jun-liang; ZHU Xiao-feng; HU Rui-de


    Background Acute rejection is one of the most important factors for prognosis following liver transplantation. With the use of potent immunosuppressants, acute rejection does not always present typical manifestations. Moreover, other complications often occur concomitantly after liver transplantation, which makes early diagnosis of acute rejection more difficult. Acute rejection is best diagnosed by liver biopsy. Differentiation of clinical manifestations and pathological features plays an important role in achieving individualized immunosuppressive treatment and prolonging long term survival of patients given orthotopic liver transplants.Methods From January 2004 to December 2006, 516 orthotopic liver transplantations were performed at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University. For patients who suffered acute rejection, clinical manifestations, histopathological features, diagnosis and anti-rejection treatment were summarized and analyzed. Results In 86 cases (16.7%), of the 516 recipients, 106 episodes of acute rejection occurred, which included 9 with histopathological borderline changes, 36 Banff Ⅰ rejections, 48 Banff Ⅱ and 13 Banff Ⅲ. Among these, 36 were cured by adjusting the dose of immunosuppressant and 65 were reversed by methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Five were methylprednisolone resistant, 3 of whom were given OKT3 treatment and 2 underwent liver retransplantation. Conclusions Due to potent immunosuppressive agents, acute rejection following an orthotopic liver transplantation lacks typical clinical manifestations and pathological features. Acute rejection is best diagnosed by liver biopsy. Designing rational individualized immunosuppressive regimen based on clinical and pathological features of acute rejection plays an important role in prolonging long term survival of patients.

  18. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico;


    To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients.......To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients....

  19. Basiliximab induced non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema in two pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    Dolan, Niamh


    We report two cases of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema as a complication of basiliximab induction therapy in young pediatric renal transplant patients identified following a retrospective review of all pediatric renal transplant cases performed in the National Paediatric Transplant Centre, Childrens University Hospital, Temple Street, Dublin, Ireland. Twenty-eight renal transplantations, of which five were living-related (LRD) and 23 were from deceased donors (DD), were performed in 28 children between 2003 and 2006. In six cases, transplantations were pre-emptive. Immunosuppression was induced pre-operatively using a combination of basiliximab, tacrolimus and methylprednisolone in all patients. Basiliximab induction was initiated 2 h prior to surgery in all cases and, in 26 patients, basiliximab was re-administered on post-operative day 4. Two patients, one LRD and one DD, aged 6 and 11 years, respectively, developed acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema within 36 h of surgery. Renal dysplasia was identified as the primary etiological factor for renal failure in both cases. Both children required assisted ventilation for between 4 and 6 days. While both grafts had primary function, the DD transplant patient subsequently developed acute tubular necrosis and was eventually lost within 3 weeks due to thrombotic microangiopathy and severe acute antibody-mediated rejection despite adequate immunosuppression. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a potentially devastating post-operative complication of basiliximab induction therapy in young pediatric patients following renal transplantation. Early recognition and appropriate supportive therapy is vital for patient and, where possible, graft survival.

  20. Diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation: characteristics, outcome, and risk factors.

    Vesco, L; Busson, M; Bedrossian, J; Bitker, M O; Hiesse, C; Lang, P


    The incidence and risk factors of posttransplant diabetes mellitus were evaluated in 1325 consecutive renal transplant recipients. Thirty-three (2.5%) patients developed diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. Onset occurred a mean of 5.7 +/- 1.5 months following transplantation. The patients were compared with 33 paired-control kidney recipients. The patients were significantly older than the controls (46.8 +/- 1.9 vs. 40.6 +/- 2.1 years) (Pdiabetes mellitus, the body mass index, ethnic origin, HLA phenotype, and the total doses of steroids and cyclosporine were similar in the two groups. The number of patients with at least one rejection episode was significantly higher among the diabetic patients (21 versus 9) but the number of episodes was similar. Diabetes occurred a mean of 1.1 +/- 0.3 months following rejection treatment. Intravenous pulsed prednisolone was always used for anti-rejection therapy. Insulin was withdrawn in 16 cases after a mean of 4 +/- 1 months, independently of steroid dosage reductions. Actuarial patient and graft survival rates were not significantly different, although 6-year outcome tended to be better in the controls (86% versus 93% for patient survival and 67% versus 93% for graft survival). This study suggests that pulsed steroid therapy might be the critical factor in the onset of posttransplant diabetes and that the risk is increased in older patients with chronic interstitial nephrititis.

  1. Diagnostic radiology of early complications after renal transplantation

    Looser, C.M.; Terrier, F.; Scheidegger, J.R.; Frey, F.J.; Gertsch, P.; Lerut, J.; Revel, D.


    Postoperative complications after renal transplantation, such as hematomas, abscesses, urinomas and lymphoceles and obstruction of the ureter, can be diagnosed by means of ultra sonography. Early vascular complications, such as venous thrombosis and arterial occlusion or stenosis, can be recognized by duplex ultrasonography and accurately depicted by angiography to allow planning of surgical intervention. Stenosis of the renal artery is amenable to treatment by percutaneous angioplasty. Parenchymatous complications (acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, cyclosporin-Atoxicity) can cause changes in the intrarenal flow patterns at duplex ultra sonography, but this examination does not allow accurate diagnosis and differentiation of these changes. Magnetic resonance imaging is a very promising method for the differential diagnosis of parenchymatous complications. (orig.) .

  2. Renal transplantation in the Roma ethnicity-do all patients have equal chance for transplantation?

    Basic-Jukic, N; Novosel, D; Juric, I; Kes, P


    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in access to kidney transplantation worldwide. The Roma people are often socially deprived, uneducated, and unemployed. We investigated all dialysis centers in Croatia to determine number of Roma people on dialysis as well as their access and reasons for eventual failure to enter the waiting list. There are 9463 registered Roma people in Croatia, however, the estimated number reaches 40,000. Twenty-five Roma patients required renal replacement therapy, giving a prevalence of 830 per million people (pmp), compared with 959 pmp among the general population. Average age at the start of dialysis was 29 vs 67 years; waiting time to kidney transplantation was 48.9 vs 53.5 months; mean age at the time of transplantation was 33.18 vs 48.01 years in Roma versus the general population respectively. One patient received a kidney allograft from a living unrelated spousal donor, and all others from deceased individuals. Patients were followed for 51.5 months (range, 6-240). The most frequent post-transplant complications were urinary tract infections. One patient lost a graft due to severe acute rejection caused by noncompliance. Two young patients were also noncompliant with immunosuppressive medications. One patient died with a functioning graft at 20 years after transplantation due to cardiovascular disease. Among 14 Roma patients currently been treated with hemodialysis in Croatia, 10 are old with clinical contraindications for transplantation; 1 is on the waiting list; 1 left hospitalization for pretransplant evaluation twice; 1 refused evaluation; and 1 is currently being evaluated for the waiting list. The Roma people have excellent access to renal transplantation in Croatia. Many of them refuse evaluation. More efforts should be invested in their education to improve compliance and their post-transplant outcomes.

  3. [Renal transplantation program at the Centenario Hospital Miguel Hidalgo in Aguascalientes, Mexico].

    Reyes-Acevedo, Rafael; Romo-Franco, Luis; Delgadillo-Castañeda, Rodolfo; Orozco-Lozano, Iraida; Melchor-Romo, Miriam; Gil-Guzmán, Enrique; Lupercio-Luévano, Salvador; Cervantes, Sandra; Dávila, Imelda; Chew-Wong, Alfredo


    Miguel Hidalgo Hospital in Aguascalientes is dependent from the Federal Secretary of Health and operates in integrity with State health system in Aguascalientes. It capacity is based on 132 censored beds and 71 no censored beds. Is considered a specialty hospital in the region of Bajío. Renal transplant program activity was initiated in 1990 and gives care for adult and pediatric population. Retrospective, comparative and longitudinal study to describe and analyze our experience. Data base and clinical charts of renal transplant recipients were reviewed. Age, gender, date of transplant, etiology of renal disease, type of donor, HLA compatibility and PRA, immunosuppressive therapy, acute rejection, serum creatinina, graft loss and mortality were registered. Statistical analysis included 2, unpaired Student T test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with Log Rank test. Cox Analysis was also done. 1050 renal transplants were done from November 1990 to June 2011. 50 were excluded because follow-up was not longer than 3 months. 1000 consecutive renal transplant patients from January 1995 to June 2011 were included for analysis. Patients were divided in 2 groups: group A transplanted January 1995 to December 2004; group B transplanted January 2005 to June 2011. Etiology for end stage renal disease is unknown in 61% of cases, 11% developed renal disease to diabetes mellitus. 93% patient survival was observed at median follow-up and 84.9% graft survival at median follow-up (6 years). Biopsy proven acute rejection in group A 19.9 vs. 10% in group B. Two haplotype matching shows 92% graft survival. Diabetic patients exhibit 73% graft survival vs. other as hypertension (87%). PRA >0 and serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL increase risk for graft loss according to Cox analysis. CONCLUSION. Results are comparable to international data. Importance of developing regional transplant centers is emphasized.

  4. The outcome of living related kidney transplantation with multiple renal arteries

    Hafiz Shahzad Ashraf


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to compare the surgical complications and short-term outcome of renal transplants with single and multiple renal artery grafts. We reviewed the records of 105 kidney transplantations performed consecutively at our institution from July 2006 to May 2010. The data of 33 (31.4% renal transplants with multiple arteries were compared with the 72 transplants with single artery (68.6%, and the incidence of surgical complications, post-transplant hypertension, acute tubular necrosis, acute graft rejection, mean creatinine level, and patient and graft survival was analyzed. We further subdivided the study recipients into three groups: group A (n = 72 with one-renal-artery allografts and one-artery anastomosis, group B (n = 6 with mul-tiple-artery allografts with single-artery anastomosis, and group C (n = 27 with multiple-artery allografts with multiple arterial anasatomosis, and compared their outcome. No significant diffe-rences were observed among the recipients of all the three groups regarding early vascular and urological complications, post-transplant hypertension, acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, creatinine level, and graft and patient survival. The mean cold ischemia time in groups B and C was significantly higher (P <0.05. One patient in group A developed renal vein thrombosis resulting in graft nephrectomy. None of the patients with multiple renal arteries developed either vascular or urological complications. In conclusion, kidney transplantation using grafts with mul-tiple renal arteries is equally safe as using grafts with single renal artery, regarding vascular, urological complications, as well as patient and graft survival.

  5. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C


    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Chronic Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathy following Renal Transplantation

    Younger, D. S.; Stuart Orsher


    The clinical, laboratory, and treatment findings of a patient with chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy (CADP) in association with renal transplantation are described. Like the present case, many such patients have been described under the rubric of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP).

  7. Emerging role of gasotransmitters in renal transplantation

    Snijder, P. M.; van den Berg, E.; Whiteman, M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Leuvenink, H. G. D.; van Goor, H.


    Once patients with kidney disease progress to end-stage renal failure, transplantation is the preferred option of treatment resulting in improved quality of life and reduced mortality compared to dialysis. Although 1-year survival has improved considerably, graft and patient survival in the long ter

  8. Treatment of Steroid-Resistant Acute Renal Allograft Rejection With Alemtuzumab

    van den Hoogen, M. W. F.; Hesselink, D. A.; van Son, W. J.; Weimar, W.; Hilbrands, L. B.


    Steroid-resistant renal allograft rejections are commonly treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG), but alemtuzumab could be an effective, safe and more convenient alternative. Adult patients with steroid-resistant renal allograft rejection treated with alemtuzumab (1530 mg s.c. on 2 subseq

  9. Treatment of steroid-resistant acute renal allograft rejection with alemtuzumab

    Hoogen, M.W. van den; Hesselink, D.A.; Son, W.J. van; Weimar, W.; Hilbrands, L.B.


    Steroid-resistant renal allograft rejections are commonly treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG), but alemtuzumab could be an effective, safe and more convenient alternative. Adult patients with steroid-resistant renal allograft rejection treated with alemtuzumab (15-30 mg s.c. on 2 subse

  10. Denovo Post Renal Transplantation Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Halim M


    Full Text Available Post-renal transplant de-novo inflammatory bowel disease (IBD may develop despite the presence of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, a drug used for treatment of IBD, in the immunosuppressive regimen. A 39-year-old man received live unrelated renal transplant, and was started postoperatively on prednisolone, MMF, and tacrolimus, which was changed to sirolimus when he developed diabetes mellitus two months post-transplant. Nine months post-transplant, the patient developed recurrent attacks of bloody diarrhea and ischio-rectal abscesses complicated by anal fistulae not responding to routine surgical treatment. Colonoscopy diagnosed IBD, a Crohn′s disease-like pattern. The patient was treated with steroids and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA in addition to a two months course of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. He became asymptomatic and rectal lesions healed within one month of treatment. The patient continued to be asymptomatic, and he maintained normal graft function on the same immunosuppressive treatment in addition to 5-ASA. We conclude that de-novo IBD disease can develop in renal transplant recipients in spite of immunosuppressive therapy including MMF.

  11. Impact of Depression on Long-Term Outcome After Renal Transplantation : A Prospective Cohort Study

    Zelle, D.M.; Dorland, H.F.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Corpeleijn, E.; Gans, R.O.B.; van der Heide, J.J.H.; van Son, W.J.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.


    Background. Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end stage renal disease. Although there is more depression in wait-listed versus transplant patients, depression persists after transplantation. We investigated the determinants of depression in renal transplantation recipients (RTRs)

  12. Sequential renal and bone marrow transplants in a child with Fanconi anemia.

    Vincent, Carol L; Primack, William A; Hipps, John; Kasow, Kimberly A


    FA is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by small stature and renal abnormalities. FA can lead to progressive bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndrome, or acute leukemia. Using a multidisciplinary team approach, we managed a 3-yr-old boy with FA who simultaneously developed renal and hematopoietic failure. Because renal function was insufficient to support the conditioning regimen for HCT, we performed a deceased donor renal transplant in December 2012 prior to HCT with the known risk of graft-versus-graft rejection of the donor kidney. Seven months later he underwent allogeneic HCT. He obtained myeloid engraftment on day +11 and peripheral blood chimerism demonstrated all donor by day +21. He developed asymptomatic CMV reactivation and despite antirejection medications, mild skin graft-versus-host disease. He has maintained excellent renal function and remains transfusion independent with full hematopoietic recovery. He has not experienced any renal rejection episodes nor developed donor-specific antibodies toward his renal donor. Peripheral blood chimerism remains completely HCT donor. He is clinically well, now greater than two and a half yr after renal transplant and two yr after HCT. The continuing close collaboration between the Pediatric Nephrology and Bone Marrow Transplant teams is a major factor in this successful outcome.

  13. 111-Indium-labelled platelets for diagnosis of acute kidney transplant rejection and monitoring of prostacyclin anti-rejection treatment

    Leithner, C.; Pohanka, E.; Schwarz, M. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). 2. Medizinische Klinik); Sinzinger, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin); Syre, G. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Pathologisch-Anatomisches Inst.)


    33 patients were examined daily under a gamma camera after weekly injections of 111-In-labelled autologous platelets over a period of at least 4 weeks after transplantation. A group of 33 patients with long-term stable and well-functioning grafts served as controls. By means of a computerized recording technique, platelet trapping in the graft was measured and expressed as platelet-uptake index (PUI). The method worked well for the early diagnosis of acute rejection signified by an increase in PUI, accompanied by a shortening of platelet half life (t/2). 6 patients suffering from acute rejection received infusions of prostacyclin in addition to conventional high-dose methylprednisolone therapy. In 4 cases the PUI decreased again and an improvement in graft function was observed. Prostacyclin infusion treatment was applied also in 12 patients with histologically-proven chronic transplant rejection. Decreased platelet consumption by the graft and a temporary improvement in transplant function were achieved. We suggest that prostacyclin could enrich the possibilities of anti-rejection treatment by providing a tool for the suppression of platelet trapping in the graft. The platelet scan served as a useful method for the early detection of acute rejection, as well as the monitoring of prostacyclin anti-rejection treatment.

  14. Characterization of post transplantation lymphoma in feline renal transplant recipients.

    Durham, A C; Mariano, A D; Holmes, E S; Aronson, L


    The development of malignant neoplasia following solid organ transplantation and immunosuppression is well recognized in man. Post-transplantation malignant tumours include non-melanoma skin cancers, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma and many of these cancers have a known or suspected viral cause. A similar increased incidence of cancer is seen in cats that have received a renal transplant and lymphoma is the predominant neoplasm in this population. This study examines a population of cats that received renal transplants at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine and subsequently developed neoplasia. From 1998 to 2010, 111 cats were transplanted and 25 cats developed cancer (22.5%). Fourteen of the 25 cats were diagnosed with lymphoma (56%), making it the most common tumour in this patient population. The median interval between transplantation and diagnosis of lymphoma was 617 days and the median survival time (MST) following the diagnosis of lymphoma was 2 days. Tissues from seven of these cats were available for histopathological review as either samples collected at necropsy examination (n = 5) or biopsy submissions (n = 2). Five of these cats had multiorgan involvement with sites including the liver, spleen, peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes, small intestine, urinary bladder, heart, mesenteric fat and body wall. Four of the cats with multiorgan disease had involvement of the renal allograft two of which also had lymphoma of the native kidney. All lymphomas were classified as mid to high grade, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which is also the most common lymphoma subtype in human cases of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders.

  15. Patients with a Failed Renal Transplant

    Tülin AKAGÜN


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the best method of renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. On the other hand in the early or late period of transplantation, majority of patients suffer from allograft failure and return to the dialysis. These patients carry the risks of adverse effects of previous immunosuppressive therapy (i.e infections and cancers. Furthermore, worse quality of life and many limitations of dialysis result in psychological problems. The controversial issues in treatment of these patients can be summarized under the headings of : 1- In which stage of allograft failure these patients should return to dialysis? 2- Which is the most appropriate renal replacement therapy after the renal allograft failure? 3- What are the main problems during dialysis practice and how should these problems be managed? 4- How should the immunosupression regimen be managed? 5- What are the indications for transplant nephrectomy? 6- What are the advantages and drawbacks of retransplantation? In this review these problems were discussed. [ Türkçe Özet ] [ PDF ] [ Benzer Makaleler

  16. An assessment of the long-term health outcome of renal transplant recipients in Ireland.

    Al-Aradi, A


    BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation remains the preferred method of renal replacement therapy in terms of patient survival, quality of life and cost. However, patients have a high risk of complications ranging from rejection episodes, infection and cancer, amongst others. AIMS AND METHODS: In this study, we sought to determine the long-term health outcomes and preventive health measures undertaken for the 1,536 living renal transplant patients in Ireland using a self-reported questionnaire. Outcomes were divided into categories, namely, general health information, allograft-related information, immunosuppression-related complications and preventive health measures. RESULTS: The results demonstrate a high rate of cardiovascular, neoplastic and infectious complications in our transplant patients. Moreover, preventive health measures are often not undertaken by patients and lifestyle choices can be poor. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the work needed by the transplantation community to improve patient education, adjust immunosuppression where necessary and aggressively manage patient risk factors.

  17. Macrochimerism in intestinal transplantation: association with lower rejection rates and multivisceral transplants, without GVHD

    Zuber, Julien; Rosen, Sarah; Shonts, Brittany; Sprangers, Ben; Savage, Thomas M.; Richman, Sarah; Yang, Suxiao; Lau, Sai Ping; DeWolf, Susan; Farber, Donna; Vlad, George; Zorn, Emmanuel; Wong, Waichi; Emond, Jean; Levin, Bruce; Martinez, Mercedes; Kato, Tomoaki; Sykes, Megan


    Blood chimerism has been reported sporadically among visceral transplant recipients, mostly in association with graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that a higher degree of mixed chimerism would be observed in multivisceral (MVTx) than in isolated intestinal (iITx) and isolated liver transplant (iLTx) recipients, regardless of GVHD. We performed a longitudinal prospective study investigating multilineage blood chimerism with flow cytometry in 5 iITx and 4 MVTx recipients up to one year post-transplant. Although only one iITx patient experienced GVHD, T-cell mixed chimerism was detected in 8 out of 9 iITx/MVTx recipients. Chimerism was significantly lower in the four subjects who displayed early moderate to severe rejection. Pre-formed high titer donor-specific antibodies, bound in vivo to the circulating donor cells, were associated with an accelerated decline in chimerism. Blood chimerism was also studied in 10 iLTx controls. Among non-sensitized patients, MVTx recipients exhibited greater T and B-cell chimerism than either iITx and iLTx recipients. Myeloid lineage chimerism was present exclusively among iLTx and MVTx (6/13) recipients, suggesting that its presence required the hepatic allograft. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, frequent T cell chimerism without GVHD following visceral transplantation and a possible relationship with reduced rejection rate in MVTx recipients. PMID:25988811

  18. AB95. Epidemiology of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients

    Zhang, Jian; Ma, Linlin; Xie, Zelin; Guo, Yuwen; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Zhu, Yichen; Tian, Ye


    Objective To investigate the incidence and types of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods We searched the CNKI and the Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform using the keywords “renal transplantation” and “malignancy” in Chinese. Data from 3,462 patients who underwent renal transplantation at Beijing Friendship Hospital were combined with data from 26 previous reports describing malignancy rates in 27,170 Chinese renal transplant recipients. Results The c...

  19. Randomized trial of tacrolimus versus cyclosporin microemulsion in renal transplantation.

    Trompeter, Richard; Filler, Guido; Webb, Nicholas J A; Watson, Alan R; Milford, David V; Tyden, Gunnar; Grenda, Ryszard; Janda, Jan; Hughes, David; Ehrich, Jochen H H; Klare, Bernd; Zacchello, Graziella; Bjorn Brekke, Inge; McGraw, Mary; Perner, Ferenc; Ghio, Lucian; Balzar, Egon; Friman, Styrbjörn; Gusmano, Rosanna; Stolpe, Jochen


    This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus (Tac) with the microemulsion formulation of cyclosporin (CyA) in children undergoing renal transplantation. A 6-month, randomized, prospective, open, parallel group study with an open extension phase was conducted in 18 centers from nine European countries. In total, 196 pediatric patients (diarrhea (13.6% vs. 3.2%), hypertrichosis (0.0% vs. 7.5%), flu syndrome (0.0% vs. 5.4%), and gum hyperplasia (0.0% vs. 5.4%). In previously non-diabetic children, the incidence of long-term (>30 days) insulin use was 3.0% (Tac) and 2.2% (CyA). Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was observed in 1 patient in the Tac group and 2 patients in the CyA group. In conclusion, Tac was significantly more effective than CyA microemulsion in preventing acute rejection after renal transplantation in a pediatric population. The overall safety profiles of the two regimens were comparable.

  20. Late antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation during Gram-negative sepsis

    A. de Weerd (Annelies); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); H. van der Hoek (Hans); M. van Groningen (Marian); W. Weimar (Willem); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); M. Agteren (Madelon)


    textabstractBackground: The major challenge in ABO-incompatible transplantation is to minimize antibody-mediated rejection. Effective reduction of the anti-ABO blood group antibodies at the time of transplantation has made ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation a growing practice in our hospital an

  1. Correlation of immunosuppression scheme with renal graft complications detected by dynamic renal scintigraphy; Correlacao do esquema de imunossupressao com complicacoes pos-operatorias de transplantes renais atraves do uso da cintilografia renal dinamica

    Martins, Flavia Paiva Proenca [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico; Goncalves, Renato Teixeira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Transplante Renal; Fonseca, Lea Miriam Barbosa da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gutfilen, Bianca [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Biomedico]. E-mail:


    Dynamic renal scintigraphy allows the diagnosis of complications in patients submitted to organ transplantation, such as perfusion abnormalities, acute tubular necrosis and rejection. In this study we employed {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA scintigraphy to study patients submitted to kidney transplantation. The results obtained and the clinical findings were conjunctively analyzed in order to detect graft rejection or other complications. The type of immunosuppressive scheme used was also correlated with the observed complications. Fifty-five patients submitted to kidney transplantation from 1989 to 1999 were evaluated. All patients with nephrotoxicity received a 3-drug immunosuppressive scheme. In this study, acute rejection was the most frequent complication (40.4%) observed following transplantation. Thirteen of 15 recipients of cadaveric kidney grafts presented acute tubular necrosis. Only one false-positive case was observed when scintigraphy and clinical findings were not concordant. We suggest carrying out renal scintigraphy to follow-up post-transplantation patients. (author)

  2. MicroRNA-10b downregulation mediates acute rejection of renal allografts by derepressing BCL2L11

    Liu, Xiaoyou [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Dong, Changgui [Institute of Molecular Ecology and Evolution, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jiang, Zhengyao [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Wu, William K.K. [Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Matthew T.V. [Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Jie [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Li, Haibin; Qin, Ke [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplantation Medicine Department of Organ Transplantation in Guangzhou Military Region, Institute of Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Nanning, Guangxi 530021 (China); Sun, Xuyong, E-mail: [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplantation Medicine Department of Organ Transplantation in Guangzhou Military Region, Institute of Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Nanning, Guangxi 530021 (China)


    Kidney transplantation is the major therapeutic option for end-stage kidney diseases. However, acute rejection could cause allograft loss in some of these patients. Emerging evidence supports that microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is implicated in acute allograft rejection. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile miRNA expression in normal and acutely rejected kidney allografts. Among 75 identified dysregulated miRNAs, miR-10b was the most significantly downregulated miRNAs in rejected allografts. Transfecting miR-10b inhibitor into human renal glomerular endothelial cells recapitulated key features of acute allograft rejection, including endothelial cell apoptosis, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, and chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2) and chemotaxis of macrophages whereas transfection of miR-10b mimics had opposite effects. Downregulation of miR-10b directly derepressed the expression of BCL2L11 (an apoptosis inducer) as revealed by luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, miR-10b downregulation mediates many aspects of disease pathogenicity of acute kidney allograft rejection. Restoring miR-10b expression in glomerular endothelial cells could be a novel therapeutic approach to reduce acute renal allograft loss. - Highlights: • miR-10b was the most downregulated microRNAs in acutely rejected renal allografts. • miR-10b downregulation triggered glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis. • miR-10b downregulation induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • miR-10b downregulation derepressed its pro-apoptotic target BCL2L11.

  3. Chronic Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Nonhuman Primate Renal Allografts: Validation of Human Histological and Molecular Phenotypes.

    Adam, B A; Smith, R N; Rosales, I A; Matsunami, M; Afzali, B; Oura, T; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, T; Colvin, R B; Mengel, M


    Molecular testing represents a promising adjunct for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Here, we apply a novel gene expression platform in sequential formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from nonhuman primate (NHP) renal transplants. We analyzed 34 previously described gene transcripts related to AMR in humans in 197 archival NHP samples, including 102 from recipients that developed chronic AMR, 80 from recipients without AMR, and 15 normal native nephrectomies. Three endothelial genes (VWF, DARC, and CAV1), derived from 10-fold cross-validation receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, demonstrated excellent discrimination between AMR and non-AMR samples (area under the curve = 0.92). This three-gene set correlated with classic features of AMR, including glomerulitis, capillaritis, glomerulopathy, C4d deposition, and DSAs (r = 0.39-0.63, p < 0.001). Principal component analysis confirmed the association between three-gene set expression and AMR and highlighted the ambiguity of v lesions and ptc lesions between AMR and T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR). Elevated three-gene set expression corresponded with the development of immunopathological evidence of rejection and often preceded it. Many recipients demonstrated mixed AMR and TCMR, suggesting that this represents the natural pattern of rejection. These data provide NHP animal model validation of recent updates to the Banff classification including the assessment of molecular markers for diagnosing AMR. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Renal transplantation in HIV patients: A series of four cases


    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a patient with end-stage renal disease was considered a contraindication for renal transplantation till now despite the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy with the apprehension that immunosuppression would further jeopardize the already compromised immune status of the patients. Renal transplantation in HIV patients is rare in developing countries including ours. Here we report a series of four cases of renal transplantation in HIV p...

  5. Cortex perfusion index: a sensitive detector of acute rejection crisis in transplanted kidneys

    Anaise, D.; Oster, Z.H.; Atkins, H.L.; Arnold, A.N.; Weis, S.; Waltzer, W.C.; Rapaport, F.T.


    Damage to the renal cortical microcirculation, an early event in the course of acute rejection crisis (ARC), usually precedes measurable functional derangements in the transplanted kidney. Direct assessment of cortical blood flow by radionuclide renography may provide a sensitive and reliable index to the diagnosis of ARC, with particular regard to the differential diagnosis of ARC and ATN. Computer generated time-activity curves of global, cortical, and medullary renal blood flow were analyzed in 67 instances (35 patients) of renal allograft dysfunction and correlated with needle biopsy of these kidneys. No increase in cortex perfusion index (CPI), i.e., decrease in cortical perfusion, was found when the patients were suffering from ureteral obstruction or drug and viral nephropathy (mean perfusion index (PI) increase (8%). In contrast, a marked increase in CPI of 193% was noted in ARC. Global and medullary PI increased only 116%. As a result, global and medullary PI were capable of diagnosing ARC in only 73% and 55% of the cases, respectively, whereby cortex PI correctly diagnosed ARC in 94% of the cases. Selective analysis of cortical perfusion may thus enhance the accuracy of (99mTc)DTPA scans (radionuclide renograph) for the early detection of ARC and in differentiating ARC from nonimmunological causes of kidney allograft dysfunction.

  6. Skin Findings in Renal Transplantation Patients

    Demet Kartal


    Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to identify skin findings those were seen in patients who undergone renal transplantation. Methods: Patients who have been followed in Erciyes University Nephrology Hospital renal transplantation outpatient clinic were included in the study. They were evaluated for dermatologic findings during routine controls. Age, gender, transplantation date, identity of organ donor, history of medications, dermatological history and dermatological findings during examination were recorded. Biopsy was performed when needed. Results: In total 94 patients, 25 female (26.6% and 69 male (73.4%, were recruited to the study. Mean age was 36±10 years. The most frequent skin finding was drug-related acne (n=20. Most common infectious disease was verruca (n=17. There were viral disease other than verruca such as herpes zoster (n=3, superficial mycosis such as onychomycosis (n=5, tinea versicolor, tinea pedis and bacterial skin disease (n=2, and paronychia (n=1 and pre-malign lesions such as actinic cheilitis and bowenoid papulosis. Besides these, stria (n=3, kserosis (n=2, cornu cutaneum, café-au-lait spots, sebaceous hyperplasia and seborrheic dermatitis, skin tag, hypertrichosis, unguis incarinatus and calcinosis were other skin findings those were seen. No malign skin lesion was observed in any of patients. Conclusion: Miscellaneous skin lesions should develop in patients those undergone renal transplantation due to long-term utilization of various immunosuppressive drugs.

  7. Renal cancer in kidney transplanted patients.

    Frascà, Giovanni M; Sandrini, Silvio; Cosmai, Laura; Porta, Camillo; Asch, William; Santoni, Matteo; Salviani, Chiara; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Balestra, Emilio; Gallieni, Maurizio


    Renal cancer occurs more frequently in renal transplanted patients than in the general population, affecting native kidneys in 90% of cases and the graft in 10 %. In addition to general risk factors, malignancy susceptibility may be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy, the use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) as compared with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and the length of dialysis treatment. Acquired cystic kidney disease may increase the risk for renal cancer after transplantation, while autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease does not seem to predispose to cancer development. Annual ultrasound evaluation seems appropriate in patients with congenital or acquired cystic disease or even a single cyst in native kidneys, and every 2 years in patients older than 60 years if they were on dialysis for more than 5 years before transplantation. Immunosuppression should be lowered in patients who develop renal cancer, by reduction or withdrawal of CNI. Although more evidence is still needed, it seems reasonable to shift patients from CNI to everolimus or sirolimus if not already treated with one of these drugs, with due caution in subjects with chronic allograft nephropathy.

