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Sample records for renal tissue animals

  1. Short- and Mid-term Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Normal Renal Tissue: An Animal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendler, J. J.; Porsch, M.; Hühne, S.; Baumunk, D.; Buhtz, P.; Fischbach, F.; Pech, M.; Mahnkopf, D.; Kropf, S.; Roessner, A.; Ricke, J.; Schostak, M.; Liehr, U.-B.

    2013-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel nonthermal tissue ablation technique by high current application leading to apoptosis without affecting extracellular matrix. Previous results of renal IRE shall be supplemented by functional MRI and differentiated histological analysis of renal parenchyma in a chronic treatment setting. Three swine were treated with two to three multifocal percutaneous IRE of the right kidney. MRI was performed before, 30 min (immediate-term), 7 days (short-term), and 28 days (mid-term) after IRE. A statistical analysis of the lesion surrounded renal parenchyma intensities was made to analyze functional differences depending on renal part, side and posttreatment time. Histological follow-up of cortex and medulla was performed after 28 days. A total of eight ablations were created. MRI showed no collateral damage of surrounded tissue. The highest visual contrast between lesions and normal parenchyma was obtained by T2-HR-SPIR-TSE-w sequence of DCE-MRI. Ablation zones showed inhomogeneous necroses with small perifocal edema in the short-term and sharp delimitable scars in the mid-term. MRI showed no significant differences between adjoined renal parenchyma around ablations and parenchyma of untreated kidney. Histological analysis demonstrated complete destruction of cortical glomeruli and tubules, while collecting ducts, renal calyxes, and pelvis of medulla were preserved. Adjoined kidney parenchyma around IRE lesions showed no qualitative differences to normal parenchyma of untreated kidney. This porcine IRE study reveals a multifocal renal ablation, while protecting surrounded renal parenchyma and collecting system over a mid-term period. That offers prevention of renal function ablating centrally located or multifocal renal masses.

  2. Short- and Mid-term Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Normal Renal Tissue: An Animal Model

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    Wendler, J. J., E-mail: johann.wendler@med.ovgu.de; Porsch, M.; Huehne, S.; Baumunk, D. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany); Buhtz, P. [Institute of Pathology, University of Magdeburg (Germany); Fischbach, F.; Pech, M. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Mahnkopf, D. [Institute of Medical Technology and Research (Germany); Kropf, S. [Institute of Biometry, University of Magdeburg (Germany); Roessner, A. [Institute of Pathology, University of Magdeburg (Germany); Ricke, J. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Schostak, M.; Liehr, U.-B. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel nonthermal tissue ablation technique by high current application leading to apoptosis without affecting extracellular matrix. Previous results of renal IRE shall be supplemented by functional MRI and differentiated histological analysis of renal parenchyma in a chronic treatment setting. Three swine were treated with two to three multifocal percutaneous IRE of the right kidney. MRI was performed before, 30 min (immediate-term), 7 days (short-term), and 28 days (mid-term) after IRE. A statistical analysis of the lesion surrounded renal parenchyma intensities was made to analyze functional differences depending on renal part, side and posttreatment time. Histological follow-up of cortex and medulla was performed after 28 days. A total of eight ablations were created. MRI showed no collateral damage of surrounded tissue. The highest visual contrast between lesions and normal parenchyma was obtained by T2-HR-SPIR-TSE-w sequence of DCE-MRI. Ablation zones showed inhomogeneous necroses with small perifocal edema in the short-term and sharp delimitable scars in the mid-term. MRI showed no significant differences between adjoined renal parenchyma around ablations and parenchyma of untreated kidney. Histological analysis demonstrated complete destruction of cortical glomeruli and tubules, while collecting ducts, renal calyxes, and pelvis of medulla were preserved. Adjoined kidney parenchyma around IRE lesions showed no qualitative differences to normal parenchyma of untreated kidney. This porcine IRE study reveals a multifocal renal ablation, while protecting surrounded renal parenchyma and collecting system over a mid-term period. That offers prevention of renal function ablating centrally located or multifocal renal masses.

  3. Renal Tissue Oxygenation in Essential Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Menno Pruijm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that renal tissue hypoxia plays an important role in the development of renal damage in hypertension and renal diseases, yet human data were scarce due to the lack of noninvasive methods. Over the last decade, blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI, detecting deoxyhemoglobin in hypoxic renal tissue, has become a powerful tool to assess kidney oxygenation noninvasively in humans. This paper provides an overview of BOLD-MRI studies performed in patients suffering from essential hypertension or chronic kidney disease (CKD. In line with animal studies, acute changes in cortical and medullary oxygenation have been observed after the administration of medication (furosemide, blockers of the renin-angiotensin system or alterations in sodium intake in these patient groups, underlining the important role of renal sodium handling in kidney oxygenation. In contrast, no BOLD-MRI studies have convincingly demonstrated that renal oxygenation is chronically reduced in essential hypertension or in CKD or chronically altered after long-term medication intake. More studies are required to clarify this discrepancy and to further unravel the role of renal oxygenation in the development and progression of essential hypertension and CKD in humans.

  4. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  5. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of renal tissue proteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

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    Dai Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renal biopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved if rapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. This study is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be found in renal-graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344 or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one is allograft (from F344 to Lewis rats; another is syngrafts (from Lewis to Lewis rats serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. As many as 18 samples were analyzed by 2-D Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. In conclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins as diagnostic markers for rejection in patients′ urine or sera may be useful and non-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targets that also help to improve the understanding of mechanism of renal rejection.

  6. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of Renal TissueProteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.; Lv, T.; Wang, K.; Li, D.; Huang, Y.; Liu, J.

    2008-01-01

    At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renalbiopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved ifrapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. Thisstudy is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be foundin renal graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantationswere performed using Fisher (F344) or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats asrecipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one isallograft (from F344 to Lewis rats); another is syngrafts (from Lewis toLewis rats) serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 daysafter transplantation. As many 18 samples were analyzed by 2-DElectrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). Elevendifferentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. Inconclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associatedwith acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins asdiagnostic markers for rejection in patient's urine or sera may be useful andnon-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targetsthat also help to improve the understanding of mechanisms of renal rejection.(author)

  7. Connective tissue growth factor regulates fibrosis-associated renal lymphangiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinashi, Hiroshi; Falke, Lucas L.; Nguyen, Tri Q.; Bovenschen, Niels; Aten, Jan; Leask, Andrew; Ito, Yasuhiko; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2017-01-01

    Lymphangiogenesis is correlated with the degree of renal interstitial fibrosis. Pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor beta induces VEGF-C production, the main driver of lymphangiogenesis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important determinant of fibrotic tissue remodeling, but its

  8. Connective tissue growth factor regulates fibrosis-associated renal lymphangiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinashi, Hiroshi; Falke, Lucas L.; Nguyen, Tri Q.; Bovenschen, Niels; Aten, Jan; Leask, Andrew; Ito, Yasuhiko; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2017-01-01

    Lymphangiogenesis is correlated with the degree of renal interstitial fibrosis. Pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor β induces VEGF-C production, the main driver of lymphangiogenesis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important determinant of fibrotic tissue remodeling, but its

  9. Engineering kidney cells: reprogramming and directed differentiation to renal tissues.

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    Kaminski, Michael M; Tosic, Jelena; Pichler, Roman; Arnold, Sebastian J; Lienkamp, Soeren S

    2017-07-01

    Growing knowledge of how cell identity is determined at the molecular level has enabled the generation of diverse tissue types, including renal cells from pluripotent or somatic cells. Recently, several in vitro protocols involving either directed differentiation or transcription-factor-based reprogramming to kidney cells have been established. Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells can be guided towards a kidney fate by exposing them to combinations of growth factors or small molecules. Here, renal development is recapitulated in vitro resulting in kidney cells or organoids that show striking similarities to mammalian embryonic nephrons. In addition, culture conditions are also defined that allow the expansion of renal progenitor cells in vitro. Another route towards the generation of kidney cells is direct reprogramming. Key transcription factors are used to directly impose renal cell identity on somatic cells, thus circumventing the pluripotent stage. This complementary approach to stem-cell-based differentiation has been demonstrated to generate renal tubule cells and nephron progenitors. In-vitro-generated renal cells offer new opportunities for modelling inherited and acquired renal diseases on a patient-specific genetic background. These cells represent a potential source for developing novel models for kidney diseases, drug screening and nephrotoxicity testing and might represent the first steps towards kidney cell replacement therapies. In this review, we summarize current approaches for the generation of renal cells in vitro and discuss the advantages of each approach and their potential applications.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of renin in human renal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wowra, B.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantitatively determine renin in human kidney tissue. The angiotensin I split off angiotensinogs by renin was radioimmunologically determined. The renin-renin substrate reaction rate followed a saturation kinetics, as it increased the larger the substrate content in the incubation medium until it acquired a maximum value; the reaction rate decreased with substrate concentrations over 40 mg/ml incubation medium. The discontinuance of the renin reaction after incubation by adding acid, boiling and neutralizing again, gave highest renin values. The RIA scattering was 8.3% for double determination of the same sample, for the determination in different RIA additions 7.0%. The detection limit was 20 pg angiotensin I. A direct comparison of radioimmunoassay and bioassay exhibited a very significant agreement of both methods, where the radioimmunologically measured renin values were on average four times larger than those obtained using biological technique. The definition of the so-called normal values for absolute and specific renin concentration in human kidney tissue enabled one to assess the renin values in various syndromes. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Renal tissue damage induced by focused shock waves

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    Ioritani, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Kambe, K.; Taguchi, K.; Saitoh, T.; Shirai, S.; Orikasa, S.; Takayama, K.; Lush, P. A.

    1990-07-01

    Biological evidence of renal arterial wall damage induced by the microjet due to shock wave-cavitation bubble interaction was demonstrated in living dog kidneys. We also intended to clarify the mechanism of renal tissue damage and the effects of different conditions of shock wave exposure (peak pressure of focused area, number of shots, exposure rate) on the renal tissue damage in comparison to stone disintegration. Disruption of arterial wall was the most remarkable histological change in the focused area of the kidneys. This lesion appeared as if the wall had been punctured by a needle. Large hematoma formation in the renal parenchym, and interstitial hemorrhage seemed to be the results of the arterial lesion. This arterial disorder also led to ischemic necrosis of the tubules surrounding the hematoma. Micro-angiographic examination of extracted kidneys also proved such arterial puncture lesions and ischemic lesions. The number of shots required for model stone disintegration was not inversely proportional to peak pressure. It decreased markedly when peak pressure was above 700 bar. Similarly thenumber of shots for hematoma formation was not inversely proportional to peak pressure, however, this decreased markedly above 500 bar. These results suggested that a hematoma could be formed under a lower peak pressure than that required for stone disintegration.

  12. Determination of the Nonlethal Margin Inside the Visible 'Ice-Ball' During Percutaneous Cryoablation of Renal Tissue

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    Georgiades, Christos, E-mail: g_christos@hotmail.com [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Interventional Radiology Center (United States); Rodriguez, Ronald, E-mail: rrodrig@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Urology (United States); Azene, Ezana, E-mail: eazene1@jhmi.edu; Weiss, Clifford, E-mail: cweiss@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Interventional Radiology Center (United States); Chaux, Alcides, E-mail: achaux1@jhmi.edu; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda, E-mail: ngonzal6@jhmi.edu; Netto, George, E-mail: gnetto1@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Urologic Pathology (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Objective. The study was designed to determine the distance between the visible 'ice-ball' and the lethal temperature isotherm for normal renal tissue during cryoablation. Methods. The Animal Care Committee approved the study. Nine adult swine were used: three to determine the optimum tissue stain and six to test the hypotheses. They were anesthetized and the left renal artery was catheterized under fluoroscopy. Under MR guidance, the kidney was ablated and (at end of a complete ablation) the nonfrozen renal tissue (surrounding the 'ice-ball') was stained via renal artery catheter. Kidneys were explanted and sent for slide preparation and examination. From each slide, we measured the maximum, minimum, and an in-between distance from the stained to the lethal tissue boundaries (margin). We examined each slide for evidence of 'heat pump' effect. Results. A total of 126 measurements of the margin (visible 'ice-ball'-lethal margin) were made. These measurements were obtained from 29 slides prepared from the 6 test animals. Mean width was 0.75 {+-} 0.44 mm (maximum 1.15 {+-} 0.51 mm). It was found to increase adjacent to large blood vessels. No 'heat pump' effect was noted within the lethal zone. Data are limited to normal swine renal tissue. Conclusions. Considering the effects of the 'heat pump' phenomenon for normal renal tissue, the margin was measured to be 1.15 {+-} 0.51 mm. To approximate the efficacy of the 'gold standard' (partial nephrectomy, {approx}98 %), a minimum margin of 3 mm is recommended (3 Multiplication-Sign SD). Given these assumptions and extrapolating for renal cancer, which reportedly is more cryoresistant with a lethal temperature of -40 Degree-Sign C, the recommended margin is 6 mm.

  13. CIRRHOSIS INDUCES APOPTOSIS IN RENAL TISSUE THROUGH INTRACELLULAR OXIDATIVE STRESS

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    Keli Cristina Simões da SILVEIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Renal failure is a frequent and serious complication in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the renal oxidative stress, cell damage and impaired cell function in animal model of cirrhosis. Methods Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced in rats by ligation of the common bile duct. We measured TBARS, ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential in kidney as markers of oxidative stress, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Relative cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye-exclusion assay. Annexin V-PE was used with a vital dye, 7-AAD, to distinguish apoptotic from necrotic cells and comet assay was used for determined DNA integrity in single cells. Results In bile duct ligation animals there was significant increase in the kidney lipoperoxidation and an increase of the level of intracellular ROS. There was too an increase in the activity of all antioxidant enzymes evaluated in the kidney. The percentage viability was above 90% in the control group and in bile duct ligation was 64.66% and the dominant cell death type was apoptosis. DNA damage was observed in the bile duct ligation. There was a decreased in the mitochondrial membrane potential from 71.40% ± 6.35% to 34.48% ± 11.40% in bile duct ligation. Conclusions These results indicate that intracellular increase of ROS cause damage in the DNA and apoptosis getting worse the renal function in cirrhosis.

  14. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models

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    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Buob, David [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); Flamand, Vincent [Service d' Urologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Hennino, Marie-Flore [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Perrais, Michaël [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); and others

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies. - Highlights: • Renal proximal tubular (PT) cells are highly sensitive to xenobiotics. • Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic disposition was measured. • PT cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue.

  15. Detailing the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach of parametric magnetic resonance imaging and invasive physiological measurements.

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    Pohlmann, Andreas; Arakelyan, Karen; Hentschel, Jan; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Ladwig, Mechthild; Waiczies, Sonia; Seeliger, Erdmann; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to detail the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach that combines parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative physiological measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Experiments were performed in 21 male Wistar rats. In vivo modulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation was achieved by brief periods of aortic occlusion, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. Renal perfusion pressure (RPP), renal blood flow (RBF), local cortical and medullary tissue pO2, and blood flux were simultaneously recorded together with T2*, T2 mapping, and magnetic resonance-based kidney size measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out on a 9.4-T small-animal magnetic resonance system. Relative changes in the invasive quantitative parameters were correlated with relative changes in the parameters derived from MRI using Spearman analysis and Pearson analysis. Changes in T2* qualitatively reflected tissue pO2 changes induced by the interventions. T2* versus pO2 Spearman rank correlations were significant for all interventions, yet quantitative translation of T2*/pO2 correlations obtained for one intervention to another intervention proved not appropriate. The closest T2*/pO2 correlation was found for hypoxia and recovery. The interlayer comparison revealed closest T2*/pO2 correlations for the outer medulla and showed that extrapolation of results obtained for one renal layer to other renal layers must be made with due caution. For T2* to RBF relation, significant Spearman correlations were deduced for all renal layers and for all interventions. T2*/RBF correlations for the cortex and outer medulla were even superior to those between T2* and tissue pO2. The closest T2*/RBF correlation occurred during hypoxia and recovery. Close correlations were observed between T2* and kidney size during hypoxia and recovery and for occlusion and recovery. In both cases, kidney size correlated well with renal vascular conductance

  16. Tissue protein metabolism in parasitized animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, L.E.A.; Steel, J.W.; Jones, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection of mammals, particularly of the small intestine of the sheep, on protein metabolism of skeletal muscle, liver, the gastrointestinal tract and wool are described. These changes have been integrated to explain poor growth and production in the sheep heavily infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The rates of both synthesis and catabolism of muscle protein are depressed, but nitrogen is lost from this tissue because the depression of synthesis exceeds that of catabolism. Anorexia is the major cause of these changes. Although the effect on liver protein synthesis is unclear, it is probable that the leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract stimulates an early increase in the rate of synthesis of these proteins, but this eventually declines and is insufficient to correct developing hypoalbuminaemia. Changes in the intestinal tract are complex. Exogenous nitrogen is reduced by anorexia, but the flow of nitrogen through the tract from abomasum to faeces is above normal because of the increase of endogenous protein from leakage of plasma protein and, presumably, from exfoliated epithelial cells. There is evidence that protein metabolism of intestinal tissue, particularly in the uninfected distal two-thirds, is increased. Synthesis of wool protein is decreased. As the result of anorexia, intestinal loss of endogenous protein and an increased rate of intestinal protein metabolism there is a net movement of amino nitrogen from muscle, liver and possibly skin to the intestine of the heavily infected sheep. Thus, the availability of amino nitrogen for growth and wool production is reduced. (author)

  17. Biological effects of Naja haje crude venom on the hepatic and renal tissues of mice

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    Amany A. Tohamy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are known to cause different metabolic disorders, altering cellular and enzymatic activities in animals and releasing pharmacological substances. In this study, the lethality as well as biochemical and histopathological effect of Egyptian cobra (Naja haje; N. haje crude venom at a sublethal dose have been investigated on liver and kidney of male mice. Venom injected intramuscularly in mice with 1/2 LD50 (approximately 0.0115 μg/g body weight of mice and the animals were sacrificed 6 days post injection. Results indicated that the injection of crude venom of the N. haje induced a significant disturbance in liver and kidney functions. In addition, results revealed that N. haje venom has a potent oxidative activity by increasing the level of reactive oxygen species with concomitant significant increase in hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein and nitric oxide levels in hepatic and renal tissues. This activity was extended to decrease non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defense components such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Additionally, the biochemical alternations induced in hepatic and renal tissues were associated with significant alternations in the histological architecture of liver and kidney of injected mice. From this study, we can conclude that such injury could be considered among the factors that lead to death caused by N. haje venom.

  18. The use of animal tissues alongside human tissue: Cultural and ethical considerations.

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    Kaw, Anu; Jones, D Gareth; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and research facilities often use cadaveric material alongside animal tissues, although there appear to be differences in the way we handle, treat, and dispose of human cadaveric material compared to animal tissue. This study sought to analyze cultural and ethical considerations and provides policy recommendations on the use of animal tissues alongside human tissue. The status of human and animal remains and the respect because of human and animal tissues were compared and analyzed from ethical, legal, and cultural perspectives. The use of animal organs and tissues is carried out within the context of understanding human anatomy and function. Consequently, the interests of human donors are to be pre-eminent in any policies that are enunciated, so that if any donors find the presence of animal remains unacceptable, the latter should not be employed. The major differences appear to lie in differences in our perceptions of their respective intrinsic and instrumental values. Animals are considered to have lesser intrinsic value and greater instrumental value than humans. These differences stem from the role played by culture and ethical considerations, and are manifested in the resulting legal frameworks. In light of this discussion, six policy recommendations are proposed, encompassing the nature of consent, respect for animal tissues as well as human remains, and appropriate separation of both sets of tissues in preparation and display. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Protective effects of regular aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following creatine monohydrate supplementation in rats

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    Davoud Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creatine is one of the most common supplements for improvement of athletic performance which is used by athletes. The most important debate about creatine consumption is its adverse effect on kidneys due to increased protein load. This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following consumption of creatine monohydrate in the rat. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each. Group 1, as control, received only standard food. Group 2 received 5 g/kg b.w. creatine monohydrate supplement daily for 8 weeks through gavage and group 3 received creatine monohydrate supplementation in the same manner30 minutes before aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise was performed 5 times per week on treadmill at speed of 10-25m/min for 10-30 minutes with the slope of 5 degrees. At the end of 8 weeks, water intake and urinary excretion of rats were measured and blood samples were collected for measurement of serum renal function biomarkers including urea, uric acid and creatinine. Finally, the rats were euthanized for renal histopathology. In group 3, by doing regular aerobic exercise, water intake and urinary excretion rates were significantly (p

  20. Alteration of renal function in a control animal. Finding by "9"9"mTc - DTPA renogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portillo, M.G.; Tesán, F.C.; Zubillaga, M.B.; Salgueiro, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of small animal imaging in research protocols allowed the identification of an outlier animal. The renogram with "9"9"mTc-DTPA showed renal pathology in an animal from the control group. (authors) [es

  1. Non-invasive imaging of acute renal allograft rejection in rats using small animal F-FDG-PET.

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    Stefan Reuter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At present, renal grafts are the most common solid organ transplants world-wide. Given the importance of renal transplantation and the limitation of available donor kidneys, detailed analysis of factors that affect transplant survival are important. Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection (AR is still a major risk for graft survival. Nowadays, AR can only be definitively by renal biopsy. However, biopsies carry a risk of renal transplant injury and loss. Most important, they can not be performed in patients taking anticoagulant drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a non-invasive, entirely image-based method to assess AR in an allogeneic rat renal transplantation model using small animal positron emission tomography (PET and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG. 3 h after i.v. injection of 30 MBq FDG into adult uni-nephrectomized, allogeneically transplanted rats, tissue radioactivity of renal parenchyma was assessed in vivo by a small animal PET-scanner (post operative day (POD 1,2,4, and 7 and post mortem dissection. The mean radioactivity (cps/mm(3 tissue as well as the percent injected dose (%ID was compared between graft and native reference kidney. Results were confirmed by histological and autoradiographic analysis. Healthy rats, rats with acute CSA nephrotoxicity, with acute tubular necrosis, and syngeneically transplanted rats served as controls. FDG-uptake was significantly elevated only in allogeneic grafts from POD 1 on when compared to the native kidney (%ID graft POD 1: 0.54+/-0.06; POD 2: 0.58+/-0.12; POD 4: 0.81+/-0.06; POD 7: 0.77+/-0.1; CTR: 0.22+/-0.01, n = 3-28. Renal FDG-uptake in vivo correlated with the results obtained by micro-autoradiography and the degree of inflammatory infiltrates observed in histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that graft FDG-PET imaging is a new option to non-invasively, specifically, early detect, and follow

  2. Fetal programming of CVD and renal disease: animal models and mechanistic considerations.

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    Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2013-08-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis postulates that exposure to a less than optimal maternal environment during fetal development programmes physiological function, and determines risk of disease in adult life. Much evidence of such programming comes from retrospective epidemiological cohorts, which demonstrate associations between birth anthropometry and non-communicable diseases of adulthood. The assertion that variation in maternal nutrition drives these associations is supported by studies using animal models, which demonstrate that maternal under- or over-nutrition during pregnancy can programme offspring development. Typically, the offspring of animals that are undernourished in pregnancy exhibit a relatively narrow range of physiological phenotypes that includes higher blood pressure, glucose intolerance, renal insufficiency and increased adiposity. The observation that common phenotypes arise from very diverse maternal nutritional insults has led to the proposal that programming is driven by a small number of mechanistic processes. The remodelling of tissues during development as a consequence of maternal nutritional status being signalled by endocrine imbalance or key nutrients limiting processes in the fetus may lead to organs having irreversibly altered structures that may limit their function with ageing. It has been proposed that the maternal diet may impact upon epigenetic marks that determine gene expression in fetal tissues, and this may be an important mechanism connecting maternal nutrient intakes to long-term programming of offspring phenotype. The objective for this review is to provide an overview of the mechanistic basis of fetal programming, demonstrating the critical role of animal models as tools for the investigation of programming phenomena.

  3. Effect of Brown Algae Cystoseira trinodis Methanolic Extract on Renal Tissue

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    Rouhollah Gazor, Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Shabnam Almasi, Saeed Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C.trinodisis brown algae of Oman Sea coast is used traditionally as a diuretic in Chabahar, Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran. But no researches have been conducted on the distractive effects of this alga on the renal tissues until now. Methods: Forty-two adult male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received normal saline (E0, group (E1 treated with 5mg/kg methanolic extract (ME and group (E2 to (E5 received 10, 15, 25 and 50 mg/kg of ME of alga respectively. All animals in 6 groups were treated for 2 weeks (once every other day. Finally, histopathological evaluations were made especially by morphology and photometric method. Results: ME of C.trinodis induced histological damage in kidney. Administration of ME in all experimental groups induced severe glomerular congestion, hyaline cast and severe interstitial inflammatory centers in treated groups. All distractive parameter in test groups increased with increasing dose of extract (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that ME of the C.trinodis has a nephrotoxic effect on the renal tissues.

  4. Dynamic {sup 18}F-fluoride small animal PET to noninvasively assess renal function in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnoeckel, Uta; Stegger, Lars; Schaefers, Klaus P.; Hermann, Sven; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Muenster (Germany); Reuter, Stefan; Schlatter, Eberhard; Gabriels, Gert [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik D, Experimentelle Nephrologie, Muenster (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Renal function can be quantified by both laboratory and scintigraphic methods. In the case of small animal diagnostics, scintigraphic image-based methods are ideal since they can assess split renal function, work noninvasively, and can be repeated. The aim of this study is to validate a {sup 18}F-PET-based method to quantify renal function in rats. Fluoride clearance was calculated from a dynamic whole body listmode acquisition of 60 min length in a small animal PET scanner following an i.v. injection of 15 MBq {sup 18}F-fluoride. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the left ventricle and the bladder as well as traced around the kidney contours. The respective time-activity curves (TAC) were calculated. The renal {sup 18}F-clearance was calculated by the ratio of the total renal excreted activity (bladder VOI) and the integral of the blood TAC. PET-derived renal function was validated by intraindividual measurements of creatinine clearance (n=23), urea clearance (n=23), and tubular excretion rate (TER-MAG3). The split renal function was derived from the injection of the clinically available radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptotriglycine by blood sampling and planar renography (n=8). In all animals studied, PET revealed high-quality TACs. PET-derived renal fluoride clearance was linearly correlated with intraindividual laboratory measures (PET vs. creatinine: r=0.78; PET vs. urea: r=0.73; PET vs. TER-MAG3: r=0.73). Split function was comparable ({sup 18}F-PET vs. MAG3-renography: r=0.98). PET-derived measures were highly reproducible. {sup 18}F-PET is able to noninvasively assess renal function in rats and provides a significant potential for serial studies in different experimental scenarios. (orig.)

  5. Dynamic 18F-fluoride small animal PET to noninvasively assess renal function in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnoeckel, Uta; Stegger, Lars; Schaefers, Klaus P.; Hermann, Sven; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael; Reuter, Stefan; Schlatter, Eberhard; Gabriels, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Renal function can be quantified by both laboratory and scintigraphic methods. In the case of small animal diagnostics, scintigraphic image-based methods are ideal since they can assess split renal function, work noninvasively, and can be repeated. The aim of this study is to validate a 18 F-PET-based method to quantify renal function in rats. Fluoride clearance was calculated from a dynamic whole body listmode acquisition of 60 min length in a small animal PET scanner following an i.v. injection of 15 MBq 18 F-fluoride. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the left ventricle and the bladder as well as traced around the kidney contours. The respective time-activity curves (TAC) were calculated. The renal 18 F-clearance was calculated by the ratio of the total renal excreted activity (bladder VOI) and the integral of the blood TAC. PET-derived renal function was validated by intraindividual measurements of creatinine clearance (n=23), urea clearance (n=23), and tubular excretion rate (TER-MAG3). The split renal function was derived from the injection of the clinically available radionuclide 99m Tc-mercaptotriglycine by blood sampling and planar renography (n=8). In all animals studied, PET revealed high-quality TACs. PET-derived renal fluoride clearance was linearly correlated with intraindividual laboratory measures (PET vs. creatinine: r=0.78; PET vs. urea: r=0.73; PET vs. TER-MAG3: r=0.73). Split function was comparable ( 18 F-PET vs. MAG3-renography: r=0.98). PET-derived measures were highly reproducible. 18 F-PET is able to noninvasively assess renal function in rats and provides a significant potential for serial studies in different experimental scenarios. (orig.)

  6. Mechanized syringe homogenization of human and animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal

    2004-06-01

    Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments.

  7. Information and Announcements Refresher Course in Animal Tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    2009-03-23

    Mar 23, 2009 ... Animal tissue culture is an integral and important part of Biotechnology teaching from the point of view of improved medical care in terms of improved diagnostics, vaccines; production of biomolecules of importance; testing efficacy of drugs; possibilities in regenerative medicine etc. This course proposes to ...

  8. Mass spectrometry-based analysis of the HLA-ligandomes of renal cell carcinoma and benign renal tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Rabsteyn, Armin

    2018-01-01

    Peptide vaccination is a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of malignancies. In this project, the unique opportunity to analyze HLA ligandomes of samples from tumor and adjacent benign tissue of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients by mass spectrometry was given. This allowed for the establishment of a novel approach of antigen definition by comparative profiling of malignant and benign HLA ligandomes. Analyses were performed for HLA class I and II of tumor and benign tissu...

  9. Animal models for bone tissue engineering and modelling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tissue engineering and its clinical application, regenerative medicine, are instructing multiple approaches to aid in replacing bone loss after defects caused by trauma or cancer. In such cases, bone formation can be guided by engineered biodegradable and nonbiodegradable scaffolds with clearly defined architectural and mechanical properties informed by evidence-based research. With the ever-increasing expansion of bone tissue engineering and the pioneering research conducted to date, preclinical models are becoming a necessity to allow the engineered products to be translated to the clinic. In addition to creating smart bone scaffolds to mitigate bone loss, the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is exploring methods to treat primary and secondary bone malignancies by creating models that mimic the clinical disease manifestation. This Review gives an overview of the preclinical testing in animal models used to evaluate bone regeneration concepts. Immunosuppressed rodent models have shown to be successful in mimicking bone malignancy via the implantation of human-derived cancer cells, whereas large animal models, including pigs, sheep and goats, are being used to provide an insight into bone formation and the effectiveness of scaffolds in induced tibial or femoral defects, providing clinically relevant similarity to human cases. Despite the recent progress, the successful translation of bone regeneration concepts from the bench to the bedside is rooted in the efforts of different research groups to standardise and validate the preclinical models for bone tissue engineering approaches. PMID:29685995

  10. Monitoring of renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rabbits by ultrasonic contrast and its relationship with expression of VEGF in renal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Peng

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits using the ultrasonic contrast technique and discuss the clinical value of ultrasonic contrast technique in the diagnosis of renal IRI by comparing the time-intensity curve of renal cortex and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of renal tissue. Twenty 3-month-old New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely Ctrl group, IRI-12 h, IRI-24 h and IRI-48 h groups. The two dimensional gray-scale ultrasonography was employed to determine and mark the position of rabbit kidney. Rabbits were given the intraperitoneal anesthesia with 20% urethane with the dosage of 5 mL/kg. The aseptic operation was performed after the local skin disinfection in the area of both kidneys. The right kidney of animals in the control group was excised without any treatment for the left kidney. After excising the right kidney of animals in groups of IRI-12 h, IRI-24 h and IRI-48 h, the aneurysm clip was used to clip the renal pedicle vessel of left kidney, in order to simulate the ischemia. Because of the tissue ischemia, it could be seen that the color of kidney was changed from bright red to dark red, which indicated the successful modeling of ischemia. The aneurysm clip was released after one hour of maintaining the ischemia. Then the kidney turned out to be bright red from dark red, which indicated that the reperfusion was completed. Taking this moment as the time of ischemia reperfusion, the wound was stitched up. A total of 12, 24 and 36 h after the operation, the two-dimensional and color Doppler flow imaging and ultrasonic contrast were employed for the examination. The dynamic changes of ultrasonic contrast were recorded. The quantitative analysis software (QontraXt) was adopted to analyze the time-intensity curve of echo at different positions of renal cortex. After the ultrasonic contrast testing, rabbits were put to death. The renal cortex tissue was isolated and the

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient of the renal tissue. The effect of diuretic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Jin; Munechika, Hirotsugu [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the renal tissue was studied at diffusion-weighted images of the kidney which were obtained from spin-echo type sequence before and after furosemide (100 mg) injection in twelve healthy volunteers. ADC (mm{sup 2}/sec) of the renal cortex and medulla before furosemide injection was 2.08{+-}0.52 and 1.96{+-}0.52, respectively. No appreciable ADC difference was seen between the cortex and the medulla of the kidney. After furosemide injection, ADC of the renal cortex and medulla became 2.09{+-}0.42 and 1.78{+-}0.38, respectively. It was found that furosemide produced no significant effect on ADC of the renal tissue. (author)

  12. Effect of astragalus and dopamine on changes of blood and renal tissue contents of NO, ET in experimental rat models of acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yajun; Zheng Bingjie; Shi Lan; Fan Yaping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of intravenous or intra-renal-capsular administration of astragalus and dopamine on the serum NO and renal tissue NO, ET contents in rat models of acute renal failure. Methods: Experimental rat models of acute renal failure induced by intraperitoneal injection of E. Coli endotoxin (lipo-polysaccharide) were prepared (n=60). Treatment with astragalus and dopamine was administered via either intravenous on intra-renal-capsular route (n=20 in each group). Serum NO and renal tissue NO (with nitric acid reductase method), ET (with RIA) contents were determined at 4, 8, 12, 16h after injection of endotoxin. Twenty shock models were left untreated and additional twenty rats receiving saline injection only served as controls. Results: In the intravenously treated group, the increase of serum NO and renal tissue NO, ET contents were significantly less than those in the untreated group (P<0.05). In the group treated via the intracapsular route , the increase of renal tissue NO and ET contents were much less than those in the intravenous group at 12 and 16h (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined treatment with astragalus and dopamine could abate the abnormally high renal tissue contents of NO and ET after endotoxin shock in experimental rats and treatment with intra capsular administration seems to be more effective. (authors)

  13. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Melissa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Results Plasmid-treated animals showed an increase in body weight (dogs 22.5% and cats 3.2% compared to control animals, and displayed improved quality of life parameters including significant increases in appetite, activity, mentation and exercise tolerance levels. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the downstream effector of GHRH levels were increased in the plasmid treated animals. Hematological parameters were also significantly improved. Protein metabolism changes were observed suggesting a shift from a catabolic to an anabolic state in the treated animals. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not show any significant changes suggesting maintenance of kidney function whereas the control animal's renal function deteriorated. Treated animals survived longer than control animals with 70% of dogs and 80% of cats surviving until study day 75. Only 17% and 40% of the control dogs and cats, respectively, survived to day 75. Conclusion Improved quality of life, survival and general well-being indicate that further investigation is warranted, and show the potential of a plasmid-based therapy by electroporation in preventing and managing complications of renal insufficiency.

  14. Large animal normal tissue tolerance with boron neutron capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, P R; Kraft, S L; DeHaan, C E; Swartz, C D; Griebenow, M L

    1994-03-30

    Normal tissue tolerance of boron neutron capture irradiation using borocaptate sodium (NA2B12H11SH) in an epithermal neutron beam was studied. Large retriever-type dogs were used and the irradiations were performed by single dose, 5 x 10 dorsal portal. Fourteen dogs were irradiated with the epithermal neutron beam alone and 35 dogs were irradiated following intravenous administration of borocaptate sodium. Total body irradiation effect could be seen from the decreased leukocytes and platelets following irradiation. Most values returned to normal within 40 days postirradiation. Severe dermal necrosis occurred in animals given 15 Gy epithermal neutrons alone and in animals irradiated to a total peak physical dose greater than 64 Gy in animals following borocaptate sodium infusion. Lethal brain necrosis was seen in animals receiving between 27 and 39 Gy. Lethal brain necrosis occurred at 22-36 weeks postirradiation. A total peak physical dose of approximately 27 Gy and blood-boron concentrations of 25-50 ppm resulted in abnormal magnetic resonance imaging results in 6 months postexamination. Seven of eight of these animals remained normal and the lesions were not detected at the 12-month postirradiation examination. The bimodal therapy presents a complex challenge in attempting to achieve dose response assays. The resultant total radiation dose is a composite of low and high LET components. The short track length of the boron fission fragments and the geometric effect of the vessels causes much of the intravascular dose to miss the presumed critical target of the endothelial cells. The results indicate a large dose-sparing effect from the boron capture reactions within the blood.

  15. Large animal normal tissue tolerance with boron neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Swartz, C.D.; Kraft, S.L.; Briebenow, M.L.; DeHaan, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Normal tissue tolerance of boron neutron capture irradiation using borocaptate sodium (NA 2 B 12 H 11 SH) in an epithermal neutron beam was studied. Large retriever-type dogs were used and the irradiations were performed by single dose, 5 x 10 dorsal portal. Fourteen dogs were irradiated with the epithermal neutron beam alone and 35 dogs were irradiated following intravenous administration of borocaptate sodium. Total body irradiation effect could be seen from the decreased leukocytes and platelets following irradiation. Most values returned to normal within 40 days postirradiation. Severe dermal necrosis occurred in animals given 15 Gy epithermal neutrons alone and in animals irradiated to a total peak physical dose greater than 64 Gy in animals following borocaptate sodium infusion. Lethal brain necrosis was seen in animals receiving between 27 and 39 Gy. Lethal brain necrosis occurred at 22-36 weeks postirradiation. A total peak physical dose of approximately 27 Gy and blood-boron concentrations of 25-50 ppm resulted in abnormal magnetic resonance imaging results in 6 months postexamination. Seven of eight of these animals remained normal and the lesions were not detected at the 12-month postirradiation examination. The bimodal therapy presents a complex challenge in attempting to achieve dose response assays. The resultant total radiation dose is a composite of low and high LET components. The short track length of the boron fission fragments and the geometric effect of the vessels causes much of the intravascular dose to miss the presumed critical target of the endothelial cells. The results indicate a large dose-sparing effect from the boron capture reactions within the blood. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Laser surgery for selected small animal soft-tissue conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1991-05-01

    With the acquisition of a Nd:YAG and a CO2 laser in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Oklahoma State University in 1989, over 100 small animal clinical cases have been managed with these modern modalities for surgical excision and tissue vaporization. Most procedures have been for oncologic problems, but inflammatory, infectious, or congenital conditions including vaporization of acral lick 'granulomas,' excision/vaporization of foreign body induced, infected draining tracts, and resection of elongated soft palates have been successfully accomplished. Laser excision or vaporization of both benign and malignant neoplasms have effectively been performed and include feline nasal squamous cell carcinoma, mast cell tumors, and rectal/anal neoplasms. Results to date have been excellent with animals exhibiting little postoperative pain, swelling, and inflammation. Investigations involving application of laser energy for tissue welding of esophageal lacerations and hepatitic interstitial hyperthermia for metastatic colorectal cancer have also shown potential. A review of cases with an emphasis on survival time and postoperative morbidity suggests that carefully planned laser surgical procedures in clinical veterinary practice done with standardized protocols and techniques offer an acceptable means of treating conditions that were previously considered extremely difficult or virtually impossible to perform.

  17. Radionuclides in animal tissue samples from various regions of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatzber, F.

    1981-06-01

    An investigation of the concentration of radioactive substances in animal species from various regions of Austria has been carried out. For bone and liver of deer, radionuclide concentrations typical for central Europe were found. The content of 90 Sr were higher in gasteropod shells than in deer bone. Similar concentrations of 90 Sr were found in isopods as in snail shells related to fresh weight, but related to Ca content the values in isopods were higher than in all other animals. Based on these results, a study of snail shells and of isopods as bioindicators for 90 Sr content in environmental control is indicated. In tissue samples of the same species, but from different regions of Austria, the fallout radionuclide concentrations were found to be related to altitude ( 90 Sr) and to the amount of precipitation ( 137 Cs). These correlation differences could point to a different deposition behaviours of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, the former being deposited mainly with solid precipitation. This seems plausible since aerosols carried over continental distances show a high sulfate content and alkaline earth metal sulfates are less soluble than alkali sulfates. Examination of absolute concentration values related to fresh tissue weight show high fallout radionuclide concentrations, as compared to natural radionuclide concentration, especially in hard tissues. These fallout levels constitute a significant radioactive load on the biosphere. Due to the long physical half-life of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, this situation will remain virtually unchanged during the next decades, even if no further nuclear weapons tests are carried out. (G.G.)

  18. Ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, M.; Gmeinwieser, J.; Manke, C.; Strotzer, M.; Hanika, H.

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking a soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma. A 66-year-old woman suffered from pain over the left buttock 6 months after she was operated on for renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a tumor-like lesion adjacent to the left os ischii, which was suspected to be a soft-tissue metastasis. Percutaneous biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy, but the histopathological diagnosis of chronic bursitis. (orig.)

  19. Ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelk, M.; Gmeinwieser, J.; Manke, C.; Strotzer, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Regensburg (Germany); Hanika, H. [Department of Urology, St. Josef Hospital, Regensburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    We report a case of ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking a soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma. A 66-year-old woman suffered from pain over the left buttock 6 months after she was operated on for renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a tumor-like lesion adjacent to the left os ischii, which was suspected to be a soft-tissue metastasis. Percutaneous biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy, but the histopathological diagnosis of chronic bursitis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  20. Assessment of myeloperoxidase activity in renal tissue after ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laight, D W; Lad, N; Woodward, B; Waterfall, J F

    1994-11-01

    We have shown that a photometric assay of myeloperoxidase derived from rat blood polymorphonucleocytes employing 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as substrate is more sensitive than an established assay employing o-dianisidine. We went on to demonstrate that rat renal tissue is capable of inhibiting peroxidase activity. This activity approached 100% when the rat renal supernate was incubated at 60 degree C for 2 h and the assay was conducted in the presence of a 10-fold higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Rat kidneys undergoing 45 min ischaemia and 1,3 and 6 h reperfusion in vivo, exhibited significant increases in myeloperoxidase activity, indicating tissue polymorphonucleocyte accumulation. Monoclonal antibodies against rat intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and CD18 of beta 2-integrins administered both 5 min before a period of 45 min renal ischaemia (20 micrograms/kg i.v.) and at the commencement of 1 h reperfusion (20 micrograms/kg i.v.) reduced renal tissue polymorphonucleocyte accumulation. However, similar treatment with the parent murine antibody immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and an unrelated murine antibody, IgG2a, also significantly reduced renal tissue polymorphonucleocyte accumulation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the rat renal suppression of peroxidase activity can be overcome by a combination of heat inactivation and the provision of excess assay H2O2. In addition, the available evidence suggests that murine monoclonal antibodies against rat adhesion molecules may exert non-specific actions in our model of renal ischaemia/reperfusion in vivo.

  1. Celiac disease or positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies in patients undergoing renal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Rakel; Metso, Martti; Pörsti, Ilkka; Niemelä, Onni; Huhtala, Heini; Mustonen, Jukka; Kaukinen, Katri; Mäkelä, Satu

    2018-01-01

    An association between celiac disease and renal diseases has been suggested, but the results are controversial. To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity among individuals undergoing renal biopsies and to evaluate whether co-existent celiac autoimmunity influences the clinical outcome of the renal disease. The prevalence of celiac autoimmunity (previous diagnosis of celiac disease or positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies) was determined in 827 consecutive patients undergoing kidney biopsies due to clinical indications. Up to 15 years' follow-up data on kidney function and co-morbidities were obtained. Celiac autoimmunity was found in 45 (5.4%) patients. Among the IgA nephropathy patients, 8.2% of had celiac autoimmunity. At the time of kidney biopsy and after a median follow-up of 5 to 6 years, renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was inferior in IgA nephropathy patients with celiac autoimmunity compared to those without it (P=0.048 and P=0.022, respectively). The prevalence of celiac autoimmunity seems to be high in patients undergoing renal biopsies, especially in patients with IgA nephropathy. Such autoimmunity may be associated with worse renal function in IgA nephropathy. Hence the co-existence of celiac disease should be taken into consideration when treating patients with renal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of 2-L infusions of 0.9% saline and plasma-lyte® 148 on renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Cox, Eleanor F; Francis, Susan T; Lobo, Dileep N

    2012-07-01

    We compared the effects of intravenous infusions of 0.9% saline ([Cl] 154 mmol/L) and Plasma-Lyte 148 ([Cl] 98 mmol/L, Baxter Healthcare) on renal blood flow velocity and perfusion in humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animal experiments suggest that hyperchloremia resulting from 0.9% saline infusion may affect renal hemodynamics adversely, a phenomenon not studied in humans. Twelve healthy adult male subjects received 2-L intravenous infusions over 1 hour of 0.9% saline or Plasma-Lyte 148 in a randomized, double-blind manner. Crossover studies were performed 7 to 10 days apart. MRI scanning proceeded for 90 minutes after commencement of infusion to measure renal artery blood flow velocity and renal cortical perfusion. Blood was sampled and weight recorded hourly for 4 hours. Sustained hyperchloremia was seen with saline but not with Plasma-Lyte 148 (P Blood volume changes were identical (P = 0.867), but there was greater expansion of the extravascular fluid volume after saline (P = 0.029). There was a significant reduction in mean renal artery flow velocity (P = 0.045) and renal cortical tissue perfusion (P = 0.008) from baseline after saline, but not after Plasma-Lyte 148. There was no difference in concentrations of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin after the 2 infusions (P = 0.917). This is the first human study to demonstrate that intravenous infusion of 0.9% saline results in reductions in renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion. This has implications for intravenous fluid therapy in perioperative and critically ill patients. NCT01087853.

  3. Scleroderma renal crisis in a case of mixed connective tissue disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Vij

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD is an overlap syndrome first defined in 1972 by Sharp et al. In this original study, the portrait emerged of a connective tissue disorder sharing features of systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma and polymyositis. Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC is an extremely infrequent but serious complication that can occur in MCTD. The histologic picture of SRC is that of a thrombotic micro-angiopathic process. Renal biopsy plays an important role in confirming the clinical diagnosis, excluding overlapping/superimposed diseases that might lead to acute renal failure in MCTD patients, helping to predict the clinical outcome and optimizing patient management. We herewith report a rare case of SRC in a patient with MCTD and review the relevant literature.

  4. Scleroderma renal crisis in a case of mixed connective tissue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Mukul; Agrawal, Vinita; Jain, Manoj

    2014-07-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is an overlap syndrome first defined in 1972 by Sharp et al. In this original study, the portrait emerged of a connective tissue disorder sharing features of systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) and polymyositis. Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is an extremely infrequent but serious complication that can occur in MCTD. The histologic picture of SRC is that of a thrombotic micro-angiopathic process. Renal biopsy plays an important role in confirming the clinical diagnosis, excluding overlapping/superimposed diseases that might lead to acute renal failure in MCTD patients, helping to predict the clinical outcome and optimizing patient management. We herewith report a rare case of SRC in a patient with MCTD and review the relevant literature.

  5. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disarrangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to biosynthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  6. Age and Gender Related Renal Side Effects of Cisplatin in Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Maleki, Maryam; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2017-06-25

    Backgrounds: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a choice of anti-cancer drug for cancer chemotherapy with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. It seems that age is an important factor influencing the side effects of CDDP. This study was designed to determine the role of age and gender simultaneously in CDDP induced renal toxicity. Methods: 40 Wistar male and female rats were assigned as 6 groups in 3 different age categories (10, 16, and 20 weeks old). The single dose of CDDP (7.5 mg/kg, ip) was administrated, and a week later measurements were performed. Results: Body weight changes in male (not in female) animals aged 16 and 20 weeks were more than 10 weeks old animals (PGender difference in serum level of Cr, BUN and nitrite, and Cr-clearance were observed in animals aged10 weeks (Pgender depended, and may be different at various ages. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de; Buma, P.; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.; Gordijn, B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about

  8. Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

    2012-12-01

    The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value.

  9. Differential expression of proteoglycans in tissue remodeling and lymphangiogenesis after experimental renal transplantation in rats.

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    Heleen Rienstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic transplant dysfunction explains the majority of late renal allograft loss and is accompanied by extensive tissue remodeling leading to transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Matrix proteoglycans mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and play key roles in tissue remodeling. The aim of this study was to characterize differential heparan sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression in transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in renal allografts with chronic transplant dysfunction. METHODS: Renal allografts were transplanted in the Dark Agouti-to-Wistar Furth rat strain combination. Dark Agouti-to-Dark Agouti isografts and non-transplanted Dark Agouti kidneys served as controls. Allograft and isograft recipients were sacrificed 66 and 81 days (mean after transplantation, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (collXVIII, perlecan and agrin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (versican expression, as well as CD31 and LYVE-1 (vascular and lymphatic endothelium, respectively expression were (semi- quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence. FINDINGS: Arteries with transplant vasculopathy and sclerotic glomeruli in allografts displayed pronounced neo-expression of collXVIII and perlecan. In contrast, in interstitial fibrosis expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican dominated. In the cortical tubular basement membranes in both iso- and allografts, induction of collXVIII was detected. Allografts presented extensive lymphangiogenesis (p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, which was associated with induced perlecan expression underneath the lymphatic endothelium (p<0.05 and p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, respectively. Both the magnitude of lymphangiogenesis and perlecan expression correlated with severity of interstitial fibrosis and impaired graft function

  10. Tissue Biomarkers in Predicting Response to Sunitinib Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trávníček, Ivan; Branžovský, Jindřich; Kalusová, Kristýna; Hes, Ondřej; Holubec, Luboš; Pele, Kevin Bauleth; Ürge, Tomáš; Hora, Milan

    2015-10-01

    To identify tissue biomarkers that are predictive of the therapeutic effect of sunitinib in treatment of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCRCC). Our study included 39 patients with mCRCC treated with sunitinib. Patients were stratified into two groups based on their response to sunitinib treatment: non-responders (progression), and responders (stable disease, regression). The effect of treatment was measured by comparing imaging studies before the initiation treatment with those performed at between 3rd and 7th months of treatment, depending on the patient. Histological samples of tumor tissue and healthy renal parenchyma, acquired during surgery of the primary tumor, were examined with immunohistochemistry to detect tissue targets involved in the signaling pathways of tumor growth and neoangiogenesis. We selected mammalian target of rapamycine, p53, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and 2 and carbonic anhydrase IX. We compared the average levels of biomarker expression in both, tumor tissue, as well as in healthy renal parenchyma. Results were evaluated using the Student's t-test. For responders, statistically significant differences in marker expression in tumor tissue versus healthy parenchyma were found for mTOR (4%/16.7%; p=0.01031), p53 (4%/12.7%; p=0.042019), VEGF (62.7%/45%; p=0.019836) and CAIX (45%/15.33%; p=0.001624). A further significant difference was found in the frequency of high expression (more than 60%) between tumor tissue and healthy parenchyma in VEGF (65%/35%; p=0.026487) and CAIX (42%/8%; p=0.003328). CAIX was expressed at high levels in the tumor tissue in both evaluated groups. A significantly higher expression of VEGF in CRCC in comparison to healthy parenchyma can predict a better response to sunitinib. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Renal denervation in an animal model of diabetes and hypertension: Impact on the autonomic nervous system and nephropathy

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    Machado Ubiratan F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of renal denervation on cardiovascular reflexes and markers of nephropathy in diabetic-hypertensive rats have not yet been explored. Methods Aim: To evaluate the effects of renal denervation on nephropathy development mechanisms (blood pressure, cardiovascular autonomic changes, renal GLUT2 in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Forty-one male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR ~250 g were injected with STZ or not; 30 days later, surgical renal denervation (RD or sham procedure was performed; 15 days later, glycemia and albuminuria (ELISA were evaluated. Catheters were implanted into the femoral artery to evaluate arterial pressure (AP and heart rate variability (spectral analysis one day later in conscious animals. Animals were killed, kidneys removed, and cortical renal GLUT2 quantified (Western blotting. Results Higher glycemia (p vs. nondiabetics (p vs. SHR. Conclusions Renal denervation in diabetic-hypertensive rats improved previously reduced heart rate variability. The GLUT2 equally overexpressed by diabetes and renal denervation may represent a maximal derangement effect of each condition.

