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Sample records for renal tissue animals

  1. Short- and Mid-term Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Normal Renal Tissue: An Animal Model

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    Wendler, J. J., E-mail: johann.wendler@med.ovgu.de; Porsch, M.; Huehne, S.; Baumunk, D. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany); Buhtz, P. [Institute of Pathology, University of Magdeburg (Germany); Fischbach, F.; Pech, M. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Mahnkopf, D. [Institute of Medical Technology and Research (Germany); Kropf, S. [Institute of Biometry, University of Magdeburg (Germany); Roessner, A. [Institute of Pathology, University of Magdeburg (Germany); Ricke, J. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Schostak, M.; Liehr, U.-B. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel nonthermal tissue ablation technique by high current application leading to apoptosis without affecting extracellular matrix. Previous results of renal IRE shall be supplemented by functional MRI and differentiated histological analysis of renal parenchyma in a chronic treatment setting. Three swine were treated with two to three multifocal percutaneous IRE of the right kidney. MRI was performed before, 30 min (immediate-term), 7 days (short-term), and 28 days (mid-term) after IRE. A statistical analysis of the lesion surrounded renal parenchyma intensities was made to analyze functional differences depending on renal part, side and posttreatment time. Histological follow-up of cortex and medulla was performed after 28 days. A total of eight ablations were created. MRI showed no collateral damage of surrounded tissue. The highest visual contrast between lesions and normal parenchyma was obtained by T2-HR-SPIR-TSE-w sequence of DCE-MRI. Ablation zones showed inhomogeneous necroses with small perifocal edema in the short-term and sharp delimitable scars in the mid-term. MRI showed no significant differences between adjoined renal parenchyma around ablations and parenchyma of untreated kidney. Histological analysis demonstrated complete destruction of cortical glomeruli and tubules, while collecting ducts, renal calyxes, and pelvis of medulla were preserved. Adjoined kidney parenchyma around IRE lesions showed no qualitative differences to normal parenchyma of untreated kidney. This porcine IRE study reveals a multifocal renal ablation, while protecting surrounded renal parenchyma and collecting system over a mid-term period. That offers prevention of renal function ablating centrally located or multifocal renal masses.

  2. Cupper in animal tissues

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    Maximino Huerta Bravo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  3. [Bacteria isolated from urine and renal tissue samples and their relation to renal histology].

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    Gökalp, A; Gültekin, E Y; Bakici, M Z; Ozdeşlik, B

    1988-01-01

    The bacteria from the urine and renal biopsy specimens of 40 patients undergoing renal surgery were isolated and their relations with renal histology investigated. The urine cultures were positive in 14 patients, the same organisms being isolated from the renal tissue in 7 cases. In 6 patients with negative urine cultures, bacteria were isolated from renal tissues. Of the 28 cases pathologically diagnosed as chronic pyelonephritis, bacteria were isolated from the renal tissue in 13 cases, the urine cultures being positive in only 11 cases. E. coli was the most commonly encountered bacteria in both the urine and renal tissues.

  4. Multiphoton imaging of renal tissues in vitro.

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    Peti-Peterdi, János

    2005-06-01

    The highly inhomogeneous and light-scattering structure of living renal tissue makes the application of conventional imaging techniques more difficult compared with other parenchymal organs. On the other hand, key physiological processes of the kidney, such as regulation of glomerular filtration, hemodynamics, concentration, and dilution, involve complex interactions between multiple cell types and otherwise inaccessible structures that necessitate visual approaches. An ideal solution is multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy, a state-of-the-art imaging technique superior for deep optical sectioning of living tissue samples. Here, we review the basics and advantages of multiphoton microscopy and provide examples for its application in renal physiology using dissected cortical and medullary tissues in vitro. In combination with microperfusion techniques, the major functions of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, tubuloglomerular feedback and renin release, can be studied with high spatial and temporal resolution. Salt-dependent changes in macula densa cell volume, vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole, and activity of an intraglomerular precapillary sphincter composed of renin granular cells are visualized in real time. Release and tissue activity of renin can be studied on the individual granule level. Imaging of the living inner medulla shows how interstitial cells interconnect cells of the vasa recta, loop of Henle, and collecting duct. In summary, multiphoton microscopy is an exciting new optical sectioning technique that has great potential for numerous future developments and is ideal for applications that require deep optical sectioning of living tissue samples.

  5. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

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    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities in non-neoplastic renal tissue

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    vandenBerg, E; Dijkhuizen, T; Storkel, S; Molenaar, WM; deJong, B

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in short-term cultures of non-neoplastic renal tissue and tumor tissue in 60 patients, 41 male and 19 female, with renal cell cancer (RCC), and in normal renal parenchyma from two cases, one male and one female, at autopsy with non-kidney related disease. Cytogene

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in non-neoplastic renal tissue

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    vandenBerg, E; Dijkhuizen, T; Storkel, S; Molenaar, WM; deJong, B

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in short-term cultures of non-neoplastic renal tissue and tumor tissue in 60 patients, 41 male and 19 female, with renal cell cancer (RCC), and in normal renal parenchyma from two cases, one male and one female, at autopsy with non-kidney related disease. Cytogene

  8. Applications of urinary proteomics in renal disease research using animal models.

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    Lv, Yang; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of renal disease are essential tools in research on kidney disease and have provided valuable insights into pathogenesis. Use of animal models minimises inter-individual differences, allows specific pathological changes to be examined, and facilitates collection of tissue samples. Thus, mechanistic research and identification of biomarkers are possible. Various animal models manifesting specific pathological lesions can be used to investigate acute or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Urine, a terminal metabolic product, is produced via glomerular filtration, reabsorption, and excretion in the tubular and collecting ducts, reflecting the functions of glomeruli or tubular tissue stimulated in various ways or subject to disease. Almost 70 % of urinary proteins originate from the kidney (the other 30 % come from plasma), and urinary sampling is important to noninvasively detect renal disease. Proteomics is powerful when used to screen urine components. Increasingly, urine proteomics is used to explore the pathogenesis of kidney disease in animals and to identify novel biomarkers of renal disease. In this section, we will introduce the field of urinary proteomics as applied in different models of animal renal disease and the valuable role played by proteomics in noninvasive diagnosis and rational treatment of human renal disease.

  9. [Renal adaptation after experimental nephrectomy in animals: a review].

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    Rouvellat-Terrade, P; Game, X; de Bonnecaze, G; Beauval, J-B; Mansouri, A; Doumerc, N; Rischmann, P; Malavaud, B

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DATA-GATHERING: We reviewed experimental litterature about kidney adaptation after nephrectomy in mammals. KNOWLEDGE SYNTHESIS: Renal mass increases after nephrectomy thanks to two components, one is immediately due to the rise of glomulary capillary vascular flow, other is linked to cellular modifications with hyperplasia stage which precedes hypertrophy stage. After nephrectomy, young animals show higher renal adaptability than adults. Similarly, the sex influences the remnant kidney parenchyma volume, the increase of glomerular filtration, the hyperplasia's intensity or length, the hypertrophy's metabolic pathways and the glomerular and tubular cells' injury. There is no question that renal compensatory is regulated by hormones such as IGF-1, TGFβ-1 and Ang-II. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of mitochondria from animal tissue.

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    Clayton, David A; Shadel, Gerald S

    2014-10-01

    Rat or mouse liver is the most frequently used tissue for mitochondrial preparations because it is readily available, easy to homogenize, and replete with mitochondria. A motor-driven Teflon and glass Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer is the best choice for homogenizing liver, but if one is not available, this tissue is soft enough that a Dounce homogenizer with a loose (A) pestle can also be used. The yield and purity of the mitochondrial preparation will be influenced by the method and speed of preparation and the age and physiological condition of the animal. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of renal tissue proteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

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    Dai Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renal biopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved if rapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. This study is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be found in renal-graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344 or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one is allograft (from F344 to Lewis rats; another is syngrafts (from Lewis to Lewis rats serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. As many as 18 samples were analyzed by 2-D Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. In conclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins as diagnostic markers for rejection in patients′ urine or sera may be useful and non-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targets that also help to improve the understanding of mechanism of renal rejection.

  12. Euterpe edulis effects on cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet.

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    De Barrios Freitas, Rodrigo; Melato, Fernanda Araujo; Oliveira, Jerusa Maria de; Bastos, Daniel Silva Sena; Cardoso, Raisa Mirella; Leite, João Paulo Viana; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2017-02-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate the antioxidant and toxic effects of E. edulison cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in cardiac muscle and renal tissue of 60 animals, which were randomly assigned for 10 equal groups. Half of the rats were fed with cafeteria diet and the other half with commercial chow, combined or not to E. edulislyophilized extract, E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract or E. edulisoil. Data were evaluated using ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Data showed a significant increase of CAT activity in cardiac tissue of animals from the groups fed with cafeteria diet associated to E. edulis lyophilized extract at 5%, E. edulis lyophilized extract at 10% and E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract at 10%. In addition, the same result was found in animals from the groups fed with commercial chow and commercial chow combined with E. edulislyophilized extract at 10% in comparison to the group fed exclusively with cafeteria diet. GST and SOD enzyme activity showed significant increase in the heart tissue of animals nourished with commercial chow when compared to the groups fed with cafeteria diet. On the other hand, there were no significant differences enzymatic levels in renal tissues. The oil and the extract of E. edulishad an important role promoting an increase of antioxidant enzymes levels in cardiac muscle, which prevent the oxidative damage resulting from the cafeteria diet in Wistar rats. There were no evidenced signs of lipid peroxidation in renal or in cardiac tissue of the animals studied, indicating that the E. edulisuse did not promote any increase in malondialdehyde cytotoxic products formation. This show that both E. edulis oil and extracts evaluated in this study were well tolerated in the studied doses.

  13. Characterization of acute renal allograft rejection by proteomic analysis of renal tissue in rat.

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    Chen, Gang; Huang, Jing-Bin; Mi, Jie; He, Yun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hou; Luo, Chun-Li; Liang, Si-Min; Li, Jia-Bing; Tang, Ya-Xiong; Li, Jie

    2012-02-01

    Rapid and reliable biomarkers of renal allograft rejection have not been available. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers in renal allograft tissue using proteomic analysis. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344) or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Syngenic control group (Group I) constituted F344-to-F344 orthotopic kidney allo-transplantations (n = 8); and allogenic group (Group II) consisted of F344-to-Lewis orthotopic kidney allo-transplantations (n = 8). Renal tissues were harvested 7 days after transplantation. Samples were analyzed using 2-D electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. 6 differentially expressed proteins were identified between allogenic group and syngenic control group. A rat model of acute renal allograft rejection was successfully set up. Differentially expressed proteins in renal allograft tissue of rat were detected using proteomic analysis and might serve as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets in human. Quantitative proteomics, using MALDL-TOF-MS methodology has the potential to provide a profiling and a deeper understanding of acute renal rejection.

  14. Mercury speciation analysis in terrestrial animal tissues.

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    Berzas Nevado, J J; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, R C; Guzmán Bernardo, F J; Rodríguez Fariñas, N; Patiño Ropero, M J

    2012-09-15

    No previous analytical procedures are available and validated for mercury speciation analysis in terrestrial animal tissues. This analysis is a difficult task both because the expected concentrations are low, since important accumulation process are not likely to occur, and also because there are not commercially available certified reference material. Thus, an analytical methodology has been developed and validated for mercury speciation for the specific case of terrestrial animal tissues. The proposed method is based on the quantitative extraction of the species by closed-vessel microwave assisted heating with an alkaline reagent, followed by ethylation. The ethylated derivatives were then submitted to head-space solid phase microextraction with a 100 μm polidimethylsiloxane-coated fiber, and desorbed onto a gas chromatograph coupled to atomic fluorescence detection via pyrolysis unit (HS-SPME-GC-pyro-AFS). Procedural detection limits were 31.8 ng g(-1) and 52.5 ng g(-1) for CH(3)Hg(+) and Hg(2+), respectively, for liver and 35.3 ng g(-1) and 58.1 ng g(-1) for CH(3)Hg(+) and Hg(2+), respectively, for kidney. These limits of detection are 5.5 and 6 times better than the obtained without solid phase microextraction for CH(3)Hg(+) and Hg(2+), respectively. The methodology was found linear up to 120 μg L(-1) and reproducible from one day to the following. It was validated with certified reference materials NCS ZC 71001 (beef liver) and BCR No 186 (pig kidney) for total mercury, calculated as the sum of species, and with spiked red deer liver and kidney for speciation. Finally, it was applied to the analysis of samples of red deer liver, red deer kidney and wild boar kidney coming from the Almadén's mercury mining area (Ciudad Real, Spain), the longest and largest producer of mercury in the world until its closure in 2002.

  15. CIRRHOSIS INDUCES APOPTOSIS IN RENAL TISSUE THROUGH INTRACELLULAR OXIDATIVE STRESS

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    Keli Cristina Simões da SILVEIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Renal failure is a frequent and serious complication in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the renal oxidative stress, cell damage and impaired cell function in animal model of cirrhosis. Methods Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced in rats by ligation of the common bile duct. We measured TBARS, ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential in kidney as markers of oxidative stress, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Relative cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye-exclusion assay. Annexin V-PE was used with a vital dye, 7-AAD, to distinguish apoptotic from necrotic cells and comet assay was used for determined DNA integrity in single cells. Results In bile duct ligation animals there was significant increase in the kidney lipoperoxidation and an increase of the level of intracellular ROS. There was too an increase in the activity of all antioxidant enzymes evaluated in the kidney. The percentage viability was above 90% in the control group and in bile duct ligation was 64.66% and the dominant cell death type was apoptosis. DNA damage was observed in the bile duct ligation. There was a decreased in the mitochondrial membrane potential from 71.40% ± 6.35% to 34.48% ± 11.40% in bile duct ligation. Conclusions These results indicate that intracellular increase of ROS cause damage in the DNA and apoptosis getting worse the renal function in cirrhosis.

  16. Determination of the Nonlethal Margin Inside the Visible 'Ice-Ball' During Percutaneous Cryoablation of Renal Tissue

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    Georgiades, Christos, E-mail: g_christos@hotmail.com [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Interventional Radiology Center (United States); Rodriguez, Ronald, E-mail: rrodrig@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Urology (United States); Azene, Ezana, E-mail: eazene1@jhmi.edu; Weiss, Clifford, E-mail: cweiss@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Interventional Radiology Center (United States); Chaux, Alcides, E-mail: achaux1@jhmi.edu; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda, E-mail: ngonzal6@jhmi.edu; Netto, George, E-mail: gnetto1@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Urologic Pathology (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Objective. The study was designed to determine the distance between the visible 'ice-ball' and the lethal temperature isotherm for normal renal tissue during cryoablation. Methods. The Animal Care Committee approved the study. Nine adult swine were used: three to determine the optimum tissue stain and six to test the hypotheses. They were anesthetized and the left renal artery was catheterized under fluoroscopy. Under MR guidance, the kidney was ablated and (at end of a complete ablation) the nonfrozen renal tissue (surrounding the 'ice-ball') was stained via renal artery catheter. Kidneys were explanted and sent for slide preparation and examination. From each slide, we measured the maximum, minimum, and an in-between distance from the stained to the lethal tissue boundaries (margin). We examined each slide for evidence of 'heat pump' effect. Results. A total of 126 measurements of the margin (visible 'ice-ball'-lethal margin) were made. These measurements were obtained from 29 slides prepared from the 6 test animals. Mean width was 0.75 {+-} 0.44 mm (maximum 1.15 {+-} 0.51 mm). It was found to increase adjacent to large blood vessels. No 'heat pump' effect was noted within the lethal zone. Data are limited to normal swine renal tissue. Conclusions. Considering the effects of the 'heat pump' phenomenon for normal renal tissue, the margin was measured to be 1.15 {+-} 0.51 mm. To approximate the efficacy of the 'gold standard' (partial nephrectomy, {approx}98 %), a minimum margin of 3 mm is recommended (3 Multiplication-Sign SD). Given these assumptions and extrapolating for renal cancer, which reportedly is more cryoresistant with a lethal temperature of -40 Degree-Sign C, the recommended margin is 6 mm.

  17. [Animal experiments concerning the autoimplantation of splenic tissue (author's transl)].

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    Böhles, H; Willital, G H; Krebs, C; Kaduk, B; Herzog, K H

    1981-09-01

    15 male rabbits were divided into three groups. The animals in group 1 were splenectomized. In group 2 pulpa tissue from the cut surface of the spleen was left in the abdominal cavity. Group 3 was sham operated. After 15 months all animals from group 2 showed particles of histologically intact splenic tissue mainly on the parietal peritoneum of the abdominal wall. The implications of the autoimplantation of splenic tissue during splenectomy are discussed.

  18. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

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    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  19. Degenerate polygonal tilings in simple animal tissues

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    Ziherl, Primoz; Hocevar, Ana

    2009-03-01

    We study 2D polygonal tilings as models of the en-face structure of single-layer biological tissues. Using numerical simulations, we explore the phase diagram of equilibrium tilings of equal-area, equal-perimeter convex polygons whose energy is independent of their shape. We identify 3 distinct phases, which are all observed in simple epithelial tissues: The disordered phase of polygons with 4-9 sides, the hexatic phase, and the hexagonal phase with perfect 6-fold coordination. We quantify their structure using Edwards' statistical mechanics of cellular systems.

  20. Renal failure caused by chemicals, foods, plants, animal venoms, and misuse of drugs. An overview.

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    Abuelo, J G

    1990-03-01

    Nephrotoxicity caused by contrast media and drugs is a frequent cause of renal failure in medical practice. However, there are only sporadic cases of renal failure caused by chemicals, foods, plants, animal venoms, and misused or illegal drugs, and standard medical textbooks are limited in the coverage given to the subject. This review provides a referenced compilation of these lesser-known nephrotoxins and gives an overview of renal failure caused by substances other than properly used medications.

  1. Understanding kidney morphogenesis to guide renal tissue regeneration.

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    Little, Melissa H; Combes, Alexander N; Takasato, Minoru

    2016-10-01

    The treatment of renal failure has seen little change in the past 70 years. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are treated with renal replacement therapy, including dialysis or organ transplantation. The growing imbalance between the availability of donor organs and prevalence of ESRD is pushing an increasing number of patients to undergo dialysis. Although the prospect of new treatment options for patients through regenerative medicine has long been suggested, advances in the generation of human kidney cell types through the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells over the past 2 years have brought this prospect closer to delivery. These advances are the result of careful research into mammalian embryogenesis. By understanding the decision points made within the embryo to pattern the kidney, it is now possible to recreate self-organizing kidney tissues in vitro. In this Review, we describe the key decision points in kidney development and how these decisions have been mimicked experimentally. Recreation of human nephrons from human pluripotent stem cells opens the door to patient-derived disease models and personalized drug and toxicity screening. In the long term, we hope that these efforts will also result in the generation of bioengineered organs for the treatment of kidney disease.

  2. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models

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    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Buob, David [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); Flamand, Vincent [Service d' Urologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Hennino, Marie-Flore [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Perrais, Michaël [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); and others

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies. - Highlights: • Renal proximal tubular (PT) cells are highly sensitive to xenobiotics. • Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic disposition was measured. • PT cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue.

  3. The use of animal tissues alongside human tissue: Cultural and ethical considerations.

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    Kaw, Anu; Jones, D Gareth; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and research facilities often use cadaveric material alongside animal tissues, although there appear to be differences in the way we handle, treat, and dispose of human cadaveric material compared to animal tissue. This study sought to analyze cultural and ethical considerations and provides policy recommendations on the use of animal tissues alongside human tissue. The status of human and animal remains and the respect because of human and animal tissues were compared and analyzed from ethical, legal, and cultural perspectives. The use of animal organs and tissues is carried out within the context of understanding human anatomy and function. Consequently, the interests of human donors are to be pre-eminent in any policies that are enunciated, so that if any donors find the presence of animal remains unacceptable, the latter should not be employed. The major differences appear to lie in differences in our perceptions of their respective intrinsic and instrumental values. Animals are considered to have lesser intrinsic value and greater instrumental value than humans. These differences stem from the role played by culture and ethical considerations, and are manifested in the resulting legal frameworks. In light of this discussion, six policy recommendations are proposed, encompassing the nature of consent, respect for animal tissues as well as human remains, and appropriate separation of both sets of tissues in preparation and display. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Renal proximal tubular dysfunction is a major determinant of urinary connective tissue growth factor excretion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, K.G.; Peters, H.P.E.; Nguyen, T.Q.; Koeners, M.P.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Joles, J.A.; Christensen, E.I.; Verroust, P.J.; Li, D.; Oliver, N.; Xu, L.; Kok, R.J.; Goldschmeding, R.

    2010-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays a key role in renal fibrosis. Urinary CTGF is elevated in various renal diseases and may have biomarker potential. However, it is unknown which processes contribute to elevated urinary CTGF levels. Thus far, urinary CTGF was considered to reflect renal ex

  5. Arterial Clamping Increases Central Renal Cryoablation Efficacy: An Animal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonboe, Lasse Larsen; Nielsen, Tommy Kjaergaard; Høyer, Søren;

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The minimally invasive treatment of small renal masses with cryoablation has become increasingly widespread during the past 15 years. Studies with long-term follow-up are beginning to emerge, showing good oncological control, however, tumors with a central and endophytic location seem...... to possess an increased risk of treatment failure. Such tumors are likely to be subjected to a high volume of blood giving thermal protection to the cancerous cells. Arterial clamping during freezing might reduce this effect but at the same time subject the kidney to ischemia. The aim of this study...... was to evaluate the effect of renal artery clamping during cryoablation in a porcine survival model. METHODS: Ten Danish Landrace pigs (approximately 40 kg) underwent bilateral laparoscopic cryoablation with clamping of the right renal artery during freezing. The cryoablation consisted of a standard double...