  8. Pediatric renal transplantation: a single center experience

    João Nascimento


    Full Text Available Introduction: End-stage renal disease in children is associated with numerous comorbidities and with age-specific mortality rates approximately 30 times higher than in healthy children. The first kidney transplantation in children was performed successfully in 1954. Surgical advances and new immunosuppressive medications have greatly improved patient’s and graft’s survival in the last years. Aim: Report Centro Hospitalar do Porto experience in pediatric renal transplantation in the last 30 years. Methods: Epidemiological and clinical data of all patients younger than 18 years, transplanted between January 1984 and August 2013, were collected from our database. In order to analyze the transplantation outcome in our center we compare graft survival between decades (1984-89 / 1990-99 / 2000-09 / 2010-13. We also compare graft survival between two age groups of patients (0-10 years ; 11-17 years at the time of surgery. Results: One hundred thirty-nine patients (58.3% male underwent 147 renal transplants (6.8% live donors. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (56.5% and glomerulonephritis (18.4% were the major causes of renal disease. Uncensored graft survivals rates at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years were 84.7%, 71.1%, 60.0% and 51.0%, while patient survivals were 97.9%, 95.9%, 94.7% and 94.7% respectively. Graft survival improved over time and the difference between the decades was statistically significant (p=0.004. Despite the better survival in the group of patients older than 11 years, graft’s survival difference between the two age groups was not statistically significant (p=0.697. Conclusion: The results of our hospital are comparable to other international centers. Significant improvement in survival was observed over the time. It seems that an accurate follow-up of our patients helps to minimize the negative impact of adolescence on graft survival rates.

  9. Challenges of valve surgeries in post-renal transplant patients.

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Kishore, Kolkebaile Sadanand; Maheshwarappa, Nandakumar Neralakere; Pasarad, Ashwini Kumar


    Renal transplantation remains a mainstay of therapy for the end-stage renal disease. Cardiac disease has a high prevalence in this patient population. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death among kidney transplantation patients. The cardiac disease accounts for 43% of all-cause mortality among dialysis patients and for ≈38% of all-cause mortality after transplantation. In this article, we review the factors and outcomes associated with valve surgeries in renal transplant recipients and evaluate the strategy for open heart surgery after renal transplantation performed.

  10. Renal transplantation--the Starzl influence.

    Salvatierra, O


    In summary, I have attempted to review with you some of Dr Starzl's numerous clinical and scientific contributions that have cut across the spectrum of the field of renal transplantation. It is thus not surprising that Dr Starzl was elected the first President of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons, singular recognition from his own peers for the many contributions and leadership that he has provided during the formative and developmental years of organ transplantation. In addition, Dr Starzl has been recognized with a number of other prestigious awards, among which was the David M. Hume Memorial Award, the highest honor bestowed by the National Kidney Foundation. Careful analysis of Dr Starzl's work therefore clearly indicates that many of his contributions since 1960 have been uniquely innovative, have provided many firsts, and have reflected the science and technology of transplantation as it is today, in 1987. Thus, it can be truly said that Dr Starzl, the surgeon-scientist, was not only a pioneer but also a leader and subsequently a giant in the field of clinical renal transplantation. He has left a lasting and indelible impact on the field, the Starzl influence, for which all of us, both patient and physician, are extremely grateful. Thank you very much, Dr Starzl.

  11. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients

    EB Kia


    Full Text Available Background: Organ transplant recipients can experience serious diseases from infections due to emerging and reemerging parasitic infections. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among renal transplant re-cipients of Iran. "nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2003 to August 2004 on renal transplant recipients in Iran. A total of 706 fecal samples obtained from randomly selected population originated from all over Iran. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. A sample of stool was taken from each person. Direct wet smear exami-nation, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-neelsen staining, and agar plate culture were done for each sample. "nResults: Totally 32 patients (4.5% were positive for parasitic infections. In searching for emerging parasitic infections, the most prevalent parasites were found to be Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli, respectively. The merely ova which were seen were related to Hymenolepis nana. With investigation of healthy control, no significant differ-ence was found between transplanted and normal population. "nConclusion: The population showed controlled rate of intestinal infections probably due to regular awareness concerning risks of opportunistic infections; albeit regular surveillance through routine examination of stool samples for parasites seems considerably advantages the transplant recipient patients.

  12. Overview of Pregnancy in Renal Transplant Patients

    Silvi Shah


    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation offers best hope to women with end-stage renal disease who wish to become pregnant. Pregnancy in a kidney transplant recipient continues to remain challenging due to side effects of immunosuppressive medication, risk of deterioration of allograft function, risk of adverse maternal complications of preeclampsia and hypertension, and risk of adverse fetal outcomes of premature birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. The factors associated with poor pregnancy outcomes include presence of hypertension, serum creatinine greater than 1.4 mg/dL, and proteinuria. The recommended maintenance immunosuppression in pregnant women is calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus/cyclosporine, azathioprine, and low dose prednisone; and it is considered safe. Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil should be stopped 6 weeks prior to conception. The optimal time to conception continues to remain an area of contention. It is important that counseling for childbearing should start as early as prior to getting a kidney transplant and should be done at every clinic visit after transplant. Breast-feeding is not contraindicated and should not be discouraged. This review will help the physicians in medical optimization and counseling of renal transplant recipients of childbearing age.


    Jordan, Mark L.; Shapiro, Ron; Vivas, Carlos A.; Scantlebury, Velma P.; Rhandhawa, Parmjeet; Carrieri, Giuseppe; McCauley, Jerry; Demetris, A.J.; Tzakis, Andreas; Fung, John J.; Simmons, Richard L.; Hakala, Thomas R.; Starzl, Thomas E.


    Seventy-seven patients with ongoing acute rejection on initial CsA therapy were converted to FK506 to attempt graft salvage. Fifty-nine patients had undergone primary transplantation and 18 had been retransplanted; there were 52 cadaveric and 25 living-donor transplants. The indications for conversion to FK506 were ongoing, biopsy-confirmed rejection in all patients, including vascular rejection in 20. The median interval to rescue was 2 months (range 2 weeks to 36 months) after transplantation. Sixty-one of the 77 patients (79%) had already received one or more courses of an antilymphocyte preparation (OKT3: n=33; ALG or ATG: n=l; OKT3+ALG/ATG: n=27). Of the 77 patients, 57 (74%) have been successfully rescued and still have functioning grafts with a mean follow-up of 14 months, with a mean serum creatinine of 2.35±0.97 mg/dl. Eighteen patients were already dialysis-dependent at the time of conversion to FK506; of these, 9 (50%) were successfully salvaged and have a mean serum creatinine of 2.3 mg/dl. Of the 61 patients previously treated with antilymphocyte preparations, 48 (79%) were rescued. In those salvaged, prednisone doses have been lowered from 22.2±7.2 mg/day preconversion to 7.5±5.6 mg/day postconversion, and 12 patients are on FK506 monotherapy. In nondiabetics, mean serum glucose was 101.4±20.5 mg/dl preconversion and 93.2±22 postconversion (P=0.07), uric acid 7.3±2.3 and 7.1±1.5 mg/dl (P=0.53), and triglycerides 199.2±101.6 and 167.2±106.4 mg/dl (P=0.06). Cholesterol levels were significantly lower following FK conversion (207.7±46.5 mg/dl pre. vs. 188.3±39.7 post., P=0.007). FK506 is capable of salvaging renal allografts with ongoing acute rejection on CsA therapy, even when antilymphocyte preparations have been ineffective. PMID:7512293

  14. Long-term renal function in heart transplant children on cyclosporine treatment.

    Dello Strologo, Luca; Parisi, Francesco; Legato, Antonia; Pontesilli, Claudia; Pastore, Anna; Ravà, Lucilla; Tozzi, Alberto E; Rizzoni, Gianfranco


    Renal function deterioration is a reason of concern in heart transplantation. Our aim was to evaluate long-term renal function in heart transplant children on cyclosporine (CsA) treatment and to investigate the effect of several variables possibly involved in renal function deterioration. Creatinine clearances were retrospectively reviewed in 50 children (median follow 99.7 months after heart transplant). Gender, age, and body weight at transplant, rejection episodes, CsA cumulative dose, and trough levels were analyzed. After an initial increase of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal function worsened in most patients; 28% of the children developed renal insufficiency (defined as GFR <80 ml/min per 1.73 m2), which was already evident in the first 3 years. Neither CsA dose, trough levels, nor other patient characteristics were found to be associated with renal function deterioration. In this study renal failure occurred in one-third of the patients. The lack of association of CsA with renal insufficiency may be explained by several reasons, including the limitations of the retrospective design of the study. However, it is possible that the nephrotoxic effect of CsA is more likely to occur in a set of predisposed patients. These must be soon identified to evaluate early a calcineurin inhibitor-sparing strategy.

  15. Renal allograft rejection: examination of delayed differentiation of Treg and Th17 effector T cells.

    Pekalski, Marcin; Jenkinson, Sarah E; Willet, Joseph D P; Poyner, Elizabeth F M; Alhamidi, Abdulaziz H; Robertson, Helen; Ali, Simi; Kirby, John A


    Antigen presentation after kidney transplantation occurs in lymphoid tissues remote from the allograft, with activated T cells then migrating towards the graft. This study examined the possibility that these activated T cells can differentiate to acquire Th17 or Treg phenotypes after a time consistent with their arrival within renal allograft tissues. An immunocytochemical study was performed to demonstrate the response to intragraft TGF-β and the phenotype of lymphoid cells within rejecting human renal allograft tissue. A series of in vitro experiments was then performed to determine the potential to induce these phenotypes by addition of appropriate cytokines 3days after initial T cell activation. During renal allograft rejection there was a strong response to TGF-β, and both FOXP3 and IL-17A were expressed by separate lymphoid cells in the graft infiltrate. FOXP3 could be induced to high levels by the addition of TGF-β1 3days after the initiation of allogeneic mixed leukocyte culture. This Treg marker was enriched in the sub-population of T cells expressing the cell-surface αE(CD103)β7 integrin. The RORγt transcription factor and IL-17A were induced 3days after T cell activation by the addition of TGF-β1, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23; many of these Th17 cells also co-expressed CD103. T cells can develop an effector phenotype following cytokine stimulation 3days after initial activation. This suggests that the intragraft T cell phenotype may be indicative of the prevailing cytokine microenvironment.

  16. Prevalence of Anemia in Renal Transplant Patients in Turkey

    Alparslan MERDİN


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Post-transplant anemia is a common complication in renal allograft recipients. The most common causes are impaired graft function, immunosuppressive drugs, and infections. The aim of our study was to further investigate the prevalence of anemia before and after renal transplantation in renal allograft recipients in Turkey. MATERIAL and METHODS: We assessed 464 patients who received a kidney transplant between the years 2010 and 2012. The prevalence of anemia was evaluated before transplantation and at the 3 rd and at 6th months after transplantation. Our study is a retrospective study. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia at the 6th month after the transplant surgery was 28.8%. The percentage of the patients who did not have anemia prior to the transplant surgery, and who developed anemia after the transplantation was 24.4%. CONCLUSION: Our findings are similar to those found in the literature, and show that anemia is a very common entity after renal transplantation.

  17. Nocardia infection in a renal transplant recipient

    K K Kaswan


    Full Text Available Opportunistic infection occurs in up to 20% renal transplant patients and is associated with a high mortality. We report a 47-year-old diabetic female with 1-year-old deceased donor renal allograft on triple drug immunosuppression. She developed cytomegalovirus retinitis at ten months post-transplant followed by nocardiasis manifested by hemiparesis with comatose state due to lumbar epidural and multiple brain abscesses, in spite of immediately curtailing immunosuppression. She recovered with linezolid and cotrimoxazole and was discharged two weeks later. She is maintaining stable graft function with serum creatinine 1.4 mg/dL on cyclosporin 2.5 mg/kg/day and prednisone10 mg/day with maintenance therapy for nocardiasis.

  18. Transplant graft vasculopathy: an emerging target for prevention and treatment of renal allograft dysfunction.

    Kang, Duk-Hee; Kang, Shin-Wook; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Yu Seun; Yang, Chul Woo; Johnson, Richard J


    Maintenance of healthy endothelium is essential to vascular homeostasis, and preservation of endothelial cell function is critical for transplant allograft function. Damage of microvascular endothelial cells is now regarded as a characteristic feature of acute vascular rejection and chronic allograft nephropathy, which is an important predictor of graft loss and is often associated with transplant vasculopathy. In this review, we will discuss the role of microvascular endothelium, in renal allograft dysfunction, particularly as it relates to markers of endothelial dysfunction and endothelial repair mechanisms. We also discuss the potential for therapies targeting endothelial dysfunction and transplant graft vasculopathy.

  19. Interleukin-10-1082 G/a polymorphism and acute renal graft rejection: a meta-analysis.

    Hu, Qiongwen; Tian, Hua; Wu, Qing; Li, Jun; Cheng, Xiaocheng; Liao, Pu


    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between interleukin (IL)-10-1082 (G/A) promoter polymorphism and acute rejection (AR) in renal transplant recipients. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register from the inception to March 2015 for relevant studies. Data concerning publication information, population characteristics, and transplant information were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) was calculated for the association between IL-10-1082 GG genotype (or IL-10-1082 G allele) and AR risk. This meta-analysis included 22 case-control studies including 2779 cases of renal transplant recipients. The pooled estimate showed that the IL-10-1082 GG genotype was not significantly associated with AR risk (ORrandom=1.07, 95% CI 0.80-1.43, p = 0.64). Similarly, the pooled estimate showed that the IL-10-1082 G allele was not significantly associated with AR risk (ORfixed=1.02, 95% CI 0.90-1.16, p = 0.74). None of subgroup analyses yielded significant results in the association between IL-10-1082 GG genotype (or IL-10-1082 G allele) and AR risk. Meta-regression confirmed that there was no significant correlation between the pre-selected trial characteristics and our study results. This meta-analysis suggests that IL-10-1082 G/A polymorphism is not significantly associated with AR risk in renal transplant recipients.

  20. Tacrolimus Versus Cyclosporine as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.

    Liu, Jin-Yu; You, Ru-Xu; Guo, Min; Zeng, Lu; Zhou, Pu; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Gang; Li, Juan; Liu, Dong


    Tacrolimus and cyclosporine are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection, and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 6137 patients from 27 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of patient mortality, graft loss, acute rejection, and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of new-onset diabetes. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events following renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, new-onset diabetes should be closely monitored during the medication period.

  1. Donor Transmission of Melanoma Following Renal Transplant

    Kathryn T. Chen


    Full Text Available Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  2. Donor transmission of melanoma following renal transplant.

    Chen, Kathryn T; Olszanski, Anthony; Farma, Jeffrey M


    Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  3. Whooping cough in a renal transplant recipient.

    Garbiras, M; Shabaka, A; Calvo, N; Martin, L; Moreno, M A; Lopez de la Manzanara, V; Sanchez-Fructuoso, A I


    Whooping cough is a respiratory infection with a severity that varies with age, immune status, and probably with other factors such as the degree of exposure and the virulence of the organism. The most frequent microorganism responsible for whooping cough is Bordetella pertussis. We present the case of a 62-year-old renal transplant recipient presenting with typical and severe manifestations of whooping cough caused by B. pertussis.

  4. Renal transplantation in systemic lupus erythematosus: outcome and prognostic factors in 50 cases from a single centre.

    Cairoli, Ernesto; Sanchez-Marcos, Carolina; Espinosa, Gerard; Glucksmann, Constanza; Ercilla, Guadalupe; Oppenheimer, Federico; Cervera, Ricard


    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To analyze the outcome and prognostic factors of renal transplantation in patients with ESRD due to SLE from January 1986 to December 2013 in a single center. Fifty renal transplantations were performed in 40 SLE patients (32 female (80%), mean age at transplantation 36±10.4 years). The most frequent lupus nephropathy was type IV (72.2%). Graft failure occurred in a total of 15 (30%) transplantations and the causes of graft failure were chronic allograft nephropathy (n=12), acute rejection (n=2), and chronic humoral rejection (1). The death-censored graft survival rates were 93.9% at 1 year, 81.5% at 5 years, and 67.6% at the end of study. The presence of deceased donor allograft (P=0.007) and positive anti-HCV antibodies (P=0.001) negatively influence the survival of the renal transplant. The patient survival rate was 91.4% at the end of the study. Recurrence of lupus nephritis in renal allograft was observed in one patient. Renal transplantation is a good alternative for renal replacement therapy in patients with SLE. In our cohort, the presence of anti-HCV antibodies and the type of donor source were related to the development of graft failure.

  5. Emerging role of gasotransmitters in renal transplantation.

    Snijder, P M; van den Berg, E; Whiteman, M; Bakker, S J L; Leuvenink, H G D; van Goor, H


    Once patients with kidney disease progress to end-stage renal failure, transplantation is the preferred option of treatment resulting in improved quality of life and reduced mortality compared to dialysis. Although 1-year survival has improved considerably, graft and patient survival in the long term have not been concurrent, and therefore new tools to improve long-term graft and patient survival are warranted. Over the past decades, the gasotransmitters nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have emerged as potent cytoprotective mediators in various diseases. All three gasotransmitters are endogenously produced messenger molecules that possess vasodilatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties by influencing an array of intracellular signaling processes. Although many regulatory functions of gasotransmitters have overlapping actions, differences have also been reported. In addition, crosstalk between NO, CO and H2S results in synergistic regulatory effects. Endogenous and exogenous manipulation of gasotransmitter levels modulates several processes involved in renal transplantation. This review focuses on mechanisms of gas-mediated cytoprotection and complex interactions between gasotransmitters in renal transplantation.

  6. Sirolimus Versus Tacrolimus as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.

    Liu, Jin-Yu; Song, Ming; Guo, Min; Huang, Feng; Ma, Bing-Jun; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Gang; Li, Juan; You, Ru-Xu

    Sirolimus and tacrolimus are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of sirolimus and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane controlled trials register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection (AR), and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and QALYs gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 1189 patients from 8 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of AR and patient withdrawn. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of infection. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events after renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent, and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of AR in renal transplant recipients. However, it should be noted that such superiority was reversal when the cost of sirolimus and tacrolimus changed.

  7. Renal artery stenosis in kidney transplants: assessment of the risk factors

    Ghabili K


    Full Text Available Jalal Etemadi1, Khosro Rahbar2, Ali Nobakht Haghighi2, Nazila Bagheri2, Kianoosh Falaknazi2, Mohammad Reza Ardalan1, Kamyar Ghabili3, Mohammadali M Shoja31Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 2Department of Nephrology, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 3Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS is an important cause of hypertension and renal allograft dysfunction occurring in kidney transplant recipients. However, conflicting predisposing risk factors for TRAS have been reported in the literature.Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the potential correlation between possible risk factors and TRAS in a group of living donor renal transplant recipients 1 year after the renal transplantation.Methods: We evaluated the presence of renal artery stenosis in 16 recipients who presented with refractory hypertension and/or allograft dysfunction 1 year after renal transplantation. Screening for TRAS was made by magnetic resonance angiography and diagnosis was confirmed by conventional renal angiography. Age, gender, history of acute rejection, plasma lipid profile, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, calcium phosphate (CaPO4 product, alkaline phosphatase, fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin, and albumin were compared between the TRAS and non-TRAS groups.Results: Of 16 kidney transplant recipients, TRAS was diagnosed in three patients (two men and one woman. High levels of calcium, phosphorous, CaPO4 product, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol were significantly correlated with the risk of TRAS 1 year after renal transplantation (P < 0.05. Serum level of uric acid tended to have a significant correlation (P = 0.051.Conclusion: Correlation between high CaPO4 product, LDL cholesterol, and perhaps uric acid and TRAS in living

  8. Cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients.

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Fellström, Bengt C; Holdaas, Hallvard; Jardine, Alan G


    Renal transplant recipients have a markedly increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population, although considerably lower than that of patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis. CVD in transplant recipients is poorly characterised and differs from the nonrenal population, with a much higher proportion of fatal to nonfatal cardiac events. In addition to traditional ischaemic heart disease risk factors such as age, gender, diabetes and smoking, there are additional factors to consider in this population such as the importance of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and uraemic cardiomyopathy. There are factors specific to transplantation such immunosuppressive therapies and graft dysfunction which contribute to this altered risk profile. However, understanding and treatment is limited by the absence of large randomised intervention trials addressing risk factor modification, with the exception of the ALERT study. The approach to managing these patients should begin early and be multifactorial in nature.

  9. Renal transplantation and polycystic: surgical considerations.

    Rodríguez-Faba, O; Breda, A; Villavicencio, H


    The indication and timing of nephrectomy in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remain controversial, especially in patients who are candidates to renal transplantation (RT). The main surgical options such as unilateral vs. bilateral nephrectomy, nephrectomy before vs. after RT, or simultaneous nephrectomy and transplantation, are herein discussed. Evidence acquisition of the best surgical management available for ADPKD in the context of kidney transplantation. Systematic literature review in PubMed from 1978 to 2013 was conducted. Articles selected included:randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. Furthermore, well designed ADPKD reviews were considered for this study. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in ADPKD is a safe procedure with an acceptable complication rate. Unilateral nephrectomy has advantages over the bilateral one regarding the perioperative complication rate. Although the timing of nephrectomy is controversial, it seems that simultaneous nephrectomy and renal transplantation does not increase surgical morbidity neither affect graft survival. Simultaneous nephrectomy and RT appears to be an acceptable alternative to conventional two-stage procedure without any increased morbidity, in the context of ADPKD. Furthermore, laparoscopic nephrectomy performed in experienced centres is a safe alternative to conventional approach. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. 肾移植病人的饮食康复治疗%Diet treatment after renal transplantation

    李秋荣; 拱玉华; 庞宝柱; 周建萍; 郜青; 赵黎明


    @@Background:Now renal transplantation is extensively used and recetpted in the clinic for treating chronic renal failure.Nutrition support and diet treatment are necessary for postoperative rehabilitation of patients underwent renal transplantation.Rigid nutrition treatment could prevent and treatment postoperative diabetes mellitus,hypertension and hyperlipemia.Diet control was also necessary for patients receiving immunodepressant.Standards and protocol for diet treatment are unavailable now.The incidence of acute rejection and allograft failure during the first year posttransplantation has been greatly reduced by advances in operative techniques, immunosuppressive agents and our understanding of their toxicities, donor selection and preservation, and donor and patient management. However, life-long immunosuppression is required to prevent the development of chronic rejection. Thus, either chronic rejection or the adverse side effects of chronic immunosuppression limit long-term survival. There is increasing incidence that posttransplant lipoprotein abnormalities may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality following renal transplantation. In addition, there is some indirect evidence that posttransplant lipoprotein abnormalities may influence the progression of chronic transplant nephropathy. While there are no intervention trials examining whether antilipemic therapy is beneficial in the prevention of CVD in renal transplant patients, it is reasonable to assume that the benefits of treating hyperlipidemia in renal transplant recipients may be comparable to those found in the general population. Objective:Protocol for diet treatment was determined for patients underwent renal transplantation to reduce renal load,promote recovery of renal function,and decreased the incidence of complications.

  11. [Pediatric renal transplantation in France. Introduction].

    Deschênes, Georges; Fila, Marc


    Pediatric nephrology is a relatively recent medical speciality. The first French center opened in January 1969 at the Hospital des Enfants-Malades. In 2008, according to the Réseau Épidémiologie et Information en Néphrologie (REIN), the annual incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) was of 7,8 children/million children below the age of 20, which equals a prevalence of 49 pediatric ESRD patients/million inhabitants. The frequency of causative factors of ESRD varies according to the geographic and ethnic origin of the patients. Many challenges still lay ahead of ESRD management. The children's physical, psychological and social development has to be well taken care of until adulthood and the transition from pediatric to adult unit has to be handled with special care. The set up of pediatric nephrology departments helped to the access of patients to renal replacement therapy, in particular the pediatric priority for kidney donors below 30 years of age. In the 2000s period, the annual rate of pediatric renal transplantation was 70 to 75 grafts per year in France, half of which performed in the Paris area. This article presents the historical background of pediatric nephrology and pediatric renal transplantation in France.

  12. Heat Shock Protein-27 Delays Acute Rejection After Cardiac Transplantation: An Experimental Model


    Background Rejection is the major obstacle to survival after cardiac transplantation. We investigated whether overexpression of heat shock protein (Hsp)-27 in mouse hearts protects against acute rejection and the mechanisms of such protection. Methods Hearts from B10.A mice overexpressing human Hsp-27 (Hsp-27tg), or Hsp-27–negative hearts from littermate controls (LCs) were transplanted into allogeneic C57BL/6 mice. The immune response to B10.A hearts was investigated using quantitative polym...

  13. Impaired renal allograft function is associated with increased arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients

    Kneifel, M; Scholze, A; Burkert, A;


    It is important whether impairment of renal allograft function may deteriorate arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients. In a cross-sectional study, arterial vascular characteristics were non-invasively determined in 48 patients with renal allograft using applanation tonometry and digital...... of large arteries S1 and small arteries S2 in renal transplant recipients (each p renal allograft (p ...-Wallis test between groups). It is concluded that impairment of renal allograft function is associated with an increased arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients....

  14. Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy for Renal Transplant Lithiasis : A Case Report

    種田, 建史; 金光, 俊行; 林, 哲也; 藤本, 宜正; 小出, 卓生


    A 54-year-old man was introduced to our hospital for follow-up examinations after renal transplantation. At the initial visit, a 25 mm renal transplant stone was noted, which had enlarged to 32 mm at an examination 1 year later. We first attempted transurethral lithotripsy (TUL), but failed due to ureteral stricture. However, we could completely remove the stone in 2 sessions of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL). The incidence of urinary lithiasis after renal transplantation ranges from 0....

  15. Mouse model of alloimmune-induced vascular rejection and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Enns, Winnie; von Rossum, Anna; Choy, Jonathan


    Vascular rejection that leads to transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) is the leading representation of chronic heart transplant failure. In TA, the immune system of the recipient causes damage of the arterial wall and dysfunction of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. This triggers a pathological repair response that is characterized by intimal thickening and luminal occlusion. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system causes vasculature rejection and TA may inform the development of novel ways to manage graft failure. Here, we describe a mouse aortic interposition model that can be used to study the pathogenic mechanisms of vascular rejection and TA. The model involves grafting of an aortic segment from a donor animal into an allogeneic recipient. Rejection of the artery segment involves alloimmune reactions and results in arterial changes that resemble vascular rejection. The basic technical approach we describe can be used with different mouse strains and targeted interventions to answer specific questions related to vascular rejection and TA.

  16. Renal transplantation at the Johns Hopkins Comprehensive Transplant Center.

    Montgomery, Robert A; Cooper, Matthew; Kraus, Edward; Rabb, Hamid; Samaniego, Milagros; Simpkins, Christopher E; Sonnenday, Christopher J; Ugarte, Richard M; Warren, Daniel S; Zachary, Andrea A


    A stagnant supply of transplantable organs in the face of a relentless burgeoning of transplant waiting lists has created a crisis. Necessity continues to be the mother of invention and as the crisis has deepened it has served as a crucible for the development of new ways to think about perennial problems. Our program has taken a 2-pronged approach to increasing the organ supply for our patients. First, through innovations like the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, ABO-incompatible and positive-crossmatch transplantation protocols, unconventional paired kidney exchanges, and the use of altruistic donors we have more than doubled our utilization of live donor organs. At the same time, we have developed algorithms and interrogative techniques to enhance the intelligent use of kidneys from expanded criteria donors for patients who do not have an available live donor. The laparoscopic nephrectomy has proven to be a safe and effective way of removing a significant barrier to live donation. Our results from 100 ABOi, (+)XM, and PKE transplants are similar to national statistics for compatible live donor transplants, suggesting that existing paradigms of compatibility can be safely expanded. These encouraging early outcomes and the savings they transmit to the health care system have allowed us to obtain insurance coverage for the InKTP programs, setting the stage for further expansion of these opportunities to broaden the options for patients with end-stage renal disease.

  17. The effect of prostaglandin E1 on recovery of early renal graft functions after transplantation

    Song Huanjin; Xue Wujun; Tian Xiaohui; Li Yang; Ding Chenguang; Ding Xiaoming; Feng Xinshun; Jin Zhankui


    Objective To investigate the effect of prostaglandin E: (PGE1) on recovery of early renal graft functions after transplantation. Methods One hundred and seven patients after renal transplantation were allocated in the treated group, and treated by conventional treatment with injection of 10 μg prostaglandin E1 additionally twice a day for 14 days. And eighty-eight patients who received conventional treatment alone after renal transplantation at the corresponding period were allocated in the control group. Indexes of the two groups, including incidence of delayed graft function and acute rejection reaction, volume of urine, serum certaintie (SCr), endogenous certainties clearance rate (CCr), the blood flow resistance in graft as well as blood viscosity (BV), and platelet aggregation rate (PAR), were determined. Results The urinary volume and endogenous certainties clearance rate of the treated group were significantly higher, but the level of SCr, incidence of renal function recovery retardation, BV, PAR and blood flow resistance in graft were significantly lower than these of the control group (P0.05). Conclusion Prostaglandin E1 can improve blood microcirculation and decrease the incidence of renal function recovery retardation. These effects are helpful for recovery of renal function after renal transplantation.

  18. Acute torsion of a retroperitoneal renal transplant mimicking renal vein thrombosis.

    Winter, Thomas C; Clarke, Andrea Lynn; Campsen, Jeffrey


    When imaging a renal transplant, the combination of absent flow in the main renal vein and reversed diastolic flow in the intrarenal arteries is considered highly suggestive of renal vein thrombosis. We present a case of torsion of a transplant kidney presenting with identical findings. Renal transplant torsion in general is a rare entity, previously described only in intraperitoneally placed organs; this case is the first that we are aware of with torsion occurring in a retroperitoneally placed graft.

  19. Renalase Gene Polymorphism in Patients After Renal Allograft Transplantation

    Andrzej Pawlik


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Renalase is a recently discovered protein, which is likely involved in regulation of blood pressure in humans and animals. Previous studies suggest that renalase reflects kidney functioning. A common missense polymorphism in the flavin-adenine dinucleotide-binding domain of human renalase (Glu37Asp has been described. In this study we examined the association between (Glu37Asp polymorphism (rs2296545 in renalase gene and kidney allograft function. Methods: The study enrolled 270 Caucasian kidney allograft recipients. SNP within the renalase was genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays. Results: There were no statistically significant associations between renalase gene rs2296545 polymorphism and delayed graft function, acute rejection, chronic allograft dysfunction as well as creatinine serum concentrations and blood pressure values after transplantation. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest, that renalase gene rs2296545 polymorphism is not important factor determining renal allograft function.

  20. Development of injury in a rat model of chronic renal allograft rejection: effect of dietary protein restriction.

    Bombas, A; Stein-Oakley, A N; Baxter, K; Thomson, N M; Jablonski, P


    Non-allogeneic factors such as increased nephron "workload" may contribute to chronic renal allograft rejection. Reducing dietary protein from 20% to 8% was tested in a model of chronic rejection: Dark Agouti kidney to Albino Surgery recipient, "tolerised" by previous donor blood transfusions. Survival, weight gain, serum creatinine concentration and creatinine clearance were similar for both groups at all times. Urinary protein was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the low-protein (LP) group 1 month after transplantation. After 3 and 6 months, both groups demonstrated mild chronic rejection. After 6 months, tubular atrophy was significantly (P < 0.05) less in the LP group and interstitial fibrosis was marginally reduced. Glomerular hypertrophy, glomerular sclerosis, tubular dilatation, leucocyte infiltration, adhesion molecule expression and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression were similarly increased in both groups. Thus, reducing dietary protein to 8% lowered urinary protein, but did not significantly affect the development of chronic rejection in renal allografts beyond affording a degree of protection from tubulointerstitial damage.

  1. 42 CFR 414.320 - Determination of reasonable charges for physician renal transplantation services.