  12. Renal Perfusion and Function during Pneumoperitoneum: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlé, Michiel C.; Hooijmans, Carlijn R.

    2016-01-01

    Both preclinical and clinical studies indicate that raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) associated with pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgical procedures can cause renal damage, the severity of which may be influenced by variables such as pressure level and duration. Several of these variables have been investigated in animal studies, but synthesis of all preclinical data has not been performed. This systematic review summarizes all available pre-clinical evidence on this topic, including an assessment of its quality and risk of bias. We performed meta-analysis to assess which aspects of the pneumoperitoneum determine the severity of its adverse effects. A systematic search in two databases identified 55 studies on the effect of pneumoperitoneum on renal function which met our inclusion criteria. There was high heterogeneity between the studies regarding study design, species, sex, pressure and duration of pneumoperitoneum, and type of gas used. Measures to reduce bias were poorly reported, leading to an unclear risk of bias in the majority of studies. Details on randomisation, blinding and a sample size calculation were not reported in ≥80% of the studies. Meta-analysis showed an overall increase in serum creatinine during pneumoperitoneum, and a decrease in urine output and renal blood flow. Subgroup analysis indicated that for serum creatinine, this effect differed between species. Subgroup analysis of pressure level indicated that urine output decreased as IAP level increased. No differences between types of gas were observed. Data were insufficient to reliably assess whether sex or IAP duration modulate the effect of pneumoperitoneum. Four studies assessing long-term effects indicated that serum creatinine normalized ≥24 hours after desufflation of pneumoperitoneum at 15mmHg. We conclude that harmful effects on renal function and perfusion during pneumoperitoneum appear to be robust, but evidence on long-term effects is very limited. The

  13. Expression of GSK-3β in renal allograft tissue and its significance in pathogenesis of chronic allograft dysfunction

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    Yan Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the expression of Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β in renal allograft tissue and its significance in the pathogenesis of chronic allograft dysfunction. Methods Renal allograft biopsy was performed in all of the renal allograft recipients with proteinuria or increased serum creatinine level who came into our hospital from January 2007 to December 2009. Among them 28 cases was diagnosed as chronic allograft dysfunction based on pahtological observation, including 21 males with a mean age of 45 ± 10 years old and 7 females with a mean age of 42 ± 9 years old. The time from kidney transplantation to biopsy were 1-9 (3.5 years. Their serum creatinine level were 206 ± 122 umol/L. Immunohistochemical assay and computer-assisted genuine color image analysis system (imagepro-plus 6.0 were used to detect the expression of GSK-3β in the renal allografts of 28 cases of recipients with chronic allograft dysfunction. Mean area and mean integrated optical density of GSK-3β expression were calculated. The relationship between expression level of GSK-3β and either the grade of inflammatory cell infiltration or interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy in renal allograft was analyzed. Five specimens of healthy renal tissue were used as controls. Results The expression level of the GSK-3β was significantly increased in the renal allograft tissue of recipients with chronic allograft dysfunction, compared to normal renal tissues, and GSK-3β expression became stronger along with the increasing of the grade of either inflammatory cell infiltration or interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy in renal allograft tissue. Conclusion There might be a positive correlation between either inflammatory cell infiltration or interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and high GSK-3β expression in renal allograft tissue. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http

  14. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, Dapagliflozin, on Renal Renin-Angiotensin System in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seok Joon; Chung, Sungjin; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Young-Hye; Kim, Ji-Won; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Sung-Dae; Kim, Myung-Jun; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is one of the important pathogenic mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, on renal RAS in an animal model with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin (1.0 mg/kg, OL-DA) or voglibose (0.6 mg/kg, OL-VO, diabetic control) (n = 10 each) was administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for 12 weeks. We used voglibose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, as a comparable counterpart to SGLT2 inhibitor because of its postprandial glucose-lowering effect without proven renoprotective effects. Control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LT) and OLETF (OL-C) rats received saline (n = 10, each). Changes in blood glucose, urine albumin, creatinine clearance, and oxidative stress were measured. Inflammatory cell infiltration, mesangial widening, and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney were evaluated by histological analysis. The effects of dapagliflozin on renal expression of the RAS components were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR in renal tissue. After treatment, hyperglycemia and urine microalbumin levels were attenuated in both OL-DA and OL-VO rather than in the OL-C group (P renal RAS component expression, oxidative stress and interstitial fibrosis in OLETF rats. We suggest that, in addition to control of hyperglycemia, partial suppression of renal RAS with an SGLT2 inhibitor would be a promising strategy for the prevention of treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Effects of taurine on oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingjian; Tu Xiaowen; Yin Qiuxia; Hu Chenjing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of taurine on the oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic models of rat were induced with streptozotocin. Half of the models (n=7) were treated with taurine for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, uric acid and MDA, 24h urinary albumin and renal cortical homogenate MDA, SOD, GSH-Px contents were determined with appropriate laboratory technics in 1) diabetic rats without taurine treatment, n=7 2) diabetic rats treated with taurine, n=7 and 3) control rats, n=7. Results: There were no significant differences between the blood glucose levels in the two groups of diabetic rats. Blood uric acid and 24h urinary albumin contents in the untreated diabetic rats were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). However, in the taurine treated rats, the blood uric acid levels approximated to those in the controls, with decreased but still higher than normal 24h urinary albumin contents. In the untreated rats, the renal cortical SOD and GSH-Px activities were about the same as those in control rats but there were significantly higher levels of blood and cortical MDA contents (P<0.01). With taurine treatment, the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly higher than those in the two other groups (P<0.05); the MDA contents were lower than those in non-treated rats (P<0.05), but still higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taurine could enhance the anti-oxidative capability and attenuated the oxidative stress in diabetic rats renal tissue with partial protection of renal function. (authors)

  16. Molecular detection of Leptospira spp. from canine kidney tissues and its association with renal lesions

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    Biswajit R. Dash

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to detect the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in kidney tissues collected during necropsy and to establish its association with renal lesions in dogs of Mumbai region. Materials and Methods: Kidney tissues from 40 dogs were collected during necropsy after gross examination and then fixed in neutral buffered formalin and Bouin's fluid for histopathology and histochemistry, respectively. Kidney tissues were also collected for the detection of Leptospira spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in a sterile container and stored at -80°C until further processing. Results: Of 40 cases studied, 13 (32.5% cases showed lesions of nephritis of varying histotype and severity. Glomerulonephritis was reported as the most common type of nephritis in 9 (69.23% cases, and interstitial nephritis was recorded in 4 (30.76% cases. Chronic and acute interstitial nephritis was observed in two cases each. Renal failure as a cause of death was found in 7 (17.5% dogs. Of a total of 40 cases, 9 were found positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. genome by PCR. However, of nine PCR-positive cases, only four cases showed lesions in kidneys as glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis in two cases each. The rest five cases positive for Leptospira spp. by PCR did not show any appreciable lesions in the kidneys. Conclusion: Leptospiral DNA was detected in 9 (22.5% cases by PCR. Of these nine cases, only four cases showed renal lesions. Other five cases which were positive for Leptospira spp. by PCR did not show any appreciable gross and microscopic lesions in the kidneys which might be carriers for Leptospira spp. Considering variable reports on types of nephritis in Leptospira spp. infection and also the prevalence of non-pathogenic Leptospira spp., it is important to conduct an extensive study on the prevalence of Leptospira spp. and its association with renal lesions involving batteries of tests.

  17. Renal tissue alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more effects and related with time exposure of gold nanoparticles

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    Jarrar Bashir M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles (GNPs have important application for cell labeling and imaging, drug delivery, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes mainly in cancer. Nanoparticles (NPs are being increasingly exploited for medical applications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the particle-size and period effects of administration of GNPs on the renal tissue in an attempt to address their potential toxicity. Methods A total of 70 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to GNPs received 50 or 100 μl of GNPs infusion of size (10, 20 and 50 nm for 3 or 7 days to investigate particle-size effect of GNPs on the renal tissue. Animals were randomly divided into groups, 6 GNPs-treated rats groups and one control group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusion of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days, size 20 nm (3 or 7 days and 50 nm (3 or 7 days, respectively; while groups 4, 5 and 6 received infusion of 100 μl GNPs of size 10 nm, size 20 nm and 50 nm, respectively. Stained sections of control and treated rats kidneys were examined for renal tissue alterations induced by GNPs. Results In comparison with respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses has produced the following renal tubular alterations: cloudy swelling, vacuolar degeneration, hyaline droplets and casts, anisokaryosis, karopyknosis, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. The glomeruli showed moderate congestion with no hypercelluraity, mesangial proliferation or basement membrane thickening. The histological alterations were mainly seen in the cortex and the proximal renal convoluted tubules were more affected than the distal ones. Conclusions The induced histological alterations might be an indication of injured renal tubules due to GNPs toxicity that became unable to deal with the accumulated residues resulting from metabolic and structural disturbances caused by these NPs. The findings may suggest that GNPs interact with proteins and enzymes of the renal tissue

  18. Liesegang rings in tissue. How to distinguish Liesegang rings from the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuur, S M; Nelson, A M; Gibson, D W; Neafie, R C; Johnson, F B; Mostofi, F K; Connor, D H

    1987-08-01

    Liesegang rings (LRs) are periodic precipitation zones from supersaturated solutions in colloidal systems. They are formed by a process that involves an interplay of diffusion, nucleation, flocculation or precipitation, and supersaturation. Examples include LRs of calcium carbonate in oölitic limestone (in nature), LRs of silver chromate in gelatin (in vitro), and LRs of glycoprotein in pulmonary corpora amylacea (in vivo). Here we describe LRs in lesions from 29 patients--mostly lesions of the kidney, synovium, conjunctiva, and eyelid. The LRs formed in cysts, or in fibrotic, inflamed, or necrotic tissue. The LRs in this study varied greatly in shape and size, measuring 7-800 microns. Special stains and energy-dispersive radiographic analysis or scanning electron microscopy revealed that some LRs contained calcium, iron (hemosiderin), silicon, and sulfur. Some pathologists have mistaken LRs for eggs, larvae, or adults of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale. D. renale is a large blood-red nematode that infects a variety of fish-eating mammals, especially mink. Fourteen documented infections of humans have been recorded, usually with adult worms expelled from the urethra. The adult worms are probably the largest helminth to parasitize humans. Eggs of D. renale are constant in size (60-80 microns X 39-47 microns), contain an embryo, and have characteristic sculpturing of the shell. Liesegang rings should not be mistaken for eggs, larvae, or adults of D. renale, or for any other helminth.

  19. DA-1229, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, protects against renal injury by preventing podocyte damage in an animal model of progressive renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Lee, Jee; Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Mi Hwa; Song, Hye Kyoung; Ghee, Jung Yeon; Kang, Young Sun; Min, Hye Sook; Kim, Hyun Wook; Cha, Jin Joo; Han, Jee Young; Han, Sang Youb; Cha, Dae Ryong

    2016-05-01

    Although dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) inhibitors are known to have renoprotective effects, the mechanism underlying these effects has remained elusive. Here we investigated the effects of DA-1229, a novel DPPIV inhibitor, in two animal models of renal injury including db/db mice and the adriamycin nephropathy rodent model of chronic renal disease characterized by podocyte injury. For both models, DA-1229 was administered at 300 mg/kg/day. DPPIV activity in the kidney was significantly higher in diabetic mice compared with their nondiabetic controls. Although DA-1229 did not affect glycemic control or insulin resistance, DA-1229 did improve lipid profiles, albuminuria and renal fibrosis. Moreover, DA-1229 treatment resulted in decreased urinary excretion of nephrin, decreased circulating and kidney DPPIV activity, and decreased macrophage infiltration in the kidney. In adriamycin-treated mice, DPPIV activity in the kidney and urinary nephrin loss were both increased, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations were unchanged. Moreover, DA-1229 treatment significantly improved proteinuria, renal fibrosis and inflammation associated with decreased urinary nephrin loss, and kidney DPP4 activity. In cultured podocytes, DA-1229 restored the high glucose/angiotensin II-induced increase of DPPIV activity and preserved the nephrin levels in podocytes. These findings suggest that activation of DPPIV in the kidney has a role in the progression of renal disease, and that DA-1229 may exert its renoprotective effects by preventing podocyte injury.

  20. [Pyelonephritis with massive renal tissue necrosis in child with urinary tract malformation--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Bratkowska, Monika; Finke, Daria; Olejniczak, Dariusz; Midel, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the case report is presentation of unusual and heavy clinical course of pyelonephritis with renal tissue necrosis in a child with urinary tract malformation. Nine month old girl was admitted to hospital in heavy clinical status due to pyelonephritis--urosepsis. It was complicated by acute renal insufficiency. Patient was treated by broad-spectrum antibiotics and parenteral nutrition. She was feverish for 14 days. Computed tomography done in order to exclude abdominal abscess showed massive renal tissue necrosis of on both sides. Antibiotic treatment was successful after 6 weeks. Urological evaluation revealed bilateral vesico-ureteral refluxes grade IV. Scintigraphy showed multiple scars. Patient was treated Deflux injections (twice). We noted 5 urinary tract recurrences despite antibiotic profilaxis. GFR of 75 ml/min/1.73 m2 was estimated at age of 16 m. Immunodeficiency or malignancy as background of clinical course were excluded. The case we describe presents severe clinical course of pyelonephritis due to complex urinary tract malformation that is to be considered despite based on modern publications "sparing" strategies of diagnosis and profilaxis in urinary tract malformations.

  1. Autotransplant tissue selection criteria with or without stereomicroscopy in parathyroidectomy for treatment of renal hyperparathyroidism

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    Monique Nakayama Ohe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several methods have been proposed to improve operative success in renal hyperparathyroidism. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stereomicroscopy in parathyroid tissue selection for total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation in secondary (SHPT/tertiary (THPT hyperparathyroidism. METHODS: 118 renal patients underwent surgery from April of 2000 to October 2009. They were divided into two groups: G1, 66 patients operated from April of 2000 to May of 2005, with tissue selection based on macroscopic observation; G2, 52 patients operated from March of 2008 to October 2009 with stereomicroscopy for tissue selection searching for the presence of adipose cells. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. Patients presented SHPT (dialysis treatment or THPT (renal-grafted. Follow-up was 12-36 months. Intra-operative parathyroid hormone (PTH was measured in 100/118 (84.7% patients. RESULTS: Data are presented as means. G1 included 66 patients (38 SHPT, 24 females/14 males; 40.0 years of age; 28 THPT, 14 females/14 males; 44 years of age. G2 included 52 patients (29 SHPT, 11 females/18 males; 50.7 years of age; 23 THPT, 13 females/10 males, 44.4 years of age. SHPT patients from G2 presented preoperative serum calcium higher than those of SHPT patients in G1 (p < 0.05, suggesting a more severe disease. Definitive hypoparathyroidism was found in seven of 118 patients (5.9%. Graft-dependent recurrence occurred in four patients, two in each group. All occurred in dialysis patients. CONCLUSION: Stereomicroscopy in SHPT/THPT surgical treatment may be a useful tool to standardize parathyroid tissue selection.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of medullar and cortical bone tissues from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Marcelo Kazuo; Saiki, Mitiko

    2000-01-01

    In this work, neutron activation analysis was applied in the determination of the elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr and Zn present in animal bone tissues. The obtained results indicated a significant difference between the elemental concentrations present in medullar and cortical tissues. The results obtained for bone tissues from distinct animal species were also different. (author)

  3. Development on traceability based on changes of stable isotopes in animal tissues and organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xianfeng; Guo Boli; Wei Yimin; Sun Shumin; Wei Shuai

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a new method in food traceability, which can be used to trace animals' geographical origin and life history. This paper reviews the recent progress of researches on characteristics of stable isotopes and turnover time in different animal tissues and organs, as well as their influence caused by feed, drinking water, geographical origin, storing and processing. The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical reference for studies on the traceability of animal derived food and animals' life history. (authors)

  4. Comparative studies on the distribution of rhodanese in different tissues of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlari, M; Gilanpour, H

    1991-01-01

    1. The activity of rhodanese in different tissues of some domestic animals was measured. 2. Rhodanese was present in all tissues studied. 3. The activity of rhodanese in most tissues of sheep was higher than other animals studied. 4. In sheep and cattle the epithelium of rumen, omasum and reticulum were the richest sources of rhodanese. Significant activity of rhodanese was also present in liver and kidney. 5. In camel the liver contained the highest level of rhodanese followed by lung and rumen epithelium. Camel liver contained a third of the activity of sheep liver. 6. Equine liver had a third of the activity of sheep liver. Other tissues showed low levels of rhodanese activity. 7. Dog liver contained only 4% of the activity of sheep liver. In this animal, brain was the richest source of rhodanese. 8. The results are discussed in terms of efficacy of different tissues of animals in cyanide detoxification.

  5. World Small Animal Veterinary Association Renal Pathology Initiative: Classification of Glomerular Diseases in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, R E; Mohr, F C; Aresu, L; Brown, C A; James, C; Jansen, J H; Spangler, W L; van der Lugt, J J; Kass, P H; Brovida, C; Cowgill, L D; Heiene, R; Polzin, D J; Syme, H; Vaden, S L; van Dongen, A M; Lees, G E

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of canine renal biopsy tissue has generally relied on light microscopic (LM) evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections ranging in thickness from 3 to 5 µm. Advanced modalities, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (IF), have been used sporadically or retrospectively. Diagnostic algorithms of glomerular diseases have been extrapolated from the World Health Organization classification scheme for human glomerular disease. With the recent establishment of 2 veterinary nephropathology services that evaluate 3-µm sections with a panel of histochemical stains and routinely perform TEM and IF, a standardized objective species-specific approach for the diagnosis of canine glomerular disease was needed. Eight veterinary pathologists evaluated 114 parameters (lesions) in renal biopsy specimens from 89 dogs. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the data revealed 2 large categories of glomerular disease based on the presence or absence of immune complex deposition: The immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) category included cases with histologic lesions of membranoproliferative or membranous patterns. The second category included control dogs and dogs with non-ICGN (glomerular amyloidosis or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis). Cluster analysis performed on only the LM parameters led to misdiagnosis of 22 of the 89 cases-that is, ICGN cases moved to the non-ICGN branch of the dendrogram or vice versa, thereby emphasizing the importance of advanced diagnostic modalities in the evaluation of canine glomerular disease. Salient LM, TEM, and IF features for each pattern of disease were identified, and a preliminary investigation of related clinicopathologic data was performed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Diuretic renography in hydronephrosis: renal tissue tracer transit predicts functional course and thereby need for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotmann, Andreas; Clorius, John H; Clorius, Sandra N

    2009-10-01

    The recognition of those hydronephrotic kidneys which require therapy to preserve renal function remains difficult. We retrospectively compared the 'tissue tracer transit' (TTT) of (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine ((99m)Tc-MAG(3)) with 'response to furosemide stimulation' (RFS) and with 'single kidney function timely TTT maintained function. Without surgery 0 of 9 kidneys with timely TTT but obstructive RFS and only 1 of 16 kidneys with timely TTT but SKF timely TTT may exclude risk even in the presence of an obstructive RFS or SKF < 40%.

  7. Animal experiment of periodontal tissue remodeling in application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study is to observe the remodeling of periodontal tissue in application of miniimplant anchorage for incisor intrusion in dogs. Six adult male beagle dogs were used for the experiment. On the buccal site, a mini-implant was placed at the interalveolar septum between the maxillary second incisor and ...

  8. Electric pulse-mediated gene delivery to various animal tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mir, Lluis M; Moller, Pernille H; André, Franck

    2005-01-01

    therapy, termed electrogenetherapy (EGT as well). By transfecting cells with a long lifetime, such as muscle fibers, a very long-term expression of genes can be obtained. A great variety of tissues have been transfected successfully, from muscle as the most extensively used, to both soft (e.g., spleen...

  9. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

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    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  10. L-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might contribute to the changes in cardiac and renal mass observed in thyroid disorders. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  11. The establishment of animal model of radiation-skin-burn and its changes of tissue metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xingan; Wu Shiliang; Wang Xiuzhen; Zhou Yinghui; Feng Yizhong; Tian Ye; Peng Miao

    2001-01-01

    The biochemistry metabolic changes of the tissues induced by 60 Co γ radiation or by accelerator β radiation on the animal local tissues were observed. The experiment results were shown as follows: (1) 60 Co γ radiation can induce the metabolic changes of the local tissue and led to ulcer or death. (2) Accelerator β radiation at the same dose of γ radiation can only produce ulcer but no death. (3) The biochemistry metabolic changes of the tissues induced by 60 Co γ radiation are similar to that by β radiation, but as a radiation-burn animal model, the latter is better

  12. Comparison of renal artery, soft tissue, and nerve damage after irrigated versus nonirrigated radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Ladich, Elena; Fuimaono, Kristine; Grunewald, Debby; O'Fallon, Patrick; Spognardi, Anna-Maria; Markham, Peter; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Shen, Kai; Kolodgie, Frank D; Joner, Michael; Virmani, Renu

    2015-01-01

    The long-term efficacy of radiofrequency ablation of renal autonomic nerves has been proven in nonrandomized studies. However, long-term safety of the renal artery (RA) is of concern. The aim of our study was to determine if cooling during radiofrequency ablation preserved the RA while allowing equivalent nerve damage. A total of 9 swine (18 RAs) were included, and allocated to irrigated radiofrequency (n=6 RAs, temperature setting: 50°C), conventional radiofrequency (n=6 RAs, nonirrigated, temperature setting: 65°C), and high-temperature radiofrequency (n=6 RAs, nonirrigated, temperature setting: 90°C) groups. RAs were harvested at 10 days, serially sectioned from proximal to distal including perirenal tissues and examined after paraffin embedding, and staining with hematoxylin-eosin and Movat pentachrome. RAs and periarterial tissue including nerves were semiquantitatively assessed and scored. A total of 660 histological sections from 18 RAs were histologically examined by light microscopy. Arterial medial injury was significantly less in the irrigated radiofrequency group (depth of medial injury, circumferential involvement, and thinning) than that in the conventional radiofrequency group (Pradiofrequency group (Pradiofrequency group and conventional radiofrequency group (P=0.36), there was a trend toward less nerve damage in the irrigated compared with conventional. Compared to conventional radiofrequency, circumferential medial damage in highest-temperature nonirrigated radiofrequency group was significantly greater (Pradiofrequency ablation, and there is a trend toward less nerve damage. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. 3D Texture Analysis in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Image Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam-Hoon; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system. PMID:25371701

  14. 3D Texture Analysis in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Image Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  15. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Maccabi

    Full Text Available Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E, long term shear modulus (η, and time constant (τ in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research.

  16. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Shin, Andrew; Namiri, Nikan K; Bajwa, Neha; St John, Maie; Taylor, Zachary D; Grundfest, Warren; Saddik, George N

    2018-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA) and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E), long term shear modulus (η), and time constant (τ) in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research.

  17. Tissue Engineering in Animal Models for Urinary Diversion: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in

  18. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifola, Ingrid; Bianchi, Cristina; Mangano, Eleonora; Bombelli, Silvia; Frascati, Fabio; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A; Magni, Fulvio; Signorini, Stefano; Battaglia, Cristina; Perego, Roberto A

    2011-06-13

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  19. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifola, Ingrid; Magni, Fulvio; Signorini, Stefano; Battaglia, Cristina; Perego, Roberto A; Bianchi, Cristina; Mangano, Eleonora; Bombelli, Silvia; Frascati, Fabio; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  20. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES AND STRONTIUM IN ANIMAL TISSUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S; Jay Hutchison, J; Don Faison, D

    2007-05-07

    The analysis of actinides in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. Sr-90 is collected on Sr Resin{reg_sign} from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and Sr-89/90 are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  1. Rapid column extraction method for actinides and strontium in fish and other animal tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell III, S.L.; Faison, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of actinides and radiostrontium in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes and strontium with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid separation method has been developed that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin R , TRU Resin R and DGA Resin R cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alphaspectrometry. Strontium is collected on Sr Resin R from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and 89/90 Sr are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. Vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates is used to minimize sample preparation time. (author)

  2. OBT analysis method using polyethylene beads for limited quantities of animal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Stuart, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products for cases where the amount of water recovered by combustion is limited by sample size or quantity. In the method, the amount of water recovered after combustion is enhanced by adding tritium-free polyethylene beads to the sample prior to combustion in an oxygen bomb. The method reduces process time by allowing the combustion water to be easily collected with a pipette. Sufficient water recovery was achieved using the polyethylene beads method when 2 g of dry animal tissue or animal product were combusted with 2 g of polyethylene beads. Correction factors, which account for the dilution due to the combustion water of the beads, are provided for beef, chicken, pork, fish and clams, as well as egg, milk and cheese. The method was tested by comparing its OBT results with those of the conventional method using animal samples collected on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. The results determined that the polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used. - Highlights: • Polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products were determined. • The method reduces process time. • The polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used

  3. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus suppresses renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissue cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Saraswathiamma, Dhanya; Abdul-Kader, Hidaya Mohammed; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Alfazari, Ali S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to develop a useful biomarker (e.g., cellular respiration, or mitochondrial O2 consumption) for measuring activities of mTOR inhibitors. It measured the effects of commonly used immunosuppressants (sirolimus-rapamycin, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine) on cellular respiration in target tissues (kidney, liver, and heart) from C57BL/6 mice. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/ threonine kinase that supports nutrient-dependent cell growth and survival, is known to control energy conversion processes within the mitochondria. Consistently, inhibitors of mTOR (e.g., rapamycin, also known as sirolimus or Rapamune®) have been shown to impair mitochondrial function. Inhibitors of the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine), on the other hand, strictly prevent lymphokine production leading to a reduced T-cell function. Sirolimus (10 μM) inhibited renal (22%, P=0.002), hepatic (39%, Prespiration. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine had no or minimum effects on cellular respiration in these tissues. Thus, these results clearly demonstrate that impaired cellular respiration (bioenergetics) is a sensitive biomarker of the immunosuppressants that target mTOR.

  4. Peculiapities of free radioal processes in tissues of animals exposed to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchenko, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of preliminary effect of gaseous medium with the alterated content of oxygen on post-radiation content of free radicals in tissues of irradiated rates, is studied. Results of experiments have shown that after the effect of ionizing radiation the content of free radicals in tissues of animals, adapted to hypoxy, is reduced, i. e. preliminary adaptation to hypoxy increases radiation resistance of animals. As compared with ''protective'' effect of preliminary adaptation to hypoxy in the case of affecting with X-rays and fast neutrons, no considerable difference is found

  5. Oxidative damage parameters in renal tissues of aged and young rats based on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzun D

    2013-06-01

    young control group for both genders. Conclusion: With respect to PCO and AOPP, impaired redox homeostasis is substantially more prominent in males than females. The decrease of G-SH levels in male groups could be attributed to stabilizing the redox status of protein thiol groups by the depletion of the GSH groups. Considering the results, the renal tissue proteins and lipids in different genders may have different susceptibilities to oxidative damage. Keywords: lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, radicals, renal aging

  6. Comparative distributions of alkaline earths and Pb among tissues of marine plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, M.W.; Settle, D.M.; Patterson, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Lead, barium, strontium and calcium were studied by isotope dilution, clean-lab techniques in both a marine and a terrestrial ecosystem. Analyses for Pb and Ba are difficult since their concentrations range down to the ng g -1 level in plant and animal tissue. Experimental details are given. Results are presented and discussed. (U.K.)

  7. METABOLIC MAPPING BY ENZYME HISTOCHEMISTRY IN LIVING ANIMALS, TISSUES AND CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging of reporter molecules such as fluorescent proteins in intact animals, tissue and cells has become an indispensable tool in cell biology Imaging activity of enzymes, which is called metabolic mapping, provides information on subcellular localisation in combination with function of the enzymes

  8. Whole-body γ-irradiation effects on catecholamine concentration in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makashev, Zh.K.; Uteshev, T.A.; Abylaev, Zh. A.; Zhurnist, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    On the whole-body gamma-radiation activity in the exchanges of catecholamines (adrenalin and non-adrenalin) and their predecessors (dopamine and DOPA) in the rats tissue organism, indicate the infringement of irradiated animals in different links of biological synthesis the bio-gen amines in different phases of the radiation: DOPA→dopamine, dopamine→adrenalin, adrenalin→non-adrenalin. (author)

  9. Renal effects of long-term ciclosporin A treatment in a large animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibulskyte, Donata; Samsoe Engberg, Anne; Hanefelt Kristensen, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most experimental studies of chronic ciclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity have been performed in rodents; however, the pig possesses several advantages. The aim of this study was to investigate renal functional and structural changes during CsA treatment with 20 mg/kg/day for 6 months i...

  10. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  11. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  12. Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurement of the Cd content in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Huong Quynh; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    1989-12-01

    Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurements were performed on thin samples prepared from different rabbit tissues, using 3 MeV proton beam for inducing x-rays from the animal tissues. This method is very sensitive and very small amounts of trace elements can be detected. Cadmium, one of the most toxic elements which can be concentrated in animal and human tissues due to environmental pollution, was detected with a limit of 0.7 ppm. The trace element concentrations obtained by PIXE were compared to those measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. PIXE method is proposed for routine analysis at the Veterinary and Food Investigating Service, Budapest, Hungary. (D.Gy.) 6 refs.; 3 figs

  13. Establishment of an animal model of mice with radiation- injured soft tissue blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Daiyou; Yu Dahai; Wu Jiaxiao; Wei Shanliang; Wen Yuming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish an animal model of mice with radiation-injured soft tissue blood vessels. Methods: Forty male mice were irradiated with 30 Gy on the right leg. After the irradiation was finished each of the 40 male mice was tested with angiography, and its muscle tissues on the bilateral legs were examined with vessel staining assay and electron microscopy. Results: The results showed that the number of vessels on the right leg was less than that on the left leg, the microvessel density, average diameter and average sectional area of the right leg were all lower than those of the left, and the configuration and ultra-structure of vessels were also different between both sides of legs. Conclusion: In the study authors successfully established an animal model of mice with radiation-injured soft tissue blood vessels

  14. 3D-printed soft-tissue physical models of renal malignancies for individualized surgical simulation: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Michael M; Feibus, Allison; Liu, James; Wang, Julie; Thomas, Raju; Silberstein, Jonathan L

    2018-03-01

    To construct patient-specific physical three-dimensional (3D) models of renal units with materials that approximates the properties of renal tissue to allow pre-operative and robotic training surgical simulation, 3D physical kidney models were created (3DSystems, Rock Hill, SC) using computerized tomography to segment structures of interest (parenchyma, vasculature, collection system, and tumor). Images were converted to a 3D surface mesh file for fabrication using a multi-jet 3D printer. A novel construction technique was employed to approximate normal renal tissue texture, printers selectively deposited photopolymer material forming the outer shell of the kidney, and subsequently, an agarose gel solution was injected into the inner cavity recreating the spongier renal parenchyma. We constructed seven models of renal units with suspected malignancies. Partial nephrectomy and renorrhaphy were performed on each of the replicas. Subsequently all patients successfully underwent robotic partial nephrectomy. Average tumor diameter was 4.4 cm, warm ischemia time was 25 min, RENAL nephrometry score was 7.4, and surgical margins were negative. A comparison was made between the seven cases and the Tulane Urology prospectively maintained robotic partial nephrectomy database. Patients with surgical models had larger tumors, higher nephrometry score, longer warm ischemic time, fewer positive surgical margins, shorter hospitalization, and fewer post-operative complications; however, the only significant finding was lower estimated blood loss (186 cc vs 236; p = 0.01). In this feasibility study, pre-operative resectable physical 3D models can be constructed and used as patient-specific surgical simulation tools; further study will need to demonstrate if this results in improvement of surgical outcomes and robotic simulation education.

  15. The clinical and pathological characteristics of nephropathies in connective tissue diseases in the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kazunobu; Konta, Tsuneo; Sato, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2017-12-01

    In connective tissue diseases, a wide variety of glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions of the kidney are observed. Nonetheless, recent information is limited regarding renal lesions in connective tissue diseases, except in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we used a nationwide database of biopsy-confirmed renal diseases in Japan (J-RBR) (UMIN000000618). In total, 20,523 registered patients underwent biopsy between 2007 and 2013; from 110 patients with connective tissue diseases except SLE, we extracted data regarding the clinico-pathological characteristics of the renal biopsy. Our analysis included patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 52), Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) (n = 35), scleroderma (n = 10), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD; n = 5), anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS; n = 3), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM; n = 1), Behçet's disease (n = 1) and others (n = 3). The clinico-pathological features differed greatly depending on the underlying disease. The major clinical diagnosis was nephrotic syndrome in RA; chronic nephritic syndrome with mild proteinuria and reduced renal function in SjS; rapidly progressive nephritic syndrome in scleroderma. The major pathological diagnosis was membranous nephropathy (MN) and amyloidosis in RA; tubulointerstitial nephritis in SjS; proliferative obliterative vasculopathy in scleroderma; MN in MCTD. In RA, most patients with nephrosis were treated using bucillamine, and showed membranous nephropathy. Using the J-RBR database, our study revealed that biopsy-confirmed cases of connective tissue diseases such as RA, SjS, scleroderma, and MCTD show various clinical and pathological characteristics, depending on the underlying diseases and the medication used.

  16. A new tissue segmentation method to calculate 3D dose in small animal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, C; Delpon, G; Supiot, S; Potiron, V; Paris, F; Chiavassa, S

    2018-02-26

    In pre-clinical animal experiments, radiation delivery is usually delivered with kV photon beams, in contrast to the MV beams used in clinical irradiation, because of the small size of the animals. At this medium energy range, however, the contribution of the photoelectric effect to absorbed dose is significant. Accurate dose calculation therefore requires a more detailed tissue definition because both density (ρ) and elemental composition (Z eff ) affect the dose distribution. Moreover, when applied to cone beam CT (CBCT) acquisitions, the stoichiometric calibration of HU becomes inefficient as it is designed for highly collimated fan beam CT acquisitions. In this study, we propose an automatic tissue segmentation method of CBCT imaging that assigns both density (ρ) and elemental composition (Z eff ) in small animal dose calculation. The method is based on the relationship found between CBCT number and ρ*Z eff product computed from known materials. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate the impact of ρZ eff variation on the absorbed dose in tissues. These results led to the creation of a tissue database composed of artificial tissues interpolated from tissue values published by the ICRU. The ρZ eff method was validated by measuring transmitted doses through tissue substitute cylinders and a mouse with EBT3 film. Measurements were compared to the results of the Monte Carlo calculations. The study of the impact of ρZ eff variation over the range of materials, from ρZ eff  = 2 g.cm - 3 (lung) to 27 g.cm - 3 (cortical bone) led to the creation of 125 artificial tissues. For tissue substitute cylinders, the use of ρZ eff method led to maximal and average relative differences between the Monte Carlo results and the EBT3 measurements of 3.6% and 1.6%. Equivalent comparison for the mouse gave maximal and average relative differences of 4.4% and 1.2%, inside the 80% isodose area. Gamma analysis led to a 94.9% success rate in the 10% isodose

  17. [Clinical features and expression of PLA(2)R in renal tissue with idiopathic membranous nephropathy in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y F; Sun, L W; Zhang, B; Kuang, X Y; Niu, X L; Kang, Y L; Hao, S; Wang, P; Li, Z; Zhu, G H; Huang, W Y; Wu, Y

    2018-03-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical features and expression of PLA(2)R in renal tissue of children with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Methods: Retrospective study was performed in patients with membranous nephropathy diagnosed through renal biopsy and the follow-up time was at least half a year in Shanghai Children ' s Hospital from January 2010 to February 2017. We compared their clinicopathological and pathological findings of IMN. Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to detect glomerular PLA(2)R expression. We analyzed the differences of clinical features between the PLA(2)R negative and positive groups. T test, rank-sum test and Fisher exact test were used. Results: Eleven cases had hematuria and proteinuria, 9 cases presented with nephrotic syndrome, and 2 cases showed isolated proteinuria. Of the 22 cases of children with IMN, 16 patients had complete remission (complete remission rate was 72.8%), and 22 patients had partial remission. The renal function of all cases was normal and in all cases the estimated glomerular filtration rate was > 90 ml/(min·1.73m(2)). Of 22 cases with IMN, 7 cases were PLA(2)R-positive in renal tissue and 15 cases were PLA(2)R-negative. The age of positive group (10 years old) was older than the negative group (6 years old)( Z= -2.483, PPLA(2)R in renal tissue of children with IMN was about 32%. The age of PLA(2)R positive group was older than the negative group. And the time of urine protein turning to negative in positive group was longer than that in the negative group.

  18. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  19. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  20. Tissue hypoxia during ischemic stroke: adaptive clues from hypoxia-tolerant animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Williams-Hernandez, Ashley; Hunter, Anan L; Liddy, Caroline; Peffley, Dennis M; Umesiri, Francis E; Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola

    2015-05-01

    The treatment and prevention of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury in stroke patients remain a severe and global medical issue. Numerous clinical studies have resulted in a failure to develop chemical neuroprotection for acute, ischemic stroke. Over 150 estimated clinical trials of ischemic stroke treatments have been done, and more than 200 drugs and combinations of drugs for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have been developed. Billions of dollars have been invested for new scientific breakthroughs with only limited success. The revascularization of occluded cerebral arteries such as anti-clot treatments of thrombolysis has proven effective, but it can only be used in a 3-4.5h time frame after the onset of a stroke, and not for every patient. This review is about novel insights on how to resist tissue hypoxia from unconventional animal models. Ability to resist tissue hypoxia is an extraordinary ability that is not common in many laboratory animals such as rat and mouse models. For example, we can learn from a naked mole-rat, Chrysemys picta, how to actively regulate brain metabolic activity to defend the brain against fluctuating oxygen tension and acute bouts of oxidative stress following the onset of a stroke. Additionally, a euthermic arctic ground squirrel can teach us how the brain of a stroke patient can remain well oxygenated during tissue hypoxia with no evidence of cellular stress. In this review, we discuss how these animals provide us with a system to gain insight into the possible mechanisms of tissue hypoxia/ischemia. This issue is of clinical significance to stroke patients. We describe specific physiological and molecular adaptations employed by different animals' models of hypoxia tolerance in aquatic and terrestrial environments. We highlight how these adaptations might provide potential clues on strategies to adapt for the clinical management of tissue hypoxia during conditions such as stroke where oxygen demand fails to match the supply. Copyright

  1. Training for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with a newly designed model: a replacement for animal tissue models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Lorna; Goossens, Richard; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Background To bridge the early learning curve for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication from the clinical setting to a safe environment, training models can be used. This study aimed to develop a reusable, low-cost model to be used for training in laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedure as an alternative to the use of animal tissue models. Methods From artificial organs and tissue, an anatomic model of the human upper abdomen was developed for training in performing laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. The 20 participants and tutors in the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) upper gastrointestinal surgery course completed four complementary tasks of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with the artificial model, then compared the realism, haptic feedback, and training properties of the model with those of animal tissue models. Results The main difference between the two training models was seen in the properties of the stomach. The wrapping of the stomach in the artificial model was rated significantly lower than that in the animal tissue model (mean, 3.6 vs. 4.2; p = 0.010). The main criticism of the stomach of the artificial model was that it was too rigid for making a proper wrap. The suturing of the stomach wall, however, was regarded as fairly realistic (mean, 3.6). The crura on the artificial model were rated better (mean, 4.3) than those on the animal tissue (mean, 4.0), although the difference was not significant. The participants regarded the model as a good to excellent (mean, 4.3) training tool. Conclusion The newly developed model is regarded as a good tool for training in laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedure. It is cheaper, more durable, and more readily available for training and can therefore be used in every training center. The stomach of this model, however, still needs improvement because it is too rigid for making the wrap. PMID:20526629

  2. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) were employed to measure about 37 major, minor, and trace elements in two standard reference materials: oyster tissue (SRM 1566) supplied by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and animal bone (H-5) supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Wherever the comparison exists, our data show excellent agreement with accepted values for each SRM. These SRM's are useful as reference standards for the analysis of biological materials. Additionally, the chondritic normalized rare earth element pattern of animal bone behaves as a smooth function of the ionic radii, as previously observed for biological materials

  3. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlengiwe Pretty Madlala

    Full Text Available The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA. We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status.OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1 prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.. Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension.Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects in decreasing

  4. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, B.

    1983-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10 -11 M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced. (author)

  5. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-07-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  6. A study of muscular tissue of animal origin by reflection-spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L. V.; Nechiporenko, A. P.; Orekhova, S. M.; Plotnikov, P. P.; Ishevskii, A. L.

    2017-06-01

    A comparative analysis of the spectral characteristics of the surface of muscular tissue of animal origin (pork) and its main components has been performed by the methods of diffuse reflection electronic spectroscopy (DRES) and frustrated total internal reflection IR spectroscopy. The experiments have shown that the application of the DRES method makes it possible to detect more pronounced changes in the surface optical characteristics of muscular tissue and obtain electronic spectra containing information about the component composition of its main parts under successive extraction of sarcoplasmic materials, myofibrillar proteins of the actomyosin complex, and stroma mucopolysaccharides.

  7. Exposure-survival analyses of pazopanib in renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma patients: opportunities for dose optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, R B; Swart, L E; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H M; Huitema, A D R; Steeghs, N

    2017-12-01

    Pazopanib is an angiogenesis inhibitor approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma. Post hoc analysis of a clinical trial demonstrated a relationship between pazopanib trough concentrations (C min ) and treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics and exposure-survival relationships of pazopanib in a real-world patient cohort. Renal cell cancer and soft tissue sarcoma patients who had at least one pazopanib plasma concentration available were included. Using calculated C min values and a threshold of > 20 mg/L, univariate and multivariate exposure-survival analyses were performed. Sixty-one patients were included, of which 16.4% were underexposed (mean C min   20 mg/L was related to longer progression free survival in renal cell cancer patients (34.1 vs. 12.5 weeks, n = 35, p = 0.027) and the overall population (25.0 vs. 8.8 weeks, n = 61, p = 0.012), but not in the sarcoma subgroup (18.7 vs. 8.8 weeks, n = 26, p = 0.142). In multivariate analysis C min  > 20 mg/L was associated with hazard ratios of 0.25 (p = 0.021) in renal cancer, 0.12 (p = 0.011) in sarcoma and 0.38 (p = 0.017) in a pooled analysis. This study confirms that pazopanib C min  > 20 mg/L relates to better progression free survival in renal cancer and points towards a similar trend in sarcoma patients. C min monitoring of pazopanib can help identify patients with low C min for whom individualized treatment at a higher dose may be appropriate.

  8. Vitamin D-dependent rat renal calcium-binding protein: development of a radioimmunoassay, tissue distribution, and immunologic identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, J.; Pansini, A.R.; Christakos, S.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive double antibody RIA has been developed for the 28,000 mol wt rat renal vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. Using this assay, concentrations of calcium-binding protein (CaBP) as low as 30 ng can be measured. The assay is precise (intraassay variability, 5.0%) and reproductible (interassay variability, 8.2%). Measurements of renal CaBP by RIA showed a good correlation with measurements of CaBP by the chelex resin assay and by polyacrylamide gel analysis by densitometric tracing using a purified CaBP marker. The concentration of CaBP in the vitamin D-replete rat kidney is 7.3 +/- 1.0 (mean +/- SEM) micrograms/mg protein. In vitamin D-deficient rats the level of renal CaBP is 2.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms/mg protein. Tissue distribution of immunoreactive rat renal CaBP showed the highest concentration of CaBP in the rat cerebellum (38.3 +/- 5.1 micrograms/mg protein). Lower concentrations of immunoreactive CaBP were detected in several other rat tissues. No immunoreactive CaBP was detected in rat or human serum. In necropsy human kidney and cerebellum, high levels of immunoreactive CaBP were also detected (1.5 +/- 0.1 and 27.3 +/- 2.1 micrograms/mg protein, respectively). When extracts of rat kidney and brain and human cerebellum and kidney were assayed at several dilutions, immunodisplacement curves parallel to that of pure renal CaBP were observed, indicating immunochemical similarity. Fractionation of extracts of rat cerebellum, human kidney, and human cerebellum on Sephadex G-100 revealed immunoreactivity and calcium-binding activity in the 28,000 mol wt region similar to rat kidney

  9. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1983-10-01

    Data have been presented for 35 elements determined by INAA for NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and for 38 elements determined by INAA and RNAA for IAEA animal bone (H-5). The experimental data showed excellent agreement with published values wherever the comparison exists. Additional trace-element data in the ppb range have been presented for the elements Sc, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W and Th in NBS oyster tissue. Also, additional trace-element data for IAEA animal bone (H-5) in the ppb range for the elements Al, Sc, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, lu, Hf, Ta and Th have been presented

  10. Nondestructive analysis for 232U and decay progeny in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, J.E.; Wogman, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    Direct determination of 232 U and its decay products in animal tissues appears to be feasible using an intrinsic Ge(Li) diode detector (for energies of 5-100 keV) and a NaI(Tl) anticoincidence-shielded Ge(Li) diode for higher-energy gamma photons. The detection sensitivity for 232 U and 228 Th is 0.03 and 0.01 nCi, respectively, using a 300-min counting time

  11. Diuretic renography in hydronephrosis: renal tissue tracer transit predicts functional course and thereby need for surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotmann, Andreas [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Clorius, John H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Clorius, Sandra N. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Internal Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The recognition of those hydronephrotic kidneys which require therapy to preserve renal function remains difficult. We retrospectively compared the 'tissue tracer transit' (TTT) of {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}) with 'response to furosemide stimulation' (RFS) and with 'single kidney function < 40%' (SKF < 40%) to predict functional course and thereby need for surgery. Fifty patients with suspected unilateral obstruction and normal contralateral kidney had 115 paired (baseline/follow-up) {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} scintirenographies. Three predictions of the functional development were derived from each baseline examination: the first based on TTT (visually assessed), the second on RFS and the third on SKF < 40%. Each prediction also considered whether the patient had surgery. Possible predictions were 'better', 'worse' or 'stable' function. A comparison of SKF at baseline and follow-up verified the predictions. The frequency of correct predictions for functional improvement following surgery was 8 of 10 kidneys with delayed TTT, 9 of 22 kidneys with obstructive RFS and 9 of 21 kidneys with SKF < 40%; for functional deterioration without surgery it was 2 of 3 kidneys with delayed TTT, 3 of 20 kidneys with obstructive RFS and 3 of 23 kidneys with SKF < 40%. Without surgery 67 of 70 kidneys with timely TTT maintained function. Without surgery 0 of 9 kidneys with timely TTT but obstructive RFS and only 1 of 16 kidneys with timely TTT but SKF < 40% lost function. Delayed TTT appears to identify the need for therapy to preserve function of hydronephrotic kidneys, while timely TTT may exclude risk even in the presence of an obstructive RFS or SKF < 40%. (orig.)

  12. Accurate determination of silver nanoparticles in animal tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veverková, Lenka [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Hradilová, Šárka [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Milde, David, E-mail: david.mlde@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Panáček, Aleš [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Skopalová, Jana [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kvítek, Libor [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Petrželová, Kamila [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); National Reference Laboratory for Chemical Elements, Department of Residues in Kroměříž, State Veterinary Institute Olomouc, Hulínská 2286, CZ 767 60 Kroměříž (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-12-01

    This study examined recoveries of silver determination in animal tissues after wet digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The composition of the mineralization mixture for microwave assisted digestion was optimized and the best recoveries were obtained for mineralization with HNO{sub 3} and addition of HCl promptly after digestion. The optimization was performed on model samples of chicken meat spiked with silver nanoparticles and a solution of ionic silver. Basic calculations of theoretical distribution of Ag among various silver-containing species were implemented and the results showed that most of the silver is in the form of soluble complexes AgCl{sub 2}{sup −} and AgCl{sub 3}{sup 2−} for the optimized composition of the mineralization mixture. Three animal tissue certified reference materials were then analyzed to verify the trueness and precision of the results. - Highlights: • We performed detailed optimization of microwave assisted digestion procedure of animal tissue used prior to Ag determination by ICP-MS. • We provide basic equilibrium calculations to give theoretical explanation of results from optimization of tested mineralization mixtures. • Results from method validation that was done by analysis of several matrix CRMs are presented.