  6. Detailing the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach of parametric magnetic resonance imaging and invasive physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Arakelyan, Karen; Hentschel, Jan; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Ladwig, Mechthild; Waiczies, Sonia; Seeliger, Erdmann; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to detail the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach that combines parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative physiological measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Experiments were performed in 21 male Wistar rats. In vivo modulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation was achieved by brief periods of aortic occlusion, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. Renal perfusion pressure (RPP), renal blood flow (RBF), local cortical and medullary tissue pO2, and blood flux were simultaneously recorded together with T2*, T2 mapping, and magnetic resonance-based kidney size measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out on a 9.4-T small-animal magnetic resonance system. Relative changes in the invasive quantitative parameters were correlated with relative changes in the parameters derived from MRI using Spearman analysis and Pearson analysis. Changes in T2* qualitatively reflected tissue pO2 changes induced by the interventions. T2* versus pO2 Spearman rank correlations were significant for all interventions, yet quantitative translation of T2*/pO2 correlations obtained for one intervention to another intervention proved not appropriate. The closest T2*/pO2 correlation was found for hypoxia and recovery. The interlayer comparison revealed closest T2*/pO2 correlations for the outer medulla and showed that extrapolation of results obtained for one renal layer to other renal layers must be made with due caution. For T2* to RBF relation, significant Spearman correlations were deduced for all renal layers and for all interventions. T2*/RBF correlations for the cortex and outer medulla were even superior to those between T2* and tissue pO2. The closest T2*/RBF correlation occurred during hypoxia and recovery. Close correlations were observed between T2* and kidney size during hypoxia and recovery and for occlusion and recovery. In both cases, kidney size correlated well with renal vascular conductance

  7. Enhanced propagation of adult human renal epithelial progenitor cells to improve cell sourcing for tissue-engineered therapeutic devices for renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Angela J; Buffington, Deborah A; Humes, H D

    2012-08-01

    Renal cell therapy employing cells derived from adult renal epithelial cell (REC) progenitors promises to reduce the morbidity of patients with renal insufficiency due to acute renal failure and end stage renal disease. To this end, tissue engineered devices addressing the neglected biologic component of renal replacement therapy are being developed. Because human donor tissue is limited, novel enhanced progenitor cell propagation (EP) techniques have been developed and applied to adult human kidney transplant discards from six donors. Changes include more efficient digestion and the amplification of progenitors prior to terminal epithelial differentiation promoted by contact inhibition and the addition of retinoic acid. Differentiated morphology in EP populations was demonstrated by the ability to form polarized epithelium with tight junctions, apical central cilia and expression of brush border membrane enzymes. Evaluation of lipopolysaccharide stimulated interleukin-8 secretion and γ-glutamyl transpeptisade activity in EP derived cells was used to confirm therapeutic equivalence to REC obtained using published techniques, which have previously shown efficacy in large animal models and clinical trials. Yield exceeded 10(16) cells/gram cortex from the only kidney obtained due to an anatomical defect, while the average yield from diseased kidneys ranged from 1.1 × 10(9) to 8.8 × 10(11) cells/gram cortex, representing an increase of more than 10 doublings over standard methods. Application of the EP protocol to REC expansion has solved the problem of cell sourcing as the limiting factor to the manufacture of cell based therapies targeting renal diseases and may provide a method for autologous device fabrication from core kidney biopsies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Non-invasive imaging of acute renal allograft rejection in rats using small animal F-FDG-PET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Reuter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At present, renal grafts are the most common solid organ transplants world-wide. Given the importance of renal transplantation and the limitation of available donor kidneys, detailed analysis of factors that affect transplant survival are important. Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection (AR is still a major risk for graft survival. Nowadays, AR can only be definitively by renal biopsy. However, biopsies carry a risk of renal transplant injury and loss. Most important, they can not be performed in patients taking anticoagulant drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a non-invasive, entirely image-based method to assess AR in an allogeneic rat renal transplantation model using small animal positron emission tomography (PET and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG. 3 h after i.v. injection of 30 MBq FDG into adult uni-nephrectomized, allogeneically transplanted rats, tissue radioactivity of renal parenchyma was assessed in vivo by a small animal PET-scanner (post operative day (POD 1,2,4, and 7 and post mortem dissection. The mean radioactivity (cps/mm(3 tissue as well as the percent injected dose (%ID was compared between graft and native reference kidney. Results were confirmed by histological and autoradiographic analysis. Healthy rats, rats with acute CSA nephrotoxicity, with acute tubular necrosis, and syngeneically transplanted rats served as controls. FDG-uptake was significantly elevated only in allogeneic grafts from POD 1 on when compared to the native kidney (%ID graft POD 1: 0.54+/-0.06; POD 2: 0.58+/-0.12; POD 4: 0.81+/-0.06; POD 7: 0.77+/-0.1; CTR: 0.22+/-0.01, n = 3-28. Renal FDG-uptake in vivo correlated with the results obtained by micro-autoradiography and the degree of inflammatory infiltrates observed in histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that graft FDG-PET imaging is a new option to non-invasively, specifically, early detect, and follow

  9. Fetal programming of CVD and renal disease: animal models and mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2013-08-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis postulates that exposure to a less than optimal maternal environment during fetal development programmes physiological function, and determines risk of disease in adult life. Much evidence of such programming comes from retrospective epidemiological cohorts, which demonstrate associations between birth anthropometry and non-communicable diseases of adulthood. The assertion that variation in maternal nutrition drives these associations is supported by studies using animal models, which demonstrate that maternal under- or over-nutrition during pregnancy can programme offspring development. Typically, the offspring of animals that are undernourished in pregnancy exhibit a relatively narrow range of physiological phenotypes that includes higher blood pressure, glucose intolerance, renal insufficiency and increased adiposity. The observation that common phenotypes arise from very diverse maternal nutritional insults has led to the proposal that programming is driven by a small number of mechanistic processes. The remodelling of tissues during development as a consequence of maternal nutritional status being signalled by endocrine imbalance or key nutrients limiting processes in the fetus may lead to organs having irreversibly altered structures that may limit their function with ageing. It has been proposed that the maternal diet may impact upon epigenetic marks that determine gene expression in fetal tissues, and this may be an important mechanism connecting maternal nutrient intakes to long-term programming of offspring phenotype. The objective for this review is to provide an overview of the mechanistic basis of fetal programming, demonstrating the critical role of animal models as tools for the investigation of programming phenomena.

  10. Association of Kidney Tissue Barrier Disrupture and Renal Dysfunction in Resuscitated Murine Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Tatjana; Weidgang, Clair; Wagner, Katja; Wagner, Florian; Gröger, Michael; Weber, Sandra; Stahl, Bettina; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Calzia, Enrico; Denk, Stephanie; Georgieff, Michael; Huber-Lang, Markus; Radermacher, Peter; McCook, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Septic shock-related kidney failure is characterized by almost normal morphological appearance upon pathological examination. Endothelial barrier disrupture has been suggested to be of crucial importance for septic shock-induced organ dysfunction. Therefore, in murine resuscitated cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic shock, we tested the hypothesis whether there is a direct relationship between the kidney endothelial barrier injury and renal dysfunction. Anesthetized mice underwent CLP, and 15 h later, were anesthetized again and surgically instrumented for a 5-h period of intensive care comprising lung-protective mechanical ventilation, fluid resuscitation, continuous i.v. norepinephrine to maintain target hemodynamics, and measurement of creatinine clearance (CrCl). Animals were stratified according to low or high CrCl. Nitrotyrosine formation, expression of the inducible isoform of the nitric oxide synthase, and blood cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, interleukin-10) and chemokine (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, keratinocyte-derived chemokine) levels were significantly higher in animals with low CrCl. When plotted against CrCl and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels, extravascular albumin accumulation, and tissue expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 showed significant mathematical relationships related to kidney (dys)function. Preservation of the constitutive expression of the hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathione-γ-lyase was associated with maintenance of organ function. The direct quantitative relation between microvascular leakage and kidney (dys)function may provide a missing link between near-normal tissue morphology and septic shock-related renal failure, thus further highlighting the important role of vascular integrity in septic shock-related renal failure.

  11. Low renal toxicity of lipoplatin compared to cisplatin in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Prasad; Tarabishi, Ridwan; Mishra, Jaya; Ma, Qing; Kourvetaris, Andreas; Vougiouka, Maria; Boulikas, Teni

    2004-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used and effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of several human malignancies. Although the effectiveness of cisplatin is high, its toxicities justify the demand for improved formulations of this drug. A liposomal formulation of cisplatin, Lipoplatin, was developed in order to reduce the systemic toxicity of cisplatin. Mice and rats injected with cisplatin developed renal insufficiency with clear evidence of tubular damage, but those injected with the same dose of Lipoplatin were almost completely free of kidney injury. The maximum levels of total platinum in rat kidneys after intraperitoneal bolus injection of cisplatin or Lipoplatin at similar doses were similar, but the steady state accumulation of total platinum in the kidney was 5 times higher for cisplatin compared to Lipoplatin. This is proposed as one mechanism to explain the low renal toxicity of Lipoplatin.

  12. Expression of Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Genes in Renal Cell Cancer and Benign Renal Disease Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永光; 曾甫清; 肖传国; 刘俊敏

    2003-01-01

    To study the expression of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) genes in renal cellcarcinomas (RCC) and benign renal disease tissues, nested reverse transcription-polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR) and restriction endonuclease analysis were employed to detect the expression ofβhCG genes in 44 cases of RCC tissues and 24 cases of benign renal disease tissues. It was foundthat 52% RCC samples revealed positive for βhCG mRNA expression. Positive rate in advancedstage and poorly differentiated RCC was higher, but there was no significant difference. The posi-tive rate of βhCG mRNA expression was 54% in 24 cases of benign renal tissues, including 3 casesout of 6 polycystic kidneys, 7 cases out of 13 renal atrophies, 2 cases out of 2 oncocytomas and 1case out of 2 pyonephrotic kidneys. β7 was most frequently transcribed subtype gene independent onthe histology. These findings suggested βhCG gene transcription is not only involved in RCC but al-so in benign renal diseases.

  13. The adipose tissue in farm animals: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue is not only a tissue where energy is stored but is also involved in regulating several body functions such as appetite and energy expenditure via its endocrine activity. Moreover, it thereby modulates complex processes like reproduction, inflammation and immune response. The products secreted from adipose tissue comprise hormones and cytokines that are collectively termed as adipocytokines or "adipokines"; the discovery and characterization of new proteins secreted by adipose tissue is still ongoing and their number is thus increasing. Adipokines act in both endocrine manner as well as locally, as autocrine or paracrine effectors. Proteomics has emerged as a valuable technique to characterize both cellular and secreted proteomes from adipose tissues, including those of main cellular fractions, i.e. the adipocytes or the stromal vascular fraction containing mainly adipocyte precursors and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal structure for the mammary gland and on its role in participating in and regulating of energy metabolism and other functions. Moreover, as pig has recently become an important model organism to study human diseases, the knowledge of adipose tissue metabolism in pig is relevant for the study of obesity and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in

  14. DETECTION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF HBV IN RENAL TISSUE OF HBV ASSOCIATED GLOMERULONEPHRITIS PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任淑婷; 于琳华; 徐长福; 李恒力; 党双锁; 成少利; 郑黎明

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) on kidney tissues. Methods HBsAg and HBcAg in paraffin-embedded renal biopsy tissues from 27 cases of glomerulonephritis with positive serum HBV markers were observed by using immunohistochemistry. In addition, in situ polymerse chain reaction (IS-PCR) was performed in 5 cases with positive HBsAg and HBcAg in renal tissue of the 27-case glomerulonephritis to reveal the state of renal HBV DNA. Results Twenty cases (20/27,74.07%) were positive with HBAg which were mainly diffusely distributed in epithelial cells of renal tubule. Four cases (4/5,80% ) were positive with HBV DNA whose distribution was the same of that of HBAg. Conclusion Renal lesions due to HBV are not only the results of immunologic response, but also the outcome of direct invasion and duplication of HBV in epithelial cells of renal tubule.

  15. Renal effects of long-term ciclosporin A treatment in a large animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibulskyte, Donata; Samsoe Engberg, Anne; Hanefelt Kristensen, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    in a pig model. METHODS: Gottingen minipigs were randomized to oral CsA treatment or as controls. At 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 weeks body weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine, and whole blood CsA levels were measured. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to estimate relative glomerular filtration rate (r......A treatment with 20 mg/kg/day for 6 months causes increased serum creatinine, blood pressure, RVR, and renal volume along with a decrease in RBF in accordance with data obtained in humans. The initial temporal changes in renal volume and function during CsA administration have similarities to the functional......GFR), renal blood flow (RBF), kidney length and volume. Renal vascular resistance (RVR) was calculated. Kidney tissue biopsies were taken and volume fraction of cortical interstitial tissue estimated by a stereology-based method. RESULTS: CsA induced significant increases in serum creatinine, blood pressure...

  16. Chemical Probes for Visualizing Intact Animal and Human Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hei Ming; Ng, Wai-Lung; Gentleman, Steve M; Wu, Wutian

    2017-06-22

    Newly developed tissue clearing techniques can be used to render intact tissues transparent. When combined with fluorescent labeling technologies and optical sectioning microscopy, this allows visualization of fine structure in three dimensions. Gene-transfection techniques have proved very useful in visualizing cellular structures in animal models, but they are not applicable to human brain tissue. Here, we discuss the characteristics of an ideal chemical fluorescent probe for use in brain and other cleared tissues, and offer a comprehensive overview of currently available chemical probes. We describe their working principles and compare their performance with the goal of simplifying probe selection for neuropathologists and stimulating probe development by chemists. We propose several approaches for the development of innovative chemical labeling methods which, when combined with tissue clearing, have the potential to revolutionize how we study the structure and function of the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Brown Algae Cystoseira trinodis Methanolic Extract on Renal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Gazor, Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Shabnam Almasi, Saeed Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C.trinodisis brown algae of Oman Sea coast is used traditionally as a diuretic in Chabahar, Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran. But no researches have been conducted on the distractive effects of this alga on the renal tissues until now. Methods: Forty-two adult male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received normal saline (E0, group (E1 treated with 5mg/kg methanolic extract (ME and group (E2 to (E5 received 10, 15, 25 and 50 mg/kg of ME of alga respectively. All animals in 6 groups were treated for 2 weeks (once every other day. Finally, histopathological evaluations were made especially by morphology and photometric method. Results: ME of C.trinodis induced histological damage in kidney. Administration of ME in all experimental groups induced severe glomerular congestion, hyaline cast and severe interstitial inflammatory centers in treated groups. All distractive parameter in test groups increased with increasing dose of extract (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that ME of the C.trinodis has a nephrotoxic effect on the renal tissues.

  18. Periostin as a tissue and urinary biomarker of renal injury in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancha Satirapoj

    Full Text Available Improving the early detection of diabetic nephropathy remains a great challenge in disease management. Periostin is a marker of renal tubular injury and related to progressive kidney injury in animal models of chronic kidney disease. The clinical implications of urinary periostin activities in patients with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated.Urine samples were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 328 type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (n=114, microalbuminuria (n=100 and macroalbuminuria (n=114. The excretion levels of urinary periostin were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical periostin expression was determined in kidney tissues from overt diabetic nephropathy.Increased periostin expression in glomeruli and tubular epithelium in diabetic renal pathology was observed. Urinary periostin levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the normoalbuminuria [3.06 (IQR: 1.12, 6.77 ng/mgCr], microalbuminuria [8.71 (IQR: 5.09, 19.29 ng/mgCr] and macroalbuminuria [13.58 (IQR: 3.99, 16.19 ng/mgCr] compared with healthy controls [1.15 (IQR: 0.60, 1.63 ng/mgCr] (P<0.01.Increased urine periostin level significantly correlated with aging, high albuminuria and decline of GFR. Urine periostin ELISA also demonstrated high performance for the diagnosis of established normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuric type 2 diabetes (AUC 0.78 (95%CI, 0.71 to 0.86, 0.99 (95%CI, 0.98 to 1.00 and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.91 to 0.98, respectively.The study indicates that increased urine periostin levels can be detected in patients with type 2 diabetes before the onset of significant albuminuria. Urinary periostin is an associated renal derangement in patients with established diabetic nephropathy and it may be used as an early marker of diabetic renal injury.

  19. Reduced cilia frequencies in human renal cell carcinomas versus neighboring parenchymal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basten Sander G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cilia are essential organelles in multiple organ systems, including the kidney where they serve as important regulators of renal homeostasis. Renal nephron cilia emanate from the apical membrane of epithelia, extending into the lumen where they function in flow-sensing and ligand-dependent signaling cascades. Ciliary dysfunction underlies renal cyst formation that is in part caused by deregulation of planar cell polarity and canonical Wnt signaling. Renal cancer pathologies occur sporadically or in heritable syndromes caused by germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes including VHL. Importantly, Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL patients frequently develop complex renal cysts that can be considered a premalignant stage. One of the well-characterized molecular functions of VHL is its requirement for the maintenance of cilia. In this study, tissue from 110 renal cancer patients who underwent nephrectomy was analyzed to determine if lower ciliary frequency is a common hallmark of renal tumorigenesis by comparing cilia frequencies in both tumor and adjacent parenchymal tissue biopsies from the same kidney. Methods We stained sections of human renal material using markers for cilia. Preliminary staining was performed using an immunofluorescent approach and a combination of acetylated-α-tubulin and pericentrin antibodies and DAPI. After validation of an alternative, higher throughput approach using acetylated-α-tubulin immunohistochemistry, we continued to manually quantify cilia in all tissues. Nuclei were separately counted in an automated fashion in order to determine ciliary frequencies. Similar staining and scoring for Ki67 positive cells was performed to exclude that proliferation obscures cilia formation potential. Results Samples from renal cell carcinoma patients deposited in our hospital tissue bank were previously used to compose a tissue microarray containing three cores of both tumor and parenchymal tissue per patient

  20. Assuring consumer safety without animals: Applications for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Carl; Holmes, Anthony M

    2009-04-01

    Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals in their everyday lives through interactions with the environment and through the use of consumer products. It is a basic requirement that these products are tested to assure they are safe under normal and reasonably foreseeable conditions of use. Within the European Union, the majority of tests used for generating toxicological data rely on animals. However recent changes in legislation (e.g., 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive and REACH) are driving researchers to develop and adopt non-animal alternative methods with which to assure human safety. Great strides have been made to this effect, but what other opportunities/technologies exist that could expedite this? Tissue engineering has increasing scope to contribute to replacing animals with scientifically robust alternatives in basic research and safety testing, but is this application of the technology being fully exploited? This review highlights how the consumer products industry is applying tissue engineering to ensure chemicals are safe for human use without using animals, and identifies areas for future development and application of the technology.

  1. Distribution of opiate alkaloids in brain tissue of experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurendic-Brenesel, Maja; Pilija, Vladimir; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Budakov, Branislav; Cvjeticanin, Stanko

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined regional distribution of opiate alkaloids from seized heroin in brain regions of experimental animals in order to select parts with the highest content of opiates. Their analysis should contribute to resolve causes of death due to heroin intake. The tests were performed at different time periods (5, 15, 45 and 120 min) after male and female Wistar rats were treated with seized heroin. Opiate alkaloids (codeine, morphine, acetylcodeine, 6-acetylmorphine and 3,6-diacetylmorphine) were quantitatively determined in brain regions known for their high concentration of µ-opiate receptors: cortex, brainstem, amygdala and basal ganglia, by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest content of opiate alkaloids in the brain tissue of female animals was found 15 min and in male animals 45 min after treatment. The highest content of opiates was determined in the basal ganglia of the animals of both genders, indicating that this part of brain tissue presents a reliable sample for identifying and assessing contents of opiates after heroin intake.

  2. Patients with nephrolithiasis had lower fetuin-A protein level in urine and renal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong Xian; Li, Cheng Yang; Deng, Yao Liang

    2014-02-01

    Fetuin-A acts as an inhibitor of systemic and local ectopic calcification and inflammatory response, but the role of fetuin-A in the etiology of urolithiasis is still unclear. We aim to investigate the expression of fetuin-A in the serum, urine and renal tissue of patients with or without nephrolithiasis. 48 patients with nephrolithiasis (group A) and 32 individuals without urolithiasis (group B, control group) were enrolled into our study. Level of fetuin-A in serum and urine was measured by ELISA, and expression of fetuin-A in renal tissue was localized and assessed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting, respectively. Indexes of oxidative stress in kidney were evaluated. Other routine serum and urine chemistries for inpatients were measured biochemically. The results showed that fetuin-A expressed widely in the proximal and distal renal tubule, the thin segment of Henle's loop and the collecting duct epithelium. There were no differences in serum fetuin-A level between the two groups. Compared with control group, cellular expression of P47phox and fetuin-A mRNAs in the renal tissue of patients with nephrolithiasis increased, the level of MDA in renal tissue and the level of urinary calcium also increased, but urinary and renal fetuin-A protein and the activities of SOD in renal tissue decreased. Correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the level of renal fetuin-A protein and the expression of P47phox mRNA and MDA. These results revealed that nephrolithiasis patients had lower fetuin-A protein level in urine and renal tissue.

  3. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meral Erdal Erbatur

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... oxide synthase (NOS), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathion S transferase (GST) levels were found significantly higher in .... sequent coupling to N-(1-napthyl-ethylene diamine), .... administration is more effective in recovery of renal.

  4. Determinants of renal tissue hypoxia in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Connie P C; Abdelkader, Amany; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Phillips, Jacqueline K; Evans, Roger G

    2014-11-15

    Renal tissue oxygen tension (PO2) and its determinants have not been quantified in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Therefore, we measured kidney tissue PO2 in the Lewis rat model of PKD (LPK) and in Lewis control rats. We also determined the relative contributions of altered renal oxygen delivery and consumption to renal tissue hypoxia in LPK rats. PO2 of the superficial cortex of 11- to 13-wk-old LPK rats, measured by Clark electrode with the rat under anesthesia, was higher within the cysts (32.8 ± 4.0 mmHg) than the superficial cortical parenchyma (18.3 ± 3.5 mmHg). PO2 in the superficial cortical parenchyma of Lewis rats was 2.5-fold greater (46.0 ± 3.1 mmHg) than in LPK rats. At each depth below the cortical surface, tissue PO2 in LPK rats was approximately half that in Lewis rats. Renal blood flow was 60% less in LPK than in Lewis rats, and arterial hemoglobin concentration was 57% less, so renal oxygen delivery was 78% less. Renal venous PO2 was 38% less in LPK than Lewis rats. Sodium reabsorption was 98% less in LPK than Lewis rats, but renal oxygen consumption did not significantly differ between the two groups. Thus, in this model of PKD, kidney tissue is severely hypoxic, at least partly because of deficient renal oxygen delivery. Nevertheless, the observation of similar renal oxygen consumption, despite markedly less sodium reabsorption, in the kidneys of LPK compared with Lewis rats, indicates the presence of inappropriately high oxygen consumption in the polycystic kidney.

  5. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Melissa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Results Plasmid-treated animals showed an increase in body weight (dogs 22.5% and cats 3.2% compared to control animals, and displayed improved quality of life parameters including significant increases in appetite, activity, mentation and exercise tolerance levels. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the downstream effector of GHRH levels were increased in the plasmid treated animals. Hematological parameters were also significantly improved. Protein metabolism changes were observed suggesting a shift from a catabolic to an anabolic state in the treated animals. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not show any significant changes suggesting maintenance of kidney function whereas the control animal's renal function deteriorated. Treated animals survived longer than control animals with 70% of dogs and 80% of cats surviving until study day 75. Only 17% and 40% of the control dogs and cats, respectively, survived to day 75. Conclusion Improved quality of life, survival and general well-being indicate that further investigation is warranted, and show the potential of a plasmid-based therapy by electroporation in preventing and managing complications of renal insufficiency.

  6. Animal Models in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, Jorge; Williams, Koudy

    2017-09-22

    Animal models play a central and pivotal role in tissue engineering. While advances in areas such as 3D printing and bioreactor technologies now permit the in vitro development and testing of complex scaffold/cell composites, in vivo testing remains critical not only for refining methods being developed, but also for the critical efficacy and safety testing required for regulatory approval. Yet choosing the appropriate model for a particular application remains a challenge, as each model has its own strengths and weakness. In some cases there are size issues to contend with as scale up of a 3D structure brings with it considerable challenges with regards to diffusion, infiltration and structural forces; In others, physiological differences between species make selection of the appropriate animal model that best represents the human disease or injury, critical.

  7. Laser surgery for selected small animal soft-tissue conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1991-05-01

    With the acquisition of a Nd:YAG and a CO2 laser in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Oklahoma State University in 1989, over 100 small animal clinical cases have been managed with these modern modalities for surgical excision and tissue vaporization. Most procedures have been for oncologic problems, but inflammatory, infectious, or congenital conditions including vaporization of acral lick 'granulomas,' excision/vaporization of foreign body induced, infected draining tracts, and resection of elongated soft palates have been successfully accomplished. Laser excision or vaporization of both benign and malignant neoplasms have effectively been performed and include feline nasal squamous cell carcinoma, mast cell tumors, and rectal/anal neoplasms. Results to date have been excellent with animals exhibiting little postoperative pain, swelling, and inflammation. Investigations involving application of laser energy for tissue welding of esophageal lacerations and hepatitic interstitial hyperthermia for metastatic colorectal cancer have also shown potential. A review of cases with an emphasis on survival time and postoperative morbidity suggests that carefully planned laser surgical procedures in clinical veterinary practice done with standardized protocols and techniques offer an acceptable means of treating conditions that were previously considered extremely difficult or virtually impossible to perform.

  8. Are low ultraviolet B and high animal protein intake associated with risk of renal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Sharif B; Gorham, Edward D; Garland, Cedric F; Grant, William B; Garland, Frank C

    2006-12-01

    Incidence rates of kidney cancer are thought to be highest in places situated at high latitudes and in populations with high intake of energy from animal sources. This suggests that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, due to lower levels of UVB irradiance, and energy from animal sources might be involved in etiology. The association of latitude with age-adjusted incidence rates was determined for all 175 countries in a UN cancer database, GLOBOCAN. The independent association of UVB irradiance, cloud cover and intake of calories from animal sources with age-adjusted incidence rates was assessed using multiple regression in 139 countries that provided dietary data. Renal cancer incidence rates were highest in countries situated at the highest latitudes, in men (R(2) = 0.64, p cancer incidence rates (p = 0.0003), while cloud cover (p = 0.003) and intake of calories from animal sources (p cancer.

  9. Diannexin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury and targets phosphatidylserines in ischemic tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley E Wever

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI frequently complicates shock, renal transplantation and cardiac and aortic surgery, and has prognostic significance. The translocation of phosphatidylserines to cell surfaces is an important pro-inflammatory signal for cell-stress after IRI. We hypothesized that shielding of exposed phosphatidylserines by the annexin A5 (ANXA5 homodimer Diannexin protects against renal IRI. Protective effects of Diannexin on the kidney were studied in a mouse model of mild renal IRI. Diannexin treatment before renal IRI decreased proximal tubule damage and leukocyte influx, decreased transcription and expression of renal injury markers Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and improved renal function. A mouse model of ischemic hind limb exercise was used to assess Diannexin biodistribution and targeting. When comparing its biodistribution and elimination to ANXA5, Diannexin was found to have a distinct distribution pattern and longer blood half-life. Diannexin targeted specifically to the ischemic muscle and its affinity exceeded that of ANXA5. Targeting of both proteins was inhibited by pre-treatment with unlabeled ANXA5, suggesting that Diannexin targets specifically to ischemic tissues via phosphatidylserine-binding. This study emphasizes the importance of phosphatidylserine translocation in the pathophysiology of IRI. We show for the first time that Diannexin protects against renal IRI, making it a promising therapeutic tool to prevent IRI in a clinical setting. Our results indicate that Diannexin is a potential new imaging agent for the study of phosphatidylserine-exposing organs in vivo.