    ... renal transplantation services. 414.320 Section 414.320 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Determination of reasonable charges for physician renal transplantation services. (a) Comprehensive payment for... a renal transplantation, including the usual preoperative and postoperative care, and...

  2. Cerebral Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Occurring after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report

    Suh, Jang Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Hong Chul; Hwang, Min Su [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of organ transplantation and immunosuppression. A 36-year-old woman with a history of renal transplantation visited the hospital complaining of headache and on pathology was diagnosed with cerebral PTLD manifesting as multiple rim enhanced masses in both hemispheres. We report here a case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder involving the cerebrum occurring after renal transplantation, and describe the MRI findings for this patient

  3. Mycophenolic acid formulations in adult renal transplantation – update on efficacy and tolerability

    Déla Golshayan


    Full Text Available Déla Golshayan1,2, M Pascual2, Bruno Vogt11Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, 2Transplantation Centre and Transplantation Immunopathology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV, Lausanne University, 1011 Lausanne, SwitzerlandAbstract: The description more than 30 years ago of the role of de novo purine synthesis in T and B lymphocytes clonal proliferation opened the possibility for selective immunosuppression by targeting specific enzymatic pathways. Mycophenolic acid (MPA blocks the key enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and the production of guanosine nucleotides required for DNA synthesis. Two MPA formulations are currently used in clinical transplantation as part of the maintenance immunosuppressive regimen. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF was the first MPA agent to be approved for the prevention of acute rejection following renal transplantation, in combination with cyclosporine and steroids. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS is an alternative MPA formulation available in clinical transplantation. In this review, we will discuss the clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy and safety of MPA in adult kidney transplantation for the prevention of acute rejection and their use in new combination regimens aiming at minimizing calcineurin inhibitor toxicity and chronic allograft nephropathy. We will also discuss MPA pharmacokinetics and the rationale for therapeutic drug monitoring in optimizing the balance between efficacy and safety in individual patients.Keywords: kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, acute rejection, chronic allograft nephropathy

  4. Dream anxiety in renal transplant recipients.

    Yazla, Ece; Ozkurt, Sultan; Musmul, Ahmet


    Although low quality of sleep has been reported in kidney transplant patients with functioning allografts, there are no previous studies investigating the dreams of these patients. We aimed to investigate the differences in dream anxiety level between renal transplant patients and healthy control subjects. We also planned to compare depression and anxiety symptoms, sleep quality and sleepiness level between these two groups. Twenty-two living-donor renal transplant recipients followed at an outpatient nephrology clinic and 22 healthy controls were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic Data Collection Form, and the Van Dream Anxiety Scale (VDAS), the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories were used for the assessment of the necessary features. Hemoglobin (Hb), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and glucose levels were measured. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of dream anxiety (p = 0.45), depression (p = 0.76), sleep quality (p = 0.8), insomnia severity (p = 0.08) and Hb (p = 0.11) and glucose levels (p = 0.14). Although, BUN (p = 0.00) and creatinine (p = 0.00) levels differed significantly between the two groups, both parameters were found to be within their normal range. In our study, chronic renal failure patients with a successful kidney transplant were found to be able to completely return to normal in terms of metabolic parameters, sleep quality and mood. Similar levels of dream anxiety are also consistent with these findings.

  5. Aspergillus Pericarditis with Tamponade in a Renal Transplant Patient

    Lekkham, Rapeepat; Climaco, Antoinette


    Aspergillus pericarditis is a rare and life-threatening infection in immunosuppressed patients. It has nonspecific clinical manifestations that often mimic other disease entities especially in patients who have extensive comorbidities. Diagnosis is oftentimes delayed and rarely done antemortem. A high degree of suspicion in immunocompromised patients is necessary for evaluation and timely diagnosis. This is a case of Aspergillus pericarditis with cardiac tamponade in a renal transplant patient with liver cirrhosis. Two months after transplant, he developed decompensation of his cirrhosis from hepatitis C, acute cellular rejection, and Kluyvera bacteremia, followed by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) bacteremia. Four months after transplant, the patient presented with lethargy and fluid overload. He subsequently developed shock and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure. An echocardiogram showed pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. He had emergent pericardiocentesis that showed purulent drainage. He was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Amphotericin B was initiated when the pericardial fluid grew mold that was later identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The patient quickly decompensated and expired. PMID:28316844

  6. Preventing acute rejection, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders after kidney transplantation: Use of aciclovir and mycophenolate mofetil in a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol

    Birkeland, S.A.; Andersen, H.K.; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques


    ; the effect of adding mofetil to a steroid-free protocol under cover of high-dose aciclovir prophylaxis on the number of acute rejections, EBV infections and PTLDs after kidney transplantation. Methods: EBV serology was performed in 267 consecutive renal transplantations (1990-1997), All were treated...... with cyclosporine with an initial 10-day antilymphocyte globulin course, supplemented from September 1995 with MMF. In 208 consecutive transplantations after June 1992 aciclovir 3200 mg/day was given for 3 months posttransplantation. Results: After an observation period of up to 7 years we found that: (1) primary...... (P=0.0001), (4) in 78 transplantations treated with cyclosporine/antilymphocyte globulin/mofetil we observed only 10 acute rejections (P=0.0001), 10 PREBVs (Pcyclosporine/antilymphocyte globulin group (P=0.04). Conclusions: Supplemental immunosuppression...

  7. Ascorbic acid against reperfusion injury in human renal transplantation.

    Norio, Karri; Wikström, Mårten; Salmela, Kaija; Kyllönen, Lauri; Lindgren, Leena


    The cadaveric renal graft is exposed to ischaemic injury during preservation and to oxidative damage during reperfusion. Both these mechanisms are known to cause cell damage, which may impair graft function. Reperfusion injury (RPI) is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ascorbic acid (AA) is a potent physiological extracellular scavenger of ROS. We perfused 31 renal grafts immediately before implantation with a solution of Euro-Collins containing 0.5 mg/ml of AA to diminish RPI. From every donor, the contralateral kidney served as a control. The control grafts were perfused with the same perfusion as those of the AA group, only without the AA substitution. We assessed the effect of AA by recording serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, initial graft function and early rejections. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was 32% in the AA group, and 29% in the control group. Other parameters were also similar in both groups, except for the length of DGF, which showed a trend towards a shorter duration in the AA group. The pre-operative systemic AA concentration was significantly ( P=0.01) lower in the haemodialysis patients than in those on peritoneal dialysis. In conclusion, this clinical study could not demonstrate significant benefits of AA in renal transplantation.

  8. Graft rejection after hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning

    Masmas, T.N.; Petersen, S.L.; Madsen, H.O.;


    -dose fludarabine and total body irradiation (TBI). The association of pretransplantation risk factors with rejection and the effect of chimerism and graft-versus-host disease on rejection were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were compared between patients with and without...... rejection. Retransplantation was performed with increased TBI conditioning for all patients, and with increased mycophenolate mofetil doses for recipients with HLA-identical sibling donors. No known pretransplantation risk factors were confirmed in this study. Rejection episodes were unevenly distributed...

  9. Non-invasive diagnosis of acute heart- or lung-transplant rejection using radiolabeled annexin V

    Blankenberg, F.G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Strauss, H.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Nuclear Medicine Div.


    Background. Apoptosis is a ubiquitous set of cellular processes by which superfluous or unwanted cells are eliminated in the body without harming adjacent healthy tissues. When apoptosis is inappropriate (too little or too much), a variety of human diseases can occur, including acute heart or lung transplant rejection. Objective. Our group has developed a new radiopharmaceutical, radiolabeled annexin V, which can image apoptosis. Results and conclusion. Here we briefly review the biomolecular basis of apoptosis and its role in acute rejection. We also describe the possible use of radiolabeled annexin V to screen children noninvasively for acute rejection following organ transplantation. (orig.) With 6 figs., 53 refs.

  10. Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation

    Priscila Cilene León Bueno de Camargo


    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients.

  11. Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation*

    de Camargo, Priscila Cilene León Bueno; Afonso, José Eduardo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliarelli; Antonangelo, Leila; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga


    Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4). The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients. PMID:25210966

  12. Risk factors for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PcP) in renal transplant recipients.

    Eitner, Frank; Hauser, Ingeborg A; Rettkowski, Olaf; Rath, Thomas; Lopau, Kai; Pliquett, Rainer U; Fiedler, Roman; Guba, Markus; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Floege, Jürgen; Fischereder, Michael


    Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PcP) is a potentially life-threatening complication in renal transplant recipients with increased reports during the past few years. Individual risk factors for susceptibility to PcP are incompletely understood. We retrospectively analysed 60 cases of confirmed PcP, diagnosed in six German transplant centres between 2004 and 2008, as well as 60 matched controls. Compared with controls, PcP cases revealed the following significant differences: PcP cases had a poorer renal function (eGFR 31 vs. 42 mL/min in controls), more biopsy-proven rejections (18 vs. 5 patients), more frequent treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (53 vs. 44 patients) and less frequent treatment with interleukin-2 receptor antagonist (20 vs. 32 patients). According to centre policy, in those years, none of the patients or controls had received PcP prophylaxis after transplantation. Of the 60 patients with PcP, 30% developed the disease after the currently recommended duration of prophylactic treatment, 27% died in the course of the disease and 45% required treatment in the ICU. Our case-control study reveals a novel risk profile for PcP. Renal transplant recipients with more pronounced renal insufficiency following rejection episodes and treated with intensified immunosuppression are at particular risk for PcP.

  13. Treatment of advanced rectal cancer after renal transplantation

    Hai-Yi Liu; Xiao-Bo Liang; Yao-Ping Li; Yi Feng; Dong-Bo Liu; Wen-Da Wang


    Renal transplantation is a standard procedure for end-stage renal disease today. Due to immunosuppressive drugs and increasing survival time after renal trans-plantation, patients with transplanted kidneys carry an increased risk of developing malignant tumors. In this case report, 3 patients with advanced rectal can-cer after renal transplantation for renal failure were treated with anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection plus total mesorectal excision, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. One patient eventually died of metastasized cancer 31 mo after therapy, although his organ grafts functioned well until his death. The other 2 patients were well during the 8 and 21 mo follow-up periods after rectal resection. We therefore strongly argue that patients with advanced rectal cancer should receive standard oncology treatment, including opera-tion and adjuvant treatment after renal transplantation. Colorectal cancer screening in such patients appears justified.

  14. [Renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression. Identical twins and kidney transplantation following a successful bone marrow graft].

    Hadi, Riad Abdel; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Ribeiro, Adriana Reginato; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti


    Renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression has been sporadically reported in the literature. The cases include non-adherent patients who discontinued their immunosuppressive medications, transplantation between identical twins, kidney transplantation after a successful bone marrow graft from the same donor and simultaneous bone marrow and kidney transplantation for the treatment of multiple myeloma with associated renal failure. There are also ongoing clinical trials designed to induce donor specific transplant tolerance with infusion of hematopoietic cells from the same kidney donor. Here we describe two cases of renal transplantation without immunosuppression as examples of situations described above.

  15. Inhibition of chemokine-glycosaminoglycan interactions in donor tissue reduces mouse allograft vasculopathy and transplant rejection.

    Erbin Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Binding of chemokines to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs is classically described as initiating inflammatory cell migration and creating tissue chemokine gradients that direct local leukocyte chemotaxis into damaged or transplanted tissues. While chemokine-receptor binding has been extensively studied during allograft transplantation, effects of glycosaminoglycan (GAG interactions with chemokines on transplant longevity are less well known. Here we examine the impact of interrupting chemokine-GAG interactions and chemokine-receptor interactions, both locally and systemically, on vascular disease in allografts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of GAG or CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 deficiency were coupled with the infusion of viral chemokine modulating proteins (CMPs in mouse aortic allograft transplants (n = 239 mice. Inflammatory cell invasion and neointimal hyperplasia were significantly reduced in N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1(f/fTekCre(+ heparan sulfate (GAG-deficient (Ndst1(-/-, p<0.044 and CCR2-deficient (Ccr2(-/-, p<0.04 donor transplants. Donor tissue GAG or CCR2 deficiency markedly reduced inflammation and vasculopathy, whereas recipient deficiencies did not. Treatment with three CMPs was also investigated; Poxviral M-T1 blocks CC chemokine receptor binding, M-T7 blocks C, CC, and CXC GAG binding, and herpesviral M3 binds receptor and GAG binding for all classes. M-T7 reduced intimal hyperplasia in wild type (WT (Ccr2(+/+, p< or =0.003 and Ccr2(-/-, prenal allograft transplants (p< or =0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interruption of chemokine-GAG interactions, even in the absence of chemokine

  16. The Iranian model of living renal transplantation.

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra


    Organ shortage for transplantation remains a worldwide serious problem for kidney patients with end-stage renal failure, and several countries have tried different models to address this issue. Iran has 20 years of experience with one such model that involves the active role of the government and charity foundations. Patients with a desperate demand for a kidney have given rise to a black market of brokers and other forms of organ commercialism only accessible to those with sufficient financial resources. The current Iranian model has enabled most of the Iranian kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of socioeconomic class, to have access to kidney transplantation. The Iranian government has committed a large budget through funding hospital and staff at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education by supporting the brain death donation (BDD) program or redirecting part of the budget of living unrelated renal donation (LURD) to the BDD program. It has been shown that it did not prevent the development and progression of a BDD program. However, the LURD program is characterized by several controversial procedures (e.g., confrontation of donor and recipient at the end of the evaluation procedure along with some financial interactions) that should be ethically reviewed. Operational weaknesses such as the lack of a registration system and long-term follow-up of the donors are identified as the 'Achilles heel of the model'.

  17. Gastrointestinal complications in renal transplant recipients.

    Ponticelli, Claudio; Passerini, Patrizia


    Gastrointestinal complications are frequent in renal transplant recipients and can include oral lesions, esophagitis, peptic ulcer, diarrhea, colon disorders and malignancy. Oral lesions may be caused by drugs such as cyclosporine and sirolimus, by virus or fungal infections. Leukoplakia may develop in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The commonest esophageal disorder is represented by fungal esophagitis usually caused by candida. A number of patients may suffer from nausea, vomiting and gastric discomfort. These disorders are more frequent in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Peptic ulcer is more rare than in the past. Patients with a history of peptic ulcer are particularly prone to this complication. Other gastroduodenal disorders are caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex infection. Diarrhea is a frequent disorder which may be caused by pathogen microorganisms or by immunosuppressive agents. The differential diagnosis may be difficult. Colon disorders mainly consist of hemorrhage, usually sustained by CMV infection, or perforation which may be caused by diverticulitis or intestinal ischemia. Colon cancer, anal carcinoma, and EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders are particularly frequent in transplant recipients. A particular gastric lymphoma called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma may develop in renal transplant patients. It usually responds to the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  18. Microhematuria after renal transplantation in children.

    Butani, Lavjay; Berg, Gerre; Makker, Sudesh P


    The renal transplant (Tx) recipient is at risk for developing various complications including urolithiasis, the only manifestation of which may be hematuria. However, there are no data on the prevalence of microscopic hematuria in renal Tx recipients. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of microhematuria in our pediatric Tx patients and to investigate the causes of microhematuria. Records of all pediatric renal Tx recipients followed at our center from September 1999 to September 2000 were retrospectively reviewed; of the 21 patients, seven (33%) had persistent microscopic hematuria that was first noted 2.9 years post-Tx. Patients with and without hematuria had similar baseline characteristics. Only one patient had pre-existing hematuria that continued post-Tx. The etiology of hematuria in the other six patients was: recurrent IgA nephropathy (one patient), CMV nephritis (one patient), and unexplained (four patients). None had renal calculi or hypercalciuria. Three of the four patients with unexplained hematuria have chronic allograft nephropathy, and the fourth (original disease dysplasia) has hypocomplementemia. At their last follow-up, 5.3 years after onset of hematuria, all patients are alive with stable allograft function. In conclusion, microscopic hematuria is not uncommon in pediatric renal Tx recipients. While causes of post-Tx hematuria are diverse, stones are not commonly seen. Whether chronic allograft nephropathy per se can be implicated as a cause of hematuria remains to be determined. Renal biopsies should be considered at the onset of hematuria if proteinuria and/or deterioration in renal function are seen concomitantly, to look for recurrent or de novo glomerulonephritis.

  19. Rapid steroid discontinuation for pediatric renal transplantation: a single center experience.

    Lau, Keith K; Haddad, Maha N; Berg, Gerre M; Perez, Richard V; Butani, Lavjay


    To determine the outcomes of pediatric renal transplant recipients who received immunosuppression consisting of early withdrawal of corticosteroids at a single Northern California center. Protocols using minimal steroid exposure have been recently reported in adult transplant recipients with successful results. We examined the outcomes of pediatric renal transplant recipients who were managed at our center using a protocol with very early discontinuation of steroids after renal transplantation. We retrospectively studied the medical records of all renal transplant recipients followed at the Children's Hospital at the University of California, Davis Medical Center from 01/2004 to 12/2005. All patients were less than 18 yr of age at the time of transplantation. The immunosuppressive protocol included three tapering daily doses of methylprednisolone, together with five doses of thymoglobulin followed by maintenance therapy with tacrolimus and MMF. Eight patients with equal numbers of males and females were transplanted during this time period. There were equal numbers of Caucasians, African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. A total of 37.5% (3/8) of the subjects received preemptive transplantation, 25% (2/8) received peritoneal, and 37.5% (3/8) received hemodialysis before transplantation. The median (range) age at transplantation was 12.3 (3.1-16.0) year with a follow-up of 1.7 (0.9-2.8) year. At one yr post-transplantation, 57% (4/7) of patients still required anti-hypertensives. Three children required erythropoietin supplementation after transplantation. The mean delta height standard deviation score at 12 months was 0.20 +/- 0.56. There were no episodes of clinical acute rejection. One patient switched from tacrolimus to sirolimus due to biopsy-proven CAN. No patient became diabetic or required hypoglycemic agents. Surveillance biopsies showed no subclinical acute rejection in any patient. Steroid-free immunosuppression is safe in children after renal

  20. Acute cardiac tamponade: an unusual cause of acute renal failure in a renal transplant recipient.

    Nampoory, Naryanan; Gheith, Osama; Al-Otaibi, Torki; Halim, Medhat; Nair, Prasad; Said, Tarek; Mosaad, Ahmed; Al-Sayed, Zakareya; Alsayed, Ayman; Yagan, Jude


    We report a case of slow graft function in a renal transplant recipient caused by uremic acute pericardial effusion with tamponade. Urgent pericardiocentesis was done with an improvement in blood pressure, immediate diuresis, and quick recovery of renal function back to baseline. Pericardial tamponade should be included in consideration of causes of type 1 cardiorenal syndrome in renal transplant recipients.

  1. A two-year retrospective analysis of renal transplant patients in Sri Lanka

    Chaturaka Rodrigo


    Full Text Available This retrospective analytical study aimed at making a database of patients who underwent renal transplant from 31 December 2004 to 31 December 2006 under the Faculty of Medicine renal transplant program. The objective was to build a profile of renal transplant patients with focus on post KT infections and complications of renal transplants. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used. A total of 72 patients were studied; 18 (25% had died by February 2007. Forty-three patients (58.3% were interviewed in person, 17 were interviewed over the phone and 12 patients could not be contacted. Of those who were interviewed, 28 (38.9% were on azathioprine, prednisolone and cyclosporine, while 15 (20.8% were on predni-solone, cyclosporin and mycophenolate mofetil. Four patients had symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection and five had tuberculosis post transplant. Of all infections, the most commonly reported was urinary tract infection (11 cases. Thirty-three (45.8 % had received induction therapy with either basiliximab (n = 8 or daclizumab (n = 25. Acute rejection was the most commonly en-countered complication, with nine cases (12.5% being reported over the study period. Of late complications, most were due to immunosuppression. Overall, the 2-year survival was 75%. There was no significant difference between the centers of transplant.

  2. OKT3 therapy in addition to tacrolimus is associated with improved long-term function in patients with steroid refractory renal allograft rejection.

    Patschan, Daniel; Kribben, Andreas; Pietruck, Frank; Lutz, Jens; Binek, Matthias; Philipp, Thomas; Heemann, Uwe; Witzke, Oliver


    The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term allograft salvage rates of patients with steroid refractory allograft rejection after kidney transplantation and to identify factors indicating a successful outcome. Fifty patients with continuing rejection after high-dose steroids were included in the study. Baseline immunosuppression was switched from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in all patients. Twenty patients additionally received OKT3 as antirejection therapy. Patients having received a cadaveric renal transplant in 1995, excluding patients with steroid resistant rejection, were chosen as a control cohort. Patient survival rates were 96% (n = 48) and 90% (n = 45) and allograft survival rates were 66% (n = 33) and 62% (n = 31) after 5 and 7 years following steroid refractory renal allograft rejection. Graft survival within the control cohort was 73% after 5 years and 69% after 7 years. Creatinine clearance increased from 20 +/- 15 ml/min/1.73 m2 at the start of tacrolimus therapy to 37 +/- 29 ml/min/1.73 m2 and to 32 +/- 26 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 5 and 7 years. OKT3 treatment predicted successful rescue therapy (p = 0.005 and p = 0.04 after 5 and 7 years). Our data indicate a reasonable graft survival in steroid refractory renal allograft rejection using tacrolimus. OKT3 treatment in addition to tacrolimus therapy may be beneficial for long-term allograft survival. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Impact of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on transplant renal function in Iwaki city, Fukushima.

    Shimmura, H; Kawaguchi, H; Tokiwa, M; Tanabe, K


    Tokiwa-kai group is a urologic and dialysis institution complex located in Iwaki city, Fukushima, Japan, and has performed renal transplantation since 1997. Although water is mandatory for renal transplant recipients, the water supply did not work for approximately a month after the earthquake in Iwaki city. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident struck Iwaki city, there was a critical shortage of food and medical supplies, including immunosuppressant drugs. Therefore, we investigated the impact of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on transplant renal function. We followed 30 patients who underwent renal transplantation before the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake. There were 19 males and 11 females with a mean age of 47 years. All recipients were not injured by the earthquake or the tsunami. Of the 30 recipients, 1 lost his renal graft at 12 months after the earthquake, and 1 has deterioration of graft function with a serum creatinine level of 5.5 mg/dL. Their creatinine levels before the earthquake were 2.79 mg/dL and 3.78 mg/dL, respectively. The other recipients have good graft function with a mean creatinine level of 1.5 mg/dL. All recipients did not experience any rejection episode after the earthquake. The shortage of water and food after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake exacerbated the renal graft function, especially in the recipients with the lower graft function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the Th1, IFN-γ secreting cells and FoxP3 expression between patients with stable graft function and acute rejection post kidney transplantation.

    Nazari, Banafsheh; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Nikbin, Behrouz; Nafar, Mohsen; Ahmadpour, Pedram; Einollahi, Behzad; Lesan Pezeshki, Mahboob; Khatami, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Ansaripour, Bita; Nikuinejad, Hassan; Mohamadi, Fatemeh; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Soltani, Samaneh; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein


    There are limited clinical investigations identifying the percentage of T helper 1 (Th1) and T regulatory (Treg) cells in stable as well as rejected kidney allografts, a concept which needs to be more studied. The aim of our study was to compare the percentage of CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, the number of IFN-γ secreting cells and the amount of FoxP3 expression in patients with or without stable graft function, to determine the roles of these immunological factors in stable and rejected renal allografts. In this prospective study, 3 months after transplantation 30 patients who received renal transplants from unrelated living donors were enrolled and divided into two groups, 20 patients with stable graft function and 10 patients with biopsy proven acute rejection. The percentage of Th1 CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells was determined on PBMC by flow cytometry and the number of IFN-γ secreting cells by ELISPOT method. Furthermore, FoxP3 expression of PBMCs was measured by Real Time PCR method. The results of these assessments in both groups were statistically analyzed by SPSS 14.0. Our results showed that the percentage of Th1 CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells and the number of IFN-γ secreting cells were significantly higher in the patients with acute rejection in comparison to the stable graft function group (p<0.001). In addition, the level of FoxP3 gene expression was higher in the group with stable graft compared to the acute rejection group. The higher percentage of CD4+ IFN-γ+Th1 subset and number of IFN-γ secreting cells and also the lower expression of Foxp3 could prone the patients to acute rejection episode post transplantation. By these preliminary data, it is suggested that monitoring of Th1 cells post transplantation, as an immunologic marker could predict the possibility of rejection episodes.

  5. Comparison of the Th1, IFN-γ secreting cells and FoxP3 expression between patients with stable graft function and acute rejection post kidney transplantation.

    Banafsheh Nazari


    Full Text Available There are limited clinical investigations identifying the percentage of T helper 1 (Th1 and T regulatory (Treg cells in stable as well as rejected kidney allografts, a concept which needs to be more studied. The aim of our study was to compare the percentage of CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, the number of IFN-γ secreting cells and the amount of FoxP3 expression in patients with or without stable graft function, to determine the roles of these immunological factors in stable and rejected renal allografts. In this prospective study, 3 months after transplantation 30 patients who received renal transplants from unrelated living donors were enrolled and divided into two groups, 20 patients with stable graft function and 10 patients with biopsy proven acute rejection. The percentage of Th1 CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells was determined on PBMC by flow cytometry and the number of IFN-γ secreting cells by ELISPOT method. Furthermore, FoxP3 expression of PBMCs was measured by Real Time PCR method. The results of these assessments in both groups were statistically analyzed by SPSS 14.0. Our results showed that the percentage of Th1 CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells and the number of IFN-γ secreting cells were significantly higher in the patients with acute rejection in comparison to the stable graft function group (p<0.001. In addition, the level of FoxP3 gene expression was higher in the group with stable graft compared to the acute rejection group. The higher percentage of CD4+ IFN-γ+Th1 subset and number of IFN-γ secreting cells and also the lower expression of Foxp3 could prone the patients to acute rejection episode post transplantation. By these preliminary data, it is suggested that monitoring of Th1 cells post transplantation, as an immunologic marker could predict the possibility of rejection episodes.

  6. 丹参对肾移植大鼠慢性排斥移植肾病理变化及其TGF-β1表达的影响%Effect of salviae miltiorrhizae on histological changes and TGF-β1 expression in chronic renal allograft rejection rat kidney post-transplanted

    余鹏程; 胡义阳; 岳良升; 陈桦; 郭颖; 李民; 吴建平; 赵明


    目的 观察丹参对肾移植大鼠慢性排斥移植肾组织病理变化和转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)表达的影响.方法 制作SD-Wistar大鼠肾移植慢性排斥模型,完整保留受体右肾作为每个移植肾的内对照.选取移植成功受体15只,随机分成治疗组8只与对照组7只.治疗组受体大鼠自术后10 d起每日腹腔注射丹参注射液80 mg/kg至术后12周;对照组给予相同容量的生理盐水腹腔注射.术后12周取受体大鼠移植肾组织行组织病理学检查,并用免疫组化染色法检测移植肾中的TGF-β1.结果 移植后12周,两组受体移植肾均存活,体积较正常右肾略小,色泽较苍白,出现不同程度的单个核细胞浸润、肾小球硬化、肾小管萎缩、间质纤维化和小动脉内膜纤维性增厚等慢性排斥组织病理学改变.治疗组大鼠移植肾组织的病理改变Banff评分(6.40±1.04)分,明显低于对照组的(7.87±0.55)分,P<0.01.TGF-β1主要表达于肾小管和间质细胞.治疗组肾组织的TGF-β1表达强度为6.55±0.95,明显低于对照组的7.74±0.97,P<0.05.结论 丹参能够减轻大鼠肾移植慢性排斥移植肾组织病理学损害,下调移植肾组织TGF-β1的表达.%Objective To explore the effect of salviae miltiorrhizae powder injection on histological changes and TGFβ1 expression in choronic renel allograft rejoection rat kindney pest-transplanted chronic renal allograft rejection. Methods Orthotopic kidney transplantation were performed in strain combinations of SD to Wistar. The native kidney of the recipients were kept and used as an internal control. 15 successfiul recipients were randommized into treating group( n =8)and control group(n =7). The recipients of the two groups were treated with salviae miltiorrhizae powder for injection at doses of 80 mg/( kg · d) ( treating group)or the same volume of saline solution( control group) per day from day 10 until week 12 after transplantation. All receipients of

  7. Pediatric renal transplantation in a highly sensitised child-8 years on.

    Quinlan, Catherine


    Highly sensitised children have markedly reduced chances of receiving a successful deceased donor renal transplant, increased risk of rejection, and decreased graft survival. There is limited experience with the long-term followup of children who have undergone desensitization. Following 2 failed transplants, our patient was highly sensitised. She had some immunological response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) but this was not sustained. We developed a protocol involving sequential therapies with rituximab, IVIg, and plasma exchange. Immunosuppressant therapy at transplantation consisted of basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. At the time of transplantation, historical crossmatch was ignored. Current CDC crossmatch was negative, but T and B cell flow crossmatch was positive, due to donor-specific HLA Class I antibodies. Further plasma exchange and immunoglobulin therapy were given pre- and postoperatively. Our patient received a deceased donor-kidney-bearing HLA antigens to which she originally had antibodies, which would have precluded transplant. The graft kidney continues to function well 8 years posttransplant.

  8. Causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation.

    Weide, M.J.A. van der; Achterberg, T. van; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Hilbrands, L.B.


    OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of bladder capacity, bladder pain, dysfunctional voiding, urgency, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and urinary output as potential causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were gathered from 52 adult renal transplant

  9. Causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation

    Weide, M.J.A. van der; Achterberg, T. van; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Hilbrands, L.B.


    OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of bladder capacity, bladder pain, dysfunctional voiding, urgency, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and urinary output as potential causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were gathered from 52 adult renal transplant

  10. Calcification Propensity and Survival among Renal Transplant Recipients

    Keyzer, Charlotte A.; de Borst, Martin H.; van den Berg, Else; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Arampatzis, Spyridon; Farese, Stefan; Bergmann, Ivo P.; Floege, Juergen; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Goor, Harry; Eisenberger, Ute; Pasch, Andreas


    Calciprotein particle maturation time (T-50) in serum is a novel measure of individual blood calcification propensity. To determine the clinical relevance of T-50 in renal transplantation, baseline serum T-50 was measured in a longitudinal cohort of 699 stable renal transplant recipients and the ass

  11. Causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation.

    Weide, M.J.A. van der; Achterberg, T. van; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Hilbrands, L.B.


    OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of bladder capacity, bladder pain, dysfunctional voiding, urgency, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and urinary output as potential causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were gathered from 52 adult renal transplant pat

  12. Causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation

    Weide, M.J.A. van der; Achterberg, T. van; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Hilbrands, L.B.


    OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of bladder capacity, bladder pain, dysfunctional voiding, urgency, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and urinary output as potential causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were gathered from 52 adult renal transplant pat

  13. Paid Living-Unrelated Renal Transplantation Abroad: Too Much Unknown

    Yalçın SOLAK


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the unethical characteristic and unfavorable consequences, paid livingunrelated renal transplantation is still considered as an option for end-stage renal disease patients. This study aimed to compare the medical and surgical complications along with allograft functions of PLURT patients with age and gender matched transplant recipients who received a living or deceased donor kidney at our center. MATERIAL and METHODS: End-stage renal disease patients received PLURT (group 1 in a foreign country and age, and gender matched renal transplant recipients that received renal transplantation from living-related donors (LRT patients; group 2 and deceased donors (DDRT patients; group 3 followed between 2003-2010 at our transplantation center were included in the study. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups (Group 1&2 and group 1&3 regarding age, sex, urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, and proteinuria. Data about patients that received renal transplantation from living-related and deceased-donors at our center were sufficient when compared with PLURT patients. PLURT has a negative impact on patients' survival because of surgical and medical problems. CONCLUSION: In the present study, PLURT, LRT and DDRT patients had early and late complications of renal transplantation which were similarly seen in recent studies. The main problem for unfavorable results of PLURT is the commercial aspect of renal transplantation without considering the risks for ESRD patients.