  13. FDG-PET of patients with suspected renal failure. Standardized uptake values in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Inoue, Tomio

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the effect of renal function on 2-[ 18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging and determine the clinical significance of renal function in this setting. We compared FDG distribution between normal volunteers and patients with suspected renal failure. Twenty healthy volunteers and 20 patients with suspected renal failure who underwent FDG-PET between November 2002 and May 2005 were selected for this study. We define ''patients with suspected renal failure'' as having a blood serum creatinine level in excess of 1.1 mg/dl. The serum creatinine level was examined once in 2 weeks of the FDG-PET study. Regions of interest were placed over 15 regions for semi-quantitative analysis: the white matter, cortex, both upper lung fields, both middle lung fields, both lower lung fields, mediastinum, myocardium of the left ventricle, the left atrium as a cardiac blood pool, central region of the right lobe of the liver, left kidney, and both femoris muscles. The mean standardized uptake values (SUVs) of brain cortex and white matter were higher in healthy volunteers than in renal patients. The mean SUVs of the mediastinum at the level of the aortic arch and left atrium as a cardiac blood pool were lower in healthy volunteers than in patients with suspected renal failure. These regions differed between healthy volunteers and patients with suspected renal failure (P<0.05). We found decreasing brain accumulation and increasing blood pool accumulation of FDG in patients with high plasma creatinine. Although the difference is small, this phenomenon will not have a huge effect on the assessment of FDG-PET imaging in patients with suspected renal failure. (author)

  14. Direct molecular analysis of whole-body animal tissue sections by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyzer, Michelle L; Chaurand, Pierre; Angel, Peggi M; Caprioli, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization of various compounds in a whole animal is valuable for many applications, including pharmaceutical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies and biomarker discovery. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for localizing compounds of biological interest with molecular specificity and relatively high resolution. Utilizing imaging mass spectrometry for whole-body animal sections offers considerable analytical advantages compared to traditional methods, such as whole-body autoradiography, but the experiment is not straightforward. This chapter addresses the advantages and unique challenges that the application of imaging mass spectrometry to whole-body animal sections entails, including discussions of sample preparation, matrix application, signal normalization, and image generation. Lipid and protein images obtained from whole-body tissue sections of mouse pups are presented along with detailed protocols for the experiments.

  15. An end-to-end assessment of range uncertainty in proton therapy using animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Kang, Yixiu; Zeidan, Omar; Schreuder, Niek

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of range uncertainty is critical in proton therapy. However, there is a lack of data and consensus on how to evaluate the appropriate amount of uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to quantify the range uncertainty in various treatment conditions in proton therapy, using transmission measurements through various animal tissues. Animal tissues, including a pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg, were used in this study. For each tissue, an end-to-end test closely imitating patient treatments was performed. This included CT scan simulation, treatment planning, image-guided alignment, and beam delivery. Radio-chromic films were placed at various depths in the distal dose falloff region to measure depth dose. Comparisons between measured and calculated doses were used to evaluate range differences. The dose difference at the distal falloff between measurement and calculation depends on tissue type and treatment conditions. The estimated range difference was up to 5, 6 and 4 mm for the pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg irradiation, respectively. Our study shows that the TPS was able to calculate proton range within about 1.5% plus 1.5 mm. Accurate assessment of range uncertainty in treatment planning would allow better optimization of proton beam treatment, thus fully achieving proton beams’ superior dose advantage over conventional photon-based radiation therapy.

  16. Analysis of the effect of renal excretory system cooling during thermal radiofrequency ablation in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Meireles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of renal excretory system integrity and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation with and without irrigation with saline at 2 o C (SF2. Materials and Methods: The median third of sixteen kidneys were submitted to radiofrequency (exposition of 1 cm controlled by intra-surgical ultrasound, with eight minutes cycles and median temperature of 90 o C in eight female pigs. One excretory renal system was cooled with SF2, at a 30ml/min rate, and the other kidney was not. After 14 days of post-operatory, the biggest diameters of the lesions and the radiological aspects of the excretory system were compared by bilateral ascending pyelogram and the animals were sacrificed in order to perform histological analysis. Results: There were no significant differences between the diameters of the kidney lesions whether or not exposed to cooling of the excretory system. Median diameter of the cooled kidneys and not cooled kidneys were respectively (in mm: anteroposterior: 11.46 vs. 12.5 (p = 0.23; longitudinal: 17.94 vs. 18.84 (p = 0.62; depth: 11.38 vs. 12.25 (p = 0.47. There was no lesion of the excretory system or signs of leakage of contrast media or hydronephrosis at ascending pyelogram. Conclusion: Cooling of excretory system during radiofrequency ablation does not significantly alter generated coagulation necrosis or affect the integrity of the excretory system in the studied model.

  17. Stent revascularization restores cortical blood flow and reverses tissue hypoxia in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis but fails to reverse inflammatory pathways or glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ahmed; Herrmann, Sandra M S; Crane, John; Glockner, James F; McKusick, Michael A; Misra, Sanjay; Eirin, Alfonso; Ebrahimi, Behzad; Lerman, Lilach O; Textor, Stephen C

    2013-08-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is known to reduce renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and amplify kidney hypoxia, but the relationships between these factors and tubulointerstitial injury in the poststenotic kidney are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of renal revascularization in ARAS on renal tissue hypoxia and renal injury. Inpatient studies were performed in patients with ARAS (n=17; >60% occlusion) before and 3 months after stent revascularization, or in patients with essential hypertension (n=32), during fixed Na(+) intake and angiotensin converting enzyme/angiotensin receptors blockers Rx. Single kidney cortical, medullary perfusion, and renal blood flow were measured using multidetector computed tomography, and GFR by iothalamate clearance. Tissue deoxyhemoglobin levels (R(2)*) were measured by blood oxygen level-dependent MRI at 3T, as was fractional kidney hypoxia (percentage of axial area with R(2)*>30/s). In addition, we measured renal vein levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Pre-stent single kidney renal blood flow, perfusion, and GFR were reduced in the poststenotic kidney. Renal vein neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fractional hypoxia were higher in untreated ARAS than in essential hypertension. After stent revascularization, fractional hypoxia fell (Pblood flow, whereas GFR and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α remained unchanged. These data demonstrate that despite reversal of renal hypoxia and partial restoration of renal blood flow after revascularization, inflammatory cytokines and injury biomarkers remained elevated and GFR failed to recover in ARAS. Restoration of vessel patency alone failed to reverse tubulointerstitial damage and partly

  18. Use of perfusion bioreactors and large animal models for long bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, Leandro S; Serra, Luís A; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2014-04-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies for generation of new bone tissue includes the combined use of autologous or heterologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and three-dimensional (3D) scaffold materials serving as structural support for the cells, that develop into tissue-like substitutes under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. This approach is very important due to the limitations and risks associated with autologous, as well as allogenic bone grafiting procedures currently used. However, the cultivation of osteoprogenitor cells in 3D scaffolds presents several challenges, such as the efficient transport of nutrient and oxygen and removal of waste products from the cells in the interior of the scaffold. In this context, perfusion bioreactor systems are key components for bone TERM, as many recent studies have shown that such systems can provide dynamic environments with enhanced diffusion of nutrients and therefore, perfusion can be used to generate grafts of clinically relevant sizes and shapes. Nevertheless, to determine whether a developed tissue-like substitute conforms to the requirements of biocompatibility, mechanical stability and safety, it must undergo rigorous testing both in vitro and in vivo. Results from in vitro studies can be difficult to extrapolate to the in vivo situation, and for this reason, the use of animal models is often an essential step in the testing of orthopedic implants before clinical use in humans. This review provides an overview of the concepts, advantages, and challenges associated with different types of perfusion bioreactor systems, particularly focusing on systems that may enable the generation of critical size tissue engineered constructs. Furthermore, this review discusses some of the most frequently used animal models, such as sheep and goats, to study the in vivo functionality of bone implant materials, in critical size defects.

  19. Automated quantification of renal interstitial fibrosis for computer-aided diagnosis: A comprehensive tissue structure segmentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Wei Keat; Kuang, Ye Chow; Ooi, Melanie Po-Leen; Khoo, Joon Joon

    2018-03-01

    Interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy samples is a scarring tissue structure that may be visually quantified by pathologists as an indicator to the presence and extent of chronic kidney disease. The standard method of quantification by visual evaluation presents reproducibility issues in the diagnoses. This study proposes an automated quantification system for measuring the amount of interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy images as a consistent basis of comparison among pathologists. The system extracts and segments the renal tissue structures based on colour information and structural assumptions of the tissue structures. The regions in the biopsy representing the interstitial fibrosis are deduced through the elimination of non-interstitial fibrosis structures from the biopsy area and quantified as a percentage of the total area of the biopsy sample. A ground truth image dataset has been manually prepared by consulting an experienced pathologist for the validation of the segmentation algorithms. The results from experiments involving experienced pathologists have demonstrated a good correlation in quantification result between the automated system and the pathologists' visual evaluation. Experiments investigating the variability in pathologists also proved the automated quantification error rate to be on par with the average intra-observer variability in pathologists' quantification. Interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy samples is a scarring tissue structure that may be visually quantified by pathologists as an indicator to the presence and extent of chronic kidney disease. The standard method of quantification by visual evaluation presents reproducibility issues in the diagnoses due to the uncertainties in human judgement. An automated quantification system for accurately measuring the amount of interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy images is presented as a consistent basis of comparison among pathologists. The system identifies the renal tissue structures

  20. The triple helix of collagens - an ancient protein structure that enabled animal multicellularity and tissue evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Aaron L; Boudko, Sergei P; Rokas, Antonis; Hudson, Billy G

    2018-04-09

    The cellular microenvironment, characterized by an extracellular matrix (ECM), played an essential role in the transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in animals (metazoans), and in the subsequent evolution of diverse animal tissues and organs. A major ECM component are members of the collagen superfamily -comprising 28 types in vertebrates - that exist in diverse supramolecular assemblies ranging from networks to fibrils. Each assembly is characterized by a hallmark feature, a protein structure called a triple helix. A current gap in knowledge is understanding the mechanisms of how the triple helix encodes and utilizes information in building scaffolds on the outside of cells. Type IV collagen, recently revealed as the evolutionarily most ancient member of the collagen superfamily, serves as an archetype for a fresh view of fundamental structural features of a triple helix that underlie the diversity of biological activities of collagens. In this Opinion, we argue that the triple helix is a protein structure of fundamental importance in building the extracellular matrix, which enabled animal multicellularity and tissue evolution. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. The effect of dental bleaching on pulpal tissue response in a diabetic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, L T A; Ferreira, L L; Benetti, F; Gastélum, A A; Gomes-Filho, J E; Ervolino, E; Briso, A L F

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate pulpal tissue response after dental bleaching in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight rats were divided into two groups of normoglycaemic and diabetic rats (n = 14). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced with alloxan. After DM confirmation, all rats were anaesthetized and dental bleaching was performed with 35% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on the right maxillary molars for 30 min. Left molars were used as controls. Bleaching resulted in four hemimaxillae groups: normoglycaemic (N), N-bleached (NBle), diabetic (D) and D-bleached (DBle). After 2 or 30 days, the animals were euthanized and the hemimaxillae were removed, processed for histopathological analysis and stained with haematoxylin-eosin (HE), Masson's trichrome (MT) and picrosirius red (PSR). Results obtained within animals (normoglycaemic or diabetic rats) were submitted to Wilcoxon or paired t-tests, and between animal (normoglycaemic and diabetic rats), to Mann-Whitney test or t-tests. At 2 days, the NBle group had a mild inflammatory infiltration in the pulpal tissue, whilst the DBle had severe inflammation or necrosis (P bleaching was greater in diabetic rats. Additionally, the increase in reactionary dentine deposition and mature collagen fibres observed in diabetic rats needs further evaluation to confirm the present results. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Detection of Bacillus anthracis in the air, soil and animal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušar D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to establish effective and rapid diagnostic methods for the detection of Bacillus anthracis, a highly virulent zoonotic pathogen, in the air, soil and animal (or human tissue samples. Liquid culture of B. anthracis was aerosolized and four air sampling procedures were employed. Detection of B. anthracis in the air samples was successful with RCS High Flow sampler (culturebased detection and when sampling through the air filter (molecular detection using SmartHelix Complex Samples DNA Extraction Kit. Liquid B. anthracis culture was also employed for spiking the homogenised bovine lymphatic gland tissue and soil samples. DNA extraction was performed using three different commercial kits for each sample type. High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit was the most effective for DNA extraction from animal tissue samples. Detection in the soil was successful when PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit was used. Our results indicate that B. anthracis can be monitored in different matrices by rapid molecular methods when appropriate sampling and DNA extraction procedures are employed prior to PCR assay. The selected rapid protocols can be implemented in specialized veterinary or human diagnostic laboratories with moderate costs.

  3. Determination of drug residues by CLAR-MS/MS in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes Jimenez, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Produced food of animal origin, present the possibility of occurrence of any contact with substances that have negative effects on the health of people who consume them. The use of drugs in veterinary medicine is one of the possible sources of such waste; so, the conditions for the analysis of some classes of antibiotics in animal tissues are based on the study. Costa Rica and the countries that are export destination, have regulation and programs for control before to be distributed in local markets, or post if it is received any complaint of pollution. The high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometers (CLAR-MS/MS) allows the analysis of analytes monitored, according to the specifications required by the legislation. The cases of two laboratories in Costa Rica are presented as the only ones who have the ability to perform the analysis of drug residues CLAR-MS/MS. (author) [es

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  5. [Dinitrosyl iron complexes are endogenous signaling agents in animal and human cells and tissues (a hypothesis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, A F

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis was advanced that dinitrosyl iron complexes generated in animal and human cells and tissues producing nitric oxide can function as endogenous universal regulators of biochemical and physiological processes. This function is realized by the ability of dinitrosyl iron complexes to act as donors of free nitric oxide molecules interacting with the heme groups of proteins, nitrosonium ions, or Fe+(NO+)2 interacting with the thiol groups of proteins. The effect of dinitrosyl iron complexes on the activity of some enzymes and the expression of the genome at the translation and transcription levels was considered.

  6. [Application of Immunohistochemistry and Immunofluorescence Staining in Detection of Phospholipase A2 Receptor on Paraffin Section of Renal Biopsy Tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan-yan; Wang, Guo-qin; Sun, Li-jun; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Yi-pu

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the application of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence staining method in the detection of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) on paraffin section of renal biopsy tissue,and to find an accurate and fast method for the detection of PLA2R in renal tissue. The PLA2R of 193 cases were detected by immunohistochemical staining,and the antigen was repaired by the method of high pressure cooker (HPC) hot repair plus trypsin repair. The 193 samples including 139 cases of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), 15 cases of membranous lupus nephritis, 8 cases of hepatitis B virus associated membranous nephropathy, 18 cases of IgA nephropathy, and 13 cases of minimal change diseases. To compare the dyeing effects, 22 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 4 different. of antigen repairing,which included HPC hot repair, HPC hot repair plus trypsin repair, water bath heat repair, and water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair. To compare the dyeing effects, 15 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 3 different. of antigen repairing,which included water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair, protease K digestion repair, and pepsin digestion repair. In 193 cases, the positive rate of PLA2R in IMN cases was 90.6% (126/139), and the other 54 patients without IMN were negative. Twenty-two IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using the HPC heat repair plus trypsin repaire or the water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair;while only a few cases of 22 IMN cases were positive by using the HPC hot repair alone or water bath heat repair alone. Fifteen IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair,protease K digestion repair,and pepsin digestion repair, but the distribution of positive deposits and the background were different. PLA2R immunohistochemical staining can effectively identify IMN and secondary MN. For

  7. Species and tissues specific differentiation of processed animal proteins in aquafeeds using proteomics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, J D; Marbaix, H; Dieu, M; Fumière, O; Mauro, S; Palmblad, M; Raes, M; Berntssen, M H G

    2016-09-16

    The rapidly growing aquaculture industry drives the search for sustainable protein sources in fish feed. In the European Union (EU) since 2013 non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAP) are again permitted to be used in aquafeeds. To ensure that commercial fish feeds do not contain PAP from prohibited species, EU reference methods were established. However, due to the heterogeneous and complex nature of PAP complementary methods are required to guarantee the safe use of this fish feed ingredient. In addition, there is a need for tissue specific PAP detection to identify the sources (i.e. bovine carcass, blood, or meat) of illegal PAP use. In the present study, we investigated and compared different protein extraction, solubilisation and digestion protocols on different proteomics platforms for the detection and differentiation of prohibited PAP. In addition, we assessed if tissue specific PAP detection was feasible using proteomics tools. All work was performed independently in two different laboratories. We found that irrespective of sample preparation gel-based proteomics tools were inappropriate when working with PAP. Gel-free shotgun proteomics approaches in combination with direct spectral comparison were able to provide quality species and tissue specific data to complement and refine current methods of PAP detection and identification. To guarantee the safe use of processed animal protein (PAP) in aquafeeds efficient PAP detection and monitoring tools are required. The present study investigated and compared various proteomics workflows and shows that the application of shotgun proteomics in combination with direct comparison of spectral libraries provides for the desired species and tissue specific classification of this heat sterilized and pressure treated (≥133°C, at 3bar for 20min) protein feed ingredient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective effect of gel form of gastric gavage applicated aloe vera on ischemia reperfusion injury in renal and lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Hasan; Yener, Ali Umit; Karaboga, Ihsan; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Dogu, Tugba; Altinisik, Hatice Betul; Altinisik, Ugur; Simsek, Tuncer

    2017-12-30

    The aloe vera plant has become increasingly popular in recent years. This study aimed to research the effect of aloe vera to prevent renal and lung tissue damage in an experimental ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model. The study included 21 male Wistar Albino rats, which were categorized into control group, n = 7 (no procedures), Sham group n = 7 (I/R); and aloe vera therapy group, n = 7 (aloe vera and I/R). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated from lung and kidney tissues for biochemical investigations. As histopathological, hematoxylin and eosin and anti-iNOS were also examined. In biochemical investigations, SOD, CAT, and GPx levels of the Sham group were found to be lower compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). The aloe vera therapy group was not statistically different from control groups but significantly different compared with the Sham group. In the same way, the MDA levels of kidney and lung tissues were statistically significant in the aloe vera therapy group, compared to the Sham group. In the Sham group, the peribronchial and perialveolar edema were observed in lung parenchyma. Also, excess interstitial hemorrhage, leukocyte infiltration, and alveolar wall thickening were identified in ischemic groups. The histopathological changes were much lighter than in the aloe vera therapy group. In renal tissues, excess epithelial cell deterioration, tubular desqumination, and glomerular atrophy were observed in the Sham group. The histopathological changes were markedly reduced in the aloe vera therapy  group. In the kidney and lung tissue, the level of iNOS activity in the Sham group was significantly higher than in the control and aloe vera therapy group. This study indicated that aloe vera is protective against oxidative damage formed by I/R in distant organs like the lungs and kidneys.

  9. PCBs and PCDD/Fs distribution in tissues and organs of marine animals in Russian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirova, Z.; Kruglov, E.; Loshkina, E.; Khalilov, R. [Environmental Research and Protection Centre, Ufa (Russian Federation); Melnikov, S.; Vlasov, S. [Regional Centre Monitoring of the Arctic, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Studies of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Russian Arctic were conducted recently by a Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) project. This project developed new data on the POPs pollution levels in the environment and biosphere, including PCBs and PCDD/Fs, in arctic regions of Russia. Transboundary transport and biomagnification within food chains in arctic regions result in POPs accumulation in tissues of fish and marine animals. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of indicator PCBs, co-planar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in different tissues and organs of seals, walruses and whales caught near the seashore of Chukotski Peninsula (settlement of Lavrenty), Russia, to determine the background level of arctic biota pollution and to study distribution of toxicants in organisms of marine animals. Sampling was made in the course of the 1{sup st} and the 2{sup nd} stages of the 4{sup th} phase of Raipon/AMAP/GEF project ''Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), Food Security and Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North'' in 2002 by researchers of the Regional Center for Monitoring of the Arctic (RCMA), St. Petersburg, Russia.

  10. Geo-PET: A novel generic organ-pet for small animal organs and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy, Levent

    Reconstructed tomographic image resolution of small animal PET imaging systems is improving with advances in radiation detector development. However the trend towards higher resolution systems has come with an increase in price and system complexity. Recent developments in the area of solid-state photomultiplication devices like silicon photomultiplier arrays (SPMA) are creating opportunities for new high performance tools for PET scanner design. Imaging of excised small animal organs and tissues has been used as part of post-mortem studies in order to gain detailed, high-resolution anatomical information on sacrificed animals. However, this kind of ex-vivo specimen imaging has largely been limited to ultra-high resolution muCT. The inherent limitations to PET resolution have, to date, excluded PET imaging from these ex-vivo imaging studies. In this work, we leverage the diminishing physical size of current generation SPMA designs to create a very small, simple, and high-resolution prototype detector system targeting ex-vivo tomographic imaging of small animal organs and tissues. We investigate sensitivity, spatial resolution, and the reconstructed image quality of a prototype small animal PET scanner designed specifically for imaging of excised murine tissue and organs. We aim to demonstrate that a cost-effective silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array based design with thin crystals (2 mm) to minimize depth of interaction errors might be able to achieve sub-millimeter resolution. We hypothesize that the substantial decrease in sensitivity associated with the thin crystals can be compensated for with increased solid angle detection, longer acquisitions, higher activity and wider acceptance energy windows (due to minimal scatter from excised organs). The constructed system has a functional field of view (FoV) of 40 mm diameter, which is adequate for most small animal specimen studies. We perform both analytical (3D-FBP) and iterative (ML-EM) methods in order to

  11. PEGDA hydrogels as a replacement for animal tissues in mucoadhesion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel-Green, Tal; Eliyahu, Shaked; Avidan-Shlomovich, Shlomit; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2016-06-15

    Utilization of animal parts in ex-vivo mucoadhesion assays is a common approach that presents many difficulties due to animal rights issues and large variance between animals. This study examines the suitability of two PEGDA (poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) based hydrogels to serve as tissue mimetics for mucoadhesion evaluation. One hydrogel, termed PEGDA-QT, was composed of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) and PEG and contained free thiol groups mimicking those found in natural mucosa. The other hydrogel was formed by UV (ultraviolet) curing of PEGDA and mimicked the mechanical property of mucosa but not its chemical constitute. When ranking different first generation mucoadhesive polymers using a tensile assay, both hydrogels showed good agreement with the ranking achieved for porcine small intestine. However, only PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine shared a similar displacement curve. The same ranking for PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine was also observed when comparing a second-generation mucoadhesive polymer, thiolated alginate, to native alginate. Our findings suggest that PEGDA-QT could serve as a replacement for porcine small intestine in both mucoadhesion evaluations using a tensile machine and the flow-through method for first and second-generation mucoadhesive polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.H.; Wu, T.H.; Lin, M.H.; Yang, C.C.; Guo, W.Y.; Wang, Z.J.; Chen, C.L.; Lee, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future

  13. Targeted Delivery of Neutralizing Anti-C5 Antibody to Renal Endothelium Prevents Complement-Dependent Tissue Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Durigutto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation is largely implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical conditions and its therapeutic neutralization has proven effective in preventing tissue and organ damage. A problem that still needs to be solved in the therapeutic control of complement-mediated diseases is how to avoid side effects associated with chronic neutralization of the complement system, in particular, the increased risk of infections. We addressed this issue developing a strategy based on the preferential delivery of a C5 complement inhibitor to the organ involved in the pathologic process. To this end, we generated Ergidina, a neutralizing recombinant anti-C5 human antibody coupled with a cyclic-RGD peptide, with a distinctive homing property for ischemic endothelial cells and effective in controlling tissue damage in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. As a result of its preferential localization on renal endothelium, the molecule induced complete inhibition of complement activation at tissue level, and local protection from complement-mediated tissue damage without affecting circulating C5. The ex vivo binding of Ergidina to surgically removed kidney exposed to cold ischemia supports its therapeutic use to prevent posttransplant IRI leading to delay of graft function. Moreover, the finding that the ex vivo binding of Ergidina was not restricted to the kidney, but was also seen on ischemic heart, suggests that this RGD-targeted anti-C5 antibody may represent a useful tool to treat organs prior to transplantation. Based on this evidence, we propose preliminary data showing that Ergidina is a novel targeted drug to prevent complement activation on the endothelium of ischemic kidney.

  14. Correction of Gradient Nonlinearity Bias in Quantitative Diffusion Parameters of Renal Tissue with Intra Voxel Incoherent Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarenko, Dariya I; Pang, Yuxi; Senegas, Julien; Ivancevic, Marko K; Ross, Brian D; Chenevert, Thomas L

    2015-12-01

    Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting bias due to gradient nonlinearity (GNL) causes substantial errors in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for anatomical regions imaged distant from magnet isocenter. Our previously-described approach allowed effective removal of spatial ADC bias from three orthogonal DWI measurements for mono-exponential media of arbitrary anisotropy. The present work evaluates correction feasibility and performance for quantitative diffusion parameters of the two-component IVIM model for well-perfused and nearly isotropic renal tissue. Sagittal kidney DWI scans of a volunteer were performed on a clinical 3T MRI scanner near isocenter and offset superiorly. Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting due to GNL resulted both in shift and broadening of perfusion-suppressed ADC histograms for off-center DWI relative to unbiased measurements close to isocenter. Direction-average DW-bias correctors were computed based on the known gradient design provided by vendor. The computed bias maps were empirically confirmed by coronal DWI measurements for an isotropic gel-flood phantom. Both phantom and renal tissue ADC bias for off-center measurements was effectively removed by applying pre-computed 3D correction maps. Comparable ADC accuracy was achieved for corrections of both b -maps and DWI intensities in presence of IVIM perfusion. No significant bias impact was observed for IVIM perfusion fraction.

  15. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  16. Changes in oxygen partial pressure of brain tissue in an animal model of obstructive apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Marta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is one of the main consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and is usually attributed in part to the oxidative stress caused by intermittent hypoxia in cerebral tissues. The presence of oxygen-reactive species in the brain tissue should be produced by the deoxygenation-reoxygenation cycles which occur at tissue level during recurrent apneic events. However, how changes in arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 during repetitive apneas translate into oxygen partial pressure (PtO2 in brain tissue has not been studied. The objective of this study was to assess whether brain tissue is partially protected from intermittently occurring interruption of O2 supply during recurrent swings in arterial SpO2 in an animal model of OSA. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g were used. Sixteen rats were anesthetized and non-invasively subjected to recurrent obstructive apneas: 60 apneas/h, 15 s each, for 1 h. A control group of 8 rats was instrumented but not subjected to obstructive apneas. PtO2 in the cerebral cortex was measured using a fast-response oxygen microelectrode. SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. The time dependence of arterial SpO2 and brain tissue PtO2 was carried out by Friedman repeated measures ANOVA. Results Arterial SpO2 showed a stable periodic pattern (no significant changes in maximum [95.5 ± 0.5%; m ± SE] and minimum values [83.9 ± 1.3%]. By contrast, brain tissue PtO2 exhibited a different pattern from that of arterial SpO2. The minimum cerebral cortex PtO2 computed during the first apnea (29.6 ± 2.4 mmHg was significantly lower than baseline PtO2 (39.7 ± 2.9 mmHg; p = 0.011. In contrast to SpO2, the minimum and maximum values of PtO2 gradually increased (p 2 were significantly greater relative to baseline and the first apnea dip, respectively. Conclusions These data suggest that the cerebral cortex is partially protected from intermittently occurring interruption of

  17. Pathomorphological features of the skin and muscle tissue of experimental animals in the case of lifetime and postmortem damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forensic medical diagnosis of tissue injury is currently the subject of numerous investigations. Pathomorphological changes of the skin and muscle tissue of experimental animals, resulting in the case of lifetime and postmortem traumatic injuries, depending on the time and temperature, were revealed by the author. Data obtained by the author is very necessary for improving the forensic medical diagnosis of traumatic soft tissue injuries.

  18. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  19. Th, U, Ra and rare earth element distributions in farm animal tissues from an elevated natural radiation background environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, Paul; Morse, Robert; Ford, Helen; Eisenbud, Merril; Franca, E.P.; de Castro, M.B.; Lobao, Nazyo; Sachett, Ivanor; Carlos, Marcia

    1991-01-01

    A field study was conducted in an area of elevated natural background radioactivity (the Pocos de Caldas plateau, Brazil) to assess tissue concentrations and the comparative bioavailability of isotopic Th (IV), U (IV, VI), Ra (II) and light rare earth elements (REE), i.e. La (III) and Ce (III, IV) in adult steers, pigs and chickens. The assessment of comparative bioavailability was aided by normalizing tissue concentrations to local soil concentrations, i.e. by calculating soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CRs). Mean CRs (for muscle/soil) in these animals were very similar for U, La and Th which, as a group, decreased among the farm animals sampled as (all x 10 -4 ): chicken (1) ≥ steer (0.7) ≥ pig (0.4). For 226 Ra, CRs in muscle decreased in the same order among animals although mean values were 3-5 times greater than those quoted. Much greater values and greater differences among the elements are noted for bone/soil CRs, which for all animals decreased as: Ra >> U > La=Th, indicating the order of elemental bioavailability (assuming bone to be the major retention compartment). Isotopic ratios in farm animal tissue are shown to resemble closely those in soils over which the animals forage, with few exceptions, indicating the importance of the soil component in the transfer of these elements to tissues. (author)

  20. Gene expression changes induced by ochratoxin A in renal and hepatic tissues of male F344 rat after oral repeated administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbillaga, Leire; Vettorazzi, Ariane; Gil, Ana G; Delft, Joost van; Garcia-Jalon, Jose Antonio; Lopez de Cerain, Adela

    2008-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a naturally occurring mycotoxin, is nephrotoxic in all animal species tested and is considered a potent renal carcinogen, particularly in male rats. Its mechanism of toxicity is still unknown, although oxidative stress appears to be a plausible mechanism. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the biological pathways that are modulated in vivo by OTA in male F344 rats in order to gain further insight into its mechanism of renal toxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with OTA (500 μg/kg bw) and gene expression profiles in target and non-target organs were analyzed after 7 and 21 days administration. As was expected, a time-dependent increase of OTA concentrations was found in plasma, kidney and liver, with the concentrations found in both tissues being quite similar. However, histopathological examinations only revealed changes in kidney; signs of nephrotoxicity involving single cell necrosis and karyomegalic nuclei were observed in the treated rats. The number of differentially expressed genes in kidney was much higher than in liver (541 versus 11 at both time points). Several similarities were observed with other in vivo gene expression data. However, great differences were found with previous in vitro gene expression data, with the exception of DNA damage response which was not observed at mRNA level in any of our study conditions. Down-regulation was the predominant effect. Oxidative stress response pathway and genes involved in metabolism and transport were inhibited at both time points. RGN (regucalcin) - a gene implicated in calcium homeostasis - was strongly inhibited at both time points and genes implicated in cell survival and proliferation were up-regulated at day 21. Moreover, translation factors and annexin genes were up-regulated at both time points. Apart from oxidative stress, alterations of the calcium homeostasis and cytoskeleton structure may be present at the first events of OTA toxicity

  1. Examination of radioactive contamination in the soil-plant system and their transfer to selected animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibowski, S.; Gladysz, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates gamma emitter radioactivity in a system consisting of soil and plants. Some selected sample of tissues of animals fed with the plants from these sites were also measured. In soil and plant samples artificial ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and natural (thorium and uranium series) isotopes were detected. Despite the relatively high content of the natural isotopes in plants and their seeds, their accumulation in animal tissues was not detected.The 40 K isotope was transferred in the chain soil-plant-animal in the highest degree. From the group of the natural isotopes, only 212 Pb was detected in examined animal tissue samples. Other natural isotopes were below detection level. In the samples heavy metal content was also examined. In any sample no element concentration was noticed above trade acceptable limit. (author)

  2. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  3. Theoretical model of ruminant adipose tissue metabolism in relation to the whole animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R L; Yang, Y T; Crist, K; Grichting, G

    1976-09-01

    Based on theoretical considerations and experimental data, estimates of contributions of adipose tissue to energy expenditures in a lactating cow and a growing steer were developed. The estimates indicate that adipose energy expenditures range between 5 and 10% of total animal heat production dependent on productive function and diet. These energy expenditures can be partitioned among maintenance (3%), lipogenesis (1-5%) and lipolysis and triglyceride resynthesis (less thatn 1.0%). Specific sites at which acute and chronic effectors can act to produce changes in adipose function, and changes in adipose function produced by diet and during pregnancy, lactation and aging were discussed with emphasis being placed on the need for additional, definitive studies of specific interactions among pregnancy, diet, age, lactation and growth in producing ruminants.

  4. Effects of experimental radiotherapy and hyperthermia on tumors and normal tissues in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments on responses of tumors, implanted subcutaneously in the leg, to irradiation alone or combined with heat are reported. The influence of factors modifying the fraction of hypoxic cells (e.g. anesthesia of the animal and tumor volume) is also discussed. The radiosensitivity of developing lung tumors was examined for spontaneous as well as for artificial lung metastases. Both experimental tumor models were compared with regard to their value in experimental radiotherapy. Data obtained on the response of artificial metastases and lung tissue to combined treatment with irradiation and several drugs are presented. Data on damage of the mouse foot, as a result of heat and/or irradiation treatments are presented. In particular the influence of thermotolerance on thermal enhancement of the radiation induced skin reaction was studied. Tolerance of the skin of previously irradiated mice to retreatment with irradiation, to hyperthermia alone and combined with X-rays was assessed. (Auth.)

  5. Method to reduce non-specific tissue heating of small animals in solenoid coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ananda; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Mallipudi, Rajiv; Cornejo, Christine; Bordelon, David; Armour, Michael; Morua, Katherine; Deweese, Theodore L; Ivkov, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Solenoid coils that generate time-varying or alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) are used in biomedical devices for research, imaging and therapy. Interactions of AMF and tissue produce eddy currents that deposit power within tissue, thus limiting effectiveness and safety. We aim to develop methods that minimise excess heating of mice exposed to AMFs for cancer therapy experiments. Numerical and experimental data were obtained to characterise thermal management properties of water using a continuous, custom water jacket in a four-turn simple solenoid. Theoretical data were obtained with method-of-moments (MoM) numerical field calculations and finite element method (FEM) thermal simulations. Experimental data were obtained from gel phantoms and mice exposed to AMFs having amplitude >50 kA/m and frequency of 160 kHz. Water has a high specific heat and thermal conductivity, is diamagnetic, polar, and nearly transparent to magnetic fields. We report at least a two-fold reduction of temperature increase from gel phantom and animal models when a continuous layer of circulating water was placed between the sample and solenoid, compared with no water. Thermal simulations indicate the superior efficiency in thermal management by the developed continuous single chamber cooling system over a double chamber non-continuous system. Further reductions of heating were obtained by regulating water temperature and flow for active cooling. These results demonstrate the potential value of a contiguous layer of circulating water to permit sustained exposure to high intensity alternating magnetic fields at this frequency for research using small animal models exposed to AMFs.

  6. Diet authentication in sheep from the composition of animal tissues and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Prache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increased consumer demand for information on herbivore production factors, particularly animal diet. To meet these demands, producers and commercial entities develop specifications via quality certifications. There is therefore a need for analytical tools that may guarantee that the specification commitments have been fully met or to help with constructing them. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning diet authentication in sheep meat and milk, the different approaches that have been investigated, some leading examples concerning the discrimination of contrasting feeding situations, together with the persistence of some diet markers in the event of changes in animals' diet. The nature of the diet strongly influences the composition of the animal tissues and products, which is due to specific compounds that are directly transferred from the feed to the end product or that are transformed or produced by rumen micro-organisms or the animal's metabolism under the effect of specific diets. Some of these compounds can therefore be used as diet markers. Compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, volatile compounds and ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope are potential tracers in meat and milk or animal tissues of animal feeding diets. Moreover, differences in meat and milk composition induce differences in their optical properties, and therefore in their spectral features, which can also be used for diet authentication. These techniques have already allowed discrimination among products obtained in contrasting feeding conditions. Intermediate situations, for example in case of modification of the animal's diet, may be less easily recognized and may require a combination of tracing methods. In particular, the persistence of tracers when animals are stall-fed a concentrate-based diet after pasture and its implications for traceability are discussed. Finally

  7. Evaluation of tissue oxygen measurements for flap monitoring in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Christian; Elberg, Jens; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue oxygen tension (p(ti)O(2)) measurements are common in neurosurgery but uncommon in plastic surgery. We examined this technique as a monitoring method with probe placement in the subcutaneous tissue and addressed the importance of probe placement. Myocutaneous flaps were raised in an animal...... model and p(ti)O(2) measurements performed at different levels in the subcutaneous fat. Flap artery and vein were occluded until a 50% p(ti)O(2) reduction had occurred (T(1/2)). We found no significant effect of depth (P>0.10) on the level of p(ti)O(2). T(1/2)(arterial) was 7.2 minutes and T(1/2)(venous......) was 18 minutes. We found no significant relation between initial levels of p(ti)O(2) and T(1/2). Location of the probe and absolute p(ti)O(2) value is of little relevance for flap monitoring. It is the relative change in p(ti)O(2) that is important. The p(ti)O(2) technique is well suited for monitoring...

  8. Determination of concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Fe) in animal tissues using atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAZAFINTSALAMA, V.T.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals are classified among the inorganic compounds. The latter type of metal is found in rocks, fertilizers, urban mud but may also originate from the atmospheric pollution. A particular characteristic of heavy metals is their bioaccumulation in the food chain. Therefore, lead and cadmium, which are classified as heavy metals may be easily found in animal products and can lead to food poisoning if their concentrations are higher than the maximum permissible values as requested by international agencies such as the c odex alimentarius . The values are set down and differ according to types of food for human consuption and the trading companies take action accordingly. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a quality control system through analytical laboratory measurements and testings. This study underlies the method of determination of lead, cadmium and iron in animal tissues by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the method is sensitive and reliable. For each analyte, the Z-score lies between -2 and 2, indicating that the method is working properly. The analytical results showed that: (i) only beef and chicken meats and beef liver contain lead [0,09μg.g - 1; 0,29μg.g - 1]. The limit value of 0,1μg.g - 1 is almost reached in beef and chicken meats, (ii) as far as cadmium is concerned, the five studied samples contain this analyte [0,02μg.g - 1; 0,9μg.g - 1]. Except the chicken liver of which the concentration (0,15μg.g - 1) exceeds the maximum permissible value (0,1μg.g - 1), the others are in conformity with the standards and appropriate to be consumed,(iii) iron is higher in the liver and kidney samples: beef liver 282mg.g - 1, chicken liver 250 mg.g - 1, pork kidney 247mg.g - 1. The study also showed that the calcium concentration in animal tissues is low and they can be classified as poor-calcium food. [fr

  9. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Raoofi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6. The first group (control was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl and experimental groups with CIS (E1, CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2, CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3, CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4 intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman′s capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  10. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus Terrestris on Cisplatin Induced Renal Tissue Damage in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3), CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4) intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman's capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice. PMID:25789143

  11. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on Cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3), CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4) intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman's capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  12. Kinase Gene Expression Profiling of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Identifies Potential New Therapeutic Targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Ghatalia

    Full Text Available Kinases are therapeutically actionable targets. Kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR improve outcomes in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC, but are not curative. Metastatic tumor tissue has not been comprehensively studied for kinase gene expression. Paired intra-patient kinase gene expression analysis in primary tumor (T, matched normal kidney (N and metastatic tumor tissue (M may assist in identifying drivers of metastasis and prioritizing therapeutic targets. We compared the expression of 519 kinase genes using NanoString in T, N and M in 35 patients to discover genes over-expressed in M compared to T and N tissue. RNA-seq data derived from ccRCC tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA were used to demonstrate differential expression of genes in primary tumor tissue from patients that had metastasis at baseline (n = 79 compared to those that did not develop metastasis for at least 2 years (n = 187. Functional analysis was conducted to identify key signaling pathways by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Of 10 kinase genes overexpressed in metastases compared to primary tumor in the discovery cohort, 9 genes were also differentially expressed in TCGA primary tumors with metastasis at baseline compared to primary tumors without metastasis for at least 2 years: EPHB2, AURKA, GSG2, IKBKE, MELK, CSK, CHEK2, CDC7 and MAP3K8; p<0.001. The top pathways overexpressed in M tissue were pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage, salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, NF-kB signaling, NGF signaling and cell cycle control of chromosomal replication. The 9 kinase genes validated to be over-expressed in metastatic ccRCC may represent currently unrecognized but potentially actionable therapeutic targets that warrant functional validation.

  13. Environmental processes leading to the presence of organically bound plutonium in plant tissues consumed by animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Using a proposed model for Pu behaviour to integrate current knowledge, information is presented on the chemical/biochemical processes governing the form of Pu in soils and plants and the relationship of these phenomena to gut absorption in animals. Regardless of the source term, Pu behaviour in the soil will be governed by the chemistry of Pu(IV), which predominates over Pu(VI) due to reductive reactions in the soil and at the plant root surface. The soil behaviour of Pu(IV) is governed by (1) hydrolysis, which results in insolubilization and sorption on solid phases, and (2) complexation with inorganic and organic ligands, which stabilize Pu(IV) against hydrolysis and increase solubility. These competing processes likely represent the rate-limiting step in the ingestion pathway because plants do not effectively discriminate against the soluble Pu(IV) ion. Following dissociation of soil Pu(IV) complexes at the outer root surface, Pu is transported across the plant root membrane as the Pu(IV) ion and translocated as Pu(IV) complexes with plant organic ligands. Redistribution of Pu occurs as the plant grows, with initial increases in stem tissues followed by accumulation in roots as the plant matures. The Pu concentration decreases up the plant and seeds contain the lowest Pu concentrations. The gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu requires the presence of soluble Pu forms and hydrolysis/complexation reactions in the gut likely govern solubility. The acidity of the gut is not sufficient to retard hydrolysis of Pu(IV). Therefore, the gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu organically bound in plant tissues is increased relative to Pu administered in hydrolysable solutions. (author)

  14. Tissue expression and plasma levels of adrenomedullin in renal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Jens; Thiesson, Helle; Walter, Steen

    2006-01-01

    that AM is increased in CC-RCC tumours and that AM is a plasma biomarker for CC-RCC. Tumours and non-malignant kidney tissue were obtained from patients that underwent unilateral nephrectomy. Blood samples were drawn at the day of surgery, 3-6 days after surgery and 4-5 weeks after surgery. AM m...... conclude that elevated tissue AM is a distinguishing feature of CC-RCC compared with other kidney tumours. Plasma AM is not suited as a tumour marker for this disease....

  15. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glom]) of the renal glomeruli and average glomerular volume (Vol[glom])) and also it was evaluated the renal function for the dosage of serum creatinine and urea. There was significant decrease of the renal function in the oldest rats. The renal volume presented gradual increase during the development of the rats with the biggest values registered in the group of animals at 12 months of age and significant progressive decrease in older animals. Vv[glom] presented statistically significant gradual reduction between the groups and the Nv[glom] also decreased significantly. The renal function proved to be inferior in senile rats when compared to the young rats. The morphometric and stereological analysis evidenced renal atrophy, gradual reduction of the volume density and numerical density of the renal glomeruli associated to the aging process.

  16. Application of Synthetic Polymeric Scaffolds in Breast Cancer 3D Tissue Cultures and Animal Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girdhari Rijal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of three-dimensional (3D porous scaffolds from synthetic polymers is a challenge to most laboratories conducting biomedical research. Here, we present a handy and cost-effective method to fabricate polymeric hydrogel and porous scaffolds using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA or polycaprolactone (PCL. Breast cancer cells grown on 3D polymeric scaffolds exhibited distinct survival, morphology, and proliferation compared to those on 2D polymeric surfaces. Mammary epithelial cells cultured on PLGA- or PCL-coated slides expressed extracellular matrix (ECM proteins and their receptors. Estrogen receptor- (ER- positive T47D breast cancer cells are less sensitive to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-HT treatment when cultured on the 3D porous scaffolds than in 2D cultures. Finally, cancer cell-laden polymeric scaffolds support consistent tumor formation in animals and biomarker expression as seen in human native tumors. Our data suggest that the porous synthetic polymer scaffolds satisfy the basic requirements for 3D tissue cultures both in vitro and in vivo. The scaffolding technology has appealing potentials to be applied in anticancer drug screening for a better control of the progression of human cancers.

  17. Elemental analysis of biological tissues of animal models in muscular dystrophies investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrina Metairon; Zamboni, C.B.; Suzuki, M.F.; Bueno, Jr.C.R.; Sant'Anna, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    Element concentrations in biological tissues of Dmd mdx /J and C57BL/6 J mice strains were determined using the neutron activation analysis technique. Samples of whole blood, bones and organs (heart and muscle) of these strains were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil). To perform this investigation biological samples of two-month-old adult females (n = 10) and males (n = 9) for Dmd mdx /J (dystrophic mice), and males (n 12) for C57BL/6 J (control group), originally obtained from the Jackson Laboratory (Maine, USA) and further inbred at IPEN-CNEN/SP (Sao Paulo, Brazil), were used. A significant change was observed in the analysis of the heart of dystrophic mice suggesting that this dysfunction affects severely the heart muscle. These data may, in the future, contribute to the healthcare area, in veterinary medicine and in the pharmaceutical industry allowing the evaluation of the best procedures in diagnosis, treatment and investigations of neuromuscular diseases (muscular dystrophy) of patients through the use of animal models. (author)

  18. Glutathione S-transferases in human renal cortex and neoplastic tissue: enzymatic activity, isoenzyme profile and immunohistochemical localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, V; Benzie, A A; Veitch, J M; Murray, G I; Rowe, J D; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-05-01

    1. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the cytosol of renal cortex and tumours from eight men and eight women was measured using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as a substrate. GST activities ranged from 685 to 2192 nmol/min/mg protein in cortex (median 1213) and from non-detectable (minimum 45) to 2424 nmol/min/mg protein in tumours (median 469). The activities in the tumours were lower than those in the normal cortices (p 0.05). 3. The age of the patients ranged from 42 to 81 years (median 62) and was not found to play a role in the levels of GST activity observed in cortex or in renal tumours from either sex. 4. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that GST-alpha was the predominant form expressed both in normal cortex and tumour and probably accounted for most of the GST activity present in these samples. GST-mu and GST-phi were expressed in both tumours and normal cortex and, while in some cases the level of expression in the cortices was higher than that found in the tumours, the reverse was also observed. Within the GST-mu class, GST M1/M2 was only detected in one sample (tumour), which showed the highest overall expression of GST-mu. GSTM3 was the predominant isoenzyme of the mu class in normal and tumour tissue, whereas GTM4 and GSTM5 were not detected. 5. These differences could have functional significance where xenobiotics or cytotoxic drugs are specific substrates for the different classes of GSTs.

  19. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.

    2010-01-01

    smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared....... Immunohistochemistry was performed as required on the AM sections. Surgical specimens served as the gold standard. Results In 53% of conventional cytologic smears, the cellular yield was sufficient to render a correct diagnosis. In 12% the diagnosis was incorrect, in 21% only a differential diagnosis could be fin......-initiated, and in 14% too few diagnostic cells were present in the conventional smears for cytologic diagnosis. It was, however, possible to correctly diagnose histologic sections from 97% of AM tissue blocks. In 11 cases this was facilitated with immunochemistry. In only 1 case did the AM tissue block contain too few...

  20. DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (papio hamadryas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez Irám

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals. Results We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas. We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284 bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR. Conclusions The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene.

  1. Renal deterioration caused by carcinogens as a consequence of free radical mediated tissue damage: a review of the protective action of melatonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Hicyilmaz, Hicran [Suleyman Demirel University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Isparta (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    This brief review summarizes some of the publications that document the preventive role of melatonin in kidney damage caused by carcinogens such as 2-nitropropane, arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, nitrilotriacetic acid and potassium bromate. Numerous chemicals generate excessive free radicals that eventually induce renal worsening. Melatonin partially or totally prevents free radical mediated tissue damages induced by many carcinogens. Protective actions of melatonin against the harmful effects of carcinogens are believed to stem from its direct free radical scavenging and indirect antioxidant activities. Dietary or pharmacologically given melatonin may attenuate the oxidative stress, thereby mitigating the subsequent renal damage. (orig.)

  2. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Hsu, MD

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  3. Effect of monopolar radiofrequency treatment over soft-tissue fillers in an animal model: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Peter R; England, Laura J; Dover, Jeffrey S; Ross, E Victor; Harford, Robert; Derienzo, Damian; Bogle, Melissa; Uebelhoer, Nathan; Jacoby, Mark; Pope, Karl

    2006-03-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) treatment is used by physicians to heat skin and promote tissue tightening and contouring. Cosmetic fillers are used to soften deep facial lines and wrinkles. Patients who have had dermal fillers implanted may also benefit from or are candidates for monopolar RF skin tightening. This study examined the effect of RF treatment on various dermal filler substances. This is the second part of a two-part study. A juvenile farm pig was injected with dermal fillers including cross-linked human collagen (Cosmoplast), polylactic acid (PLA) (Sculptra), liquid injectable silicone (Silikon 1000), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) (Radiesse), and hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Skin injected with dermal fillers was RF-treated using a 1.5-cm2 treatment tip and treatment levels typically used in the clinical setting. Fillers were examined histologically 5 days, 2 weeks, or 1 month after treatment. Histological specimens were scored for inflammatory response, foreign body response, and fibrosis in order to assess the effect of treatment on early filler processes, such as inflammation and encapsulation. Each filler substance produced a characteristic inflammatory response. No immediate thermal effect of RF treatment was observed histologically. RF treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in the inflammatory, foreign body, and fibrotic responses associated with the filler substances. Monopolar RF treatment levels that are typically used in the clinical setting were employed in this animal study. RF treatment resulted in measurable and statistically significant histological changes associated with the various filler materials. Additional clinical and histological studies are required to determine the optimal timing of monopolar RF treatment and filler placement for maximal potential aesthetic outcome. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Comparison of extraction methods for quantifying vitamin E from animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhimin

    2008-12-01

    Four extraction methods: (1) solvent (SOL), (2) ultrasound assisted solvent (UA), (3) saponification and solvent (SP), and (4) saponification and ultrasound assisted solvent (SP-UA), were used in sample preparation for quantifying vitamin E (tocopherols) in chicken liver and plasma samples. The extraction yields of SOL, UA, SP, and SP-UA methods obtained by adding delta-tocopherol as internal reference were 95%, 104%, 65%, and 62% for liver and 98%, 103%, 97%, and 94% for plasma, respectively. The methods with saponification significantly affected the stabilities of tocopherols in liver samples. The measured values of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols using the solvent only extraction (SOL) method were much lower than that using any of the other extraction methods. This indicated that less of the tocopherols in those samples were in a form that could be extracted directly by solvent. The measured value of alpha-tocopherol in the liver sample using the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method was 1.5-2.5 times of that obtained from the saponification and solvent (SP) method. The differences in measured values of tocopherols in the plasma samples by using the two methods were not significant. However, the measured value of the saponification and ultrasound assisted solvent (SP-UA) method was lower than either the saponification and solvent (SP) or the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method. Also, the reproducibility of the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method was greater than any of the saponification methods. Compared with the traditional saponification method, the ultrasound assisted solvent method could effectively extract tocopherols from sample matrix without any chemical degradation reactions, especially for complex animal tissue such as liver.