  10. The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de; Leenaars, M.; Tra, J.; Huijbregtse, R.; Bongers, E.; Jansen, J.A.; Gordijn, B.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2015-01-01

    An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiment

  11. Treatment for end-stage renal disease: an organogenesis/tissue engineering odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Marc R

    2004-04-01

    The means by which kidney function can be replaced in humans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) include dialytic therapies and renal allotransplantation. Dialysis, is lifesaving, but often poorly tolerated. Transplantation of human kidneys is limited by the availability of donor organs. During the past decades, several different approaches have been applied towards new means to replace renal function through organogenesis and tissue engineering. These include: (1) incorporation of new nephrons into the kidney; (2) growing new kidneys in situ; (3) use of stem cells; (4) generation of histocompatible tissues using nuclear transplantation; and (5) bioengineering of an artificial kidney. The development of these approaches has depended upon understanding and integrating discoveries made in a diversity of scientific disciplines. The means by which such integration has driven advances in the treatment of ESRD provides a generic roadmap for the successful application of organogenesis and tissue engineering to organ replacement therapy.

  12. Distinct microRNA expression profiles in mouse renal cortical tissue after 177Lu-octreotate administration.

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    Emil Schüler

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of the miRNA expression levels in normal renal cortical tissue after 177Lu-octreotate administration, a radiopharmaceutical used for treatment of neuroendocrine cancers.Female BALB/c nude mice were i.v. injected with 1.3, 3.6, 14, 45, or 140 MBq 177Lu-octreotate, while control animals received saline. The animals were killed at 24 h after injection and total RNA, including miRNA, was extracted from the renal cortical tissue and hybridized to the Mouse miRNA Oligo chip 4plex to identify differentially regulated miRNAs between exposed and control samples.In total, 57 specific miRNAs were differentially regulated in the exposed renal cortical tissues with 1, 29, 21, 27, and 31 miRNAs identified per dose-level (0.13, 0.34, 1.3, 4.3, and 13 Gy, respectively. No miRNAs were commonly regulated at all dose levels. miR-194, miR-107, miR-3090, and miR-3077 were commonly regulated at 0.34, 1.3, 4.3, and 13 Gy. Strong effects on cellular mechanisms ranging from immune response to p53 signaling and cancer-related pathways were observed at the highest absorbed dose. Thirty-nine of the 57 differentially regulated miRNAs identified in the present study have previously been associated with response to ionizing radiation, indicating common radiation responsive pathways.In conclusion, the 177Lu-octreotate associated miRNA signatures were generally dose-specific, thereby illustrating transcriptional regulation of radiation responsive miRNAs. Taken together, these results imply the importance of miRNAs in early immunological responses in the kidneys following 177Lu-octreotate administration.

  13. Tissue expression and plasma levels of adrenomedullin in renal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Jens; Thiesson, Helle; Walter, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    The peptide AM (adrenomedullin) is stimulated by hypoxia through HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1). The majority of human CC-RCCs (clear cell renal cell carcinomas) display mutations in the tumour suppressor protein von Hippel-Lindau, which leads to constitutively elevated HIF-1. We hypothesized......RNA and peptide expression in tissue and AM plasma concentration were determined. HIF-1alpha was localized in tissue by immunohistochemistry. AM mRNA was elevated in CC-RCC compared with adjacent renal cortex (6-fold, n=18; P

  14. Ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelk, M.; Gmeinwieser, J.; Manke, C.; Strotzer, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Regensburg (Germany); Hanika, H. [Department of Urology, St. Josef Hospital, Regensburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    We report a case of ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking a soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma. A 66-year-old woman suffered from pain over the left buttock 6 months after she was operated on for renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a tumor-like lesion adjacent to the left os ischii, which was suspected to be a soft-tissue metastasis. Percutaneous biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy, but the histopathological diagnosis of chronic bursitis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  15. Correlation of renal complications with extent and progression of tissue damage in electrical burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical injuries due to high-tension voltage (>1000 volts cause destruction at the point of contact with massive necrosis of deeper structures such as muscles, vessels and nerves. Rhabdomyolysis due to massive breakdown of skeletal muscles may lead to acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria. The study was undertaken to observe the correlation of renal complications with extent and progression of tissue damage in high-tension voltage electrical burns. Renal biochemical parameters as predictors of acute renal failure were also studied. Thirty two patients of high tension voltage electrical burn injuries presenting during one year period 1-1-2001 to 31-12-2001 were studied. Low-tension voltage electrical injuries (< 1000 volts mimic thermal burns were excluded from the study. The electrical wound assessment and the renal biochemical parameters were done daily for the first seven days and then on alternate days for another seven days. Assessment of progression of wounds and correlation with the renal biochemical parameters was done. Patients who died following electrical burns were subjected to autopsy and histopathological examination of both kidneys. Out of the thirty-two patients, six (18.75% went into acute renal failure. Five out of these six patients died because of renal failure (mortality rate 83.33%. There was definite progression of electric burn wounds. There was no correlation between progression of electrical burn wounds and acute renal failure. Serum creatinine was found to be the most important biochemical parameter as a prognostic indicator of acute renal failure.

  16. Scleroderma renal crisis in a case of mixed connective tissue disease

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    Mukul Vij

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD is an overlap syndrome first defined in 1972 by Sharp et al. In this original study, the portrait emerged of a connective tissue disorder sharing features of systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma and polymyositis. Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC is an extremely infrequent but serious complication that can occur in MCTD. The histologic picture of SRC is that of a thrombotic micro-angiopathic process. Renal biopsy plays an important role in confirming the clinical diagnosis, excluding overlapping/superimposed diseases that might lead to acute renal failure in MCTD patients, helping to predict the clinical outcome and optimizing patient management. We herewith report a rare case of SRC in a patient with MCTD and review the relevant literature.

  17. Histopathology and apoptosis in an animal model of reversible renal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvy, Mony; Nyska, Abraham; Beeri, Ronen; Abedat, Suzan; Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Lotan, Chaim

    2014-01-01

    High adenine phosphate (HAP) diet serves as an animal model of chronic renal failure (RF). Induction of RF and establishment of end organ damage require long exposure periods to this diet. Previously, we have shown that RF is reversible after diet cessation even after protracted administration. In this study, we explored the underlying renal changes and cellular pathways occurring during administration and after cessation of the diet. Kidneys were obtained from rats fed HAP diet for 7 weeks, and from rats fed HAP diet followed a 10 week recovery period on normal diet. The kidneys of HAP diet group were significantly enlarged due to tubular injury characterized by massive cystic dilatation and crystal deposition. Kidney injury was associated with markers of apoptosis as well as with activation of apoptosis related pathways. Diet cessation was associated with a significant reduction in kidney size, tubules diameter, and crystals deposition. The recovery from renal injury was coupled with regression of apoptotic features. This is the first study showing the potential reversibility of long standing RF model, allowing optimal evaluation of uremia-chronic effects. PMID:20181466

  18. Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

    2012-12-01

    The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue are not affected by renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Reinders, Marlies E J; de Klein, Annelies; Douben, Hannie; Korevaar, Sander S; Mensah, Fane K F; Dor, Frank J M F; IJzermans, Jan N M; Betjes, Michiel G H; Baan, Carla C; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are a potential therapeutic agent in renal disease and kidney transplantation. Autologous cell use in kidney transplantation is preferred to avoid anti-HLA reactivity; however, the influence of renal disease on mesenchymal stem cells is unknown. To investigate the feasibility of autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease, we isolated these cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy controls and patients with renal disease and compared them phenotypically and functionally. The mesenchymal stem cells from both groups showed similar morphology and differentiation capacity, and were both over 90% positive for CD73, CD105, and CD166, and negative for CD31 and CD45. They demonstrated comparable population doubling times, rates of apoptosis, and were both capable of inhibiting allo-antigen- and anti-CD3/CD28-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation. In response to immune activation they both increased the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. These mesenchymal stem cells were genetically stable after extensive expansion and, importantly, were not affected by uremic serum. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells of patients with renal disease have similar characteristics and functionality as those from healthy controls. Hence, our results indicate the feasibility of their use in autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease.

  20. Renal denervation in an animal model of diabetes and hypertension: Impact on the autonomic nervous system and nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Ubiratan F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of renal denervation on cardiovascular reflexes and markers of nephropathy in diabetic-hypertensive rats have not yet been explored. Methods Aim: To evaluate the effects of renal denervation on nephropathy development mechanisms (blood pressure, cardiovascular autonomic changes, renal GLUT2 in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Forty-one male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR ~250 g were injected with STZ or not; 30 days later, surgical renal denervation (RD or sham procedure was performed; 15 days later, glycemia and albuminuria (ELISA were evaluated. Catheters were implanted into the femoral artery to evaluate arterial pressure (AP and heart rate variability (spectral analysis one day later in conscious animals. Animals were killed, kidneys removed, and cortical renal GLUT2 quantified (Western blotting. Results Higher glycemia (p vs. nondiabetics (p vs. SHR. Conclusions Renal denervation in diabetic-hypertensive rats improved previously reduced heart rate variability. The GLUT2 equally overexpressed by diabetes and renal denervation may represent a maximal derangement effect of each condition.

  1. Renal Perfusion and Function during Pneumoperitoneum: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlé, Michiel C.; Hooijmans, Carlijn R.

    2016-01-01

    Both preclinical and clinical studies indicate that raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) associated with pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgical procedures can cause renal damage, the severity of which may be influenced by variables such as pressure level and duration. Several of these variables have been investigated in animal studies, but synthesis of all preclinical data has not been performed. This systematic review summarizes all available pre-clinical evidence on this topic, including an assessment of its quality and risk of bias. We performed meta-analysis to assess which aspects of the pneumoperitoneum determine the severity of its adverse effects. A systematic search in two databases identified 55 studies on the effect of pneumoperitoneum on renal function which met our inclusion criteria. There was high heterogeneity between the studies regarding study design, species, sex, pressure and duration of pneumoperitoneum, and type of gas used. Measures to reduce bias were poorly reported, leading to an unclear risk of bias in the majority of studies. Details on randomisation, blinding and a sample size calculation were not reported in ≥80% of the studies. Meta-analysis showed an overall increase in serum creatinine during pneumoperitoneum, and a decrease in urine output and renal blood flow. Subgroup analysis indicated that for serum creatinine, this effect differed between species. Subgroup analysis of pressure level indicated that urine output decreased as IAP level increased. No differences between types of gas were observed. Data were insufficient to reliably assess whether sex or IAP duration modulate the effect of pneumoperitoneum. Four studies assessing long-term effects indicated that serum creatinine normalized ≥24 hours after desufflation of pneumoperitoneum at 15mmHg. We conclude that harmful effects on renal function and perfusion during pneumoperitoneum appear to be robust, but evidence on long-term effects is very limited. The

  2. Identification of variations of gene expression of visceral adipose and renal tissue in type 2 diabetic rats using cDNA representational difference analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨架林; 李果; 张芳林; 刘优萍; 张迪; 周文中; 许光武; 杨义生; 罗敏

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To identify differences in gene expression in renal and visceral adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic rats using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) and to explore the molecular pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its chronic vascular complications.Methods A rat model of type 2 diabetes was generated by administration of a high fat and calorie diet combined with a low dose of streptozocin (STZ) injected into the tail vein. The difference bands were generated by cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA RDA). The final difference products were ligated into the pUC-18 vector and sequenced. A bioformatics analysis was performed on the obtained expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and then the expression levels of known and novel genes were verified by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). At the same time, full-length cDNA of a novel gene was cloned in silico.Results The type 2 diabetic rats in this experiment experienced hyperglycemia, lipidemia, lower insulin sensitivity and normal body weight. We obtained 9 novel ESTs and 2 novel genes from renal tissue of rats and 6 novel ESTs and 1 known gene, the rat lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene from their visceral adipose tissue. The 2 novel genes (RS91 and RS2) from the renal tissue were both very similar to serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade F and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 and subunit 5 (EIF-3 epsilon). The expression of both novel genes and the LPL gene were upregulated in renal and visceral adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic and fat-enriched rats. Full-length cDNA of the novel gene RS91 was cloned in silico.Conclusions① The rat model of type 2 diabetes generated in this study was ideal because the disease in the animals closely mimicked type 2 diabetic patients ② cDNA RDA is a flexible, inexpensive, more accurate, sensitive and highly effective technique for identifying differences in gene expression ③ Six novel ESTs and 1 known gene were obtained

  3. Connective tissue growthfactor induces transforma-tion of renal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is thought to be a specific mediator of TGF-β profibrogenic effect, but the role of CTGF in the transformation of renal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, which are the most important host cells in the renal chronic fibrosis, is still unknown.Aimed at observing the biological effect of CTGF, we set up a cell line overexpressing CTGF, and analyzed the amount of myofibroblast and the level of extracellular matrix Collagen Ⅲ mRNA in cultured cells. Our results show that CTGF can directly induce myofibroblasts formation, and increase the level of Collagen Ⅲ mRNA. This suggests that CTGF may be a novel pharmacotherapeutical target protein for the interference with renal fibrosis, thus providing useful theoretic possibility for clinical prevention of chronic progression of kidney disease.``

  4. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem; Paul Chidoka Chikezie; Ezeikel Chinemerem Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the functional integrity of renal and hepatic tissues of Wistar rats fed with processed cocoa bean-based beverages and raw cocoa bean products-containing diets by using biochemical and histological methods. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were designated on the basis of experimental diets which were given for 28 days. At the end of the feeding period, blood samples were drawn, and renal and hepatic tissues were excised from the experimental rat groups for functional tests and histological examinations, respectively. Results: Serum alanine aminotransferase activities of the experimental rat groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) and were within a relatively narrow range of (32.17 ± 4.98) IU/L to (41.00 ± 10.85) IU/L, whereas serum aspartate aminotransferase activities gave wide variation within the range of (15.67 ± 2.13) IU/L to (34.83 ± 8.31) IU/L with P Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disar-rangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to bio-synthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  5. Differential expression of proteoglycans in tissue remodeling and lymphangiogenesis after experimental renal transplantation in rats.

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    Heleen Rienstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic transplant dysfunction explains the majority of late renal allograft loss and is accompanied by extensive tissue remodeling leading to transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Matrix proteoglycans mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and play key roles in tissue remodeling. The aim of this study was to characterize differential heparan sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression in transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in renal allografts with chronic transplant dysfunction. METHODS: Renal allografts were transplanted in the Dark Agouti-to-Wistar Furth rat strain combination. Dark Agouti-to-Dark Agouti isografts and non-transplanted Dark Agouti kidneys served as controls. Allograft and isograft recipients were sacrificed 66 and 81 days (mean after transplantation, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (collXVIII, perlecan and agrin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (versican expression, as well as CD31 and LYVE-1 (vascular and lymphatic endothelium, respectively expression were (semi- quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence. FINDINGS: Arteries with transplant vasculopathy and sclerotic glomeruli in allografts displayed pronounced neo-expression of collXVIII and perlecan. In contrast, in interstitial fibrosis expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican dominated. In the cortical tubular basement membranes in both iso- and allografts, induction of collXVIII was detected. Allografts presented extensive lymphangiogenesis (p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, which was associated with induced perlecan expression underneath the lymphatic endothelium (p<0.05 and p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, respectively. Both the magnitude of lymphangiogenesis and perlecan expression correlated with severity of interstitial fibrosis and impaired graft function

  6. Recovery of renal function after administration of adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction in rat model of acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunwoo; Jang, Myoung Jin; Kim, Bo Hyun; Park, Jin Young; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2017-03-10

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major challenge in critical care medicine. The purpose of this study is to determine the therapeutic effects of the adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and the optimal route for SVF delivery in a rat model of AKI induced by I/R injury. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (10 animals per group): sham, nephrectomy control, I/R injury control, renal arterial SVF infusion and subcapsular SVF injection. To induce AKI by I/R injury, the left renal artery was clamped with a nontraumatic vascular clamp for 40 min, and the right kidney was removed. Rats receiving renal arterial infusion of SVF had a significantly reduced increase in serum creatinine compared with the I/R injury control group at 4 days after I/R injury. The glomerular filtration rate of the renal arterial SVF infusion group was maintained at a level similar to that of the sham and nephrectomy control groups at 14 days after I/R injury. Masson's trichrome staining showed significantly less fibrosis in the renal arterial SVF infusion group compared with that in the I/R injury control group in the outer stripe (P renal arterial SVF infusion and subcapsular SVF injection groups compared with the I/R injury control group in the outer stripe (P renal function is effectively rescued from AKI induced by I/R injury through the renal arterial administration of SVF in a rat model.

  7. Expression of GSK-3β in renal allograft tissue and its significance in pathogenesis of chronic allograft dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the expression of Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β in renal allograft tissue and its significance in the pathogenesis of chronic allograft dysfunction. Methods Renal allograft biopsy was performed in all of the renal allograft recipients with proteinuria or increased serum creatinine level who came into our hospital from January 2007 to December 2009. Among them 28 cases was diagnosed as chronic allograft dysfunction based on pahtological observation, including 21 males with a mean age of 45 ± 10 years old and 7 females with a mean age of 42 ± 9 years old. The time from kidney transplantation to biopsy were 1-9 (3.5 years. Their serum creatinine level were 206 ± 122 umol/L. Immunohistochemical assay and computer-assisted genuine color image analysis system (imagepro-plus 6.0 were used to detect the expression of GSK-3β in the renal allografts of 28 cases of recipients with chronic allograft dysfunction. Mean area and mean integrated optical density of GSK-3β expression were calculated. The relationship between expression level of GSK-3β and either the grade of inflammatory cell infiltration or interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy in renal allograft was analyzed. Five specimens of healthy renal tissue were used as controls. Results The expression level of the GSK-3β was significantly increased in the renal allograft tissue of recipients with chronic allograft dysfunction, compared to normal renal tissues, and GSK-3β expression became stronger along with the increasing of the grade of either inflammatory cell infiltration or interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy in renal allograft tissue. Conclusion There might be a positive correlation between either inflammatory cell infiltration or interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and high GSK-3β expression in renal allograft tissue. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http

  8. DA-1229, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, protects against renal injury by preventing podocyte damage in an animal model of progressive renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Lee, Jee; Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Mi Hwa; Song, Hye Kyoung; Ghee, Jung Yeon; Kang, Young Sun; Min, Hye Sook; Kim, Hyun Wook; Cha, Jin Joo; Han, Jee Young; Han, Sang Youb; Cha, Dae Ryong

    2016-05-01

    Although dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) inhibitors are known to have renoprotective effects, the mechanism underlying these effects has remained elusive. Here we investigated the effects of DA-1229, a novel DPPIV inhibitor, in two animal models of renal injury including db/db mice and the adriamycin nephropathy rodent model of chronic renal disease characterized by podocyte injury. For both models, DA-1229 was administered at 300 mg/kg/day. DPPIV activity in the kidney was significantly higher in diabetic mice compared with their nondiabetic controls. Although DA-1229 did not affect glycemic control or insulin resistance, DA-1229 did improve lipid profiles, albuminuria and renal fibrosis. Moreover, DA-1229 treatment resulted in decreased urinary excretion of nephrin, decreased circulating and kidney DPPIV activity, and decreased macrophage infiltration in the kidney. In adriamycin-treated mice, DPPIV activity in the kidney and urinary nephrin loss were both increased, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations were unchanged. Moreover, DA-1229 treatment significantly improved proteinuria, renal fibrosis and inflammation associated with decreased urinary nephrin loss, and kidney DPP4 activity. In cultured podocytes, DA-1229 restored the high glucose/angiotensin II-induced increase of DPPIV activity and preserved the nephrin levels in podocytes. These findings suggest that activation of DPPIV in the kidney has a role in the progression of renal disease, and that DA-1229 may exert its renoprotective effects by preventing podocyte injury.

  9. Statistical evaluation of the isoform patterns of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase from human renal cancer tissue separated by isoelectrofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Radziejewska, Iwona; Olszewska, Ewa; Szajda, Sławomir; Knaś, Małgorzata; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2007-03-01

    Isoenzymes of HEX from human renal carcinoma and neighbouring macroscopically normal renal tissue can show different patterns on isoelectrofocusing gels. The aim of our work was to elaborate the method for statistical evaluation of differences. Isoenzymes of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase were separated from renal (control and cancerous) tissues of 15 patients. Isoenzymes were electrofocused in Multiphor II, with ampholine pH 3.5-9.0 (2%) and then evaluated densitometrically and analysed statistically. A similar pattern in activity of isoforms of isoenzymes A and B in normal and cancerous renal tissue was observed. The proposed method of statistical evaluation of differences in isoforms of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase can also be adapted to estimate the isoforms of other enzymes in different tissues.

  10. Tissue elasticity quantification by acoustic radiation force impulse for the assessment of renal allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wan-Yuan; Jin, Yun-Jie; Wang, Wen-Ping; Li, Chao-Lun; Ji, Zheng-Biao; Yang, Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification, a novel ultrasound-based elastography method, has been used to measure liver fibrosis. However, few studies have been performed on the use of ARFI quantification in kidney examinations. We evaluated renal allograft stiffness using ARFI quantification in patients with stable renal function (n = 52) and those with biopsy-proven allograft dysfunction (n = 50). ARFI quantification, given as shear wave velocity (SWV), was performed. The resistance index (RI) was calculated by pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound, and clinical and laboratory data were collected. Morphologic changes in transplanted kidneys were diagnosed by an independent pathologist. Mean SWV was more significantly negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.657, p renal allograft dysfunction were 72.0% and 86.5% (cutoff value = 2.625), respectively. The latter values were better than those of RI, which were 62.0% and 69.2% (cutoff value = 0.625), respectively. The coefficient of variation for repeat SWV measurements of the middle part of transplanted kidney was 8.64%, and inter-observer agreement on SWV was good (Bland-Altman method, ICC = 0.890). In conclusion, tissue elasticity quantification by ARFI is more accurate than the RI in diagnosing renal allograft function.

  11. [Pyelonephritis with massive renal tissue necrosis in child with urinary tract malformation--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Bratkowska, Monika; Finke, Daria; Olejniczak, Dariusz; Midel, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the case report is presentation of unusual and heavy clinical course of pyelonephritis with renal tissue necrosis in a child with urinary tract malformation. Nine month old girl was admitted to hospital in heavy clinical status due to pyelonephritis--urosepsis. It was complicated by acute renal insufficiency. Patient was treated by broad-spectrum antibiotics and parenteral nutrition. She was feverish for 14 days. Computed tomography done in order to exclude abdominal abscess showed massive renal tissue necrosis of on both sides. Antibiotic treatment was successful after 6 weeks. Urological evaluation revealed bilateral vesico-ureteral refluxes grade IV. Scintigraphy showed multiple scars. Patient was treated Deflux injections (twice). We noted 5 urinary tract recurrences despite antibiotic profilaxis. GFR of 75 ml/min/1.73 m2 was estimated at age of 16 m. Immunodeficiency or malignancy as background of clinical course were excluded. The case we describe presents severe clinical course of pyelonephritis due to complex urinary tract malformation that is to be considered despite based on modern publications "sparing" strategies of diagnosis and profilaxis in urinary tract malformations.

  12. Factors Predicting Adhesion between Renal Capsule and Perinephric Adipose Tissue in Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Yuko; Wada, Koichiro; Sasaki, Katsumi; Araki, Motoo; Ebara, Shin; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2016-01-01

    In minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN), it is important to preoperatively predict the degree of difficulty of tumor resection. When severe adhesions occur between the renal capsule and perinephric adipose tissue, detachment can be difficult. Preoperative prediction of adhesion is thought to be useful in the selection of surgical procedure. Subjects were 63 patients of a single surgeon who had received MIPN between April 2008 and August 2013 at Okayama University Hospital. Of these patients, this study followed 47 in whom the presence or absence of adhesions between the renal capsule and perinephric adipose tissue was confirmed using intraoperative videos. Data collected included: sex, BMI, CT finding (presence of fi broids in perinephric adipose tissue), comorbidities and lifestyle. Adhesion was observed in 7 patients (14.9%). The mean operative time was 291.6 min in the adhesion group, and 226.3 min in the group without. The increased time in the adhesions group was significant (p<0.05). Predictive factors were a positive CT finding for fibroid structure and comorbidity of hypertension (p<0.05). In MIPN, difficulty of surgery can be affected by the presence of adhesion of the perinephric adipose tissue. Predicting such adhesion from preoperative CT is thus important.