  14. Mineral metabolism in European children living with a renal transplant

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; Busutti, Marco; van Stralen, Karlijn J;


    Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry to study the prevalence and potential determinants of mineral abnormalities, as well as the predictive value of a disturbed mineral level on graft survival in a large cohort of European pediatric renal transplant...

  15. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Symptoms Alleviated by Renal Transplantation

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Hansen, J. M.; Marckmann, P.


    are limited. Anecdotal reports have shown partial or complete resolution of NSF following successful renal transplantation early in the course of NSF. In this report, we describe alleviation of NSF symptoms in two women following successful renal transplantation more than 3 years after onset of NSF....


    A. V. Vatazin


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the results of the investigation of peripheral blood lymphocyte morphofunctional status in healthy volunteers and renal allograft recipients for early postoperative period. Working out noninvasive tests for diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection based on the measuring of cell morphometric parameters by method of coherent phase microscopy (CPM. It was found out that the lymphocyte phase height was proportional cell image density and its geometrical thickness. Our results showed that the variations of immunocompetent cell morphometric indicants can be in advance the dynamics of blood creatine increasing and answer for early criteria of acute renal allograft rejection

  17. Interventional radiological treatment of renal transplant complications: A pictorial review

    Lezzi, Roberto; La, Torre Michele fabio; Santoro, Marco; Dattesi, Robrta; Nestola, Massimiliano; Posa, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Jacopo; CItterio, Franco; Bonomo, Lorenzo [' A. Gemelli' Hospital - Catholic University, Rome (Italy)


    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic renal failure, which produces a dramatic improvement in the quality of life and survival rates, in comparison to long-term dialysis. Nowadays, new imaging modalities allow early diagnosis of complications, and thanks to the recent developments of interventional techniques, surgery may be avoided in most cases. Knowledge in the types of renal transplant complications is fundamental for a correct pre-operative planning. In this article, we described the most common or clinically relevant renal transplant complications and explained their interventional management.

  18. Marital status and fertility of 185 male renal transplant recipients in China.

    Xu, Long-Gen; Wang, Hong-Wei; Peng, Wang-Ling; Jin, Li-Ming; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui-Ming; Song, Qi-Zhe; Xu, Biao; Ding, Xian-Fan


    A questionnaire was designed to assess the effects of renal transplantation in men of reproductive age on marital status and fertility. The study sought to correlate recipients' marital status and fertility with the health of the recipients after the transplantation, the health of children they fathered after the procedure, and the functioning of the transplanted kidney. Male recipients (n = 243) who were single and of reproductive age before renal transplantation were selected from 2007 recipients of a renal transplant recorded in the authors' hospitals in China. Of the 243 surveyed, 185 completed the questionnaire and participated in follow-up in the clinic or by telephone. Their marital status and fertility were investigated. Of the 185 recipients, 69 got married 12-88 months (mean, 32.19 +/- 14.30 months) after renal transplantation, and 62 of 69 couples were actively attempting to become pregnant. Fifty-three patients fathered 54 children, including 1 pair of twins, 9-72 months (mean, 25.81 +/- 15.33 months) after marriage. The birth weights of the newborns ranged from 2500 to 4600 g (mean, 3395 +/- 456.80 g). These children developed well. Nine patients did not father any children, and 3 of these 9 cases were attributable to infertility in the wife. Seven patients were using contraceptives. Three recipients suffered from chronic graft rejection and resumed hemodialysis 2-11 years after they fathered children. In addition, 2 patients died after fathering 1 child: 1 from dysfunction of the transplanted kidney 9 years after birth of his child, and another in an accident 1 year after his child's birth. Our findings suggest that, like men without renal transplants, male recipients of renal transplants can get married and father children, and the transplantation procedure appears to have no significant effect on the children fathered afterwards, on the recipients' health, or on the functioning of the transplanted kidney. It is very important to indicate that, in

  19. Cryptococcal meningitis presenting as sinusitis in a renal transplant recipient.

    Iyer, S P; Movva, K; Wiebel, M; Chandrasekar, P; Alangaden, G; Carron, M; Tranchida, P; Revankar, S G


    Cryptococcal meningitis is a relatively common invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, especially in solid organ transplant recipients. Clinical presentation typically includes fever, headache, photophobia, neck stiffness, and/or altered mental status. Unusual presentations may delay diagnosis. Therapy is challenging in renal transplant patients because of the nephrotoxicity associated with amphotericin B, the recommended treatment. We present a case of cryptococcal meningitis in a renal transplant recipient presenting as acute sinusitis with successful treatment using fluconazole as primary therapy.

  20. Profiling immunologic risk for acute rejection in liver transplantation: Recipient age is an important risk factor.

    Kueht, Michael L; Cotton, Ronald T; Galvan, N Thao N; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A; Rana, Abbas


    Careful management of induction and maintenance of immunosuppression is paramount to prevent acute rejection in liver transplantation. A methodical analysis of risk factors for acute cellular rejection may provide a more comprehensive method to profile the immunologic risk of candidates. Using registry data from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), we identified 42,508 adult recipients who underwent orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) between 2002 and 2013. We excluded recipients with a blank entry for treated rejection. We analyzed this all inclusive cohort in addition to a subset of 27,493 patients with just tacrolimus immunosuppression. Multivariate logistic regression was used on both cohorts and identified independent risk factors for treated acute rejection at one year. Recipient age (reference group was 40 to 60years) was a dominant risk factor for rejection in both cohorts and had a dose response relationship. The strongest risk factors in the inclusive cohort were: age 18-25 (OR 2.20), age 26-29 (OR 2.03), and primary biliary cholangitis (OR 1.55). The most protective factors were age 70 and older (OR 0.68), and age 65-69 (OR 0.70). The rates of rejection had a similar pattern. Although prior studies have suggested age as a risk factor for rejection in liver transplantation, this is the first study of national-level data to demonstrate a robust dose dependent relationship between age and risk for rejection at one year. Clinicians should place significant weight on recipient age when they assess their recipients for the immunologic risk of rejection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Routine intraoperative stenting for renal transplant recipients.

    Wilson, Colin H; Bhatti, Aftab A; Rix, David A; Manas, Derek M


    Major urological complications (MUCs) after kidney transplantation contribute to patient morbidity and compromise graft function. Ureteric stents have been successfully used to treat such complications and a number of centers have adopted a policy of universal prophylactic stenting, at the time of graft implantation, to reduce the incidence of urine leaks and ureteric stenosis. In conjunction with the Cochrane Renal Group we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, reference lists of articles, books and abstracts and contacted companies, authors and experts to identify randomized controlled trials examining the use of stents in renal transplantation. The primary outcome was the incidence of MUCs and data on this statistic was pooled and analyzed using a random effects model. Seven randomized controlled trials (1154 patients) of low or moderate quality were identified. The incidence of MUCs was significantly reduced (relative risk [RR] 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.77; P=0.02; number needed to treat = 13) by prophylactic ureteric stenting. Urinary tract infections were more common in stented patients (RR 1.49), unless the patients were prescribed 480 mg cotrimoxazole once daily. With this antibiotic regime the incidence of infection was equivalent between the two groups (RR 0.97). Stents appeared generally well tolerated, although trials using longer stents (> or = 20 cm) for longer periods of time (>6 weeks) reported more problems with encrustation and migration. Universal prophylactic stenting reduces the incidence of MUCs and should be recommended on the basis of currently available randomized controlled trials.

  2. Variation of T cell subset during acute rejection after liver transplantation in rhesus monkeys

    Ran Jiang-hua; Liu Jing; Zhang Xi-bing; Zhang Sheng-ning; Wu Shu-yuan; Li Lai-bang; Li Wang; Li Li


    Abstract BACKGROUND: Looking for the early diagnosis of acute rejection indicators after liver transplantation can assess the risk after liver transplantation quickly and effectively, and T lymphocytes play the significant role in acute rejection. OBJECTIVE:To observe the relationship between acute rejection and variation of expression of T cel subset in blood after liver transplantation in rhesus monkey. METHODS: The sixteen liver transplant models in rhesus monkey which were constructed successfuly by the method of “double-cuff and one support tube” were divided into two groups randomly: experiment group (no treated by immunosuppressant in perioperative period) and control group (treated by immunosuppressant in perioperative period). Then the blood specimen and liver tissue respectively were colected at 6, 12, 24 and 72 hours after operation. The levels of alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin were detected with the fuly automatic biochemical analyser. The levels of CD4+/CD8+were tested by flow cytometry. The liver tissue in rhesus monkey after liver transplantation was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The degree of acute rejection was evaluated by Banff Score System. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Acute rejection appeared in the experiment group at 12, 24, and 72 hours after liver transplantation. Levels of alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group at 24 and 72 hours after transplantation (P < 0.05). The expression of CD4+/CD8+of the experiment group and control group began to rise at 6 hours after surgery, but the experiment group increased the most obvious. CD4+/CD8+ expression was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group at 24 and 72 hours after transplantation (P < 0.05). Morphological pathology was severer, and Banff score was higher in the experiment group than in the control group at

  3. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy were a helpful diagnostic clue of stenosis of the iliac segment proximal to the transplant renal artery: a case report.

    Aoyama, H; Saigo, K; Hasegawa, M; Akutsu, N; Maruyama, M; Otsuki, K; Matsumoto, I; Kawaguchi, T; Kitamura, H; Asano, T; Kenmochi, T; Itou, T; Matsubara, H


    Common iliac artery stenosis after renal transplantation is a rare complication; it can occur in the course of hypertension and renal dysfunction. We report a case of suspected renal allograft rejection with iliac artery stenosis proximal to a transplanted kidney. A 52-year-old man with a history of cadaveric kidney transplantation 26 years previously underwent a second cadaveric kidney transplantation in the left iliac fossa because of graft failure 3 years before. In June 2012, the patient had progressive renal dysfunction. In July, a percutaneous needle biopsy was taken, and it showed no rejection; however, his renal function continued to get worse through September. A percutaneous allograft renal biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance and showed hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and renin granules. Magnetic resonance angiography was used to evaluate the arteries in the pelvis and showed left common iliac artery stenosis, and a stent was placed. After percutaneous intervention, the patient's ankle brachial pressure index was within the normal range and the allograft function had improved.

  4. Uricosuric effect of losartan in patients with renal transplants

    Kamper, A L; Nielsen, A H


    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the uricosuric effect of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, in hypertensive patients with renal transplants who are treated with cyclosporin A (CsA). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with stable renal function and hypertension, 16 men......-daily administration of 50 mg of losartan in hypertensive CsA-treated patients with renal transplants caused a 17% increase in FE(uric acid) and an 8% fall in plasma uric acid....

  5. Characteristics of long-term live-donor pediatric renal transplant survivors: a single-center experience.

    El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Osman, Yasser M; Sobh, Mohamed A


    To study the characteristics and the predictors of survival observed in our pediatric live-donor renal transplant recipients with an allograft that functioned for more than 10 yr. One hundred fifteen children underwent renal transplantation between 1976 and 1995. Of these, 30 had functioning allografts for more than 10 yr (range, 11-18). The patients included 18 males and 12 females, with a mean age at transplantation of 13 yr (range, 5-18). Characteristics of the patients, data on graft survival, and determinants of outcome were obtained by reviewing all medical charts. At most recent follow-up (January 2005), the mean daily dose of azathioprine was 1.2 mg/kg (range, 1-2) and that of prednisone was 0.16 mg/kg (range, 0.1-0.2). Mean creatinine clearance was 72 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (range, 45-112). Acute rejection occurred in 14 (47%) patients. Seven patients had one episode, five had two episodes, and two had three episodes of acute rejection. Three patients (10%) developed malignancy. A substantial proportion of patients (44%) were short, with a height standard deviation score (SDS) less than -1.88, which is below the third percentile for age and gender. One quarter of the patients, more commonly the females, were obese. Other complications included osteoporosis in 16 (53%) patients, avascular bone necrosis in four (13%), post-transplantation diabetes mellitus in three (10%), and hypertension in 18 (60%). Twelve (40%) patients were married and 27% had children post-transplantation. The independent determinants of long-term graft survival were acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. Despite good renal function, long-term pediatric renal transplant survivors are at risk of significant morbidity. The determinants of long-term graft survival are acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension.

  6. 西罗莫司对比他克莫司用于肾移植后抗排异疗效和安全性的Meta分析%Efficacy and Safety of Sirolimus versus Tacrolimus for Anti-rejection after Renal Transplantation:A Me-ta-analysis

    陈小娟; 黄晓宁; 李勇


    目的:系统评价西罗莫司(SRL)对比他克莫司(Tac)在肾移植后抗排异的临床疗效和安全性,为临床提供循证参考。方法:计算机检索PubMed、EMBase、Medline、Science Direct、Cochrane图书馆、中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊数据库、万方数据库,收集SRL(试验组)对比Tac(对照组)用于肾移植后抗排异的随机对照试验(RCT),提取资料并对纳入文献进行质量评估后,采用Rev Man 5.2统计软件进行Meta分析。结果:共纳入5项RCT,合计594例患者。Meta分析结果显示,两组患者急性排异反应发生率[RR=1.26,95%CI(0.82,1.93),P=0.30]、移植物丢失率[RR=0.91,95%CI(0.32,2.55),P=0.85]和死亡率[RR=0.87,95%CI (0.34,2.22),P=0.77]比较差异无统计学意义;而试验组患者感染率显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义[RR=0.13,95%CI(0.04,0.40),P<0.001]。结论:相比Tac,肾移植后抗排异治疗中使用SRL具有相同的抗排异效果,且不改变移植物丢失率和患者死亡率,还能降低患者用药后的感染风险,安全性较高。%OBJECTIVE:To systematically review the clinical efficacy and safety of sirolimus(SRL)versus tacrolimus(Tac) for anti-rejection after renal transplantation,and provide evidence-based reference for clinical treatment. METHODS:Retrieved from PubMed,EMBase,Medline,Science Direct,Cochrane library,CJFD,VIP and Wanfang Database,randomized controlled tri-als(RCT)about SRL(test group)versus Tac(control group)for anti-rejection after renal transplantation were collected. Meta-anal-ysis was performed by using RevMan 5.2 software after data extraction and quality evaluation. RESULTS:Totally 5 RCTs were in-cluded,involving 594 patients. Results of Meta-analysis showed,there was no significant difference in the incidence of acute rejec-tions [RR=1.26,95%CI(0.82,1.93),P=0.30],graft loss rate [RR=0.91,95%CI(0

  7. In Situ Localization of C3 Synthesis in Experimental Acute Renal Allograft Rejection


    Recent evidence has implicated complement in renal transplant injury and identified the kidney as a source of complement components. We therefore investigated the local gene expression of complement component C3, pivotal to complement activation pathways and a mediator of inflammatory injury, in a rat renal transplant model. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, the expression of C3 mRNA increased in two phases. The first phase coincided with post-ischemic injury over 2 days pos...

  8. [Liver damage caused by atorvastatin and cyclosporine in patients with renal transplant].

    Ivandić, Ema; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina


    Kidney transplantation is the preferred method of treatment of end-stage renal disease, which significantly improves the quality of life, but also increases survival when compared to dialysis. Prevention of acute or chronic rejection demands the use of immunosuppression. However, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiovascular disease, post-transplantation diabetes mellitus, chronic graft dysfunction and dyslipidemia may all occur as complications of immunosuppressive therapy. Dyslipidemia is a significant problem in renal transplant recipients due to the fact that it increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients in whom the risk is already higher than in the general population. Very often, there is an interaction between immunosuppressive drugs, especially cyclosporine, and drugs that are used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. We present a case of a patient who developed severe hepatotoxicity after the introduction of atorvastatin in a cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive regimen. After discontinuation of atorvastatin and replacement of cyclosporine with everolimus, liver chemistries returned to normal values.

  9. New options for the management of hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation.

    Douthat, Walter Guillermo; Chiurchiu, Carlos Raul; Massari, Pablo Ulises


    The persistence and severity of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) post-renal transplantation is relatively frequent and primarily associated with the timing and its magnitude in the pre-transplant period and with the presence of parathyroid adenomas. HPT after renal transplantation is clinically manifested with hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, bone pain, fractures, and in more serious cases with cardiovascular calcifications that affect the survival. The primary clinical objective for patients with secondary HPT after renal transplantation is to obtain a level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) adequate to the renal transplanted function and to normalize levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. In many cases during this period, the development of hypercalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia makes it necessary to take different therapeutic measures. The use of vitamin D or its analogues has been extrapolated from the management of pre-transplant HPT obtaining variable outcomes, although its use is limited by its capacity to produce hypercalcemia. Calcimimetics are drugs that have proven be effective in reducing PTH levels in patients with HPT on dialysis and has been effective in reducing up to 50% PTH levels in moderate to severe HPT in post-renal transplantation.When HPT persists after renal transplantation and does not respond to medical treatment, invasive management by percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of parathyroid glands or parathyroidectomy should be considered. The emergence of new methods for the management of HPT expands the availability of therapeutic tools for transplant patients.

  10. Cutaneous Manifestations in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Fatma Elif Demirgüneş


    Full Text Available Background and Design: This study is designed to determine the prevalence and the clinical spectrum of skin diseases in renal transplant recipients (RTRs.Material and Method: In this study RTRs who were referred to our department between 2005 and 2007 for dermatologic examination were evaluated. Dermatologic investigation included direct clinical observation and culture or histolopathological investigation when indicated. Patients were divided into three groups: group A, post-transplantation periods £1 year; group B, post-transplantation periods of 1-5 years; and group C, post-transplantation periods >5 years. Results: In this study 88 (M=50, F=38 RTRs were evaluated. The mean age was 37 ± 12 years and the median interval since transplantation was 38.5 months (range=1 month-27 years. Over a 2-year period 298 cutaneous manifestations were identified. Ninety-five immunosuppressive (IS drug-related manifestations were observed in 58 (%65.9 patients and the most common one was acneiform eruption (n=23. Forty (45.5% patients developed cutaneous viral infections, consisting of verruca vulgaris (n=29, herpes zoster (n=9, herpes simplex (n=5, molluscum (n=2 and varicella (n=1 infections. Superficial fungal infections were observed in 35(39.2% patients, most common lesions were dermatophytosis (n = 23 and pityriasis versicolor (n=17. Bacterial infections were observed in 14 (%16 patients, folliculitis was present in 12 of them. Premalignant and malignant lesions were identified in 12 (%13.6 patients, consisting of actinic keratoses (n=9, basal cell carcinoma (n=2, squamous cell carcinoma (n=1 and Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1. There were more premalignant and malignant lesions in patients receiving azathioprine (p=0.002. Cutaneous viral infections were more common in group C (p=0.023 and IS drug-related manifestations were more common in group A (p=0.003. Conclusion: Most common cutaneous manifestation among RTRs was IS drug-related and seen in early post-transplantation

  11. Influence of SDZ RAD vs. MMF on gastric emptying in renal transplant recipients.

    Maes, Bart D; Evenepoel, Pieter; Kuypers, Dirk; Geypens, Benny; Ghoos, Yvo; Vanrenterghem, Yves


    SDZ RAD and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are increasingly used in the prevention of renal allograft rejection. SDZ RAD, having a macrolide structure, and MMF, known with gastrointestinal side-effects, may have gastric motility modifying properties. Gastric emptying was examined 1 yr after renal transplantation in eight patients taking corticosteroids (CS), cyclosporin A (CsA) and SDZ RAD and six patients treated with CS, CsA and MMF. Comparing the two groups, no significant differences in gastric emptying of solids and liquids were noted. Compared with normal volunteers, solid gastric emptying was faster in the SDZ RAD group and similar in the MMF group. It is concluded that in stable renal transplant recipients treated with MMF, gastric emptying was normal. Because of the impact on drug absorption and gastrointestinal symptoms, further studies are indicated to corroborate the potential prokinetic properties of SDZ RAD.

  12. Renal transplantation in patients with HIV.

    Frassetto, Lynda A; Tan-Tam, Clara; Stock, Peter G


    HIV infection has been a major global health problem for almost three decades. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, and the advent of effective prophylaxis and management of opportunistic infections, AIDS mortality has decreased markedly. In developed countries, this once fatal infection is now being treated as a chronic condition. As a result, rates of morbidity and mortality from other medical conditions leading to end-stage liver, kidney and heart disease are steadily increasing in individuals with HIV. Presence of HIV infection used to be viewed as a contraindication to transplantation for multiple reasons: concerns for exacerbation of an already immunocompromised state by administration of additional immunosuppressants; the use of a limited supply of donor organs with unknown long-term outcomes; and, the risk of viral transmission to the surgical and medical staff. This Review examines open questions on kidney transplantation in patients infected with HIV-1 and clinical strategies that have resulted in good outcomes. It also describes the clinical concerns associated with the treatment of renal transplant recipients with HIV.

  13. Renal transplantation across the donor-specific antibody barrier: Graft outcome and cancer risk after desensitization therapy

    Ching-Yao Yang


    Conclusion: When compared to renal transplantation without DSA, desensitization therapy for DSA resulted in equivalent renal transplant outcome but potentially increased risk of urothelial carcinoma after transplantation.

  14. Renal insufficiency after heart transplantation: a case-control study

    T. van Gelder (Teun); R. Zietse (Bob); C.J. Hesse (Cees); W. Weimar (Willem); A.H.M.M. Balk (Aggie); B. Mochtar (Bas)


    textabstractBACKGROUND: In Rotterdam 304 heart transplants have been performed since 1984. End-stage renal failure, necessitating renal replacement therapy, has developed in 24 patients (8%) after an interval of 25-121 months (median 79 months). After starting renal rep

  15. Monocyte procoagulant activity and plasminogen activator. Role in human renal allograft rejection

    Cole, E.H.; Cardella, C.J.; Schulman, J.; Levy, G.A.


    Currently the mechanism of renal allograft rejection is not well understood. This study was designed to determine whether induction of monocyte procoagulant activity (MCPA) is important in the pathogenesis of renal allograft rejection. The MPCA assay was performed utilizing a one stage clotting assay both in normal and in factor-VII-deficient plasma. There was no increase in spontaneous MPCA in 20 patients with endstage renal failure and in 10 patients following abdominal or orthopedic operation, as compared with 20 normal controls. MPCA was assessed daily in 18 patients who had received renal allografts. Rejection episodes (RE) were predicted on the basis of persistent elevation in MPCA as compared with pretransplant levels. Rejection was diagnosed clinically and treated on the basis of standard criteria. Treated RE were compared with those predicted by elevated MPCA, and 3 patients were assessed as having no RE by MPCA and by standard criteria. In 8 RE, MPCA correlated temporally with RE (same day) when compared with standard criteria. In 12 RE, MPCA was predictive of rejection preceding standard criteria by at least 24 hr. There were 7 false-positive predictions on the basis of MPCA; however, there was only 1 false negative. MPCA was shown to be a prothrombinase by its dependence only on prothrombin and fibrinogen for full activity. MPCA may be important in the pathogenesis of allograft rejection, and additionally it may be a useful adjunct in the clinical management of this disease.

  16. Renal function and histology in children after small bowel transplantation.

    Boyer, Olivia; Noto, Cristian; De Serre, Natacha Patey-Mariaud; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Dechaux, Michèle; Goulet, Olivier; Niaudet, Patrick; Lacaille, Florence


    CKD is a frequent long-term complication after SBTx. CNIs are a well-known factor, but probably not the only cause. We assessed the incidence, risk factors, and severity of CKD in 27 children with SBTx (15 combined liver/SBTx) and prednisone/TAC-based maintenance immunosuppression. Median follow-up was seven yr (3-21). A renal biopsy was performed in 14 patients, 1-18 yr post-SBTx. A reduced GFR was observed in 17 children (63%) during the follow-up with none requiring dialysis. CNI toxicity was observed in 11/14 biopsies, as early as two yr post-transplant, and could occur with a normal mGFR. The dose of TAC was reduced by 50% in 13 patients with CKD and/or significant kidney histological lesions, and six were also given MMF. This led to a significant improvement in renal function: mGFR normalized in eight patients and improved or stabilized in five. No rejection occurred. At last follow-up, 37% had CKD stage 2 and 15% had CKD stage 3. In conclusion, CKD is frequent in children after SBTx and probably multifactorial. Less nephrotoxic immunosuppressive protocols may improve mGFR and should be further considered. The kidney histology helps in designing personalized immunosuppression strategies for patients.

  17. The role of mTOR inhibitors in the prevention of organ rejection in adult liver transplant patients: a focus on everolimus

    Casanovas T


    Full Text Available Teresa Casanovas Liver Transplant Unit, Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Liver transplantation remains the therapy of choice for patients with end-stage liver disease and in selected cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. While short-term allograft survival has improved significantly in recent years, there has been little improvement in long-term survival after liver transplantation. A growing body of evidence on factors influencing the long-term outcomes and the safety profiles of existing immunosuppressive agents after liver transplant points to a need to continue searching for alternative strategies. The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs (cyclosporine and tacrolimus currently represent the backbone of most immunosuppressor regimens. They have had a revolutionary effect on the overall success of transplantation, as is reflected in greatly reduced rates of acute rejection. However, the CNIs have significant toxicities that produce renal dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and other unwanted effects, such as malignancies. The recognition of these risk factors has sparked interest in regimens that limit exposure to CNIs. Nowadays, the use of immunosuppressive drugs with different mechanisms of action, which allow for a reduction or avoidance of CNIs, is common. Everolimus, which belongs to the mammalian target-of-rapamycin inhibitor family and is best known for its use in kidney and heart transplantation, has recently been approved for liver transplantation. This overview discusses the emerging evidence on the role of everolimus in the prevention of rejection after liver transplantation, in de novo transplants, conversion regimens, or as a rescue therapy. In addition, some of the most relevant and current clinical problems related to everolimus in this field are discussed. Keywords: everolimus, mTOR inhibitors, tacrolimus, liver transplant, cyclosporine, renal impairment

  18. Treatment strategies to minimize or prevent chronic allograft dysfunction in pediatric renal transplant recipients: an overview.

    Höcker, Britta; Tönshoff, Burkhard


    Long-term allograft survival poses a major problem in pediatric renal transplantation, with allograft nephropathy being the principal cause of graft failure after the first post-transplant year. The mechanisms of nephron loss resulting in graft dysfunction are multiple, comprising both immunologic factors such as acute and chronic antibody- or T-cell-mediated rejection and non-immunologic components. The latter include peri-transplant injuries and renovascular lesions (renal artery stenosis, thrombosis) as well as cardiovascular risk factors such as arterial hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Another relevant issue leading to progressive nephron loss and declining kidney transplant function is acute and chronic nephrotoxicity induced by the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) ciclosporin (cyclosporine microemulsion) and tacrolimus. Furthermore, the presence of an abnormal lower urinary tract as well as bacterial (recurrent pyelonephritis) and viral (cytomegalovirus [CMV], polyomavirus [BK virus; BKV]) infections are crucial factors involved in the incidence of chronic allograft dysfunction and graft failure. Renovascular lesions and lower urinary tract obstruction are typical indicators for surgical intervention. The aim of treatment in pediatric patients with renal failure secondary to a dysfunctional lower urinary tract is to create a sterile, continent, and nonrefluxive reservoir. Surgical techniques such as bladder augmentation and the introduction of intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic therapy have significantly improved graft outcome. Arterial hypertension, another factor responsible for graft function deterioration in pediatric renal transplant recipients, is controlled preferably by the use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists, which are known to possess nephroprotective properties in addition to their potent antihypertensive effects. Although treatment of subclinical rejection with augmented

  19. Microsurgical techniques for experimental kidney transplantation and general guidelines to establish studies about transplantation immunology Técnicas microcirúrgicas para transplante renal experimental e condutas para estabelecer experimentos sobre imunologia do transplante

    Paulo Ney Aguiar Martins


    Full Text Available Experimental models of organ transplantation played a crucial role to establish the principles of transplantation immunology. The renal transplantation in rodents became the most used model to study the mechanisms of allograft rejection. To perform it, it is necessary to master the microsurgery techniques and the research group should cooperate with other specialists in the field. In this article we review the surgical techniques employed in rats, and we draw guidelines to establish studies about transplantation immunology.Os princípios da imunologia do transplante estabeleceram-se após o surgimento de modelos experimentais. Esses modelos foram fundamentais para descoberta de mecanismos de tolerância imunológica e as bases genéticas da reação de rejeição. Transplante renal em roedores utilizando técnicas de microcirurgia tornou-se o modelo ideal, e abriu um novo horizonte para condução de pesquisas sobre imunologia e fisiologia de transplantes. Neste artigo revisamos as técnicas de transplante renal, e esboçamos diretrizes para elaboração de estudos imunológicos em modelos de rejeição.

  20. Three-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiographic Monitoring of Acute Rejection in Heart Transplant Recipients.

    Du, Guo-Qing; Hsiung, Ming-Chon; Wu, Yan; Qu, Shao-Hui; Wei, Jeng; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Tian, Jia-Wei


    This study assessed the use of 3-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography for noninvasive monitoring and diagnosis of acute rejection in heart transplant recipients. Fifteen heart transplant recipients underwent 32 endomyocardial biopsies; echocardiography was performed within 3 hours before biopsy. Twenty-four biopsies (acute rejection-negative group) showed grade 0 or 1A rejection, and 8 biopsies (acute rejection-positive group) showed grade 1B or higher rejection (based on the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria). Two-dimensional, M-mode, pulsed Doppler, and tissue Doppler echocardiography were performed to assess conventional heart structure and function, and 3D full-volume echocardiography was recorded and analyzed. Global peak longitudinal strain was significantly lower in the acute rejection-negative group compared to the positive group (mean ± SD, -7.38% ± 1.34% versus -10.88% ± 3.81%; P = .017). Differences in left ventricular global peak radial strain (28.79% ± 10.79% versus 24.32% ± 5.24%; P= .272), global peak circumferential strain (-12.16% ± 4.87% versus -12.61% ± 2.38%; P = .806), and ejection fraction (49.42% ± 12.17% versus 50.68% ± 7.26%; P = .824) between the negative and positive groups were not significant. Significant correlations were observed between the left ventricular ejection fraction and global peak longitudinal, global peak radial, and global peak circumferential (r = -0.72; P speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived global peak longitudinal strain is a useful parameter for detecting acute rejection; thus, 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography can monitor dynamic and acute rejection (≥1B) in heart transplant recipients. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Differential gene expression pattern in biopsies with renal allograft pyelonephritis and allograft rejection

    Oghumu, Steve; Nori, Uday; Bracewell, Anna; Zhang, Jianying; Bott, Cherri; Nadasdy, Gyongyi M.; Brodsky, Sergey V.; Pelletier, Ronald; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Nadasdy, Tibor; Satoskar, Anjali A.