  5. First isolation of Dioctophyme renale eggs from an urban environment and identification of those from animal urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliane Carra Perera

    Full Text Available Abstract Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic parasite with worldwide distribution, although its occurrence is little known. The objective here was to evaluate the presence of parasite eggs in the environment and in the urine of dogs and cats in an urban area. Soil samples and urine were evaluated respectively by means of the Caldwell-Caldwell technique and urinalysis. Out of the 100 soil samples, 3% presented D. renale eggs, and out of the 43 urine samples, 18.6% were positive, including the feline samples. Thus, D. renale eggs are present in the urban environment, and dogs and cats are parasitized by this nematode, which therefore represents a risk to public health.

  6. Occurrence of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale in ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua) of the Tiete Ecological Park, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milanelo,Liliane; Moreira,Márcia Bento; Fitorra,Lílian S.; Petri,Bruno S.S.; Alves,Melissa; Santos,Aparecida de Cássia dos

    2009-01-01

    Dioctophymosis is a worldwide renal parasitosis caused by the Dioctophyma renale nematode, which results in progressive destruction of renal tissue. Aquatics annelids are considered the main intermediate hosts and the literature refers as permanent hosts of dogs, wild mammals and even humans. During procedures for population control of coatis (Nasua nasua) in the Ecological Park of Tietê (PET), was noticed the presence of parasitosis by D. renale. From 68 animals, males and females, young and...

  7. Developments in undergraduate teaching of small-animal soft-tissue surgical skills at the University of Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Deepa; McGreevy, Paul D; Zuber, Richard M; Klupiec, Corinna; Baguley, John; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses recent developments in soft-tissue surgery teaching at the University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science. An integrated teaching program was developed for Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) students with the aim of providing them with optimal learning opportunities to meet "Day One" small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies. Didactic lectures and tutorials were introduced earlier into the curriculum to prepare students for live-animal surgery practical. In addition to existing clinics, additional spay/neuter clinics were established in collaboration with animal welfare organizations to increase student exposure to live-animal surgery. A silicon-based, life-like canine ovariohysterectomy model was developed with the assistance of a model-making and special effects company. The model features elastic ovarian pedicles and suspensory ligaments, which can be stretched and broken like those of an actual dog. To monitor the volume and type of student surgical experience, an E-portfolio resource was established. This resource allows for the tracking of numbers of live, student-performed desexing surgeries and incorporates competency-based assessments and reflective tasks to be completed by students. Student feedback on the integrated surgical soft-tissue teaching program was assessed. Respondents were assessed in the fourth year of the degree and will have further opportunities to develop Day One small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies in the fifth year. Ninety-four percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they were motivated to participate in all aspects of the program, while 78% agreed or strongly agreed that they received an adequate opportunity to develop their skills and confidence in ovariohysterectomy or castration procedures through the fourth-year curriculum.

  8. Reinnervation following catheter-based radio-frequency renal denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lindsea C; Nishi, Erika E; Yao, Song T; Ramchandra, Rohit; Lambert, Gavin W; Schlaich, Markus P; May, Clive N

    2015-04-20

    What is the topic of this review? Does catheter-based renal denervation effectively denervate the afferent and efferent renal nerves and does reinnervation occur? What advances does it highlight? Following catheter-based renal denervation, the afferent and efferent responses to electrical stimulation were abolished, renal sympathetic nerve activity was absent, and levels of renal noradrenaline and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and calcitonin gene-related peptide were significantly reduced. By 11 months after renal denervation, both the functional responses and anatomical markers of afferent and efferent renal nerves had returned to normal, indicating reinnervation. Renal denervation reduces blood pressure in animals with experimental hypertension and, recently, catheter-based renal denervation was shown to cause a prolonged decrease in blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. The randomized, sham-controlled Symplicity HTN-3 trial failed to meet its primary efficacy end-point, but there is evidence that renal denervation was incomplete in many patients. Currently, there is little information regarding the effectiveness of catheter-based renal denervation and the extent of reinnervation. We assessed the effectiveness of renal nerve denervation with the Symplicity Flex catheter and the functional and anatomical reinnervation at 5.5 and 11 months postdenervation. In anaesthetized, non-denervated sheep, there was a high level of renal sympathetic nerve activity, and electrical stimulation of the renal nerve increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate (afferent response) and caused renal vasoconstriction and reduced renal blood flow (efferent response). Immediately after renal denervation, renal sympathetic nerve activity and the responses to electrical stimulation were absent, indicating effective denervation. By 11 months after denervation, renal sympathetic nerve activity was present and the responses to electrical stimulation

  9. Occurrence of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale in ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua) of the Tiete Ecological Park, São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência de parasitismo por Dioctophyma renale em quati (Nasua nasua) do Parque Ecológico Tietê, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Liliane Milanelo; Márcia Bento Moreira; Lílian S. Fitorra; Bruno S.S. Petri; Melissa Alves; Aparecida de Cássia dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Dioctophymosis is a worldwide renal parasitosis caused by the Dioctophyma renale nematode, which results in progressive destruction of renal tissue. Aquatics annelids are considered the main intermediate hosts and the literature refers as permanent hosts of dogs, wild mammals and even humans. During procedures for population control of coatis (Nasua nasua) in the Ecological Park of Tietê (PET), was noticed the presence of parasitosis by D. renale. From 68 animals, males and females, young and...

  10. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  11. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  12. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Pain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1 w.w. for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat, some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  13. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J; Cromie, Ruth L; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A; Moran, Annette C; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A; Green, Rhys E

    2010-04-26

    Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1) w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  14. Late effects of intraoperative radiation therapy on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct in a large animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.E.; Kinslla, T.J.; Barnes, M.; DeLuca, A.M.; Terrill, R.; Matthews, D.; Johnstone, P.A.S. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Anderson, W.J. [Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, IN (United States); Bollinger, B.K. [National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The late histopathological effects of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct were investigated in dogs. Fourteen adult foxhounds were subjected to laparotomy and varying doses (0-45 Gy) of IORT (11 MeV electrons) delivered to retroperitoneal tissues including the great vessels and ureters, to a loop of defunctionalized small bowel, or to the extrahepatic bile duct. One control animal received an aortic transection and reanastomosis at the time of laparotomy; another control received laparotomy alone. This paper describes the late effects of single-fraction IORT occurring 3-5 years following treatment. Dogs receiving IORT to the retroperitoneum through a 4 X 15 cm portal showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at 20 Gy. At doses ranging from 30-45 Gy, radiation changes in normal tissues were consistently observed. Retroperitoneal fibrosis with encasement of the ureters and great vessels developed at doses {ge}30 Gy. Radiation changes were present in the aorta and vena cava at doses {ge}40 Gy. A 30 Gy dog developed an in-field malignant osteosarcoma at 3 years which invaded the vertebral column and compressed the spinal cord. A 40 Gy animal developed obstruction of the right ureter with fatal septic hydronephrosis at 4 years. Animals receiving IORT through a 5 cm IORT portal to an upper abdominal field which included a defunctionalized loop of small bowel, showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at a dose of 20 Gy. At 30 Gy, hyaline degeneration of the intestinal muscularis layer of the bowel occurred. At a dose of 45 Gy, internal intestinal fistulae developed. One 30 Gy animal developed right ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis at 5 years. A dog receiving 30 Gy IORT through a 5 cm portal to the extrahepatic bile duct showed diffuse fibrosis through the gastroduodenal ligament. These canine studies contribute to the area of late tissue tolerance to IORT. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Late effects of intraoperative radiation therapy on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct in a large animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.E.; Kinslla, T.J.; Barnes, M.; DeLuca, A.M.; Terrill, R.; Matthews, D.; Johnstone, P.A.S.; Anderson, W.J.; Bollinger, B.K.

    1994-01-01

    The late histopathological effects of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct were investigated in dogs. Fourteen adult foxhounds were subjected to laparotomy and varying doses (0-45 Gy) of IORT (11 MeV electrons) delivered to retroperitoneal tissues including the great vessels and ureters, to a loop of defunctionalized small bowel, or to the extrahepatic bile duct. One control animal received an aortic transection and reanastomosis at the time of laparotomy; another control received laparotomy alone. This paper describes the late effects of single-fraction IORT occurring 3-5 years following treatment. Dogs receiving IORT to the retroperitoneum through a 4 X 15 cm portal showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at 20 Gy. At doses ranging from 30-45 Gy, radiation changes in normal tissues were consistently observed. Retroperitoneal fibrosis with encasement of the ureters and great vessels developed at doses ≥30 Gy. Radiation changes were present in the aorta and vena cava at doses ≥40 Gy. A 30 Gy dog developed an in-field malignant osteosarcoma at 3 years which invaded the vertebral column and compressed the spinal cord. A 40 Gy animal developed obstruction of the right ureter with fatal septic hydronephrosis at 4 years. Animals receiving IORT through a 5 cm IORT portal to an upper abdominal field which included a defunctionalized loop of small bowel, showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at a dose of 20 Gy. At 30 Gy, hyaline degeneration of the intestinal muscularis layer of the bowel occurred. At a dose of 45 Gy, internal intestinal fistulae developed. One 30 Gy animal developed right ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis at 5 years. A dog receiving 30 Gy IORT through a 5 cm portal to the extrahepatic bile duct showed diffuse fibrosis through the gastroduodenal ligament. These canine studies contribute to the area of late tissue tolerance to IORT. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Invited review: Pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development in farm animals: from stem cells to adipocyte physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, I; Perruchot, M-H; Bonnet, M; Gondret, F

    2016-11-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants. In contrast to other tissues, the embryonic origin of adipose cells remains the subject of debate. Adipose cells arise from the recruitment of specific multipotent stem cells/progenitors named adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of a variety of those cells being able to differentiate into white, brown or brown-like/beige adipocytes. After commitment to the adipocyte lineage, progenitors undergo large changes in the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle arrest, lipid accumulation and secretory functions. Early nutrition can affect these processes during fetal and perinatal periods and can also influence or pre-determinate later growth of adipose tissue. How these changes may be related to adipose tissue functional maturity around birth and can influence newborn survival is discussed. Altogether, a better knowledge of fetal and postnatal adipose tissue development is important for various aspects of animal production, including neonatal survival, postnatal growth efficiency and health.

  17. Selected radioisotopes in animal tissues in Nevada: 90Sr and 137Cs measurements from 1956 to 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Andrews, V.E.

    1981-04-01

    Since 1956 the Animal Investigation Program (AIP) has been conducting surveillance of domestic and wild animals on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and assessing the radionuclide burdens present in their tissues and any resulting pathological effects. Other AIP objectives were to investigate alleged dosage to animals, to maintain public information contacts with the off-site population, and to conduct special ad hoc investigations. Most of the radionuclide burden data and the AIP's history and evolution have been published in the annual reports of this program. Additional unpublished data were gleaned from the AIP historical files. This rather substantial body of radiological data has been reviewed and analyzed for trends with time and source of exposure. Because of the volume of data, only a summary has been included in the appendices of this report. The complete data are available in the AIP file for further study

  18. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, G; van Raamsdonk, L W D; Baeten, V; Murray, I; Berben, G; Brambilla, G; von Holst, C

    2003-04-01

    Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed. In addition, recently approved requirements, such as the ban of intra-species recycling (practice of feeding an animal species with proteins derived from the bodies, or parts of bodies, of the same species) are described. In principle, four different approaches are currently applied, i.e. microscopic analysis, polymerase chain reaction, immunoassay analysis and near infrared spectroscopy or microscopy. The principal performance characteristics of these methods are presented and compared, and their specific advantages and disadvantages described. Special emphasis is also placed on the impact of rendering conditions, particularly high temperatures and on the use of molecular biology techniques.

  19. Carbonic Anhydrase IX is Not a Predictor of Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma - A Digital Analysis of Tissue Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zerati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The knowledge about the molecular biology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is evolving, and Carbonic Anhydrase type IX (CA-IX has emerged as a potential prognostic marker in this challenging disease. However, most of the literature about CA-IX on ccRCC comes from series on metastatic cancer, with a lack of series on non-metastatic cancer. The objective is to evaluate the expression of CA-IX in a cohort of non-metastatic ccRCC, correlating with 1 overall survival, and 2 with established prognostic parameters (T stage, tumor size, Fuhrman nuclear grade, microvascular invasion and peri-renal fat invasion. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. We evaluated 95 patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, as to the expression of CA-IX. The analyzed parameters where: overall survival (OS, TNM stage, tumor size (TS, Fuhrman nuclear grade (FNG, microvascular invasion (MVI, peri-renal fat invasion (PFI. We utilized a custom built tissue microarray, and the immunoexpression was digitally quantified using the Photoshop® software. Results: Th e mean follow-up time was 7.9 years (range 1.9 to 19.5 years. The analysis of CA-IX expression against the selected prognostic parameters showed no correlation. The results are as follows: Overall survival (p = 0.790; T stage (p = 0.179; tumor size (p = 0.143; grouped Fuhrman nuclear grade (p = 0.598; microvascular invasion (p = 0.685, and peri-renal fat invasion (p = 0.104. Conclusion Carbonic anhydrase type IX expression does not correlate with overall survival and conventional prognostic parameters in non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  20. Influence of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus on periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review of animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Najeeb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM may adversely affect periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM. The aim of this review is to systematically analyze and review animal studies investigating the effect of DM on periodontal tissues during OTM. An electronic search was conducted via PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CONTROL using the keywords “diabetes,” “orthodontics,” and “tooth movement” for studies published between January 2000 and August 2016. After elimination of duplicate items, the primary search resulted in 89 articles. After exclusion of irrelevant articles on the basis of abstract and title, full texts of 25 articles were read to exclude additional irrelevant studies. Seven animal studies were included in this review for qualitative analysis. When compared to healthy animals, more bone resorption and diminished bone remodeling were observed in diabetic animals in all studies. Furthermore, DM decreased the rate of OTM in one study, but in another study, DM accelerated OTM. DM may adversely affect bone remodeling and tooth movement during application of orthodontic forces. However, a number of potential sources of bias and deficiencies in methodology are present in studies investigating the association between OTM and DM. Hence, more long-term and well-designed studies are required before the exact mechanism and impact of DM on outcomes of orthodontic treatment is understood.

  1. Differentiation of prostate cancer from normal prostate tissue in an animal model: conventional MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemeinhardt, O.; Prochnow, D.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Beyersdorff, D.; Luedemann, L.; Abramjuk, C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to differentiate orthotopically implanted prostate cancer from normal prostate tissue using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Gd-DTPA-BMA-enhanced dynamic MRI in the rat model. Material and methods: tumors were induced in 15 rats by orthotopic implantation of G subline Dunning rat prostatic tumor cells. MRI was performed 56 to 60 days after tumor cell implantation using T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted turbo SE sequences, and a 2D FLASH sequence for the contrast medium based dynamic study. The interstitial leakage volume, normalized permeability and the permeability surface area product of tumor and healthy prostate were determined quantitatively using a pharmacokinetic model. The results were confirmed by histologic examination. Results: axial T2-weighted TSE images depicted low-intensity areas suspicious for tumor in all 15 animals. The mean tumor volume was 46.5 mm3. In the dynamic study, the suspicious areas in all animals displayed faster and more pronounced signal enhancement than surrounding prostate tissue. The interstitial volume and the permeability surface area product of the tumors increased significantly by 420% (p<0.001) and 424% (p<0.001), respectively, compared to normal prostate tissue, while no significant difference was seen for normalized permeability alone. Conclusion: the results of the present study demonstrate that quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI data enables differentiation of small, slowly growing orthotopic prostate cancer from normal prostate tissue in the rat model. (orig.)

  2. New percutaneous ablative modalities in nephron-sparing surgery of small renal tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Riese, Werner T. W.; Nelius, Thomas; Aronoff, David R.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

    2004-07-01

    Renal tumors are increasingly detected on abdominal imaging studies. Standard treatment of small renal tumors includes partial or radical nephrectomy, done either open or laparoscopically. Several in situ ablative techniques to treat small renal lesions are currently in various phases of evolution. All involve imparting destructive energy to the tumor while minimizing injury to adjacent normal tissue. Cryotherapy (CryoT), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFUS) and high-intensity radiation (HIR) are all being evaluated as tools to ablate renal tumors. The goal with these modalities is to minimize the blood loss, tissue manipulation, and morbidity associated with excisional approaches. Animal studies have shown that large, reproducible lesions can be ablated in normal kidney tissue by these new techniques. Studies of human renal tissue response to RFA are just beginning. Ex vivo studies reveal large, reproducible controlled lesions in normal renal tissue, similar to animal studies. In vivo studies have shown no significant toxicity, while efficacy is currently under evaluation. Preliminary clinical studies in humans have revealed that renal tumors are slow to regress after treatment, but about 75% of these small renal tumors appeared well treated. Mixed responses have been observed in the remaining cases. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of these new minimal invasive techniques and their possible clinical implication in the future.

  3. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the kidneys: is shear wave velocity affected by tissue fibrosis or renal blood flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenichiro; Ogata, Ai; Tanaka, Keiko; Ide, Yoko; Sankoda, Akiko; Kawakita, Chieko; Nishikawa, Mana; Ohmori, Kazuyoshi; Kinomura, Masaru; Shimada, Noriaki; Fukushima, Masaki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main influencing factor of the shear wave velocity (SWV) of the kidneys measured by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. The SWV was measured in the kidneys of 14 healthy volunteers and 319 patients with chronic kidney disease. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated by the serum creatinine concentration and age. As an indicator of arteriosclerosis of large vessels, the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured in 183 patients. Compared to the degree of interobserver and intraobserver deviation, a large variance of SWV values was observed in the kidneys of the patients with chronic kidney disease. Shear wave velocity values in the right and left kidneys of each patient correlated well, with high correlation coefficients (r = 0.580-0.732). The SWV decreased concurrently with a decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. A low SWV was obtained in patients with a high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Despite progression of renal fibrosis in the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, these results were in contrast to findings for chronic liver disease, in which progression of hepatic fibrosis results in an increase in the SWV. Considering that a high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity represents the progression of arteriosclerosis in the large vessels, the reduction of elasticity succeeding diminution of blood flow was suspected to be the main influencing factor of the SWV in the kidneys. This study indicates that diminution of blood flow may affect SWV values in the kidneys more than the progression of tissue fibrosis. Future studies for reducing data variance are needed for effective use of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  4. Identification of tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Prior

    Full Text Available To identify tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal-cell-carcinoma (MRCC and to evaluate in vitro their mechanism of action in sunitinib resistance.We screened 673 microRNAs using TaqMan Low-density-Arrays (TLDAs in tumors from MRCC patients with extreme phenotypes of marked efficacy and resistance to sunitinib, selected from an identification cohort (n = 41. The most relevant differentially expressed microRNAs were selected using bioinformatics-based target prediction analysis and quantified by qRT-PCR in tumors from patients presenting similar phenotypes selected from an independent cohort (n = 101. In vitro experiments were conducted to study the role of miR-942 in sunitinib resistance.TLDAs identified 64 microRNAs differentially expressed in the identification cohort. Seven candidates were quantified by qRT-PCR in the independent series. MiR-942 was the most accurate predictor of sunitinib efficacy (p = 0.0074. High expression of miR-942, miR-628-5p, miR-133a, and miR-484 was significantly associated with decreased time to progression and overall survival. These microRNAs were also overexpressed in the sunitinib resistant cell line Caki-2 in comparison with the sensitive cell line. MiR-942 overexpression in Caki-2 up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion which, in turn, promote HBMEC endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance.We identified differentially expressed microRNAs in MRCC patients presenting marked sensitivity or resistance to sunitinib. MiR-942 was the best predictor of efficacy. We describe a novel paracrine mechanism through which high miR-942 levels in MRCC cells up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion to enhance endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance. Our results support further validation of these miRNA in clinical confirmatory studies.

  5. Protocols for the in vitro design of animal articular cartilage based on tissue engineering methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The articular cartilage is the structure that covers the joint ends. It has some specific tasks crucial to the correct joint physiology. It may experience a large amount of injuries that could generate considerable disabilities. Unfortunately its selfrepair capacity is too limited; therefore, many treatments have been developed with partial success, given the suboptimal biomechanical behavior of the resultant tissue. Given that, Tissue Engineering offers an alternative, based on the design of a new tissue with biological and biomechanical features which resembles the native tissue. In this work, the authors describe the methodologies followed to accomplish that goal, studying the chondrocytes harvesting, the cellular cultures, the scaffold seeding processes, the mechanical stimulation and the structural and biomechanical evaluation. Finally, exposed some of the preliminary results, as a experimental validation of the methods proposed are.

  6. Ultrasonic characterization of three animal mammary tumors from three-dimensional acoustic tissue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamou, Jonathan M.

    This dissertation investigated how three-dimensional (3D) tissue models can be used to improve ultrasonic tissue characterization (UTC) techniques. Anatomic sites in tissue responsible for ultrasonic scattering are unknown, which limits the potential applications of ultrasound for tumor diagnosis. Accurate 3D models of tumor tissues may help identify the scattering sites. Three mammary tumors were investigated: a rat fibroadenoma, a mouse carcinoma, and a mouse sarcoma. A 3D acoustic tissue model, termed 3D impedance map (3DZM), was carefully constructed from consecutive histologic sections for each tumor. Spectral estimates (scatterer size and acoustic concentration) were obtained from the 3DZMs and compared to the same estimates obtained with ultrasound. Scatterer size estimates for three tumors were found to be similar (within 10%). The 3DZMs were also used to extract tissue-specific scattering models. The scattering models were found to allow clear distinction between the three tumors. This distinction demonstrated that UTC techniques may be helpful for noninvasive clinical tumor diagnosis.

  7. Low dose X -ray effects on catalase activity in animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focea, R.; Nadejde, C.; Creanga, D.; Luchian, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effect of low-dose X ray-irradiation upon the activity of catalase (CAT) in freshly excised chicken tissues (liver, kidney, brain, muscle). The tissue samples were irradiated with 0.5Gy and 2Gy respectively, in a 6 MV photon beam produced by a clinical linear accelerator (VARIAN CLINAC 2100SC). The dose rate was of 260.88cGy/min. at 100 cm source to sample distance. The catalase level was assayed spectrophotometrically, based on reaction kinetics, using a catalase UV assay kit (SIGMA). Catalase increased activity in various tissue samples exposed to the studied X ray doses (for example with 24 % in the liver cells, pbonds that ensure the specificity of CAT active site) but the resulted balance of the two concurrent processes indicates the cell ability of decomposing the hydrogen peroxide-with benefits for the cell physiology restoration for the chosen low dose radiation.

  8. Proton relaxation relationships of human and animal tissues in vitro. Changes due to autolysis and fixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Schmitt, W.G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The results of measurements of proton relaxation times of various tissues from rats, pigs and humans are reported; these were obtained by a resonance spectroscope at 20 MHz and 40 0 C. There were specific differences in both relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the liver and spleen. There was a difference of more than 150 ms in the longitudinal relaxation time between grey and white cerebral tissue. Autolytic changes show an increase in both relaxation times. Fixation produced a reduction in T 1 only. The significance of these findings for NMR tomography is discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Analysis of DNA vulnerability to damage, repair and degradation in tissues of irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.I.; Ivannik, B.P.

    1982-01-01

    Single-strand and paired ruptures of DNA were found to result in appearance of locally denaturated areas in its secondary structure and to disordered protein-DNA interaction. It was shown with the use of the viscosimeter method of measuring the molecular mass of single stranded high-polymeric DNA that cells of various tissues by the intensity of DNA repair can be divided into two groups, rapid- and slow-repair ones. Tissue specificity of enzyme function of the repair systems and systems responsible for post-irradiation DNA degradation depends on the activity of endonucleases synthesized by the cells both in health and in their irradiation-induced synthesis

  10. Overview of osseous tissue findings from the lifespan carcinogenesis studies: From whole animals to molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.; Jee, W.S.S.; Bruenger, F.B.; Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.

    1991-01-01

    This summary presents some of the findings from the 226 Ra and 239 Pu lifespan carcinogenesis studies in Beagle dogs and discusses these findings relative to the tissue, cellular and molecular biology of osseous tissues. This report attempts to integrate some of the dosimetric and pathological findings with current understanding of the factors that may influence carcinogenesis (and non-carcinogenic pathologies) at the various levels of biological organization. Emphasis is placed on the findings from the 226 Ra study, as this study has recently been completely reviewed and verified

  11. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of marine fish and animals. We analyzed mainly frozen or otherwise preserved marine fish and animals that were purchased in retail network in Slovakia. Mercury content in samples was analyzed by cold vapor AAS with mercury analyser AMA254. The contents of mercury in analysed samples were in the interval 0.0057 – 0,697 mg.kg-1. Our results shows, that no analyzed samples of marine fish and animals had over-limit concetration of Hg, so they are safe for human nutrition.

  12. Characterisation of new monoclonal antibodies reacting with prions from both human and animal brain tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Ohm, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    spongiform encephalopathy (bovine brain), scrapie (ovine brain) and experimental scrapie in hamster and in mice. The antibodies were also used for PET-blotting in which PrPSc blotted from brain tissue sections onto a nitrocellulose membrane is visualized with antibodies after protease and denaturant...

  13. Different Cells Make Different Proteins: A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Tissue-Specific Protein Expression in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Izaskun; Villamarín, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    All the cells of higher organisms have the same DNA but not the same proteins. Each type of specialised cell that forms a tissue has its own pattern of gene expression and, consequently, it contains a particular set of proteins that determine its function. Here, we describe a laboratory exercise addressed to undergraduate students that aims to…

  14. Towards Implantable Body Sensor Networks - Performance of MICS Band Radio Communication in Animal Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppiah Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja; Meratnia, Nirvana; Zhang, Kui; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Reliable wireless communication inside the human body is crucial for the design of implantable body sensor networks (IBSN). The tissues in human body are heterogeneous and have dierent conductivity and permitivity, which make the modeling of the wireless channel challenging. The design of upper

  15. Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna C; Gonzalez, Laura L; Pollock, John A

    2012-03-01

    Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made

  16. Review of Research Projects on Qualitative and Quantitative Effects of Radiation on Haematopoietic Tissue in Man and Experimental Animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilberg, A. W. [Division of Radiological Health, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1967-07-15

    By way of introduction to a review of Research Projects of the Division of Radiological Health concerned with effects of radiation on the haematopoietic tissue in man and the experimental animal, I should like first to discuss briefly the organization of research. Our research is organized into three major disciplines: (1) Epidemiology, (2) Radiation biology, and (3) Environmental sciences. Briefly, epidemiology is concerned with studies, of populations and effects of radiation in.man; radiation biology is concerned with effects in the experimental animal under controlled situations and also concerned with basic research in cellular and sub-cellular effects; and environmental science is concerned with transport mechanisms in the biosphere and how these mechanisms may operate and be interrupted to reduce radiation hazard to man.

  17. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Bajčan; Július Árvay; Janette Musilová

    2013-01-01

    Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of ...

  18. Detection of free and covalently bound microcystins in animal tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffling, Milla-Riina; Lance, Emilie; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2010-03-01

    Microcystins are cyanobacterial hepatotoxins capable of accumulation into animal tissues. The toxins act by inhibiting specific protein phosphatases and both non-covalent and covalent interactions occur. The 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB) method determines the total, i.e. the sum of free and protein-bound microcystin in tissues. The aim of the method development in this paper was to tackle the problems with the MMPB methodology: the rather laborious workflow and the loss of material during different steps of the method. In the optimised workflow the oxidation recovery was of acceptable level (29-40%), the extraction efficiency good (62-97%), but the signal suppression effect from the matrix remained severe in our system (16-37% signal left). The extraction efficiency for the determination of the free, extractable microcystins, was found to be good, 52-100%, depending on the sample and the toxin variant and concentration. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermotolerance: recent studies on animal tissue of relevance to clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Law, M.P.; Ahier, R.G.; Morris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The induction of thermotolerance by various priming heat treatments has been mesured in the skin, intestine and cartilage of rodents. Both the magnitude and time of occurrence of thermotolerance were different in the three tissues. For each tissue, as the priming treatment was reduced, the maximum thermotolerance was also reduced and it occurred earlier. Maximal thermotolerance induced by a single heat treatment was not further increased by subsequent treatment. The time course of thermotolerance after a two priming treatment was identical to that after one. Tolerance to heat used to enhance damage by x-rays was induced in skin providing the combined treatment was heat immediately followed by radiation. The magnitude of this form of thermotolerance was much less than for direct heat damage. If radiation was given first in a combined treatment, no thermal tolerance was observed. These results are consistent with the response of skin to fractionated combined heat and x-ray treatments

  20. Detecting plant silica fibres in animal tissue by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, M J; Smith, R J; van Blaaderen, A; Crafton, T; O'Neill, C H

    1994-04-01

    Silica fibres from the inflorescence bracts of the grass Phalaris canariensis L. cause dermatitis, and have been implicated in the aetiology of oesophageal cancer in northeastern Iran. Here we describe a method for labelling these fibres so that they can be located in mammalian tissue. Fluorescein was covalently linked to isolated, purified fibres with the silane coupling agent 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The labelled hairs were then rubbed into the backs of mice. These were later killed and their skin fixed, stained and sliced at a thickness of 250 microns. A confocal laser scanning microscope gave brilliant images of the fibres at any depth up to 100 microns or more beneath the surface of the slice. Fibres penetrated deeply into the dermis. Several cubic millimetres of tissue could be surveyed in 1 h. The number of fibres present was approximately 2 mm-3 initially, falling to 0.1 mm-3 after 7 days.

  1. Low dose X –ray effects on catalase activity in animal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focea, R; Nadejde, C; Creanga, D; Luchian, T

    2012-01-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effect of low-dose X ray-irradiation upon the activity of catalase (CAT) in freshly excised chicken tissues (liver, kidney, brain, muscle). The tissue samples were irradiated with 0.5Gy and 2Gy respectively, in a 6 MV photon beam produced by a clinical linear accelerator (VARIAN CLINAC 2100SC). The dose rate was of 260.88cGy/min. at 100 cm source to sample distance. The catalase level was assayed spectrophotometrically, based on reaction kinetics, using a catalase UV assay kit (SIGMA). Catalase increased activity in various tissue samples exposed to the studied X ray doses (for example with 24 % in the liver cells, p<0.05) suggested the stimulation of the antioxidant enzyme biosynthesis within several hours after exposure at doses of 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy; the putative enzyme inactivation could also occur (due to the injuries on the hydrogen bonds that ensure the specificity of CAT active site) but the resulted balance of the two concurrent processes indicates the cell ability of decomposing the hydrogen peroxide-with benefits for the cell physiology restoration for the chosen low dose radiation.

  2. Determination of vitamin B6 bioavailability in animal tissues using intrinsic and extrinsic labeling in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ink, S.L.; Gregory, J.F. III; Sartain, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in liver and muscle was examined by radioisotopic enrichment of these tissues. Rats were fed a single gelled test meal containing rat liver or muscle intrinsically enriched by vascular perfusion with [ 3 H]vitamin B 6 or a gelled test meal containing [ 3 H]pyridoxine (PN). Diets were extrinsically enriched with [ 14 C]PN to permit a direct comparison of enrichment methods. Absorption and metabolism were examined by analysis of tissues and excreta 24 h after the test meal had been consumed. The bioavailability of [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers in the raw tissues was equivalent to that of [ 3 H]PN in controls. Thermal processing of the tissues (121 0 C, 45 min) induced destruction of 25-30% of the [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers and weakly reduced (≤10%) the utilization of the remaining[ 3 H]B 6 vitamers. The presence of monosodium glutamate (MSG) during thermal processing did not alter the results. The utilization of [ 14 C]PN was unaffected by diet composition. These data demonstrate the high bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in animal-derived foods and support the use of isotopic enrichment methods as an alternative to conventional bioassay procedures

  3. Multiplexed color-coded probe-based gene expression assessment for clinical molecular diagnostics in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human renal allograft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Benjamin; Afzali, Bahman; Dominy, Katherine M; Chapman, Erin; Gill, Reeda; Hidalgo, Luis G; Roufosse, Candice; Sis, Banu; Mengel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Histopathologic diagnoses in transplantation can be improved with molecular testing. Preferably, molecular diagnostics should fit into standard-of-care workflows for transplant biopsies, that is, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) processing. The NanoString(®) gene expression platform has recently been shown to work with FFPE samples. We aimed to evaluate its methodological robustness and feasibility for gene expression studies in human FFPE renal allograft samples. A literature-derived antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) 34-gene set, comprised of endothelial, NK cell, and inflammation transcripts, was analyzed in different retrospective biopsy cohorts and showed potential to molecularly discriminate ABMR cases, including FFPE samples. NanoString(®) results were reproducible across a range of RNA input quantities (r = 0.998), with different operators (r = 0.998), and between different reagent lots (r = 0.983). There was moderate correlation between NanoString(®) with FFPE tissue and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with corresponding dedicated fresh-stabilized tissue (r = 0.487). Better overall correlation with histology was observed with NanoString(®) (r = 0.354) than with qRT-PCR (r = 0.146). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of multiplexed gene expression quantification from FFPE renal allograft tissue. This represents a method for prospective and retrospective validation of molecular diagnostics and its adoption in clinical transplantation pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, W.S., E-mail: fernandez@usp.br [Graduate Program in Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g{sup −1} for Fe to 7 μg g{sup −1} for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  5. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, W. S.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g-1 for Fe to 7 μg g-1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA).

  6. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, W.S.; Dias, J.F.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g −1 for Fe to 7 μg g −1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  7. Determination of tylosin residues in different animal tissues by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, C; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-01-05

    A HPLC method to determine and quantify tylosin residues from calves, pigs and poultry is reported. This procedure permitted tylosin to be separated from muscle, liver, kidney and fat after a simple extraction with chloroform or ethyl acetate under basic conditions. The analytical methodology showed a high specificity and sensitivity and an adequate precision and accuracy with a limit of quantification of 50 microg/kg. Eight calves were administered 20 mg/kg/day of tylosin for 5 days and slaughtered at 7 and 14 days post-administration. Results showed that at the 14th day tylosin levels were lower than the MRL in all target tissues.

  8. Evaluation of multimodality imaging using image fusion with ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, P M; Zengel, P; Cyran, C C; Ingrisch, M; Nikolaou, K; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging by comparison to multimodality imaging using image fusion with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional grey scale imaging with additional elasticity-ultrasound in an experimental small-animal-squamous-cell carcinoma-model for the assessment of tissue morphology. Human hypopharynx carcinoma cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flank of 12 female athymic nude rats. After 10 days (SD ± 2) of subcutaneous tumor growth, sonographic grey scale including elasticity imaging and MRI measurements were performed using a high-end ultrasound system and a 3T MR. For image fusion the contrast-enhanced MRI DICOM data set was uploaded in the ultrasonic device which has a magnetic field generator, a linear array transducer (6-15 MHz) and a dedicated software package (GE Logic E9), that can detect transducers by means of a positioning system. Conventional grey scale and elasticity imaging were integrated in the image fusion examination. After successful registration and image fusion the registered MR-images were simultaneously shown with the respective ultrasound sectional plane. Data evaluation was performed using the digitally stored video sequence data sets by two experienced radiologist using a modified Tsukuba Elasticity score. The colors "red and green" are assigned for an area of soft tissue, "blue" indicates hard tissue. In all cases a successful image fusion and plan registration with MRI and ultrasound imaging including grey scale and elasticity imaging was possible. The mean tumor volume based on caliper measurements in 3 dimensions was ~323 mm3. 4/12 rats were evaluated with Score I, 5/12 rates were evaluated with Score II, 3/12 rates were evaluated with Score III. There was a close correlation in the fused MRI with existing small necrosis in the tumor. None of the scored II or III lesions was visible by conventional grey scale. The comparison of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging enables a

  9. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pistello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  10. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  11. Mycotoxins in animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada 1975 to 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M G

    1981-01-01

    Results of analyses of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone were most frequently requested. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 474 specimens at a level of 60 ppb in a sample of hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in four of 148 specimens of grains and two of 19 specimens of corn at levels up to 500 ppb. Trichothecenes were qualitatively found in two of 108 specimens of forage, three of 182 specimens of feeds and one of 148 specimens of grains. Ergot was detected qualitatively in three specimens of rye and one of forage. An overall detection rate of 3.8% of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occasionally occur in farm livestock or poultry. PMID:6455187

  12. DNA Amplification Techniques for the Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Tissue Cysts in Meat Producing Animals: A Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq RIAZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite, which infects one-third population of world. Humans and animals acquire infection by ingesting oocytes from feces of cats or by meat of other animals having cysts that may lead to congenital, ocular or cephalic toxoplasmosis. Either it is important to detect T. gondii from meat of food animals from retail shops or directly at slaughterhouses, which is meant for export.Methods: The current research was done without time limitation using such terms as follows: “Toxoplasma gondii”, “Meat”, “Tissue cyst”, “PCR”, “LAMP”, “Screening” and “Immunological assay” alone or in combination, in English language. The used electronic databases for searching included as follows: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct. The searches were limited to the published papers to English language.Results: Sensitivity of different molecular techniques for diagnosis of Toxoplasma is real-time PCR > LAMP > conventional PCR. In addition to these DNA analysis tools, bioassay in mice and cats is considered as “gold standard” to detect T. gondii. Conclusion: This review article will help the readers for grasping advantages and limitations of different diagnostic tools for screening meat samples for T. gondii. This review also makes bibliography about the type of meat sample to be processed for diagnosis and different primers or sequences to be targeted for T. gondii by number of researches for its detection from meat or tissue sample using DNA amplification techniques.

  13. Characterization of New Zealand White Rabbit Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues and Use as Viral Oncology Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Robyn A; Urbiztondo, Rebeccah A; Haynes, Rashade A H; Simpson, Elaine; Niewiesk, Stefan; Lairmore, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have served as a valuable animal model for the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including those related to agents that gain entry through the gastrointestinal tract such as human T cell leukemia virus type 1. However, limited information is available regarding the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of major rabbit leukocyte populations in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Herein, we describe the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of leukocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) from 12-week-old New Zealand White rabbits. Our data indicate that rabbits have similar distribution of leukocyte subsets as humans, both in the GALT inductive and effector sites and in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and peripheral blood. GALT inductive sites, including appendix, cecal tonsil, Peyer's patches, and ileocecal plaque, had variable B cell/T cell ratios (ranging from 4.0 to 0.8) with a predominance of CD4 T cells within the T cell population in all four tissues. Intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments contained mostly T cells, with CD4 T cells predominating in the lamina propria compartment and CD8 T cells predominating in the intraepithelial compartment. Mesenteric lymph node, peripheral blood, and splenic samples contained approximately equal percentages of B cells and T cells, with a high proportion of CD4 T cells compared with CD8 T cells. Collectively, our data indicate that New Zealand White rabbits are comparable with humans throughout their GALT and support future studies that use the rabbit model to study human gut-associated disease or infectious agents that gain entry by the oral route. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Detection of free and covalently bound microcystins in animal tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neffling, Milla-Riina; Lance, Emilie; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Microcystins are cyanobacterial hepatotoxins capable of accumulation into animal tissues. The toxins act by inhibiting specific protein phosphatases and both non-covalent and covalent interactions occur. The 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB) method determines the total, i.e. the sum of free and protein-bound microcystin in tissues. The aim of the method development in this paper was to tackle the problems with the MMPB methodology: the rather laborious workflow and the loss of material during different steps of the method. In the optimised workflow the oxidation recovery was of acceptable level (29-40%), the extraction efficiency good (62-97%), but the signal suppression effect from the matrix remained severe in our system (16-37% signal left). The extraction efficiency for the determination of the free, extractable microcystins, was found to be good, 52-100%, depending on the sample and the toxin variant and concentration. - The study concerns method development for the LC-MS-MS analysis of both free and protein-bound microcystin in tissue materials.

  15. Detection of free and covalently bound microcystins in animal tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neffling, Milla-Riina, E-mail: mneffling@gmail.co [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6 A, Biocity 3rd floor, FI-20520, Turku (Finland); Lance, Emilie [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, University of Rennes 1, Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042, Rennes Cedex (France); Meriluoto, Jussi [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6 A, Biocity 3rd floor, FI-20520, Turku (Finland)

    2010-03-15

    Microcystins are cyanobacterial hepatotoxins capable of accumulation into animal tissues. The toxins act by inhibiting specific protein phosphatases and both non-covalent and covalent interactions occur. The 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB) method determines the total, i.e. the sum of free and protein-bound microcystin in tissues. The aim of the method development in this paper was to tackle the problems with the MMPB methodology: the rather laborious workflow and the loss of material during different steps of the method. In the optimised workflow the oxidation recovery was of acceptable level (29-40%), the extraction efficiency good (62-97%), but the signal suppression effect from the matrix remained severe in our system (16-37% signal left). The extraction efficiency for the determination of the free, extractable microcystins, was found to be good, 52-100%, depending on the sample and the toxin variant and concentration. - The study concerns method development for the LC-MS-MS analysis of both free and protein-bound microcystin in tissue materials.

  16. Tissue gadolinium deposition in renally impaired rats exposed to different gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents: evaluation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Kanki, Akihiko; Watanabe, Shigeru; Nishimura, Hirotake; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higashi, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Akira

    2013-10-01

    To quantify tissue gadolinium (Gd) deposition in renally impaired rats exposed to Gd-EOB-DTPA and other Gd-based MRI contrast agents by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and to compare the differences in distribution among major organs as possible triggers for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). A total of 15 renally impaired rats were injected with Gd-EOB-DTPA, Gd-DTPA-BMA and Gd-HP-DO3A. Gd contents of skin, liver, kidney, lung, heart, spleen, diaphragm and femoral muscle were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Histological assessment was also conducted. Tissue Gd deposition in all organs was significantly higher (P=0.005~0.009) in the Gd-DTPA-BMA group than in the Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-EOB-DTPA groups. In the Gd-DTPA-BMA group, Gd was predominantly deposited in kidney (1306±605.7μg/g), followed by skin, liver, lung, spleen, femoral muscle, diaphragm and heart. Comparing Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-EOB-DTPA groups, Gd depositions in the kidney, liver and lung were significantly lower (P=0.009~0.011) in the Gd-EOB-DTPA group than in the Gd-HP-DO3A group although no significant differences were seen for any other organs. Gd-EOB-DTPA is a stable and safe Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA) showing lower Gd deposition in major organs in renally impaired rats, compared with other GBCAs. This fact suggests that the risk of NSF onset would be low in the use of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. TU-FG-BRB-01: Dual Energy CT Proton Stopping Power Ratio Calibration and Validation with Animal Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y; Yin, L; Ainsley, C; McDonough, J; Solberg, T; Lin, A; Teo, B [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The conversion of Hounsfield Unit (HU) to proton stopping power ratio (SPR) is a main source of uncertainty in proton therapy. In this study, the SPRs of animal tissues were measured and compared with prediction from dual energy CT (DECT) and single energy CT (SECT) calibrations. Methods: A stoichiometric calibration method for DECT was applied to predict the SPR using CT images acquired at 80 kVp and 140 kVp. The dual energy index was derived based on the HUs of the paired spectral images and used to calculate the SPRs of the materials. Tissue surrogates with known chemical compositions were used for calibration, and animal tissues (pig brain, liver, kidney; veal shank, muscle) were used for validation. The materials were irradiated with proton pencil beams, and SPRs were deduced from the residual proton range measured using a multi-layer ion chamber device. In addition, Gafchromic EBT3 films were used to measure the distal dose profiles after irradiation through the tissue samples and compared with those calculated by the treatment planning system using both DECT and SECT predicted SPRs. Results: The differences in SPR between DECT prediction and measurement were −0.31±0.36% for bone, 0.47±0.42% for brain, 0.67±0.15% for liver, 0.51±0.52% for kidney, and −0.96±0.15% for muscle. The corresponding results using SECT were 3.1±0.12%, 1.90±0.45%, −0.66±0.11%, 2.33±0.21%, and −1.70±0.17%. In the film measurements, average distances between film and calculated distal dose profiles were 0.35±0.12 mm for DECT calibration and −1.22±0.12 mm for SECT calibration for a beam with a range of 15.79 cm. Conclusion: Our study indicates that DECT is superior to SECT for proton SPR prediction and has the potential to reduce the range uncertainty to less than 2%. DECT may permit the use of tighter distal and proximal range uncertainty margins for treatment, thereby increasing the precision of proton therapy.

  18. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  19. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevtic, V.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination

  20. CD47 regulates renal tubular epithelial cell self-renewal and proliferation following renal ischemia reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Natasha M; Zhang, Zheng J; Wang, Jiao-Jing; Thomson, Angus W; Isenberg, Jeffrey S

    2016-08-01

    Defects in renal tubular epithelial cell repair contribute to renal ischemia reperfusion injury, cause acute kidney damage, and promote chronic renal disease. The matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 and its receptor CD47 are involved in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury, although the role of this interaction in renal recovery is unknown. We found upregulation of self-renewal genes (transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc) in the kidney of CD47(-/-) mice after ischemia reperfusion injury. Wild-type animals had minimal self-renewal gene expression, both before and after injury. Suggestive of cell autonomy, CD47(-/-) renal tubular epithelial cells were found to increase expression of the self-renewal genes. This correlated with enhanced proliferative capacity compared with cells from wild-type mice. Exogenous thrombospondin-1 inhibited self-renewal gene expression in renal tubular epithelial cells from wild-type but not CD47(-/-) mice, and this was associated with decreased proliferation. Treatment of renal tubular epithelial cells with a CD47 blocking antibody or CD47-targeting small interfering RNA increased expression of some self-renewal transcription factors and promoted cell proliferation. In a syngeneic kidney transplant model, treatment with a CD47 blocking antibody increased self-renewal transcription factor expression, decreased tissue damage, and improved renal function compared with that in control mice. Thus, thrombospondin-1 via CD47 inhibits renal tubular epithelial cell recovery after ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibition of proliferation/self-renewal. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace residue analysis of dicyandiamide, cyromazine, and melamine in animal tissue foods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xusheng Ge

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective sample preparation procedure using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE procedure, followed by cleaning with melamine molecularly imprinted polymers solid-phase extraction (MISPE was developed. A novel and highly sensitive ASE–MISPE–ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC method was developed for effective separation and simultaneous determination of dicyandiamide (DCD, cyromazine (CYR, and melamine (MEL in complex animal tissue foods. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved with a correlation coefficient (r of 0.9999 in the range of at least two orders of magnitude. The limit of quantification of the method was 1.7 μg/kg, 5.0 μg/kg, and 3.2 μg/kg for DCD, MEL, and CYR, which was three orders of magnitude smaller than the maximum residue limits (MRLs. The intra- and inter-day precisions (in terms of the relative standard deviation, RSD of the three analytes were in the range of 1.7–3.1% and 3.1–6.3%, respectively. The average recoveries of analytes from blank chicken, beef, mutton, pork, and pig liver samples spiked with the three levels varied from 91.2% to 107% with RSD of 1.7–8.3% for DCD, 89.0–104% with RSD of 2.1–6.1% for CYR, and 94.8–105% with RSD of 1.1–6.6% for MEL. The proposed method has the characteristics of speed, sensitivity, and accuracy, and can be used for the routine determination of DCD, CYR, and MEL at the μg/kg level in complex animal tissue foods.

  2. Metal metabolism in laboratory animals and human tissues as investigated by neutron activation analysis: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.; Marafante, E.

    1982-01-01

    The definition of dose-response relationships in man is the essential requisite to set scientifically health protection standards for the evaluation of a safe level exposure of humans to heavy metals. The derivation of these relationships requires sequential multidisciplinary informations including data on metabolic patterns and biochemical effects in mammals. Unfortunately, sufficient data are not available to establish dose-response curves expecially in long term-low level exposure conditions and a need exists to gather such informations for each metal on absorption, distribution and excretion in laboratory animals and humans. This paper: (1) discuss main problems related to the use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in metallobiochemistry of present levels of trace elements; (2) report data on the current applications of NAA in metallobiochemistry in relation to the work carried out in the context of a project Heavy Metal Pollution of CEC JRC - Ispra. Applications deal with in vivo studies on laboratory animals, in vitro studies on biochemical systems and experiments on tissues of human origin; (3) discuss the perspectives of the use of the nuclear techniques in the environmental toxicology. (author)

  3. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  4. Proteomic Profiles of Adipose and Liver Tissues from an Animal Model of Metabolic Syndrome Fed Purple Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M Ayoub

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder that predisposes an individual to Cardiovascular Diseases and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Proteomics and bioinformatics have proven to be an effective tool to study complex diseases and mechanisms of action of nutrients. We previously showed that substitution of the majority of carbohydrate in a high fat diet by purple potatoes (PP or purple carrots (PC improved insulin sensitivity and hypertension in an animal model of MetS (obese Zucker rats compared to a control sucrose-rich diet. In the current study, we used TMT 10plex mass tag combined with LC-MS/MS technique to study proteomic modulation in the liver (n = 3 samples/diet and adipose tissue (n = 3 samples/diet of high fat diet-fed rats with or without substituting sucrose for purple vegetables, followed by functional enrichment analysis, in an attempt to elucidate potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic changes seen with purple vegetable feeding. Protein folding, lipid metabolism and cholesterol efflux were identified as the main modulated biological themes in adipose tissue, whereas lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress were the main modulated themes in liver. We propose that enhanced protein folding, increased cholesterol efflux and higher free fatty acid (FFA re-esterification are mechanisms by which PP and PC positively modulate MetS pathologies in adipose tissue, whereas, decreased de novo lipogenesis, oxidative stress and FFA uptake, are responsible for the beneficial effects in liver. In conclusion, we provide molecular evidence for the reported metabolic health benefits of purple carrots and potatoes and validate that these vegetables are good choices to replace other simple carbohydrate sources for better metabolic health.

  5. Renal morphology of Bradypus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Kastein Faria da Cunha Bianchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the Xenarthras, sloths present a hydric ingestion restricted to water from leaves, fruits, and vegetables. As a first approach to verify whether these animals have some morphophysiological difference which could justify or compensate this low hydric ingestion, the renal anatomy of these animals was investigated, particularly that of maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus. Kidneys from these animals were macroscopically analyzed, through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Bradypus torquatus kidneys are bean-shaped paired organs, located dorso-cranially to the pelvic girdle, between the peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall. The use of histological techniques allowed us to identify, in the cortical region, the renal corpuscles and tubules, and, in the medullary region, a significant amount of interstitial tissue with a collecting duct. The results of this study showed that, although Bradypus torquatus doesn’t drink water directly, its kidneys doesn’t differ from that of most mammals, presenting the same anatomical structure, suggesting that these animals fully reach their hydric needs, basically by consuming leaves, fruits, and sprouts. Nevertheless, in order to confirm this hypothesis, studies on the effectiveness of water reabsorption, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, must be carried out.