  13. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  14. Autotransplant tissue selection criteria with or without stereomicroscopy in parathyroidectomy for treatment of renal hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Nakayama Ohe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several methods have been proposed to improve operative success in renal hyperparathyroidism. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stereomicroscopy in parathyroid tissue selection for total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation in secondary (SHPT/tertiary (THPT hyperparathyroidism. METHODS: 118 renal patients underwent surgery from April of 2000 to October 2009. They were divided into two groups: G1, 66 patients operated from April of 2000 to May of 2005, with tissue selection based on macroscopic observation; G2, 52 patients operated from March of 2008 to October 2009 with stereomicroscopy for tissue selection searching for the presence of adipose cells. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. Patients presented SHPT (dialysis treatment or THPT (renal-grafted. Follow-up was 12-36 months. Intra-operative parathyroid hormone (PTH was measured in 100/118 (84.7% patients. RESULTS: Data are presented as means. G1 included 66 patients (38 SHPT, 24 females/14 males; 40.0 years of age; 28 THPT, 14 females/14 males; 44 years of age. G2 included 52 patients (29 SHPT, 11 females/18 males; 50.7 years of age; 23 THPT, 13 females/10 males, 44.4 years of age. SHPT patients from G2 presented preoperative serum calcium higher than those of SHPT patients in G1 (p < 0.05, suggesting a more severe disease. Definitive hypoparathyroidism was found in seven of 118 patients (5.9%. Graft-dependent recurrence occurred in four patients, two in each group. All occurred in dialysis patients. CONCLUSION: Stereomicroscopy in SHPT/THPT surgical treatment may be a useful tool to standardize parathyroid tissue selection.

  15. Assuring consumer safety without animals: Applications for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Westmoreland, Carl; Holmes, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals in their everyday lives through interactions with the environment and through the use of consumer products. It is a basic requirement that these products are tested to assure they are safe under normal and reasonably foreseeable conditions of use. Within the European Union, the majority of tests used for generating toxicological data rely on animals. However recent changes in legislation (e.g., 7th amendment of the Cosmetics Directive and REACH) ar...

  16. l-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P < 0.05, for each tissue and enzyme) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively. Arginase I abundance in aorta, heart, and kidney was increased (P < 0.05, for each tissue) in hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P < 0.05, for each tissue). Arginase II was augmented in aorta and kidney (P < 0.05, for each tissue) of hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P < 0.05, for all tissues) in hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P < 0.05) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively, in all organs studied. OAT and proline levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in liver but not in the other tissues. ADC protein levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in all tissues. According to these findings, thyroid hormone treatment positively modulates different l-arginine metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might

  17. Expression of Bcl-2 and NF-κB in brain tissue after acute renal ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Gen-Yang Cheng; Xian-Zhi Liu; Feng-Jiang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of acute renal ischemia reperfusion on brain tissue. Methods:Fourty eight rats were randomly divided into four groups(n=12): sham operation group,30 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group,60 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group, and 120 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group.The brain tissues were taken after the experiment. TUNEL assay was used to detect the brain cell apoptosis, and western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and inflammatory factors.Results:Renal ischemia-reperfusion induced apoptosis of brain tissues, and the apoptosis increased with prolongation of ischemia time.The detection at the molecular level showed decreasedBcl-2 expression, increasedBax expression, upregulated expression ofNF-κB and its downstream factor COX-2/PGE2.Conclusions:Acute renal ischemia-reperfusion can cause brain tissue damage, manifested as induced brain tissues apoptosis and inflammation activation.

  18. Advances in understanding tissue regenerative capacity and mechanisms in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Poss, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Questions about how and why tissue regeneration occurs capture the attention of countless biologists, biomedical engineers, and clinicians. Regenerative capacity differs greatly across organs and organisms, and a spectrum of model systems with different technical advantages and regenerative strategies are studied. Several key issues common to natural regenerative events are receiving new attention from improving models and approaches, including: the determination of regenerative capacity; the...

  19. Effects of aspirin on renal cortical and medullary tissues in rat embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Homayoon Sadraie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspirin is the drug of the century, and is a multifunctional drug and one of the most prescribed drugs in the world. Aspirin is a safe drug at low doses but also it has life-threatening side effects when administered at high doses. This study investi-gates the effects of aspirin on renal cortical and medullary tissue in rat embryos.Methods: In this study, 30 pregnant female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. Control group with no intervention, sham group received 2 ml distilled water (as a sol-vent of aspirin received from days 8 to 20 of pregnancy, and four experimental groups received different doses of 75, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aspirin by gavage. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the twenty days of pregnancy and the fetuses were removed. Weight of the fetuses and placenta and Crown-Rump length were measured. Fetal kid-neys were fixed in formalin processed, sectioned and stained with Hematoxylin- Eosin. Thickness of renal cortical and medullary tissue by using a Motic hardware and soft-ware system were measured and recorded. A significance level of 0.05 was predeter-mined for all statistical analyses.Results: No apparent fetal anomalies were observed in experimental groups. In addi-tion, no significant differences were shown in the mean of fetal weight, placental weight, mean of Crown-Rump length in experimental groups 75, 200 and 300 mg/kg compared to control and sham groups. Mean fetal and placental weight in experimental group 100 significantly increased compared to control and sham groups. Mean ratio of renal cortex to renal medulla in experimental group 75, 100 and 300 were significantly decreased compared to control and sham groups (respectively P= 0.03, P= 0.013, P= 0.03.Conclusion: It seems that maternal use of aspirin during pregnancy can not cause fetal abnormalities. However, it can cause some changes in renal cortical and medullary tis-sue of rat embryos.

  20. Mast cells in renal inflammation and fibrosis: lessons learnt from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjene, Lydia Celia; Pons, Maguelonne; Danelli, Luca; Claver, Julien; Ali, Liza; Madera-Salcedo, Iris K; Kassas, Asma; Pellefigues, Christophe; Marquet, Florian; Dadah, Albert; Attout, Tarik; El-Ghoneimi, Alaa; Gautier, Gregory; Benhamou, Marc; Charles, Nicolas; Daugas, Eric; Launay, Pierre; Blank, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are hematopoietic cells involved in inflammation and immunity and have been recognized also as important effector cells in kidney inflammation. In humans, only a few mast cells reside in kidneys constitutively but in progressive renal diseases their numbers increase substantially representing an essential part of the interstitial infiltrate of inflammatory cells. Recent data obtained in experimental animal models have emphasized a complex role of these cells and the mediators they release as they have been shown both to promote, but also to protect from disease and fibrosis development. Sometimes conflicting results have been reported in similar models suggesting a very narrow window between these activities depending on the pathophysiological context. Interestingly in mice, mast cell or mast cell mediator specific actions became also apparent in the absence of significant mast cell kidney infiltration supporting systemic or regional actions via draining lymph nodes or kidney capsules. Many of their activities rely on the capacity of mast cells to release, in a timely controlled manner, a wide range of inflammatory mediators, which can promote anti-inflammatory actions and repair activities that contribute to healing, but in some circumstances or in case of inappropriate regulation may also promote kidney disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential BCCIP gene expression in primary human ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Cao, Lingling; Ni, Jinsong; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Xiaoming; Wang, Yanfang; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Lingyao; Wang, Jin; Yue, Ying; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2013-12-01

    Human BCCIP, a protein which interacts with BRCA2 and CDKN1A (Cip1, p21), has been implicated in many cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, DNA recombination and damage repair, telomere maintenance, embryonic development and genomic stability. BCCIP gene expression, which is an important BRCA2 cofactor in tumor suppression, has been identified in some primary cancers. Thus, we investigated the role of BCCIP expression in a large sample of clinically diagnosed primary ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. Using clinically diagnosed frozen primary cancer tissues, quantitative PCR (qPCR), western blot analysis (WB) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) approaches were used to detect and measure gene expression. Reduced BCCIP gene expression in ovarian cancer, RCC and CRC tissues occurred in 74, 89 and 75% of tissue samples, respectively. qPCR analysis of mRNA expression in 54 ovarian cancer, 50 RCC and 44 CRC samples revealed significant (>2-fold decreased) BCCIP downregulation in 56, 70 and 46% of tissue samples, respectively. Although BCCIP expression in three different tumor tissues decreased, the relationship between BCCIP expression and clinicopathological features of each cancer was distinct. Compared to normal tissues, BCCIP expression in ovarian cancers was significantly downregulated in serous, endometrioid and mucinous carcinomas. Downregulation of BCCIP expression was strongly associated with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and Fuhrman tumor grading, but significant differences in BCCIP expression between CRC and matched normal tissues occurred only in male CRC tissues (ptissue with a T4 tumor stage (ptissue samples (phuman ovarian cancer, RCC and CRC tissues, suggesting a role for the gene in the pathogenesis of these cancers.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF ENZYMES CLEAVING PYRIDINE NUCLEOTIDES IN ANIMAL TISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, K. Bruce; Kaplan, Nathan O.

    1957-01-01

    1. The distribution of DPN and DPNH pyrophosphatases and DPNase in centrifugally prepared fractions of organs of several species of animals is reported. 2. A DPNH pyrophosphatase was found in the soluble fraction of pigeon and of rabbit liver. This enzyme did not split DPN but accounted for over 50 per cent of the DPNH pyrophosphatase activity of the whole homogenates. 3. All the organs tested, including the pigeon liver and rabbit liver, contained a microsomal pyrophosphatase that attacked both DPNH and DPN. This microsomal enzyme split DPNH faster than DPN in all cases. 4. DPN pyrophosphatase and DPNase activity were generally concentrated in the microsomal fraction of liver, of kidney, and of brain. 5. The DPNase of hamster liver was virtually inactive at pH 7.5 but was optimally active at pH 5.5. Considerable difference was found with respect to pH on the activity of DPNase from organs of different animals. 6. The inhibition of mitochondrial and microsomal DPNH oxidation by nicotinamide was noted during the course of these experiments. 7. The significance of some of the distribution patterns is discussed. PMID:13416309

  3. Electric pulse-mediated gene delivery to various animal tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mir, Lluis M; Moller, Pernille H; André, Franck

    2005-01-01

    Electroporation designates the use of electric pulses to transiently permeabilize the cell membrane. It has been shown that DNA can be transferred to cells through a combined effect of electric pulses causing (1) permeabilization of the cell membrane and (2) an electrophoretic effect on DNA...... therapy, termed electrogenetherapy (EGT as well). By transfecting cells with a long lifetime, such as muscle fibers, a very long-term expression of genes can be obtained. A great variety of tissues have been transfected successfully, from muscle as the most extensively used, to both soft (e.g., spleen...

  4. Immunopathologic effects of scorpion venom on hepato-renal tissues: Involvement of lipid derived inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamraoui, Amal; Adi-Bessalem, Sonia; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-01

    Scorpion venoms are known to cause different inflammatory disorders through complex mechanisms in various tissues. In the study here, the involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-derived metabolites in hepatic and renal inflammation responses were examined. Mice were envenomed with Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom in the absence or presence of inhibitors that can interfere with lipid inflammatory mediator synthesis, i.e., dexamethasone (PLA2 inhibitor), indomethacin (non-selective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor), or celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor). The inflammatory response was assessed by evaluating vascular permeability changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative/nitrosative stress marker levels, and by histologic and functional analyses of the liver and kidney. Results revealed that the venom alone induced an inflammatory response in this tissues marked by increased microvascular permeability and inflammatory cell infiltration, increases in levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreases in antioxidant defense. Moreover, significant alterations in the histological architecture of these organs were associated with increased serum levels of some metabolic enzymes, as well as urea and uric acid. Pre-treatment of mice with dexamethasone led to significant decreases of the inflammatory disorders in the hepatic parenchyma; celecoxib pre-treatment seemed to be more effective against renal inflammation. Indomethacin pre-treatment only slightly reduced the inflammatory disorders in the tissues. These results suggest that the induced inflammation response in liver was mediated mainly by PLA2 activation, while the renal inflammatory process was mediated by prostaglandin formation by COX-2. These findings provide additional insight toward the understanding of activated pathways and related mechanisms involved in scorpion envenoming syndrome.

  5. Role of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun; ZHU Zhonghua; LIU Jianshe; YANG Xiao; FU Ling; DENG Anguo

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in renal tubular cells induced by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and to explore the role of CTGF in the degradation of renal extracellular matrix (ECM), a human proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HKC) was cultured in vitro. Cationic lipid-mediated CTGF antisense ODN was transfected into HKC. After HKC were stimulated with TGF-β1 (5 μg/L), the mRNA level of PAI-1 was detected by RT-PCR. Intracellular PAI-1 protein synthesis was assessed by flow cytometry. The secreted PAI-1 in the media was determined by Western blot. The results showed that TGF-β1 could induce tubular CTGF and PAI-1 mRNA expression. The PAI-1 mRNA expression induced by TGF-β1 was significantly inhibited by CTGF antisense ODN. CTGF antisense ODN also inhibited intracellular PAI-1 protein synthesis and lowered the levels of PAI-1 protein secreted into the media. It was concluded that CTGF might play a crucial role in the degradation of excessive ECM during tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and blocking the biological effect of CTGF may be a novel way in preventing renal fibrosis.

  6. Ultrastructural analyses of the novel chimeric hemostatic agent generated via nanotechnology, ABS nanohemostat, at the renal tissue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Emre; Dogantekin, Engin; Hayran, Murvet; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Ergun, Mine; Firat, Aysegul; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ustun, Huseyin; Kekilli, Murat; Dadali, Mumtaz; Astarci, Muzeyyen; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C

    2016-01-01

    Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), a hemostatic agent of plant origin, has been registered for the prevention of clinical hemorrhages. Currently there is no data regarding the ultrastructural analysis of ABS at the tissue level. The aim of this study is to assess renal tissue effects via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses for the ABS and ABS nanohemostat (formed by the combination of self-assembling peptide amphiphile molecules and ABS). SEM experiments were performed with FEI Nova NanoSEM 230, using the ETD detector at low vacuum mode with 30 keV beam energy. SEM analyses revealed that significant erythroid aggregation are present inside the capillary bed of the renal tissue. However, neither the signs of necrosis nor any other sign of tissue damage are evident in the surrounding renal tissue supplied by the microcapillary vasculature. Our study is important for several reasons. Firstly, in our study we used ABS nanohemostat which was recently developed. This study adds valuable information to the literature regarding ABS nanohemostat. Secondly, this study is the first ultrastructural analysis of ABS that was performed at the tissue level. Thirdly, we disclosed that ABS nanohemostat could induce vital erythroid aggregation at the renal tissue level as detected by SEM. Lastly, we detected that ABS nanohemostat causes no harm to the tissues including necrosis and any other detrimental effects.

  7. Dyslipoproteinemia and impairment of renal function in diabetic kidney disease: an analysis of animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Chih; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Kuo, Hung-Tien; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Both diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, lower high-density lipoprotein, and higher small, dense low-density lipoprotein. A number of observational studies have reported that dyslipidemia may be associated with albuminuria, renal function impairment, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population, and especially in CKD and DKD patients. Diabetic glomerulopathy and the related albuminuria are the main manifestations of DKD. Numerous animal studies support the finding that glomerular atherosclerosis is the main mechanism of glomerulosclerosis in CKD and DKD. Some randomized, controlled trials suggest the use of statins for the prevention of albuminuria and renal function impairment in CKD and DKD patients. However, a large clinical study, the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), does not support that statins could reduce ESRD in CKD. In this article, we analyze the complex association of dyslipoproteinemia with DKD and deduce its relevance from animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials. We show that special subgroups could benefit from the statin treatment.

  8. From kidney development to drug delivery and tissue engineering strategies in renal regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Boomker, Jasper M.; Meijer, E. W.; Popa, Eliane R.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Deterioration of renal function is typically slow but progressive, and therefore renal disease is often diagnosed in a late stage when already serious complaints occur. Ultimately when renal function has dropped below 10%, renal replacement is required. Renal transplantation provides a long-term sol

  9. Expression of PKD2 gene in human renal tissue and other tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-kun; SHEN Xue-fei; MEI Chang-lin; TANG Bing; SUN Tian-mei; SONG Ji

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of PKD2 gene in human kidney and other tissues. Methods: The expression of PKD2 was detected by reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization(ISH). The results of ISH were analyzed by micromegakargocytes. Results: Distribution of pkd-2 in normal adult kidney was stronger in proximal convoluted tubule, Henle's loop ascending branch, distal convoluted tubule and cortical collecting ducts, and inferior signal were observed in fetal kidney. Negative was seen in ADPKD 2 kidney. Conclusion: Down-regulation of PKD2 gene expression in kidney may take effect on the occurrence and development of ADPKD2.

  10. Data set for renal sinus fat volume and visceral adipose tissue volume on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yoko; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Miyazawa, Itsuko; Morino, Katsutaro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Nitta, Norihisa; Sakai, Hiroshi; Nota, Hiromitsu; Ushio, Noritoshi; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Renal sinus fat is partially characteristic of peri-vascular adipose tissue, however, RSF volume (RSFV) is associated with visceral adipose tissue (VATV). Therefore, the ratio of RSFV to VATV (RSFV/VATV ratio) can distinguish the importance of RSF as an extension of VAT versus its perivascular effects. We assessed the association of RSFV/VATV ratio with coronary artery calcification score (CACS) in 189 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. RSFV of the right kidney and VATV were quantified by using image data of unenhanced abdominal CT. CACS were measured on unenhanced ECG-gated CT images. This article contains data on explanatory scheme of how to measure RSFV on unenhanced abdominal CT, CT indication and exclusion criteria of study population, sex-adjusted association between RSFV with risk factors of coronary vascular diseases and metabolic indices, multivariate linear regression analysis with CACS as the dependent variable in the total study population. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed association between RSFV/VATV ratio and CACS including sub-groups analyses classified by the age of 70 "Renal sinus fat volume on computed tomography in middle-aged patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and its association with coronary artery calcification" Murakami et al. [1].

  11. 3D texture analysis in renal cell carcinoma tissue image grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yun; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Bengtsson, Ewert; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  12. 3D Texture Analysis in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Image Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  13. Role of tissue harmonic imaging in characterization of cystic renal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asmi; Sandhu, Manavjit S; Lal, Anupam; Sodhi, Kushaljit S; Sud, Kamal; Kohli, Harbir S

    2008-12-01

    To determine the utility of tissue harmonic imaging in evaluating cystic renal lesions and to compare these findings with conventional ultrasound guidance (USG) and CT. Thirty patients, detected with cystic renal lesions on routine USG (over a period of 18 months from July 2004 to December 2005 at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India) were included in this study. All patients underwent a conventional gray scale ultrasound study (GSI), followed by tissue harmonic imaging (THI) sonography on the same machine (advance technology limited high definition imaging 5000). Computed tomography of abdomen was carried out within one week of the ultrasound examinations. All images were evaluated for size, number, and location of lesions. The findings of THI sonography, conventional USG and CT of abdomen were recorded in their respective proformas. The images obtained by GSI, THI, and contrast enhanced CT were also evaluated for image quality, lesion conspicuity, and fluid-solid differentiation. Tissue harmonic imaging showed better image quality in 27 of 34 lesions, improvement in lesion conspicuity was found in 27 of 34 cystic lesions, and an improved solid-fluid differentiation in 30 of 34 lesions when compared to GSI. The THI provided additional information as compared to GSI in 8 patients. The grading of CT scan was significantly higher in overall image quality (p=0.007) and lesion conspicuity (p=0.004), but was non-significant for fluid-solid differentiation (p=0.23). Tissue harmonic imaging provides better image quality, lesion delineation, and superior characterization than conventional gray scale sonography.

  14. Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Wang, Yu

    2010-02-01

    Optical parameters of bulk animal tissue in vitro, including absorption coefficient ( μa), reduced scattering coefficient ( μ' s) or scattering coefficient ( μs), total attenuation coefficient ( μt), anisotropy factor ( g) and refractive index ( n) are measured at wavelength of 650 nm. Clinical Intralipid-10% is diluted in distilled water into different concentrations to use as tissue phantoms. Four types of animal tissues in vitro are studied. The relationships among the optical parameters are analyzed systemically. For animal tissues, μa, μ' s or μs and n rely on muscle fiber orientations. μs and μt range from 10 to 20 mm -1, μa from 10 -2 to 10 -3 mm -1 and g from 0.95 to 0.99.

  15. Tissue Engineering in Animal Models for Urinary Diversion: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in

  16. Tissue engineering in animal models for urinary diversion: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Sloff

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with

  17. Optimizing RNA Extraction of Renal Papilla Biopsy Tissue in Kidney Stone Formers: A New Methodology for Genomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazumi; Usawachintachit, Manint; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Unno, Rei; Tzou, David T; Sherer, Benjamin A; Wang, Yongmei; Okada, Atsushi; Stoller, Marshall L; Yasui, Takahiro; Chi, Thomas

    2017-08-11

    Endoscopic tools have provided versatile examination and treatment for kidney stone procedures. Despite endourologists researching urinary stone disease using endoscopes to collect tissue, this tissue collection method is limited. Endoscopically removed tissues are small in size, restricting the types of genome-based examination possible. We investigated a new method of renal papilla biopsy and RNA extraction to establish a genomic research methodology for kidney stone disease. We conducted a prospective multi-institutional study and collected renal papilla specimens from consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy (URS) cases performed for removal of upper urinary tract stones. Renal papilla tissue was extracted using ureteroscopic biopsy forceps after stone removal. RNA was extracted using two different extraction kits, and their quantity and quality were examined. Additionally, the impact of biopsy on surgical complications was compared between cases performed with and without biopsy by matched case-control analysis adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, bilaterality, and stone burden. A total of 90 biopsies from 49 patients were performed, and the median duration between specimen collection and RNA extraction was 61 days. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed BIGopsy(®) forceps usage significantly increased the total yield (p = 0.004) and quality (p = 0.001 for A260/280, p = 0.004 for A260/A230) of extracted RNA. Extraction using the RNeasy Micro Kit(®) also improved A260/A230, whereas reduced RNA integrity number of extracted RNA by univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.002 and p case-control study demonstrated that endoscopic renal papilla biopsy caused no significant surgical complications, including bleeding, decreased stone clearance and hematocrit, and renal dysfunction. Biopsies during URS imparted an average of 20 minutes of procedure time over nonbiopsy cases. We demonstrate a safe methodology for

  18. The Protective Effect of Melittin on Renal Fibrosis in an Animal Model of Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin An

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis is the principal pathological process underlying the progression of chronic kidney disease that leads to end-stage renal disease. Melittin is a major component of bee venom, and it has anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory properties in various cell types. Thus, this study examined the therapeutic effects of melittin on the progression of renal fibrosis using the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model. In addition, the effects of melittin on inflammation and fibrosis in renal fibroblast cells were explored using transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Histological observation revealed that UUO induced a considerable increase in the number of infiltrated inflammatory cells. However, melittin treatment markedly reduced these reactions compared with untreated UUO mice. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and pro-fibrotic genes were significantly reduced in melittin-treated mice compared with UUO mice. Melittin also effectively inhibited fibrosis-related gene expression in renal fibroblasts NRK-49F cells. These findings suggest that melittin attenuates renal fibrosis and reduces inflammatory responses by the suppression of multiple growth factor-mediated pro-fibrotic genes. In conclusion, melittin may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention of fibrosis that characterizes the progression of chronic kidney disease.

  19. A tissue engineered renovascular graft composed of proteins, polymers, smooth muscle and endothelial cells for renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhu, Xiang-Dong; Han, Huifang; Guo, Wen-Yuan; Ful, Zhi-Ren

    2013-08-01

    Endarterectomy and bypass surgery to treat renal artery stenosis are increasingly shunned these days due to high risks of complications during and after the surgery. Striving to find a sound alternative solution, we pioneered the construction of a tissue engineered renovascular graft that could immediately restore the normal blood flow to kidneys and sustain renal functions without suffering restenosis after the surgery. A highly porous scaffold was first constructed by electrospinning polycaprolactone, poliglecaprone, gelatin and elastin, giving the vast majority of non-woven fibers in the scaffold a diameter below 1200 nm. To recapitulate the anatomical and functional signatures of renal arteries, a bi-layer vasculature comprising a smooth muscle layer topped by an endothelial layer was built on the scaffold. The vasculature witnessed a sustained proliferation for up to 10 days in vitro and robustly secreted prostacyclin and endothelin-1, evidencing that the vasculature was functionally comparable to native renal arteries. After 30 days as a renovascular graft in mice, the luminal diameter of the graft remained clear without a restenosis and an increased confluence of the endothelial layer was observed. The tensile test confirmed that the renovascular graft was mechanically superior to native renal arteries and retained this advantage within 30 days in vivo. Also, this renovascular graft sustained renal functions as evidenced by normal levels of serum creatinine, urine creatinine and serum urea nitrogen and the lack of edema in the kidney cortex. These results demonstrate that this renovascular graft holds a great therapeutic promise for renal artery stenosis.