    Differentiating acute pyelonephritis (APN) from acute rejection (AR) in renal allograft biopsies can sometimes be difficult because of overlapping clinical and histologic features, lack of positive urine cultures, and variable response to antibiotics. We wanted to study differential gene expression between AR and APN using biopsy tissue. Thirty-three biopsies were analyzed using NanoString multiplex platform and PCR (6 transplant baseline biopsies, 8 AR, 15 APN [8 culture positive, 7 culture negative], and 4 native pyelonephritis [NP]). Additional 22 biopsies were tested by PCR to validate the results. CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and IDO1 were the top differentially expressed genes, upregulated in AR. Lactoferrin (LTF) and CXCL1 were higher in APN and NP. No statistically significant difference in transcript levels was seen between culture-positive and culture-negative APN biopsies. Comparing the overall mRNA signature using Ingenuity pathway analysis, interferon-gamma emerged as the dominant upstream regulator in AR and allograft APN, but not in NP (which clustered separately). Our study suggests that chemokine pathways in graft APN may differ from NP and in fact resemble AR, due to a component of alloreactivity, resulting in variable response to antibiotic treatment. Therefore, cautious addition of steroids might help in resistant cases of graft APN. PMID:27352120

  2. Differential gene expression pattern in biopsies with renal allograft pyelonephritis and allograft rejection.

    Oghumu, Steve; Nori, Uday; Bracewell, Anna; Zhang, Jianying; Bott, Cherri; Nadasdy, Gyongyi M; Brodsky, Sergey V; Pelletier, Ronald; Satoskar, Abhay R; Nadasdy, Tibor; Satoskar, Anjali A


    Differentiating acute pyelonephritis (APN) from acute rejection (AR) in renal allograft biopsies can sometimes be difficult because of overlapping clinical and histologic features, lack of positive urine cultures,and variable response to antibiotics. We wanted to study differential gene expression between AR and APN using biopsy tissue. Thirty-three biopsies were analyzed using NanoString multiplex platform and PCR (6 transplant baseline biopsies, 8 AR, 15 APN [8 culture positive, 7 culture negative], and 4 native pyelonephritis [NP]). Additional 22 biopsies were tested by PCR to validate the results. CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and IDO1 were the top differentially expressed genes, upregulated in AR. Lactoferrin (LTF) and CXCL1 were higher in APN and NP. No statistically significant difference in transcript levels was seen between culture-positive and culture-negative APN biopsies. Comparing the overall mRNA signature using Ingenuity pathway analysis, interferon-gamma emerged as the dominant upstream regulator in AR and allograft APN, but not in NP (which clustered separately). Our study suggests that chemokine pathways in graft APN may differ from NP and in fact resemble AR, due to a component of alloreactivity, resulting in variable response to antibiotic treatment. Therefore, cautious addition of steroids might help in resistant cases of graft APN.

  3. Transplant tourism and the Iranian model of renal transplantation program: ethical considerations.

    Ghods, Ahad J; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush


    Currently, the buying and selling of kidneys through "transplant tourism" is occurring at an increasing rate, both in developed and developing countries. Since 1988, Iran has adopted a compensated and regulated living-unrelated donor renal transplant program, and by providing financial incentives to volunteer living donors, has eliminated the renal transplant waiting list. In the Iranian model of renal transplantation program, regulations have been put in place to prevent transplant tourism. Foreigners are not allowed to undergo renal transplantation from Iranian living-unrelated donors. They also are not permitted to volunteer as kidney donors for Iranian patients. A study at the transplant unit of Hashemi Nejad Kidney Hospital in Tehran, Iran, showed that of 1881 renal transplant recipients, 19 (1%) were Afghani or Iraqi refugees, 11 (0.6%) were other foreign nationals, and 18 (0.9%) were Iranian immigrants. Renal transplantations seemed ethically acceptable to all refugees and foreign nationals. However, transplantation of Iranian immigrants who had been residing abroad for years constituted true transplant tourism.

  4. [Renal blood flow investigations with 133xenon and the Anger scintillation camera in the hyperacute xenograft rejection of the rabbit kidney (author's transl)].

    Heidenreich, P; Erhardt, W; Oberdorfer, M; Krüger, P; Pielsticker, K; Hör, G


    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the advantage and validity of 133Xe-washout externally monitored by the scintillation camera. Until now there were no reports on quantitative blood flow studies in Hyperacute rejection of transplanted kidneys using a scintillation camera. Within 35 minutes after e-vivo hemoperfusion of rabbit kidneys by cats we found a simultaneous progressive decrease of renal blood flow, renal cortical blood flow as well as of the intrarenal distribution of renal cortical blood flow in all cases. The hyperacute rejection of xenografts could be verified in every case histologically. Using the scintillation camera we were able to detect regional perfusion defects caused by artifical air embolism as well as by preexisting cortical infarction.

  5. Cytomegalovirus disease in a renal transplant recipient: the importance of pre-transplant screening of the donor and recipient

    Ahmed H Mitwalli


    Full Text Available A 16-year-old female patient who was born with a single kidney developed chronic kidney disease during her early childhood due to reflux nephropathy and recurrent urinary tract infection. She progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD and was commenced on renal replacement therapy in the form of peritoneal dialysis in May 2011. Subsequently, she underwent living unrelated donor kidney transplantation in China. She was hospitalized soon after returning to Saudi Arabia for management of high-grade fever, shortness of breath, and deterioration of renal function, which was found to be due to cytomegalovirus (CMV disease, proved by kidney biopsy and presence of high level of anti-CMV immunoglobulins. Allograft biopsy showed mature viral particles sized between 120 and 149 nm in the nuclei of the glomerular endothelial cells. The patient was treated with valgancyclovir and specific CMV immunoglobulin, as well as by reducing and even stopping the dose of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. Despite all these measures, her condition continued to deteriorate and she finally died. Our study emphasizes that unrelated renal transplantation, especially if unplanned and improperly prepared, is a very risky procedure that might transfer dangerous diseases and increase the morbidity and mortality of the patients. We strongly stress the need for mandatory and proper screening for CMV carrier status among donors as well as recipients prior to transplantation. Also, a recommendation is made to reject CMV-positive donors.

  6. Renal transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients justified.

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir


    HIV infection was previously an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal transplantation using HIV-negative donor kidneys has successfully been employed for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal failure. In resource-limited countries, places on dialysis programmes are severely restricted; HIV-infected patients, like many others with co-morbidity, are often denied treatment. Kidneys (and other organs) from HIV-infected deceased donors are discarded. The transplantation of HIV-positive donor kidneys to HIV-infected recipients is now a viable alternative to chronic dialysis or transplantation of HIV-negative donor kidneys. This significantly increases the pool of donor kidneys to the advantage of HIV-positive and -negative patients. Arguments are presented that led to our initiation of renal transplantation from HIV-positive deceased donors to HIV-positive recipients at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.

  7. The Cost and Utility of Renal Transplantation in Malaysia

    Bavanandan, Sunita; Yap, Yok-Chin; Ahmad, Ghazali; Wong, Hin-Seng; Azmi, Soraya; Goh, Adrian


    Background Kidney transplantation is the optimal therapy for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the cost and health outcomes of transplantation have not been assessed in a middle-income nation with a low volume of transplantation, such as Malaysia. Aim and Methods This study used microcosting methods to determine the cost and health outcomes of living and deceased donor kidney transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. The perspective used was from the Min...

  8. The Cost and Utility of Renal Transplantation in Malaysia

    Bavanandan, Sunita; Yap, Yok-Chin; Ahmad, Ghazali; Wong, Hin-Seng; Azmi, Soraya; Goh, Adrian


    Background Kidney transplantation is the optimal therapy for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the cost and health outcomes of transplantation have not been assessed in a middle-income nation with a low volume of transplantation, such as Malaysia. Aim and Methods This study used microcosting methods to determine the cost and health outcomes of living and deceased donor kidney transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. The perspective used was from the Min...

  9. EKTACHEM bilirubin fraction Bc as a predictor of liver transplant rejection.

    Cox, C J; Valdiserri, R O; Zerbe, T R; Genter, J L


    Bilirubin fractions Bc and DELTA, not routinely available prior to the EKTACHEM Chemistry Analyzer and its slide methodology, were studied in an outpatient population of liver transplant recipients. A preliminary evaluation by the authors has shown that direct bilirubin (DBILI) levels in the normal range consist almost exclusively of DELTA (protein-bound conjugated bilirubin), while at elevated DBILI levels, an increasing amount of Bc (non-protein-bound conjugated bilirubin) is measured as well. The present study evaluated the clinical significance of Bc in the serum of 80 liver transplant recipients as a means of identifying episodes of rejection. Each patient was classified into rejection or nonrejection categories based on clinical status, liver biopsy results, and/or response to therapy. Eighteen patients were classified as experiencing an episode of rejection during the period of this study. Fourteen of these (77.8%) had Bc levels that ranged from 0.1 to 6.8 mg/dl. Sixty two patients were classified in the nonrejection category. Fourteen (22.6%) of these patients had Bc levels that ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 mg/dl. In our outpatient liver transplant recipients with Bc greater than or equal to 0.1 mg/dl, the relative risk of rejection (% of rejection patients with Bc/% of nonrejection patients with Bc) was 3.44. This value indicates that Bc determination may be a helpful adjunct in the assessment of rejection.

  10. Treatment of persistent rejection with methotrexate in stable patients submitted to heart transplantation

    Fernando Bacal


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of methotrexate for the treatment of recurrent rejection in heart transplant recipients. METHODS: We studied 6 patients submitted to heart transplantation that showed rejection grade > or = 3A (ISHLT in two consecutives endomyocardial biopsy specimens. The dose was 11.26±3.75mg/week. The evaluated data were: ventricular function, endomyocardial biopsy, white cell count and number of rejection episodes before and after methotrexate administration. RESULTS: There was a reduction in the number of rejection episodes (5.17±1.47 before methotrexate; 2.33±1.75 after 6 months and 3.17±2.99 after 12 months of treatment, p=0.0193. The ventricular function was normal with ejection fraction of 76.5±4.80 before and 75.6±4.59 after methotrexate (p=0.4859. One patient did not finish the treatment because he showed signs of rejection associated with severe pericardial effusion. Five patients had a reduction in the white cell count (8,108±23.72 before and 5650±1350 after methotrexate, p=0.0961. One pulmonary infection with complete resolution after antibiotic treatment was observed. CONCLUSION: Methotrexate in low doses is an effective adjunct therapy in the treatment of recurrent rejection after heart transplantation.

  11. [Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy for Renal Transplant Lithiasis: A Case Report].

    Oida, Takeshi; Kanemitsu, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Fujimoto, Nobumasa; Koide, Takuo


    A 54-year-old man was introduced to our hospital for follow-up examinations after renal transplantation. At the initial visit, a 25 mm renal transplant stone was noted, which had enlarged to 32 mm at an examination 1 year later. We first attempted transurethral lithotripsy (TUL), but failed due to ureteral stricture. However, we could completely remove the stone in 2 sessions of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL). The incidence of urinary lithiasis after renal transplantation ranges from 0.17-1.8%, for which PNL and TUL are frequently used. Although considered to be accompanied with risks of bleeding, bowel injury, and renal dysfunction, PNL is effective for urinary lithiasis after renal transplantation. TUL is less invasive, but access may be difficult when the ureter has an unusual course or ureteral stricture exists, as in our patient.

  12. Outcomes of renal patients from the Ivory Coast transplanted abroad: time for a local kidney transplantation program.

    Ackoundou-N'Guessan, C; Gnionsahe, D A; Dekou, A H; Tia, W M; Guei, C M; Moudachirou, A M


    The outcomes of transplanted kidney recipients from "transplant tourism" have been reported to be alarming. The present study was an attempt to examine the results of renal patients from the Ivory Coast transplanted abroad returning home for follow-up. This retrospective analysis includes renal patients from the Ivory Coast transplanted abroad between 1995 and 2009 and followed up by our nephrology clinic. We collected pre- and posttransplant parameters for statistical analyses. The 16 patients had a median age of 48 years (range = 32.5-53.75). The median age of kidney donors was 44 years (range = 30.75-51.25). Initial kidney disease was hypertension in 10 patients (62.5%) and diabetes in three patients (18.8%). They received organs from living donors (37.5% related [LRD] and 37.5% unrelated [LURD]). Initial immunosuppression consisted of induction (72.7%), tacrolimus (75%), and mycophenolate mofetil (100%). Two patients (12.5%) experienced late acute rejections, resulting in graft loss. The overall graft survival was 93% at 1 year and 80% at 5 years. Five patients died over the study period, corresponding to an overall mortality rate of 9.25/100 patient-years. The overall median patient survival was 6.25 years (range = 4.19-7.58). Patient survivals at 1 and 5 years were 93% and 53%, respectively. No factors seemed to influence survival (either graft or patient) upon multivariate analysis. Comparison between LRD and LURD recipients revealed no statistical difference among posttransplant characteristics and survivals. Mortality of renal patients from the Ivory Coast transplanted abroad is high. Financial exhaustion after transplantation renders follow-up precarious. A local kidney transplantation program in the Ivory Coast appears more urgent than ever. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MicroRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers of heart transplant rejection.

    Duong Van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Tible, Marion; Gay, Arnaud; Guillemain, Romain; Aubert, Olivier; Varnous, Shaida; Iserin, Franck; Rouvier, Philippe; François, Arnaud; Vernerey, Dewi; Loyer, Xavier; Leprince, Pascal; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Bruneval, Patrick; Loupy, Alexandre; Jouven, Xavier


    Rejection is one of the major causes of late cardiac allograft failure and at present can only be diagnosed by invasive endomyocardial biopsies. We sought to determine whether microRNA profiling could serve as a non-invasive biomarker of cardiac allograft rejection. We included 113 heart transplant recipients from four referral French institutions (test cohort, n = 60, validation cohort, n = 53). In the test cohort, we compared patients with acute biopsy-proven allograft rejection (n = 30) to matched control patients without rejection (n = 30), by assessing microRNAs expression in the heart allograft tissue and patients concomitant serum using RNA extraction and qPCR analysis. Fourteen miRNAs were selected on the basis of their implication in allograft rejection, endothelial activation, and inflammation and tissue specificity. We identified seven miRNAs that were differentially expressed between normal and rejecting heart allografts: miR-10a, miR-21, miR-31, miR-92a, miR-142-3p miR-155, and miR-451 (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Four out of seven miRNAs also showed differential serological expression (miR-10a, miR-31, miR-92a, and miR-155) with strong correlation with their tissular expression. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that these four circulating miRNAs strongly discriminated patients with allograft rejection from patients without rejection: miR-10a (AUC = 0.975), miR-31 (AUC = 0.932), miR-92a (AUC = 0.989), and miR-155 (AUC = 0.998, P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). We confirmed in the external validation set that these four miRNAs highly discriminated patients with rejection from those without. The discrimination capability of the four miRNAs remained significant when stratified by rejection diagnosis (T-cell-mediated rejection or antibody-mediated rejection) and time post-transplant. This study demonstrates that a differential expression of miRNA occurs in rejecting allograft patients, not only at the tissue level but also in the


    朱预; 肖毅; 乔海泉; 姜洪池; 代文杰


    Objective. To investigate the difference of rejection in single versus combined pancreas and kidney transplantation in rats. Methods. Allograft models including simultaneous pancreas and kidney(SPK) transplant and pancreas or kidney transplant alone were established in SD-Wistar rats, rejections of pancreas and kidney in different models were com-pared morphologically and functionally. Results. Mean survival time (MST) of pancreas was significantly prolonged in SPK than in pancreas transplant alone (PTA) (11.5 days vs. 9.2 days, P <0.05). Incidence of interstitial pancreatic rejection at grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ was much obvious in PTA than in SPK (42.9% vs. 12.5% at grade Ⅱ and 28.6% vs 6.3% at grade Ⅲ , P<0.05). No significant difference was found in MST between SPK and kidney transplant alone(KTA). Administration of cyclesporine A prolonged the MST of pancreas and kidney, without altering the tendency stated above. Condusions. In SPK, the function of pancreas is protected by kidney hence the severity of rejection is reduced, whereas the function of kidney is not protected by pancreas. It suggests that different organs differ in immunoaller-gization and immunoregulation, and immune response tend to attack organs with greater immunoactivity, those organs with minor one could be protected. Cyclesporine A is effective on prolonging the MST of pancreas and kidney.


    乔海泉; 姜洪池; 代文杰; 朱预; 肖毅


    Objective. To investigate the difference of rejection in single versus combined pancreas and kidney transplantation in rats. Methods. All ograft models including simultaneous pancreas and kidney(SPK)transplant and pancreas or kidney transplant alone were established in SD-Wistar rats, rejections of pancreas and kidney in different models were com pared morphologically and functionally. Results. Mean survival time (MST)of pancreas was significantly prolonged in SPK than in pancreas transplant alone(PTA)( 11.5 days vs. 9.2 days, P < 0.05). Incidence of interstitial pancreatic rejection at grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ was much obvious in PTA than in SPK(42.9% vs. 12.5% at grade Ⅱ and 28.6% vs 6.3% at grade Ⅲ , P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in MST between SPK and kidney transplant alone(KTA). Administration of cyclosporine A prolonged the MS T of pancreas and kidney, without altering the tendency stated above. Conclusions. In SPK, the function of pancreas is protected by kidney hence the severity of rejection is reduced, whereas the function of kidney is not protected by pancreas. It suggests that different organs differ in immunoaller gization and immunoregula tion, and immune response tend to attack organs with greater immunoactivity, those organs with minor one could be protected. Cyclosporine A is effective on prolonging the MST of pancreas and kidney.

  16. Early acute rejection after CsA withdrawal in renal transplantation and clinical study on CsA safe withdrawal%肾移植患者停用环孢素A后近期急性排斥及安全停用环孢素A临床研究

    沈宏; 韩献萍; 卢一平; 于立新; 唐科士; 严萍; 伍波; 卢卓锦; 杨宇如; 唐孝达; 邓显昭


    Fifty recipients of renal transplantation underwent a process of cyclosprine A(CsA)withdrawal with the incidence of acute rejection(AR)being 30.8%within 6~60 days after CsA withdrawal.The incidence of AR was related to the maintaining time and the dose of CsA before withdrawal.The AR incidence in different time of less than 6 months,6~12 months and over 12 months using CsA was 80%,22.2%and 36.3%,respectively,and that of dosage less than 200 mg/d and more than 200 mg/d was 7.4 % and 56%,respectively.Two CsA withdrawal pro-cesses(Ⅰ andⅡ)were also introduced with the withdrawal period in processⅠ being longer than that of processⅡ.It was found the AR incidence of 8.3%in process Ⅰ was significantly lower than 37.5%of processⅡ.Immediately giving CsA again could obtain best therapeutic effect to carly acute rejection after CsA withdrawal.%对50例肾移植患者停用环孢素A(CsA)的全过程进行了分析.发现停药后6~60天共发生急性排斥16例次,排斥率30.8%.术后用药不足6个月者排斥率80%,而用药6个月~1年和1年以上者分别为22.2%,36.3%,前者排斥率明显高于后两者(P<0.005),而后两者之间无差异(P>0.05).停药前CsA维持量小于200mg/d者,排斥率仅7.4%,明显低于维持量200mg/d以上者的56%.本文还介绍了先后采用的两种停药方案,Ⅱ类方案的停药周期长于Ⅰ类,结果示Ⅱ类停药方案的排斥率(8.3%)明显低于Ⅰ类方案(37.5%).停药后发生的急性排斥以立即恢复用CsA治疗效果最佳.

  17. De novo malignancy is associated with renal transplant tourism.

    Tsai, Meng-Kun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Lee, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Hu, Rey-Heng; Lee, Po-Huang


    Despite the objections to transplant tourism raised by the transplant community, many patients continue travel to other countries to receive commercial transplants. To evaluate some long-term complications, we reviewed medical records of 215 Taiwanese patients (touring group) who received commercial cadaveric renal transplants in China and compared them with those of 321 transplant recipients receiving domestic cadaveric renal transplants (domestic group) over the same 20-year period. Ten years after transplant, the graft and patient survival rates of the touring group were 55 and 81.5%, respectively, compared with 60 and 89.3%, respectively, of the domestic group. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. The 10-year cumulative cancer incidence of the touring group (21.5%) was significantly higher than that of the domestic group (6.8%). Univariate and multivariate stepwise regression analyses (excluding time on immunosuppression, an uncontrollable factor) indicated that transplant tourism was associated with significantly higher cancer incidence. Older age at transplantation was associated with a significantly increased cancer risk; however, the risk of de novo malignancy significantly decreased with longer graft survival. Thus, renal transplant tourism may be associated with a higher risk of post-transplant malignancy, especially in patients of older age at transplantation. © 2011 International Society of Nephrology

  18. Pharmacokinetic analysis of cyclosporine in a renal transplant recipient with congenital absence of the portal vein.

    Nakazawa, Ryuto; Sato, Yuichi; Sasaki, Hideo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kimura, Kenjiro; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya


    Here we report therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporine in a kidney transplant recipient lacking enterohepatic circulation. The patient developed steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome at age 14 years, and was medicated with an oral cyclosporine microemulsion. However, her cyclosporine trough level was unexpectedly elevated, and subsequent investigations showed that she was deficient in drug metabolism as a result of the congenital absence of the portal vein. Her renal function gradually decreased and she became dialysis-dependent at the age of 21 years, and kidney transplantation was planned. Based on pretransplant therapeutic drug monitoring, we started cyclosporine microemulsion at half of the conventional dosage. After transplantation, the dosage was successfully adjusted to achieve a target trough level. The post-transplant course was stable with no symptoms of rejection or cyclosporine-associated nephrotoxicity. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Quantitative arterial spin labelling perfusion measurements in rat models of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury at 3 T

    Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Klotz, Sarah; Hoeger, Simone; Yard, Benito A.; Kraemer, Bernhard K. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Medicine V


    To employ ASL for the measurement of renal cortical perfusion in particular renal disorders typically associated with graft loss and to investigate its potential to detect and differentiate the related functional deterioration i.e., in a setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as in renal grafts showing acute and chronic transplant rejection. 14 Lewis rats with unilateral ischaemic AKI and 43 Lewis rats with renal grafts showing acute or chronic rejections were used. All ASL measurements in this study were performed on a 3 T MR scanner using a FAIR True-FISP approach to assess renal blood flow (RBF). Perfusion maps were calculated and the cortical blood flow was determined using a region-of-interest based analysis. RBF of healthy and AKI kidneys as well as of both rejection models, were compared. In a subsample of 20 rats, creatinine clearance was measured and correlated with cortical perfusion. RBF differs significantly between healthy and AKI kidneys (P < 0.001) with a mean difference of 213 ± 80 ml/100 g/min. Renal grafts with chronic rejections show a significantly higher (P < 0.001) mean cortical perfusion (346 ± 112 ml/100 g/min) than grafts with acute rejection (240 ± 66 ml/100 g/min). Both transplantation models have a significantly (P < 0.001) lower perfusion than healthy kidneys. Renal creatinine clearance is significantly correlated (R = 0.85, P < 0.001) with cortical blood flow. Perfusion measurements with ASL have the potential to become a valuable diagnostic tool, regarding the detection of renal impairment and the differentiation of disorders that lead to a loss of renal function and that are typically associated with graft loss.

  20. Ventricular function during the acute rejection of heterotopic transplanted heart: Gated blood pool studies

    Valette, H.; Bourguignon, M.H.; Desruennes, M.; Merlet, P.; Le Guludec, D. (Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France). Lab. d' Explorations Cardiovasculaires CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Gregoire, M.C.; Agostini, D.; Rigaud, M.; Gandjbakhch, I.; Cabrol, A.; Cabrol, C. (Hopital La Pitie, 75 - Paris (France)); Syrota, A. (Hopital A. Pare, 92 - Boulogne (France))


    Twenty patients who had undergone a heterotopic heart transplant were studied prospectively to determine the relationship between rejection and ventricular dysfunction assessed from gated blood pool studies. A fully automated method for detecting ventricular edges was implemented; its success rate for the grafted left and right ventricles was 94% and 77%, respectively. The parameters, peak ejection and filling rates, were calculated pixel per pixel using a two-harmonic Fourier algorithm and then averaged over the ventricular region of interest. Peak filling and ejection rates were closely related with the severity of the rejection, while the left ventricular ejection fraction was not. Peak filling rates of both ventricles were the indices closely related to the presence of moderate rejection. Despite the low number of patients, these data suggested that gated blood pool derived indices of ventricular function are associated with ventricular dysfunction resulting from myocarditis rejection. Radionuclide ventriculography provides parametric data which are accurate and reliable for the diagnosis of rejection. (orig.).

  1. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats

    Waanders, Femke; Rienstra, Heleen; Boer, Mark Walther; Zandvoort, Andre; Rozing, Jan; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk


    Waanders F, Rienstra H, Walther Boer M, Zandvoort A, Rozing J, Navis G, van Goor H, Hillebrands JL. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1072-F1079, 2009. First published February 25, 2009; doi:10.1152/aj

  2. A single-center epidemiological study of BK virus infection and analysis of risk factors in patients with renal transplantation

    Ji-gang LI


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of BK virus (BKV infection in living renal transplantation patients, and analyze the risk factors of BKV infection and BKV nephropathy (BKVN. Methods The BKV DNA load in urine and blood samples of 43 renal transplant recipients, who had received renal transplantation in 309 Hospital from Feb. 2012 to Feb. 2013, was determined at preoperative period and 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months after transplantation. Meanwhile, the biopsy of grafted kidney was performed in those patients with continuously elevated serum creatinine and those with higher BKV DNA load. Patients were divided into 3 groups as follows according to the test results: BK viruria group, BK viremia group and pathologically diagnosed BKVN group. Data of each group were then recorded, including gender, age, postoperative diabetes (PTDM, acute rejection (AR, delayed recovery of graft function (DGF, postoperative pulmonary infection, preoperative immune induction therapy, postoperative immunosuppressive regimen, and other information. The risk factors for postoperative BKV infection and BKVN were analyzed. Results After an average of 15-month follow-up, it was found that the incidence of BKV viruria was 46.5%, that of BKV viremia was 14.0%, and that of BKVN was 2.3%. Sixth month after transplantation was found to be the peak time of viruria and viremia. FK506 was significantly associated with viremia in living donor renal transplantation. The immunosuppressive regimen was the immune related independent risk factor for BK viremia developing BKVN after living renal transplantation. Conclusion The incidence of BK viremia and BKVN is lower in living donor renal transplantation than in cadaver renal transplantation, but that of viruria is similar in both groups. Immunosuppressive scheme based on FK506 is an immune related independent risk factor leading to BK viremia proceeding to BKVN in living donor kidney

  3. Treated asymptomatic bacteriuria during first year after renal transplantation.

    Gołębiewska, J E; Dębska-Ślizień, A; Rutkowski, B


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are widespread in renal transplant (RTx) recipients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) as the predominant form. It is necessary to determine if AB is a risk factor for symptomatic UTIs. We analyzed clinical data and urine cultures performed within the first 12 months after RTx in 209 consecutive patients undergoing RTx at Gdańsk Transplantation Center between January 2007 and December 2009. We observed 170 AB episodes in 83 patients. This accounted for 53% of all diagnosed UTIs in 111 patients, with more than half of AB episodes occurring during the first month post transplant. The most prevalent uropathogen was Enterococcus faecium (36.8%, n = 32) and, from the second month after RTx, Escherichia coli (54.2%, n = 45). Female gender, use of induction with anti-thymocyte globulin, comorbidity measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index, history of acute rejection, and cytomegalovirus infection were risk factors for developing AB, and no differences in risk factors were seen for developing a symptomatic UTI vs. an AB after RTx. All patients with AB received antibiotic therapy. AB was an independent risk factor for symptomatic UTIs, but only 21 of 152 episodes of symptomatic UTIs were preceded by AB with the same causative agent. AB is a common finding in the RTx population and AB episodes may be considered a risk factor for symptomatic infections. It remains to be determined if the treatment of AB in RTx patients is in fact helpful or harmful in preventing symptomatic infections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.


    The human urinary proteome reflects systemic and inherent renal injury perturbations and can be analyzed to harness specific biomarkers for different kidney transplant injury states. 396 unique urine samples were collected contemporaneously with an allograft biopsy from 396 unique kidney transplant recipients. Centralized, blinded histology on the graft was used to classify matched urine samples into categories of acute rejection (AR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), BK virus nephritis (BKVN), and stable graft (STA). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics using iTRAQ based discovery (n=108) and global label-free LC-MS analyses of individual samples (n=137) for quantitative proteome assessment were used in the discovery step. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was applied to identify and validate minimal urine protein/peptide biomarkers to accurately segregate organ injury causation and pathology on unique urine samples (n=151). A total of 958 proteins were initially quantified by iTRAQ, 87% of which were also identified among 1574 urine proteins detected in LC-MS validation. 103 urine proteins were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed in injury and enriched for humoral immunity, complement activation, and lymphocyte trafficking. A set of 131 peptides corresponding to 78 proteins were assessed by SRM for their significance in an independent sample cohort. A minimal set of 35 peptides mapping to 33 proteins, were modeled to segregate different injury groups (AUC =93% for AR, 99% for CAN, 83% for BKVN). Urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation identified urine protein fingerprints for non-invasive differentiation of kidney transplant injuries, thus opening the door for personalized immune risk assessment and therapy.

  5. Immunologic basis of graft rejection and tolerance following transplantation of liver or other solid organs.

    Sánchez-Fueyo, Alberto; Strom, Terry B


    Transplantation of organs between genetically different individuals of the same species causes a T cell-mediated immune response that, if left unchecked, results in rejection and graft destruction. The potency of the alloimmune response is determined by the antigenic disparity that usually exists between donors and recipients and by intragraft expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the early period after transplantation. Studies in animal models have identified many molecules that, when targeted, inhibit T-cell activation. In addition, some of these studies have shown that certain immunologic interventions induce transplantation tolerance, a state in which the allograft is specifically accepted without the need for chronic immunosuppression. Tolerance is an important aspect of liver transplantation, because livers have a unique microenvironment that promotes tolerance rather than immunity. In contrast to the progress achieved in inducing tolerance in animal models, patients who receive transplanted organs still require nonspecific immunosuppressant drugs. The development of calcineurin inhibitors has reduced the acute rejection rate and improved short-term, but not long-term, graft survival. However, long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs leads to nephrotoxicity and metabolic disorders, as well as manifestations of overimmunosuppression such as opportunistic infections and cancers. The status of pharmacologic immunosuppression in the clinic is therefore not ideal. We review recently developed therapeutic strategies to promote tolerance to transplanted livers and other organs and diagnostic tools that might be used to identify patients most likely to accept or reject allografts.

  6. The identification of novel potential injury mechanisms and candidate biomarkers in renal allograft rejection by quantitative proteomics.

    Sigdel, Tara K; Salomonis, Nathan; Nicora, Carrie D; Ryu, Soyoung; He, Jintang; Dinh, Van; Orton, Daniel J; Moore, Ronald J; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Dai, Hong; Thien-Vu, Minh; Xiao, Wenzhong; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun; Camp, David G; Sarwal, Minnie M


    Early transplant dysfunction and failure because of immunological and nonimmunological factors still presents a significant clinical problem for transplant recipients. A critical unmet need is the noninvasive detection and prediction of immune injury such that acute injury can be reversed by proactive immunosuppression titration. In this study, we used iTRAQ -based proteomic discovery and targeted ELISA validation to discover and validate candidate urine protein biomarkers from 262 renal allograft recipients with biopsy-confirmed allograft injury. Urine samples were randomly split into a training set of 108 patients and an independent validation set of 154 patients, which comprised the clinical biopsy-confirmed phenotypes of acute rejection (AR) (n = 74), stable graft (STA) (n = 74), chronic allograft injury (CAI) (n = 58), BK virus nephritis (BKVN) (n = 38), nephrotic syndrome (NS) (n = 8), and healthy, normal control (HC) (n = 10). A total of 389 proteins were measured that displayed differential abundances across urine specimens of the injury types (p 1.5) from all other transplant categories (HLA class II protein HLA-DRB1, KRT14, HIST1H4B, FGG, ACTB, FGB, FGA, KRT7, DPP4). Increased levels of three of these proteins, fibrinogen beta (FGB; p = 0.04), fibrinogen gamma (FGG; p = 0.03), and HLA DRB1 (p = 0.003) were validated by ELISA in AR using an independent sample set. The fibrinogen proteins further segregated AR from BK virus nephritis (FGB p = 0.03, FGG p = 0.02), a finding that supports the utility of monitoring these urinary proteins for the specific and sensitive noninvasive diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection.

  7. [Urinary protein detection by iTRAQ® associated with renal transplant complications and its modification with therapy].