  6. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  7. Prognostic implication of p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 expression in renal cell carcinoma: a tissue microarray study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Facheng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p27Kip1 plays a major role as a negative regulator of the cell cycle. The regulation of p27Kip1 degradation is mediated by its specific ubiquitin ligase subunits S-phase kinase protein (Skp 2 and cyclin-dependent kinase subunit (Cks 1. However, little is known regarding the prognostic utility of p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 expression in renal cell carcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed for p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 in tissue microarrays of 482 renal cell carcinomas with follow-up. The data were correlated with clinicopathological features. The univariate and multivariate survival analyses were also performed to determine their prognostic significance. Results Immunoreactivity of p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 was noted in 357, 71 and 82 patients, respectively. Skp2 and Cks1 expression were not noted in chromophobe cancers. A strong correlation was found between Skp2 and Cks1 expression (P Kip1 levels (P = 0.006 and P Kip1 expression and Skp2 expression were correlated with larger tumor size and higher stage, as well as tumor necrosis. Cks1 expression was only correlated with tumor size. In univariate analysis, low p27Kip1 expression, Skp2 and Cks1 expression were all associated with a poor prognosis, while in multivariate analysis, only low p27Kip1 expression were independent prognostic factors for both cancer specific survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with RCC. Conclusion Our results suggest that immunohistochemical expression levels of p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 may serve as markers with prognostic value in renal cell carcinoma.

  8. A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of 1-L infusions of 6% hydroxyethyl starch suspended in 0.9% saline (voluven) and a balanced solution (Plasma Volume Redibag) on blood volume, renal blood flow velocity, and renal cortical tissue perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Cox, Eleanor F; Francis, Susan T; Lobo, Dileep N

    2014-05-01

    We compared the effects of intravenous administration of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (maize-derived) in 0.9% saline (Voluven; Fresenius Kabi, Runcorn, United Kingdom) and a "balanced" preparation of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (potato-derived) [Plasma Volume Redibag (PVR); Baxter Healthcare, Thetford, United Kingdom] on renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion in humans using magnetic resonance imaging. Hyperchloremia resulting from 0.9% saline infusion may adversely affect renal hemodynamics when compared with balanced crystalloids. This phenomenon has not been studied with colloids. Twelve healthy adult male subjects received 1-L intravenous infusions of Voluven or PVR over 30 minutes in a randomized, double-blind manner, with crossover studies 7 to 10 days later. Magnetic resonance imaging proceeded for 60 minutes after commencement of infusion to measure renal artery blood flow velocity and renal cortical perfusion. Blood was sampled, and weight was recorded at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. Mean peak serum chloride concentrations were 108 and 106 mmol/L, respectively, after Voluven and PVR infusion (P = 0.032). Changes in blood volume (P = 0.867), strong ion difference (P = 0.219), and mean renal artery flow velocity (P = 0.319) were similar. However, there was a significant increase in mean renal cortical tissue perfusion after PVR when compared with Voluven (P = 0.033). There was no difference in urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated liopcalin to creatinine ratios after the infusion (P = 0.164). There was no difference in the blood volume-expanding properties of the 2 preparations of 6% hydroxyethyl starch. The balanced starch produced an increase in renal cortical tissue perfusion, a phenomenon not seen with starch in 0.9% saline.

  9. Acceleration of vascularized bone tissue-engineered constructs in a large animal model combining intrinsic and extrinsic vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Annika; Beier, Justus P; Hess, Andreas; Gerber, Thomas; Arkudas, Andreas; Horch, Raymund E; Boos, Anja M

    2015-05-01

    During the last decades, a range of excellent and promising strategies in Bone Tissue Engineering have been developed. However, the remaining major problem is the lack of vascularization. In this study, extrinsic and intrinsic vascularization strategies were combined for acceleration of vascularization. For optimal biomechanical stability of the defect site and simplifying future transition into clinical application, a primary stable and approved nanostructured bone substitute in clinically relevant size was used. An arteriovenous (AV) loop was microsurgically created in sheep and implanted, together with the bone substitute, in either perforated titanium chambers (intrinsic/extrinsic) for different time intervals of up to 18 weeks or isolated Teflon(®) chambers (intrinsic) for 18 weeks. Over time, magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography (CT) analyses illustrate the dense vascularization arising from the AV loop. The bone substitute was completely interspersed with newly formed tissue after 12 weeks of intrinsic/extrinsic vascularization and after 18 weeks of intrinsic/extrinsic and intrinsic vascularization. Successful matrix change from an inorganic to an organic scaffold could be demonstrated in vascularized areas with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Using the intrinsic vascularization method only, the degradation of the scaffold and osteoclastic activity was significantly lower after 18 weeks, compared with 12 and 18 weeks in the combined intrinsic-extrinsic model. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in bone tissue formation over time, without a difference between intrinsic/extrinsic and intrinsic vascularization after 18 weeks. This study presents the combination of extrinsic and intrinsic vascularization strategies for the generation of an axially vascularized bone substitute in clinically relevant size using a large animal model. The additional extrinsic vascularization promotes tissue

  10. Expression of somatostatin receptors subtype 2 and 5 in extraocular muscle tissue of hypothyroidism animal induced by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangdu; Chu Qiaomei; Xu Peikang; Yao Xiaohong; Shen Jiangfan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the expression and distribution of somatostatin receptors 2 and 5 (SSTR2, 5) in extraocular muscle in hypothyroidism and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) Wister rats induced by 131 I. Methods: 20 Wister rats were randomly divided into experimental group and normal group(group D). According to 131 I doses of intraperitoneal injection, the experimental groups were divided into low (group A), middle (group B) and high dose group (group C). After 8 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and orbital tissue sections were applied to HE staining and Immunohistochemistry for the analysis of rat orbital tissue changes and SSTR2 and 5 distribution in extraocular muscle. Results: The serum FT 4 levels in group A (16.98±2.92 pmol / L), group B (1.84±0.44 pmol / L) and group C (1.35 ±0.37 pmol /L) eight weeks after 131 I injection were decreased, and had significant difference compared with group D (P 4 levels in group B and C were significantly lower than that in group A (P 0.05). Orbital tissue in experimental group showed mucoid degeneration and edema, the extent was about 25% in group A, 50% in group B, 70% in group C. The rats in group B and group C appeared obvious proliferation of fibrous and adipose tissue, muscle fibers degeneration fracture, even extraocular muscles in group C have vacuole formation. Immunohistochemical analysis displayed highest SSTR5 distribution and strongest expression was in extraocular muscle of group C, second in A B combination group (A and B groups)and weakest in group D. There were significant differences between A B combination group,group C and group D (P 0.05). Conclusion: This study observed the distribution and expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5 in extraocular muscle on the established hypothyroidism animal model. It is some significance for understanding the mechanism of somatostatin receptors in occurrence and development of TAO, similar to provide a reference for the use of somatostatin analogue orbital imaging

  11. * Ethical Issues in the Use of Animal Models for Tissue Engineering: Reflections on Legal Aspects, Moral Theory, Three Rs Strategies, and Harm-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Gabriel R; Jeronimus, Bertus F; de Aquinas Liguori, Tácia T; Moreira, Luiz Felipe P; Harmsen, Martin C

    2017-12-01

    Animal experimentation requires a solid and rational moral foundation. Objective and emphatic decision-making and protocol evaluation by researchers and ethics committees remain a difficult and sensitive matter. This article presents three perspectives that facilitate a consideration of the minimally acceptable standard for animal experiments, in particular, in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine. First, we review the boundaries provided by law and public opinion in America and Europe. Second, we review contemporary moral theory to introduce the Neo-Rawlsian contractarian theory to objectively evaluate the ethics of animal experiments. Third, we introduce the importance of available reduction, replacement, and refinement strategies, which should be accounted for in moral decision-making and protocol evaluation of animal experiments. The three perspectives are integrated into an algorithmic and graphic harm-benefit analysis tool based on the most relevant aspects of animal models in TE. We conclude with a consideration of future avenues to improve animal experiments.

  12. Quantitative measurement of essential and not essential metals in muscular, hepatic and renal tissue of horses by means of PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzan, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M. E-mail: mdepoli@lnl.infn.it; Giaccone, V.; Moschini, G.; Novelli, E.; Olabanji, S.O.; Passi, P.; Tepedino, V

    2004-06-01

    Nowadays, the food safety and the related health risks for humans are a major issue. It has become a priority to ensure the health and well-being of the population through the better scientific understanding of the food intake influence. A frequently found harmful feature of human diet is the simultaneous presence in food stuff of both essential and toxic elements. A significant example of this situation is represented by horse meat. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the elemental content of muscular, hepatic and renal tissues of horses bred in different countries of the East of Europe and slaughtered in Italy. The studied population consisted of about 100 individuals; the sampling period, coinciding with the highest market request, was extended from November to March. Freeze dried tissues were pelletized and carbon coated prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at the AN2000 van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN-National Laboratories of Legnaro. The accuracy of the results was verified using certified standard reference materials prepared and measured in the same experimental conditions. Results have highlighted the noble nutritional values of horse muscular tissue in terms of iron, zinc and calcium content. Cadmium was staidly identified in horse kidneys, with an average concentration of 257 {mu}g/g on dried matter, while in liver it was sporadically present.

  13. Quantitative measurement of essential and not essential metals in muscular, hepatic and renal tissue of horses by means of PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzan, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M.; Giaccone, V.; Moschini, G.; Novelli, E.; Olabanji, S.O.; Passi, P.; Tepedino, V.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the food safety and the related health risks for humans are a major issue. It has become a priority to ensure the health and well-being of the population through the better scientific understanding of the food intake influence. A frequently found harmful feature of human diet is the simultaneous presence in food stuff of both essential and toxic elements. A significant example of this situation is represented by horse meat. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the elemental content of muscular, hepatic and renal tissues of horses bred in different countries of the East of Europe and slaughtered in Italy. The studied population consisted of about 100 individuals; the sampling period, coinciding with the highest market request, was extended from November to March. Freeze dried tissues were pelletized and carbon coated prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at the AN2000 van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN-National Laboratories of Legnaro. The accuracy of the results was verified using certified standard reference materials prepared and measured in the same experimental conditions. Results have highlighted the noble nutritional values of horse muscular tissue in terms of iron, zinc and calcium content. Cadmium was staidly identified in horse kidneys, with an average concentration of 257 μg/g on dried matter, while in liver it was sporadically present

  14. Quantitative measurement of essential and not essential metals in muscular, hepatic and renal tissue of horses by means of PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, S.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M.; Giaccone, V.; Moschini, G.; Novelli, E.; Olabanji, S. O.; Passi, P.; Tepedino, V.

    2004-06-01

    Nowadays, the food safety and the related health risks for humans are a major issue. It has become a priority to ensure the health and well-being of the population through the better scientific understanding of the food intake influence. A frequently found harmful feature of human diet is the simultaneous presence in food stuff of both essential and toxic elements. A significant example of this situation is represented by horse meat. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the elemental content of muscular, hepatic and renal tissues of horses bred in different countries of the East of Europe and slaughtered in Italy. The studied population consisted of about 100 individuals; the sampling period, coinciding with the highest market request, was extended from November to March. Freeze dried tissues were pelletized and carbon coated prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at the AN2000 van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN-National Laboratories of Legnaro. The accuracy of the results was verified using certified standard reference materials prepared and measured in the same experimental conditions. Results have highlighted the noble nutritional values of horse muscular tissue in terms of iron, zinc and calcium content. Cadmium was staidly identified in horse kidneys, with an average concentration of 257 μg/g on dried matter, while in liver it was sporadically present.

  15. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  16. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vivian M; Wes, Ari M; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Percec, Ivona

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  17. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S; Manjunath, S; Senthilkumar, R; Rajendiran, S; Yoshioka, H; Mori, Y; Abraham, S

    2011-01-01

    The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP) is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury. Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain) and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining). The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any adverse reactions and upon confirmation of safety following completion of the

  18. Dynamic and static small-animal SPECT in rats for monitoring renal function after 177Lu-labeled Tyr3-octreotate radionuclide therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, M.; Swart, J.; Visser, M. de; Berndsen, S.C.; Koelewijn, S.; Valkema, R.; Boerman, O.C.; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    High kidney radiation doses during clinical peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with beta-particle-emitting radiolabeled somatostatin analogs will lead to renal failure several months after treatment, urging the coinfusion of the cationic amino acids lysine and arginine to reduce the renal

  19. TREM2-transduced myeloid precursors mediate nervous tissue debris clearance and facilitate recovery in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Takahashi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In multiple sclerosis, inflammation can successfully be prevented, while promoting repair is still a major challenge. Microglial cells, the resident phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS, are hematopoietic-derived myeloid cells and express the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2, an innate immune receptor. Myeloid cells are an accessible source for ex vivo gene therapy. We investigated whether myeloid precursor cells genetically modified to express TREM2 affect the disease course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: EAE was induced in mice by immunization with a myelin autoantigen. Intravenous application of TREM2-transduced bone marrow-derived myeloid precursor cells at the EAE peak led to an amelioration of clinical symptoms, reduction in axonal damage, and prevention of further demyelination. TREM2-transduced myeloid cells applied intravenously migrated into the inflammatory spinal cord lesions of EAE-diseased mice, showed increased lysosomal and phagocytic activity, cleared degenerated myelin, and created an anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu within the CNS. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenously applied bone marrow-derived and TREM2-tranduced myeloid precursor cells limit tissue destruction and facilitate repair within the murine CNS by clearance of cellular debris during EAE. TREM2 is a new attractive target for promotion of repair and resolution of inflammation in multiple sclerosis and other neuroinflammatory diseases.

  20. Histopathological changes of renal tissue following sodium fluoride administration in two consecutive generations of mice. Correlation with the urinary elimination of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimcevici Poesina, Nicoleta; Bălălău, Cristian; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Nimigean, Victor; Ion, Ion; Baconi, Daniela; Bârcă, Maria; Băran Poesina, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes) of sodium fluoride on the kidney in two consecutive generations of NMRI mice. An attempt to correlate the toxicity with the urinary elimination of fluoride has been made, as urinary fluoride excretion has been widely used as an indicator of fluoride intake and exposure. Six mixed (males and females) animal groups have been constituted by dividing the populations of mice derived from pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.5 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.5 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage and pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.25 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.25 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage; three types of sodium fluoride treatments were administrated: homeopathic, allopathic-homeopathic and allopathic. When the animals reached the adulthood, by randomization, they were selected in pairs for giving birth to the second generation of mice. No treatments were administrated to the second generation of mice; thus, the urinary elimination of fluoride in the second generation is attributed to exposure at sodium fluoride before birth. The administration of sodium fluoride to the first generation (F1) is realized until the mice reached the adulthood. For the first generation, the urine was collected at three times, every three weeks: at the age of four weeks, seven weeks and 11 weeks; single sampling urine, at the age of four weeks, has been conducted for the second generation. The urine samples have been analyzed using the ion selective electrode method for fluoride. For the histopathological examination, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation; the kidneys were collected in a 10% formalin solution. The preparation of samples for optical microscopy was realized with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The results indicate that the elimination of fluoride was similar (at the second evaluation, at 7-week-old of the first generation) for the both generations

  1. Conductive carbon tape used for support and mounting of both whole animal and fragile heat-treated tissue sections for MALDI MS imaging and quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Richard J A; Nilsson, Anna; Borg, Daniel; Langridge-Smith, Pat R R; Harrison, David J; Mackay, C Logan; Iverson, Suzanne L; Andrén, Per E

    2012-08-30

    Analysis of whole animal tissue sections by MALDI MS imaging (MSI) requires effective sample collection and transfer methods to allow the highest quality of in situ analysis of small or hard to dissect tissues. We report on the use of double-sided adhesive conductive carbon tape during whole adult rat tissue sectioning of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) embedded animals, with samples mounted onto large format conductive glass and conductive plastic MALDI targets, enabling MSI analysis to be performed on both TOF and FT-ICR MALDI mass spectrometers. We show that mounting does not unduly affect small molecule MSI detection by analyzing tiotropium abundance and distribution in rat lung tissues, with direct on-tissue quantitation achieved. Significantly, we use the adhesive tape to provide support to embedded delicate heat-stabilized tissues, enabling sectioning and mounting to be performed that maintained tissue integrity on samples that had previously been impossible to adequately prepare section for MSI analysis. The mapping of larger peptidomic molecules was not hindered by tape mounting samples and we demonstrate this by mapping the distribution of PEP-19 in both native and heat-stabilized rat brains. Furthermore, we show that without heat stabilization PEP-19 degradation fragments can detected and identified directly by MALDI MSI analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Probability distribution of dose rates in the body tissue as a function of the rhytm of Sr90 administration and the age of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, I.M.; Sarapul'tsev, I.A.

    1975-01-01

    The probability distribution of tissue radiation doses in the skeleton were studied in experiments on swines and dogs. When introducing Sr-90 into the organism from the day of birth till 90 days dose rate probability distribution is characterized by one, or, for adult animals, by two independent aggregates. Each of these aggregates correspond to the normal distribution law

  3. The Use of Fibrous, Supramolecular Membranes and Human Tubular Cells for Renal Epithelial Tissue Engineering : Towards a Suitable Membrane for a Bioartificial Kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Boomker, Jasper M.; Huizinga-van der Vlag, Ali; Smedts, Frank M. M.; Harmsen, Martin C.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    2010-01-01

    A bioartificial kidney, which is composed of a membrane cartridge with renal epithelial cells, can substitute important kidney functions in patients with renal failure. A particular challenge is the maintenance of monolayer integrity and specialized renal epithelial cell functions ex vivo. We

  4. The use of fibrous, supramolecular membranes and human tubular cells for renal epithelial tissue engineering: towards a suitable membrane for a bioartificial kidney,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, P.Y.W.; Boomker, J.M.; Huizinga-van der Vlag, A.; Smedts, F.M.M.; Harmsen, M.C.; Luyn, van M.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A bioartificial kidney, which is composed of a membrane cartridge with renal epithelial cells, can substitute important kidney functions in patients with renal failure. A particular challenge is the maintenance of monolayer integrity and specialized renal epithelial cell functions ex vivo. We

  5. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury Materials & Methods: Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining.Results: The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any

  6. Results and validity of renal blood flow measurements using Xenon 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, P.; Danet, B.; Guiraud, R.; Durand, D.; Ader, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The renal blood flow was measured by external recording of the xenon 133 excretion curve. The study involved 45 patients with permanent high blood pressure and 7 transplant patients. The validity of the method was checked on 10 dogs. From the results it seems that the cortical blood flow, its fraction and the mean flow rate are the most representative of the renal haemodynamics parameters, from which may be established the repercussions of blood pressure on kidney vascularisation. Experiments are in progress on animals to check the compartment idea by comparing injections into the renal artery and into various kidney tissues in situ [fr

  7. Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Renal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Orhan; Caliskan, Ahmet; Demirtas, Sinan; Yavuz, Celal; Kuyumcu, Mahir; Nergiz, Yusuf; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Karahan, Oguz; Ari, Seyhmus; Soker, Sevda; Yalinkilic, Ibrahim; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is steadily increasing as a therapeutic modality for various types of diseases. Although good clinical outcomes were reported with HBO treatment for various diseases, the multisystemic effects of this modality are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the renal effects of HBO experimentally. Fourteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 2 groups randomly as the control group and the study group. The study group received HBO treatment for 28 days (100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres for 90 minutes daily) and the control group was used to obtain normal renal tissue of the animal genus. After the intervention period, venous blood samples were obtained, and renal tissue samples were harvested for comparisons. Normal histological morphology was determined with Masson trichrome staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining in the control group. Atrophic glomerular structures, vacuolated tubule cells, and degeneration were detected in the renal samples of the study group with Masson trichrome staining. Additionally, flattening was observed on the brush borders of the proximal tubules, and tubular dilatation was visualized with periodic acid-Schiff staining. The histopathologic disruption of renal morphology was verified with detection of significantly elevated kidney function laboratory biomarkers in the study group. Our findings suggests that HBO has adverse effects on renal glomerulus and proximal tubules. However, the functional effects of this alteration should be investigated with further studies.

  8. Pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor testing cofiring animal-tissue biomass with coal as a carcass disposal option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Elizabeth M. Fedorowicz; David W. Harlan; Linda A. Detwiler; Michelle L. Rossman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

    2006-10-15

    This study was performed to demonstrate the technical viability of cofiring animal-tissue biomass (ATB) in a coal-fired fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) as an option for disposing of specified risk materials (SRMs) and carcasses. The purpose of this study was to assess the technical issues of feeding/combusting ATB and not to investigate prion deactivation/pathogen destruction. Overall, the project successfully demonstrated that carcasses and SRMs can be cofired with coal in a bubbling FBC. Feeding ATB into the FBC did, however, present several challenges. Specifically, handling/feeding issues resulting from the small scale of the equipment and the extremely heterogeneous nature of the ATB were encountered during the testing. Feeder modifications and an overbed firing system were necessary. Through statistical analysis, it was shown that the ATB feed location had a greater effect on CO emissions, which were used as an indication of combustion performance, than the fuel type due to the feeding difficulties. Baseline coal tests and tests cofiring ATB into the bed were statistically indistinguishable. Fuel feeding issues would not be expected at the full scale since full-scale units routinely handle low-quality fuels. In a full-scale unit, the disproportionate ratio of feed line size to unit diameter would be eliminated thereby eliminating feed slugging. Also, the ATB would either be injected into the bed, thereby ensuring uniform mixing and complete combustion, or be injected directly above the bed with overfire air ports used to ensure complete combustion. Therefore, it is anticipated that a demonstration at the full scale, which is the next activity in demonstrating this concept, should be successful. As the statistical analysis shows, emissions cofiring ATB with coal would be expected to be similar to that when firing coal only. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  10. Enhanced Inflammation without Impairment of Insulin Signaling in the Visceral Adipose Tissue of 5α-Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Animal Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Danijela Vojnović; Nikolić, Marina; Veličković, Nataša; Djordjevic, Ana; Bursać, Biljana; Nestorov, Jelena; Teofilović, Ana; Antić, Ivana Božić; Macut, Jelica Bjekić; Zidane, Abdulbaset Shirif; Matić, Gordana; Macut, Djuro

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Since abdominal obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation, the aim of the study was to investigate whether visceral adipose tissue inflammation linked to abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia could lead to impaired insulin sensitivity in the animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome.Female Wistar rats were treated with nonaromatizable 5α-dihydrotestosterone pellets in order to induce reproductive and metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome. Glucose, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin were determined in blood plasma. Visceral adipose tissue inflammation was evaluated by the nuclear factor kappa B intracellular distribution, macrophage migration inhibitory factor protein level, as well as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β mRNA levels. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment index, and through analysis of insulin signaling pathway in the visceral adipose tissue.Dihydrotestosterone treatment led to increased body weight, abdominal obesity and elevated triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, which were accompanied by the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and increase in macrophage migration inhibitory factor, IL6 and IL1β levels in the visceral adipose tissue. In parallel, insulin sensitivity was affected in 5α-dihydrotestosterone-treated animals only at the systemic and not at the level of visceral adipose tissue.The results showed that abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia in the animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome were accompanied with low-grade inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue. However, these metabolic disturbances did not result in decreased tissue insulin sensitivity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  12. Radiology of renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of imaging studies in patients with renal failure. The initial chapter provides basic information on contrast agents, intravenous urography, and imaging findings in the urinary tract disorders responsible for renal failure and in patients who have undergone transplantation. It illustrates common gastro-intestinal abnormalities seen on barium studies in patients with renal failure. It illustrates the cardiopulmonary complications of renal failure and offers advice for radiologic differentiation. It details different aspects of skeletal changes in renal failure, including a basic description of the pathophysiology of the changes; many excellent illustrations of classic bone changes, arthritis, avascular necrosis, and soft-tissue calcifications; and details of bone mineral analysis

  13. The development and application of a cold atmospheric plasma generator for treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Petrova, N. O.; Smirnova, N. V.; Shemet, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    We describe a device for obtaining cold plasma in air at atmospheric pressure using a system of positive high-voltage pin electrodes, which is intended for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals. Plasma is generated due to the development of periodic pulsed discharge of nanosecond duration at current pulse amplitudes 10-20 mA, characteristic frequencies 10-20 kHz, and applied voltages within 8-10 kV. The high efficacy of the proposed device and method is confirmed by the good clinical results of treating large domestic animals with traumatic injuries.

  14. The technique of express vital determination of radiocesium specific activity in muscular tissue of large agricultural animals by means of the TIM-140 radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The technique is intended for vital determination of cesium 137 specific activity in muscular tissue of large agricultural animals by means of the TIM-140 radiometer. The specific activity is determined using two measurements. With one measurement the gamma radiation detector is located on a lateral surface of coxofemoral part of the animal, and with the second measurement the absorbing gamma radiation screen is placed between the detector and zone of measurement. The external gamma background and useful signal are registered simultaneously. It allows to carry out measurements with a background till 0.05 mR/h without application of external screens

  15. The role of Toll-like receptor 2 in inflammation and fibrosis during progressive renal injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaklien C Leemans

    Full Text Available Tissue fibrosis and chronic inflammation are common causes of progressive organ damage, including progressive renal disease, leading to loss of physiological functions. Recently, it was shown that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 is expressed in the kidney and activated by endogenous danger signals. The expression and function of TLR2 during renal fibrosis and chronic inflammation has however not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we studied TLR2 expression in human and murine progressive renal diseases and explored its role by inducing obstructive nephropathy in TLR2(-/- or TLR2(+/+ mice. We found that TLR2 is markedly upregulated on tubular and tubulointerstitial cells in patients with chronic renal injury. In mice with obstructive nephropathy, renal injury was associated with a marked upregulation and change in distribution of TLR2 and upregulation of murine TLR2 danger ligands Gp96, biglycan, and HMGB1. Notably, TLR2 enhanced inflammation as reflected by a significantly reduced influx of neutrophils and production of chemokines and TGF-beta in kidneys of TLR2(-/- mice compared with TLR2(+/+ animals. Although, the obstructed kidneys of TLR2(-/- mice had less interstitial myofibroblasts in the later phase of obstructive nephropathy, tubular injury and renal matrix accumulation was similar in both mouse strains. Together, these data demonstrate that TLR2 can initiate renal inflammation during progressive renal injury and that the absence of TLR2 does not affect the development of chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

  16. Nanotechnology combined therapy: tyrosine kinase-bound gold nanorod and laser thermal ablation produce a synergistic higher treatment response of renal cell carcinoma in animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunologically naïve nude mice (Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu) were injected bilaterally on the flanks (n=36) with 2.5 x 106 cells of a human metastatic renal cell carcinoma cell line (RCC 786-O). Subcutaneous xenograft tumors developed 1 cm palpable nodules. AuNR encapsulated in Human Serum Albumin (HSA) P...

  17. Relative sensitivity of conventional and real-time PCR assays for detection of SFG Rickettsia in blood and tissue samples from laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina E Zemtsova

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. These assays are being widely used by researchers, but they differ in their sensitivity and reliability. We compared the sensitivity of five previously published conventional PCR assays and one SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of rickettsial DNA in blood and tissue samples from Rickettsia- infected laboratory animals (n = 87. The real-time PCR, which detected rickettsial DNA in 37.9% of samples, was the most sensitive. The next best were the semi-nested ompA assay and rpoB conventional PCR, which detected as positive 18.4% and 14.9% samples respectively. Conventional assays targeting ompB, gltA and hrtA genes have been the least sensitive. Therefore, we recommend the SYBR green-based real-time PCR as a tool for the detection of rickettsial DNA in animal samples due to its higher sensitivity when compared to more traditional assays.

  18. Relative sensitivity of conventional and real-time PCR assays for detection of SFG Rickettsia in blood and tissue samples from laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsova, Galina E; Montgomery, Merrill; Levin, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. These assays are being widely used by researchers, but they differ in their sensitivity and reliability. We compared the sensitivity of five previously published conventional PCR assays and one SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of rickettsial DNA in blood and tissue samples from Rickettsia- infected laboratory animals (n = 87). The real-time PCR, which detected rickettsial DNA in 37.9% of samples, was the most sensitive. The next best were the semi-nested ompA assay and rpoB conventional PCR, which detected as positive 18.4% and 14.9% samples respectively. Conventional assays targeting ompB, gltA and hrtA genes have been the least sensitive. Therefore, we recommend the SYBR green-based real-time PCR as a tool for the detection of rickettsial DNA in animal samples due to its higher sensitivity when compared to more traditional assays.

  19. Re-generation of tissue about an animal-based scaffold: AMS studies of the fate of the scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickey, Frank A. E-mail: far@physics.purdue.edu; Elmore, David; Hillegonds, Darren; Badylak, Stephen; Record, Rae; Simmons-Byrd, Abby

    2000-10-01

    Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is an unusual tissue, which shows great promise for the repair of damaged tissues in humans. When the SIS is used as a surgical implant, the porcine-derived material is not rejected by the host immune system, and in fact stimulates the constructive re-modeling of damaged tissue. In dogs, these SIS scaffolds have been used to grow new arteries, tendons, and urinary bladders. Moreover, the SIS scaffold tissue seems to disappear from the implant region after a few months. The fate of this SIS tissue is of considerable importance if it is to be used in human tissue repair. SIS is obtained from pigs. We have labeled the SIS in several pigs by intraveneous administration of {sup 14}C enriched proline from the age of three weeks until they reach market weight. The prepared SIS was then implanted in dogs as scaffolds for urinary bladder patches. During the remaining life of each dog, blood, urine and feces samples were collected on a regular schedule. AMS analyses of these specimens were performed to measure the elimination rate of the SIS. At different intervals, the dogs were sacrificed. Tissue samples were analyzed by AMS to determine the whole-body distribution of the labeled SIS.

  20. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Robert Y.; McDonald, Nancy; Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν ¯ fat ) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν ¯ fat in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ s of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν fat for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν ¯ fat were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10 −5 sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ s was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ s of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ s of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν ¯ fat =0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ s for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ s of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the differences did not vary from zero in a statistically significant way thereby

  1. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  2. Renal effects of renal x irradiation and induced autoallergic glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Casarett, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine what influence a single large x-ray exposure of kidney has on the development and course of an experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) in rats. EAG was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by immunization with Bordetella pertussis vaccine and homogenate of homologous kidney tissue and Freund's complete adjuvant. Progressive arteriolonephrosclerosis (ANS) was observed in right (irradiated) kidneys following unilateral renal irradiation (1500 rad). Rats were either immunized, sham-immunized, irradiated, sham-irradiated, or both immunized and irradiated. Light and immunofluorescent microscopic observation, urine protein content, and kidney weights were evaluated. In immunized-irradiated animals the effects of irradiation and immunization were largely additive. Immunization did not considerably influence the development and course of ANS and irradiation did not considerably influence the development and course of EAG

  3. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emans, Tonja W; Janssen, Ben J; Pinkham, Maximilian I; Ow, Connie P C; Evans, Roger G; Joles, Jaap A; Malpas, Simon C; Krediet, C T Paul; Koeners, Maarten P

    2016-11-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary. We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats. This method provides stable and continuous measurements of cortical tissue oxygen tension (PO2) for more than 2 weeks and can reproducibly detect acute changes in cortical oxygenation. Exogenous angiotensin-II reduced renal cortical tissue PO2 more than equi-pressor doses of phenylephrine, probably because it reduced renal oxygen delivery more than did phenylephrine. Activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin system in transgenic Cyp1a1Ren2 rats reduced cortical tissue PO2; in this model renal hypoxia precedes the development of structural pathology and can be reversed acutely by an angiotensin-II receptor type 1 antagonist. Angiotensin-II promotes renal hypoxia, which may in turn contribute to its pathological effects during development of chronic kidney disease. We hypothesised that both exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II (AngII) can decrease the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the renal cortex of unrestrained rats, which might in turn contribute to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Rats were instrumented with telemeters equipped with a carbon paste electrode for continuous measurement of renal cortical tissue PO2. The method reproducibly detected acute changes in cortical oxygenation induced by systemic hyperoxia and hypoxia. In conscious rats, renal cortical PO2 was dose-dependently reduced by intravenous AngII. Reductions in PO2 were significantly greater than those induced by equi-pressor doses of phenylephrine. In anaesthetised rats, renal oxygen consumption was not affected, and filtration fraction was increased only in the AngII infused animals. Oxygen delivery decreased by 50% after infusion of AngII and renal blood flow (RBF) fell by 3.3 ml min -1 . Equi-pressor infusion of

  4. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin‐II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emans, Tonja W.; Janssen, Ben J.; Pinkham, Maximilian I.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Evans, Roger G.; Joles, Jaap A.; Malpas, Simon C.; Krediet, C. T. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Key points Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary.We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats.This method provides stable and continuous measurements of cortical tissue oxygen tension (PO2) for more than 2 weeks and can reproducibly detect acute changes in cortical oxygenation.Exogenous angiotensin‐II reduced renal cortical tissue PO2 more than equi‐pressor doses of phenylephrine, probably because it reduced renal oxygen delivery more than did phenylephrine.Activation of the endogenous renin–angiotensin system in transgenic Cyp1a1Ren2 rats reduced cortical tissue PO2; in this model renal hypoxia precedes the development of structural pathology and can be reversed acutely by an angiotensin‐II receptor type 1 antagonist.Angiotensin‐II promotes renal hypoxia, which may in turn contribute to its pathological effects during development of chronic kidney disease. Abstract We hypothesised that both exogenous and endogenous angiotensin‐II (AngII) can decrease the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the renal cortex of unrestrained rats, which might in turn contribute to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Rats were instrumented with telemeters equipped with a carbon paste electrode for continuous measurement of renal cortical tissue PO2. The method reproducibly detected acute changes in cortical oxygenation induced by systemic hyperoxia and hypoxia. In conscious rats, renal cortical PO2 was dose‐dependently reduced by intravenous AngII. Reductions in PO2 were significantly greater than those induced by equi‐pressor doses of phenylephrine. In anaesthetised rats, renal oxygen consumption was not affected, and filtration fraction was increased only in the AngII infused animals. Oxygen delivery decreased by 50% after infusion of AngII and renal blood flow (RBF) fell by 3.3 ml min−1

  5. Evaluation of Renal Blood Flow and Oxygenation in CKD Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatir, Dinah S; Pedersen, Michael; Jespersen, Bente; Buus, Niels H

    2015-09-01

    Animal studies suggest that progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is related to renal hypoxia. With renal blood supply determining oxygen delivery and sodium absorption being the main contributor to oxygen consumption, we describe the relationship between renal oxygenation, renal artery blood flow, and sodium absorption in patients with CKD and healthy controls. Cross-sectional study. 62 stable patients with CKD stages 3 to 4 (mean age, 61±13 [SD] years) and 24 age- and sex-matched controls. CKD versus control status. Renal artery blood flow, tissue oxygenation (relative changes in deoxyhemoglobin concentration of the renal medulla [MR2*] and cortex [CR2*]), and sodium absorption. Renal artery blood flow was determined by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); MR2* and CR2* were determined by blood oxygen level-dependent MRI. Ultrafiltered and reabsorbed sodium were determined from measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) and 24-hour urine collections. mGFR in patients was 37% that of controls (36±15 vs 97±23 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P renal artery blood flow was 72% that of controls (319 vs 443 mL/min; P renal artery blood flow or sodium absorption. Increasing arterial blood oxygen tension by breathing 100% oxygen had very small effects on CR2*, but reduced MR2* in both groups. Only renal artery blood flow was determined and thus regional perfusion could not be related to CR2* or MR2*. In CKD, reductions of mGFR and reabsorbed sodium are more than double that of renal artery blood flow, whereas cortical and medullary oxygenation are within the range of healthy persons. Reduction in glomerular filtration fraction may prevent renal hypoxia in CKD. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urethral dysontogenic metaplasia in cat with bilateral renal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Fonseca Sapin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper to describe a case of dysontogenic urethral metaplasia in a one month old mongrel feline who also had bilateral renal dysplasia. Dysontogenic metaplasia in cats are scarce and this change may be associated with renal dysplasia and/or lower urinary tract. The animal had history of abdominal enlargement since birth and dysuria, eliminating urine only dropwise. Due to the poor prognosis we opted for euthanasia. At necropsy was observed enlarged and distended bladder, reduced kidneys and dilated and tortuous ureters. The urethra was thickened, hard to cut, and histologically, was replacing the connective tissue, cartilage and endochondral ossification areas, which features dysontogenic metaplasia. Both kidneys presented primitive appearance featuring dysplasia. Dysontogenic metaplasia in urinary tract feline with renal dysplasia, has not been described.

  7. Expression and clinical significance of NF-毷B, CTGF and OPN in mononuclear cells in peripheral blood as well as renal tissues in patients with IgA nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Luo Hao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the expression and clinical significance of NF-kB, CTGF and OPN in mononuclear cells in peripheral blood as well as renal tissues in patients with IgA nephropathy. Methods: A total of 25 nephropathy patients diagnosed with IgA nephropathy and 25 patients receiving nephrectomy due to trauma or tumor in our hospital were studied. Peripheral blood and kidney tissues were collected to test NF-kB, CTGF, OPN, T-bet, GATA-3, RORγT and Foxp3 expressions. Results: CTGF and OPN percentages in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and kidney tissues of nephropathy patients were higher than those of the control group. NF-kB, CTGF and OPN expressions were significantly higher in M1, E1, S1 group patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells and renal tissues than those in M0, E1 and S1 group. T-bet, GATA-3 and RORγT expressions in nephropathy patients’ peripheral blood were significantly higher than those in the control group, and were positively correlated with NF-kB, CTGF and OPN expressions. The expression of Foxp3 was significantly lower than that of control group, and was negatively correlated with NF-kB, CTGF and OPN expressions. Conclusions: The expression of NF-kB, CTGF and OPN in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and renal tissue in patients with IgA nephropathy is abnormally high and can evaluate the prognosis of the disease and the differentiation of CD4+T cells.

  8. Evaluation of renal function following administration of ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-biphosphonate (EHBP) in animals submitted to oral intoxication with uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.B.; Mandalunis, P.M.; Bozal, C.B.; Cabrini, Romulo L.; Ubios, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Workers involved in the processes of extraction, purification and manufacture of uranium of nuclear plants are occupationally exposed to both natural and enriched uranium. Several chelating agents (TIRON, EDTA, BAI, etc.) have been tested in terms of their capacity to sequester uranium before it reaches its target organs. Our laboratory has studied a first generation biphosphonate, ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-biphosphonate (EHBP). We have shown that treatment with EHBP induces survival rates of 75% and 100% in adult and suckling rats respectively intoxicated with an intraperitoneal injection of uranyl nitrate. There are no data available to date on the renal function following treatment with EBHP to counteract the toxic effects of an oral lethal dose of uranyl nitrate. The aim of the present study was to assay creatininemia and uremia as end-points to assess renal function. The results obtained reveal that the alterations in renal function induced by oral uranyl nitrate intoxication can be reduced at 48 hours and reverted at 14 days by subcutaneous or oral administration of EHBP. (author)

  9. Comparison of soft tissue effects of conventional ionic, low osmolar ionic and nonionic iodine containing contrast material in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlister, W.H.; Kissane, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional, low osmolar, and non-ionic iodine containing contrast media and saline controls were placed in the paws, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues of Sprague-Dawley rat thighs. The paw injections were observed and photographed, while the thighs were examined histologically. Results showed that although the low osmolar and non-ionic agents did produce inflammatory reactions and focal necrosis in the soft tissues, they were much better tolerated than were the conventional ionic agents. A non-ionic or low osmolar ionic contrast agent should be strongly considered when a possibility for extravasation exists. (orig.)

  10. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  11. Renal venogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be black. Other structures will be shades of gray. Veins are not normally seen in an x- ... Venogram - kidney; Renal vein thrombosis - venogram Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal veins References ...

  12. A roadmap for the genetic analysis of renal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordmans, Gerda A; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van Goor, Harry; Korstanje, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Several studies show evidence for the genetic basis of renal disease, which renders some individuals more prone than others to accelerated renal aging. Studying the genetics of renal aging can help us to identify genes involved in this process and to unravel the underlying pathways. First, this opinion article will give an overview of the phenotypes that can be observed in age-related kidney disease. Accurate phenotyping is essential in performing genetic analysis. For kidney aging, this could include both functional and structural changes. Subsequently, this article reviews the studies that report on candidate genes associated with renal aging in humans and mice. Several loci or candidate genes have been found associated with kidney disease, but identification of the specific genetic variants involved has proven to be difficult. CUBN, UMOD, and SHROOM3 were identified by human GWAS as being associated with albuminuria, kidney function, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). These are promising examples of genes that could be involved in renal aging, and were further mechanistically evaluated in animal models. Eventually, we will provide approaches for performing genetic analysis. We should leverage the power of mouse models, as testing in humans is limited. Mouse and other animal models can be used to explain the underlying biological mechanisms of genes and loci identified by human GWAS. Furthermore, mouse models can be used to identify genetic variants associated with age-associated histological changes, of which Far2, Wisp2, and Esrrg are examples. A new outbred mouse population with high genetic diversity will facilitate the identification of genes associated with renal aging by enabling high-resolution genetic mapping while also allowing the control of environmental factors, and by enabling access to renal tissues at specific time points for histology, proteomics, and gene expression. PMID:26219736

  13. A roadmap for the genetic analysis of renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordmans, Gerda A; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van Goor, Harry; Korstanje, Ron

    2015-10-01

    Several studies show evidence for the genetic basis of renal disease, which renders some individuals more prone than others to accelerated renal aging. Studying the genetics of renal aging can help us to identify genes involved in this process and to unravel the underlying pathways. First, this opinion article will give an overview of the phenotypes that can be observed in age-related kidney disease. Accurate phenotyping is essential in performing genetic analysis. For kidney aging, this could include both functional and structural changes. Subsequently, this article reviews the studies that report on candidate genes associated with renal aging in humans and mice. Several loci or candidate genes have been found associated with kidney disease, but identification of the specific genetic variants involved has proven to be difficult. CUBN, UMOD, and SHROOM3 were identified by human GWAS as being associated with albuminuria, kidney function, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). These are promising examples of genes that could be involved in renal aging, and were further mechanistically evaluated in animal models. Eventually, we will provide approaches for performing genetic analysis. We should leverage the power of mouse models, as testing in humans is limited. Mouse and other animal models can be used to explain the underlying biological mechanisms of genes and loci identified by human GWAS. Furthermore, mouse models can be used to identify genetic variants associated with age-associated histological changes, of which Far2, Wisp2, and Esrrg are examples. A new outbred mouse population with high genetic diversity will facilitate the identification of genes associated with renal aging by enabling high-resolution genetic mapping while also allowing the control of environmental factors, and by enabling access to renal tissues at specific time points for histology, proteomics, and gene expression. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John

  14. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  15. Assessment of biodistribution of 131-IPPA in cardiac and non-cardiac tissues in laboratory animals by imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradkani, S.; Sadadi, F.; Matloubi, M.; Jalilian, A. R.; Shafaie, K.; Karimian, A. R.; Daneshvari, S.

    2007-01-01

    The main substrate of myocardial metabolism is fatty acids which constitutes the principal agent for myocardial consumption and provides almost 60-80% of the energy utilized by the heart in the resting state. Evaluation of cardiac metabolism is important for the assessment of some of cardiac disorders such as Ischemic Heart disease (IHD), cardiomyopathy (functional disorders) and Hypertensive cardiac disorders. Today, almost in all of the developed countries, PET is the first step for diagnosis and assessment of cardiac metabolic disorders. It is, however, too expensive to be used in all centers and are not available in all countries. In this regards, 123-IPPA was introduced as a substitute of PET system for evaluation of cardiac function (metabolism) and it is a complementary method for other Para-clinical methods. We decided to have a preliminary study on IPPA and due to the lack of 123-I, we had to use 131-I. The labeling of IPPA by 131-I, purification and sterilization of 131-1PPA done by the Chemistry Group of Cyclotron Ward and the bio-kinetic and imaging of rat, mice (Laboratory Animals) were performed in the Nuclear Medicine Group. After injection of a proper dose of this radiotracer, the imaging was performed in an appropriate time. In our first images, there were intensive accumulation of tracer in animals' thyroid glands, though after the intake of Lugol solution, the thyroid did not appear and we had a number of excellent images of animal heart that was the target organ

  16. PF-03882845, a non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, prevents renal injury with reduced risk of hyperkalemia in an animal model of nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eOrena

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR antagonists PF 03882845 and eplerenone were evaluated for renal protection against aldosterone mediated renal disease in uninephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD rats maintained on a high salt diet and receiving aldosterone by osmotic mini pump for 27 days. Serum K+ and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR were assessed following 14 and 27 days of treatment. Aldosterone induced renal fibrosis as evidenced by increases in UACR, collagen IV staining in kidney cortex, and expression of pro fibrotic genes relative to sham operated controls not receiving aldosterone. While both PF 03882845 and eplerenone elevated serum K+ levels with similar potencies, PF 03882845 was more potent than eplerenone in suppressing the rise in UACR. PF 03882845 prevented the increase in collagen IV staining at 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg BID while eplerenone was effective only at the highest dose tested (450 mg/kg BID. All doses of PF 03882845 suppressed aldosterone induced increases in collagen IV, transforming growth factor 1 (Tgf 1, interleukin 6 (Il-6, intermolecular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam-1 and osteopontin gene expression in kidney while eplerenone was only effective at the highest dose. The therapeutic index (TI, calculated as the ratio of the EC50 for increasing serum K+ to the EC50 for UACR lowering, was 83.8 for PF 03882845 and 1.47 for eplerenone. Thus the TI of PF 03882845 against hyperkalemia was 57 fold superior to that of eplerenone indicating that PF 03882845 may present significantly less risk for hyperkalemia compared to eplerenone.

  17. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  18. Multiscale Modeling of Antibody Drug Conjugates: Connecting tissue and cellular distribution to whole animal pharmacokinetics and potential implications for efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Cornelius; Guo, Hans; Liao, Jianshan; Christodolu, Nikolas; Thurber, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody drug conjugates exhibit complex pharmacokinetics due to their combination of macromolecular and small molecule properties. These issues range from systemic concerns, such as deconjugation of the small molecule drug during the long antibody circulation time or rapid clearance from non-specific interactions, to local tumor tissue heterogeneity, cell bystander effects, and endosomal escape. Mathematical models can be used to study the impact of these processes on overall distribution in an efficient manner, and several types of models have been used to analyze varying aspects of antibody distribution including physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and tissue-level simulations. However, these processes are quantitative in nature and cannot be handled qualitatively in isolation. For example, free antibody from deconjugation of the small molecule will impact the distribution of conjugated antibodies within the tumor. To incorporate these effects into a unified framework, we have coupled the systemic and organ-level distribution of a PBPK model with the tissue-level detail of a distributed parameter tumor model. We used this mathematical model to analyze new experimental results on the distribution of the clinical antibody drug conjugate Kadcyla in HER2 positive mouse xenografts. This model is able to capture the impact of the drug antibody ratio (DAR) on tumor penetration, the net result of drug deconjugation, and the effect of using unconjugated antibody to drive ADC penetration deeper into the tumor tissue. This modeling approach will provide quantitative and mechanistic support to experimental studies trying to parse the impact of multiple mechanisms of action for these complex drugs. PMID:27287046

  19. The distribution of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in tissues of animals polluted with the labeled preparate 23P (DF32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, T.; Mierzejewski, J.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in organs and tissues of pigs and guinea-pigs with the acute alimentary intoxication with DF 32 P was determined by the use of a scintillic registration method. Radioactivity revealed all the samples studied. The most pronounced radioactivity was noted in lymph nodes, spleen and liver of guinea-pigs, and in kidneys, liver and spleen of pigs. (author)

  20. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a contrast agent for imaging of animal tissue using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Indranil; Raj, Shipra; Roy, Poulomi; Poddar, Raju

    2018-01-01

    We present noninvasive three-dimensional depth-resolved imaging of animal tissue with a swept-source optical coherence tomography system at 1064 nm center wavelength and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potential contrast agent. A swept-source laser light source is used to enable an imaging rate of 100 kHz (100 000 A-scans s-1). Swept-source optical coherence tomography is a new variant of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique, offering unique advantages in terms of sensitivity, reduction of motion artifacts, etc. To enhance the contrast of an OCT image, AgNPs are utilized as an exogeneous contrast agent. AgNPs are synthesized using a modified Tollens method and characterization is done by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. In vitro imaging of chicken breast tissue, with and without the application of AgNPs, is performed. The effect of AgNPs is studied with different exposure times. A mathematical model is also built to calculate changes in the local scattering coefficient of tissue from OCT images. A quantitative estimation of scattering coefficient and contrast is performed for tissues with and without application of AgNPs. Significant improvement in contrast and increase in scattering coefficient with time is observed.

  1. Proliferative endocrine effects of adipose tissue from obese animals on MCF7 cells are ameliorated by resveratrol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriau, Christopher F; Sauvé, O'Llenecia S; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Wright, David C; Connor, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is clearly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The purpose was to determine if obesity alters the adipocyte adipokine secretion profile, thereby altering the adipose-dependent paracrine/endocrine growth microenvironment surrounding breast cancer cells (MCF7). Additionally, we determined whether resveratrol (RSV) supplementation can counteract any obesity-dependent effects on breast cancer tumor growth microenvironment. Obese ZDF rats received standard chow diet or diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg body weight RSV. Chow-fed Zucker rats served as lean controls. After 6 weeks, conditioned media (CM) prepared from inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) was added to MCF7 cells for 24 hrs. Experiments were also conducted using purified isolated adipocytes to determine whether any endocrine effects could be attributed specifically to the adipocyte component of adipose tissue. scAT from ZDF rats promoted cell cycle entry in MCF7 cells which was counteracted by RSV supplementation. RSV-CM had a higher ratio of ADIPO:LEP compared to ZDF-CM. This altered composition of the CM led to increased levels of pAMPKT172, p27, p27T198 and AdipoR1 while decreasing pAktT308 in MCF7 cells grown in RSV-CM compared to ZDF-CM. RSV-CM increased number of cells in G0/G1 and decreased cells in S-phase compared to ZDF-CM. Co-culture experiments revealed that these obesity-dependent effects were driven by the adipocyte component of the adipose tissue. Obesity decreased the ratio of adiponectin:leptin secreted by adipocytes, altering the adipose-dependent growth microenvironment resulting in increased breast cancer cell proliferation. Supplementation with RSV reversed these adipose-dependent effects suggesting a potential for RSV as a nutritional supplementation to improve breast cancer treatment in obese patients.