  20. Molecular mechanisms for uremic toxin-induced oxidative tissue damage via a cardiovascular-renal connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), marked by a progressive loss in renal function, is a leading cause of hemodialysis initiation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are currently 13.3 million patients with CKD and 300 thousand patients are currently undergoing hemodialysis in Japan. Therefore, preventing the initiation of dialysis and reducing the risk of cardiovascular death are high-priority issues from the viewpoint of public health and economic implications. Understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for the progression of CKD and cardiovascular damage regarding crosstalk between the kidney and cardiovascular system is an important issue in controlling the pathogenesis of CKD-CVD. However, the mechanisms involved in CKD-CVD are not well understood. This hinders the development of new treatment strategies. We have been investigating the role of protein bound uremic toxins, that are difficult to remove by hemodialysis, on the onset and progression of CKD and CVD. The relationship between their redox properties and the pathogenesis of CKD-CVD was examined. In this review, we focus on two sulfate conjugated uremic toxins, namely, indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), and summarize recent studies that provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms responsible for uremic toxin-induced oxidative tissue damage via a cardiovascular-renal connection.

  1. The Effect of Connective Tissue Growth Factor on Human Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Transdifferentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春; 朱忠华; 邓安国

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in transdifferentiation of human renal tubular epithelial cell (HKC), in vitro cultured HKC cells were divided into 3 groups: negtive control, low dose CTGF-treated group (rh CTGF, 2.5 ng/ml) and high dose CTGF-treated (rhCTGF, 5.0 ng/ml). Then the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were assessed by indirect immuno-fluorescence, and the percentage of α-SMA positive cells were assessed by flow cytometry. RT-PCR were also performed to examine the mRNA level of α-SMA. Upon the stimulation of different concentrations of rhCTGF, the expression of α-SMA were markedly stronger than that in negative controls. The percentages of α-SMA positive cells were significantly higher in the stimulated groups than that of negative controls (38.9 %, 65.5 % vs 2.4 %, P<0.01) . α-SMA mRNA levels were also up-regulated by the stimulation of rhCTGF (P<0.01). These results suggest that CTGF can promote the transdifferentiation of human renal tubular epithelial cells towards myofibroblast (Myo-F).

  2. MALDI Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Profiling of Dysregulated Sulfoglycosphingolipids in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirásko, Robert; Holčapek, Michal; Khalikova, Maria; Vrána, David; Študent, Vladimír; Prouzová, Zuzana; Melichar, Bohuslav

    2017-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled with Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MALDI-Orbitrap-MS) is used for the clinical study of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as the most common type of kidney cancer. Significant changes in sulfoglycosphingolipid abundances between tumor and autologous normal kidney tissues are observed. First, sulfoglycosphingolipid species in studied RCC samples are identified using high mass accuracy full scan and tandem mass spectra. Subsequently, optimization, method validation, and statistical evaluation of MALDI-MS data for 158 tissues of 80 patients are discussed. More than 120 sulfoglycosphingolipids containing one to five hexosyl units are identified in human RCC samples based on the systematic study of their fragmentation behavior. Many of them are recorded here for the first time. Multivariate data analysis (MDA) methods, i.e., unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), are used for the visualization of differences between normal and tumor samples to reveal the most up- and downregulated lipids in tumor tissues. Obtained results are closely correlated with MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and histologic staining. Important steps of the present MALDI-Orbitrap-MS approach are also discussed, such as the selection of best matrix, correct normalization, validation for semiquantitative study, and problems with possible isobaric interferences on closed masses in full scan mass spectra.

  3. [Dependence of vitamin C content in animal tissues on the dose of UV radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev'iatka, D G; Iatsina, O V

    1977-01-01

    The content of vitamin C in tissues was determined for animals synthetizing (rabbits) and nonsynthetizing (guinea pigs) it with UV radiation. Significant doses of radiation cause a considerable decrease in the content of vitamin C in blood of both animal species. In the adrenal, liver, spleen, lung, small intestine, kidney, brain tissues and vitamin C content decreases in animals nonsynthetizing the vitamin and, vice versa, it rises in the vitamin-synthetizing animals. After irradiation with small doses the vitamin C content in blood and tissues of animals nonsynthetizing it lowers but not below the normal level. Additional administration of 100 mg of ascorbic acid (under conditions of sufficient supply of vitamin C with food) does not prevent a decrease in the content of vitamin C in blood of the animals irradiated with significant UV doses. An opinion is advanced as to necessity of vitamin C rationing taking into account "the UV climate" of the area and dose of radiation from the artifical sources.

  4. Fibroadenomatosis involving bilateral breasts and axillary accessory breast tissues in a renal transplant recipient given cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakci, Mesut; Gocmez, Ahmet; Demir, Ali Aslan; Salmaslioglu, Artur; Tukenmez, Mustafa; Yavuz, Ekrem; Acunas, Gulden

    2014-10-01

    We present the mammographic and sonographic findings in a case of fibroadenomatosis involving both breasts and axillae in a renal transplant patient after 16 years of treatment with cyclosporin A. Awareness of the fact that cyclosporin A may induce the formation of fibroadenomas, including in accessory breast tissue, is important for correct diagnosis and preventing unnecessary intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  6. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Protects against Gα12 Activation and Tissue Damage in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ola Z.; Zhang, Xizhong; Wei, Junjun; Haig, Aaron; Denker, Bradley M.; Suri, Rita S.; Sener, Alp; Gunaratnam, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury is a serious untreatable condition. Activation of the G protein α12 (Gα12) subunit by reactive oxygen species is a major cause of tissue damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly up-regulated during acute kidney injury, but the physiologic significance of this up-regulation is unclear. Here, we report for the first time that Kim-1 inhibits Gα12 activation and protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We reveal that Kim-1 physically interacts with and inhibits cellular Gα12 activation after inflammatory stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, by blocking GTP binding to Gα12. Compared with Kim-1+/+ mice, Kim-1−/− mice exhibited greater Gα12 and downstream Src activation both in primary tubular epithelial cells after in vitro stimulation with H2O2 and in whole kidneys after unilateral renal artery clamping. Finally, we show that Kim-1–deficient mice had more severe kidney dysfunction and tissue damage after bilateral renal artery clamping, compared with wild-type mice. Our results suggest that KIM-1 is an endogenous protective mechanism against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of Gα12. PMID:25759266

  7. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus suppresses renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissue cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Saraswathiamma, Dhanya; Abdul-Kader, Hidaya Mohammed; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Alfazari, Ali S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to develop a useful biomarker (e.g., cellular respiration, or mitochondrial O2 consumption) for measuring activities of mTOR inhibitors. It measured the effects of commonly used immunosuppressants (sirolimus-rapamycin, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine) on cellular respiration in target tissues (kidney, liver, and heart) from C57BL/6 mice. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/ threonine kinase that supports nutrient-dependent cell growth and survival, is known to control energy conversion processes within the mitochondria. Consistently, inhibitors of mTOR (e.g., rapamycin, also known as sirolimus or Rapamune®) have been shown to impair mitochondrial function. Inhibitors of the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine), on the other hand, strictly prevent lymphokine production leading to a reduced T-cell function. Sirolimus (10 μM) inhibited renal (22%, P=0.002), hepatic (39%, Pcellular respiration. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine had no or minimum effects on cellular respiration in these tissues. Thus, these results clearly demonstrate that impaired cellular respiration (bioenergetics) is a sensitive biomarker of the immunosuppressants that target mTOR.

  8. Visceral and renal tissue oxygenation during supraceliac aortic crossclamping and left heart bypass with selective organ perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idu, M M; Heintjes, R J; Scholten, E W; Balm, R; de Mol, B A J M; Legemate, D A

    2004-02-01

    Left-heart bypass (LHB) and selective organ perfusion (SOP) are used during thoracoabdominal aortic surgery to prevent ischemic damage to the kidneys and visceral organs after supraceliac aortic crossclamping. We studied the hypothesis, in a porcine model, that despite LHB and maximal SOP, visceral and renal ischemia still occurred during surgery. Eleven pigs (54-70 kg) were coupled to a non-pulsatile LHB with inflow and outflow at the lower thoracic and distal infrarenal aorta, respectively. After supracoeliac and infrarenal aortic crossclamping, SOP was started using perfusion catheters. The proximal and distal mean aortic blood pressures were kept above 70 and 50 mmHg, respectively, while the mean blood pressure within the SOP system was above 60 mmHg. The visceral and renal tissue oxygenation was measured by intermittent blood gas analysis, from the portal and both renal veins. The jejunal mucosal oxygenation was measured by tonometric measurement of the luminal pCO2. Measured median blood blood flow through the LHB and the SOP system were 800 and 1140 ml/min, respectively. Median blood flow prior to, and during LHB and SOP through the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and left renal artery were 300 and 240, 762 and 295, and 235 and 235 ml/min, respectively. During 3 h of LHB and SOP no significant changes in the renal tissue oxygenation were noted compared with the physiological situation prior to supracoeliac aortic crossclamping and cannulation. However, in the visceral vascular bed median mixed venous oxygen saturation dropped from 79 to 63% (poxygen extraction ratio increased from 26 to 41% (p0.05). During 3 h of LHB and SOP no hemolysis was detected, as there was no rise in serum LDH. LHB and SOP preserves renal but not visceral tissue oxygenation during supraceliac aortic crossclamping and does not induce hemolysis.

  9. A quantum dot-based immunoassay for screening of tylosin and tilmicosin in edible animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tao; Zhu, Liqian; Yang, Xian

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, indirect competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-FLISA) based on quantum dots (QDs) as the fluorescent marker was developed for the detection of tylosin and tilmicosin in edible animal tissues. The end point fluorescent detection system was carried out using QDs conjugated with goat anti-mouse secondary antibody. The limits of detection (LODs) for the determination of tylosin and tilmicosin were 0.02 and 0.04 μg kg(-1), respectively. This detection method was used to analyse spiked samples and the recoveries ranged from 83.5% to 98.7% for tylosin and from 81.8% to 98.2% for tilmicosin. In real porcine tissue sample analysis, the results of ic-FLISA were similar to those obtained from an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) to an HPLC method indicating its potential for tylosin and tilmicosin screening in edible animal tissues.

  10. Stable isotope turnover and half-life in animal tissues: a literature synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, M Jake; Clayton, Murray K; Moody, Eric K; Solomon, Christopher T; Weidel, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur are used as ecological tracers for a variety of applications, such as studies of animal migrations, energy sources, and food web pathways. Yet uncertainty relating to the time period integrated by isotopic measurement of animal tissues can confound the interpretation of isotopic data. There have been a large number of experimental isotopic diet shift studies aimed at quantifying animal tissue isotopic turnover rate λ (%·day(-1), often expressed as isotopic half-life, ln(2)/λ, days). Yet no studies have evaluated or summarized the many individual half-life estimates in an effort to both seek broad-scale patterns and characterize the degree of variability. Here, we collect previously published half-life estimates, examine how half-life is related to body size, and test for tissue- and taxa-varying allometric relationships. Half-life generally increases with animal body mass, and is longer in muscle and blood compared to plasma and internal organs. Half-life was longest in ecotherms, followed by mammals, and finally birds. For ectotherms, different taxa-tissue combinations had similar allometric slopes that generally matched predictions of metabolic theory. Half-life for ectotherms can be approximated as: ln (half-life) = 0.22*ln (body mass) + group-specific intercept; n = 261, plife can be approximated using simple allometric relationships for some taxa and tissue types, there is also a high degree of unexplained variation in our models. Our study highlights several strong and general patterns, though accurate prediction of isotopic half-life from readily available variables such as animal body mass remains elusive.

  11. Oxidative damage parameters in renal tissues of aged and young rats based on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzun D

    2013-06-01

    young control group for both genders. Conclusion: With respect to PCO and AOPP, impaired redox homeostasis is substantially more prominent in males than females. The decrease of G-SH levels in male groups could be attributed to stabilizing the redox status of protein thiol groups by the depletion of the GSH groups. Considering the results, the renal tissue proteins and lipids in different genders may have different susceptibilities to oxidative damage. Keywords: lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, radicals, renal aging

  12. Detection of renal tissue and urinary tract proteins in the human urine after space flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Kh Pastushkova

    Full Text Available The urine protein composition samples of ten Russian cosmonauts (male, aged of 35 up to 51 performed long flight missions and varied from 169 up to 199 days on the International Space Station (ISS were analyzed. As a control group, urine samples of six back-up cosmonauts were analyzed. We used proteomic techniques to obtain data and contemporary bioinformatics approaches to perform the analysis. From the total number of identified proteins (238 in our data set, 129 were associated with a known tissue origin. Preflight samples contained 92 tissue-specific proteins, samples obtained on Day 1 after landing had 90 such proteins, while Day 7 samples offered 95 tissue-specific proteins. Analysis showed that consistently present proteins in urine (under physiological conditions and after space flight are cubilin, epidermal growth factor, kallikrein-1, kininogen-1, megalin, osteopontin, vitamin K-dependent protein Z, uromodulin. Variably present proteins consists of: Na(+/K(+ ATPase subunit gamma, β-defensin-1, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, maltasa-glucoamilasa, cadherin-like protein, neutral endopeptidase and vascular cell adhesion protein 1. And only three renal proteins were related to the space flight factors. They were not found in the pre-flight samples and in the back-up cosmonaut urine, but were found in the urine samples after space flight: AFAM (afamin, AMPE (aminopeptidase A and AQP2 (aquaporin-2. This data related with physiological readaptation of water-salt balance. The proteomic analysis of urine samples in different phases of space missions with bioinformation approach to protein identification provides new data relative to biomechemical mechanism of kidney functioning after space flight.

  13. Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues ex vivo at 650 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jian

    2008-12-01

    Optical parameters of biological tissues, including absorption coefficient (μa), reduced scattering coefficient (μs') or scattering coefficient (μs), anisotropy factor (g) and refractive index (n) are investigated extensively and systemically at wavelength of 650 nm. Intralipid solution was selected to be the tissue phantom in order to test the validity of measurements. Considering the factors of fiber orientation and haemoglobin content, we chose some fresh bulk animal tissues in vitro which were bovine adipose, bovine muscle, porcine adipose, porcine muscle, porcine kidney, porcine liver, mutton and chicken breast. The basic assumption is that in vitro samples are a reasonable representation of the in vivo situation. We have gained numbers of experimental data of Intralipid and some tissues. Particularly, we have set up the close relationships among six optical parameters involving μa, μs', μs, g, n and μt. The experimental results show that for animal tissues, μa, μs' or μs and n rely deeply on muscle fiber orientations. Both of μs and μt range from 10mm-1 to 20mm-1. μa ranges from 10-2 mm-1 to 10-3 mm-1 and g from 0.95 to 0.99. The results of this study will be helpful in further understanding of optical properties of tissues.

  14. Animal models of temporomandibular joint disorders: implications for tissue engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarza, Alejandro J; Hagandora, Catherine K; Henderson, Sarah E

    2011-10-01

    Animal models for temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) or degradation are necessary for assessing the value of current and future tissue engineering therapies. After reviewing the literature, it is quite apparent that most TMD animal studies can be categorized into chemical approaches or surgical/mechanical approaches. Overall, it was found that the top five cited manuscripts for all chemical models were cited by almost 40% more manuscripts than the top five manuscripts for surgical/mechanical models. It is clear that the chemical approaches have focused on the inflammatory aspect of TMDs and its relationship to pain. However, chemical irritants must be tested in larger animal models, and the effect of short-term inflammation on the mechanical properties of the fibrocartilage must be examined. Nevertheless, therapeutic approaches aimed at reducing or controlling inflammation could use the established chemical methods. Surgical/mechanical methods can be used as negative controls for first generation TMJ tissue engineering approaches when the therapy is applied immediately after injury. Next generation tissue engineering approaches will require testing on tissues degenerated for a few months after the surgical/mechanical methods, with enhanced functional assessment techniques.

  15. Noninvasive method of DNA isolation from fecal epithelial tissue of dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra De, Bidhan; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Brahma, Biswajit; Goutam, Devika; Jaiswal, Latika; Sharma, Ashutosh; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    A novel noninvasive genomic DNA isolation protocol from fecal tissue, by the proteinase K digestion and guanidine hydrochloride extraction method, was assessed for the genotyping of cattle and buffalo. The epithelial tissues present on the surface of the feces were used as source for isolation of genomic DNA. The DNA isolated from fecal tissue was found to be similar as those obtained from other body tissues such as skin, brain, liver, kidney, and muscle. The quality of DNA was checked by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We successfully amplified a 320 bp MHC class II DRB gene and a 125 bp mt-DNA D-loop region from isolated genomic DNA of cattle. Thus, the DNA isolated using this method was suitable for common molecular biology methods, such as restriction enzyme digestion and genotyping of dairy animals through PCR.

  16. 3D-printed soft-tissue physical models of renal malignancies for individualized surgical simulation: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Michael M; Feibus, Allison; Liu, James; Wang, Julie; Thomas, Raju; Silberstein, Jonathan L

    2017-01-20

    To construct patient-specific physical three-dimensional (3D) models of renal units with materials that approximates the properties of renal tissue to allow pre-operative and robotic training surgical simulation, 3D physical kidney models were created (3DSystems, Rock Hill, SC) using computerized tomography to segment structures of interest (parenchyma, vasculature, collection system, and tumor). Images were converted to a 3D surface mesh file for fabrication using a multi-jet 3D printer. A novel construction technique was employed to approximate normal renal tissue texture, printers selectively deposited photopolymer material forming the outer shell of the kidney, and subsequently, an agarose gel solution was injected into the inner cavity recreating the spongier renal parenchyma. We constructed seven models of renal units with suspected malignancies. Partial nephrectomy and renorrhaphy were performed on each of the replicas. Subsequently all patients successfully underwent robotic partial nephrectomy. Average tumor diameter was 4.4 cm, warm ischemia time was 25 min, RENAL nephrometry score was 7.4, and surgical margins were negative. A comparison was made between the seven cases and the Tulane Urology prospectively maintained robotic partial nephrectomy database. Patients with surgical models had larger tumors, higher nephrometry score, longer warm ischemic time, fewer positive surgical margins, shorter hospitalization, and fewer post-operative complications; however, the only significant finding was lower estimated blood loss (186 cc vs 236; p = 0.01). In this feasibility study, pre-operative resectable physical 3D models can be constructed and used as patient-specific surgical simulation tools; further study will need to demonstrate if this results in improvement of surgical outcomes and robotic simulation education.

  17. Screening and confirmatory methods for determining lincomycin residues in animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiers, A R; Neff, A W

    1976-07-01

    Methods for screening and for confirming residues of lincomycin in animal tissues, both sensitive to 0.1 ppm, are described. In the screening technique, residues are extracted, cleaned up by solvent partition, and detected by microbiological plate assay. In the confirmatory technique, residues are cleaned up on an unfunctionalized macroreticular-type resin column, concentrated, chromatographed on thin layer plates, and detected by bioautography. This system was effective in identifying lincomycin in the presence of 20 other antibiotics and chemicals used in the animal health industry.

  18. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlengiwe Pretty Madlala

    Full Text Available The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA. We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status.OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1 prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.. Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension.Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects in decreasing

  19. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlala, Hlengiwe Pretty; Van Heerden, Fanie Retief; Mubagwa, Kanigula; Musabayane, Cephas Tagumirwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA) is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA). We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status. Methods OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1) prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi) as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.). Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Results Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects

  20. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-07-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  1. A study of muscular tissue of animal origin by reflection-spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L. V.; Nechiporenko, A. P.; Orekhova, S. M.; Plotnikov, P. P.; Ishevskii, A. L.

    2017-06-01

    A comparative analysis of the spectral characteristics of the surface of muscular tissue of animal origin (pork) and its main components has been performed by the methods of diffuse reflection electronic spectroscopy (DRES) and frustrated total internal reflection IR spectroscopy. The experiments have shown that the application of the DRES method makes it possible to detect more pronounced changes in the surface optical characteristics of muscular tissue and obtain electronic spectra containing information about the component composition of its main parts under successive extraction of sarcoplasmic materials, myofibrillar proteins of the actomyosin complex, and stroma mucopolysaccharides.

  2. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  3. Biochemical, Histological And Histochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Barbital On The Renal Tissue Of Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia M. Sakr*, Shadia Ali Radwan*, Aziza M. El Wessemy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Anaesthetic drugs are nowadays used on a large scale in surgical operations as well as in other various medical purposes. Sodium barbital is a derivative of barbituric acid and is widely used on short surgical operations and other various medication. However, such anaesthetic drug has been reported to evoke many serious alterations as a result of its application. Materials and Methods:The experimental animals (30 mice-weighing 25-30 g were divided into 3 groups (10/group, the first group served as a control group (i.e. injection with saline, while the other two groups were treated daily with the therapeutic dose of 60 mg/kg.b.wt sodium barbital (i.p. for 7 days (short-term group and 21 days (long-term group as repeated daily doses. Blood sera and kidney samples were collected for physiological, histological and histochemical studies. Results:The results obtained showed a significant increase in urea, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine levels in all treated groups. On the other hand serum total protein and albumin levels showed a significant decrease in both treated groups, while the globulin showed a significant decrease only in the long term group. The applied dose of sodium barbital caused histophathological alterations in the renal tissue mainly in the cortex such as damage and shrinkage of the Malpighian corpuscles, cloudy swelling and necrosis of the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. Also, distal convoluted tubules exhibited degenerated features. In the histochemical studies, polysaccharides were progressively reduced in both short and long-term groups, while the total proteins showed a reduction in the short term group and considerably increase in the long term group. Conclusion: So these results came to conclusion that barbiturates should be prohibited and carefully used specially when prescribed as tranquilizer

  4. Color-Doppler sonographic tissue perfusion measurements reveal significantly diminished renal cortical perfusion in kidneys with vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholbach, T M; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and its sequelae may lead to reduced renal perfusion and loss of renal function. Methods to describe and monitor tissue perfusion are needed. We investigated dynamic tissue perfusion measurement (DTPM) with the PixelFlux-software to measure microvascular changes in the renal cortex in 35 children with VUR and 28 healthy children. DTPM of defined horizontal slices of the renal cortex was carried out. A kidney was assigned to the "low grade reflux"-group if the reflux grade of the voiding cystourethrogram was 1 to 3 and to the "high grade reflux"-group if the reflux grade was 4 to 5. Kidneys with VUR showed a significantly reduced cortical perfusion. Compared to healthy kidneys, this decline reached in low and high grade refluxes within the proximal 50% of the cortex: 3% and 12 %, in the distal 50% of the cortex: 21% and 44 % and in the most distal 20 % of the cortex 41% and 44%. DTPM reveals a perfusion loss in kidneys depending on the degree of VUR, which is most pronounced in the peripheral cortex. Thus, DTPM offers the tool to evaluate microvascular perfusion, to help planning treatment decisions in children with VUR.

  5. [Levels of carcinogenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human and animal tissues. IIIrd communication (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, W; Eff, H; Schormair, S

    1975-10-01

    (1) The mean content in benzypyrene (bp) of human pulmonary tissue amounts to 0.2 mug./100 g. of dry substance. As in all other organ tissues, however, the content differs with the age of the individual: in infants, we find maximum concentrations, in the medium age groups the levels decline and rise once more with increasing age. (2) No increase in the 3,4-benzpyrene levels (average: 0.2 mug./100 g. of dry substance) will be found in tissues with high cellular proliferative activity, such as exocrine and endocrine glands (pancreas, testicles, thyroid gland, adrenals, mammary glands, as well as bone marrow). (3) In human adipose tissue, as well as in that of pork and beef, the 3,4-benzpyrene levels are found to be exceedingly low. With values of 0.1 mug./100 g, the average concentrations lie markedly below the organ tissue levels. Hence, this class of noxious substances in not stored in the adipose tissue. (4) Both in man and in animals (pig, fowl), the 3,4-benzyprene concentrations consistently exceed the average values during early postnatal life. (5) This relatively high concentration of bp in early infancy is due to exogenous factors and is not the expression of biogenous synthesis, as has been demonstrated in examinations of the environmentally influenced embryonic development of the chick. Throughout the entire development of the embryo within the hen's egg, the benzpyrene levels remain constant. Only when the chickens have been hatched out do the benzyprene levels rise significantly. Thus, the low 3,4-benzpyrene levels detected in all human and animal organ tissues prove to be the result of the interplay of exogenous environmental loading and individual capability of eliminating this substance.

  6. Toxicity of molybdenum and its trace analysis in animal tissues and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, S A

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive, selective, rapid and reproducible method is presented for the analysis of submicrogram levels of molybdenum in animal tissues (Liver) and plants. The method is based on solvent extraction of Molybdenum (VI) using isoamyl alcohol solution of N-o-tolyl-o-methoxy-benzohydroxamic acid at pH 1.5-2.5, and subsequent spectrophotometric determination of the yellow extract at 350 nm.