    Escobedo-Villarreal, Miguel Mariano; Mercado-Moreira, Amanda Berenice; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda Elsa; Gamboa-Esparza, Mariana; Pérez-Rodríguez, Edelmiro; Cordero-Pérez, Paula


    After renal transplant, surgical, infection complications, as well as graft rejection may occur; early detection through non-invasive markers is the key to change therapy and avoid biopsy. The aime of the study is to determine urine protein profiles in patients undergoing renal transplant with complications and detect its variation when therapy is modified. Urine samples were collected from patients prior the transplant and various postoperative stages. Urinary protein profiles were obtained by peptide labeling using isobaric isotopes for relative quantification (iTRAQ(®)). A total of 22 patients were included, of whom 12 developed post-transplant complication: 2 with graft rejection (one male and one female) and 10 (6 males and 4 females) in the group of post-transplant infections. Using iTRAQ(®) 15/345 and 28/113 proteins were identified and fulfilled the acceptance criteria, in graft rejection and post-transplant infections group, respectively. Albumin was the only protein found in both groups, the remaining proteins were different. The 5 proteins with higher scores in graft rejection were: alpha-1-microglobulin, 5'-nucleotidase cytosolic III, retinol-binding protein 4, membrane protein palmitoylated 4, and serine carboxypeptidase, while post-transplant infections were: mitochondrial acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, putative adenosyl homocysteinase 2, zinc finger protein GLIS1, putative protein FAM157B, and zinc finger protein 615. It remains to elucidate the involvement of each of these in patients with renal transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Delayed xenograft rejection of pig-to-baboon cardiac transplants after cobra venom factor therapy.

    Kobayashi, T; Taniguchi, S; Neethling, F A; Rose, A G; Hancock, W W; Ye, Y; Niekrasz, M; Kosanke, S; Wright, L J; White, D J; Cooper, D K


    This study sought to (i) investigate the efficacy of cobra venom factor (CVF) in preventing hyperacute rejection (HAR) after pig-to-baboon heart transplantation, (ii) examine the effect of additional splenectomy (Spx) and pharmacologic immunosuppression (IS), and (iii) study delayed graft rejection when HAR is avoided by complement depletion. Eleven recipient baboons received heterotopic pig heart transplants. Three received either no therapy or IS (cyclosporine + methylprednisolone +/- cyclophosphamide +/- methotrexate) at clinically well-tolerated doses, with graft survival for only 40, 32, and 15 min, respectively. Two received CVF+/-Spx, which extended survival to 5 and 6 days, respectively. Six underwent Spx + CVF therapy + IS; graft survival was 3 hr (technical complication), 6 days (death from sepsis), 10, 12, and 22 days (vascular rejection), and <25 days (euthanized for viral pneumonia with a functioning graft that showed histopathologic features of vascular rejection). Dense deposition of IgM and, to a lesser extent, IgG and IgA were seen on the endothelial cells within 1 hr of transplantation, but only trace levels of complement deposition were present in CVF-treated recipients. Within approximately 5-12 days, cardiac xenografts showed progressive infiltration by mononuclear cells, consisting primarily of activated macrophages producing tumor necrosis factor-alpha and small numbers of natural killer cells; T and B cells were absent. We conclude that (i) CVF prevents HAR, (ii) the addition of Spx + IS delays rejection, but (iii) the early deposition of antibody leads to progressive graft injury, resulting in (iv) delayed vascular rejection. Our findings indicate that the features of delayed xenograft rejection described in small animal models also occur in the pig-to-baboon model, and that rejection may occur in a complement-independent manner from the effects of antibody and/or host macrophages.

  9. FSGS Recurrence in Adults after Renal Transplantation

    Michael Rudnicki


    Full Text Available Recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS in the allograft occurs in 30–50% of patients, and it is associated with poor renal allograft survival. Major risk factors for recurrence are younger age at diagnosis, rapid progression to end-stage renal disease, white race, and the loss of previous allografts due to recurrence. Recent data support the hypothesis that circulating permeability factors play a crucial role in podocyte injury and progression of FSGS. Due to lack of controlled trials, the management of recurrent FSGS is inconsistent and highly empirical. Prophylactic and perioperative treatment with plasmapheresis and high-dose (intravenous cyclosporine represent the main cornerstones of immunosuppressive therapy. In recent years, therapy with rituximab has shown promising results. Despite evidence of activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS in recurrent FSGS and its association with progression, only limited data exist on the renoprotective role of RAS blockade in this setting. Further well designed studies are needed on pathogenesis risk factors and therapeutical options in FSGS and its recurrence after transplantation.

  10. Clinical Evaluation of Equine Antithymocyte Globulin in Recipients of Renal Allografts: Analysis of Survival, Renal Function, Rejection, Histocompatibility, and Complications

    Diethelm, Arnold G.; Aldrete, Joaquin S.; Shaw, June F.; Cobbs, C. Glenn; Hartley, Marshall W.; Sterling, William A.; Morgan, Jean McN


    Equine antithymocyte globulin combined with azathioprine and prednisone as immunosuppressive therapy in 50 transplant recipients prolonged allograft survival and seemed to modify the severity of rejection episodes. Although nine patients died from a variety of causes, only three kidneys were lost to rejection, one of which was hyperacute. There were no serious untoward hematologic or systemic effects caused by the ATG, and all patients completed the course of therapy. Infection, a serious and frequent complication of transplant patients, was encountered no more often than in other transplant series not using ALG. The data pertaining to the clinical value of ATG, although suggestive in terms of its immunosuppressive effects, is still not conclusive; and a definitive answer to this question awaits further evaluation in a series of cadaveric recipients in a randomized-double-blind study. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4599406

  11. The role of diet and physical activity in post-transplant weight gain after renal transplantation

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Kok, Trijntje; Dontje, Manon L.; Danchell, Eva I.; Navis, Gerjan; van Son, Willem J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva


    Background Long-term survival of renal transplant recipients (RTR) has not improved over the past 20yr. The question rises to what extent lifestyle factors play a role in post-transplant weight gain and its associated risks after transplantation. Methods Twenty-six RTR were measured for body weight,

  12. Cyclosporine withdrawal improves long-term graft survival in renal transplantation.

    Gallagher, Martin; Jardine, Meg; Perkovic, Vlado; Cass, Alan; McDonald, Stephen; Petrie, James; Eris, Josette


    The reduction in renal transplant rejection rates achieved over the last 20 years have not translated into a commensurate improvement in long-term graft survival. Cyclosporine has been central to immunosuppressive regimens throughout this period but its effect on long-term transplant outcomes remains unclear. This randomized controlled trial allocated first cadaveric renal transplant recipients in seven centers around Australia to three immunosuppressive regimens: azathioprine and prednisolone (AP), long-term cyclosporine alone (Cy), or cyclosporine initiation followed by withdrawal at 3 months and azathioprine and prednisolone replacement (WDL). Between 1983 and 1986, 489 patients were randomized with 98% follow-up to a median of 20.6 years. Mean graft survival (censoring deaths) was superior in the WDL group (14.8 years) when compared with both AP (12.4 years, P=0.01 log-rank test) and Cy (12.5 years, P=0.01 log-rank test) groups by intention-to-treat. Without death censoring, graft survival with WDL was superior to AP (9.5 years vs. 6.7 years, P=0.04) and of borderline superiority to Cy (9.5 years vs. 8.5 years, P=0.06). Patient survival was not different between the three groups. Renal function was superior in AP (at 1, 10, and 15 years posttransplant) and WDL (at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years) groups when compared with Cy. This study illustrates superior long-term renal transplant survival and preservation of renal function with a protocol using cyclosporine withdrawal. If long-term renal transplant outcomes are to improve, we should reconsider guidelines recommending universal maintenance use of cyclosporine.




    To differentiate between acute and chronic lung rejection in an early stage, phenotypes of infiltrating inflammatory cells were analyzed in 34 transbronchial biopsies (TBBs) of 24 patients after heart-lung transplantation. TBBs were taken during during acute lung rejection and chronic lung rejection

  14. The Natural History of Biopsy-Negative Rejection after Heart Transplantation

    Zhaoyi Tang


    Full Text Available Purpose. The most recent International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT biopsy scale classifies cellular and antibody-mediated rejections. However, there are cases with acute decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤ 45% but no evidence of rejection on biopsy. Characteristics and treatment response of this biopsy negative rejection (BNR have yet to be elucidated. Methods. Between 2002 and 2012, we found 12 cases of BNR in 11 heart transplant patients as previously defined. One of the 11 patients was treated a second time for BNR. Characteristics and response to treatment were noted. Results. 12 cases (of 11 patients were reviewed and 11 occurred during the first year after transplant. 8 cases without heart failure symptoms were treated with an oral corticosteroids bolus and taper or intravenous immunoglobulin. Four cases with heart failure symptoms were treated with thymoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, and intravenous methylprednisolone followed by an oral corticosteroids bolus and taper. Overall, 7 cases resulted in return to normal left ventricular function within a mean of 14 ± 10 days from the initial biopsy. Conclusion. BNR includes cardiac dysfunction and can be a severe form of rejection. Characteristics of these cases of rejection are described with most cases responding to appropriate therapy.

  15. Efficacy of mycofenolate mofetil for steroid-resistant acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Yuichi Matsui; Junichi Kaneko; Masatoshi Makuuchi


    AIM: To discuss the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as an immunosuppressant in steroid resistant rejection after liver transplantation. METHODS: The clinical records of 260 adult patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) were reviewed. Tacrolimus and methylprednisolone were used for primary immunosuppression. Acute rejection was first treated with steroids. When steroid resistance occurred, the patient was treated with a combination of steroids and MMF. Anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody was administered to patients who were not responsive to steroids in combination with MMF.RESULTS: A total of 90 (35%) patients developed acute rejection. The median interval time from transplantation to the first episode was 15 d. Fifty-four patients were steroid resistant. Forty-four patients were treated with MMF and the remaining 10 required anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody treatment. Progression to chronic rejection was observed in one patient. Bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common side effects associated with MMF use. There was no significant increase in opportunistic infections. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that MMF is a potent and safe immunosuppressive agent for rescue therapy in patients with acute rejection after LDLT.

  16. Profiling risk for acute rejection in kidney transplantation: recipient age is a robust risk factor.

    Rana, Abbas; Murthy, Bhamidipati; Pallister, Zachery; Kueht, Michael; Cotton, Ronald; Galvan, N Thao N; Etheridge, Whiston; Liu, Hau; Goss, John; O'Mahony, Christine


    Careful management of immunosuppression is paramount to prevent acute rejection in kidney transplantation. We studied a cohort of 139,875 kidney transplant recipients from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database between 2002 and 2013. We confirmed the analysis with a cohort of 35,277 who received thymoglobulin induction with tacrolimus maintenance, and a third cohort of 12,161 recipients who received basiliximab induction with tacrolimus maintenance. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses on data from all three cohorts and identified independent risk factors for treated acute rejection at 1 year. Recipient age was a robust risk factor for rejection in all three cohorts in a dose response pattern. Young age (18-25 years) was among the strongest risk factors for rejection in all three cohorts; thymoglobulin cohort: OR 1.87 (1.59-2.19); basiliximab cohort: OR 2.41 (1.89-3.05); and inclusive cohort: OR 1.97 (1.83-2.12). The opposite was true for old age (65-69 years); thymoglobulin cohort: OR 0.69 (0.59-0.81); basiliximab cohort: OR 0.77 (0.62-0.96); and inclusive cohort: OR 0.75 (0.70-0.80). This study is unique because it is the largest and most comprehensive multivariate analysis that demonstrates recipient age is a robust risk factor for acute rejection in an inverse dose response pattern.

  17. Efficacy of a new pulmonary cyclosporine a powder formulation for prevention of transplant rejection in rats

    Zijlstra, Gerrit S.; Wolting, Joske; Prop, Jochum; Petersen, Arjen H.; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Uges, Donald R.A.; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; van der Bij, Wim; Frijlink, Henderik W.


    Background: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine A powder for inhalation (iCsA) and its rejection prevention efficacy in an experimental lung transplantation model in rats. Methods: Single-dose pharmacokinetics (10 mg/kg) of pulmonary and orally administe

  18. Single-shot, high-dose rabbit ATG for rejection prophylaxis after kidney transplantation

    R. Zietse (Bob); E.P.M. van Steenberge (E. P M); C.J. Hesse (Cees); L.B. Vaessen (L.); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); W. Weimar (Willem)


    textabstractWe studied the effects of a single intravenous injection of rabbit ATG (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) in a dose of 8 mg/kg body weight administered 6 h after kidney transplantation on graft survival, rejection incidence, T-cell subsets, and cost-effectiveness. A total of 58 (37 male/


    T. V. Stavenchuk


    Full Text Available Aim. To identify new predictors of heart transplant rejection by using speckle-tracking echocardiography technique. Materials and methods. 117 recipients were included into research. The follow-up period in S.V. Ochapovsky Region Clinical Hospital No 1 was from March 2010 to April 2015. The groups were allocated based on results of the retrospective analysis of biopsies: group 1 (n = 68, recipients without signs of cellular and humoral rejection (AMR0 ACR0; group 2 (n = 28, recipients with ACR1; group 3 (n = 16, patients with ACR2; group 4 (n = 5, patients with chronic rejection. The analysis of the results was carried out with endomyocardial biopsy, coronary angiography, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, tissue Doppler imaging, speckle-tracking echocardiography. Results. Early complications include infections and rejection of heart transplant. Cellular rejection is diagnosed in 70% of cases, humoral rejection in 30% of cases. The disease of coronary arteries is a kind of late complications. It was diagnosed in 13.7%. Fraction rejection sensitivity was 63%, specificity was 97% in recipients with ACR1 while carrying out TTE for the purpose of identification of early diagnostic criterion of rejection; recipients with ACR2 had 75% and 96%, respectively. While carrying out PW sensitivity and specificity Е/А in recipients with ACR1 were 83% and 53%, respectively; recipients with ACR2 had 85% and 52%, respectively. While carrying out PW-TDI sensitivity and specificity Е in recipients with ACR1 were 83% and 58%, respectively; recipients with ACR2 had 88% and 60%, respectively. The assessment of myocardial deformation of the left ventricle is as follows: global peak systolic strain in recipients without rejection (GLPS LV – (–17.54 ± 3.71%, р = 0.0012; recipients with (ACR1, AMR1 had GLPS LV (–10.52 ± 1.8%, p = 0.0012; recipients with ACR2 had (–6.44 ± 1.8%, p = 0.002; recipients with chronic rejection had (–9.43 ± 1.8%, p = 0

  20. Loss of CD28 on Peripheral T Cells Decreases the Risk for Early Acute Rejection after Kidney Transplantation.

    Burç Dedeoglu

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease patients have a dysfunctional, prematurely aged peripheral T-cell system. Here we hypothesized that the degree of premature T-cell ageing before kidney transplantation predicts the risk for early acute allograft rejection (EAR.222 living donor kidney transplant recipients were prospectively analyzed. EAR was defined as biopsy proven acute allograft rejection within 3 months after kidney transplantation. The differentiation status of circulating T cells, the relative telomere length and the number of CD31+ naive T cells were determined as T-cell ageing parameters.Of the 222 patients analyzed, 30 (14% developed an EAR. The donor age and the historical panel reactive antibody score were significantly higher (p = 0.024 and p = 0.039 respectively and the number of related donor kidney transplantation was significantly lower (p = 0.018 in the EAR group. EAR-patients showed lower CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers (p<0.01 and the same trend was observed for CD8+CD28null T-cell numbers (p = 0.08. No differences regarding the other ageing parameters were found. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers was associated with a lower risk for EAR (HR: 0.65, p = 0.028. In vitro, a significant lower percentage of alloreactive T cells was observed within CD28null T cells (p<0.001.Immunological ageing-related expansion of highly differentiated CD28null T cells is associated with a lower risk for EAR.

  1. Peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients after renal transplantation

    Bakir, N; Surachno, S; Sluiter, WJ; Struijk, DG


    Background. The occurrence of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients after renal transplantation during immunosuppression might increase morbidity and mortality. Hence the timing of catheter removal is still controversial. The associated risk factors of this complication have not been analyzed.

  2. Vascular Variations and Anastomosis Techniques in Renal Transplant Donors

    ilker Murat Arer


    Conclusion: Preoperative evaluation of renal vasculature of transplant donors is an important issue in means of decreasing peroperative vascular complications and decision for nephrectomy site. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 542-546

  3. Peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients after renal transplantation

    Bakir, N; Surachno, S; Sluiter, WJ; Struijk, DG


    Background. The occurrence of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients after renal transplantation during immunosuppression might increase morbidity and mortality. Hence the timing of catheter removal is still controversial. The associated risk factors of this complication have not been analyzed.

  4. Dietary Acid Load and Metabolic Acidosis in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Berg, van den Else; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Joosten, M.M.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.


    Background and objectives Acidosis is prevalent among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and adversely affects cardiometabolic processes. Factors contributing to acidosis are graft dysfunction and immunosuppressive drugs. Little is known about the potential influence of diet on acidosis in RTRs. Thi

  5. Dietary Acid Load and Metabolic Acidosis in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Berg, van den Else; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Joosten, M.M.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.


    Background and objectives Acidosis is prevalent among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and adversely affects cardiometabolic processes. Factors contributing to acidosis are graft dysfunction and immunosuppressive drugs. Little is known about the potential influence of diet on acidosis in RTRs.

  6. Morphological characteristics of spermatozoa before and after renal transplantation

    Long-Gen Xu; Shi-Fang Shi; Xiao-Ping Qi; Xiao-Feng Huang; Hui-Ming Xu; Qi-Zhe Song; Xing-Hong Wang; Zong-Fu Shao; Jun-Rong Zhang


    Aim: To investigate the changes of the spermatozoa ultrastructures before and after renal transplantation in uremic patients. Methods: The sperm of five uremic patients before and after transplantation and four healthy volunteers were collected and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Abnormal spermatozoa were found in patients pre-transplantation; abnormalities included deletion of the acrosome, absence of the postacrosomal and postnuclear ring, dumbbell-like changes of the head, tail curling, and absence of the mitochondrial sheath in the midsegment. After renal transplantation, most of the spermatozoa became normal. Conclusion: There are many abnormalities with regard to the appearance and structure of the head, acrosome, mitochondria and tail of the spermatozoa in uremic patients. The majority of the spermatozoa returned to normal after renal transplantation, but a few still presented some abnormalities possibly relating to the administration of immunosuppressants.

  7. Transfusion-induced bone marrow transplant rejection due to minor histocompatibility antigens.

    Patel, Seema R; Zimring, James C


    Traditionally, alloimmunization to transfused blood products has focused exclusively on recipient antibodies recognizing donor alloantigens present on the cell surface. Accordingly, the immunologic sequelae of alloimmunization have been antibody mediated effects (ie, hemolytic transfusion reactions, platelet refractoriness, anti-HLA and anti-HNA effects, etc). However, in addition to the above sequelae, there is also a correlation between the number of antecedent transfusions in humans and the rate of bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection-under reduced intensity conditioning with HLA-matched or HLA-identical marrow. Bone marrow transplant of this nature is the only existing cure for a series of nonmalignant hematologic diseases (eg, sickle cell disease, thalassemias, etc); however, rejection remains a clinical problem. It has been hypothesized that transfusion induces subsequent BMT rejection through immunization. Studies in animal models have observed the same effect and have demonstrated that transfusion-induced BMT rejection can occur in response to alloimmunization. However, unlike traditional antibody responses, sensitization in this case results in cellular immune effects, involving populations such as T cell or natural killer cells. In this case, rejection occurs in the absence of alloantibodies and would not be detected by existing immune-hematologic methods. We review human and animal studies in light of the hypothesis that, for distinct clinical populations, enhanced rejection of BMT may be an unappreciated adverse consequence of transfusion, which current blood bank methodologies are unable to detect. © 2013.

  8. Sonographic findings in borderline changes and subclinical acute renal allograft rejection

    Krejci, Karel [3rd Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Faculty Hospital Olomouc, I.P. Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Zadrazil, Josef [3rd Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Faculty Hospital Olomouc, I.P. Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Tichy, Tomas [Institute of Pathology, Faculty Hospital Olomouc, I.P. Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Al-Jabry, Sadek [3rd Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Faculty Hospital Olomouc, I.P. Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Horcicka, Vladko [3rd Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Faculty Hospital Olomouc, I.P. Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Strebl, Pavel [3rd Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Faculty Hospital Olomouc, I.P. Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Bachleda, Petr [2nd Surgical Department and Transplant Centrum, Faculty Hospital Olomouc, I.P. Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)], E-mail:


    Purpose: A clinically manifested acute rejection is associated with graft dysfunction and with some ultrasound findings. The aim of our study was to determine the potential of ultrasound evaluation in the detection of subclinical acute rejective changes diagnosed in stable grafts by protocol biopsy. Methods: Gray-scale evaluation, color Doppler imaging (CDI) and power Doppler imaging (PDI) was performed before each of 184 protocol graft biopsies in 77 patients in the third week, third month and first year after transplantation. The group was divided into four subgroups-normal histological finding, borderline changes, subclinical acute rejection of IA grade, and a clinically manifested acute rejection of IA grade. The sonographic findings were compared with individual groups. Results: Detection of parenchymal edema using gray-scale imaging significantly differentiated borderline changes and subclinical acute rejection of IA grade from normal histological findings in the third week and in the third month (P = 0.013, P = 0.002 and P = 0.024, P < 0.001), respectively. A similar finding could be recorded in the latter group in the first year after transplantation (P = 0.024). The presence of edema and reduced peripheral parenchymal perfusion in PDI significantly more often indicated a clinically manifested acute IA rejection (P = 0.019, P = 0.004, P = 0.044). Parenchymal CDI hyperperfusion had a high specificity (89.5%) but a low sensitivity (60%) in the detection of the subclinical form of acute IA rejection. Conclusion: A composite gray-scale, PDI and CDI evaluation provide a significant differentiation of groups with borderline changes and subclinical acute rejection and groups with normal histological finding and clinically manifested acute rejection.


    田普训; 刘雅峰; 薛武军; 杜斌


    Objective To study the expression of B7-1 protein in biopsies in allograft renal transplantation,and explore the expression patern and the functional role of B7-1 molecule. Methods Renal allograft sample tissue by Tru-cut needle aspiration were taken from 64 paients(42 male,22 female) with renal transplantation, aging from 17 to 58 years old; 64 cases were categorized into six groups: ①acute rejection (AR n=22);②accelerated rejection (AAR n=8);③chronic rejection (CR n=10 );④hyperacute rejection (HR n=4);⑤allograft with stable function (ASF n=10); ⑥health donor kidney (HDK n=10);Immunohistochemical assays(ABC) were used, and comparison B7-1 and HLA-DR expression between tubularand interstitial,the number of interstitial infiltrating lymphocytes. Results ①The sequence of the expression of B7-1 molecule in terms of intensity from the strongest to the weakest in different groups is AR group, AAR group, CR group, HR group,ASF group and HDK group; ②During acute rejection response, a large number of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes infiltrate kidney interstitium, accompanied by strong expression of HLA-DR in tubular cell(donor MHC-Ⅱantigen),which is the first signal necessary for T lymphocyte activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that B7-1 expression of tubular cells as APC actively take part in immunological reactions and play an important role in expanding the immunological reactions.

  10. Cyclosporine pharmacological efficacy estimated by lymphocyte immunosuppressant sensitivity test before and after renal transplantation.

    Sugiyama, K; Isogai, K; Toyama, A; Satoh, H; Saito, K; Nakagawa, Y; Tasaki, M; Takahashi, K; Saito, N; Hirano, T


    Lymphocyte immunosuppressant sensitivity test (LIST) is useful for predicting the pharmacological efficacy of immunosuppressive agents. In this study, the pharmacological efficacy of cyclosporine was estimated by LIST before and after renal transplantation. Lymphocyte immunosuppressant sensitivity test was performed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay before and at 1, 3, and 12 months after transplantation in 19 consecutive renal transplant recipients. There was wide intersubject variability in cyclosporine IC50 before transplantation [Mean (SD) of 593.9 (1067.6) ng/mL]. This variability worsened 1 month after transplantation [525.7 (1532.7) ng/mL] but decreased at 3 months (193.5 (347.9) ng/mL) and 12 months (75.4 (95.4) ng/mL). In this small study, observed differences in IC50 values for the individual subjects at various time intervals was not associated with the occurrence of rejection, graft loss, and infection episodes. Lymphocyte sensitivity to cyclosporine assessed by the LIST assay showed a high level of inter-subject variability particularly before and 1 month after transplantation. The observed difference in IC50 values was not associated with clinical outcome in this small study.

  11. Methylene blue treatment for resistant shock following renal transplantation.

    Hershman, Eli; Hadash, Amir; Attias, Ori; Ben-Ari, Josef


    We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a history of hyperoxaluria type 1 and renal failure. The patient presented for a second renal transplantation 17 years after her first combined liver and kidney transplantation. Postoperative shock was highly resistant to fluids and required massive pharmacologic hemodynamic support. Vasoplegic shock was the presumed diagnosis, and methylene blue was utilized as a rescue therapy, with a rapid hemodynamic response and no apparent side effects.

  12. Percutaneous coronary interventions and antiplatelet therapy in renal transplant recipients.

    Summaria, Francesco; Giannico, Maria Benedetta; Talarico, Giovanni Paolo; Patrizi, Roberto


    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity following renal transplantation (RT), accounting for 40-50% of all deaths. After renal transplantation, an adverse cardiovascular event occurs in nearly 40% of patients; given the dialysis vintage and the average wait time, the likelihood of receiving coronary revascularization is very high. There is a significant gap in the literature in terms of the outcomes of prophylactic coronary revascularization in renal transplantation candidates. Current guidelines on myocardial revascularization stipulate that renal transplant patients with significant coronary artery disease (CAD) should not be excluded from the potential benefit of revascularization. Compared with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), however, coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with higher early and 30-day mortality. About one-third of renal transplant patients with CAD have to be treated invasively and so PCI is currently the most popular mode of revascularization in these fragile and compromised patients. A newer generation drug-eluting stent (DES) should be preferred over a bare metal stent (BMS) because of its lower risk of restenosis and improved safety concerns (stent thrombosis) compared with first generation DES and BMS. Among DES, despite no significant differences being reported in terms of efficacy, the newer everolimus and zotarolimus eluting stents should be preferred given the possibility of discontinuing, if necessary, dual antiplatelet therapy before 12 months. Since there is a lack of randomized controlled trials, the current guidelines are inadequate to provide a specifically tailored antiplatelet therapeutic approach for renal transplant patients. At present, clopidogrel is the most used agent, confirming its central role in the therapeutic management of renal transplant patients undergoing PCI. While progress in malignancy-related mortality seems a more distant target, a slow but steady reduction in

  13. Studies of CTLA4Ig in acute rejection of pancreas transplantation in rats

    Junbo Yu; Zekuan Xu; Shuguang Han; Yi Miao


    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of CTLA4Ig in rejection of pancreaticoduodenal transplantation model of rat. Methods: Pancreaticoduodenal transplantion models were established from the donor F344 rats to the Lewis recipients. The models were divided into 2 groups: Group A and B with 12 rats in each group.2 days after transplantation, reciepients in group A were treated with i.p. injection of sailine, and those in group B CTLA4I were injected(200 μg). On day 1,4,7,10after transplantation, the grafts were harvested for histopathological examination. On day 4 after transplantation, the CD4+CD25+Tcells in the grafts were detected by Flow Cytometry. Results: Compared with group A: the degree of the rejection of grafts in group B was lower. The number of CD4+CD25+ T cells of graft was (7.91±1.26)% in group A and (13.81±1.71)% in group B, which had significant difference(P<0.01). Conclusion: CTLA4Ig could inhibit T cell costimulatory pathway, prevent acute rejection, which might be mediated by increasing the number of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

  14. Calcineurin inhibitors and male fertility after renal transplantation - a review.

    Georgiou, G K; Dounousi, E; Harissis, H V


    Renal transplantation and restoration of renal function are associated with significant favourable changes regarding the reproductive capacity of male patients with previous end-stage renal disease. However, there is evidence that some of the immunosuppressive agents may impair male fertility after all. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), cyclosporine A and tacrolimus (FK506), which constitute the cornerstone of immunosuppression regimen following renal transplantation, have been implicated in causing an overall decline in the fertilisation capacity of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs). In this review, data from human clinical studies are collectively presented in an effort to estimate the potential adverse effects of CNIs on the masculine reproductive organs, the hormonal axis of males, the process of spermatogenesis and generally the male RTRs capacity to fertilise. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Proteinuria 1 year after renal transplantation is associated with impaired graft survival in children.

    Rosík, Tomáš; Chadimová, Mária; Dušek, Jiří; Háček, Jaromír; Šimánková, Naděžda; Vondrák, Karel; Zieg, Jakub; Seeman, Tomáš


    Proteinuria is a common manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and there is a high incidence of CDK and its complications following renal transplantation. However, little data are available on the association between proteinuria and graft/patient survival in the paediatric transplant population. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations between posttransplant proteinuria and graft/patient survival in children after renal transplantation. In this retrospective study, we screened all 91 children receiving renal allografts at a single institution between 1997 and 2007. The inclusion criteria were a functioning graft at 1 year posttransplant, data availability and no recurrence of focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis. The final cohort included 75 patients. Proteinuria was considered to be pathologic if the urinary protein/creatinine ratio was >30 mg/mmol. Donor and recipient characteristics, data on proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and rejection episodes were analysed. The most recent of the biopsies performed during the follow-up after 1 year posttransplant were analysed separately in the proteinuric group and the non-proteinuric group. Proteinuria at 1-year posttransplant was pathologic in 35 % of patients. The 5-year graft survival rate was significantly lower in the proteinuric group than in the non-proteinuric group (77 vs. 100 %; p Proteinuria at 1 year posttransplant was associated with reduced long-term graft survival independent of other risk factors, including decreased eGFR or episodes of acute corticosensitive and corticoresistant rejection. The most frequent histologic finding in the proteinuric group was chronic rejection. There was no significant difference in the 5-year patient survival rate between the proteinuric group and the non-proteinuric group. This study emphasizes the importance of proteinuria as a prognostic factor of renal allograft survival in children.

  16. Mycophenolate Mofetil with Low Dose CsA for Chronic Rejection in Primary Cadaveric Renal Recipients


    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil(MMF) with low dose CsA for chronic rejection in primary cadaveric renal recipients. Methods A total of 8 renal recipients who were clinically diagnosed as chronic rejection were given triimmunosuppressive agents: MMF 1.5~2.0 g/d+ CsA 2 to 3 mg/kg*d-1 and pred 10 mg/d.Results Blood creatinine reduced to normal level and urine protein disappeared in five cases, blood creatinine and urine protein decreased obviously in two cases, and kidney function deteriorated in another patient 4 to 9 weeks after this strategy. No acute rejection episodes or liver damage occurred among these patients during treatment. White blood cells reduced in one case, but it improved after therapy. Conclusion  MMF combined with low dose CsA can bring a considerable efficacy in reversing chronic rejection of renal recipients. This immunosuppressive strategy may be a useful routine in the treatment of chronic rejection.