  2. Proliferative endocrine effects of adipose tissue from obese animals on MCF7 cells are ameliorated by resveratrol supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Theriau

    Full Text Available Obesity is clearly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The purpose was to determine if obesity alters the adipocyte adipokine secretion profile, thereby altering the adipose-dependent paracrine/endocrine growth microenvironment surrounding breast cancer cells (MCF7. Additionally, we determined whether resveratrol (RSV supplementation can counteract any obesity-dependent effects on breast cancer tumor growth microenvironment. Obese ZDF rats received standard chow diet or diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg body weight RSV. Chow-fed Zucker rats served as lean controls. After 6 weeks, conditioned media (CM prepared from inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT was added to MCF7 cells for 24 hrs. Experiments were also conducted using purified isolated adipocytes to determine whether any endocrine effects could be attributed specifically to the adipocyte component of adipose tissue. scAT from ZDF rats promoted cell cycle entry in MCF7 cells which was counteracted by RSV supplementation. RSV-CM had a higher ratio of ADIPO:LEP compared to ZDF-CM. This altered composition of the CM led to increased levels of pAMPKT172, p27, p27T198 and AdipoR1 while decreasing pAktT308 in MCF7 cells grown in RSV-CM compared to ZDF-CM. RSV-CM increased number of cells in G0/G1 and decreased cells in S-phase compared to ZDF-CM. Co-culture experiments revealed that these obesity-dependent effects were driven by the adipocyte component of the adipose tissue. Obesity decreased the ratio of adiponectin:leptin secreted by adipocytes, altering the adipose-dependent growth microenvironment resulting in increased breast cancer cell proliferation. Supplementation with RSV reversed these adipose-dependent effects suggesting a potential for RSV as a nutritional supplementation to improve breast cancer treatment in obese patients.

  3. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Robert Y., E-mail: rx-tang@laurentian.ca [Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); McDonald, Nancy, E-mail: mcdnancye@gmail.com; Laamanen, Curtis, E-mail: cx-laamanen@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); LeClair, Robert J., E-mail: rleclair@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6, Canada and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the

  4. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  5. Development of a Xanthene-Based Red-Emissive Fluorescent Probe for Visualizing H2O2 in Living Cells, Tissues and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Dong, Baoli; Kong, Xiuqi; Wang, Chao; Song, Wenhui; Lin, Weiying

    2018-04-25

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) plays important roles in the regulation of many biological processes, and the abnormal level of H 2 O 2 has close relation with the initiation and progression of many diseases. Herein, we describe a novel red-emissive fluorescence probe (RhoB) for the visualization of H 2 O 2 in living cells, tissues and animals. RhoB was constructed on the basis of a xanthene-based red-emissive dye, and displayed nearly no fluorescence. After the treatment with H 2 O 2 , RhoB can exhibit red fluorescence with the emission wavelength at 638 nm. RhoB exhibited highly sensitive and selective response to H 2 O 2 . Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted to shed light on the optical properties of RhoB, and natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations demonstrate that the boron atom shows the highest positive electricity and further support the response mechanism. RhoB was successfully applied for imaging of exogenous and endogenous H 2 O 2 in living cells, and also can be utilized for visualizing H 2 O 2 in living tissues and animals.

  6. Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonamides in animal tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; He, Mengyu; Jiang, Chunzhu; Zhang, Fengqing; Du, Shanshan; Feng, Wennan; Zhang, Hanqi

    2015-12-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction was developed and applied to the extraction of some sulfonamides, including sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadoxine, sulfisoxazole, and sulfaphenazole, in animal tissues. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the separation and determination of the target analytes. The solid sample was directly treated by matrix solid-phase dispersion and the eluate obtained was treated by homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction. The ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent in this method, which may result in the improvement of the recoveries of the target analytes. To avoid using organic solvent and reduce environmental pollution, water was used as the elution solvent of matrix solid-phase dispersion. The effects of the experimental parameters on recoveries, including the type and volume of ionic liquid, type of dispersant, ratio of sample to dispersant, pH value of elution solvent, volume of elution solvent, amount of salt in eluate, amount of ion-pairing agent (NH4 PF6 ), and centrifuging time, were evaluated. When the present method was applied to the analysis of animal tissues, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.4 to 118.0%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 9.30%. The detection limits for the analytes were 4.3-13.4 μg/kg. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-10

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  8. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  9. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbania, Thomas H. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kammen, Bamidele F.; Nancarrow, Paul A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Morrell, Rose Ellen [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Nephrology, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  10. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbania, Thomas H.; Kammen, Bamidele F.; Nancarrow, Paul A.; Morrell, Rose Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates of two diuranates and research on an early urinary indicator of renal failure in humans and animals poisoned with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Rongier, E.; Ansoborlo, E.; Chalabreysse, J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the solubility of industrial calcined diuranate in various in vitro systems and to test the sensitivity of biological parameters in detecting renal alterations after intoxication in animals and in human subjects. The dissolution rates in in vitro static and dynamic tests are consistent for each solution for both types of test. The in vivo results are comparable to the in vitro results obtained with Gamble solution for both compounds. The excretion kinetics observed are compared with the values calculated from ICRP standards. Urinary GGT excretion measurements are found to be a satisfactory indicator of uranium-induced kidney alterations. GGT excretion increases for injected doses exceeding 50 μg.kg -1 . Initial results in human subjects suggest that following accidental exposure to uranium, GGT is a more sensitive indicator of kidney damage than glycosuria. (author)

  12. Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Induces Neurological Side Effects Independent on Thrombolysis in Mechanical Animal Models of Focal Cerebral Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Xue Dong

    Full Text Available Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA is the only effective drug approved by US FDA to treat ischemic stroke, and it contains pleiotropic effects besides thrombolysis. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify effect of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA on cerebral infarction besides its thrombolysis property in mechanical animal stroke.Relevant studies were identified by two reviewers after searching online databases, including Pubmed, Embase, and ScienceDirect, from 1979 to 2016. We identified 6, 65, 17, 12, 16, 12 and 13 comparisons reporting effect of endogenous tPA on infarction volume and effects of rtPA on infarction volume, blood-brain barrier, brain edema, intracerebral hemorrhage, neurological function and mortality rate in all 47 included studies. Standardized mean differences for continuous measures and risk ratio for dichotomous measures were calculated to assess the effects of endogenous tPA and rtPA on cerebral infarction in animals. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable score. Subgroup analysis, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity. Funnel plot, Trim and Fill method and Egger's test were obtained to detect publication bias.We found that both endogenous tPA and rtPA had not enlarged infarction volume, or deteriorated neurological function. However, rtPA would disrupt blood-brain barrier, aggravate brain edema, induce intracerebral hemorrhage and increase mortality rate.This meta-analysis reveals rtPA can lead to neurological side effects besides thrombolysis in mechanical animal stroke, which may account for clinical exacerbation for stroke patients that do not achieve vascular recanalization with rtPA.

  13. Efeitos da intoxicação por lítio sobre a locomoção de ratos em um modelo animal de insuficiência renal aguda cirurgicamente induzido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt José Augusto Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O lítio é um metal usado sob a forma de sal para tratamento de episódios agudos de mania e no controle profilático de desordens afetivas bipolares. Pacientes com algum grau de insuficiência renal podem rapidamente sofrer intoxicação por esse fármaco. Nosso objetivo foi verificar a influência da litemia na locomoção em um modelo animal cirurgicamente induzido de insuficiência renal aguda (IRA. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos 61 ratos Wistar a tratamento com lítio por uma semana previamente a nefrectomia unilateral. Trinta ratos foram induzidos a IRA. Foi administrado lítio ou solução fisiológica aos ratos e após observada sua locomoção e concentração de creatinina sérica. Utilizou-se análise estatítica. RESULTADOS: A creatina apresentou-se elevada nos ratos com IRA. A locomoção foi menor nos ratos com IRA que receberam lítio, havendo relação inversa entre a litemia e a atividade locomotora. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo animal cirúrgico de IRA foi efetivo. Ratos insuficientes renais que receberam lítio apresentaram alterações locomotoras comparados aos demais. O aumento da litemia causa diminuição proporcional na locomoção dos ratos.

  14. Estimation of vitamin D2 vitamin D3, and their 25-hydroxy metabolites in animal tissues and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of vitamins D 2 and D 3 and their 25-hydroxy metabolites that could be applicable to a variety of tissues and foods. Tritiated vitamin D 3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 were used to monitor vitamin losses through the assay procedure. The first step used a saponification and extraction to free the vitamins D from their matrix and reduce the lipids. Most samples were saponified using the AOAC method, while a new procedure was developed for high fat samples. This utilized greater extraction volumes, a more polar extraction solvent, and three salt washes. Three different types of chromatography were then used to enable quantitation. The method was reproducible and accurate for the estimation of vitamin D 3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , but not as accurate for determining vitamin D 2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 due to a lack of radioisotope standards of these compounds

  15. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH detection in animal adipose tissue by means of extracorporeal microdialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, F.; Bizzarri, A.; Cajlakovic, M.; Feichtner, F.; Gianesello, L.; Giannetti, A.; Gori, G.; Konrad, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Mori, E.; Pavoni, V.; Perna, A. M.; Trono, C.

    2007-05-01

    Atypical physiological symptoms can be developed in healthy people under critically ill conditions. pH, pO II and pCO II are informative indicators of the conditions of a living system and can be valuable in determining the physiologic status of the critically ill patients. The continuous monitoring of these small molecules into the interstitial fluid (ISF) is a promising approach to reduce diagnostic blood loss and painful stress associated with blood sampling. Microdialysis is the approach followed for the extraction of the sample from the subcutaneous adipose tissue; the drawn interstitial fluid flows through a microfluidic circuit formed by the microdialysis catheter in series with a glass capillary on the internal wall of which the appropriate chemistry for sensing is immobilised. Absorption changes for pH sensor and modulation of the fluorescence lifetime for pO II and pCO II are the working principle. Phenol red covalently bound into the internal wall of a glass capillary by means of the Mannich reaction and platinum(II) tetrakis-pentafluorophenyl-porphyrine entrapped within a polymerised polystyrene layer are the chemical transducers used for pH and oxygen detection; the ion pair 8- hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt/ tetraoctylammonium hydroxide, dissolved in a silicon-based polymeric matrix, is used for the carbon dioxide detection. A suitable hemorrhagic shock model was developed in order to validate clinically the developed sensors in the condition of extreme stress and the obtained results show that the adipose tissue can become an alternative site for the continuous oitoring of pH, pO II and pCO II.

  16. Measurement of Endogenous versus Exogenous Formaldehyde-Induced DNA-Protein Crosslinks in Animal Tissues by Stable Isotope Labeling and Ultrasensitive Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yongquan; Yu, Rui; Hartwell, Hadley J; Moeller, Benjamin C; Bodnar, Wanda M; Swenberg, James A

    2016-05-01

    DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) arise from a wide range of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, such as chemotherapeutic drugs and formaldehyde. Importantly, recent identification of aldehydes as endogenous genotoxins in Fanconi anemia has provided new insight into disease causation. Because of their bulky nature, DPCs pose severe threats to genome stability, but previous methods to measure formaldehyde-induced DPCs were incapable of discriminating between endogenous and exogenous sources of chemical. In this study, we developed methods that provide accurate and distinct measurements of both exogenous and endogenous DPCs in a structurally specific manner. We exposed experimental animals to stable isotope-labeled formaldehyde ([(13)CD2]-formaldehyde) by inhalation and performed ultrasensitive mass spectrometry to measure endogenous (unlabeled) and exogenous ((13)CD2-labeled) DPCs. We found that exogenous DPCs readily accumulated in nasal respiratory tissues but were absent in tissues distant to the site of contact. This observation, together with the finding that endogenous formaldehyde-induced DPCs were present in all tissues examined, suggests that endogenous DPCs may be responsible for increased risks of bone marrow toxicity and leukemia. Furthermore, the slow rate of DPC repair provided evidence for the persistence of DPCs. In conclusion, our method for measuring endogenous and exogenous DPCs presents a new perspective for the potential health risks inflicted by endogenous formaldehyde and may inform improved disease prevention and treatment strategies. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2652-61. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  18. Gefarnate stimulates mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dota A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atsuyoshi Dota, Yuko Takaoka-Shichijo, Masatsugu NakamuraOphthalmic Research and Development Center, Santen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Ikoma-shi, Nara, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gefarnate on mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in isolated rabbit conjunctival tissue, and on corneal epithelial damage in rabbit and cat dry-eye models.Methods: Conjunctival tissue isolated from rabbits was treated with gefarnate. Mucin-like glycoprotein was detected in the culture supernatant by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Gefarnate ointment was topically applied to eyes once daily for 7 days in the rabbit dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal glands, Harderian gland, and nictitating membrane were removed, or for 4 weeks in the cat dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal gland and nictitating membrane were removed. Corneal epithelial damage was evaluated by measurement of corneal permeability by rose bengal in the rabbit model or by fluorescein staining in the cat model.Results: Gefarnate stimulated mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue in a dose-dependent manner. In the rabbit dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment to the eyes resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in rose bengal permeability in the cornea, with the effect being significant at concentrations of ≥0.3%. In the cat dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment resulted in a significant decrease in the corneal fluorescein staining score.Conclusion: These results suggest that gefarnate stimulates in vitro secretion of mucin-like glycoprotein in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models. Gefarnate may therefore be effective for treating dry eye.Keywords: gefarnate, fluorescein staining, rose bengal permeability, rabbit, cat, dry eye

  19. Tc-99m DMSA renal uptake: influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, C.A.; Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the effects of (a) tubular blockade and (b) commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance, on the urinary excretion and renal localization of Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Ten additional rats were studied to quantitate the in vivo protein binding of Tc-99m DMSA, and a final group of 12 animals was used to quantitate DMSA distribution in animals with diminished functional renal mass. Both osmotic diuresis and dehydration by water deprivation for 24 hr resulted in a plasma clearance of DMSA slower than in control animals. Acid-base imbalances significantly affected the renal accumulation of DMSA, and acidosis was associated with markedly increased background due to increased liver accumulation. The protein-bound portion of Tc-99m DMSA in the plasma was high, reaching 89% within the first 5 min, and rising very slightly (n.s.) with time. The unbound portion of DMSA had a plasma clearance slightly higher than the GFR. Ablation of large amounts of renal tissue, resulting in significant decreases in GFR, did not significantly affect the renal localization of DMSA in the intact portions of the kidneys. These data demonstrate that commonly encountered changes in acid-base balance and hydration will significantly alter the biologic distribution of Tc-99m DMSA. These factors should be controlled when carrying out clinical studies

  20. Dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation: first report on a conceptual design validated by an animal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Hatem A; Fouad, Yousef A; Hafez, Rashad

    2015-01-01

    To introduce and evaluate the safety of a novel dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece design for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation. We designed a prototype double-sided handpiece allowing automatic switching between two electrodes with a simple handpiece flip. The concept of the system as a surgical instrument was assessed by an animal experiment. The skin of 15 Wistar albino white rats could be successfully incised and coagulated using both ends of the handpiece, thereby confirming the prospects and clinical applications of the system. The dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece is a simple and safe alternative to the traditional electrosurgery pencil, allowing the simultaneous use of two electrodes without the hassle of frequent electrode replacement.

  1. Analysis of amino acid composition in proteins of animal tissues and foods as pre-column o-phthaldialdehyde derivatives by HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Zhenlong; Jia, Sichao; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-08-01

    Studies of protein nutrition and biochemistry require reliable methods for analysis of amino acid (AA) composition in polypeptides of animal tissues and foods. Proteins are hydrolyzed by 6M HCl (110°C for 24h), 4.2M NaOH (105°C for 20 h), or proteases. Analytical techniques that require high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) include pre-column derivatization with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan, 9-fluorenyl methylchloroformate, phenylisothiocyanate, naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde, 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate, and o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA). OPA reacts with primary AA (except cysteine or cystine) in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol or 3-mercaptopropionic acid to form a highly fluorescent adduct. OPA also reacts with 4-amino-1-butanol and 4-aminobutane-1,3-diol produced from oxidation of proline and 4-hydroxyproline, respectively, in the presence of chloramine-T plus sodium borohydride at 60°C, or with S-carboxymethyl-cysteine formed from cysteine and iodoacetic acid at 25°C. Fluorescence of OPA derivatives is monitored at excitation and emission wavelengths of 340 and 455 nm, respectively. Detection limits are 50 fmol for AA. This technique offers the following advantages: simple procedures for preparation of samples, reagents, and mobile-phase solutions; rapid pre-column formation of OPA-AA derivatives and their efficient separation at room temperature (e.g., 20-25°C); high sensitivity of detection; easy automation on the HPLC apparatus; few interfering side reactions; a stable chromatography baseline for accurate integration of peak areas; and rapid regeneration of guard and analytical columns. Thus, the OPA method provides a useful tool to determine AA composition in proteins of animal tissues (e.g., skeletal muscle, liver, intestine, placenta, brain, and body homogenates) and foods (e.g., milk, corn grain, meat, and soybean meal). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in human and laboratory animal biological fluids and tissues by PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoqin; Wu, Shuangchan; Yue, Yuan; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yuting; Tao, Li; Tian, Hui; Xie, Jianmei; Ding, Hong

    2013-12-30

    A high-throughput method for the determination of 28 mycotoxins involving pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been optimised and validated for determination in various biological fluids and tissues of human and laboratory animals. High-throughput analysis was achieved using PLE pre-treatment and without the need for any cleanup. The extraction solvent was acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/19/1, v/v/v). The static extraction time was 5min. The extraction pressure and temperature were 1500psi and 140°C, respectively. The flush volume was 60%. The limits of detection, which were defined as CCα, varied from 0.01μg/kg (μg/L) to 0.69μg/kg (μg/L). The recoveries of spiked samples from 0.20μg/kg (μg/L) to 2μg/kg (μg/L) ranged from 71% to 100.5% with relative standard deviations of less than 17.5%, except FB1 and FB2 recoveries, which were lower than 60%. The method was successfully applied in real samples, and the data indicate that this technique is a useful analytical method for the determination of mycotoxins from humans and animals. To the best of our knowledge, this method is the first for the large-scale testing of multi-class mycotoxins in all types of biological fluids and tissues that uses PLE and HPLC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  4. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  5. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  6. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-01-01

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent ...

  7. Quantitative analysis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEGylated proteins in animal tissues by LC-MS/MS coupled with in-source CID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiachang; Gu, Xiaomei; Achanzar, William E; Chadwick, Kristina D; Gan, Jinping; Brock, Barry J; Kishnani, Narendra S; Humphreys, W Griff; Iyer, Ramaswamy A

    2014-08-05

    The covalent conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG, typical MW > 10k) to therapeutic peptides and proteins is a well-established approach to improve their pharmacokinetic properties and diminish the potential for immunogenicity. Even though PEG is generally considered biologically inert and safe in animals and humans, the slow clearance of large PEGs raises concerns about potential adverse effects resulting from PEG accumulation in tissues following chronic administration, particularly in the central nervous system. The key information relevant to the issue is the disposition and fate of the PEG moiety after repeated dosing with PEGylated proteins. Here, we report a novel quantitative method utilizing LC-MS/MS coupled with in-source CID that is highly selective and sensitive to PEG-related materials. Both (40K)PEG and a tool PEGylated protein (ATI-1072) underwent dissociation in the ionization source of mass spectrometer to generate a series of PEG-specific ions, which were subjected to further dissociation through conventional CID. To demonstrate the potential application of the method to assess PEG biodistribution following PEGylated protein administration, a single dose study of ATI-1072 was conducted in rats. Plasma and various tissues were collected, and the concentrations of both (40K)PEG and ATI-1072 were determined using the LC-MS/MS method. The presence of (40k)PEG in plasma and tissue homogenates suggests the degradation of PEGylated proteins after dose administration to rats, given that free PEG was absent in the dosing solution. The method enables further studies for a thorough characterization of disposition and fate of PEGylated proteins.

  8. Nova técnica para treinamento em acessos vasculares guiados por ultrassom utilizando modelo de tecido animal New technique for ultrasound-guided vascular access training using an animal tissue model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Barbosa de Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ultrassonografia Doppler deixou de ter seu uso apenas como método diagnóstico e vem galgando espaço nos procedimentos terapêuticos. Com maior aplicabilidade e uso de cateteres venosos centrais e procedimentos guiados por ultrassom, há preocupação com a melhora da eficácia e segurança durante o procedimento, assim como com a diminuição das potenciais complicações. Para isso, o treinamento da técnica em modelos (phantoms é desejável. Os modelos industrializados para treinamento em acesso vascular guiado por ultrassom são caros e não reproduzem adequadamente a ecotextura e a densidade dos tecidos humanos. Na tentativa de treinar e aprimorar os profissionais para o uso do ultrassom em procedimentos de acessos vasculares, desenvolveu-se um modelo animal de baixo custo, fácil confecção e excelente aplicabilidade.Duplex ultrasonography has not been used only as a noninvasive diagnostic method. Recently it has been applied for therapeutic procedures. Due to the increasing use and applicability of central venous catheters and eco-guided vascular procedures, there are concerns about improving results regarding accuracy and safety, reducing complication rates during those procedures. It would be desirable that training was accomplished using phantoms before actual procedures in human subjects. Industrialized phantoms are expensive and they do not reproduce human's ecographic density and texture. In order to train and improve ultrasound guided vascular access, we have developed a cheap animal tissue model, which is of easy preparation and applicability.

  9. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-03-07

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent renal biopsy, pathology was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of concomitant D. renale infection and renal cell carcinoma, and the second reported case of D. renale infection of the left kidney alone. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  11. DIGE Analysis of Animal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Alessio; Hamill, Ruth; Mullen, Anne Maria; Elia, Giuliano

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) is an acrylamide gel electrophoresis-based technique for protein separation and quantification in complex mixtures. The technique addresses some of the drawbacks of conventional 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), offering improved sensitivity, more limited experimental variation and accurate within-gel matching. DIGE is based on direct labeling of proteins with isobaric fluorescent dyes (known as CyDyes: Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5) prior to isoelectric focusing (IEF). Here, up to two samples and a reference pool (internal standard) can be mixed and loaded onto IEF for first dimension prior to SDS-PAGE separation in the second dimension. After the electrophoretic run, the gel is imaged at the specific excitation wavelength for each dye, in sequence, and gel scans are recorded separately. For each individual protein spot, intensities recorded at the different wavelengths are integrated and the ratio between volumes normalized to that of the internal standard. This provides an immediate appreciation of protein amount variations under the different conditions tested. In addition, proteins of interest can still be excised and identified with conventional mass spectrometry techniques and further analyzed by other biochemical methods. In this chapter, we describe the application of this methodology to separation and quantitation of proteins mixtures from porcine muscle exudate, collected following centrifugation of muscle specimens (centrifugal drip) for the characterization of quality parameters of importance in the meat industry.

  12. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Black Tea-Derived Catechins and Theaflavins in Tissues of Tea Consuming Animals Using Ultra-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Souradipta; G., Taposh Kumar; Mantha, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    The bioavailability, tissue distribution and metabolic fate of the major tea polyphenols, catechins and theaflavins as well as their gallated derivatives are yet to be precisely elucidated on a single identification platform for assessment of their relative bioefficacy in vivo. This is primarily due to the lack of suitable analytical tools for their simultaneous determination especially in an in vivo setting, which continues to constrain the evaluation of their relative health beneficiary potential and therefore prospective therapeutic application. Herein, we report a rapid and sensitive Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based method for the simultaneous determination of the major catechins and theaflavins in black tea infusions as well as in different vital tissues and body fluids of tea-consuming guinea pigs. This method allowed efficient separation of all polyphenols within seven minutes of chromatographic run and had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of ~5 ng/ml. Using this method, almost all bioactive catechins and theaflavins could be simultaneously detected in the plasma of guinea pigs orally administered 5% black tea for 14 days. Our method could further detect the majority of these polyphenols in the lung and kidney as well as identify the major catechin metabolites in the urine of the tea-consuming animals. Overall, our study presents a novel tool for simultaneous detection and quantitation of both catechins and theaflavins in a single detection platform that could potentially enable precise elucidation of their relative bioavailability and bioefficacy as well as true health beneficiary potential in vivo. Such information would ultimately facilitate the accurate designing of therapeutic strategies utilizing high efficacy formulations of tea polyphenols for effective mitigation of oxidative damage and inflammation in humans as well as prevention of associated diseases. PMID:27695123

  14. Inhibition of renal Na+/H+ exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl 2 (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V max of Na + /H + antiport with no changes in K Na in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na + /H + exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na + -HCO 3 - cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na + -K + -ATPase α-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal

  15. Aortic-Radial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio in End-stage Renal Disease Patients: Association with Age, Body Tissue Hydration Status, Renal Failure Etiology and Five Years of Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bia, Daniel; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Galli, Cintia; Wray, Sandra; Armentano, Ricardo; Zócalo, Yanina; Cabrera-Fischer, Edmundo

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the hydration status may be involved in the arterial stiffening process observed in hemodialyzed patients. The ratio between carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV ratio) was recently proposed to characterize the patient-specific stiffening process. to analyze: (1) the PWV-ratio in healthy and hemodialyzed subjects, analyzing potential changes associated to etiologies of the ESRD, (2) the PWV-ratio and hydration status using multiple-frequency bioimpedance and, (3) the effects of hemodialysis on PWV-ratio in a 5-year follow-up. PWV-ratio was evaluated in 151 patients differentiated by the pathology determining their ESRD. Total body fluid (TBF), intra and extra cellular fluid (ICF, ECF) were measured in 65 of these patients using bioelectrical-impedance. The association between arterial, hemodynamic or fluid parameters was analyzed. PWV-ratio was evaluated in a group of patients (n = 25) 5 years later (follow-up study). PWV-ratio increased in the ESRD cohort with respect to the control group (1.03 ± 0.23 vs. 1.31 ± 0.37; p hydration status, but not with the blood pressure. PWV-ratio could be considered a blood pressure-independent parameter, associated with the age and hydration status of the patient.

  16. Secretory NaCl and volume flow in renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyenbach, K W

    1986-05-01

    This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid. In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na (presumably NaCl) and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions, all of which are considered here. The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney.

  17. Dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation: first report on a conceptual design validated by an animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik HA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hatem A Tawfik,1 Yousef A Fouad,2 Rashad Hafez3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Oculoplastics Service, Ain Shams University, 2Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 3Eye Subspecialty Centre, Cairo, Egypt Objective: To introduce and evaluate the safety of a novel dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece design for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation. Methods: We designed a prototype double-sided handpiece allowing automatic switching between two electrodes with a simple handpiece flip. The concept of the system as a surgical instrument was assessed by an animal experiment. Results: The skin of 15 Wistar albino white rats could be successfully incised and coagulated using both ends of the handpiece, thereby confirming the prospects and clinical applications of the system. Conclusion: The dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece is a simple and safe alternative to the traditional electrosurgery pencil, allowing the simultaneous use of two electrodes without the hassle of frequent electrode replacement. Keywords: radiosurgery, ablative surgery, laser resurfacing, electrocautery, electrosurgery

  18. AFNOR validation of Premi Test, a microbiological-based screening tube-test for the detection of antimicrobial residues in animal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Valerie; Juhel-Gaugain, Murielle; Morétain, Jean-Pierre; Sanders, Pascal

    2008-12-01

    Premi Test contains viable spores of a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus which is sensitive to antimicrobial residues, such as beta-lactams, tetracyclines, macrolides and sulphonamides. The growth of the strain is inhibited by the presence of antimicrobial residues in muscle tissue samples. Premi Test was validated according to AFNOR rules (French Association for Normalisation). The AFNOR validation was based on the comparison of reference methods (French Official method, i.e. four plate test (FPT) and the STAR protocol (five plate test)) with the alternative method (Premi Test). A preliminary study was conducted in an expert laboratory (Community Reference Laboratory, CRL) on both spiked and incurred samples (field samples). Several method performance criteria (sensitivity, specificity, relative accuracy) were estimated and are discussed, in addition to detection capabilities. Adequate agreement was found between the alternative method and the reference methods. However, Premi Test was more sensitive to beta-lactams and sulphonamides than the FPT. Subsequently, a collaborative study with 11 laboratories was organised by the CRL. Blank and spiked meat juice samples were sent to participants. The expert laboratory (CRL) statistically analysed the results. It was concluded that Premi Test could be used for the routine determination of antimicrobial residues in muscle of different animal origin with acceptable analytical performance. The detection capabilities of Premi Test for beta-lactams (amoxicillin, ceftiofur), one macrolide (tylosin) and tetracycline were at the level of the respective maximum residue limits (MRL) in muscle samples or even lower.

  19. Evaluation of the protective effect of agmatine against cisplatin nephrotoxicity with 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy and cystatin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Yavuz Sami; Elri, Tarik; Gulle, Kanat; Can, Murat; Aras, Mustafa; Ozacmak, Hale Sayan; Cabuk, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether agmatine (AGM) has a protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) Saline (control); (2) Cisplatin (CDDP; 7.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally); (3) Agmatine (AGM; 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally); (4) Cisplatin plus agmatine (CDDP + AGM). Agmatine was given before and two consecutive days after cisplatin injection. All the animals underwent renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA. The levels of serum creatinine, cystatin C, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured in addition to examination of the tissue samples with light microscopy. Acute renal injury was assessed with biochemical analyses, scintigraphic imaging, and histopathological evaluation. In the cisplatin group, the levels of BUN, creatinine, and cystatin C were significantly higher than that of the controls. Histopathological examination showed remarkable damage of tubular and glomerular structures. Additionally, cisplatin caused markedly decreased renal 99mTc-DMSA uptake. AGM administration improved renal functions. Serum creatinine, BUN, and cystatin C levels had a tendency to normalize and, scintigraphic and histopathological findings showed significantly less evidence of renal toxicity than those observed in animals receiving cisplatin alone. Our data indicate that AGM has a protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Therefore, it may improve the therapeutic index of cisplatin. In addition, the early renal damage induced by cisplatin and protective effects of AGM against cisplatin nephrotoxicity was accurately demonstrated with 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy.

  20. [Effects of the of renal warm ischemia time on the recovery of filtration function in the experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseinov, R G; Popov, S V; Gorshkov, A N; Sivak, K V; Martov, A G

    2017-12-01

    To investigate experimentally ultrastructural and biochemical signs of acute injury to the renal parenchyma after warm renal ischemia of various duration and subsequent reperfusion. The experiments were performed on 44 healthy conventional female rabbits of the "Chinchilla" breed weighted 2.6-2.7 kg, which were divided into four groups. In the first, control, group included pseudo-operated animals. In the remaining three groups, an experimental model of warm ischemia of renal tissue was created, followed by a 60-minute reperfusion. The renal warm ischemia time was 30, 60 and 90 minutes in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups, respectively. Electron microscopy was used to study ultrastructural disturbances of the renal parenchyma. Biochemical signs of acute kidney damage were detected by measuring the following blood serum and/or urine analytes: NGAL, cystatin C, KIM-1, L-FABP, interleukin-18. The glomerular filtration was evaluated by creatinine clearance, which was determined on days 1, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 35 of follow-up. A 30-minute renal warm ischemia followed by a 60-minute reperfusion induced swelling and edema of the brush membrane, vacuolation of the cytoplasm of the endothelial cells of the proximal tubules, and microvilli restructuring. The observed disorders were reversible, and the epithelial cells retained their viability. After 60 minutes of ischemia and 60 minutes of reperfusion, the observed changes in the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells were much more pronounced, some of the epithelial cells were in a state of apoptosis. 90 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion resulted in electron-microscopic signs of the mass cellular death of the tubular epithelium. Concentration in serum and/or biochemical urine markers of acute renal damage increased sharply after ischemic-reperfusion injury. Restoration of indicators was observed only in cases when the renal warm ischemia time did not exceed 60 minutes. The decrease in creatinine clearance occurred in the

  1. Primary Renal Synovial Sarcoma: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Numan Yıkılmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SS is mainly derived from soft tissues. Primary renal SS is a very rare malignancy with around 60 cases reported in the literature. We report a renal mass which was undistinguishable from urothelial carcinoma clinically and pathologically but diagnosed as a primary renal SS at the definitive pathological diagnosis.

  2. Macrophage diversity in renal injury and repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricardo, Sharon D.; van Goor, Harry; Eddy, Allison A.

    Monocyte-derived macrophages can determine the outcome of the immune response and whether this response contributes to tissue repair or mediates tissue destruction. In addition to their important role in immune-mediated renal disease and host defense, macrophages play a fundamental role in tissue

  3. ConfidenHT™ System for Diagnostic Mapping of Renal Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioufis, Costas; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Tsioufis, Panagiotis; Patras, Rafael; Papadoliopoulou, Maria; Petropoulou, Zoi; Konstantinidis, Dimitris; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2018-05-19

    To summarize the evidence regarding the distribution of renal nerves and their patterns of anatomic variations in animal and human settings. Moreover, the methodology and results of studies regarding renal nerve stimulation (RNS) in both preclinical and clinical models are presented. There are differences regarding the number and the size of renal fibers, as well as their distance from the lumen in the diverse parts of the main renal arteries and the branches. In both animals and humans, RNS is safe and results in an increase of blood pressure (BP) while the effect on heart rate varies. In this context, the ConfidenHT™ system constitutes an integrated solution for effective RNS in humans. Due to the diversity of renal nerve anatomy in humans, arterial areas for more effective renal denervation cannot be homogenously defined. The concept of mapping of renal nerves can improve completeness of renal denervation therapies by means of integrated RNS solutions such as the ConfidenHT™ system.

  4. Effect of olive leaf alcoholic extract on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadreza nasirzade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is present at various degrees in kidney transplants. Several studies suggest that renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR can induce acute kidney injury.  Liver diseases and neurological disorders related to kidney injury is a common clinical problem. Olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. They have better antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging. In this study 50 male rats were allocated randomly into 5 groups: control (intact animals, group-1(I/R 60min+olive leaf extract, group-2 (I/R 60min, group-3(I/R 120min+olive leaf extractand group-4(I/R 120min.The animals  received 100 mg/kg olive leaf extract in0.5 ml drinking water using gavage for 28 days. Other animals received 0.5 ml normal saline by gavages. At the end of the treatment, the level of antioxidant enzymes including TAC, MDA, SOD and GPX were determined in renal tissue. Administration of olive leaf extract can significantly increase activity of TAC, GPX and SOD in group1and 3compared with group2and4. Also, MDA level in renal tissue of treated groups was significantly lower than ischemia-reperfusion groups (p

  5. Protective effects of Rosmarinic acid against renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, H.; Ozturk, H.; Terzi, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential protective effects of Rosmarinic acid (RA) on rats exposed to ischaemia/reperfusion renal injury. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey, and comprised 21 male Spraque Dawley rats weighing 250-270g each. They were divided into three equal groups. Unilaterally nephrectomised rats were subjected to 60 minutes of left renal ischaemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Group 1 had shamoperated animals; group 2 had ischaemia/reperfusion untreated animals; and group 3 had ischaemia/reperfusion animals treated with rosmarinic acid. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and light microscopic findings were evaluated. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Treatment of rats with rosmarinic acid produced a reduction in the serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen compared to the other groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found. The levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were decreased in the renal tissue of group 3, while glutathione peroxidose and superoxide dismutase levels remained unchanged. The injury score decreased in the treatment group rats compared to the untreated group. Rosmarinic acid significantly decreased focal glomerular necrosis, dilatation of Bowman's capsule, degeneration of tubular epithelium, necrosis in tubular epithelium, and tubular dilatation. Conclusions: Rosmarinic acid prevented ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the kidneys by decreasing oxidative stress. (author)

  6. Phosphatidylcholine 36:1 concentration decreases along with demyelination in the cuprizone animal model and post-mortem of multiple sclerosis brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Hildebrand, Kayla D; Nyamoya, Stella D; Amor, Sandra; Bazinet, Richard P; Kipp, Markus

    2018-03-25

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and inflammatory disease. Myelin is enriched in lipids, and more specifically, oleic acid. The goal of this study was to evaluate the concentration of oleic acid following demyelination and remyelination in the cuprizone model, test if these changes occurred in specific lipid species, and whether differences in the cuprizone model correlate with changes observed in post-mortem human brains. Eight-week-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a 0.2% cuprizone diet for 5 weeks and some animals allowed to recover for 11 days. Demyelination, inflammation, and lipid concentrations were measured in the corpus callosum. Standard fatty acid techniques and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry were performed to measure concentrations of fatty acids in total brain lipids and a panel of lipid species within the phosphatidylcholine (PC). Similar measurements were conducted in post-mortem brain tissues of MS patients and were compared to healthy controls. Five weeks of cuprizone administration resulted in demyelination followed by significant remyelination after 11 days of recovery. Compared to control, oleic acid was decreased after 5 weeks of cuprizone treatment and increased during the recovery phase. This decrease in oleic acid was associated with a specific decrease in the PC 36:1 pool. Similar results were observed in human post-mortem brains. Decreases in myelin content in the cuprizone model was accompanied with decreases in oleic acid concentration and is associated with PC 36:1 suggesting that specific lipids could be a potential biomarker for myelin degeneration. The biological relevance of oleic acid for disease progression remains to be verified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Tarnow, L.; Jorsal, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic...

  8. Examination of the structure-toxicity relationships of L-cysteine-S-conjugates of halogenated alkenes and their corresponding mercapturic acids in rat renal tissue slices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijntjes, G.J.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; te Koppele, J.M.; McGuinness, S; Gandolfi, A.J.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1993-01-01

    Rat kidney slices were produced using a modified version of a mechanical tissue slicer. The slices were incubated with various concentrations of l-cysteine conjugates and mercapturic acids of halogenated alkenes in a submersion incubation system. The slices showed a time- and concentration-dependent

  9. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tri Q; Tarnow, Lise; Jorsal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic pat...

  10. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and adenosine 2A receptor-mediated tissue protection: the role of CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Yuan-Ji; Huang, Liping; Ye, Hong; Li, Li; Linden, Joel; Okusa, Mark D

    2006-03-01

    A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)R)-expressing bone marrow (BM)-derived cells contribute to the renal protective effect of A(2A) agonists in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We performed IRI in mice lacking T and B cells to determine whether A(2A)R expressed in CD4+ cells mediate protection from IRI. Rag-1 knockout (KO) mice were protected in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice when subjected to IRI. ATL146e, a selective A(2A) agonist, did not confer additional protection. IFN-gamma is an important early signal in IRI and is thought to contribute to reperfusion injury. Because IFN-gamma is produced by kidney cells and T cells we performed IRI in BM chimeras in which the BM of WT mice was reconstituted with BM from IFN-gamma KO mice (IFN-gamma KO-->WT chimera). We observed marked reduction in IRI in comparison to WT-->WT chimeras providing additional indirect support for the role of T cells. To confirm the role of CD4+ A(2A)R in mediating protection from IRI, Rag-1 KO mice were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. The protection observed in Rag-1 KO mice was reversed in Rag-1 KO mice that were adoptively transferred WT CD4+ cells (WT CD4+-->Rag-1 KO) or A(2A) KO CD4+ cells (A(2A) KO CD4+-->Rag-1 KO). ATL146e reduced injury in WT CD4+-->Rag-1 KO mice but not in A(2A) KO CD4+-->Rag-1 KO mice. Rag-1 KO mice reconstituted with CD4+ cells derived from IFN-gamma KO mice (IFN-gamma CD4+-->Rag-1 KO) were protected from IRI; ATL146e conferred no additional protection. These studies demonstrate that CD4+ IFN-gamma contributes to IRI and that A(2A) agonists mediate protection from IRI through action on CD4+ cells.

  11. Eppur Si Muove: The dynamic nature of physiological control of renal blood flow by the renal sympathetic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter Ricci; Zucker, Irving H

    2017-05-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response are widely appreciated as important regulators of renal blood flow, but the role of the sympathetic nervous system in physiological renal blood flow control remains controversial. Where classic studies using static measures of renal blood flow failed, dynamic approaches have succeeded in demonstrating sympathetic control of renal blood flow under normal physiological conditions. This review focuses on transfer function analysis of renal pressure-flow, which leverages the physical relationship between blood pressure and flow to assess the underlying vascular control mechanisms. Studies using this approach indicate that the renal nerves are important in the rapid regulation of the renal vasculature. Animals with intact renal innervation show a sympathetic signature in the frequency range associated with sympathetic vasomotion that is eliminated by renal denervation. In conscious rabbits, this sympathetic signature exerts vasoconstrictive, baroreflex control of renal vascular conductance, matching well with the rhythmic, baroreflex-influenced control of renal sympathetic nerve activity and complementing findings from other studies employing dynamic approaches to study renal sympathetic vascular control. In this light, classic studies reporting that nerve stimulation and renal denervation do not affect static measures of renal blood flow provide evidence for the strength of renal autoregulation rather than evidence against physiological renal sympathetic control of renal blood flow. Thus, alongside tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response, renal sympathetic outflow should be considered an important physiological regulator of renal blood flow. Clinically, renal sympathetic vasomotion may be important for solving the problems facing the field of therapeutic renal denervation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Capillary/myocyte mismatch in the heart in renal failure--a role for erythropoietin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, K; Buzello, M; Simonaviciene, A; Miltenberger-Miltenyi, G; Koch, A; Nabokov, A; Gross, M L; Gless, B; Mall, G; Ritz, E

    2000-07-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterized by remodeling of the heart with left ventricular hypertrophy (increasing oxygen demand) and capillary deficit leading to capillary/myocyte mismatch (decreasing oxygen supply). Erythropoietin (Epo) has known angiogenic properties causing endothelial cell activation, migration and sprouting, mediated at least in part via the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription) pathway. In uraemic cardiac hypertrophy the presence of diminished capillary supply implies that capillary growth does not keep pace with development of hypertrophy. To investigate whether this was due to a deficit of the angiogenic hormone Epo we examined whether Epo levels are altered and whether an increase in haematocrit by administration of rhEpo influences capillary supply, i.e. capillary/myocyte mismatch in experimental renal failure. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were either subjected to partial renal ablation or sham operation. Only modest amounts of renal tissue were removed so that the rats were not anemic. Subgroups of rats received either human (rh)Epo alone or in combination with unspecific antihypertensive treatment (dihydralazine plus furosemide) in order to control the Epo induced rise in blood pressure. Capillary supply was measured stereologically as capillary length per volume myocardium using the orientator method. Capillary length density was reduced by approximately 25% after partial renal ablation (3237+/-601 vs 4293+/-501 mm/mm(3) in controls). It was not statistically different in animals with partial renal ablation+rhEpo+antihypertensive treatment (3620+/-828 mm/mm(3)) compared to partial ablation alone. The study shows that lack of Epo does not cause, or contribute to, the deficit of capillary growth in the hypertrophied left ventricle of rats with renal failure. In addition, a rise in haematocrit is not accompanied by beneficial effects on alterations of cardiovascular structure in experimental renal failure.

  13. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins Filho, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. METHODS: Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glo...

  14. Local Control Rates of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) to Thoracic, Abdominal, and Soft Tissue Lesions Using Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altoos, Basel; Amini, Arya; Yacoub, Muthanna; Bourlon, Maria T.; Kessler, Elizabeth E.; Flaig, Thomas W.; Fisher, Christine M.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Lam, Elaine T.; Karam, Sana D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the radiographic response rate of SBRT compared to conventional fractionated radiotherapy (CF-EBRT) for thoracic, abdominal, skin and soft tissue RCC lesions treated at our institution. Fifty three lesions where included in the study (36 SBRT, 17 CF-EBRT), treated from 2004 to 2014 at our institution. We included patients that had thoracic, skin & soft tissue (SST), and abdominal metastases of histologically confirmed RCC. The most common SBRT fractionation was 50 Gy in 5 fractions. The median time of follow-up was 16 months (range 3–97 months). Median BED was 216.67 (range 66.67–460.0) for SBRT, and 60 (range 46.67–100.83) for CF-EBRT. Median radiographic local control rates at 12, 24, and 36 months were 100, 93.41, and 93.41 % for lesions treated with SBRT versus 62.02, 35.27 and 35.27 % for those treated with CF-EBRT (p < 0.001). Predictive factors for radiographic local control under univariate analysis included BED ≥ 100 Gy (HR, 0.048; 95 % CI, 0.006–0.382; p = 0.005), dose per fraction ≥ 9 Gy (HR, 0.631; 95 % CI, 0.429–0.931; p = 0.021), and gender (HR, 0.254; 95 % CI, 0.066–0.978; p = 0.048). Under multivariate analysis, there were no significant predictors for local control. Toxicity rates were low and equivalent in both groups, with no grade 4 or 5 side effects reported. SBRT is safe and effective for the treatment of RCC metastases to thoracic, abdominal and integumentary soft tissues. Radiographic response rates were greater and more durable using SBRT compared to CF-EBRT. Further prospective trials are needed to evaluate efficacy and safety of SBRT for RCC metastases

  15. ADMINISTRATION OF H2 BLOCKERS IN NSAID INDUCED GASTROPATHY IN RATS: effect on histopathological changes in gastric, hepatic and renal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin MANOCHA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induces gastric mucosal lesions because of its acidic properties. Ranitidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, has proved beneficial in patients with gastric ulcers. Objective The present study was performed to assess the effect of administering ranitidine in Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, nimesulide induced gastropathy, and their effect on the histopathology of stomach, kidney and liver. Methods Diclofenac, nimesulide, and ranitidine were administered in doses of 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 14 days, and their effect on gastric volume, acidity, mean ulcer number, and gastric pH. In addition, histopathological examination was also performed on sections of stomach, kidney and liver. Results Following the administration of diclofenac or nimesulide, all the gastric parameters were significantly altered as well as the histopathology of stomach, liver and kidney. In the control group, the renal sections showed normal glomeruli with no thickening of glomerular basement membrane, while in diclofenac alone, nimesulide alone, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the thickening of glomerular basement membrane was observed. These alterations were observed to be reversed in the ranitidine with diclofenac group. In the sections from the liver, the control group showed anastomosing plates and cords of cuboidal hepatocytes with round well stained nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, mild dilatation of sinusoids is seen coupled with prominence of central vein. In the diclofenac alone and nimesulide alone groups, the proximal and distal convoluted tubules show mild focal tubular necrosis. In the gastric sections, the control group showed several folds forming villi, and the epithelial lining surface of the mucosa. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the duodenum showed

  16. ADMINISTRATION OF H2 BLOCKERS IN NSAID INDUCED GASTROPATHY IN RATS: effect on histopathological changes in gastric, hepatic and renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, Sachin; Lal, Dushyant; Venkataraman, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induces gastric mucosal lesions because of its acidic properties. Ranitidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, has proved beneficial in patients with gastric ulcers. The present study was performed to assess the effect of administering ranitidine in Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, nimesulide) induced gastropathy, and their effect on the histopathology of stomach, kidney and liver. Diclofenac, nimesulide, and ranitidine were administered in doses of 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 14 days, and their effect on gastric volume, acidity, mean ulcer number, and gastric pH. In addition, histopathological examination was also performed on sections of stomach, kidney and liver. Following the administration of diclofenac or nimesulide, all the gastric parameters were significantly altered as well as the histopathology of stomach, liver and kidney. In the control group, the renal sections showed normal glomeruli with no thickening of glomerular basement membrane, while in diclofenac alone, nimesulide alone, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the thickening of glomerular basement membrane was observed. These alterations were observed to be reversed in the ranitidine with diclofenac group. In the sections from the liver, the control group showed anastomosing plates and cords of cuboidal hepatocytes with round well stained nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, mild dilatation of sinusoids is seen coupled with prominence of central vein. In the diclofenac alone and nimesulide alone groups, the proximal and distal convoluted tubules show mild focal tubular necrosis. In the gastric sections, the control group showed several folds forming villi, and the epithelial lining surface of the mucosa. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the duodenum showed scattered inflammatory cells composed predominantly of lymphocytes. In

  17. Renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, S.; Malik, N.; Khandelwal, N.

    1990-01-01

    Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs

  18. Renal shear wave velocity by acoustic radiation force impulse did not reflect advanced renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Tomoaki; Koda, Masahiko; Sugihara, Takaaki; Sugihara, Shinobu; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Kenichi; Matono, Tomomitsu; Hosho, Keiko; Mae, Yukari; Iyama, Takuji; Fukui, Takeaki; Fukuda, Satoko; Munemura, Chishio; Isomoto, Hajime

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse is a noninvasive method for evaluating tissue elasticity on ultrasound. Renal shear wave velocity measured by this technique has not been fully investigated in patients with renal disease. The aim of the present study was to compare renal shear wave velocity in end-stage renal disease patients and that in patients without chronic kidney disease and to investigate influencing factors. Renal shear wave velocities were measured in 59 healthy young subjects (control group), 31 subjects without chronic kidney disease (non-CKD group), and 39 end-stage renal disease patients (ESRD group). Each measurement was performed 10 times at both kidneys, and the mean value of eight of 10 measurements, excluding the maximum and minimum values, was compared. Renal shear wave velocity could be measured in all subjects. Renal shear wave velocity in the control group was higher than in the non-CKD group and in the ESRD group, and no difference was found between the non-CKD group and the ESRD group. Age and depth were negatively correlated to the renal shear wave velocity. In multiple regression analysis, age and depth were independent factors for renal shear wave velocity, while renal impairment was not. There was no difference between the non-CKD group and the ESRD group, even when ages were matched and depth was adjusted. Renal shear wave velocity was not associated with advanced renal impairment. However, it reflected alteration of renal aging, and this technique may be useful to detect renal impairment in the earlier stages. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  19. Renal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorico F. da Costa Neto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal hemangioma is a relatively rare benign tumor, seldom diagnosed as a cause of hematuria. CASE REPORT: A female 40-year old patient presented with continuous gross hematuria, anemia and episodic right lumbar pain, with onset about 3 months previously. The patient underwent multiple blood transfusions during her hospital stay and extensive imaging propedeutics was performed. Semi-rigid ureterorenoscopy evidenced a bleeding focus in the upper calix of the right kidney, with endoscopic treatment being unfeasible. The patient underwent right upper pole nephrectomy and presented a favorable outcome. Histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen showed that it was a renal hemangioma. COMMENTS: Imaging methods usually employed for diagnostic investigation of hematuria do not have good sensitivity for renal hemangioma. However, they are important to exclude the most frequent differential diagnoses. The ureterorenoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice and endoscopic treatment can be feasible when the lesion is accessible and electrocautery or laser are available. We emphasize the open surgical treatment as a therapeutic option upon failure of less invasive methods.