  7. Comparison of various needles in renal biopsy : clinical and animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Hee; Kim, Seung Hyup; Choi, Kuk Myeong; Kim, Hyun Beom; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the efficacy of 14 gauge (G) Vim-Silverman needle biopsy with that of 16G automatic gun biopsy for kidneys and to determine the optimal needle size for renal biopsy. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic and medical records of 119 (110 native, 9 allograft) patients who had undergone 14G Vim-Silverman needle biopsy and 71 (34 native, 37 allograft) who had undergone 16G automatic gun biopsy. The number of retrieved glomeruli and post-biopsy complications were compared between the two groups. Ex vivo renal biopsies of a dog were performed using an automatic gun mounted with 14G-20G needles and the numbers of retrieved glomeruli were compared. Although significantly more glomeruli were retrieved in the 14G Vim-Silverman needle biopsy group, the number retrieved in the 16G automatic gun biopsy group was sufficient for adequate pathologic interpretation. Experimental study suggests that when an 18G automatic gun in used, sufficient glomeruli are retrieved. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Accurate determination of silver nanoparticles in animal tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veverková, Lenka [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Hradilová, Šárka [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Milde, David, E-mail: david.mlde@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Panáček, Aleš [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Skopalová, Jana [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kvítek, Libor [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Petrželová, Kamila [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); National Reference Laboratory for Chemical Elements, Department of Residues in Kroměříž, State Veterinary Institute Olomouc, Hulínská 2286, CZ 767 60 Kroměříž (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-12-01

    This study examined recoveries of silver determination in animal tissues after wet digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The composition of the mineralization mixture for microwave assisted digestion was optimized and the best recoveries were obtained for mineralization with HNO{sub 3} and addition of HCl promptly after digestion. The optimization was performed on model samples of chicken meat spiked with silver nanoparticles and a solution of ionic silver. Basic calculations of theoretical distribution of Ag among various silver-containing species were implemented and the results showed that most of the silver is in the form of soluble complexes AgCl{sub 2}{sup −} and AgCl{sub 3}{sup 2−} for the optimized composition of the mineralization mixture. Three animal tissue certified reference materials were then analyzed to verify the trueness and precision of the results. - Highlights: • We performed detailed optimization of microwave assisted digestion procedure of animal tissue used prior to Ag determination by ICP-MS. • We provide basic equilibrium calculations to give theoretical explanation of results from optimization of tested mineralization mixtures. • Results from method validation that was done by analysis of several matrix CRMs are presented.

  9. Optical spectroscopic studies of animal skin used in modeling of human cutaneous tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.; Sianoudis, J. A.

    2007-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy and in particular laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), provide excellent possibilities for real-time, noninvasive diagnosis of different skin tissue pathologies. However, the introduction of optical spectroscopy in routine medical practice demands a statistically important data collection, independent from the laser sources and detectors used. The scientists collect databases either from patients, in vivo, or they study different animal models to obtain objective information for the optical properties of various types of normal and diseased tissue. In the present work, the optical properties (fluorescence and reflectance) of two animal skin models are investigated. The aim of using animal models in optical spectroscopy investigations is to examine the statistics of the light induced effects firstly on animals, before any extrapolation effort to humans. A nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used as an excitation source for the autofluorescence measurements, while a tungsten-halogen lamp was used for the reflectance measurements. Samples of chicken and pig skin were measured in vitro and were compared with results obtained from measurements of normal human skin in vivo. The specific features of the measured reflectance and fluorescence spectra are discussed, while the limits of data extrapolation for each skin type are also depicted.

  10. Analysis of the effect of renal excretory system cooling during thermal radiofrequency ablation in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Meireles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of renal excretory system integrity and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation with and without irrigation with saline at 2 o C (SF2. Materials and Methods: The median third of sixteen kidneys were submitted to radiofrequency (exposition of 1 cm controlled by intra-surgical ultrasound, with eight minutes cycles and median temperature of 90 o C in eight female pigs. One excretory renal system was cooled with SF2, at a 30ml/min rate, and the other kidney was not. After 14 days of post-operatory, the biggest diameters of the lesions and the radiological aspects of the excretory system were compared by bilateral ascending pyelogram and the animals were sacrificed in order to perform histological analysis. Results: There were no significant differences between the diameters of the kidney lesions whether or not exposed to cooling of the excretory system. Median diameter of the cooled kidneys and not cooled kidneys were respectively (in mm: anteroposterior: 11.46 vs. 12.5 (p = 0.23; longitudinal: 17.94 vs. 18.84 (p = 0.62; depth: 11.38 vs. 12.25 (p = 0.47. There was no lesion of the excretory system or signs of leakage of contrast media or hydronephrosis at ascending pyelogram. Conclusion: Cooling of excretory system during radiofrequency ablation does not significantly alter generated coagulation necrosis or affect the integrity of the excretory system in the studied model.

  11. An end-to-end assessment of range uncertainty in proton therapy using animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Kang, Yixiu; Zeidan, Omar; Schreuder, Niek

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of range uncertainty is critical in proton therapy. However, there is a lack of data and consensus on how to evaluate the appropriate amount of uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to quantify the range uncertainty in various treatment conditions in proton therapy, using transmission measurements through various animal tissues. Animal tissues, including a pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg, were used in this study. For each tissue, an end-to-end test closely imitating patient treatments was performed. This included CT scan simulation, treatment planning, image-guided alignment, and beam delivery. Radio-chromic films were placed at various depths in the distal dose falloff region to measure depth dose. Comparisons between measured and calculated doses were used to evaluate range differences. The dose difference at the distal falloff between measurement and calculation depends on tissue type and treatment conditions. The estimated range difference was up to 5, 6 and 4 mm for the pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg irradiation, respectively. Our study shows that the TPS was able to calculate proton range within about 1.5% plus 1.5 mm. Accurate assessment of range uncertainty in treatment planning would allow better optimization of proton beam treatment, thus fully achieving proton beams’ superior dose advantage over conventional photon-based radiation therapy.

  12. Engineered renal tissue as a potential platform for pharmacokinetic and nephrotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacology and regenerative medicine interact in two ways. One is the use of drugs to promote tissue regeneration. The other, less obvious but with great potential, is the use of techniques developed for regenerative medicine to engineer realistic human organoids for drug screening. This review focuses on testing for nephrotoxicity, often a problem with drugs and poorly predicted in animals. Current human-based screens mainly use proximal tubule cells growing in 2D monolayers. Realism might be improved by collagen-based culture systems that encourage proximal tubule cells to grow as tubules. More realistic would be a recently developed technique for engineering functioning 'mini-kidneys' from suspensions of stem cells, a technique that works in mouse but that could also be applied to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tissue-level cytoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Hightower, L E; Brown, M A; Renfro, J.L.; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T.; House, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprote...

  14. Evidence of a Heterogeneous Tissue Oxygenation: Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Large Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Department of Surgery, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 eNational Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Laboratory of...oxy-hemoglobin concen- trations calculated for the entire kidney [Fig. 5(a)] and each kid - ney segment [Fig. 5(b)] and is representative of all...healthy kid - neys with good baseline glomerular filtration rates (GFRs), these events can often be reversed after a period of reperfusion (either in

  15. Renal tissue thawed for 30 minutes is still suitable for gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    Full Text Available Some biosamples obtained from biobanks may go through thawing before processing. We aim to evaluate the effects of thawing at room temperature for different time periods on gene expression analysis. A time course study with four time points was conducted to investigate the expression profiling on 10 thawed normal mice renal tissue samples through Affymetrix GeneChip mouse gene 2.0 st array. Microarray results were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR on 6 candidate reference genes and 11 target genes. Additionally, we used geNorm plus and NormFinder to identify the most stably expressed reference genes over time. The results showed RNA degraded more after longer incubation at room temperature. However, microarray results showed only 240 genes (0.91% altered significantly in response to thawing at room temperature. The signal of majority altered probe sets decreased with thawing time, and the crossing point (Cp values of all candidate reference genes correlated positively with the thawing time (p<0.05. The combination of B2M, ACTB and PPIA was identified as the best choice for qPCR normalization. We found most target genes were stable by using this normalization method. However, serious gene quantification errors were resulted from improper reference genes. In conclusion, thirty minutes of thawing at room temperature has a limited impact on microarray and qPCR analysis, gene expression variations due to RNA degradation in early period after thawing can be largely reduced by proper normalization.

  16. Drug residues in animal tissues and their regulatory significance--the Canadian point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D J

    1978-09-01

    Today it is almost impossible to produce food of animal origin which is free from traces of drugs or chemicals. In Canada the problem of drug residues is controlled by a method of assessment of human safety which involves many factors. The toxicity of the drug in laboratory animals or, if possible, in man, is established and a no-effect dose is then estimated. These studies require oral administration of the drug and include acute, subacute, and teratogenicity studies. Depending on these results, chronic reproductive or carcinogenicity studies may be required before a no-effect dose can be estimated. Residue studies must encompass data on metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and depletion studies in edible tissues and for products such as milk and eggs. For veterinary drug residues, we must consider the target food animal with its particular metabolism, tissue disposition, and excretion patterns. The analytical method for residue detection must be acceptable and its sensitivity limits suitable for the drug and its major metabolites.

  17. Light-induced autofluorescence of animal skin used in tissue optical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, E.; Bliznakova, I.; Troyanova, P.; Avramov, L.

    2007-07-01

    Light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy provides many possibilities for medical diagnostics needs for differentiation of tissue pathologies including cancer. For the needs of clinical practice scientists collect spectral data from patients in vivo or they study different tumor models to obtain objective information for fluorescent properties of every kind of normal and diseased tissue. Therefore it is very important to find the most appropriate and close to the human skin samples from the point of view of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, which will give the possibility for easier transfer of data obtained in animal models to spectroscopic medical diagnostics in humans. In this study are presented some results for in vitro detection of the autofluorescence signals of the animal skin (pig and chicken) with using of LEDs as excitation sources (maximum emission at 365, 375, 385 and 400 nm). The autofluorescence signals from in vivo human skin were also detected for comparison with the models' results. Specific features of the spectra measured are discussed and there are proposed some of the origins of the fluorescence signals obtained. Fluorescence maxima detected are addressed to the typical fluorophores existing in the cutaneous tissues. Influence of main skin absorbers, namely melanin and hemoglobin, is also discussed.

  18. From stem cells to bone: phenotype acquisition, stabilization, and tissue engineering in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeladze, Jan O; Reseland, Janne E; Duroux-Richard, Isabelle; Apparailly, Florence; Jorgensen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue depends on the concerted actions of a plethora of signals that recruit mesenchymal stem cells for lineage-specific differentiation, with cellular phenotypes serving various functions throughout their life span. The signals are conveyed in hormones, growth factors, and mechanical forces, all of which ensure proper modeling and remodeling. Both processes are secured by indigenous and programmed metabolism in osteoblasts/osteocytes as well as in other stem cell (SC)-derived cell types (e.g., osteoclasts, bone lining cells) involved in the remodeling of the subject tissue. The focus of this review is the concerted action of these signals as well as the regulatory and/or stabilizing control circuits exhibited by a class of small RNAs, designated microRNAs. We discuss an in vitro approach for ensuring proper phenotype acquisition as well as the choice of scaffolds and animal models for in vivo tissue repair. This approach includes selection of SC niches to optimize bone formation in vivo, transcription factors important for osteoblastogenesis, the Wnt and Notch pathways of signaling, selection of delivery systems for gene therapy, use of appropriate matrices and scaffolds, in vivo mechanostimulation, choice of lesions to be repaired, and type of animal to use. We also discuss Wnt-related and SC-based treatment of osteoporosis. Throughout, we offer considerations for the selection of model systems and parameters to assess the entire procedure from initial SC selection to final bone repair, and conclude with a table summarizing our recommendations.

  19. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of diabetic and fat fed animals: Effects of insulin and manganese

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Najma Z Baquer; M Sinclair; S Kunjara; Umesh C S Yadav; P McLean

    2003-03-01

    In order to evaluate the modulatory effects of manganese, high fat diet fed and alloxan diabetic rats were taken and the changes in the glucose oxidation, glycerol release and effects of manganese on these parameters were measured from adipose tissue. An insulin-mimetic effect of manganese was observed in the adipose tissue in the controls and an additive effect of insulin and manganese on glucose oxidation was seen when Mn2+ was added in vitro. The flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis was significantly decreased in high fat fed animals. Although the in vitro addition of Mn2+ was additive with insulin when 14CO2 was measured from control animals, it was found neither in young diabetic animals (6–8 weeks old) nor in the old (16 weeks old). Both insulin and manganese caused an increased oxidation of carbon-1 of glucose and an increase of its incorporation into 14C-lipids in the young control animals; the additive effect of insulin and manganese suggests separate site of action. This effect was decreased in fat fed animals, diabetic animals and old animals. Manganese alone was found to decrease glycerol in both the control and diabetic adipose tissue in in vitro incubations. The results of the effects of glucose oxidation, lipogenesis, and glycerol release in adipose tissue of control and diabetic animals of different ages are presented together with the effect of manganese on adipose tissue from high fat milk diet fed animals.

  20. Renal (pro)renin receptor contributes to development of diabetic kidney disease through transforming growth factor-β1-connective tissue growth factor signalling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiqian; Matavelli, Luis C; Siragy, Helmy M

    2011-04-01

    1. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are expressed in renal glomeruli, and contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we showed that (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is upregulated in the kidneys of the streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rat model. We hypothesized that in the presence of hyperglycaemia, increased renal PRR expression contributes to enhanced TGF-β1-CTGF signalling activity, leading to the development of diabetic kidney disease. 2. In vivo and in vitro studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats and rat mesangial cells (RMC). PRR blockade was achieved in vivo by treating STZ induced diabetes rats with the handle region peptide (HRP) of prorenin and in vitro by HRP or PRR siRNA in RMC. Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade was achieved by valsartan treatment. 3. Results showed that expression of PRR, TGF-β1 and CTGF were upregulated in diabetic kidneys and RMC exposed to high glucose. Glucose exposure also induced PRR phosphorylation, a process that was inhibited by HRP, valsartan or PRR siRNA. HRP and valsartan significantly attenuated renal TGF-β1 and CTGF expression in diabetic animals and high glucose treated RMC. Similar results were observed in high glucose exposed RMC in response to PRR siRNA. TGF-β receptor blockade decreased CTGF expression in RMC. Combined administration of valsartan and PRR siRNA showed further reduction of TGF-β1 and CTGF expression in RMC. 4. In conclusion, PRR contributes to kidney disease in diabetes through an enhanced TGF-β1-CTGF signalling cascade.

  1. Expression of Wnt pathway mediators in metaplasic tissue in animal model and clinical samples of tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Lee, Yuk Wa; Wong, Yin Mei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dai, Kerong; Rolf, Christer Gustav

    2013-09-01

    Tissue metaplasia is observed in both ossified failed healing animal model and clinical samples of tendinopathy. The Wnt signalling pathway plays a vital role in pathological calcification. We hypothesized that the Wnt signalling pathway might contribute to tissue metaplasia and failed healing in tendinopathy. This study aimed to examine the spatial-temporal expression of Wnt pathway mediators in an ossified failed tendon healing animal model and clinical samples of tendinopathy. The effect of Wnt3a on the osteogenic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) was also examined. Ossified failed tendon healing was induced by the injection of collagenase into the patellar tendon of rats. At various times the tendons were harvested for immunohistochemical staining of Wnt3a, β-catenin, Lrp5 and Tcf1. Patellar tendon samples were obtained from 13 patients with patellar tendinopathy (11 unossified and 2 ossified) and 10 controls. Immunohistochemical staining of Wnt3a, β-catenin, Lrp5 and Tcf1 was similarly performed. Rat patellar TDSCs were treated with Wnt3a. The osteogenic differentiation of TDSCs was examined by ALP activity, alizarin red S staining and mRNA expression of osteogenic markers. There was increased expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, Lrp5 and Tcf1 in the healing fibroblast-like cells, chondrocyte-like cells and ossified deposits in the animal model and in some clinical samples of tendinopathy. Wnt3a increased ALP activity, calcium nodule formation and expression of osteogenic markers in TDSCs. Activation of the Wnt signalling pathway and its effect on TDSCs might contribute to tissue metaplasia and failed healing in some cases of tendinopathy.

  2. Evaluation of tissue oxygen measurements for flap monitoring in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Christian; Elberg, Jens; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue oxygen tension (p(ti)O(2)) measurements are common in neurosurgery but uncommon in plastic surgery. We examined this technique as a monitoring method with probe placement in the subcutaneous tissue and addressed the importance of probe placement. Myocutaneous flaps were raised in an animal......) was 18 minutes. We found no significant relation between initial levels of p(ti)O(2) and T(1/2). Location of the probe and absolute p(ti)O(2) value is of little relevance for flap monitoring. It is the relative change in p(ti)O(2) that is important. The p(ti)O(2) technique is well suited for monitoring...

  3. Potential Artifacts in TBARS Measurement in Tissues from Animals Treated with Antioxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIGUANGLIN; DANAJAMIESON

    1994-01-01

    When measuring endogenous TBARS levels from tissues of animals(in vitro)the presence of exogenous antioxidants in the tissue is likely to interfere with the TBARS assay to give artificially low values.Such low values do not then reflect protection against peroxidation in vlvo.The type and extent of the reduction in TBARS values depend on the TBARS assay conditions.Firstly there appears to be an initial(probably iron induced) burst of peroxidtion uring homogenisation,which is antiosidant susceptible.In addition added TBARS products are formed during the final heating stage in methods which retain membrane bound reactants throughout the assay,and this step is also suceptible to antioxidant presence.

  4. Highly sensitive ion pair liquid chromatographic determination of albendazole marker residue in animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletouris, Dimitrios J; Papapanagiotou, Elias P; Nakos, Dimitrios S; Psomas, Ioannis E

    2005-02-23

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive ion pair liquid chromatographic method for the determination of albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole 2-aminosulfone, and albendazole sulfone, which constitute the marker residue of albendazole in animal tissues (muscle, fat, liver, and kidney), is described. Tissue samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and the extracts were partitioned, as ion pairs, into dichloromethane. The organic layer was evaporated to dryness, and the residue was reconstituted in phosphate buffer and extracted with ethyl acetate. Separation was carried out isocratically with a mobile phase containing both positively and negatively charged pairing ions. Detection was performed fluorometrically, with excitation and emission wavelengths set at 290 and 320 nm, respectively. Overall recoveries were better than 76%, and the overall relative standard deviation was better than 7.3% in all tissues examined. The limits of quantification were 20, 1, and 0.5 ng/g for sulfoxide, 2-aminosulfone, and sulfone metabolites, respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine residues in tissues of two sheep orally administered an albendazole formulation.

  5. Urat1-Uox double knockout mice are experimental animal models of renal hypouricemia and exercise-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyamada, Makoto; Tsurumi, Yu; Hirano, Hidenori; Tomioka, Naoko H; Sekine, Yuko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Uchida, Shunya

    2016-12-01

    Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a hereditary disease characterized by a low level of plasma urate but with normal urinary urate excretion. RHUC type 1 is caused by mutations of the urate transporter URAT1 gene (SLC22A12). However, the plasma urate levels of URAT1 knockout mice are no different from those of wild-type mice. In the present study, a double knockout mouse, in which the URAT1 and uricase (Uox) genes were deleted (Urat1-Uox-DKO), were used as an experimental animal model of RHUC type 1 to investigate RHUC and excise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI). Mice were given a variable content of allopurinol for one week followed by HPLC measurement of urate and creatinine concentrations in spot urine and blood from the tail. The urinary excretion of urate in Urat1-Uox-DKO mice was approximately 25 times higher than those of humans. With allopurinol, the plasma urate levels of Urat1-Uox-DKO mice were lower than those of Uox-KO mice. There were no differences in the urinary urate excretions between Urat1-Uox-DKO and Uox-KO mice administered with 9 mg allopurinol /100 g feed. In the absence of allopurinol, plasma creatinine levels of some Urat1-Uox-DKO mice were higher than those of Uox-KO mice. Consequently, hypouricemia and normouricosuria may indicate that the Urat1-Uox-DKO mouse administered with allopurinol may represent a suitable animal model of RHUC type 1. Urat1-Uox-DKO mice without allopurinol exhibited acute kidney injury, thus providing additional benefit as a potential animal model for EIAKI. Finally, our data indicate that allopurinol appears to provide prophylactic effects for EIAKI.

  6. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  7. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  8. Protective effects of Saffron hydroalcoholic extract against renal tissue damages induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Najafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of saffron hydroalcoholic extract against tissue damages induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups; 1. sham group which underwent surgery with no vessel occlusion and passed equivalent reperfusion period, 2. Ischemia/reperfusion group which received solvent of extract and went through surgery, bilateral renal ischemia for 30 min and 24-h reperfusion period (I/R. The other three groups underwent ischemia/reperfusion receiving saffron extracts of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg/ip, respectively. At the end of reperfusion period, the left kidney tissue was collected and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological studies. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Following ischemia/reperfusion, the size of Bowman's space increased significantly (P<0.001. In addition, cell necrosis in the tubules of the cortex and outer medulla, vascular congestion and tubular casts in the outer and inner medulla increased. However, the number of RBCs in glomerular capillaries decreased. Administration of saffron extract could significantly improve all the injuries by all three doses. Nevertheless, the effect of 20 mg dose was smaller. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal administration of saffron hydroalcoholic extract has protective effects against tissue damages induced by 30 min ischemia and 24-h reperfusion in the rat’s kidney.

  9. PEGDA hydrogels as a replacement for animal tissues in mucoadhesion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel-Green, Tal; Eliyahu, Shaked; Avidan-Shlomovich, Shlomit; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2016-06-15

    Utilization of animal parts in ex-vivo mucoadhesion assays is a common approach that presents many difficulties due to animal rights issues and large variance between animals. This study examines the suitability of two PEGDA (poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) based hydrogels to serve as tissue mimetics for mucoadhesion evaluation. One hydrogel, termed PEGDA-QT, was composed of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) and PEG and contained free thiol groups mimicking those found in natural mucosa. The other hydrogel was formed by UV (ultraviolet) curing of PEGDA and mimicked the mechanical property of mucosa but not its chemical constitute. When ranking different first generation mucoadhesive polymers using a tensile assay, both hydrogels showed good agreement with the ranking achieved for porcine small intestine. However, only PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine shared a similar displacement curve. The same ranking for PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine was also observed when comparing a second-generation mucoadhesive polymer, thiolated alginate, to native alginate. Our findings suggest that PEGDA-QT could serve as a replacement for porcine small intestine in both mucoadhesion evaluations using a tensile machine and the flow-through method for first and second-generation mucoadhesive polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Geo-PET: A novel generic organ-pet for small animal organs and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy, Levent

    Reconstructed tomographic image resolution of small animal PET imaging systems is improving with advances in radiation detector development. However the trend towards higher resolution systems has come with an increase in price and system complexity. Recent developments in the area of solid-state photomultiplication devices like silicon photomultiplier arrays (SPMA) are creating opportunities for new high performance tools for PET scanner design. Imaging of excised small animal organs and tissues has been used as part of post-mortem studies in order to gain detailed, high-resolution anatomical information on sacrificed animals. However, this kind of ex-vivo specimen imaging has largely been limited to ultra-high resolution muCT. The inherent limitations to PET resolution have, to date, excluded PET imaging from these ex-vivo imaging studies. In this work, we leverage the diminishing physical size of current generation SPMA designs to create a very small, simple, and high-resolution prototype detector system targeting ex-vivo tomographic imaging of small animal organs and tissues. We investigate sensitivity, spatial resolution, and the reconstructed image quality of a prototype small animal PET scanner designed specifically for imaging of excised murine tissue and organs. We aim to demonstrate that a cost-effective silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array based design with thin crystals (2 mm) to minimize depth of interaction errors might be able to achieve sub-millimeter resolution. We hypothesize that the substantial decrease in sensitivity associated with the thin crystals can be compensated for with increased solid angle detection, longer acquisitions, higher activity and wider acceptance energy windows (due to minimal scatter from excised organs). The constructed system has a functional field of view (FoV) of 40 mm diameter, which is adequate for most small animal specimen studies. We perform both analytical (3D-FBP) and iterative (ML-EM) methods in order to

  11. Valsartan Inhibited the Accumulation of Dendritic Cells in Rat Fibrotic Renal Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiyin Wu; Tong Zhou; Guizhi Sun; Weiming Wang; Yumei Zhang; Yanyun Zhang; Li Hao; Nan Chen

    2006-01-01

    To observe the accumulation of dendritic cells (DCs) in rat remnant kidney and its contribution to tubulointerstitial fibrosis, under influence of valsartan on DCs, a rat remnant kidney model was established by subtotal nephrectomy. Four experimental groups were included: normal, sham, model (SNx) and the group treated with Valsartan (SNxV). Rats were killed at week 1,4 and 12, respectively. CD1a+CD80+ DCs were assayed by double immunostaining method and the images were analyzed with Axioplan 2 microscopy. The expressions of P-selectin, TGF-β1, α-SMA, collagen Ⅲ and fibronectin were analyzed by immunohistochemistry or semiquantitative RT-PCR, and the level of tubulointerstitial firosis (TIF) was scored. CD1a+CD80+ DCs were gradually increased among renal tubules, interstitium and vessels, especially in interstitium, and the number of DCs in model group at week 12 was much more than that in model groups at week 1 or 4. The expressions of P-selectin, TGF-β1,α-SMA, collagen Ⅲ and fibronectin in tubulointerstitial areas and the degree of TIF were increased substantially in model group at week 12. The accumulation of DCs in interstitium was well associated with the loss of renal function and the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Valsartan treatment inhibited the local accumulation of DCs and attenuated renal tubulointerstitial damage. The local DCs accumulation was related to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and renal dysfunction following renal ablation. Blockade to angiotensin Ⅱ might be a potent way to attenuate renal immuno-inflammatory injury.