  17. Characterization of Acute Renal Allograft Rejection by Human Serum Proteomic Analysis

    Ying GAO; Ke WU; Yi XU; Hongmin ZHOU; Wentao HE; Weina ZHANG; Lanjun CAI; Xingguang LIN; Zemin FANG; Zhenlong LUO; Hui GUO; Zhonghua CHEN


    To identify acute renal allograft rejection biomarkers in human serum, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatog-raphy (RP-HPLC) followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used. Serum samples from renal allograft patients and normal volunteers were divided into three groups: acute rejec-tion (AR), stable renal function (SRF) and normal volunteer (N). Serum samples were firstly processed using Multiple Affinity Removal Column to selectively remove the highest abundance proteins. Differ-entially expressed proteins were analyzed using 2-D DIGE. These differential protein spots were ex-cised, digested by trypsin, and identified by RP-HPLC-ESI/MS. Twenty-two differentially expressed proteins were identified in serum from AR group. These proteins included complement C9 precursor,apolipoprotein A-Ⅳ precursor, vitamin D-binding protein precursor, beta-2-glycoprotein 1 precursor,etc. Vitamin D-binding protein, one of these proteins, was confirmed by ELISA in the independent set of serum samples. In conclusion, the differentially expressed proteins as serum biomarker candidates may provide the basis of acute rejection noninvasive diagnosis. Confirmed vitamin D-binding protein may be one of serum biomarkers of acute rejection. Furthermore, it may provide great insights into un-derstanding the mechanisms and potential treatment strategy of acute rejection.

  18. Tolerance and chronic rejection.

    Womer, K. L.; Lee, R S; Madsen, J. C.; Sayegh, M H


    The most common cause of chronic allograft loss is an incompletely understood clinicopathological entity called chronic rejection (CR). Recent reports suggest an improvement in long-term renal allograft survival, although it is not clear from these data whether a true reduction of biopsy-proven CR has occurred. Although newer immunosuppressive medications have greatly reduced the incidence of acute rejection (AR) in the early post-transplantation period, the ideal therapy for both AR and CR w...

  19. Acute renal failure in liver transplant patients: Indian study.

    Naik, Pradeep; Premsagar, B; Mallikarjuna, M


    The acute renal failure is the frequent medical complication observed in liver transplant patients. The objective of this study was to determine the cause of acute renal failure in post liver transplant patients. A total of 70 patients who underwent (cadaveric 52, live 18) liver transplantation were categorized based on clinical presentation into two groups, namely hepatorenal failure (HRF, n = 29), and Hepatic failure (HF, n = 41). All the patients after the liver transplant had received tacrolimus, mycophenolate and steroids. We analyzed the modification of diet in renal disease, (MDRD) serum urea, creatinine and albumin before and after 5th and 30th day of liver transplant and data was categorized into survivors and non-survivors group. In HRF survivor group, serum creatinine, and urea levels were high and, albumin, MDRD were low in pre- transplant and reached to normal levels on 30th day of post transplant, and 79.3 % of patients in this group showed resumption of normal kidney function. On the contrary in HRF nonsurvivor group, we did not observed any significant difference and 20.7 % of patients showed irreversible changes after the liver transplant. In HF survivor group, 82.9 % of liver failure patients did not show any deviation in serum creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD, whereas in HF non survivor group, 17.1 % of liver failure patients who had HCV positive before the transplant developed acute renal failure. The levels of creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD were normal before the transplant and on day 30th, the levels of albumin and MDRD were significantly low whereas serum urea, creatinine levels were high. In conclusion, based on these observations, an diagnosis and treatment of Acute renal failure is important among the liver transplantation cases in the early postoperative period.

  20. Risk and outcome of pyelonephritis among renal transplant recipients.

    Graversen, Mette Elneff; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Jespersen, Bente; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz


    Urinary tract infection is the most common infectious disease requiring hospitalisation following renal transplantation. However, the risk and outcome of post-transplant pyelonephritis remains unclear. This population-based cohort study was conducted from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2009. Each member of a Danish population-based, nationwide cohort of first-time renal transplant recipients was matched by age and gender with up to 19 population controls. Information on hospital discharge diagnosis, emigration, and mortality was obtained from nationwide administrative databases. Individuals were observed from the date of first renal transplantation and until graft loss, emigration, or death. Risk factors were assessed by Poisson regression. The incidence rate (IR) of first-time hospitalisation for pyelonephritis was 18.5 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 16.4-20.9) per 1,000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) among renal transplant recipients (N = 2,656) and 0.26 (CI: 0.21-0.31) per 1,000 PYFU among population controls (N = 49,226) yielding an incidence rate-ratio (IRR) of 72.0 (95 % CI: 57.8-89.7). Among renal transplant recipients, the risk of pyelonephritis decreased during the entire study period and was lowest in 2005-09 (IRR = 0.46, CI: 0.31-0.68). The highest risk of pyelonephritis was observed within the first six months post-transplantation (IR = 69.9 per 1,000 PYFU; CI: 56.4-86.7). Other risk factors for post-transplant pyelonephritis included female gender, high Charlson comorbidity index score, HLA-DR mismatch, cause of renal failure, and calendar period. Interestingly, we found that the combined risk of graft loss and death was 45 %, (CI: 19-77 %) higher in renal transplant recipients following post-transplant pyelonephritis compared to those who had no admission due to pyelonephritis. The risk of first-time hospitalisation for pyelonephritis among renal transplant recipients is high. Further, post-transplant pyelonephritis was

  1. [Visceral leishmaniasis and pregnancy in renal transplanted patient: case report].

    Silva, Jaqueline de Almeida; Araújo, Ivan de Melo; Pavanetti, Luiz Carlos; Okamoto, Liene Shigaki; Dias, Mônica


    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and potentially fatal disease caused by different Leishmania species, Leishmania chagasi prevailing in Brazil. Main symptoms include fever, malaise, anorexia, weight loss and abdominal enlargement with typically occurring hepatosplenomegaly Currently, VL is considered an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, including solid organ transplanted patients. The present study reports a case of VL associated to pregnancy after renal transplantation.

  2. Constrictive pericarditis in a renal transplant recipient with tuberculosis.

    Sreejith, P; Kuthe, S; Jha, V; Kohli, H S; Rathi, M; Gupta, K L; Sakhuja, V


    Tuberculosis is a common cause of pericarditis in the developing countries and constrictive pericarditis is a serious sequel. There are only three cases of constrictive pericarditis in kidney transplant recipients previously reported in literature. Here, we report a case of constrictive pericarditis developing in a renal transplant recipient while on antituberculous therapy for tuberculous pleural effusion.

  3. Endourological management of ureteral obstruction after renal transplantation

    Bosma, RJ; vanDriel, MF; vanSon, WJ; deRuiter, AJ; Mensink, HJA


    Purpose: We evaluated endourological treatment of ureteral obstruction after renal transplantation. Materials and Methods: Between January 1986 and December 1993, 582 kidney transplantations were performed at our center, and ureteral obstruction was suspected in 31 cases (5.3%). Results: Initial tre

  4. Plasma bilirubin and late graft failure in renal transplant recipients

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Zelle, Dorien M.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Navis, Gerjan J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.


    Exogenous bilirubin has been shown to protect against oxidative stress in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic transplant dysfunction leading to late graft failure after renal transplantation. We prospectively investigated whether high e

  5. The Current Role of Endourologic Management of Renal Transplantation Complications

    Brian D. Duty


    Full Text Available Introduction. Complications following renal transplantation include ureteral obstruction, urinary leak and fistula, urinary retention, urolithiasis, and vesicoureteral reflux. These complications have traditionally been managed with open surgical correction, but minimally invasive techniques are being utilized frequently. Materials and Methods. A literature review was performed on the use of endourologic techniques for the management of urologic transplant complications. Results. Ureterovesical anastomotic stricture is the most common long-term urologic complication following renal transplantation. Direct vision endoureterotomy is successful in up to 79% of cases. Urinary leak is the most frequent renal transplant complication early in the postoperative period. Up to 62% of patients have been successfully treated with maximal decompression (nephrostomy tube, ureteral stent, and Foley catheter. Excellent outcomes have been reported following transurethral resection of the prostate shortly after transplantation for patients with urinary retention. Vesicoureteral reflux after renal transplant is common. Deflux injection has been shown to resolve reflux in up to 90% of patients with low-grade disease in the absence of high pressure voiding. Donor-gifted and de novo transplant calculi may be managed with shock wave, ureteroscopic, or percutaneous lithotripsy. Conclusions. Recent advances in equipment and technique have allowed many transplant patients with complications to be effectively managed endoscopically.

  6. Disseminated Mycobacterium gordonae infection in a renal transplant recipient.

    Broeder, A. den; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Assen, S. van; Verduyn Lunel, F.M.; Lange, W.C.M. de; Sevaux, R.G.L. de


    The use of more intensive immunosuppressive regimens and the increasing number of patients that are exposed to immunosuppressive strategies in transplantation medicine have changed the spectrum of infections that is encountered by the clinician. We describe a 62-year-old female renal transplant reci

  7. Disseminated Mycobacterium gordonae infection in a renal transplant recipient

    Den Broeder, Alfons A.; Vervoort, G.; Van Assen, S.; Verduyn Lunel, F.; De Lange, W.C.; De Sévaux, R.G.L.


    The use of more intensive immunosuppressive regimens and the increasing number of patients that are exposed to immunosuppressive strategies in transplantation medicine have changed the spectrum of infections that is encountered by the clinician. We describe a 62-year-old female renal transplant reci

  8. Evaluation of renal allografts using {sup 99m} Tc mononuclear leukocytes; Avaliacao de transplantes renais utilizando-se {sup 99m} Tc-leucocitos mononucleares

    Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de; Martins, Flavia Paiva Proenca; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Gutfilen, Bianca [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:; Goncalves, Renato Torres; Pontes, Daniela Salomao [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Nefrologia; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear


    Renal allograft acute rejection must be promptly diagnosed since its reversibility is related to the readiness in which treatment is initiated. The aim of this study was: to establish a quantitative method to evaluate kidney rejection and acute tubular necrosis (Attn); to assess the potential role of {sup 99m} Tc-mononuclear leukocytes scintigraphy in the diagnosis of renal rejection and differential diagnosis of Attn. One hundred and sixty studies were performed in 80 renal transplant patients at the first and fifth day after transplantation. Autologous cells were used for labeling. Images were obtained at 30 minutes, 3 hours and 24 hours after intravenous administration of 444 MBq (12 mCi) of labeled cells. There was abnormal labeled cells uptake in 27 of 31 cases of rejection and in 6 of 8 cases of Attn. The results of each patient were compared with clinical findings. Doppler scanning detected 18 of 31 cases of rejection. Rejection diagnosis sensitivity and specificity rates using scintigraphy were 87.1 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively, and 58.1 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively using ultrasound. Renal biopsy was performed in eight patients which demonstrated seven cases of rejection and one case of ATN. These results suggest that {sup 99m} Tc-mononuclear leukocytes imaging may be useful in the early diagnosis of rejection and in the differential diagnosis of ATN. (author)

  9. Postoperative comparison of result of renal transplantation between ethnic minorities and Han recipients after receiving kidneys from Han donors

    Han-wen CUI


    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the outcomes and postoperative complications of renal transplant recipients of ethnic minorities and Han population in China, and investigate the differences between them. Methods  Clinical data from 89 minorit y patients and 100 Han patients who had received renal transplant of Hans' donators in Organ Transplantation Center of PLA from 1990 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The general data before transplantation, and rate of short-term survival of the graft, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF, acute rejection, and pulmonary infection after transplantation were analyzed and compared. Results  No statistical difference was found in the preoperative personal profile between the recipients of minorities and Han nationality. In the recipients of minorities and Han nationality, the 1-year graft survival rate was 89.9% and 92%, the respective incidence of DGF was 28.1% and 27.0%, and the respective incidence of acute rejection was 22.5% and 19.0%, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05. The incidence of pulmonary infection was higher in minority recipients (30.3% than in Han recipients (10.0%, P0.05. Conclusion  The short-term clinical outcome of renal transplant recipients seems to be similar in different Chinese ethnic groups, but the incidence of pulmonary infection is higher in minority recipients, so it is important to strengthen monitoring in early postoperative period.

  10. [Infected solitary renal cyst of the graft in a renal transplant recipient : a case report].

    Ishida, Kenichiro; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Kondo, Hiromi; Nakane, Keita; Kato, Taku; Seike, Kensaku; Miwa, Kousei; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Sigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi


    A 59-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease of diabetic nephropathy who had been on maintenance hemodialisis for 4 years, underwent a living-unrelated renal transplantation 6 years ago. She was admitted to our hospital, because of a low grade fever and edema. Ultrasonography revealed the cyst with heterogeneity structure in the upper pole of the transplanted kidney. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a high-intensity cystic mass measuring 68×53 mm. As fever and laboratory data did not improve sufficiently by the treatment with antibiotics, echo-guided puncture and drainage were performed for the abnormal structure in the upper pole of the transplanted kidney. In the culture of the purulent aspirate drained from renal cyst, Escherichia coli was isolated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infected renal cyst of the graft in a renal transplant recipient in the world.

  11. De-Novo anti-HLA Antibodies After Renal Transplantation: Prevalance and Risk Factors

    Burak SUVAK


    Full Text Available AIM: Development of de-novo anti-HLA antibodies in the post-transplant period might be the earliest finding of later chronic antibody mediated rejection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of de-novo anti-HLA antibodies in our kidney allograft recipients. MATERIAL and METHODS: After exclusion, 91 (64M/27F patients having functional graft and negative HLA antibody before the transplantation were taken into the analysis. Anti-HLA antibodies were evaluated by the Luminex method. RESULTS: Duration of posttransplantation time was 38±31 months and the mean age was 38±10. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR was 68±19 ml/min, and the biopsy proven acute rejection rate was 15.2 %. Anti- HLA antibody was observed in 12 patients (13.1%. When the anti-HLA antibody positive group was compared with the negative group, estimated GFR (58±26 ml/min vs. 69±18 ml/ min, (p=0.05, living donor/cadaveric donor (5/7 vs. 66/13 (p=0.004, and acute rejection (6/12 (%50 vs. 8/79 (%10.1 (p=0.002 were significantly different between the groups. Deceased donor and acute rejection were independent risk factors for development of anti-HLA antibody (p=0.008 and p= 0.004, respectively on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, anti-HLA antibody can be seen after renal transplantation even in stable patients. Acute rejection and deceased donor transplantation are the major risk factors for development of anti-HLA antibodies.

  12. Angioplasty and stent treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis.

    Del Pozo, Maitane; Martí, Jordi; Guirado, Lluís; Facundo, Carme; Canal, Cristina; de la Torre, Pablo; Ballarín, José; Díaz, Joan M


    Transplant renal artery stenosis is a major complication that requires a therapeutic approach involving surgery or angioplasty. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of renal transplant patients with renal allograft artery stenosis treated by angioplasty and stent placement. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with transplant renal artery stenosis. Clinical suspicion was based on deterioration of renal function and/or poorly controlled hypertension with compatible Doppler ultrasound findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by arteriography, performing an angioplasty with stent placement during the same operation. A progressive improvement in renal function was observed during the first 3 months after the angioplasty, and renal function then remained stable over 2 years. In addition, blood pressure improved during the first 2 years, and as a consequence there was no need to increase the average number of anti-hypertensive drugs administered (2.5 drugs per patient). In conclusion, angioplasty with stent placement is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis.

  13. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Milwaukee (USA))


    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  14. Long-term graft function with tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplantation: paired kidney analysis.

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; Chan, Hoi Wong; Liu, Yan Lun; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang


    The first prospective, randomized trial with paired kidney analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus with cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients. This paper reports the long-term follow-up results of the authors' previously published study, with the main focus on graft survival and renal function. Chinese patients transplanted in our centre between June 1998 and June 2005 with their first deceased renal transplant were included. Patients were included if both kidneys were received by the authors' centre, thus allowing a paired analysis. Patients were randomized to receive triple immunosuppressive therapy with either tacrolimus or Neoral cyclosporine, concomitantly with prednisolone and azathioprine therapy. Seventy-six patients received cadaveric kidneys from 38 donors. Each pair of kidneys was randomly assigned to a separate group (38 subjects/group). The mean follow-up duration was 6.1 +/- 1.8 years. The mean calculated creatinine clearance was significantly higher in patients receiving tacrolimus-based therapy. The rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection was lower in the tacrolimus group (18.4% vs 42.1%, P = 0.03). The patient and graft survival were comparable in both treatment arms. Significantly fewer patients on tacrolimus-based therapy developed hypercholesterolaemia (P = 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus, hypertension, opportunistic infection and malignancy between both groups. Using the immunosuppressive regimen, tacrolimus-based therapy provided adequate immunosuppression with better renal function and less acute rejection, as compared with cyclosporine-based therapy.

  15. Dyslipidaemia among renal transplant recipients: cyclosporine versus tacrolimus.

    Fazal, Muhammad Asim; Idrees, Muhammad Khalid; Akhtar, Syed Fazal


    To compare new onset dyslipidaemia in live-related renal transplant recipients taking cyclosporine versus tacrolimus after 3 months of therapy. The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) Karachi, from September 2010 to April 2011, and included 182 End Stage Renal Disease patients on maintenance haemodialysis with pre-transplant normal lipid profile. The patients, who had live-related renal transplant, were randomly allocated to two equal groups using lottery. Group A received cyclosporine (3 mg/kg) and group B was treated with tacrolimus (0.1 mg/kg). All patients had pre-transplant fasting lipid profile checked when they were on maintenance haemodialysis and 3 months after renal transplantation. Serum fasting lipid profile was collected by taking 5 ml blood by venipuncture after an overnight fast of 9-12 hours. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 182 patients, 144 (79.1%) were males and 38 (20.9%) were females. The overall mean age was 30.18 +/- 9.57 years, and the mean weight was 54.41 +/- 11.144 kg. Significant difference was not observed between the two groups regarding age and weight of the patients. Dyslipidaemia was found in 115(63.2%) subjects; 61(67%) in group A and 54 (59.3%) in group B. There was no statistical difference (p=0.28) when comparison was done after 3 months of therapy. The occurrence of new onset hyperlipidaemia is similar in renal transplant recipients receiving either cyclosporine or tacrolimus in first 3 months post-transplant, but there is room for more research in this field as dyslipidaemia following successful renal transplantation is a frequent and persistent complication.

  16. Prognostic utility of preimplantation kidney biopsy from deceased older donors in first year post-transplant renal function.

    Amenábar, Juan J; Camacho, Jhon A; Gómez-Larrambe, Nerea; Visus, Teresa; Pijoan, José I; González del Tánago, Jaime; Zárraga, Sofía; García-Olaverri, Jorge; Gaínza, Francisco J


    Preimplantation renal biopsy provides potentially valuable information about post-transplant renal function. To assess the prognostic value of preimplantation kidney biopsy from older donors in determining 1-year post-transplant estimated glomerular filtration rate MDRD-4 (eGFR). We evaluated a cohort of 124 renal transplant recipients from deceased donors ≥60 years old, performed at our center between March 2008 and May 2012. Biopsies were assessed by applying the score proposed by O'Valle et al. The overall score was stratified into 3 levels: 0-3, 4-5 and 6-8 points. Kidneys scoring > 8 points were discarded. A total of 77% of the donors were ≥70 years. One year post-transplant, mean eGFR (SD) was lower in transplant recipients with 6-8 points (38.5 [14.1] mL/min/1.73m(2)) than in the group scoring 4-5 points (46.3 [15.7] [p=0.03]) and the group scoring 0-3 (49.6 [12.5] [P=.04]). Seven patients (19%) had eGFR renal biopsy were associated with a worse 1-year post-transplant eGFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection were significant risk factors for 1-year post-transplant low eGFR. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of renal allograft function early after transplantation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Eisenberger, Ute; Frey, Felix J. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Bern (Switzerland); Thoeny, Harriet C. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Binser, Tobias; Boesch, Chris [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Gugger, Mathias [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Pathology, Bern (Switzerland); Vermathen, Peter [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Department of Clinical Research/AMSM, Pavillon 52, Inselspital, P.O. Box 35, Bern (Switzerland)


    To determine the inter-patient variability of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and concurrent micro-circulation contributions from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) in renal allografts early after transplantation, and to obtain initial information on whether these measures are altered in histologically proven acute allograft rejection (AR). DW-MRI was performed in 15 renal allograft recipients 5-19 days after transplantation. Four patients presented with AR and one with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Total ADC (ADC{sub T}) was determined, which includes diffusion and micro-circulation contributions. Furthermore, diffusion and micro-circulation contributions were separated, yielding the ''perfusion fraction'' (F{sub P}), and ''perfusion-free'' diffusion (ADC{sub D}). Diffusion parameters in the ten allografts with stable function early after transplantation demonstrated low variabilities. Values for ADC{sub T} and ADC{sub D} were (x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s) 228 {+-} 14 and 203 {+-} 9, respectively, in cortex and 226 {+-} 16 and 199 {+-} 9, respectively, in medulla. F{sub P} values were 18 {+-} 5% in cortex and 19 {+-} 5% in medulla. F{sub P} values were strongly reduced to less than 12% in cortex and medulla of renal transplants with AR and ATN. F{sub P} values correlated with creatinine clearance. DW-MRI allows reliable determination of diffusion and micro-circulation contributions in renal allografts shortly after transplantation; deviations in AR indicate potential clinical utility of this method to non-invasively monitor derangements in renal allografts. (orig.)

  18. Monitoring of Human Uterus Transplantation With Cervical Biopsies: A Provisional Scoring System for Rejection.

    Mölne, J; Broecker, V; Ekberg, J; Nilsson, O; Dahm-Kähler, P; Brännström, M


    Until now, absolute uterine factor infertility has been the major untreatable form of female infertility. Uterus transplantation has recently proven to be the first successful treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility, with demonstration of live births. In this study, live donation uterus transplantation was performed in nine women. In total, 163 cervical biopsies (149 protocol, 14 follow-up) were taken to detect histopathological signs of rejection. Based on experience from animal experiments, we used a three-grade scoring system to evaluate biopsies systematically. Nine episodes of rejection were diagnosed in five patients: grade 1 in six episodes, grade 2 in two episodes, and grade 3 in one episode. Treatment decisions were based on histopathology, and all rejection episodes were reversed after treatment. The biopsies were reviewed retrospectively, and immunohistochemistry was performed to characterize the inflammatory infiltrates. A borderline category was introduced to avoid overtreatment of patients. Based on our review of all biopsies, we put forward a simple grading system for monitoring of rejection and to guide immunosuppressive treatment in uterus transplantation.

  19. Infusion of donor spleen cells and rejection in liver transplant recipients.

    Scornik, J C; Lauwers, G Y; Reed, A I; Howard, R J; Dickson, R C; Rosen, C B


    Intact or inactivated donor lymphoid cells have been found to downregulate the alloimmune response in a number of experimental models. We conducted a randomized, prospective, double blind, and placebo-controlled trial to determine whether heat-treated donor spleen cells would affect early rejection after liver transplantation. Donor spleen was obtained during organ procurement for 40 patients undergoing liver transplantation. All patients were treated with cyclosporine, azathioprine and steroids. The patients were randomized after surgery to receive either heat-treated (45 degrees C for 1 h) spleen cells or placebo. Patients underwent protocol biopsies at 1 wk, 4 and 12 months, or as needed. Biopsies were reviewed in a blind fashion and scored according to the Banff consensus criteria. Randomization resulted in 19 patients in the spleen cell group and 21 in the placebo group. One-yr graft survival was 94 and 100%, respectively. Early rejection was more frequent in the spleen cell group (61 vs. 35%, p, not significant). The histopathological rejection activity index at 7 d was also higher for the patients in the spleen cell group: 39% of spleen cell treated patients had a score of 4 or higher as opposed to 5% in the placebo group (p spleen cell group versus 1.3 + 1.7 for the placebo group (p = 0.034). It is concluded that heat-treated donor spleen cells given within 24 h after liver transplantation were not clinically beneficial and increased the intensity of rejection in 7-d protocol liver biopsies.

  20. The Oral Cavity State in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Gašpar, Marija; Glavina, Ana; Grubišić, Kristina; Sabol, Ivan; Bušić, Mirela; Mravak, Marinka


    Aim Patients with a solid organ transplant can have many different complications in the mouth, as a result of immunosuppression and side effects of drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and type of oral lesions in renal transplant patients, dental status, oral hygiene, oral lesions related to drugs which patients take and the time of transplantation as well as the frequency of patient’s visits to the dentist in the post-transplant period. Material and methods The study was performed in a period of two years and included 100 subjects with a renal transplant during their regular control visits to the Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb and the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb and 100 randomly selected control subjects at the Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb. Results Results showed a significantly higher incidence of oral lesions in patients with renal transplant (31%) compared to control subjects. The most frequent were erythematous (inflammatory changes), keratotic lesions and gingival hyperplasia. The average DMFT index was significantly lower in patients with renal transplant than in the control group. One third of patients had a subjective feeling of dry mouth. Oral hygiene was poor overall, and only a small number of subjects used the additional sustainers for oral hygiene. Most patients did not visit the dentist after the transplantation. Conclusion Renal transplant patients need a comprehensive and regular dental care during the pre- and post-transplant period and a doctor of dental medicine should be part of a multidisciplinary team of medical specialists. PMID:27688404


    A. V. Vatazin


    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of immunological confl ict in the form of host-versus-graft reaction has always been main problem in transplantation. The worst case is the development of humoral rejection with the presence of circulating immune complexes and antibodies. There are several methods for quick removal of antibodies; among those are traditional plasmapheresis (PA and double fi ltration plasmapheresis (DFPF. In this paper we present our experience with these two methods and give a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness in the treatment of acute humoral rejection in renal allograft. Aim: to compare the effectiveness of traditional and double fi ltration plasmapheresis while processing different volumes of plasma in the treatment of host-versus-graft disease after kidney transplantation.Methods. The study included 58 patients after kidney transplantation. All patients had increased activity of humoral immunity, which was confi rmed by immunofl uorescence with luminescence C4d complement component. In 26 patients we performed DFPF, in 32 patients – traditional PA. We divided the DFPF patients into 4 subgroups depending on the amount of processed plasma: > 50% (5 patients, 50–100% (8 patients, 100–150% (7 patients, 150–200% (6 patients of circulating plasma volume. We also divided PA patients into four subgroups depending on the volume of plasma removed: >50% (8 patients, 50–70% (12 patients, 70–90% (7 patients, 90–110% (5 patients of the volume of circulating plasma. We monitored the immune status with markers of humoral immunity activation IgM, IgG before and after each of the procedures.Results. Each procedure of traditional PA and DFPF was accompanied by a marked decrease in blood concentrations of IgM and IgG antibodies. Their level decreased by an average of 30–55% of the original. However, some patients in both groups showed an increase in the concentration of these immunoglobulins in 1–2 days

  2. Reactivation of intestinal CMV in a renal transplant patient after 10 years from the transplant

    Maria Landi


    Full Text Available Introduction.We analyzed the clinical case of a 51 years old man, kidney transplanted on December 2002. On April 2011, he had acute rectal bleeding, renal chronic rejection (creatinine 2.9 mg/dl, Hgb 8.7 g/dl, positive anti-CMV antibodies (IgG. A colonoscopy showed diverticulosis of the rectum associated with deepithelialisation. The patient was treated with maintenance immunosuppressive post-transplant therapy. On June 2011, the colonoscopy showed a stenosing lesion of the sigmoid colon, and blood sampling and intestinal biopsy were performed to search Cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA by PCR. Methods. The presence of CMV-DNA was sought by automatic extractor QIACUBE, using QIAamp DNA BLOOD Mini Kit (Qiagen for whole blood and QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen for biopsy.The extracted DNA was then amplified by Real Time PCR using Q-CMV RealTime Complete Kit (Nanogen, on instrument Applied Biosystems 7300. Results. At disease onset the viral load in whole blood was 208000 Geq/ml, and biopsy was positive. Antiviral therapy with Ganciclovir led to the negativity of the viral load and remission of symptoms. Conclusions. The clinical case described presented a reactivation of CMV infection in the intestine after more than 10 years from kidney transplantation, while the highest incidence of CMV reactivation usually occurs during the first year. In our opinion, the reactivation can be traced to long-term immunosuppressive therapy (maintenance posttransplant therapy in combination with a state of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. In fact, patients with IBD treated with steroid drugs, in particular the group of refractory to therapy and thus have a recovery of the inflammatory process, are exposed to reactivation of CMV with intestinal localization.

  3. Intractable urinary tract infection in a renal transplant recipient

    Satish Renuka


    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are the most common bacterial infections after renal transplantation and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recurrent or relapsing infections are not uncommon in the early post-transplant period and superadded fungal UTI can occur in these patients, posing a difficult therapeutic problem. Literature on recurrent UTI after transplant as well as the ideal approach to such patients is scanty. We present the case of a renal al-lograft recipient who presented with relapsing bacterial UTI complicated by systemic fungemia; also, a brief review of fungal UTI is attempted.

  4. Aspergillus thyroiditis in a renal transplant recipient mimicking subacute thyroiditis.

    Solak, Y; Atalay, H; Nar, A; Ozbek, O; Turkmen, K; Erekul, S; Turk, S


    Fungal pathogens are increasingly encountered after renal transplantation. Aspergillus causes significant morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence owing to unique features of the thyroid gland. Most cases are caused by Aspergillus species and have been described in immunocompromised patients. Presentation may be identical with that of subacute thyroiditis, in which hyperthyroidism features and painful thyroid are the prominent findings. Diagnosis can be ascertained by fine-needle aspiration of thyroid showing branching hyphae of Aspergillus. We describe a renal transplant patient who developed Aspergillus thyroiditis as part of a disseminated infection successfully treated with voriconazole.

  5. Residual amoebic liver abscess in a prospective renal transplant recipient

    Ashish V Choudhrie


    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess (ALA is by far the most common extraintestinal manifestation of invasive amoebiasis. The vast majority of these resolve with treatment; however, a small percentage of the treated ALAs are known to persist asymptomatically. Herein, we present a prospective renal allograft recipient with a residual liver abscess who had a successful renal transplant after treatment. In our opinion, persistence of a radiological finding of residual abscess in the absence of clinical disease does not appear to be a contraindication to renal transplantation.

  6. Lack of benefit of early protocol biopsies in renal transplant patients receiving TAC and MMF: a randomized study.

    Rush, D; Arlen, D; Boucher, A; Busque, S; Cockfield, S M; Girardin, C; Knoll, G; Lachance, J-G; Landsberg, D; Shapiro, J; Shoker, A; Yilmaz, S


    We conducted a randomized, multicenter study to determine whether treatment of subclinical rejection with increased corticosteroids resulted in beneficial outcomes in renal transplant patients receiving tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone. One hundred and twenty-one patients were randomized to biopsies at 0,1,2,3 and 6 months (Biopsy arm), and 119 to biopsies at 0 and 6 months only (Control arm). The primary endpoint of the study was the prevalence of the sum of the interstitial and tubular scores (ci + ct)> 2 (Banff) at 6 months. Secondary endpoints included clinical and subclinical rejection and renal function. At 6 months, 34.8% of the Biopsy and 20.5% of the Control arm patients had a ci + ct score >or= 2 (p = 0.07). Between months 0 and 6, clinical rejection episodes were 12 in 10 Biopsy arm patients and 8 in 8 Control arm patients (p = 0.44). Overall prevalence of subclinical rejection in the Biopsy arm was 4.6%. Creatinine clearance at 6 months was 72.9 +/- 21.7 in the Biopsy and 68.90 mL/min +/- 18.35 mL/min in the Control arm patients (p = 0.18). In conclusion, we found no benefit to the procurement of early protocol biopsies in renal transplant patients receiving TAC, MMF and prednisone, at least in the short term. This is likely due to their low prevalence of subclinical rejection.

  7. Identification of cardiac rejection in heterotopic heart transplantation using /sup 111/In-antimyosin

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Sada, Masaharu; Sasaki, Hidemiki; Yutani, Chikao


    It is important in heart transplantation to evaluate precisely the extent and location of cardiac rejection. At present, right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy has been used as the gold standard, however, establishment of noninvasive, simple, and easy diagnostic procedure is desired. The canine donor heart, in which atrial septal defect and tricuspid regurgitation had been produced beforehand, was heterotopically transplanted into the recipient's chest cavity. In seven dogs, two to three mCi of /sup 111/In-antimyosin-Fab was injected intravenously upon cardiac rejection before the heart was excised. /sup 111/In-antimyosin myocardial imaging was then performed using a gamma camera. In the same slice, a histopathological rejection score was calculated and divided into mild, moderate or severe injection. The uptake of /sup 111/In-antimyosin was significantly higher in moderate and severe rejected myocardium, since this agent produced a specific and selective localization and concentration in areas of myocardial damage. Therefore, this new technique allows the evaluation of therapeutic intervention upon cardiac rejection and may replace right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy.