  20. Simultaneous Occurrence of Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Ureter and Dioctophyma Renale Infection: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Young; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Byung Hoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Su Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, You Sung

    2013-01-01

    A common soft-tissue tumor, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) occurs in mainly limbs, retroperitoneal and peritoneal space, and occurrence in kidneys or the ureter is very rare. Dioctophyma renale (D. renale) since first discovered in dog's kidney was found in the kidneys of animals such as mink, coyote and weasel, and human infection has only been reported in only approximately 20 cases worldwide. MFH of the ureter and D. renale infection very rarely occur in humans, and has not been reported in our country. Here, we described the case of an adult man in whom MFH of the ureter simultaneously occurred with D. renale infection. An initial CT scan showed a well-defined, persistent, enhancing polypoid mass-like lesion in the upper ureter. After 10 months, D. renale was excreted in the urine and a follow-up CT scan showed an increase in the size of that lesion and irregular thickening of the ureter wall. The diagnosis of MFH was pathologically verified.

  1. Role of oxidants/inflammation in declining renal function in chronic kidney disease and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassara, Helen; Torreggiani, Massimo; Post, James B; Zheng, Feng; Uribarri, Jaime; Striker, Gary E

    2009-12-01

    Oxidant stress (OS) and inflammation increase in normal aging and in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as observed in human and animal studies. In cross-sectional studies of the US population, these changes are associated with a decrease in renal function, which is exhibited by a significant proportion of the population. However, since many normal adults have intact renal function, and longitudinal studies show that some persons maintain normal renal function with age, the link between OS, inflammation, and renal decline is not clear. In aging mice, greater oxidant intake is associated with increased age-related CKD and mortality, which suggests that interventions that reduce OS and inflammation may be beneficial for older individuals. Both OS and inflammation can be readily lowered in normal subjects and patients with CKD stage 3-4 by a simple dietary modification that lowers intake and results in reduced serum and tissue levels of advanced glycation end products. Diabetic patients, including those with microalbuminuria, have a decreased ability to metabolize and excrete oxidants prior to observable changes in serum creatinine. Thus, OS and inflammation may occur in the diabetic kidney at an early time. We review the evidence that oxidants in the diet directly lead to increased serum levels of OS and inflammatory mediators in normal aging and in CKD. We also discuss a simple dietary intervention that helps reduce OS and inflammation, an important and achievable therapeutic goal for patients with CKD and aging individuals with reduced renal function.

  2. Simultaneous Occurrence of Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Ureter and Dioctophyma Renale Infection: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Young; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Byung Hoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Su Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, You Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    A common soft-tissue tumor, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) occurs in mainly limbs, retroperitoneal and peritoneal space, and occurrence in kidneys or the ureter is very rare. Dioctophyma renale (D. renale) since first discovered in dog's kidney was found in the kidneys of animals such as mink, coyote and weasel, and human infection has only been reported in only approximately 20 cases worldwide. MFH of the ureter and D. renale infection very rarely occur in humans, and has not been reported in our country. Here, we described the case of an adult man in whom MFH of the ureter simultaneously occurred with D. renale infection. An initial CT scan showed a well-defined, persistent, enhancing polypoid mass-like lesion in the upper ureter. After 10 months, D. renale was excreted in the urine and a follow-up CT scan showed an increase in the size of that lesion and irregular thickening of the ureter wall. The diagnosis of MFH was pathologically verified.

  3. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  4. Radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, Silvia

    1994-01-01

    Between the diagnostic techniques using radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine it find renal studies.A brief description about renal glomerular filtration(GFR) and reliability renal plasma flux (ERPF),renal blood flux measurement agents (RBF),renal scintillation agents and radiation dose estimates by organ physiology was given in this study.tabs

  5. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  6. The Protective Role of Tempol Against Oxidative Stress-Related Renal Impairment Induced by Gamma Rays in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekawy, H.M.S.; Elkhouly, W.A.; Tawfik, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1 oxyl) is a naturally occurring substance that counteracts the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues and has been reported to permeate the biological membranes. In this study, tempol with dose of 18 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks has been shown to be effective in preventing several of the adverse consequences of oxidative stress and inflammation that underlie radiation damage. Adult rats were exposed to a total dose of 6 Gy gamma rays to determine the protective role of tempol on the biochemistry of the injured kidney because gamma rays displayed significant augmentation in renal oxidative modifications markers.The results indicated that plasma renal function tests; urea (Ur), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA) and sodium (Na), and plasma renal tubular injury markers; γ -glutamyltransferase ( γ -GT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were increased significantly in gamma rays group. In addition, the renal oxidative stress parameters; malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC) and protein carbonyl (PC), were increased significantly, and reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased significantly in gamma rays group. Moreover, the levels of renal antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were decreased significantly, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was in creased significantly in gamma rays group.The antioxidant treatment with tempol ameliorates gamma rays-induced biochemical alterations and dysfunction of kidney.Tempol, at levels within tolerable nutritional strategy, reduced the oxidative modification-related renal impairment induced by gamma radiation in rats.

  7. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teige Jon

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure.

  8. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  9. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal denervation (RDN) has, within recent years, been suggested as a novel treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge on this procedure as well as limitations and questions that remain to be answered. RECENT FINDINGS...... selection, anatomical and physiological effects of RDN as well as possible beneficial effects on other diseases with increased sympathetic activity. The long awaited Symplicity HTN-3 (2014) results illustrated that the RDN group and the sham-group had similar reductions in BP. SUMMARY: Initial studies...

  10. Renal papillary necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asking your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bushinsky DA, Monk RD. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. ...

  11. Analysis of Chloroquine and Metabolites Directly from Whole-body Animal Tissue Sections by Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parson, Whitney B [ORNL; Koeniger, Stormy L [Abbott Laboratories; Johnson, Robert W [Abbott Laboratories; Erickson, Jamie [Abbott Laboratories; Tian, Yu [Abbott Laboratories; Stedman, Christopher A. [Abbott Laboratories; Schwartz, Annette [Abbott Laboratories; Tarcsa, Edit [Abbott Laboratories; Cole, Roderic [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The rapid and direct analysis of the amount and spatial distribution of exogenous chloroquine and chloroquine metabolites from tissue sections by liquid extraction surface sampling analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) was demonstrated. LESA-MS results compared well with previously published chloroquine quantification data collected by organ excision, extraction and fluorescent detection. The ability to directly sample and analyze spatially-resolved exogenous molecules from tissue sections with minimal sample preparation and analytical method development has the potential to facilitate the assessment of target tissue penetration of pharmaceutical compounds, to establish pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships, and to complement established pharmacokinetic methods used in the drug discovery process during tissue distribution assessment.

  12. Cell therapy in renal and cardiovascular disease Terapia celular en enfermedades renales y cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Senior Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been important advances in the field of molecular biology, the mechanisms responsible for nephrogenesis and the factors that modulate the process of development, proliferation, growth, and maturation during fetal and adult life have not been thoroughly explained. Animals, including mammals, share the intrinsic ability to regenerate tissues and organs as an important biological defense mechanism. In the case of the kidney, after tissue damage secondary to injury, anatomical and functional recovery of integrity is achieved, accompanied by the activation of a complex, poorly understood process, leading to the replacement of damaged tubular cells by functional ones that reorganize tubular architecture. This regeneration and repair process is produced by somatic, exogenous, adult stem cells, and probably by intrinsic renal stem cells, that are responsible for maintaining renal homeostasis Aunque se han logrado grandes avances en el campo de la biología molecular, todavía no se han esclarecido completamente los mecanismos responsables de la organogénesis y los factores que modulan el proceso de desarrollo, proliferación, crecimiento y maduración celulares durante la vida fetal y adulta. Los animales comparten la capacidad de regenerar tejidos y órganos, como un mecanismo biológico importante de defensa. En el caso del riñón, luego del daño tisular secundario a una noxa, se produce recuperación anatómica y funcional de la integridad, acompañada por la activación de un proceso sofisticado, mal comprendido, que lleva al reemplazo de las células tubulares dañadas por otras funcionalmente normales que reorganizan la arquitectura tubular. Este fenómeno de recambio se produce gracias a la presencia de células madre adultas somáticas exógenas, responsables del proceso de mantenimiento de la homeostasis renal, y posiblemente por células renales intrínsecas.

  13. Renal Sympathetic Denervation System via Intraluminal Ultrasonic Ablation: Therapeutic Intravascular Ultrasound Design and Preclinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, Gil; Szwarcfiter, Iris; Bausback, Yvonne; Jonas, Michael

    2017-05-01

    To assess the safety and performance of a nonfocused and nonballooned ultrasonic (US) catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) system in normotensive swine. RDN with the therapeutic intravascular US catheter was evaluated in 3 experiments: (i) therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs a control group of untreated animals with follow-up of 30, 45, and 90 days (n = 6; n = 12 renal arteries for each group); (ii) therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs radiofrequency (RF) RDN in the contralateral artery in the same animal (n = 2; n = 4 renal arteries); and (iii) therapeutic intravascular US RDN in a recently stent-implanted renal artery (n = 2; n = 4 renal arteries). In the first experiment, therapeutic intravascular US RDN was safe, without angiographic evidence of dissection or renal artery stenosis. Neuronal tissue vacuolization, nuclei pyknosis, and perineuronal inflammation were evident after RDN, without renal artery wall damage. Norepinephrine levels were significantly lower after therapeutic intravascular US RDN after 30, 45, and 90 days compared with the control group (200.17 pg/mg ± 63.35, 184.75 pg/mg ± 44.51, and 203.43 pg/mg ± 58.54, respectively, vs 342.42 pg/mg ± 79.97). In the second experiment, deeper neuronal ablation penetrance was found with therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs RF RDN (maximal penetrance from endothelium of 7.0 mm vs 3.5 mm, respectively). There was less damage to the artery wall after therapeutic intravascular US RDN than with RF RDN, after which edema and injured endothelium were seen. In the third experiment, denervation inside the stent-implanted segments was feasible without damage to the renal artery wall or stent. The therapeutic intravascular US system performed safely and reduced norepinephrine levels. Deeper penetrance and better preservation of vessel wall were observed with therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs RF RDN. Neuronal ablations were observed in stent-implanted renal arteries. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published

  14. Effect of apricot seeds on renal structure of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kolesárová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present in apricot seeds and is degraded to cyanide by chewing or grinding. The animal data available did not provide a suitable basis for acute human health hazard. The apricot seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment of several diseases especially cancer. The present study demonstrates the potential effect of short-term oral application of apricot seeds on renal structure of rabbit as a biological model. Meat line P91 Californian rabbits from the experimental farm of the Animal Production Research Centre Nitra (Slovak Republic were used in the experiments. The animals were randomly divided into the three groups (C-control, P1, P2 - experimental groups leading to 8 rabbits in each group. The control group received no apricot seeds while the experimental groups P1 and P2 received a daily dose 60 and 300 mg.kg-1 b.w. of crushed apricot seeds mixed with feed during 28 days, respectively. After 28 days all animals were slaughtered and kidney tissue was processed by standard histopathological techniques. Tissue sections were observed under an optical microscope with camera Olympus CX41 (Olympus, Japan at a magnification of 10 x 0.40. The basic morphometric criteria of the preparations were quantified using image program MeasurIT (Olympus, Japan. From each sample (n = 24 three histological sections with five different fields of view in each section were analysed and followed parameters were analysed: diameter of renal corpuscles (RC, diameter of glomeruli (G, diameter of tubules (T and the height of epithelial tubules (E. In our study, we observed a slight increase in the most frequent occurrence parenchyma dystrophy experimental animals. These changes were more pronounced in the experimental group (P2 rabbits received a daily dose of 300 mg.kg-1 of body weight of apricot seeds. Most often, we have found enlarged glomeruli filling the entire space of the capsule, and also glomerular

  15. Renal artery nerve distribution and density in the porcine model: biologic implications for the development of radiofrequency ablation therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Armando; Rousselle, Serge; Palmieri, Taylor; Rate, William R; Wicks, Joan; Degrange, Ashley; Hyon, Chelsea M; Gongora, Carlos A; Hart, Randy; Grundy, Will; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F

    2013-12-01

    Catheter-based renal artery denervation has demonstrated to be effective in decreasing blood pressure among patients with refractory hypertension. The anatomic distribution of renal artery nerves may influence the safety and efficacy profile of this procedure. We aimed to describe the anatomic distribution and density of periarterial renal nerves in the porcine model. Thirty arterial renal sections were included in the analysis by harvesting a tissue block containing the renal arteries and perirenal tissue from each animal. Each artery was divided into 3 segments (proximal, mid, and distal) and assessed for total number, size, and depth of the nerves according to the location. Nerve counts were greatest proximally (45.62% of the total nerves) and decreased gradually distally (mid, 24.58%; distal, 29.79%). The distribution in nerve size was similar across all 3 sections (∼40% of the nerves, 50-100 μm; ∼30%, 0-50 μm; ∼20%, 100-200 μm; and ∼10%, 200-500 μm). In the arterial segments ∼45% of the nerves were located within 2 mm from the arterial wall whereas ∼52% of all nerves were located within 2.5 mm from the arterial wall. Sympathetic efferent fibers outnumbered sensory afferent fibers overwhelmingly, intermixed within the nerve bundle. In the porcine model, renal artery nerves are seen more frequently in the proximal segment of the artery. Nerve size distribution appears to be homogeneous throughout the artery length. Nerve bundles progress closer to the arterial wall in the distal segments of the artery. This anatomic distribution may have implications for the future development of renal denervation therapies. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy induced changes in Cox-1, Cox-2 and NOSIII vascular and renal expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, Rosa A; Bracho, Ismael; Alvarez, Victor M Pérez; Anguiano, Liliana; López, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish if there is a mutual regulation between COX and NOS in vascular and renal tissue during pregnancy, we measured the protein expression of COX-1, COX-2 and NOSIII by Western blot comparing the thoracic and abdominal aorta and the renal cortex and medulla of non pregnant and pregnant (21st day) Wistar rats. We found there was no difference in the quantity of protein of any of the two isoforms of COX between the two segments of the aorta of non pregnant animals while an increased expression of both COX-1 And COX-2 was found in the abdominal compared to the thoracic segment of the pregnant rats. An increased expression of NOS III was found in the abdominal segment of the aorta form pregnant rats. No changes were found between pregnant and no pregnant animals in the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the renal cortex or medulla while an increased expression of NOS III was found in the cortex from pregnant compared to non pregnant animals. These results suggest the influence of pregnancy is not homogeneous along the aorta and also that a balance between prostaglandins and nitric oxide is responsible of the blunted vascular reactivity during pregnancy in the rat.

  17. CT after renal extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (ESWL). Pt. 2. Correlation with histopathologic findings three weeks after animal experiment. Computertomographie nach extrakorporaler Stosswellen-Lithotripsie (ESWL) der Nieren. T. 2. Korrelation mit histopathologischen Befunden nach 3 Wochen im Tierexperiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, T.; Kunisch, M.; Stadtbaeumer, M.; Schild, H.; Thelen, M. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische Strahlenkunde); Stoerkel, S. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Pathologisches Inst.); El-Damanhoury, H. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik); Hennes, H.J. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Anaesthesiologische Klinik)

    1991-05-01

    In a pig model, 13 kidneys were treated with a second generation lithotripter and examined by CT immediately and three weeks after ESWL. 9 (69%) acute traumatic lesions were seen in CT without, and 10 (77%) in CT with contrast in the 13 treated kidneys. After 3 weeks only 1 residual lesion persisted in CT contrast studies. On the histopathologic specimens residuals of bleeding were found in 3 (23%) of the 13 kidneys treated, which could not be seen in CT studies. CT is accurate in monitoring acute traumatic renal lesions after ESWL, but appears less reliable in chronic ones. Three weeks after ESWL traumatic renal lesions show marked regression. (orig.).

  18. Controlled circumferential renal sympathetic denervation with preservation of the renal arterial wall using intraluminal ultrasound: a next-generation approach for treating sympathetic overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Roth, Austin; Ladich, Elena; Shen, Kai; Coleman, Leslie; Joner, Michael; Virmani, Renu

    2015-02-01

    The Paradise Ultrasound Renal Denervation System is a next-generation catheter-based device which was used to investigate whether the target ablation area can be controlled by changing ultrasound energy and duration to optimise nerve injury while preventing damage to the arterial wall. Five ultrasound doses were tested in a thermal gel model. Catheter-based ultrasound denervation was performed in 15 swine (29 renal arteries) to evaluate five different doses in vivo, and animals were euthanised at seven days for histopathologic assessment. In the gel model, the peak temperature was highest in the low power-long duration (LP-LD) dose, followed by the mid-low power-mid duration (MLP-MD) dose and the mid-high power-short duration (MHP-SD) dose, and lowest in the mid power-short duration (MP-SD) dose and the high power-ultra short duration (HP-USD) dose. In the animal study, total ablation area was significantly greater in the LP-LD group, followed by the MLP-MD group, and it was least in the HP-USD, MP-SD and MHP-SD groups (p=0.02). Maximum distance was significantly greater in the LP-LD group, followed by the MLP-MD group, the MHP-SD group, and the HP-USD group, and shortest in the MP-SD group (p=0.007). The short spare distance was not different among the five groups (p=0.38). Renal artery damage was minimal, while preserving significant nerve damage in all groups. The Paradise Ultrasound Renal Denervation System is a controllable system where total ablation area and depth of ablation can be optimised by changing ultrasound power and duration while sparing renal arterial tissue damage but allowing sufficient peri-arterial nerve damage.

  19. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  20. Regulations of enzymes in animals: effects of developmental processes, cancer, and radiation. Final report. [Analysis of enzymes in human cancer tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, W.E.

    1978-09-01

    Low grade tumors of various origins are chemically very different. High grade tumors, whatever their origin, are chemically very similar to one another and to embryonic tissues. Analyses of human tumor tissues and sera from cancer patients were conducted for two new groups of enzymes expected to be informative about the physiological state of the tissue. The enzymes measured in tumors and sera were chosen because they were characteristic of fetal tissues and high grade neoplasms in rats, and could, therefore, be expected to exist in human cancers (and fetuses) and to predominate more in those of higher grade malignancies. Results indicated that the classification of enzymes (or isozymes) as fetal or adult types in the rat could be extended to man. Human cancers do contain most of the enzymes expected, and lack others, as expected. Analyses of the same enzymes in sera gave less clear results. It was recognized at the outset that no simple proportionality existed between tissue and serum levels. The tendency existed in cancer patients to have in serum elevated amounts of those enzymes characteristic of undifferentiated tissues. The abnormalities in a specific patient are conditioned by his physiological state, by the grade of his tumor, and by the mass of tumor present. The tumor mass had a very significant effect, so that monitoring this tumor burden by chemical means should be quite possible. The latest work focused on particular enzymes that have not previously been measured in cancer patients. These studies concentrated on pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P-5-C) reductase and its inhibition and on lysosomal glucosidases and phosphatases. Both groups are relatively high in fetal and neoplastic tissues.

  1. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Alkhamees, Osama Abdelrahman; Aleisa, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Alroujayee, Abdulaziz S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of thi...

  2. Use of alkaline or enzymatic sample pretreatment prior to characterization of gold nanoparticles in animal tissue by single-particle ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Brabrand, Myung Suk Jung; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    , not much is known about the applicability of spICPMS for determination of NPs in complex matrices such as biological tissues. In the present study, alkaline and enzymatic treatments were applied to solubilize spleen samples from rats, which had been administered 60-nm gold nanoparticles (Au......NPs) intravenously. The results showed that similar size distributions of AuNPs were obtained independent of the sample preparation method used. Furthermore, the quantitative results for AuNP mass concentration obtained with spICPMS following alkaline sample pretreatment coincided with results for total gold...... concentration obtained by conventional ICPMS analysis of acid-digested tissue. The recovery of AuNPs from enzymatically digested tissue, however, was approximately four times lower. Spiking experiments of blank spleen samples with AuNPs showed that the lower recovery was caused by an inferior transport...

  3. Real-time estimation of lesion depth and control of radiofrequency ablation within ex vivo animal tissues using a neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yearnchee Curtis; Chan, Terence Chee-Hung; Sahakian, Alan Varteres

    2018-01-04

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), a method of inducing thermal ablation (cell death), is often used to destroy tumours or potentially cancerous tissue. Current techniques for RFA estimation (electrical impedance tomography, Nakagami ultrasound, etc.) require long compute times (≥ 2 s) and measurement devices other than the RFA device. This study aims to determine if a neural network (NN) can estimate ablation lesion depth for control of bipolar RFA using complex electrical impedance - since tissue electrical conductivity varies as a function of tissue temperature - in real time using only the RFA therapy device's electrodes. Three-dimensional, cubic models comprised of beef liver, pork loin or pork belly represented target tissue. Temperature and complex electrical impedance from 72 data generation ablations in pork loin and belly were used for training the NN (403 s on Xeon processor). NN inputs were inquiry depth, starting complex impedance and current complex impedance. Training-validation-test splits were 70%-0%-30% and 80%-10%-10% (overfit test). Once the NN-estimated lesion depth for a margin reached the target lesion depth, RFA was stopped for that margin of tissue. The NN trained to 93% accuracy and an NN-integrated control ablated tissue to within 1.0 mm of the target lesion depth on average. Full 15-mm depth maps were calculated in 0.2 s on a single-core ARMv7 processor. The results show that a NN could make lesion depth estimations in real-time using less in situ devices than current techniques. With the NN-based technique, physicians could deliver quicker and more precise ablation therapy.

  4. Various musculoskeletal manifestations of chronic renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.Y.; Ong, K.O.

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal manifestations in chronic renal insufficiency are caused by complex bone metabolism alterations, now described under the umbrella term of chronic kidney disease mineral- and bone-related disorder (CKD-MBD), as well as iatrogenic processes related to renal replacement treatment. Radiological imaging remains the mainstay of disease assessment. This review aims to illustrate the radiological features of CKD-MBD, such as secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, adynamic bone disease, soft-tissue calcifications; as well as features associated with renal replacement therapy, such as aluminium toxicity, secondary amyloidosis, destructive spondyloarthropathy, haemodialysis-related erosive arthropathy, tendon rupture, osteonecrosis, and infection

  5. Comparison of veterinary drug residue results in animal tissues by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole ... use of a commercial lipid removal product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods must be monitored to ensure food safety, verify proper veterinary practices, enforce legal limits in domestic and imported foods, and other purposes. A common goal in drug residue analysis in foods is to achieve acceptable monitoring results for as m...

  6. Citrato y litiasis renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Del Valle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El citrato es un potente inhibidor de la cristalización de sales de calcio. La hipocitraturia es una alteración bioquímica frecuente en la formación de cálculos de calcio en adultos y especialmente en niños. El pH ácido (sistémico, tubular e intracelular es el principal determinante de la excreción de citrato en la orina. Si bien la mayoría de los pacientes con litiasis renal presentan hipocitraturia idiopática, hay un número de causas para esta anormalidad que incluyen acidosis tubular renal distal, hipokalemia, dietas ricas en proteínas de origen animal y/o dietas bajas en álcalis y ciertas drogas, como la acetazolamida, topiramato, IECA y tiazidas. Las modificaciones dietéticas que benefician a estos pacientes incluyen: alta ingesta de líquidos y frutas, especialmente cítricos, restricción de sodio y proteínas, con consumo normal de calcio. El tratamiento con citrato de potasio es efectivo en pacientes con hipocitraturia primaria o secundaria y en aquellos desordenes en la acidificación, que provocan un pH urinario persistentemente ácido. Los efectos adversos son bajos y están referidos al tracto gastrointestinal. Si bien hay diferentes preparaciones de citrato (citrato de potasio, citrato de sodio, citrato de potasio-magnesio en nuestro país solo está disponible el citrato de potasio en polvo que es muy útil para corregir la hipocitraturia y el pH urinario bajo, y reducir marcadamente la recurrencia de la litiasis renal.

  7. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and inflammation in adipose tissue occur at different times in animals submitted to a high-sugar/fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisqueti, Fabiane Valentini; Nascimento, André Ferreira; Minatel, Igor Otávio; Dias, Marcos Correa; Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; Berchieri-Ronchi, Carolina; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia A; Corrêa, Camila Renata

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, triggered in adipose tissue, which may occur due to an excess of SFA from the diet that can be recognised by Toll-like receptor-4. This condition is involved in the development of components of the metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, especially insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and adipose tissue inflammation as a function of the period of time in which rats were submitted to a high-sugar/fat diet (HSF). Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups to receive the control diet (C) or the HSF for 6, 12 or 24 weeks. HSF increased the adiposity index in all HSF groups compared with the C group. HSF was associated with higher plasma TAG, glucose, insulin and leptin levels. Homeostasis model assessment increased in HSF compared with C rats at 24 weeks. Both TNF-α and IL-6 were elevated in the epididymal adipose tissue of HSF rats at 24 weeks compared with HSF at 6 weeks and C at 24 weeks. Only the HSF group at 24 weeks showed increased expression of both Toll-like receptor-4 and NF-κB. More inflammatory cells were found in the HSF group at 24 weeks. We can conclude that the metabolic syndrome occurs independently of the inflammatory response in adipose tissue and that inflammation is associated with hypertrophy of adipocytes, which varies according to duration of exposure to the HSF.

  9. The influence of thiazolidinediones on adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo: potential modifiers of intramuscular adipose tissue deposition in meat animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, G J; Poulos, S P; Pringle, T D; Azain, M J

    2008-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZD) are insulin sensitizing agents currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are widely used as adipogenic agents because they are ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a key adipogenic transcription factor. In vivo and in vitro studies of TZD as potential modifiers of intramuscular or marbling adipogenesis are reviewed. Thiazolidinedione-induced adipogenesis has been reported in numerous cell culture systems, including rodent, human, bovine, and porcine adipose tissue stromal-vascular (S-V) cell cultures. Studies of porcine S-V cell cultures derived from semitendinosus muscle show that TZD can potentially modify intramuscular or marbling adipogenesis. Preadipocyte recruitment was TZD-dependent in muscle S-V cultures but TZD-independent in adipose S-V cultures. There appear to be differences between adipocytes in muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue, reminiscent of differences observed in adipocytes from different adipose tissue depots. Troglitazone, a TZD, induces marbling adipogenesis without inhibiting myogenesis when cells are grown on laminin precoated culture dishes. Additionally, troglitazone treatment does not increase lipid content in porcine adipose tissue or muscle S-V cell cultures. Thiazolidinedione treatment increases lipid content of muscle in rodents and humans; however, rosiglitazone treatment for 49 d in pigs did not influence muscle lipid content and meat quality, but several significant changes in muscle fatty acid composition were observed. Although timing of treatment with TZD needs to be optimized, evidence suggests these compounds may enhance marbling deposition in swine.

  10. [Kidney function and renal cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzedine, Hassan; Méjean, Arnaud; Escudier, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Although radical nephrectomy is still practiced in many patients with large renal tumors, oncology and nephrology arguments for kidney-sparing approach for small renal masses has taken over this first. Indeed, partial nephrectomy provides equivalent oncologic results while preserving renal function and thereby limit morbidity and cardiovascular mortality related to chronic kidney disease. In addition, patients who develop kidney cancer often have medical comorbidities that may affect renal function, such as diabetes and hypertension. Histological examination of renal tissue adjacent to the tumor showed significant pathological changes in the majority of patients. For elderly patients or patients with comorbidities, active surveillance allows kidney-sparing approach with extremely low rates of progression and metastasis of cancer disease. Despite these significant advances in understanding for the treatment of small renal masses, partial nephrectomy remains underused. Better management must take into account the preservation of renal function in order to increase overall survival. A strategy for the systematic evaluation of renal function in patients with CR, with multidisciplinary staff (nephrologist urologist and oncologist), is therefore highly desirable.

  11. Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: linde.witzani@aon.at; Brugger, Peter Christian [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Csapone-Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. Patients and methods: Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T superconducting unit with a phased array coil was used in patients from 16 to 39 weeks' gestation. The imaging protocol included T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo, T2-weighted balanced angiography and diffusion-weighted sequences. Slice thickness ranged from 3 to 5 mm. Results: Fetal kidney length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the linear regression: kidney length (mm) = 0.190 x gestational age (d) - 8.034 (R {sup 2} 0.883, p < 0.001). Paired t-test analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference between the ratio of renal tissue signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity and the ratio of liver signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity on T2-weighted images (t = -50.963, d.f. = 162, p < 0.001), with renal tissue hyperintense to liver tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient in relation to gestational age was described by the equation: ADC ({mu}m{sup 2}/s) = 0.0302 x square (gestational age (d)) - 14.202 x gestational age (d) + 2728.6 (R {sup 2} = 0.225, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The length, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient of the fetal kidney change significantly with gestational age. The presented data may help in the prenatal diagnosis of renal anomalies.

  12. Characterization of hemodynamics and oxygenation in the renal cortex of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Arakelyan, Karen; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2015-03-01

    We have performed a pre-clinical study on 13 rats to investigate the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy for quantification of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the renal cortex of small animals. These measurements were combined with laser-Doppler fluxmetry and a fluorescence quenching technique for quantification of tissue oxygen tension. Hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation were determined from experimental data by a Monte Carlo model. The methods were applied to investigate and compare temporal changes during several types of interventions such as arterial and venous occlusions, as well as hyperoxia, hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by different mixtures of the inspired gas.

  13. Application of Hanging Drop Technique for Kidney Tissue Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Wang, Ximing; Boone, Jasmine; Wie, Jin; Yip, Kay-Pong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Lei; Liu, Ruisheng

    2017-01-01

    The hanging drop technique is a well-established method used in culture of animal tissues. However, this method has not been used in adult kidney tissue culture yet. This study was to explore the feasibility of using this technique for culturing adult kidney cortex to study the time course of RNA viability in the tubules and vasculature, as well as the tissue structural integrity. In each Petri dish with the plate covered with sterile buffer, a section of mouse renal cortex was cultured within a drop of DMEM culture medium on the inner surface of the lip facing downward. The tissue were then harvested at each specific time points for Real-time PCR analysis and histological studies. The results showed that the mRNA level of most Na+ related transporters and cotransporters were stably maintained within 6 hours in culture, and that the mRNA level of most receptors found in the vasculature and glomeruli were stably maintained for up to 9 days in culture. Paraffin sections of the cultured renal cortex indicated that the tubules began to lose tubular integrity after 6 hours, but the glomeruli and vasculatures were still recognizable up to 9 days in culture. We concluded that adult kidney tissue culture by hanging drop method can be used to study gene expressions in vasculature and glomeruli. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Application of Hanging Drop Technique for Kidney Tissue Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The hanging drop technique is a well-established method used in culture of animal tissues. However, this method has not been used in adult kidney tissue culture yet. This study was to explore the feasibility of using this technique for culturing adult kidney cortex to study the time course of RNA viability in the tubules and vasculature, as well as the tissue structural integrity. Methods: In each Petri dish with the plate covered with sterile buffer, a section of mouse renal cortex was cultured within a drop of DMEM culture medium on the inner surface of the lip facing downward. The tissue were then harvested at each specific time points for Real-time PCR analysis and histological studies. Results: The results showed that the mRNA level of most Na+ related transporters and cotransporters were stably maintained within 6 hours in culture, and that the mRNA level of most receptors found in the vasculature and glomeruli were stably maintained for up to 9 days in culture. Paraffin sections of the cultured renal cortex indicated that the tubules began to lose tubular integrity after 6 hours, but the glomeruli and vasculatures were still recognizable up to 9 days in culture. Conclusions: We concluded that adult kidney tissue culture by hanging drop method can be used to study gene expressions in vasculature and glomeruli.

  15. Investigation of proteolytic enzymes expression in brain tissue and cultivated retinal pigment epithelial cells at transgenic animal model of Hintington´s disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ardan, Taras; Kocurová, Gabriela; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 12-12 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington ´s disease * transgenic porcine model * proteolytic enzymes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. [Surgical model of chronic renal failure: study in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrei Ferreira Nicolau da; Pereira, Lara de Paula Miranda; Ferreira, Manoel Luiz; Silva, Paulo Cesar; Chagar, Vera Lucia Antunes; Schanaider, Alberto

    2009-02-01

    To establish a model of chronic renal failure in rabbits, with perspectives of its use for therapeutic and repairing actions. Nineteen males, adults rabbits (New Zealand) randomly distributed into three groups were used: Group 1 - Control (n =5); Group 2-Sham (n =7); and Group 3 - Experimental (n =7). They were anaesthetized by using intramuscular Cetamine, Diazepam and Fentanyl followed by Sevorane with vaporizer device. In Group 3, a bipolar left nephrectomy was carried out and after four weeks, it was also done a right nephrectomy. All the samples of the renal tissue were weighed. The Group 2 was only submitted to both abdominal laparotomies, without nephrectomy. Biochemical evaluations, with urea, creatinina, sodium and potassium measurement; abdominal ultrasound scan; scintigraphy and histological analysis were performed in all animals. In group 3 there was a progressive increase of urea (p=0.0001), creatinine (p=0.0001), sodium (p = 0,0002) and potassium (p=0,0003). The comparison of these results with those one of the Groups 1 and 2, in all intervals, revealed blood rising with statistical significant level (p < 0,05). In Group 3, the ultrasound scan identified an increasing of the left kidney size, after 16 weeks and at the 4th week the scintigraphy confirmed the loss of 75% of the left renal mass. In the same group, the histological evaluation showed subcapsular and intersticial fibrosis and also tubular regeneration. The experimental model of IRC is feasible, with animal's survival in middle term which allows the use of this interval like a therapeutic window for testing different approaches in order to repair the kidney damages.

  17. Biodegradable Magnesium (Mg) Implantation Does Not Impose Related Metabolic Disorders in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Liu, Waiching; Li, Yangde; Qin, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Mg and its alloys have been considered as one of the most promising biodegradable medical devices, but it was still unclear whether hypermagnesemia involved health risks would occur in persons with kidney disease due to their deteriorated kidney function for Mg ions excretion from their body. In this study, we established a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in rats induced by adenine administration prior to Mg implantation, aiming to predict if CRF patients are suitable for the use of Mg implants. The results showed that Mg levels in serum, urine, feces and internal organs had no significant changes after Mg implantation for both normal and CRF rats. Biochemical indices detection and histopathological analysis in kidney, liver and heart tissue confirmed that Mg implants did not induce any extra damage in animals even with renal failure. Our study indicates that Mg based orthopaedic medical device may be considered for use in CRF patients without biosafety concerns.

  18. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  19. Dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation: first report on a conceptual design validated by an animal experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Hatem A; Fouad, Yousef A; Hafez, Rashad

    2015-01-01

    Hatem A Tawfik,1 Yousef A Fouad,2 Rashad Hafez3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Oculoplastics Service, Ain Shams University, 2Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 3Eye Subspecialty Centre, Cairo, Egypt Objective: To introduce and evaluate the safety of a novel dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece design for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation. Methods: We designed a prototype double-sided handpiece allowing automatic switching between two electrodes with a simple handpiece flip. T...

  20. On the correlation between the radioprotective effectiveness of serotonin and its derivatives and their ability to modify the local blood flow in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, M.M.; Vasin, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    Radioprotective effectiveness of serotonin and its alkoxy derivatives and their ability to modify a local blood flow in hemopoietic tissues have been comparatively studied in albino mice and rats. The correlation between these two parameters is nonlinear and may be approximated by a hyperbola equation. The correlation coefficient is - 0.88. A high radioprotective effect of serotonin and its derivatives is observed in the case of a three-fold decrease of the blood flow in the spleen

  1. Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food.

  2. Experimental studies of renal blood flow by digitized functional angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buersch, J.H.; Ochs, C.; Hahne, H.J.; Heintzen, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    New techniques of digital image processing have been experimentally tested for the assessment of renal blood flow. The underlying principle in functional angiography is the extraction of flow parameters. Basically, density-time variations of the contrast medium are analayzed from to each picture element of a 256x256 matrix. The real-time acquisition rate of images was 25/sec. For the calculation of angiographic flow a PDP 11/40 computer was used to interactively perform a time dependent segmentation of the renal arteries and the aorta. Subsequently, volume flow was calculated in relative units for the specific vascular segments under study. 15 control angiograms were made in 5 animals with cardiac output ranging between 0.8 to 2.2l/min. Unilateral renal blood flow was calculated as 24+-3.4% of pre-renal aortic flow without systematic side differences. Reproducibility from repeated flow measurements showed an SD of +-1.8% of the individual pre-renal aortic flow. Renal flow was also measured in 3 animals with an experimentally created 50% flow reduction of the left kidney. Angiographic flow in the left renal artery dropped to 12+-2% of pre-renal flow. The present experimental data suggest that digital angiography has sufficient diagnostic capabilities for the detection of abnormal renal blood flow. The technique may serve as a useful diagnostic adjunct to conventional angiography and has the potential of assisting in the evaluation of renal vascular hypertension. (orig.) [de

  3. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silico...

  4. The use of Metrizamid in experimental renal angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, L.; Kelemen, J.

    1980-01-01

    A possible application of the non-ionizing contrast material metrizamid (Amipaque Vascularsup(R), Amipaquesup(R)) for renal angiography was experimentally investigated in dogs. 1.5, 3, 10 or 25 ml contrast medium was injected into one kidney. The animals were killed immediately, 3 hours, 24 hours, 7 or 28 days after angiography, and the kidneys were histologically investigated. In several cases the angiograms showed small alterations (transitory vasospasm, inhomogeneous spots on the nephrogram). Histology revealed in the initial period a homogeneous, pinkish, protein-like substance in the Bowman capsule and in the lumen of the tubuli, whereas later infiltrations by round cells and local accumulation of connective tissues were found. (L.E.)

  5. Determinação de resíduos de nitrofurazona, furazolidona e nicarbazina em tecidos de origem animal Determination of nitrofurazone, furazolidone and nicarbazin residues in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheilla V. C. SOUZA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi padronizado e validado um método analítico para determinação de resíduos de nitrofurazona, furazolidona e nicarbazina em tecido muscular empregando-se extração com acetonitrila, purificação com cartuchos de sílica e C18 e detecção e quantificação por CLAE/UV. Nos ensaios com amostras fortificadas entre 5 e 200mg/kg as recuperações médias obtidas variaram de 73,6 a 95,6% com valores de C.V. entre 4,8 e 26,4%. O limite de detecção e quantificação do método foi de 5mg/kg, para cada um dos três resíduos estudados.A method for determination of nitrofurazone, furazolidone and nicarbazin residues in muscle tissues was standardized and validated using acetonitrile extraction, clean-up with silica and C18 cartridges and detection and quantification by HPLC/UV. In the assays using spiked samples in levels varying from 5 to 200mg/kg the average recovery values ranged from 73.6 to 95.6% with C.V. values between 4.8 and 26.4%. The limits of detection and quantification of this method was 5mg/kg for each studied residue.

  6. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  7. Altered agonist-activated 86Rb+ efflux from arteries in canine renal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.H.; Bagshaw, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Basal rate constants for 86 Rb+ efflux from renal arteries of renal hypertensive dogs were lower than those of control animals whereas no differences were found for coronary arteries. Norepinephrine produced parallel increases in efflux rate constants for hypertensive and control renal arteries, but serotonin produced smaller responses in hypertensive compared to control coronary arteries

  8. Spontaneous renal tumors suspected of being familial in sprague-dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Kayoko; Hoshiya, Toru; Nakazawa, Tomomi; Saito, Tsubasa; Shimoyama, Natsumi; Suzuki, Isamu; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Seely, John Curtis

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous renal tubule tumors (RTTs), with a distinctive morphological phenotype, were present in three Sprague-Dawley rats, 1 male and 2 females, out a total of 120 animals of each sex from untreated and placebo control groups in a 2-year carcinogenicity study. One female had one carcinoma, adenoma and hyperplasia, and the other female had five adenomas and many hyperplastic lesions; the male case had one carcinoma. From these cases, a biological continuum of hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma could be recognized. The tumors were present in the renal cortex and appeared as solid lobulated growths with occasional central necrosis. The lobules were divided by a small amount of fibrovascular tissue. Occasionally the larger tumors contained a cystic area. Tumor cells appeared distinctive and exhibited variable amounts of eosinophilic/amphophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm. Nuclei were round to oval with a prominent nucleolus. Mitotic figures were uncommon, and no distant metastasis was noted. The tumors were seen as multiple and bilateral lesions in two animals and had no apparent relationship to chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN). Foci of tubule hyperplasia were also noted to contain the same type of cellular morphology. The morphological and biological features of these 3 cases resembled the amphophilic-vacuolar (AV) variant of RTT that has been posited to be of familial origin. This is a report of spontaneous familial renal tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats from Japan.

  9. MRI to assess renal structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artunc, Ferruh; Rossi, Cristina; Boss, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    In addition to excellent anatomical depiction, MRI techniques have expanded to study functional aspects of renal physiology, such as renal perfusion, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or tissue oxygenation. This review will focus on current developments with an emphasis on clinical applicability. The method of GFR determination is largely heterogeneous and still has weaknesses. However, the technique of employing liver disappearance curves has been shown to be accurate in healthy persons and patients with chronic kidney disease. In potential kidney donors, complete evaluation of kidney anatomy and function can be accomplished in a single-stop investigation. Techniques without contrast media can be utilized to measure renal tissue oxygenation (blood oxygen level-dependent MRI) or perfusion (arterial spin labeling) and could aid in the diagnosis and treatment of ischemic renal diseases, such as renal artery stenosis. Diffusion imaging techniques may provide information on spatially restricted water diffusion and tumor cellularity. Functional MRI opens new horizons in studying renal physiology and pathophysiology in vivo. Although extensively utilized in research, labor-intensive postprocessing and lack of standardization currently limit the clinical applicability of functional MRI. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical value of functional magnetic resonance techniques for early discovery and characterization of kidney disease.

  10. Effects of an overload of animal protein on the rat: brain DNA alterations and tissue morphological modifications during fetal and post-natal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Boschi, G; Vetrani, A; Salvatore, G

    1985-01-01

    On account of many literature reports about the definite correlation between high animal protein intake and cardiovascular diseases, we have studied the effect of a hyperproteic purified diet (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on fetal and post-natal (not further than 40th day) stage of the rat, when cell subdivision process is faster and therefore damage by nutritional imbalance is certainly more serious. Litters of rats were grouped according to mother's (either hyperproteic or common basic) and rat's (after lactation) diet. Brain DNA and histology of various organs were studied. Hyperproteic diet during fetal stage and lactation would inhibit brain cell subdivision since overall content of brain DNA would be decreased on autoptic finding. Structural changes were also shown in liver, heart, kidney and adrenal cortex, especially when hyperproteic diet was continued even after lactation.

  11. Infantile cystinosis: From dialysis to renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease characterised by the accumulation of the amino acid cystine in different organs and tissues. It is a multisystemic disease that can present with renal and extra-renal manifestations. In this report, we present the first case of transplanted nephropathic cystinosis in a Tunisian child. A 4-year-old Tunisian boy born to nonconsanguineous parents, was treated in our medical services in 1990 for cystinosis. Since the age of five months, he developed symptoms of severe weight loss, vomiting, dehydration, and polyuria. He manifested the Toni Debré Fanconi syndrome. Slit lamp examination of the anterior segment of both eyes revealed fine, shiny crystal-like deposits diffusely distributed in the corneal epithelium and the stroma. Our patient had renal failure. At the age of seven, he reached terminal chronic renal failure and was treated with peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis was started at the age of nine years. At the age of 13 years, he received a renal transplantation and was started on cysteamine 1999, five months after the renal transplantation. Currently, the patient is 28-year-old. The graft has survived 15 years after the transplantation. Renal functions were stable with a serum creatinine of 123 μmol/L at last follow-up.

  12. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, Tonja W.; Janssen, Ben J.; Pinkham, Maximilian I.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Evans, Roger G.; Joles, Jaap A.; Malpas, Simon C.; Krediet, C. T. Paul; Koeners, Maarten P.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary. We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats. This method provides stable and continuous

  13. Liesegang rings in renal cyst fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, L B; Ehya, H

    1990-01-01

    Peculiar ring-like structures identified as Liesegang rings (LRs) were found in renal cyst fluid from three patients with benign renal cysts. They ranged in size from 5 to 820 mu. Most had a double-layer outer wall with equally spaced radial cross-striations and an amorphous central nidus. Special stains were performed in one case, and the results are discussed. Reports of LRs in cystic or inflamed tissues have recently appeared in the literature. Some LRs have been mistaken for eggs or mature components of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale. We propose that cytologic assessment of renal cyst fluid in conjunction with histologic examination decreases the likelihood of misdiagnosis of LRs.

  14. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  15. The Renal Protective Effects of Corn Silk and Feijoa by using in situ Rat Renal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk (CS is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. Feijoa sellowiana (FS, on the other hand, is a non-native plant widespread in the southern part of Iran. The aim of the present study was to examine the renal protective activity of CS and FS against dosage-induced ecstasy (MDMA by in situ rat renal perfusion (IRRP system. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/ kg were studied for their renal protective activities by IRRP system. In this study, the kidneys were perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentrations of hydro-alcoholic (HA extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40, 50, and 100mg/kg added to the buffer and perfused for two hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including urea, creatinine and GSH levels assessed as indicator of renal viability. Consequently, sections of renal tissue were examined for any histopathological changes. Results: The results showed that histopathological changes in renal tissue related to HA extract of CS AND FS concentrations dose-dependently. Doses of 50, 100 mg/kg caused significant histopathological changes (P<0.05. Glutathione (GSH levels of samples perfused by HA extract of CS and FS increased compared with the positive control group. Conclusion: Renal protective effects of CS and FS decrease lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms may also be involved.

  16. Endourological Evaluation and Management of Leukoplakia of the Renal Pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Kakizaki

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since August 1989, we have seen 4 patients with leukoplakia of the renal pelvis associated with a longstanding renal stone. In 2 of them, excretory or retrograde pyelography revealed multiple filling defects in the left renal pelvis as well as a renal stone, although urine cytological examination was negative. One of the other 2 patients underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the renal stone, but this was not followed by the passage of stone fragments. The renal stone in the remaining patient was associated with staghorn calculi. For stone extraction as well as endoscopic evaluation of the intrapelvic lesion, percutaneous nephroscopy was performed. A small to large amount of tissue-like white debris in sheets characteristic of leukoplakia was found in the renal pelvis with stones embedded in it and was removed directly by forceps or suction and then by irrigating with saline. We propose that 1 the endourological approach should be recommended for patients with renal pelvic lesions associated with longstanding renal stones or for patients who show difficulty in passing stone fragments after ESWL and 2 this entity of leukoplakia should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of renal pelvic lesions associated with renal stones.

  17. Improvement of renal function after human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell treatment on chronic renal failure and thoracic spinal cord entrapment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Saleh, Ifran; Kurniawati, Tri; Lutfi, Andi Praja Wira Yudha

    2017-11-30

    Chronic renal failure is an important clinical problem with significant socioeconomic impact worldwide. Thoracic spinal cord entrapment induced by a metabolic yield deposit in patients with renal failure results in intrusion of nervous tissue and consequently loss of motor and sensory function. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells are immune naïve and they are able to differentiate into other phenotypes, including the neural lineage. Over the past decade, advances in the field of regenerative medicine allowed development of cell therapies suitable for kidney repair. Mesenchymal stem cell studies in animal models of chronic renal failure have uncovered a unique potential of these cells for improving function and regenerating the damaged kidney. We report a case of a 62-year-old ethnic Indonesian woman previously diagnosed as having thoracic spinal cord entrapment with paraplegic condition and chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. She had diabetes mellitus that affected her kidneys and had chronic renal failure for 2 years, with creatinine level of 11 mg/dl, and no urinating since then. She was treated with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell implantation protocol. This protocol consists of implantation of 16 million human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells intrathecally and 16 million human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells intravenously. Three weeks after first intrathecal and intravenous implantation she could move her toes and her kidney improved. Her creatinine level decreased to 9 mg/dl. Now after 8 months she can raise her legs and her creatinine level is 2 mg/dl with normal urinating. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell implantations led to significant improvement for spinal cord entrapment and kidney failure. The major histocompatibility in allogeneic implantation is an important issue to be addressed in the future.

  18. Combination of Surgical Drainage and Renal Artery Embolization: An Alternative Treatment for Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upasani, Anand, E-mail: anand.upasani@gosh.nhs.uk [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Paediatric Urology (United Kingdom); Barnacle, Alex, E-mail: alex.barnacle@gosh.nhs.uk; Roebuck, Derek, E-mail: derek.roebuck@gosh.nhs.uk; Cherian, Abraham, E-mail: abraham.cherian@gosh.nhs.uk [Great Ormond Street Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Conventionally, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is treated with antibiotics and drainage of abscess followed by nephrectomy for definitive treatment. Surgical excision of the affected kidney carries risk of significant complications. An alternative treatment modality is described in the form of embolization of the renal artery to devascularise the renal parenchyma and ablate the renal tissue, thus avoiding a major surgical procedure and the significant risks involved.

  19. Combination of Surgical Drainage and Renal Artery Embolization: An Alternative Treatment for Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upasani, Anand; Barnacle, Alex; Roebuck, Derek; Cherian, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is treated with antibiotics and drainage of abscess followed by nephrectomy for definitive treatment. Surgical excision of the affected kidney carries risk of significant complications. An alternative treatment modality is described in the form of embolization of the renal artery to devascularise the renal parenchyma and ablate the renal tissue, thus avoiding a major surgical procedure and the significant risks involved.

  20. Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization therapy accelerates recovery of renal function independent of stem cell contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, Geurt; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Claessen, Nike; Weening, Jan J.; Florquin, Sandrine

    2005-01-01

    Acute renal failure and tubular cell loss as a result of ischemia constitute major challenges in renal pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests important roles for bone marrow stem cells in the regeneration of renal tissue after injury. This study investigated whether the enhanced availability

  1. HNF1B mutations associate with hypomagnesemia and renal magnesium wasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adalat, Shazia; Woolf, Adrian S.; Johnstone, Karen A.; Wirsing, Andrea; Harries, Lorna W.; Long, David A.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Ledermann, Sarah E.; Rees, Lesley; van't Hoff, William; Marks, Stephen D.; Trompeter, Richard S.; Tullus, Kjell; Winyard, Paul J.; Cansick, Janette; Mushtaq, Imran; Dhillon, Harjeeta K.; Bingham, Coralie; Edghill, Emma L.; Shroff, Rukshana; Stanescu, Horia; Ryffel, Gerhart U.; Ellard, Sian; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1B (HNF1B), which is a transcription factor expressed in tissues including renal epithelia, associate with abnormal renal development. While studying renal phenotypes of children with HNF1B mutations, we identified a teenager who presented with tetany and

  2. Dynamic renal scintigraphy of dissecting aneurysm of abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Eriko; Itoh, Kazuo; Furudate, Masayori

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic renal scintigraphy on 15 patients with dissecting aneurysm of abdominal aorta extending below the renal arteries were retrospectively studied. The results were reviewed and classified into 3 types according to perfusion images and parenchymal tissue uptake: Type A--symmetric perfusion and parenchymal tissue uptake; Type B--asymmetrical perfusion and parenchymal tissue uptake; Type C--delayed perfusion of one kidney and symmetric parenchymal tissue uptake. The number of patients who showed Type A, Type B, and Type C were 3 cases, 6 cases, and 6 cases, respectively. In all Type A and 3 of Type B, perfusion of bilateral renal arteries was mainly from true lumen. In the remaining 3 cases of Type B, 2 had one renal artery obstructed with thrombus; 1 had a deformity of one kidney (the blood supply was mainly from a false lumen), suggestive of renal infarction. On the other hand, in all 6 Type C cases, the renal artery where perfusion was delayed was apparently supplied from false lumen. It is suggested in this retrospective study that the findings in Type C, where delayed perfusion of one kidney and symmetric parenchymal tissue uptake were found, were due to the presence of delayed flow through the false lumen; and therefore, specific to cases where the main blood supply of one renal artery from false lumen. (author)

  3. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney ...