  12. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To adapt a method enabling utilization of most of the harvest from a fine needle aspirate in an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of a renal tumor in a single histologic slide. Study Design In a series of 43 renal tumors, 2 fine needle aspirations were performed, 4...... smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared...

  13. [Application of Immunohistochemistry and Immunofluorescence Staining in Detection of Phospholipase A2 Receptor on Paraffin Section of Renal Biopsy Tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan-yan; Wang, Guo-qin; Sun, Li-jun; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Yi-pu

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the application of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence staining method in the detection of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) on paraffin section of renal biopsy tissue,and to find an accurate and fast method for the detection of PLA2R in renal tissue. The PLA2R of 193 cases were detected by immunohistochemical staining,and the antigen was repaired by the method of high pressure cooker (HPC) hot repair plus trypsin repair. The 193 samples including 139 cases of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), 15 cases of membranous lupus nephritis, 8 cases of hepatitis B virus associated membranous nephropathy, 18 cases of IgA nephropathy, and 13 cases of minimal change diseases. To compare the dyeing effects, 22 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 4 different. of antigen repairing,which included HPC hot repair, HPC hot repair plus trypsin repair, water bath heat repair, and water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair. To compare the dyeing effects, 15 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 3 different. of antigen repairing,which included water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair, protease K digestion repair, and pepsin digestion repair. In 193 cases, the positive rate of PLA2R in IMN cases was 90.6% (126/139), and the other 54 patients without IMN were negative. Twenty-two IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using the HPC heat repair plus trypsin repaire or the water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair;while only a few cases of 22 IMN cases were positive by using the HPC hot repair alone or water bath heat repair alone. Fifteen IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair,protease K digestion repair,and pepsin digestion repair, but the distribution of positive deposits and the background were different. PLA2R immunohistochemical staining can effectively identify IMN and secondary MN. For

  14. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizzi, G.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Baeten, V.; Murray, I.; Berben, G.; Brambilla, G.; Holst, von C.

    2003-01-01

    Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed.

  15. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizzi, G.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Baeten, V.; Murray, I.; Berben, G.; Brambilla, G.; Holst, von C.

    2003-01-01

    Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed.

  16. Kidney-on-a-chip technology for renal proximal tubule tissue reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieskens, Tom T G; Wilmer, Martijn J

    2016-11-05

    The renal proximal tubule epithelium is responsible for active secretion of endogenous and exogenous waste products from the body and simultaneous reabsorption of vital compounds from the glomerular filtrate. The complexity of this transport machinery makes investigation of processes such as tubular drug secretion a continuous challenge for researchers. Currently available renal cell culture models often lack sufficient physiological relevance and reliability. Introducing complex biological culture systems in a 3D microfluidic design improves the physiological relevance of in vitro renal proximal tubule epithelium models. Organ-on-a-chip technology provides a promising alternative, as it allows the reconstruction of a renal tubule structure. These microfluidic systems mimic the in vivo microenvironment including multi-compartmentalization and exposure to fluid shear stress. Increasing data supports that fluid shear stress impacts the phenotype and functionality of proximal tubule cultures, for which we provide an extensive background. In this review, we discuss recent developments of kidney-on-a-chip platforms with current and future applications. The improved proximal tubule functionality using 3D microfluidic systems is placed in perspective of investigating cellular signalling that can elucidate mechanistic aberrations involved in drug-induced kidney toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Kidney-on-a-chip technology for renal proximal tubule tissue reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieskens, T.T.G.; Wilmer, M.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The renal proximal tubule epithelium is responsible for active secretion of endogenous and exogenous waste products from the body and simultaneous reabsorption of vital compounds from the glomerular filtrate. The complexity of this transport machinery makes investigation of processes such as tubular

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein activity and connective tissue growth factor in renal and vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Response to renal injury is dependent on growth factors that determine how resident cells act, which cells are attracted to the site of injury, and how these resident cells, together with infiltrating cells and their surrounding matrix act together. These mechanisms are not confined to the kidney an

  19. Renal (tissue) kallikrein-kinin system in the kidney and novel potential drugs for salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Makoto; Majima, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    A large variety of antihypertensive drugs, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and others, are prescribed to hypertensive patients, with good control of the condition. In addition, all individuals are generally believed to be salt sensitive and, thus, severe restriction of salt intake is recommended to all. Nevertheless, the physiological defense mechanisms in the kidney against excess salt intake have not been well clarified. The present review article demonstrated that the renal (tissue) kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is ideally situated within the nephrons of the kidney, where it functions to inhibit the reabsorption of NaCl through the activation of bradykinin (BK)-B2 receptors localized along the epithelial cells of the collecting ducts (CD). Kinins generated in the CD are immediately inactivated by two kidney-specific kinin-inactivating enzymes (kininases), carboxypeptidase Y-like exopeptidase (CPY), and neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Our work demonstrated that ebelactone B and poststatin are selective inhibitors of these kininases. The reduced secretion of the urinary kallikrein is linked to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension, whereas potassium ions and ATP-sensitive potassium channel blockers ameliorate salt-sensitive hypertension by accelerating the release of renal kallikrein. On the other hand, ebelactone B and poststatin prolong the life of kinins in the CD after excess salt intake, thereby leading to the augmentation of natriuresis and diuresis, and the ensuing suppression of salt-sensitive hypertension. In conclusion, accelerators of the renal kallikrein release and selective renal kininase inhibitors are both novel types of antihypertensive agents that may be useful for treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  20. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  1. Potential molecular therapy for acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, H D

    1993-01-01

    Ischemic and toxic acute renal failure is reversible, due to the ability of renal tubule cells to regenerate and differentiate into a fully functional lining epithelium. Recent data support the thesis that recruitment or activation of macrophages to the area of injury results in local release of growth factors to promote regenerative repair. Because of intrinsic delay in the recruitment of inflammatory cells, the exogenous administration of growth promoters early in the repair phase of acute renal failure enhances renal tubule cell regeneration and accelerates renal functional recovery in animal models of acute renal failure. Molecular therapy for the acceleration of tissue repair in this disease process may be developed in the near future.

  2. Retroperitoneal decortication of simple renal cysts vs decortication with wadding using perirenal fat tissue: results of a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porpiglia, Francesco; Fiori, Cristian; Billia, Michele; Renard, Julien; Di Stasio, Andrea; Vaccino, Davide; Bertolo, Riccardo; Scarpa, Roberto Mario

    2009-06-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate, in a pilot prospective randomized trial, the safety, effectiveness and radiological recurrence of retroperitoneal renal cyst decortication compared with retroperitoneal decortication with wadding using perirenal pedicled fat tissue. PATIENTS AND METHODS From March 2004 to December 2007, 40 patients with simple renal cysts were enrolled and randomized; 22 (group A) had a simple retroperitoneal decortication (SRD) and 18 (group B) a decortication with wadding of the cyst using perirenal fat tissue (RDCW). The following variables were recorded: age, gender, side, size on ultrasonography/computed tomography (CT), location, operative duration, blood loss, complications, pathology, presence or absence of flank pain, hypertension, urinary tract compression or urinary infection. The primary endpoint of this trial was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of both treatments. Secondary endpoints were safety and pain, hypertension and the resolution of urinary tract obstruction. RESULTS In all, 40 cysts were treated; there were no bilateral cysts. The mean (sd) size on CT was 11.9 (1.84) cm in group A and 12.8 (1.25) cm in group B (P = 0.1). All the procedures were completed laparoscopically and no conversion was necessary. There were no intraoperative complications. The mean (range) hospital stay was 3.4 (3-6) days. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for all variables assessed. There was a radiological recurrence in three patients (14%) in group A, but none in group B (all successful). CONCLUSION To be completely successful, with maximum safety and to prevent recurrences in the treatment of renal cysts, RCDW is recommended when a retroperitoneal approach is chosen, especially if the cyst is located anteriorly. When symptom relief is considered, RCDW duplicates the results obtained with SRD.

  3. Theoretical model of ruminant adipose tissue metabolism in relation to the whole animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R L; Yang, Y T; Crist, K; Grichting, G

    1976-09-01

    Based on theoretical considerations and experimental data, estimates of contributions of adipose tissue to energy expenditures in a lactating cow and a growing steer were developed. The estimates indicate that adipose energy expenditures range between 5 and 10% of total animal heat production dependent on productive function and diet. These energy expenditures can be partitioned among maintenance (3%), lipogenesis (1-5%) and lipolysis and triglyceride resynthesis (less thatn 1.0%). Specific sites at which acute and chronic effectors can act to produce changes in adipose function, and changes in adipose function produced by diet and during pregnancy, lactation and aging were discussed with emphasis being placed on the need for additional, definitive studies of specific interactions among pregnancy, diet, age, lactation and growth in producing ruminants.

  4. The Effect Of Portfolio Assessment Application On Academic Achievement and Test Anxiety in Teaching Animal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Handan GÜNEŞ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of portfolio assessment application on student success in teaching animal tissue covered in General Biology 1 and General Biology Laboratory 1 courses in Science and Technology Education curriculum was investigated. For this purpose, portfolio assessment application was administered to the second grade students who were attending Education Faculty, Science and Technology Education Department. A multiple choice achievement test was applied as pre-test and post-test to control (n=28 and experimental group (n=29 students who were randomly chosen from A and B class. Additionally, a test anxiety scale was applied to the students to obtain their opinions about test anxiety. Research results revealed that portfolio assessment application has positive effects on improving the success level of teacher candidates and reducing their test anxiety level in both education process and assessment and evaluation processes. Study results also revealed that portfolio assessment may be effective in teaching subjects too.

  5. Balloon Type Elasticity Sensing of Left Ventricular Tissue for Small Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimori, Mitsuru; Ishii, Ryohei; Tadakuma, Kenjiro; Kaneko, Makoto; Tamaki, Syunsuke; Sakata, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    This paper describes an elasticity sensing system for a left ventricular tissue of small experimental animal. We first show the basic concept of the proposed method, where a ring shaped specimen is dilated by a balloon type probe with pressure based control and the elasticity is estimated by using the stress and strain information. We introduce the dual cylinder model for approximating the strengths of material of the specimen and the balloon. Based on this model, we can derive the Young's modulus of the specimen. After showing the developed experimental system, we show basic experiments using silicone specimens. We finally show a couple of experimental results using rat and mouse, where specimens with HFPEF (Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction) can be separated from normal specimens.

  6. Computerized image analysis of cell-cell interactions in human renal tissue by using multi-channel immunoflourescent confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Liarski, Vladimir M.; Kaverina, Natalya; Clark, Marcus R.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of interactions between B and T cells in tubulointerstitial inflammation is important for understanding human lupus nephritis. We developed a computer technique to perform this analysis, and compared it with manual analysis. Multi-channel immunoflourescent-microscopy images were acquired from 207 regions of interest in 40 renal tissue sections of 19 patients diagnosed with lupus nephritis. Fresh-frozen renal tissue sections were stained with combinations of immunoflourescent antibodies to membrane proteins and counter-stained with a cell nuclear marker. Manual delineation of the antibodies was considered as the reference standard. We first segmented cell nuclei and cell membrane markers, and then determined corresponding cell types based on the distances between cell nuclei and specific cell-membrane marker combinations. Subsequently, the distribution of the shortest distance from T cell nuclei to B cell nuclei was obtained and used as a surrogate indicator of cell-cell interactions. The computer and manual analyses results were concordant. The average absolute difference was 1.1+/-1.2% between the computer and manual analysis results in the number of cell-cell distances of 3 μm or less as a percentage of the total number of cell-cell distances. Our computerized analysis of cell-cell distances could be used as a surrogate for quantifying cell-cell interactions as either an automated and quantitative analysis or for independent confirmation of manual analysis.

  7. Targeted Delivery of Neutralizing Anti-C5 Antibody to Renal Endothelium Prevents Complement-Dependent Tissue Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Durigutto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation is largely implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical conditions and its therapeutic neutralization has proven effective in preventing tissue and organ damage. A problem that still needs to be solved in the therapeutic control of complement-mediated diseases is how to avoid side effects associated with chronic neutralization of the complement system, in particular, the increased risk of infections. We addressed this issue developing a strategy based on the preferential delivery of a C5 complement inhibitor to the organ involved in the pathologic process. To this end, we generated Ergidina, a neutralizing recombinant anti-C5 human antibody coupled with a cyclic-RGD peptide, with a distinctive homing property for ischemic endothelial cells and effective in controlling tissue damage in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. As a result of its preferential localization on renal endothelium, the molecule induced complete inhibition of complement activation at tissue level, and local protection from complement-mediated tissue damage without affecting circulating C5. The ex vivo binding of Ergidina to surgically removed kidney exposed to cold ischemia supports its therapeutic use to prevent posttransplant IRI leading to delay of graft function. Moreover, the finding that the ex vivo binding of Ergidina was not restricted to the kidney, but was also seen on ischemic heart, suggests that this RGD-targeted anti-C5 antibody may represent a useful tool to treat organs prior to transplantation. Based on this evidence, we propose preliminary data showing that Ergidina is a novel targeted drug to prevent complement activation on the endothelium of ischemic kidney.

  8. Diet authentication in sheep from the composition of animal tissues and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Prache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increased consumer demand for information on herbivore production factors, particularly animal diet. To meet these demands, producers and commercial entities develop specifications via quality certifications. There is therefore a need for analytical tools that may guarantee that the specification commitments have been fully met or to help with constructing them. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning diet authentication in sheep meat and milk, the different approaches that have been investigated, some leading examples concerning the discrimination of contrasting feeding situations, together with the persistence of some diet markers in the event of changes in animals' diet. The nature of the diet strongly influences the composition of the animal tissues and products, which is due to specific compounds that are directly transferred from the feed to the end product or that are transformed or produced by rumen micro-organisms or the animal's metabolism under the effect of specific diets. Some of these compounds can therefore be used as diet markers. Compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, volatile compounds and ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope are potential tracers in meat and milk or animal tissues of animal feeding diets. Moreover, differences in meat and milk composition induce differences in their optical properties, and therefore in their spectral features, which can also be used for diet authentication. These techniques have already allowed discrimination among products obtained in contrasting feeding conditions. Intermediate situations, for example in case of modification of the animal's diet, may be less easily recognized and may require a combination of tracing methods. In particular, the persistence of tracers when animals are stall-fed a concentrate-based diet after pasture and its implications for traceability are discussed. Finally

  9. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  10. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products.

  11. Wet adhesion of buckypaper produced from oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on soft animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Andrea; Carru, Giovanna A; D'Ilario, Lucio; Caprioli, Fabrizio; Chiaretti, Massimo; Crisante, Fernanda; Francolini, Iolanda; Piozzi, Antonella

    2013-05-22

    Buckypaper (BP) is the general definition of a macroscopic assembly of entangled carbon nanotubes. In this paper, a new property of a BP film produced from oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes was investigated. In particular, BP shows to be able to promptly and strongly adhere to animal internal soft and wet tissues, as evaluated by peeling and shear tests. BP adhesion strength is higher than that recorded for a commercial prosthetic fabric (sealed to the tissue by fibrin glue) and comparable with that of other reported optimized nanopatterned surfaces. In order to give an interpretation of the observed behavior, the BP composition, morphology, porosity, water wettability, and mechanical properties were analyzed by AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, wicking tests, contact angle, and stress-strain measurements. Although further investigations are needed to assess the biocompatibility and safety of the BP film used in this work, the obtained results pave the way for a possible future use of buckypaper as adhesive tape in abdominal prosthetic surgery. This would allow the substitution of conventional sealants or the reduction in the use of perforating fixation.

  12. Renal concentration defect following nonoliguric acute renal failure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R J; Gordon, J A; Kim, J; Peterson, L M; Gross, P A

    1982-04-01

    The mechanism of impaired renal concentrating ability following nonoliguric ischemic acute renal failure was studied in the rat. Fifty min of complete occlusion of the renal artery and vein with contralateral nephrectomy resulted in reversible, nonoliguric acute renal failure. Eight days following induction of acute renal failure, a defect in 30 hr dehydration urine osmolality was present when experimental animals were compared with uninephrectomized controls (1,425 +/- 166 versus 2,267 +/- 127 mOsm/kg water respectively, P less than 0.001). Comparable postdehydration plasma vasopressin levels in experimental and control animals and an impaired hydro-osmotic response to exogenous vasopressin in experimental animals documented a nephrogenic origin of the defect in urine concentration. Lower urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 in experimental animals and a failure of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition with 10 mg/kg of indomethacin to improve dehydration urine osmolality suggested that prostaglandin E2 antagonism of vasopressin action did not contribute to the concentration defect. Postdehydration inner medullary (papillary) interstitial tonicity was significantly reduced in experimental animals versus controls (870 +/- 85 versus 1,499 +/- 87 mOsm/kg water respectively, P less than 0.001). To determine if this decreased interstitial tonicity was due to vascular mechanisms, papillary plasma flow was measured and found to be equivalent in experimental and control animals. To examine a role for biochemical factors in the renal concentration defect, cyclic nucleotide levels were measured in cytosol and membrane fragments. A decrease in vasopressin and sodium fluoride-stimulated adenylate cyclase was found in outer medullary tissue of experimental animals. In contrast, vasopressin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was comparable in the inner medullary tissue of control and experimental animals. Our study suggests a defect in generation of renal inner medullary interstitial

  13. Col-F, a fluorescent probe for ex vivo confocal imaging of collagen and elastin in animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biela, Ewa; Galas, Jerzy; Lee, Brian; Johnson, Gary L; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Dobrucki, Jurek W

    2013-06-01

    A new low-molecular-weight fluorescent probe, Col-F, that exhibits affinity to collagen and elastin, was used successfully in imaging of extracellular matrix in freshly excised animal tissues. Col-F readily penetrates between live cells into tissues and binds to fibers of collagen and elastin by a noncovalent mechanism. Fibers of collagen and elastin have been stained in a variety of tissues, including tendon, skeletal muscle, connective tissue, and arteries. Cells migrating in a Col-F-stained collagenous biomaterial were also imaged. No phototoxic effects were detected when live keratocytes were imaged in the in vitro culture in the presence of Col-F. In conclusion, Col-F provides a simple and convenient tool for fluorescence three-dimensional imaging of intricate collagenous and elastic structures in live and fixed animal tissues, as well as in collagen-containing biomaterials.

  14. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  15. Decreased Expression of Inhibitor of Caspase-Activated DNase (ICAD) in Renal Cell Carcinoma - Tissue Microarray of Human Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajandram, Retnagowri; Razack, Azad H A; Ng, Keng Lim; Gobe, Glenda C

    2016-01-01

    Although primary localised tumours of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be treated relatively successfully with surgery, metastatic RCC has poor prognosis because of late diagnosis and resistance to therapies. In the present study, we were interested in profiling the protein expression of "inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase" (ICAD), an apoptosis inhibitor, in kidney cancer and its paired normal kidney. Immunohistochemistry with automated batch staining and morphometry using digital pathology were used to compare ICAD in 121 RCC specimens with their paired normal kidney tissue. Tissue microarray of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue was used. Intensity and localisation of ICAD were compared between normal and cancer samples, and against grading within the cancers. The results demonstrated that, in this cohort, ICAD was highly expressed in the proximal tubular epithelium of normal kidney, and significantly decreased in clear cell RCC tissue (p < 0.05) as well as other subtypes of RCC (p < 0.01) compared with normal kidney. There was a tendency towards nuclear localisation of ICAD in clear cell RCC, but not in other subtypes of RCC. No significant association was found between ICAD intensity and grade of RCC. In summary, down-regulation of ICAD occurs in RCC. ICAD normally inhibits DNA fragmentation and apoptosis; thus, its down-regulation was unexpected in a cancer known for its resistance to apoptosis. However, these RCC samples were from primary, not metastatic, RCC sites, and down-regulated ICAD may be part of a progressive pathway that promotes RCC metastasis.

  16. Stent Revascularization Restores Cortical Blood Flow and Reverses Tissue Hypoxia in Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis, But Fails To Reverse Inflammatory Pathways or GFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ahmed; Herrmann, Sandra M.S.; Crane, John; Glockner, James F; Mckusick, Michael A; Misra, Sanjay; Eirin, Alfonso; Ebrahimi, Behzad; Lerman, Lilach O.; Textor, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is known to reduce renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and amplify kidney hypoxia, but the relationships between these factors and tubulo-interstitial injury in the post-stenotic kidney are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of renal revascularization in ARAS on renal tissue hypoxia and renal injury. Methods and Results Inpatient studies performed in ARAS patients (n = 17), more than 60% occlusion) before and 3 months after stent revascularization, or patients with essential hypertension (EH) (n = 32), during fixed Na+ intake and ACE/ARB Rx. Single-kidney (SK) cortical, medullary perfusion and RBF measured using multidetector CT, and GFR by iothalamate clearance. Tissue deoxyhemoglobin levels (R2*) measured by Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI at 3T, as was fractional kidney hypoxia (% of axial area with R2* > 30/s). In addition, we measured renal vein levels of Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Pre-stent SK-RBF, perfusion, and GFR were reduced in the post-stenotic kidney. Renal vein NGAL, TNF-α, MCP-1 and fractional hypoxia were higher in untreated ARAS than EH. After stent revascularization, fractional hypoxia fell (p < 0.002) with increased cortical perfusion and blood flow, while GFR and NGAL, MCP-1 and TNF-α remained unchanged. Conclusions These data demonstrate that despite reversal of renal hypoxia and partial restoration of RBF after revascularization, inflammatory cytokines and injury biomarkers remained elevated and GFR failed to recover in ARAS. Restoration of vessel patency alone failed to reverse tubulointerstitial damage and partly explains the limited clinical benefit of renal stenting. These results identify potential therapeutic targets for recovery of kidney function in renovascular disease. PMID:23899868

  17. Effect of Canagliflozin on Renal Threshold for Glucose, Glycemia, and Body Weight in Normal and Diabetic Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Arakawa, Kenji; Ueta, Kiichiro; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Martin, Tonya; Du, Fuyong; Liu, Yi; Xu, June; Conway, Bruce; Conway, Jamie; Polidori, David; Ways, Kirk; Demarest, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Background Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 14C-alpha-methylglucoside uptake in Chinese hamster ovary-K cells expressing human, rat, or mouse SGLT2 or SGLT1; 3H-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts; and 2-electrode voltage clamp recording of oocytes expressing human SGLT3 were analyzed. Graded glucose infusions were performed to determine rate of urinary glucose excretion (UGE) at different blood glucose (BG) concentrations and the renal threshold for glucose excretion (RTG) in vehicle or canagliflozin-treated Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin in vitro and in preclinical models of T2DM and obesity. Results Treatment with canagliflozin 1 mg/kg lowered RTG from 415±12 mg/dl to 94±10 mg/dl in ZDF rats while maintaining a threshold relationship between BG and UGE with virtually no UGE observed when BG was below RTG. Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased BG concentrations in db/db mice treated acutely. In ZDF rats treated for 4 weeks, canagliflozin decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and improved measures of insulin secretion. In obese animal models, canagliflozin increased UGE and decreased BG, body weight gain, epididymal fat, liver weight, and the respiratory exchange ratio. Conclusions Canagliflozin lowered RTG and increased UGE, improved glycemic control and beta-cell function in rodent models of T2DM, and reduced body weight gain in rodent models of obesity. PMID:22355316

  18. Effect of canagliflozin on renal threshold for glucose, glycemia, and body weight in normal and diabetic animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT 2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS: (14C-alpha-methylglucoside uptake in Chinese hamster ovary-K cells expressing human, rat, or mouse SGLT2 or SGLT1; (3H-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts; and 2-electrode voltage clamp recording of oocytes expressing human SGLT3 were analyzed. Graded glucose infusions were performed to determine rate of urinary glucose excretion (UGE at different blood glucose (BG concentrations and the renal threshold for glucose excretion (RT(G in vehicle or canagliflozin-treated Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin in vitro and in preclinical models of T2DM and obesity. RESULTS: Treatment with canagliflozin 1 mg/kg lowered RT(G from 415±12 mg/dl to 94±10 mg/dl in ZDF rats while maintaining a threshold relationship between BG and UGE with virtually no UGE observed when BG was below RT(G. Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased BG concentrations in db/db mice treated acutely. In ZDF rats treated for 4 weeks, canagliflozin decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and improved measures of insulin secretion. In obese animal models, canagliflozin increased UGE and decreased BG, body weight gain, epididymal fat, liver weight, and the respiratory exchange ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin lowered RT(G and increased UGE, improved glycemic control and beta-cell function in rodent models of T2DM, and reduced body weight gain in rodent models of obesity.