  8. Sodium nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of acute cardiac rejection in heterotopic heart transplantation

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Sada, Masaharu; Sasaki, Hidemiki


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imagings have been applied to the observation of tissue sodium-23 in myocardium undergoing cardiac rejection. Six canine donor hearts were heterotopically transplanted in the recipient's chest cavity. The dogs were then killed and sodium-23 image of the excised donor hearts were obtained using a high field NMR imaging system (1.5 Tesla, Magnetom). Proton NMR imaging was also performed and T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/ relaxation times were calculated. Subsequently, these data were correlated with pathologic findings such as mild, moderate and severe rejection. The correlation coefficients between rejection score, and T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/ times and sodium NMR signal intensity were 0.79, 0.70 and 0.80, respectively. The moderate or severe rejected myocardium were clearly visible as areas of increased sodium NMR signal. These data suggested that increase of sodium may be mainly caused by the myocardial cellular necrosis. Sodium NMR will allow us to evaluate the location and extent of rejected myocardium undergoing heart transplantation.

  9. Invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Badiee, Parisa; Alborzi, Abdolvahab


    Invasive fungal infections are a significant and often lethal problem in transplant patients. Infections caused by geographically limited endemic fungi are infrequent, and Aspergillus species, Mucorales species, Candida species, and Cryptococcus neoformans are the opportunistic fungi responsible for most such infections. The symptoms of systemic fungal infections are nonspecific, particularly in their early stages. The high rates of mortality and graft loss owing to fungal infections render early diagnosis and treatment imperative in immunosuppressed patients. Current methods for the diagnosis of systemic fungal infections include imaging procedures, endoscopic methods and biopsies, microscopic and culture techniques, antibody and antigen-based serologic testing, and the detection (via polymerase chain reaction) of fungal deoxyribonucleic acid in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as the careful analysis of signs and symptoms. Antifungal therapy should be initiated early in patients with a suspected fungal infection (even before laboratory findings have confirmed that diagnosis) and should be administered with appropriate adjustment of immunosuppressive regimens. To manage fungal infections in patients with renal failure, optimizing the pharmacokinetics of antifungal drugs to reduce the risk of nephrotoxicity is crucial.

  10. The use of everolimus in renal-transplant patients

    Julio Pascual


    Full Text Available Julio PascualServicio de Nefrología, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, SpainAbstract: Despite advances in immunosuppressive therapy, long-term renal-transplantation outcomes have not significantly improved over the last decade. The nephrotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs is an important cause of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN, the major driver of long-term graft loss. Everolimus is a proliferation signal inhibitor with a mechanism of action that is distinct from CNIs. The efficacy and tolerability of everolimus in renal-transplant recipients have been established in a wide range of clinical trials. Importantly, synergism between everolimus and the CNI cyclosporine (CsA permits CsA dose reduction, enabling nephrotoxicity to be minimized without compromising efficacy. Currently, everolimus is being investigated in regimens where reduced exposure CNIs are used from the initial post-transplant period to improve renal function and prevent CAN. By inhibiting the proliferation of smooth muscle cells, everolimus may itself delay the progression or development of CAN. Although everolimus is associated with specific side effects, these can generally be managed. By targeting the main causes of short- and long-term graft loss, everolimus has a key role to play in renal transplantation, which is being explored further in a number of ongoing Phase III–IV trials.Keywords: calcineurin inhibitors, chronic allograft nephropathy, cyclosporine, everolimus, renal function, renal transplantation

  11. Transvenous Renal Transplant Biopsy via a Transfemoral Approach.

    Schmid, A; Jacobi, J; Kuefner, M A; Lell, M; Wuest, W; Mayer-Kadner, I; Benz, K; Schmid, M; Amann, K; Uder, M


    Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) of kidney transplants might be prevented by an elevated risk of bleeding or limited access to the allograft. In the following, we describe our initial experience with 71 transvenous renal transplant biopsies in 53 consecutive patients with unexplained reduced graft function who were considered unsuitable candidates for PRB (4.2% of all renal transplant biopsies at our institution). Biopsies were performed via the ipsilateral femoral vein with a renal biopsy set designed for transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) of native kidneys. Positioning of the biopsy system within the transplant vein was achievable in 58 of 71 (81.7%) procedures. The specimen contained a median of 10 glomeruli (range 0-38). Tissue was considered as adequate for diagnosis in 56 of 57 (98.2%) biopsies. With respect to BANFF 50.9% of the specimen were adequate (>10 glomeruli), 47.4% marginally adequate (1-9 glomeruli) and 1.8% inadequate (no glomeruli). After implementation of real-time assessment all specimen contained glomeruli. One of the fifty-eight (1.8%) procedure-related major complications occurred (hydronephrosis requiring nephrostomy due to gross hematuria). Transfemoral renal transplant biopsy (TFRTB) is feasible and appears to be safe compared to PRB. It offers a useful new alternative for histological evaluation of graft dysfunction in selected patients with contraindications to PRB.

  12. Disseminated Mycobacterium haemophilum infection in a renal transplant recipient.

    Brix, Silke R; Iking-Konert, Christof; Stahl, Rolf A K; Wenzel, Ulrich


    Opportunistic infections are a major concern in renal and transplant medicine. We present the case of a renal transplant recipient with a generalised Mycobacterium haemophilum infection after an increase in immunosuppressive therapy and treatment with a tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor. Infection involved skin and soft tissue, joints and bones, as well as the renal transplant with an interstitial nephritis. Rapid diagnosis using PCR and DNA sequencing allowed early appropriate treatment. Triple antibiotic therapy and reduction in immunosuppression resulted in a slow but sustained recovery. Immunosuppression causes severe opportunistic infections. TNF-α inhibitors are very effective and well tolerated but have an increased susceptibility to infections with mycobacteria. Mycobacterial infections represent a significant clinical risk to transplant recipients because of their aggressive clinical course and the need for complex toxic antibiotic treatments. In these patients, M. haemophilum is a cause of skin infections.

  13. Reproductive health in Irish female renal transplant recipients.

    Kennedy, C


    OBJECTIVE: To report the pregnancy outcomes in Irish female renal transplant recipients on modern maintenance immunosuppression. METHODS: The Republic of Ireland transplant database was accessed to identify the patient cohort in question. All female renal transplant recipients whose transplantation was in Ireland before or during their reproductive years were included. A questionnaire was sent to the identified women. A chart review was performed for those women who reported a pregnancy following renal transplantation. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten women met the inclusion criteria. There was a response rate of 70% (n = 148). Eighteen women reported 29 pregnancies. The live birth rate was 76%. The mean gestation of the live births was 36.2 weeks with a mean birth weight of 3.0 kg. There were six cases of pre-eclampsia. Twin pregnancies and those entering pregnancy with a creatinine greater than 135 micromol\\/l had particularly complicated clinical courses. Four women had not conceived post transplant despite actively trying for over 1 year. Two women utilised assisted fertility methods (in vitro fertilisation), one of whom became pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of women who attempt to conceive following renal transplantation are successful, without the use of assisted fertility. Pregnancy in this setting warrants meticulous multidisciplinary care.

  14. Limitations of indium-111 leukocyte scanning in febrile renal transplant patients

    Sebrechts, C.; Biberstein, M.; Klein, J.L.; Witztum, K.F.


    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scanning was evaluated as a technique for investigating possible abscess as the cause of fever in 10 renal allograft recipients under therapy for rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or urinary infection. The usefulness of the method in this setting was found to be limited by marked nonspecificity of renal, pulmonary, and other focal leukocyte accumulation. Although wound infections were correctly identified, false-positive scans resulted in multiple nonproductive consultations and radiologic procedures (some invasive) and contributed to the decision to perform one negative exploratory laparotomy. Such generalized nonspecificity in this patient population is in distinct contrast to the experience with this diagnostic test in nontransplant patients, and has not previously been reported. Possible explanations and implications of these findings are discussed. Consequently, great caution is recommended in the use of indium-111 leukocyte scans to diagnose infection in febrile renal transplant patients who present in a similar clinical setting.

  15. Renal Transplant Immunology in the Last 20 Years: A Revolution Towards Graft and Patient Survival Improvement.

    Sá, Helena; Leal, Rita; Rosa, Manuel Santos


    To deride the hope of progress is the ultimate fatuity, the last word in poverty of spirit and meanness of mind. There is no need to be dismayed by the fact that we cannot yet envisage a definitive solution of our problems, a resting-place beyond which we need not try to go. -P.B. Medawar, 1969* [Formula: see text] Thomas E. Starlz, also known as the Father of Clinical Transplantation, once said that organ transplantation was the supreme exception to the rule that most major advances in medicine spring from discoveries in basic science [Starzl T. The mystique of organ transplantation. J Am Coll Surg 2005 Aug;201(2):160-170]. In fact, the first successful identical-twin kidney transplantation performed by Murray's team in December 1954 (Murray J et al. Renal homotransplantations in identical twins. Surg Forum 1955;6:432-436) was the example of an upside down translation medicine: Human clinical transplantation began and researchers tried to understand the underlying immune response and how to control the powerful rejection pathways through experimental models. In the last 20 years, we have witnessed an amazing progress in the knowledge of immunological mechanisms regarding alloimmune response and an outstanding evolution on the identification and characterization of major and minor histocompatibility antigens. This review presents an historical and clinical perspective of those important advances in kidney transplantation immunology in the last 20 years, which contributed to the improvement in patients' quality of life and the survival of end-stage renal patients. In spite of these significant progresses, some areas still need substantial progress, such as the definition of non-invasive biomarkers for acute rejection; the continuous reduction of immunosuppression; the extension of graft survival, and finally the achievement of real graft tolerance extended to HLA mismatch donor: recipient pairs.

  16. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers for the early diagnosis of allograft rejection in feline renal allotransplant recipients with normal renal function

    Halling, Krista B.; Ellison, Gary W.; Armstrong, Don; Aoyagi, Kasumi; Detrisac, Carol J.; Graham, John P.; Newell, Susan P.; Martin, Frank G.; Van Gilder, James M.


    The purpose of this study was to identify oxidative damage to renal allografts during graft rejection by evaluating changes in oxidative markers and plasma lactate levels in feline renal allotransplant recipients. Heterotopic renal allotransplantations were performed between 8 adult feline cross-matched donors. Following 14 d of immunosuppression, the drugs were discontinued to allow allograft rejection. Baseline and serial postoperative evaluations of serum creatinine, plasma lactate, plasma...

  17. Effect of Renal Transplantation in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Yildiz, Demet; Buyukkoyuncu, Nilufer; Celik, Huseyin; Tufan, Fatih; Kılıç, Ahmet Kasım; Gul, Bulent; Yildiz, Abdulmecid


    Restless legs syndrome is a disorder in which patients have irresistible urge to move legs during rest. Restless legs syndrome seems to be common in end-stage renal disease. After a successful renal transplant, symptoms ameliorate with renal function improvement and restless legs syndrome is seen less in this population. Here, we aimed to investigate restless legs syndrome frequency and associated factors in renal transplant patients. In a cross-sectional study with 193 patients (116 hemodialysis patients, 45 transplant patients, and 32 controls), the presence of restless legs syndrome was assessed using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Medical history, demographic, and laboratory data were collected from the patients' medical records. Patients were questioned about the presence of restless legs syndrome using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Patients were evaluated with Beck Depression Scale for depression and Pittsburgh tests for sleep disturbances. While the rate of restless legs syndrome was similar between transplants and controls, it was significantly greater in hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis patients and controls had similar depression scores that were higher compared with transplant patients. Pittsburgh score was similar in transplant patients and controls and significantly increased in the hemodialysis patients. The rate of insomnia was significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients compared with the other 2 groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed independent correlates of restless legs syndrome as insomnia, Beck depression score, and being on hemodialysis. Linear regression analysis showed that independent correlates of higher Pittsburgh score were higher depression score, higher age, and presence of restless legs syndrome. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome is significantly lower in transplant patients than it is in patients on maintenance dialysis. In renal transplant patients, restless legs syndrome frequency was

  18. Outcome of Renal Transplant in Recipients With Vasculitis.

    Barbouch, Samia; Hajji, Meriam; Aoudia, Raja; Ounissi, Monther; Zammouri, Asma; Goucha, Rym; Ben Hamida, Fathi; Bacha, Mohammed Mongi; Abderrahim, Ezzedine; Ben Abdallah, Taieb


    End-stage renal disease develops in a high percentage of patients with vasculitis, in whom kidney transplant has become a therapeutic option. However, limited data are available on the prognosis and outcomes after kidney transplant in these patients. We aimed to compare the long-term graft survival and graft function in 8 renal transplant recipients with vasculitis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, Goodpasture syndrome, and Henoch-Schonlein purpura) with the other kidney recipients at a single center. We conducted a retrospective study of patients followed for chronic renal failure associated with vasculitis before renal transplant. We excluded patients with no biopsy-proven nephropathy. There was no difference in the occurrence of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in our case group compared with the other graft recipients. Infections were frequent and included cytomegalovirus and urinary tract infection. The rates of bacterial and viral infection were equivalent in our population. The incidence of allograft loss was estimated at 1.8%, less than that seen in our entire transplant population. The presence of vasculitis was not significantly related to renal failure (P = .07). Extrarenal relapse occurred in 1 patient with microscopic polyangiitis. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody levels in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis did not seem to influence the renal outcome (P = .08). Circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were associated with the development of vascular lesions in the graft but were not significantly correlated with graft survival (P = .07). This study supports the theory that renal transplant is an effective treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease secondary to vasculitis. These patients fare similarly to, if not better than, other patients.


    A. O. Shevchenko


    Full Text Available Allograft rejection would entail an increase in certain blood biomarkers and active substances derived from activated inflammatory cells which could influence entire vascular endothelial function and deteriorate arterial wall stiffness. We propose that carotid wall functional indices measured with non-invasive ultrasound could we valuable markers of the subclinical cardiac allograft rejection. Aim. Our goal was to analyze the clinical utility of functional common carotid wall (CCW variables measured with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive screening tool for allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients (pts. Methods. One hundred and seventy one pts included 93 cardiac recipients, 30 dilated cardiomyopathy waiting list pts, and 48 stable coronary artery disease (SCAD pts without decompensated heart failure were included. Along with resistive index (Ri, pulsative index (Pi, and CCW intima-media thickness (IMT, CCW rigidity index (iRIG was estimated using empirical equation. Non-invasive evaluation was performed in cardiac transplant recipients prior the endomyo- cardial biopsy. Results. Neither of Ri, Pi, or CCW IMT were different in studied subgroups. iRIG was signifi- cantly lower in SCAD pts when compared to the dilated cardiomyopathy subgroup. The later had similar values with cardiac transplant recipients without rejection. Antibody-mediated and cellular rejection were found in 22 (23.7% and 17 (18.3% cardiac recipients, respectively. Mean iRIG in pts without rejection was significantly lower in comparison to antibody-mediated rejection and cell-mediated (5514.7 ± 2404.0 vs 11856.1 ± 6643.5 and 16071.9 ± 10029.1 cm/sec2, respectively, p = 0.001. Area under ROC for iRIG was 0.90 ± 0.03 units2. Analysis showed that iRIG values above estimated treshold 7172 cm/sec2 suggested relative risk of any type of rejection 17.7 (95%CI = 6.3–49.9 sensitivity 80.5%, specificity – 81.1%, negative predictive value – 84

  20. [Access to the waiting list and renal transplantation].

    Hourmant, M; de Cornelissen, F; Brunet, P; Pavaday, K; Assogba, F; Couchoud, C; Jacquelinet, C


    This chapter provides a set of indicators related to Renal Transplantation access in France. It describes patient outcomes and reports on cumulative incidence rates of wait-listing and renal transplantation according to main patient of characteristics and regions. The REIN registry integrates kidney transplant and dialysis data. It provides a comprehensive view on waiting list and renal transplantation access to the patients, nephrologists, and national or regional health authorities. Access to the waiting list is evaluated on a cohort of 51,845 new patients who started dialysis between 2002 and 2011 in 25 regions. The probability of first wait-listing was of 3.7% at the start of dialysis (pre-emptive registrations), 15% at 12, 22% at 36 and 24% to 60 months. The probability of being registered was strongly related to age, diabetes and region. Patient older than 60 had a very poor access to the waiting list, whatever their diabetes status was. Probability of first wait-listing was much lower (36.5% at 60 months) in type 2 diabetic-40 to 59 years old patients. Among 13,653 patients less than 60 years old, the probability of being registered was 11% at the start of dialysis, 43% to 12 months, 62% to 36 months and 66% to 60 months (median dialysis duration: 16 months). Seventeen regions with up to 5 years follow-up show an increase of 8 to 15% in pre-emptive registrations between 2007 and 2001, without change at 1 year. Access to kidney transplant is evaluated on a cohort of 53,301 new patients who started a renal replacement therapy (dialysis or pre-emptive renal transplant) between 2002 and 2011 in 25 regions. The probability of first kidney transplant was of 7% at 12, 17% at 36 and 21% at 60 months. 8,633 patients (16,2%) had received a first renal transplant within 14.7 month median time; 1,455 (2.7%) had received a pre-emptive graft [male: 58%, median age: 48.7y]. Among the 14,770 new patients less than 60 years old, the probability of being transplanted was of

  1. Perioperative Desensitization Improves Outcomes Among Crossmatch Positive Recipients of Deceased Donor Renal Transplants.

    Sharma, Amit; King, Anne; Kumar, Dhiren; Behnke, Martha; McDougan, Felecia; Kimball, Pamela M


    Graft failure due to chronic rejection is greater among renal transplant patients with donor-specific antibody (DSA) than among DSA-free patients. For patients dependent on deceased donor transplantation, preoperative desensitization to eliminate DSAs may be impractical. We speculated that perioperative desensitization might eliminate preexisting DSAs and prevent de novo DSAs and improve graft outcomes. We report that brief perioperative desensitization using either intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasmapheresis/IVIG (PP/IVIG) treatment improves clinical outcomes among patients with positive crossmatches. Immediately following deceased donor transplantation, 235 renal recipients were assigned points for PRA and flow crossmatches (FCXM): delayed graft function (DGF) ≤ 1 point received standard therapy; 2 points received high-dose IVIG; and ≥3 points received PP/IVIG. The DSAs were serially monitored by single antigen bead luminex for 1 year. Five-year clinical outcomes were determined from the chart review. All desensitized patients had preoperatively positive FCXM with DSA. Rejection was more common (P desensitized than nonsensitized groups. However, overall graft survivals were similar between the groups (P = not significant) and superior to historic untreated patients (P 90% in all desensitizated patients with DSA elimination as well as PP/IVIG patients with residual DSA. In contrast, IVIG patients with persistent DSA had poorer graft survival (45%, P desensitization improved overall graft survival of sensitized patients compared to historic untreated patients. Plasmapheresis/IVIG had greater impact on DSA eradication and graft survival than IVIG alone. © 2016, NATCO.

  2. The first two cadaveric renal transplantations in Blida, Algeria.

    Si-ahmed, E M


    Currently, living related donor renal transplantation is the most common source for transplantation in Algeria. To develop cadaveric organ donation, the Blida Transplantation Team (BTT) started a local education program and campaign. On March 31, 2010, we procured and transplanted 2 kidneys from a 17-year-old brain-dead donor. The BTT is conscious that the local initiative must be followed nationally, with the help of the health authorities. There is an urgent need to promote brain-dead donors and cadaveric organ retriveal throughout the country. It will also be necessary to create national waiting lists for candidates not only for renal, but also for other organ transplantations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Donor MHC gene to mitigate rejection of transplantation in recipient mice

    LI Tong; ZHANG Zhi-tai; LI Hui; YAN Jun; TAN Jia-li; L(U) Yue-ping; HOU Sheng-cai; LI Shen-tao; XU Qing; TONG Xue-hong; DING Jie


    Background Donor organ rejection continues to be a significant problem for patients receiving transplants.We therefore tested whether transferring a donor's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene to the recipient would mitigate the rejection of transplanted hearts in mice.Methods H-2Kkgene from donor mice was amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligated into a mammalian expression vector,which was then transfected into thymus ground mass cells collected from the recipients.Clones stably expressing the transgene were then injected into the recipients' thymus visualized using ultrasound.Control mice were administered cells previously transfected with empty vector.Following heart transplantation,cardiac activity was monitored electrocardiographically.Recipient thymus cells were tested for MHC antigenicity using flow cytometry and spleen cells were subjected to mixed lymphocyte culture tests.Finally,the transplanted hearts were sectioned,stained and examined under light microscopy.Results Southern analysis following nested PCR revealed clear expression of H-2Kk gene.Following transplantation,electrocardiosignals were detectable highly significantly longer in recipients administered thymal cells expressing donor H-2Kk than in those receiving control cells.Flow cytometric analysis using an anti-H-2Kk antibody confirmed its expression in H-2Kk treated recipients but not in control mice.Mixed lymphocyte cultures containing H-2Kk treated cells showed significantly less proliferation than those containing control cells.Hearts from control mice showed substantially greater lymphocyte infiltration than those from H-2Kk treated mice and large areas of necrosis.Conclusion Rejection of transplanted hearts can be mitigated substantially by introducing the donor's MHC into the recipient.

  4. Activation of counter-regulatory mechanisms in a rat renal acute rejection model

    Salomon Daniel R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analysis provides a powerful approach to identify gene expression alterations following transplantation. In patients the heterogeneity of graft specimens, co-morbidity, co-medications and the challenges in sample collection and preparation complicate conclusions regarding the underlying mechanisms of graft injury, rejection and immune regulation. Results We used a rat kidney transplantation model with strict transplant and sample preparation procedures to analyze genome wide changes in gene expression four days after syngeneic and allogeneic transplantation. Both interventions were associated with substantial changes in gene expression. After allogeneic transplantation, genes and pathways related to transport and metabolism were predominantly down-regulated consistent with rejection-mediated graft injury and dysfunction. Up-regulated genes were primarily related to the acute immune response including antigen presentation, T-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, interferon signaling and complement cascades. We observed a cytokine and chemokine expression profile consistent with activation of a Th1-cell response. A novel finding was up-regulation of several regulatory and protective genes after allogeneic transplantation, specifically IL10, Bcl2a1, C4bpa, Ctla4, HO-1 and the SOCS family. Conclusion Our data indicate that in parallel with the predicted activation of immune response and tissue injury pathways, there is simultaneous activation of pathways for counter regulatory and protective mechanisms that would balance and limit the ongoing inflammatory/immune responses. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind and the clinical consequences of alterations in expression of these gene classes in acute rejection, injury and dysfunction vs. protection and immunoregulation, prompt further analyses and open new aspects for therapeutic approaches.

  5. The Impact of Hepatitis C Infection and Antiviral Therapy on clinical Outcome in Renal Transplantation Recipients

    Rashid Awad


    Full Text Available Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV is presently a major problem in renal transplant recipients (RTR with a high risk of chronicity resulting in liver cirrhosis. We screened 120 RTR (50 live related, 53 live unrelated, and 17 cadaveric; mean age of 45.2 years and mean post-transplant period of 6.8 years. Positive HCV antibodies using RIBA-2 test were detected in 43 patients (35.8%. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on 37 seropositive patients and confirmed viremia in 100% of hem. Forty-one seropositive patients (95.3% had previous dialysis prior to transplantation; a mean of 4.5 years. Liver disease manifested in only five (11.6% of the seropositive patients and hypertransaminasemia was detected in 14 (32.6%. Twelve seropositive patients with elevated transaminase levels and/or clinical evidence of liver disease, who all had positive PCR, underwent liver biopsy. Inflammation restricted to portal area was noticed in two, persistent hepatitis in three, chronic active hepatitis in four and cirrhosis in three. There was significantly higher incidence (P< 0.03 of acute graft rejection in the seropositive (23.3% compared to the seronegative patients (9.1% . While the difference did not amount to statistical significance for chronic rejection (9.3% and 6.5% respectively. Two patients had acute cellular rejection related to interferon therapy. The leading cause of death was related to liver failure in the seropositive patients and coronary artery disease in he seronegative RTR. In conclusion, there is high incidence of HCV in or renal transplant recipients associated with relatively high morbidity and mortality. At present we are lacking an efficient and well-tolerated antiviral drug.

  6. Everolimus-associated stomatitis in a patient who had renal transplant.

    Ji, Yisi D; Aboalela, Ali; Villa, Alessandro


    Everolimus is used as an immunosuppressant in renal allograft transplant rejection and in metastatic breast cancer treatment. One side effect of everolimus is stomatitis, referred to as mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-associated stomatitis. This side effect can affect treatment course and contribute to discontinuation of therapy or dose reduction, previously reported in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Here, we present a case of everolimus-associated stomatitis with a novel management method with intralesional triamcinolone that allows for continuous course of everolimus.


    A. I. Sushkov


    Full Text Available Diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols for acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR of kidney allograft remain controversial. We report the case of early severe AMR after primary kidney transplantation. The graft removal was considered in the absence of treatment efficacy and in the presence of systemic infl ammatory response syndrome. However, at surgery the graft looked normal and it was not removed. The repeated treatment course (plasmapheresis, antithymocyte globulin, intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab was effective. The patient has good and stable graft function in 1 year after transplantation

  8. Decreased humoral antibody episodes of acute renal allograft rejection in recipients expressing the HLA-DQβ1*0202 allele.

    Mannam, Venkat K R; Santos, Mark; Lewis, Robert E; Cruse, Julius M


    The present investigation was designed to show the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecular allelic specificities in the recipient on the induction of humoral antibody rejection, identified by C4d peritubular capillary staining, as well as specific antibody identified by Luminex technology. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes and they present antigenic peptides to CD4 positive T lymphocytes. Human renal peritubular and glomerular capillaries express class II MHC molecules upon activation. Expression of class II molecules on renal microvascular endothelial cells exposes them to possible interaction with specific circulating antibodies. We hypothesize that HLA-DQβ1*0202 expression in recipients decreases the likelihood of antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. We found that 80% (=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients failed to induce humoral antibody renal allograft rejection and 20% (n=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody renal allograft rejection (p=0.008). By contrast, 48% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients failed to induce a humoral antibody component of renal allograft rejection and 52% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. Our results suggest that recipients who express the DQβ1*0202 allele are less likely to induce a humoral antibody component of acute renal allograft rejection than are those expressing DQ1, DQ3, or DQ4 alleles. DQβ1*0202 allele expression in recipients could possibly be protective against acute humoral allograft rejection and might serve as a future criterion in recipient selection and in appropriate therapy for acute renal rejection episodes.

  9. Tacrolimus in preventing transplant rejection in Chinese patients – optimizing use

    Li CJ


    Full Text Available Chuan-Jiang Li,1,* Liang Li2,* 1Department of Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, 2Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *The authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tacrolimus is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces, and belongs to the family of calcineurin inhibitors. It is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Compared to cyclosporine, tacrolimus has greater immunosuppressive potency and a lower incidence of side effects. It has been accepted as first-line treatment after liver and kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus has specific features in Chinese transplant patients; its in vivo pharmacokinetics, treatment regimen, dose and administration, and adverse-effect profile are influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics and the spectrum of primary diseases in the Chinese population. We reviewed the clinical experience of tacrolimus use in Chinese liver- and kidney-transplant patients, including the pharmacology of tacrolimus, the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine, effects of different factors on tacrolimus metabolism on Chinese patients, personalized medicine, clinical safety profile, and patient satisfaction and adherence. This article provides guidance for the rational and efficient use of tacrolimus in Chinese organ-transplant patients. Keywords: tacrolimus, liver transplantation, kidney transplant, Chinese, personalized medicine

  10. Is biliary bile acid a good predictor for acute cellular rejection in living donor liver transplantation?

    Mohammed Saied Hedaya; Walid M. El Moghazy; YamamotoYasutomo; Tomioka Kiyoshi; Toshimi Kaido; Hiroto Egawa; Shinji Uemoto; Yasutsugu Takada


    BACKGROUND: In liver transplantation, acute cellular rejection (ACR) is still a major complication that can lead to mortality. Bile secretion has been considered as a marker of early graft function. METHODS: The study included 41 adults who received living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) at Kyoto University Hospital between April 2007 and February 2008. The patients were stratified according to the presence or absence of ACR. Bile samples were collected from donors once and from recipients every other day for the first 2 weeks after transplantation. Total bile acid (BA) and taurine-conjugated bile acid (TCBA) in bile were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The recipient/donor (R/D) BA ratio and R/D TCBA ratio were calculated. RESULTS: The ACR group (n=12) showed a greater decrease in BA post-transplantation than the non-ACR group, but this difference was not statistically significant. On both day 7 and day 9 post-transplantation the R/D TCBA was significantly different between the two groups (P=0.038 on day 7 and P=0.036 on day 9). The R/D TCBA ratio ≥0.5 on days 7 and 9, and ≥0.38 on day 11 post-transplantation were associated with better ACR-free survival. CONCLUSION: The recipient/donor TCBA ratio can be a predictor for ACR after LDLT as early as post-transplantation day 7.

  11. Risk factors for rejection for morphological reasons of heart valves for transplantation.

    van Wijk, Marja J; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon; Bokhorst, Arlinke G


    The study aim was to identify risk factors for morphological rejection of aortic and pulmonary valves for transplantation that could be used to optimize donor selection. The files of all Dutch heart valve donors, donating in a 2.5 years period, whose hearts were processed at Heart Valve Bank Rotterdam, were reviewed for all factors that could be relevant for valve rejection and related to outcome of morphological assessment of the valves. Valves were retrieved from 813 deceased Dutch donors, 24.1% also donating organs. For 797 aortic and 767 pulmonary valves, who met retrieval criteria, morphological assessment was done. 69.5% of aortic and 37.5% of pulmonary valves were considered unsuitable for transplantation at morphological assessment. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, showed age, cardiac cause of death, cerebrovascular accident as cause of death or in medical history, and number of cardiovascular risk factors in a donor to be independent risk factors for morphological rejection of aortic valves. Age, sex, weight >100 kg and ruptured aortic aneurysm as cause of death were independent risk factors for morphological rejection of pulmonary valves. Being an organ donor was an independent predictor of morphological approval of aortic and pulmonary valves, while hypertension was an independent predictor for morphological approval of aortic valves. Thus, independent factors were identified that are associated with morphological rejection of aortic and pulmonary valves for transplantation, and that could be used to optimize donor selection by preventing unnecessary retrievals, limiting costs, while improving yield per donor with minimal compromise for availability.

  12. Race/ethnicity, poverty status, and renal transplant outcomes.

    Press, Rebecca; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Nickolas, Thomas; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Shea, Steven; Barr, R Graham


    There are known racial disparities in renal graft survival. Data are lacking comparing associations of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status with graft failure and functional status after transplantation. Our goal was to test if African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity and poverty are associated with worse outcomes following renal transplantation. We performed a retrospective cohort study using a nationwide registry (United Network for Organ Sharing). We studied 4,471 adults who received renal transplants in 1990. Outcomes were graft failure and functional status over 10 years. Cumulative incidence of graft failure was higher among African-Americans and Hispanics than whites (77% vs. 64% vs. 60 %; Ppoverty status was not (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1). Days with impaired functional status were higher for African-Americans compared to whites (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) but not independent of poverty. Poverty was independently associated with impaired functional status (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). African-Americans and Hispanics had higher rates of graft failure compared to whites after adjustment for poverty and other covariates whereas poverty, but not race/ethnicity, was related to functional status following renal transplantation. National datasets should include individual-level measures