  4. Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  5. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  6. Animal experimental studies on the influence of fatty infiltration of the liver on tissue relaxation times and signal changes in MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreft, B.; Stark, D.; Schild, H.

    1995-01-01

    Using a spectrometer (n=60) in vitro and MRT imaging (n=8) in vivo, we studied the influence of fatty changes of liver cells on the relaxation times of the liver (two animal models of fatty liver disease/orotic acid, L-ethionine). Induction of fatty degeneration of the liver by means of an orotic acid diet resulted in pure deposition of fat in the liver without any histological or serological proof of inflammatory changes. Although accumulation of triglyceride in the liver reduced the T 1 relaxation time only relatively slightly (-15%), there was good correlation (r=0.88) between fat content and T 1 . There was also good correlation (r=0.92) between T 2 and histological fat content. Inflammatory changes besides fatty deposition were seen both serologically and histologically in the L-ethionine model, so that the fatty content did not correlate with T 1 . In-vivo MRT imaging showed that spin-echo sequences are inappropriate for diagnosing fatty infiltration of the liver despite the relaxation time changes produced by the fatty deposition. On the other hand, chemical-shift imaging sequences are very sensitive to identify fatty deposits, and are also independent of any additionally existing inflammatory changes. (orig.) [de

  7. The detection of Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia cysts by immunofluorescence in animal tissues and fecal samples subjected to cycles of freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, S L; Sherlock, L A; Bemrick, W J

    1990-04-01

    The effects of freezing and thawing on the detection of selected Giardia spp. cysts were investigated using immunofluorescence, bright field microscopy, and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Giardia muris cysts were obtained from either animal carcasses, fecal pellets, or isolated cyst preparations, whereas Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from fecal samples. These samples were stained using an immunofluorescence technique after 1-3 freezing (-16 C) and thawing (20 C) cycles. Cysts were detected successfully by immunofluorescence in all samples. However, in those samples subjected to freeze-thawing, the cyst walls often became distorted and then were not detectable by bright field microscopy. Low voltage SEM demonstrated that the filaments in the distorted cyst wall underwent rearrangements of interfilament spacing. Quantitation of cyst recovery after freezing and thawing demonstrated that a substantial loss occurred after 1 cycle of alternating temperature when low concentrations of cysts were used, but not with high concentrations of cysts. Cyst recovery, after 3 freezing and thawing cycles, was dramatically lowered irrespective of the initial cyst concentration. These results demonstrated that immunofluorescence was an effective technique for the detection of Giardia spp. cysts in frozen samples and would suggest that freezing and thawing of fecal samples could prevent the detection of cysts when only bright field microscopy was employed.

  8. Evaluation of recovery in hydronephrosis using renal functional CT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kiyotaka

    1985-01-01

    Using renal functional CT studies, we studied 22 patients who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral hydronephrosis. The tissue-plasma ratio of contrast enhancement (TPR), which is an indicator of renal function per unit of parenchymal volume, improved after the operation. On the other hand, the renal parenchymal volume (PV) decreased in proportion to the shrinkage of the kidney. The pre and postoperative values of renal functional index (RFI), the product of the TPR and PV, showed a good correlation (r=0.928, p<0.01). Therefore, RFI values were found to be useful for assessing the recovery of hydronephrosis. (author)

  9. Right-Sided Intrarenal Splenosis Mimicking a Renal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay B. Page

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient who underwent nephrectomy for an enhancing right renal mass that was subsequently pathologically confirmed as right renal splenosis. Since renal splenosis is quite rare and has previously been reported only in the left kidney, we did not consider splenosis in our differential diagnosis during the evaluation of the renal mass. Magnetic resonance imaging, as well as radionucleotide scan using 99mTc-labelled red blood cells, has been utilized for identifying ectopic splenic tissue. An elevated index of suspicion must be present in patients with a history of splenectomy or traumatic splenic rupture to avoid undue nephrectomy.

  10. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  11. TRANS-ARTERIAL EMBOLIZATION WITH N-BUTYL CYANOACRYLATE GLUE FOR RENAL BLEEDING: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectivity in management of renal bleeding is to preserve a significant renal parenchyma tissue and prevent associated morbidities like anemic shock or renal impairment from substantial nephron demise or obstructed uropathy. Trans-arterial embolization therapy by interventional radiology offers a high success rate with potential of reserving normal renal tissue. The selection material for renal arterial embolization largely depends on vasculature anatomy and end-point of procedure. N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue in our experience is applied in lesion supplied by small size of end-artery. 

  12. Special radiology of the hand in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnjakovic-Buescher, S.; Heuck, F.

    1986-01-01

    The multiple morphological manifestations in the bones of the hand in renal osteodystrophy are demonstrated. The soft tissue immersion low-energy X-ray technique allows early detection of macrostructural changes of spongy and compact bone, irregularities of the cortex, defects and pseudocysts, osteosclerosis as well as calcifications in the soft tissue and arterial sclerosis of patients with chronic renal failure. Possible misinterpretations will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Evaluation of renal function following administration of ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-biphosphonate (EHBP) in animals submitted to oral intoxication with uranyl nitrate; Evaluacion de la funcion renal luego de la administracion de etidronato bisodico en animales intoxicados con nitrato de uranilo por via oral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A B; Mandalunis, P M; Bozal, C B; Cabrini, Romulo L; Ubios, A M [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Radiobiologia

    2003-07-01

    Workers involved in the processes of extraction, purification and manufacture of uranium of nuclear plants are occupationally exposed to both natural and enriched uranium. Several chelating agents (TIRON, EDTA, BAI, etc.) have been tested in terms of their capacity to sequester uranium before it reaches its target organs. Our laboratory has studied a first generation biphosphonate, ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-biphosphonate (EHBP). We have shown that treatment with EHBP induces survival rates of 75% and 100% in adult and suckling rats respectively intoxicated with an intraperitoneal injection of uranyl nitrate. There are no data available to date on the renal function following treatment with EBHP to counteract the toxic effects of an oral lethal dose of uranyl nitrate. The aim of the present study was to assay creatininemia and uremia as end-points to assess renal function. The results obtained reveal that the alterations in renal function induced by oral uranyl nitrate intoxication can be reduced at 48 hours and reverted at 14 days by subcutaneous or oral administration of EHBP. (author)

  14. Partial microwave-assisted wet digestion of animal tissue using a baby-bottle sterilizer for analyte determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Wladiana O.; Menezes, Eveline A.; Gonzalez, Mario H.; Costa, Leticia M.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for partial digestion of bovine tissue is proposed using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-vessels inside a baby-bottle sterilizer under microwave radiation for multi-element determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Samples were directly weighed in laboratory-made polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide were added to the uncovered vessels, which were positioned inside the baby-bottle sterilizer, containing 500 mL of water. The hydrogen peroxide volume was fixed at 100 μL. The system was placed in a domestic microwave oven and partial digestion was carried out for the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The single-vessel approach was used in the entire procedure, to minimize contamination in trace analysis. Better recoveries and lower residual carbon content (RCC) levels were obtained under the conditions established through a 2 4-1 fractional factorial design: 650 W microwave power, 7 min digestion time, 50 μL nitric acid and 50 mg sample mass. The digestion efficiency was ascertained according to the residual carbon content determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was checked against two certified reference materials.

  15. Compartment model for the measurement of the effective renal plasma flow by radionuclidenephrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, S.I.; Degtyareva, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    By reason of model ideas on hippuran kinetics radionuclide nephrograms were split up into a renal component and a component of the tissue background. New indices for the evaluation of renal function symmetry were proposed comprising the proportional determination of the effective renal plasma flow as well as of the symmetrical blood flow. For early diagnosis of latent renal dysfunction a new index is proposed characterizing the excretory renal transport as to local renal blood supply. Empirical indices of 120 patients suffering from chronic glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, resp., are stated

  16. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER : VII. DEMONSTRATION OF LEPTOSPIRA ICTEROIDES IN THE BLOOD, TISSUES, AND URINE OF YELLOW FEVER PATIENTS AND OF ANIMALS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH THE ORGANISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H

    1919-08-01

    Examinations of fresh blood from yellow fever patients by means of the dark-field microscope, made in more than twenty-seven cases, revealed in three cases the presence of Leptospira icteroides. In no instance was a large number of organisms found, a long search being required before one was encountered. The injection of the blood into guinea pigs from two of the three positive cases induced in the animals a fatal infection, while the blood from the third positive case failed to infect the guinea pigs fatally. Careful but by no means exhaustive dark-field searches for the leptospira with fresh specimens of blood from the remaining cases of yellow fever ended without positive findings, although four of the specimens, when injected into guinea pigs, caused a fatal leptospira infection. Stained blood film preparations from the corresponding cases were also examined, but the percentage showing the leptospira in the blood was no greater than that found by examination in the fresh state with the dark-field microscope. In fact, owing to the defective stains that were available at the time of the investigation a great many slides did not take the proper coloration with Giemsa's or Wright's stain and could not be relied upon. Regarding the presence of Leptospira icteroides in various organs both dark-field and stained films were examined. In only one instance so far a few organisms were detected in the emulsion of liver taken shortly after death from a case dying on the 4th day of yellow fever. This part of the work will be reported later upon completion. Examinations of the urine from different cases of yellow fever were made both by dark-field microscope and by inoculation into guinea pigs. The results were totally negative in thirteen cases, including many convalescents, but in one case one of the guinea pigs inoculated with 10 cc. of the urine came down on the 15th day with suggestive symptoms (suspicion of jaundice, and some hemorrhagic and parenchymatous lesions of

  17. Renal microvascular disease in an aging population: a reversible process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrakul, Narisa; Futrakul, Prasit

    2008-01-01

    Renal microvascular disease and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are usually demonstrated in aging in humans and animals. It has recently been proposed that renal microvascular disease is the crucial determinant of tubulointerstitial disease or fibrosis. Enhanced circulating endothelial cell loss is a biomarker that reflects glomerular endothelial injury or renal microvascular disease, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) is a sensitive biomarker that reflects an early stage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In aging in humans, both of these biomarkers are abnormally elevated. In addition, a glomerular endothelial dysfunction determined by altered hemodynamics associated with peritubular capillary flow reduction is substantiated. A correction of such hemodynamic alteration with vasodilators can effectively improve renal perfusion and restore renal function. Thus, anti-aging therapy can reverse the renal microvascular disease and dysfunction associated with the aging process.

  18. Extensive emphysematous pyelonephritis leading to renal destruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a severe necrotizing infection of the kidney characterized by the presence of gas in the renal parenchyma, collecting system or perinephric tissues. It can be life-threatening if not recognized and treated promptly.We report the case of a 56-year-old woman, on treatment for diabetes ...

  19. Traumatic renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Naobumi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kokubo, Takashi; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of traumatic renal artery occlusion were described and illustrated. In two cases, direct blows to the abdomen compressed the renal artery against the vertebral column. Clinically, they were severely injured with macroscopic hematuria. Aortograms showed abrupt truncation of renal arteries. In the other two, rapid deceleration caused sudden displacement of the kidney producing an intimal tear with resultant thrombosis. Although they showed little injury without macrohematuria, aortograms revealed tapered occlusion of renal arteries. One of them developed hypertension. ''Rim sign'' of post-contrast CT and hypertension resulted from traumatic renal artery occlusion were reviewed. (author)

  20. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  1. Variations in the spectrum of lesions produced in the DNA of cells from mouse tissues after exposure to γ-rays in air-breathing or in artificially anoxic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.; Meyn, R.E.; Vanankeren, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Few DNA-protein crosslinks (dpc) were detected in the DNA from tumor cells γ-irradiated in vitro; however, in cells from both FSa and NFSa tumors irradiated in situ there was a significant level of protein-concealed ssb, and thus of dpc. These data are most likely the result of the relative hypoxia of a proportion of cells from both the FSa and NFSa tumor in the air-breathing animals. Induction of dpc was further enhanced in the DNA from tumor cells irradiated under anoxic conditions. A significant level of dpc was also observed in jejunal and spleen cells irradiated in vivo; however, since a significant level of protein-concealed breaks was also observed in cells irradiated in vitro, oxygenation appears not to be the only parameter capable of modifying the proportion of protein-concealed ssb, and the effects of proteinase K on the DNA elution rate for normal mouse tissues may be complex. (author)

  2. Multiresidue analysis of 22 sulfonamides and their metabolites in animal tissues using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and high resolution mass spectrometry (hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, H; Arnaudguilhem, C; Jaber, F; Lobinski, R

    2014-08-15

    A new high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method was developed for a simultaneous multi-residue analysis of 22 sulfonamides (SAs) and their metabolites in edible animal (pig, beef, sheep and chicken) tissues. Sample preparation was optimized on the basis of the "QuEChERS" protocol. The analytes were identified using their LC retention times and accurate mass; the identification was further confirmed by multi-stage high mass accuracy (Pig kidney" with ǀ Z-scoreǀpig, beef, sheep, and chicken) allowing the simultaneous quantification of target sulfonamides at concentration levels above the MRL/2 and the identification of untargeted compounds such as N(4)-acetyl metabolites using multi-stage high mass accuracy mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  4. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  5. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  6. Animal imaging using immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Rand, Kendra; Faris, Gregory W.

    2003-07-01

    We are using rodent animal models to study and compare contrast mechanisms for detection of breast cancer. These measurements are performed with the animals immersed in a matching scattering medium. The matching scattering medium or liquid tissue phantom comprises a mixture of Ropaque (hollow acrylic/styrene microspheres) and ink. We have previously applied matched imaging to imaging in humans. Surrounding the imaged region with a matched tissue phantom compensates for variations in tissue thickness and geometry, provides more uniform illumination, and allows better use of the dynamic range of the imaging system. If the match is good, the boundaries of the imaged region should almost vanish, enhancing the contrast from internal structure as compared to contrast from the boundaries and surface topography. For our measurements in animals, the immersion plays two additional roles. First, we can readily study tumors through tissue thickness similar to that of a human breast. Although the heterogeneity of the breast is lost, this is a practical method to study the detection of small tumors and monitor changes as they grow. Second, the immersion enhances our ability to quantify the contrast mechanisms for peripheral tumors on the animal because the boundary effects on photon migration are eliminated. We are currently developing two systems for these measurements. One is a continuous-wave (CW) system based on near-infrared LED illumination and a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera. The second system, a frequency domain system, can help quantify the changes observed with the CW system.

  7. Renal flagellate infections in reptiles: 29 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Caries; Garner, Michael M; Nordhausen, Robert W; Valls, Xavier; Gallego, Miguel; Soto, Sara

    2014-03-01

    Renal infection with flagellated protozoa was retrospectively evaluated in 29 reptiles, including 12 turtles, 7 tortoises, and 6 chameleons; overall, 20 species of reptiles were represented. Most cases presented with nonspecific clinical signs or a combination of several concurrent diseases. Nineteen of 29 reptiles had tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with flagellates, and this lesion was considered contributory to death in 15 cases, although concurrent diseases were frequent. Infection was invasive into the renal interstitium in three reptiles due to tubular rupture and in one chameleon also spread to adjacent tissues, coelomic cavity, and blood vessels due to renal rupture. Cytologic or ultrastructural evaluation of trophozoites in two cases was consistent with diplomonad flagellates. Renal disease was often complicated with soft-tissue mineralization and/or gout. Gastrointestinal and cloacal infection with flagellates and inflammation were frequent in reptiles in which the digestive tract was available for histopathologic examination, and this supports the possibility of infections ascending the urinary tract from the cloaca. Renal disease associated with flagellate protozoa is rare in vertebrates but appears to be relevant in reptiles, particularly chelonians and chameleons.

  8. The effect of biological sealants and adhesive treatments on matrix metalloproteinase expression during renal injury healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Lloris-Carsí

    Full Text Available Renal injuries are relatively common in cases of abdominal trauma. Adhesives and sealants can be used to repair and preserve damaged organs. Using a rat model, this study explores the activity of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMP during the healing of renal injuries treated by two biological adhesives (TachoSil and GelitaSpon and a new synthetic elastic cyanoacrylate (Adhflex.Renal traumatic injuries were experimentally induced in 90 male Wistar rats by a Stiefel Biopsy Punch in the anterior aspect of the left kidney. Animals were divided into five groups: 1, sham non-injured (n = 3; 2, non-treated standard punch injury (n = 6; 3, punch injury treated with TachoSil (n = 27; 4, punch injury treated with GelitaSpon (n = 27; and, 5, punch injury treated with Adhflex (n = 27. Wound healing was evaluated 2, 6, and 18 days after injury by determining the expression of MMPs, and the histopathological evolution of lesions.Histologically, the wound size at 6 days post-injury was larger in Adhflex-treated samples than in the other treatments, but the scarring tissue was similar at 18 days post-injury. Only the MMPs subtypes 1, 2, 8, 9, and 13 were sufficiently expressed to be quantifiable. Both time since injury and treatment type had a significant influence on MMPs expression. Two days after injury, the expression of MMP8 and MMP9 was predominant. MMP2 expression was greater 6 days after injury. The Adhflex-treated group had a significantly higher MMPs expression than the other treatment groups at all healing stages.All three sealant treatments induced almost similar expression of MMPs than untreated animals indicating a physiological healing process. Given that all renal trauma injuries must be considered emergencies, both biological and synthetic adhesives, such as Adhflex, should be considered as a treatment options.

  9. Allopurinol Protective Effect of Renal Ischemia by Downregulating TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Moure, Beatriz; Lloris-Carsí, José M; Belda-Antolí, Mariola; Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H; Cejalvo-Lapeña, Dolores

    2017-06-01

    Allopurinol is a well-known antioxidant that protects tissue against ischemia and reperfusion injury, blocking purine catabolism, and possibly reducing TNF-α and other cytokines. It also plays a significant role in reducing the inflammatory processes by inhibiting chemotaxis and other inflammatory mediators. The objective of this study was to define the role of allopurinol regarding kidney ischemic injury particularly as to its effect on inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 response. One hundred and twenty five rats were subjected to warm renal ischemia. Five more animals were included as sham. Animal survival and plasma levels of lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione, urea, creatinine, and cytokines were determined. Inflammatory parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) were measured in all groups by quantitative immunosorbent assay. Further, immunohistological and histopathological studies were carried out on animals treated prior to, or following reperfusion with 10 and 50 mg/kg of Allopurinol. The statistical analysis included ANOVA and Fisher test as well as χ 2 test. Significance was reached at a p endogenous peroxidase stain in renal ischemic tissue. Therefore, this experiment showed an effectiveness of allopurinol protection against proteomic and morphological damage.

  10. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Daijo, K; Okabe, T; Kawamura, J; Hara, A [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1979-08-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1.

  11. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Daijo, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Tatsushiro; Kawamura, Juichi; Hara, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1. (author)

  12. WE-EF-BRA-12: Magnetic Resonance- Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Localized Ablation of Head and Neck Tissue Structures: A Feasibility Study in An Animal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partanen, A; Ellens, N; Noureldine, S; Tufano, R; Burdette, E; Farahani, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is feasible in the head and neck [1]. This study aims to expand upon these findings to assess the feasibility of treatment planning and monitoring via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance using a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform. Methods: Two 31 kg pigs were anaesthetized, shaved, and positioned prone on the HIFU table (Sonalleve, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland). The necks were acoustically coupled to the integrated transducer using gel pads and degassed water. MR imaging verified acoustic coupling and facilitated target selection in the thyroid and thymus. Targets were thermally ablated with 130–200 W of acoustic power over a period of 16 s at a frequency of 1.2 MHz while being monitored through real-time, multi-planar MR-thermometry. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was used to assess treatment efficacy. Post-treatment, animals were euthanized and sonicated tissues were harvested for histology assessment. Results: MR-thermometry, post-contrast-imaging, and gross pathology demonstrated that the system was capable of causing localized thermal ablation in both the thyroid and the thymus without damaging the aerodigestive tract. In one animal, superficial bruising was observed in the ultrasound beam path. Otherwise, there were no adverse events. Analysis of the tissue histology found regions of damage consistent with acute thermal injury at the targeted locations. Conclusion: It is feasible to use a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform for extracorporeal ablation of porcine head and neck tissues. MR guidance and thermometry are sufficient to target and monitor treatment in the thyroid region, despite the presence of the inhomogeneous aerodigestive tract. Further study is necessary to assess efficacy and survival using a tumor model, and to examine what modifications should be made to the transducer positioning system and associated patient positioning aids to adapt it for clinical head and neck targets

  13. Renal disease and mitochondrial genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötig, Agnès

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory chain (RC) deficiencies have long been regarded as neuromuscular diseases mainly originating from mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Oxidative phosphorylation, i.e. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis-coupled electron transfer from substrate to oxygen through the RC, does not occur only in the neuromuscular system. Therefore, a RC deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom, in any organ or tissue, at any age and with any mode of inheritance, owing to the dual genetic origin of RC enzymes (nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Mitochondrial diseases can give rise to various syndromes or association, namely, neurologic and neuromuscular diseases, cardiac, renal, hepatic, hematological and endocrin or dermatological presentations. The most frequent renal symptom is proximal tubular dysfunction with a more or less complete de Toni-Debre-Fanconi Syndrome. A few patients have been reported with tubular acidosis, Bartter Syndrome, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis or nephrotic syndrome. The diagnosis of a RC deficiency is difficult when only renal symptoms are present, but should be easier when another, seemingly unrelated symptom is observed. Metabolic screening for abnormal oxidoreduction status in plasma, including lactate/pyruvate and ketone body molar ratios, can help to identify patients for further investigations. These include the measurement of oxygen consumption by mitochondria and the assessment of mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities by spectrophotometric studies. Any mode of inheritance can be observed: sporadic, autosomal dominant or recessive, or maternal inheritance.

  14. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy with an automated biopsy gun in diffuse renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yang; Moon, Jeoung Mi; Park, Ji Hyun; Kwon, Jae Soo; Song, Ik Hoon; Kim, Sung Rok

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and clinical usefulness of percutaneous renal biopsy by using automated biopsy gun under the real-time ultrasonographic guidance that was performed in 17 patients with diffuse renal disease. We retrospectively analysed the histopathological diagnosis and the patients' status after percutaneous renal biopsy.Adequate amount of tissue for the histologic diagnosis could be obtained in al patients. Histopathologic diagnosis included the minimal change nephrotic syndrome in 6 patients, the membrano proliferative glomerulonephritis in 4,the membranous glomerulonephritis in 2, the glomerulosclerosis in 2, Ig A nephropathy in 2, and the normal finding in 1. Significant complication occurred in only one patient who developed a transient loss of sensation at and around the biopsy site. In conclusion, automated biopsy gun was a very useful device in performing percutaneous biopsy for diffuse renal disease with a high success rate and a low complication rate

  15. Accounting for oxygen in the renal cortex: a computational study of factors that predispose the cortex to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Joon; Gardiner, Bruce S; Ngo, Jennifer P; Kar, Saptarshi; Evans, Roger G; Smith, David W

    2017-08-01

    We develop a pseudo-three-dimensional model of oxygen transport for the renal cortex of the rat, incorporating both the axial and radial geometry of the preglomerular circulation and quantitative information regarding the surface areas and transport from the vasculature and renal corpuscles. The computational model was validated by simulating four sets of published experimental studies of renal oxygenation in rats. Under the control conditions, the predicted cortical tissue oxygen tension ([Formula: see text]) or microvascular oxygen tension (µPo 2 ) were within ±1 SE of the mean value observed experimentally. The predicted [Formula: see text] or µPo 2 in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury, acute hemodilution, blockade of nitric oxide synthase, or uncoupling mitochondrial respiration, were within ±2 SE observed experimentally. We performed a sensitivity analysis of the key model parameters to assess their individual or combined impact on the predicted [Formula: see text] and µPo 2 The model parameters analyzed were as follows: 1 ) the major determinants of renal oxygen delivery ([Formula: see text]) (arterial blood Po 2 , hemoglobin concentration, and renal blood flow); 2 ) the major determinants of renal oxygen consumption (V̇o 2 ) [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the efficiency of oxygen utilization for sodium reabsorption (β)]; and 3) peritubular capillary surface area (PCSA). Reductions in PCSA by 50% were found to profoundly increase the sensitivity of [Formula: see text] and µPo 2 to the major the determinants of [Formula: see text] and V̇o 2 The increasing likelihood of hypoxia with decreasing PCSA provides a potential explanation for the increased risk of acute kidney injury in some experimental animals and for patients with chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  17. Autoradiography after incubation of tissue slices in 111 In-pentetreotide. Demonstration of the feasibility of the technique on rat brain slices. Application in two cases of human renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Allard, S.; Fouret, P.; Daty, N.; Talbot, J.N.; Bernaudin, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a macroscopic autoradiographic technique using 111 In-pentetreotide after in vitro incubation of the slices. The feasibility of this technique has been demonstrated by the actual labeling of the deeper layers of the rat cerebral cortex, corresponding to the known cerebral distribution of somatostatin subtype 2 receptor. This technique has subsequently been applied in two of human renal cell carcinoma and has proven the presence of somatostatin receptors in both tumours. In one of these cases, a preoperative scintigraphy using 111 In-pentetreotide showed the absence of tumour visualization. The mechanism proposed to explain this discrepancy between scintigraphic and autoradiographic results is a lack of accessibility of the somatostatin analog to the receptor in case of voluminous renal tumour. (authors). 19 refs., 2 figs

  18. Percutaneous Renal Biopsy : A Report of 200 Caces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahadori

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available In the diffuse medical diseases of kidney, percutaneous renal biopsy is a valuable, safe and hazardless procedure. With the aid of this nearly new technique renal pathology, the natural history of renal diseases and the response of renal diseases to therapy, as well as the prognosis of renal disorders can be evaluated."nWe have analysed 210 percutaneous biopsies in Tehran. Complications were observed in 13% of cases, there is no mortality and no patient required drastic therapeutic intervention. Anuria, peri-renal colic and peri-renal hematoma were the only serious complications, which were seen in 4 patients, and were. readily controled with simple measures We obtained renal tissue in 95% cases of our patients and in 9 I% of them the tissue was adequate for c'ear diagnosis."nLike other authors, we believe that the procedure, when properly performed, can give a far more valuable informations about the patients without any realy dangerous risk.

  19. Renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desberg, A.; Paushter, D.M.; Lammert, G.K.; Hale, J.; Troy, R.; Novic, A.; Nally, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Renal artery disease is a potentially correctable cause of hypertension. Previous studies have suggested the utility of duplex sonography in accurately detecting and grading the severity of renal artery stenosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate color flow Doppler for this use. Forty-three kidneys were examined by color-flow Doppler and conventional duplex sampling in patients with suspected renovascular hypertension or those undergoing aortography for unrelated reasons. Doppler tracings were obtained from the renal arteries and aorta with calculation of the renal aortic ratio (RAR) and resistive index (RI). Results of Doppler sampling with color flow guidance were compared with aortograms in a blinded fashion

  20. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  1. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Animal lipase. 184.1415 Section 184.1415 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme preparation obtained from edible forestomach tissue of calves, kids, or lambs, or from animal pancreatic...

  3. Renal function changes associated with aging and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Norrdin, R.W.; Sawyer, S.S.; Nealeigh, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    Renal function testing of irradiated and unirradiated beagles at CRHL has been carried out for the past 7 years using a simultaneous estimation of sodium sulfanilate and sodium iodohippurate 131 I clearance. Evidence has been cited that the beagle kidney is markedly sensitive to whole-body ionizing radiation delivered in the perinatal period. The objectives of this continuing study are to determine the nature of the progression of chronic renal disease, its possible association to hypertension, the impact of unilateral nephrectomy upon an already compromised renal parenchyma, and the age-related changes in renal function. Thus far, data seem to indicate the following conclusions: sulfanilate clearance appears to be a sensitive indicator of impending renal failure, exhibiting earlier and more obvious indicators than BUN (blood urea nitrogen) levels; hypertension does not appear to be a factor in radiation-induced renal failure in the adult dogs studied here, since the average arterial blood pressure was as high in normal control dogs as in irradiated dogs suffering from renal failure; unilateral nephrectomy affected unirradiated dogs less than irradiated animals with mild renal insufficiency. The BUN levels returned to prenephrectomy levels in 8 weeks in the unirradiated group, but required up to 1 year in the dogs with renal insufficiency; and an age related decrease inrenal function was observed in a group of unirradiated dogs studied from 0 to 2 through 13 years of age

  4. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Renal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs regulate a variety of cell physiological processes, including metabolism, growth, differentiation, and survival. Many studies from in vitro and animal models have provided evidence that RTKs play important roles in the pathogenic process of renal fibrosis. It is also showed that tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs have anti-fibrotic effects in basic research and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the evidence for involvement of specific RTKs in renal fibrosis process and the employment of TKIs as a therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis.

  5. Occurrence of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale in ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua of the Tiete Ecological Park, São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência de parasitismo por Dioctophyma renale em quati (Nasua nasua do Parque Ecológico Tietê, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Milanelo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioctophymosis is a worldwide renal parasitosis caused by the Dioctophyma renale nematode, which results in progressive destruction of renal tissue. Aquatics annelids are considered the main intermediate hosts and the literature refers as permanent hosts of dogs, wild mammals and even humans. During procedures for population control of coatis (Nasua nasua in the Ecological Park of Tietê (PET, was noticed the presence of parasitosis by D. renale. From 68 animals, males and females, young and adults, submitted to exploratory laparotomy, 51 were positive for the presence of worms, 9 were found only in the right kidney. In 10 cases, in addition to right kidney parasitism, worms were also observed in the abdominal cavity. In 24 cases D. renale was found only in the abdominal cavity and in 8 animals the right kidney was reduced to a small rigid structure. The study showed that the preferred site for parasitism of the worm, considered erratic, was the abdominal cavity in 66.66% of the cases.A dioctofimose é uma parasitose renal causada pelo nematóide Dioctophyma renale conhecida por gerar a destruição progressiva do parênquima renal. Anelídeos de água doce são considerados os principais hospedeiros intermediários e a literatura refere como hospedeiros definitivos cães domésticos, mamíferos selvagens e até seres humanos. Durante procedimentos de controle populacional de quatis (Nasua nasua no Parque Ecológico do Tietê (PET, evidenciou-se a presença do parasitismo por D. renale. Sessenta e oito animais foram submetidos à laparotomia, machos e fêmeas, jovens e adultos, dos quais 51 foram positivos para presença do parasita. Em 9 animais o parasita esteve presente apenas no rim direito; em 10 animais D. renale parasitava o rim direito e a cavidade abdominal simultaneamente. Em outros 24 quatis o parasita foi encontrado apenas na cavidade abdominal e em 8 animais o rim direito foi reduzido apenas a uma pequena estrutura rígida. O estudo

  6. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  7. Renal MR angiography and perfusion in the pig using hyperpolarized water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigh Lipsø, Kasper; Hansen, Esben Søvsø Szocska; Tougaard, Rasmus Stilling; Laustsen, Christoffer; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2017-09-01

    To study hyperpolarized water as an angiography and perfusion tracer in a large animal model. Protons dissolved in deuterium oxide (D 2 O) were hyperpolarized in a SPINlab dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dDNP) polarizer and subsequently investigated in vivo in a pig model at 3 Tesla (T). Approximately 15 mL of hyperpolarized water was injected in the renal artery by hand over 4-5 s. A liquid state polarization of 5.3 ± 0.9% of 3.8 M protons in 15 mL of deuterium oxide was achieved with a T 1 of 24 ± 1 s. This allowed injection through an arterial catheter into the renal artery and subsequently high-contrast imaging of the entire kidney parenchyma over several seconds. The dynamic images allow quantification of tissue perfusion, with a mean cortical perfusion of 504 ± 123 mL/100 mL/min. Hyperpolarized water MR imaging was successfully demonstrated as a renal angiography and perfusion method. Quantitative perfusion maps of the kidney were obtained in agreement with literature and control experiments with gadolinium contrast. Magn Reson Med 78:1131-1135, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Linfoma renal: espectro de imagens na tomografia computadorizada Renal lymphoma: spectrum of computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Pontes de Miranda Maranhão

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O acometimento renal no linfoma é raro, uma vez que o rim não possui tecido linfóide. O envolvimento secundário é mais freqüente, ocorrendo em até um terço das autópsias dos portadores de linfoma. Alguns autores acreditam que esta seja a única forma de acometimento renal, questionando a existência do linfoma primário. O linfoma renal representaria metástases hematogênicas ou invasão direta do tumor ocorrendo no espaço perirrenal. A partir destes tipos de envolvimento decorrem as formas de apresentação do linfoma renal: múltiplos nódulos, massa solitária, invasão renal por doença retroperitoneal contígua, doença perirrenal e infiltração difusa. Neste trabalho são discutidas e apresentadas imagens destas diferentes formas de acometimento.Isolated renal lymphoma is rare due to the absence of lymphoid tissue in kidneys. Secondary involvement occurs more frequently and is reported in up to 1/3 of the autopsies of patients who died from lymphoma. Some authors believe this is actually the only existing form of renal lymphoma. The involvement of the kidney by lymphoma would occur through hematogenic metastasis or direct tumor invasion of the perirenal space. These different types of involvement determine the several forms of renal lymphoma presentation: multiple nodules, solitary mass, renal invasion from contiguous retroperitoneal disease, perirenal disease and diffuse infiltration. In this study the imaging findings features of the different forms of involvement are presented and discussed.

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Aggravates Renal Injury through Cytokines and Direct Renal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhui Zhai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC activation state were examined. The results showed that renal injury was more serious in the reinfection group than in the primary infection group. At a higher infection dose, 6×106 PFU, the renal injury was more severe, accompanied by higher levels of proteinuria and urinary GAGs excretion, and lower levels of serum albumin. Podocyte foot effacement was more extensive, and hyperplasia of mesangial cells and proliferation of mesangial matrix were observed. The maturation state of DCs was specific, compared with the primary infection. There was also a decrease in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+T lymphocytes, due to an increase in the percentage of CD8+T lymphocytes and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+T lymphocytes, and a dramatic increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-17. In terms of the different reinfection times, the day 14 reinfection group yielded the most serious renal injury and the most significant change in immune function. RSV F protein was still expressed in the glomeruli 56 days after RSV infection. Altogether, these results reveal that RSV infection could aggravate renal injury, which might be due to direct renal injury caused by RSV and the inflammatory lesions caused by the anti-virus response induced by RSV.

  10. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  11. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  12. Histochemical Analysis of Renal Dysplasia with Ureteral Atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawate, Toyoko; Kawamura, Ryuki; Uchida, Takenori; Takahashi, Kyosuke; Hasegawa, Tomohiro; Futamata, Haruo; Katoh, Ryohei; Takeda, Sen

    2009-01-01

    Unilateral small kidney with ureteral obstruction was discovered in a 74-year-old female cadaver during an anatomical dissection course. In order to elucidate the histogenesis of renal dysplasia, we carried out histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. On macroscopic view, the kidney was approximately 3 cm in length, 2 cm in width and weighed only 9 g. Although the ureter ran from the renal hilus to the bladder, its width was under 2 mm. The renal parenchyma was extremely thin and there was a large congested vein in the renal sinus. On microscopic examination of the kidney, we observed that numerous developing renal tubules had cytokeratin-positive epithelia, most of which were surrounded by concentric fibrosis. However, we could not detect any structures resembling the collecting duct, renal tubules, renal pelvis, or glomeruli. The concentric mesencymal fibrous tissue surrounding the immature renal tubules contained the smooth muscles that were positive for h-caldesmon. Serial sections of the ureter revealed several small and discontinuous lacunae lined by cuboidal and transitional epithelium, which did not constitute a patent lumen through the bladder. This case is a rare case of renal dysplasia with defect in recanalization of the ureteral bud during the early developmental stage

  13. Computerized tomography for diagnosis and staging of renal pelvic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Goto, Akihiko; Kitamura, Hajime

    1985-01-01

    Although we have no definite criteria available yet for clinical staging of renal pelvic tumor, the preoperative staging of this disease is nevertheless important in view of the current tendency that the necessity for renal conservative operation is considered. CT is now a routine work also for diagnosing renal pelvic tumor. The present study was performed in order to validate its usefulness for diagnosing and staging the disease. Our series consisted of 8 patients with renal pelvic tumor, in 6 of whom a definite diagnosis was established after demonstrating filling defect on pyelogram, but in the remaining two with extensive infiltration, and squamous cell carcinoma associated with staghorn calculus respectively, CT failed to provide a definite diagnosis. CT findings of an extension of the mass in the renal pelvis or renal calyces into adipose tissue of the renal sinus or renal parenchyma were judged to indicate an invasive type (Stage III), while a non-invasive type (Stage I or II) was defined on the basis of otherwise CT findings. Consistency with pathological stages was noted in 7 of the 8 cases (87.5 %). It was difficult to differentiate Stage I and Stage II on CT findings. CT was considered to be extremely useful tool for preoperative staging of renal pelvic tumor. (author)

  14. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  15. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  16. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  17. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  18. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  19. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  20. Development and Validation of an Improved PCR Method Using the 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer for Detection of Rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks and Tissue Samples from Humans and Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley T; Meshnick, Steven R; Nicholson, William L; Apperson, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    A novel nested PCR assay was developed to detectRickettsiaspp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. Primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) ofRickettsiaspp. The newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic DNA from 11Rickettsiaspecies belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to otherRickettsia-specific PCR targets (ompA,gltA, and the 17-kDa protein gene). The new 23S-5S IGS nested PCR assay amplified all 11Rickettsiaspp., but the assays employing other PCR targets did not. The novel nested assay was sensitive enough to detect one copy of a cloned 23S-5S IGS fragment from "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii." Subsequently, the detection efficiency of the 23S-5S IGS nested assay was compared to those of the other three assays using genomic DNA extracted from 40 adultDermacentor variabilisticks. The nested 23S-5S IGS assay detectedRickettsiaDNA in 45% of the ticks, while the amplification rates of the other three assays ranged between 5 and 20%. The novel PCR assay was validated using clinical samples from humans and laboratory animals that were known to be infected with pathogenic species ofRickettsia The nested 23S-5S IGS PCR assay was coupled with reverse line blot hybridization with species-specific probes for high-throughput detection and simultaneous identification of the species ofRickettsiain the ticks. "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii,"R. montanensis,R. felis, andR. belliiwere frequently identified species, along with some potentially novelRickettsiastrains that were closely related toR. belliiandR. conorii. Copyright © 2016 Kakumanu et al.

  1. Development and Validation of an Improved PCR Method Using the 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer for Detection of Rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks and Tissue Samples from Humans and Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley T.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Nicholson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    A novel nested PCR assay was developed to detect Rickettsia spp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. Primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) of Rickettsia spp. The newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic DNA from 11 Rickettsia species belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to other Rickettsia-specific PCR targets (ompA, gltA, and the 17-kDa protein gene). The new 23S-5S IGS nested PCR assay amplified all 11 Rickettsia spp., but the assays employing other PCR targets did not. The novel nested assay was sensitive enough to detect one copy of a cloned 23S-5S IGS fragment from “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii.” Subsequently, the detection efficiency of the 23S-5S IGS nested assay was compared to those of the other three assays using genomic DNA extracted from 40 adult Dermacentor variabilis ticks. The nested 23S-5S IGS assay detected Rickettsia DNA in 45% of the ticks, while the amplification rates of the other three assays ranged between 5 and 20%. The novel PCR assay was validated using clinical samples from humans and laboratory animals that were known to be infected with pathogenic species of Rickettsia. The nested 23S-5S IGS PCR assay was coupled with reverse line blot hybridization with species-specific probes for high-throughput detection and simultaneous identification of the species of Rickettsia in the ticks. “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii,” R. montanensis, R. felis, and R. bellii were frequently identified species, along with some potentially novel Rickettsia strains that were closely related to R. bellii and R. conorii. PMID:26818674

  2. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  3. ACE polymorphism does not determine short-term renal response to ACE-inhibition in proteinuric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKleij, FGH; Navis, GJ; Gansevoort, RT; Scheffer, H; deZeeuw, D; deJong, PE

    1997-01-01

    Background. The renal response to ACE inhibition is known to vary between individuals. The ACE genotype is a determinant of the ACE concentrations in plasma and tissue, and therefore might affect the renal response to ACE inhibition in renal patients. Methods. To test this hypothesis we studied the

  4. Risk factors for chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease are related to accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Jasper W. L.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Graaff, Reindert; van Son, Willem J.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; de Jong, Paul E.; Smit, Andries J.

    Background. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to investigate which factors are associated with tissue AGE accumulation in renal

  5. Risk factors for chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease are related to accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Jasper W. L.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Graaff, Reindert; van Son, Willem J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; de Jong, Paul E.; Smit, Andries J.

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to investigate which factors are associated with tissue AGE accumulation in renal transplant

  6. Effect of selective inhibition of renal inducible nitric oxide synthase on renal blood flow and function in experimental hyperdynamic sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ken; Calzavacca, Paolo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bailey, Michael; May, Clive N

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide plays an important role in the control of renal blood flow and renal function. In sepsis, increased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase produce excessive nitric oxide, which may contribute to the development of acute kidney injury. We, therefore, examined the effects of intrarenal infusion of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in a large animal model of hyperdynamic sepsis in which acute kidney injury occurs in the presence of increased renal blood flow. Prospective crossover randomized controlled interventional studies. University-affiliated research institute. Twelve unilaterally nephrectomized Merino ewes. Infusion of a selective (1400W) and a partially selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (aminoguanidine) into the renal artery for 2 hrs after the induction of sepsis, and comparison with a nonselective inhibitor (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). In sheep with nonhypotensive hyperdynamic sepsis, creatinine clearance halved (32 to 16 mL/min, ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.51 [0.28-0.92]) despite increased renal blood flow (241 to 343 mL/min, difference [95% confidence interval] 102 [78-126]). Infusion of 1400W did not change renal blood flow, urine output, or creatinine clearance, whereas infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and a high dose of aminoguanidine normalized renal blood flow, but did not alter creatinine clearance. In hyperdynamic sepsis, intrarenal infusion of a highly selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor did not reduce the elevated renal blood flow or improve renal function. In contrast, renal blood flow was reduced by infusion of a nonselective NOS inhibitor or a high dose of a partially selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The renal vasodilatation in septic acute kidney injury may be due to nitric oxide derived from the endothelial and neural isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, but their blockade did not restore renal function.

  7. Serum Iron Protects from Renal Postischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugier, Céline; Amano, Mariane T; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Dussiot, Michael; Berrou, Claire; Matignon, Marie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Wang, Pamella H M; Fricot, Aurélie; Maciel, Thiago T; Grapton, Damien; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Beaumont, Carole; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Peyssonnaux, Carole; Mesnard, Laurent; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Monteiro, Renato C; Hermine, Olivier; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Benhamou, Marc; Camara, Niels O S; Flamant, Martin; Moura, Ivan C

    2017-12-01

    Renal transplants remain a medical challenge, because the parameters governing allograft outcome are incompletely identified. Here, we investigated the role of serum iron in the sterile inflammation that follows kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a retrospective cohort study of renal allograft recipients ( n =169), increased baseline levels of serum ferritin reliably predicted a positive outcome for allografts, particularly in elderly patients. In mice, systemic iron overload protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury-associated sterile inflammation. Furthermore, chronic iron injection in mice prevented macrophage recruitment after inflammatory stimuli. Macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions had reduced responses to Toll-like receptor-2, -3, and -4 agonists, which associated with decreased reactive oxygen species production, increased nuclear localization of the NRF2 transcription factor, increased expression of the NRF2-related antioxidant response genes, and limited NF- κ B and proinflammatory signaling. In macrophage-depleted animals, the infusion of macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions did not reconstitute AKI after ischemia-reperfusion, whereas macrophages cultured in physiologic iron conditions did. These findings identify serum iron as a critical protective factor in renal allograft outcome. Increasing serum iron levels in patients may thus improve prognosis of renal transplants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Khalid, M; Elfaki, M.; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  9. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. S; Ahmed, M.I; Elfaki, H.M; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)

  10. Disappearing renal calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomas, Johanna; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-04-10

    We present a case of a renal calculus treated solely with antibiotics which has not been previously reported in the literature. A man with a 17 mm lower pole renal calculus and concurrent Escherichia coli urine infection was being worked up to undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, after a course of preoperative antibiotics the stone was no longer seen on retrograde pyelography or CT imaging.

  11. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  12. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  13. Device-based approaches for renal nerve ablation for hypertension and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; Schlaich, Markus P

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic activation of renal sympathetic nerves is critical in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of treatment-resistant hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation has emerged as a safe and effective, non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension that involves the selective ablation of efferent and afferent renal nerves to lower blood pressure. However, the most recent and largest randomized controlled trial failed to confirm the primacy of renal denervation over a sham procedure, prompting widespread re-evaluation of the therapy's efficacy. Disrupting renal afferent sympathetic signaling to the hypothalamus with renal denervation lowers central sympathetic tone, which has the potential to confer additional clinical benefits beyond blood pressure control. Specifically, there has been substantial interest in the use of renal denervation as either a primary or adjunct therapy in pathological conditions characterized by central sympathetic overactivity such as renal disease, heart failure and metabolic-associated disorders. Recent findings from pre-clinical and proof-of-concept studies appear promising with renal denervation shown to confer cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, largely independent of changes in blood pressure. This review explores the pathological rationale for targeting sympathetic renal nerves for blood pressure control. Latest developments in renal nerve ablation modalities designed to improve procedural success are discussed along with prospective findings on the efficacy of renal denervation to lower blood pressure in treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. Preliminary evidence in support of renal denervation as a possible therapeutic option in disease states characterized by central sympathetic overactivity is also presented.

  14. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis involving a unilateral renal sinus: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seul Bi; Yoon, Jung Hee; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Suk Jung; Lim, Yun Jung; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease entity and its etiology is uncertain. We report two similar cases which showed an uncommon presentation of idiopathic RPF. A 66-year-old woman and an 80-year-old man presented with incidental findings of left renal pelvic mass-like lesions. Computed tomography revealed a soft tissue density mass replacing the left renal pelvis, which was suspicious for renal pelvic cancer, and the diagnosis of idiopathic RPF was surgically confirmed. To the best of our knowledge, a few cases of idiopathic RPF presenting with features of a localized unilateral renal pelvic mass mimicking renal pelvic cancer have been reported

  15. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis involving a unilateral renal sinus: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seul Bi; Yoon, Jung Hee; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Suk Jung; Lim, Yun Jung; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Jin Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease entity and its etiology is uncertain. We report two similar cases which showed an uncommon presentation of idiopathic RPF. A 66-year-old woman and an 80-year-old man presented with incidental findings of left renal pelvic mass-like lesions. Computed tomography revealed a soft tissue density mass replacing the left renal pelvis, which was suspicious for renal pelvic cancer, and the diagnosis of idiopathic RPF was surgically confirmed. To the best of our knowledge, a few cases of idiopathic RPF presenting with features of a localized unilateral renal pelvic mass mimicking renal pelvic cancer have been reported.

  16. Bilateral triple renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestemalci, Turan; Yildiz, Yusuf Zeki; Yildirim, Mehmet; Mavi, Ayfer; Gumusburun, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radio logic techniques being performed in recent years. We report the presence of bilateral triple renal arteries, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver. On the right side, one additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta (distributed to superior pole of the kidney) and one other originated from the right common iliac artery (distributed to lower pole of the kidney). On the left side, both additional renal arteries originated from the abdominal aorta. Our observation has been compared with variations described in the literature and their clinical importance has been emphasized. (author)

  17. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  18. Targeted reduction of advanced glycation improves renal function in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harcourt, Brooke E; Sourris, Karly C; Coughlan, Melinda T

    2011-01-01

    -lowering pharmaceutical, alagebrium, and mice in which the receptor for AGE (RAGE) was deleted. Obesity, resulting from a diet high in both fat and AGE, caused renal impairment; however, treatment of the RAGE knockout mice with alagebrium improved urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, the inflammatory profile...... if treatments that lower tissue AGE burden in patients and mice would improve obesity-related renal dysfunction. Overweight and obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 26-39¿kg/m(2)) were recruited to a randomized, crossover clinical trial involving 2 weeks each on a low- and a high-AGE-containing diet. Renal......, and renal oxidative stress. Alagebrium treatment, however, resulted in decreased weight gain and improved glycemic control compared with wild-type mice on a high-fat Western diet. Thus, targeted reduction of the advanced glycation pathway improved renal function in obesity....

  19. Renal hemodynamics in uranyl acetate-induced acute renal failure of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, M.; Honda, N.; Hishida, A.; Nagase, M.

    1977-01-01

    The role of renal hemodynamic alterations in the curtailment of renal function was studied in rabbits with uranyl acetate-induced acute renal failure. The day following the i.v. injection of uranyl acetate (2 mg/kg of body wt), renal blood flow (RBF) and clearance of creatinine (Ccr) decreased to approximately 60 and 20% of controls, respectively. Intracortical fractional flow distribution, estimated by radioactive microsphere method, did not change. The extraction ratio of para-aminohippurate (EPAH) decreased and the renal extraction of sodium (CNa/Ccr) increased, with minimal structural change in the kidney. Urine output increased two to three times that of the control. After three days oliguria appeared despite complete recovery of RBF. The zonal flow redistributed toward the deep cortex. CCr and EPAH reached their minimums, concomitantly with tubular necrosis and intratubular casts. After seven days animals could be divided into the oliguric and diuretic groups. CCr and EPAH were higher in the diuretic group, while there was no significant difference in RBF and the flow distribution between groups. Regeneration of damaged tubular cells was found in the diuretic group but not in the oliguric group. The findings suggest the minor roles of RBF and the intracortical flow distribution, and a fundamental role of back leakage of filtrate across damaged tubular epithelium in the maintenance of reduced CCR and urine output during the oliguric stage in rabbits with uranyl acetate-induced renal failure