  19. Effect of canagliflozin on renal threshold for glucose, glycemia, and body weight in normal and diabetic animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Arakawa, Kenji; Ueta, Kiichiro; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Martin, Tonya; Du, Fuyong; Liu, Yi; Xu, June; Conway, Bruce; Conway, Jamie; Polidori, David; Ways, Kirk; Demarest, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (14)C-alpha-methylglucoside uptake in Chinese hamster ovary-K cells expressing human, rat, or mouse SGLT2 or SGLT1; (3)H-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts; and 2-electrode voltage clamp recording of oocytes expressing human SGLT3 were analyzed. Graded glucose infusions were performed to determine rate of urinary glucose excretion (UGE) at different blood glucose (BG) concentrations and the renal threshold for glucose excretion (RT(G)) in vehicle or canagliflozin-treated Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin in vitro and in preclinical models of T2DM and obesity. Treatment with canagliflozin 1 mg/kg lowered RT(G) from 415±12 mg/dl to 94±10 mg/dl in ZDF rats while maintaining a threshold relationship between BG and UGE with virtually no UGE observed when BG was below RT(G). Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased BG concentrations in db/db mice treated acutely. In ZDF rats treated for 4 weeks, canagliflozin decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and improved measures of insulin secretion. In obese animal models, canagliflozin increased UGE and decreased BG, body weight gain, epididymal fat, liver weight, and the respiratory exchange ratio. Canagliflozin lowered RT(G) and increased UGE, improved glycemic control and beta-cell function in rodent models of T2DM, and reduced body weight gain in rodent models of obesity.

  20. Different tissue reaction of oesophagus and diaphragm after mesh hiatoplasty. Results of an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosch Raphael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopic mesh-reinforcement of the hiatal region in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and paraesophageal hernia (PEH reduces the risk of recurrence. However, there are still controversies about the technique of mesh placement, shape, structure and material. We therefore compared tissue integration and scar formation after implantation of two different polypropylene-meshes in a rabbit model. Methods A total of 20 female chinchilla rabbits were included in this study. Two different meshes (Polypropylene PP, Polyglecaprone 25 Composite PP-PG were implanted on the abdominal diaphragm around the oesophagus. After 3 months the implanted meshes were excised en-bloc. Histological and morphological analyses were carried out accordingly proliferation rate, apoptosis and collagen type I/III ratio. Results Regarding proliferation rate of oesophagus PP (9.31 ± 3.4% and PP-PG (13.26 ± 2.54% differ in a significant (p = 0.0097 way. In the diaphragm we found a significant (p = 0.00066 difference between PP (9.43 ± 1.45% and PP-PG (18.73 ± 5.92% respectively. Comparing oesophagus and diaphragm we could prove a significant difference within PP-PG-group (p = 0.0195. Within PP-group the difference reached no statistical significance (p = 0.88. We found analogous results regarding apoptosis. Furthermore, there is a significant (p = 0.00013 difference of collagen type I/III ratio in PP-PG (12.28 ± 0.8 compared to PP (8.44 ± 1,63 in case of oesophageal tissue. Concerning diaphragm we found a significant difference (p = 0.000099 between PP-PG (8.85 ± 0.81 and PP (6.32 ± 1.07 as well. Conclusion The histologic and morphologic characteristics after prosthetic enforcement of the hiatus in this animal model show a more distinct tissue integration using PP-PG compared to PP. Additionally, different wound healing and remodelling capability influence tissue integration of the mesh in diaphragm and oesophagus.

  1. Prompt diagnosis of Scedosporium apiospermum soft tissue infection: Life-saving in a renal transplant recipient

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    R Ghosh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scedosporium apiospermum, an ubiquitous filamentous fungus, a known cause of mycetoma, is emerging as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of painful foot abscess in a renal allograft recipient on immunosuppressive therapy, which was clinically diagnosed as a suppurative bacterial abscess. Pus was aspirated, which showed septate, branching hyphal elements and culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar yielded S. apiospermum, which was identified based on its macroscopic and microscopic features. There are very few reports of scedosporiasis from India. High index of suspicion for unusual fungal infection helps in prompt etiological diagnosis in a transplant recipient and rapid management prevents further dissemination.

  2. Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillion, Jenefer R; Ritt, Michelle G

    2009-06-01

    The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is important for maintaining calcium homeostasis. Parathyroid gland hyperplasia and subsequent hyperparathyroidism can occur secondary to chronic renal failure in dogs, resulting in significant alterations in calcium metabolism. Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism is a complex, multifactorial syndrome that involves changes in circulating levels of calcium, PTH, phosphorus, and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol). An increased PTH level can have deleterious effects, including soft tissue mineralization, fibrous osteodystrophy, bone marrow suppression, urolithiasis, and neuropathy. Dietary phosphorus restriction, intestinal phosphate binders, and calcitriol supplementation may slow the progression of renal disease and decrease PTH concentrations in animals with secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, the prognosis for these animals is guarded to poor.

  3. Animal Investigation Program 1976 annual report: Nevada test site and vicinity. [Radioanalysis of tissues from animals residing on or near NTS in 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Brown, K.W.

    1978-11-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues collected from cattle and mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, feral horses, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1976. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently with the exception of /sup 131/I in animal thyroid samples collected after September 25 (the date of a Chinese nuclear test). Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep continued the downward trend of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within ambient limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination; e.g., Sedan Crater, drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels, etc. Analysis of actinide in tissues was emphasized during 1976. Graphs illustrate the /sup 239/P levels in lungs, livers, and femurs from Nevada Test Site beef cattle for the years 1971 through 1976. Femur and lung residue data are nearly identical for each year with liver concentrations being a factor of 2 or 3 lower. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak actinide levels. The highest postulated dose was 11 millirem from tritium from tissues for a mule deer. This dose is about 2% of the 500 millirems/year guide for radiation doses to an individual in the general public. All other postulated doses for consumption of the tissue containing other radionuclides are less than 0.1% of this guide. The food habits of desert bighorn sheep were discussed according to the geographic locations of the animals at time of collection. Grasses made up approximately 60% of the diet at all locations, with shrubs content approaching 30%, and the remainder consisting of various forbs. The movement of 13 mule deer fitted with collars containing a radiotransmitter unit was monitored on a weekly basis.

  4. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

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    Amir Raoofi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6. The first group (control was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl and experimental groups with CIS (E1, CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2, CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3, CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4 intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman′s capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  5. Seronegative invasive gastro-intestinal cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients a diagnostic dilemma! - Tissue PCR the saviour?

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    A Kaul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seronegative Invasive Gastro-intestinal cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients Background -CMV as oppurtunistic infection affecting the gastrointerstinal tract is the most common cause for tissue invasive CMV disease occuring in 10-30% of organ transplant recepients. Gastrointerstinal CMV disease can be diagnosed in presence of clinical suspecion along with histopathological findings (CMV inclusions and presence of mucosal lesion(s on endoscopic examination with collaborative evidences via molecular technique. Aims-Few cases of CMV infection affecting the gastrointerstinal tract show no evidences of dissemintion despite use of highly sensitive molecular techniques. We encountered 6 cases where in despite strong clinical suspecion of Gastrointerstinal CMV disease there were seronegative and endoscopic negative evidences for CMV, blind tissue biopsy yeilded positive results for CMV disease with excellent improvement with antiviral therapy. Conclusions-Blind biopsy specimen for tissue PCR could serve as saviour in an immunocompromised individiual who has a strong clinical symptomatology for GI-CMV disease in absence of viremia, normal endoscopy and histopathology, so that the early therapeutic interventions could help in excellent patient and graft survival.

  6. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia reperfusion injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbatur, Meral Erdal; Sezen, Şaban Cem; Bayraktar, Aslıhan Cavunt; Arslan, Mustafa; Kavutçu, Mustafa; Aydın, Muhammed Enes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine – administered before ischemia – has protective effects against lower extremity ischemia reperfusion injury that induced by clamping and subsequent declamping of infra-renal abdominal aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods: After obtaining ethical committee approval, four study groups each containing six rats were created (Control (Group C), diabetes-control (Group DM-C), diabetes I/R (Group DM-I/R), and diabetes-I/R-dexmedetomidine (Group DM-I/R-D). In diabetes groups, single-dose (55 mg/kg) streptozotocin was administered intraperitoneally. Rats with a blood glucose level above 250 mg/dl at the 72nd hour were accepted as diabetic. At the end of four weeks, laparotomy was performed in all rats. Nothing else was done in Group C and DM-C. In Group DM-I/R, ischemia reperfusion was produced via two-hour periods of clamping and subsequent declamping of infra-renal abdominal aorta. In Group DM-I/R-D, 100 μg/kg dexmedetomidine was administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before ischemia period. At the end of reperfusion, period biochemical and histopathological evaluation of renal tissue specimen were performed. Results: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathion S transferase (GST) levels were found significantly higher in Group DM-I/R when compared with Group C and Group DM-C. In the dexmedetomidine-treated group, TBARS, NOS, CAT, and GST levels were significantly lower than those measured in the Group D-I/R. In histopathological evaluation, glomerular vacuolization (GV), tubular dilatation (TD), vascular vacuolization and hypertrophy (VVH), tubular cell degeneration and necrosis (TCDN), tubular hyaline cylinder (THC), leucocyte infiltration (LI), and tubular cell spillage (TCS) in Group DM-I/R were significantly increased when compared with the control group

  7. Protective effect of Ferula gummosa hydroalcoholic extract against nitric oxide deficiency-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Seyed Jafar; Habibian, Masoumeh; Peeri, Maghsoud; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition increases hypertension and causes renal injury. Ferula gummosa is used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of several diseases and has been reported to exert a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the renoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ferula gummosa (HEG) on Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and explore the mechanisms that link NO deficiency with altered renal heat shock protein (HSP70). Rats were injected intraperitoneally with L-NAME (10 mg/kg) to induce renal injury. Simultaneously, HEG (90 mg/kg) was administered by gastric gavage to L-NAME-treated rats for 6 days/week during an 8-week period. Renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), HSP70, plasma NO and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated. The administration of L-NAME significantly increased renal TBARS, TNF-α, IL-6, HSP70 levels and decreased renal SOD activity, that these changes were accompanied by the reduced plasma NO and TAC levels. HEG administration decreased TBARS, HSP70, TNF-α and IL-6 levels and increased SOD activity in the kidney tissues of L-NAME treated rats (p<0.05). Also, plasma TAC level and NO bioavailability have been elevated after administration of HEG (p<0.05). These findings support that NO deficiency induces renal stress oxidative and inflammation, which markedly increased renal HSP70 and HEG could protect kidney against these damaging effects via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory action and modulate renal HSP70.

  8. Renal infarction resulting from traumatic renal artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Kim, Won; Jin, Gong Yong; Na, Ki Ryang; Yun, Il Yong; Park, Sung Kwang

    2008-06-01

    Renal artery dissection may be caused by iatrogenic injury, trauma, underlying arterial diseases such as fibromuscular disease, atherosclerotic disease, or connective tissue disease. Radiological imaging may be helpful in detecting renal artery pathology, such as renal artery dissection. For patients with acute, isolated renal artery dissection, surgical treatment, endovascular management, or medical treatment have been considered effective measures to preserve renal function. We report a case of renal infarction that came about as a consequence of renal artery dissection.

  9. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging

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    Vivian M. Hsu, MD

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  10. Modified use of methylene blue in the tissue compression technique to detect sarcocysts in meat-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yit Han; Subramaniam, Vellayan; Lau, Yee Ling

    2015-11-30

    Sarcocystosis in meat-producing animals is a major cause of reduced productivity in many countries, especially those that rely on agriculture. Although several diagnostic methods are available to detect sarcocystosis, many are too time-consuming for routine use in abattoirs and meat inspection centers, where large numbers of samples need to be tested. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of the methylene blue tissue preparation, unstained tissue preparation and nested PCR in the detection of sarcocysts in tissue samples. Approximately three-fold more sarcocysts were detected in methylene blue-stained tissue compared to unstained controls (McNemar's test: Pmethylene blue can be used in tissue compression as a rapid, safe, and inexpensive technique for the detection of ruminant sarcocystosis in abattoirs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 慢性肾功能衰竭动物模型研究进展%Research progress of chronic renal failure animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶琦; 姚源璋

    2013-01-01

    近年来,慢性肾功能衰竭(CRF)动物模型建立方法及评价指标不断完善,但仍存在一定的局限性.本文对近年来文献中建立CRF动物模型的操作方法、模型特点与临床运用进行归纳和总结,综述了CRF动物模型的研究进展,归纳出物理、化学、生物学三大类造模方法,为进一步规范动物模型的诊断标准,寻求统一、稳定、简便的动物模型提供依据.不同的CRF动物模型均有其各自的特点及运用范围,实际工作中应根据各自研究的侧重点来选用,以助于研究者更好地探讨肾脏病组织形态、生化指标的变化和临床表现的相互关系,阐述CRF的发病机制,筛选有效药物及阐明疗效机制.%In recent years,the modeling methods and evaluation indexes of chronic renal failure animal models are improving,but they are imperfect.The modeling methods,characters and clinical applications of chronic renal failure animal models from recent literatures are summarized; research progress of animal models is reviewed; the physical,chemical,biological molding methods are summed up in this paper.This article provides the basis for standardizing diagnostic criteria of models and seeking for unified,stable and convenient animal models.Different models have their respective advantages and disadvantages,so clinical workers should choose different animal models in base of the investigation of primary disease in order to help them discuss the relationship among renal pathology,biochemical criterion and clinical manifestation,expound pathogenesis of chronic renal failure and make a screen of effective drugs.

  12. Assessment of renal function and damage in animal species. A review of the current approach of the academic, governmental and industrial institutions represented by the Animal Clinical Chemistry Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonard, M D

    1990-08-01

    There are a wide variety of laboratory tests available to assess damage to and functional impairment of the kidneys, although the effectiveness of these tests varies greatly depending upon the site specificity of the damage and to a lesser extent upon the animal species involved. Several traditional tests of renal dysfunction and damage, including plasma creatinine and urea, and urinalysis (dipstick and/or quantitative protein), can be used in the first instance to detect nephrotoxicity. A second tier of specific, targetted indicators (concentration test, urinary enzymes, clearance of analytes, specific proteins, etc.) may then be applied to identify further the site of the lesion and the functional status of the kidneys. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be estimated from the clearance of exogenous and endogenous substances. The difficulty in obtaining accurately timed urine samples limits the value of these tests in small animals, although methods that do not involve urine collection are available. The kidney is the origin of several enzymes found in urine that can be used to monitor the toxic effects of chemicals and therapeutic substances. Selective measurement of enzyme activities in urine can be used to detect the site of the renal lesion after traditional tests have established the presence of renal injury. Separation of proteins in urine by electrophoretic techniques may also be used to discriminate damage to different parts of the nephron. Renal cell excretion in urine is a sensitive but unreliable indicator of acute damage to the proximal tubule. The rate of cell excretion is not a good predictor of the severity of tubular injury.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Comparison of extraction methods for quantifying vitamin E from animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhimin

    2008-12-01

    Four extraction methods: (1) solvent (SOL), (2) ultrasound assisted solvent (UA), (3) saponification and solvent (SP), and (4) saponification and ultrasound assisted solvent (SP-UA), were used in sample preparation for quantifying vitamin E (tocopherols) in chicken liver and plasma samples. The extraction yields of SOL, UA, SP, and SP-UA methods obtained by adding delta-tocopherol as internal reference were 95%, 104%, 65%, and 62% for liver and 98%, 103%, 97%, and 94% for plasma, respectively. The methods with saponification significantly affected the stabilities of tocopherols in liver samples. The measured values of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols using the solvent only extraction (SOL) method were much lower than that using any of the other extraction methods. This indicated that less of the tocopherols in those samples were in a form that could be extracted directly by solvent. The measured value of alpha-tocopherol in the liver sample using the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method was 1.5-2.5 times of that obtained from the saponification and solvent (SP) method. The differences in measured values of tocopherols in the plasma samples by using the two methods were not significant. However, the measured value of the saponification and ultrasound assisted solvent (SP-UA) method was lower than either the saponification and solvent (SP) or the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method. Also, the reproducibility of the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method was greater than any of the saponification methods. Compared with the traditional saponification method, the ultrasound assisted solvent method could effectively extract tocopherols from sample matrix without any chemical degradation reactions, especially for complex animal tissue such as liver.

  14. First isolation of Dioctophyme renale eggs from an urban environment and identification of those from animal urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliane Carra Perera

    Full Text Available Abstract Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic parasite with worldwide distribution, although its occurrence is little known. The objective here was to evaluate the presence of parasite eggs in the environment and in the urine of dogs and cats in an urban area. Soil samples and urine were evaluated respectively by means of the Caldwell-Caldwell technique and urinalysis. Out of the 100 soil samples, 3% presented D. renale eggs, and out of the 43 urine samples, 18.6% were positive, including the feline samples. Thus, D. renale eggs are present in the urban environment, and dogs and cats are parasitized by this nematode, which therefore represents a risk to public health.

  15. Renal tolerance to nonhomogenous irradiation: Comparison of observed effects to predictions of normal tissue complication probability from different biophysical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flentje, M.; Hensley, F.; Gademann, G.; Wannenmacher, M. (Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)); Menke, M. (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    A patient series was analyzed retrospectively as an example of whole organ kidney irradiation with an inhomogenous dose distribution to test the validity of biophysical models predicting normal tissue tolerance to radiotherapy. From 1969 to 1984, 142 patients with seminoma were irradiated to the paraaortic region using predominantly rotational techniques which led to variable but partly substantial exposure of the kidneys. Median follow up was 8.2 (2.1-21) years and actuarial 10-year survival (Kaplan-Meier estimate) 82.8%. For all patients 3-dimensional dose distributions were reconstructed and normal tissue complication probabilities for the kidneys were generated from the individual dose volume histograms. To this respect different published biophysical algorithms were introduced in a 3-dimensional-treatment planning system. In seven patients clinically manifest renal impairment was observed (interval 10-84 months). An excellent agreement between predicted and observed effects was seen for two volume-oriented models, whereas complications were overestimated by an algorithm based on critical element assumptions. Should these observations be confirmed and extended to different types of organs corresponding algorithms could easily be integrated into 3-dimensional-treatment planning programs and be used for comparing and judging different plans on a more biologically oriented basis.

  16. Analysis of the effect of renal excretory system cooling during thermal radiofrequency ablation in an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Meireles; Khaled Ahmed Taha Neto; Lisias Nogueira Castilho; Giuseppe D'Ippolito; Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of renal excretory system integrity and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation with and without irrigation with saline at 2 degrees C (SF2). Materials and Methods: The median third of sixteen kidneys were submitted to radiofrequency (exposition of 1 cm) controlled by intra-surgical ultrasound, with eight minutes cycles and median temperature of 90 degrees C in eight female pigs. One excretory renal system was cooled with SF2, at a 30ml/min rate, and the other kidney was not. ...

  17. Detection of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) content in peripheral blood and renal tissue of children with henoch-schonlein purpura and its clinical value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Mei Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) content in peripheral blood and renal tissue of children with henoch-schonlein purpura and its clinical value.Methods:30 cases of henoch-schonlein purpura children with renal damage were enrolled in HSPN group, 30 cases of henoch-schonlein purpura children without renal damage were enrolled in NHSPN group, and 30 cases of healthy volunteers were enrolled in the control group. Then contents of pDC, Th2 cell, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 in peripheral blood as well as contents of pDC, Th17 cell, IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 in renal tissue of three groups were detected.Results: (1) pDC contents in peripheral blood of HSPN group and NHSPN group were lower than those of control group and the decrease of pDC contents in peripheral blood of HSPN group was more obvious; CD304 contents in renal tissue of HSPN group and NHSPN group were higher than those of control group and the increase of CD304 contents in renal tissue of HSPN group was more obvious; (2) Th2 cell as well as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 contents in peripheral blood of HSPN group and NHSPN group were higher than those of control group and the increase of related indexes in peripheral blood of HSPN group was more obvious; Th17 cell as well as IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 contents in kidney tissue of HSPN group were higher than those of NHSPN group; (3) in peripheral blood, pDC content was negatively correlated with Th2 cell level as well as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 contents, and in renal tissue, pDC content was positively correlated with Th17 cell level as well as IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 contents. Conclusions:Abnormal pDC content correlates with the pathogenesis of henoch-schonlein purpura, pDC content decreases in peripheral blood and will result in enhancement of Th2 cell function, and pDC content increases in kidney and will result in enhancement of Th17 cell function.

  18. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930150 Epidermal growth factor and its recep-tor in the renal tissue of patients with acute re-nal failure and normal persons.LIU Zhihong(刘志红),et al.Jinling Hosp,Nanjing,210002.Natl Med J China 1992;72(10):593-595.Epidermal growth factor(EGF)and its receptor(EGF-R)were identified by immunohis-tochemical method(4 layer PAP)in the renaltissue specimens obtained from 11 normal kid-neys and 17 cases of acute renal failure(ARF).The quantitative EGF and EGF-R in the tissuewere expressed as positive tubules per mm~2.The amount of EGF and EGF-R in renal tissue

  19. Role of gene therapy in tissue engineering procedures in rheumatology: the use of animal models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, P.M. van der; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Berg, W.B. van den

    2004-01-01

    Tissue engineering is not only the application of cells and scaffolds to generate a new tissue but should also bring into play biological principles to guide cellular behavior. A way to modify cellular behavior is genetic modification of the cells used for tissue engineering (gene therapy). In the f

  20. Glutathione S-transferases in human renal cortex and neoplastic tissue: enzymatic activity, isoenzyme profile and immunohistochemical localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, V; Benzie, A A; Veitch, J M; Murray, G I; Rowe, J D; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-05-01

    1. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the cytosol of renal cortex and tumours from eight men and eight women was measured using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as a substrate. GST activities ranged from 685 to 2192 nmol/min/mg protein in cortex (median 1213) and from non-detectable (minimum 45) to 2424 nmol/min/mg protein in tumours (median 469). The activities in the tumours were lower than those in the normal cortices (p 0.05). 3. The age of the patients ranged from 42 to 81 years (median 62) and was not found to play a role in the levels of GST activity observed in cortex or in renal tumours from either sex. 4. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that GST-alpha was the predominant form expressed both in normal cortex and tumour and probably accounted for most of the GST activity present in these samples. GST-mu and GST-phi were expressed in both tumours and normal cortex and, while in some cases the level of expression in the cortices was higher than that found in the tumours, the reverse was also observed. Within the GST-mu class, GST M1/M2 was only detected in one sample (tumour), which showed the highest overall expression of GST-mu. GSTM3 was the predominant isoenzyme of the mu class in normal and tumour tissue, whereas GTM4 and GSTM5 were not detected. 5. These differences could have functional significance where xenobiotics or cytotoxic drugs are specific substrates for the different classes of GSTs.

  1. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.

    2010-01-01

    smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared....... Immunohistochemistry was performed as required on the AM sections. Surgical specimens served as the gold standard. Results In 53% of conventional cytologic smears, the cellular yield was sufficient to render a correct diagnosis. In 12% the diagnosis was incorrect, in 21% only a differential diagnosis could be fin......-initiated, and in 14% too few diagnostic cells were present in the conventional smears for cytologic diagnosis. It was, however, possible to correctly diagnose histologic sections from 97% of AM tissue blocks. In 11 cases this was facilitated with immunochemistry. In only 1 case did the AM tissue block contain too few...

  2. DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (papio hamadryas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez Irám

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals. Results We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas. We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284 bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR. Conclusions The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene.

  3. Renal deterioration caused by carcinogens as a consequence of free radical mediated tissue damage: a review of the protective action of melatonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Hicyilmaz, Hicran [Suleyman Demirel University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Isparta (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    This brief review summarizes some of the publications that document the preventive role of melatonin in kidney damage caused by carcinogens such as 2-nitropropane, arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, nitrilotriacetic acid and potassium bromate. Numerous chemicals generate excessive free radicals that eventually induce renal worsening. Melatonin partially or totally prevents free radical mediated tissue damages induced by many carcinogens. Protective actions of melatonin against the harmful effects of carcinogens are believed to stem from its direct free radical scavenging and indirect antioxidant activities. Dietary or pharmacologically given melatonin may attenuate the oxidative stress, thereby mitigating the subsequent renal damage. (orig.)

  4. Viscosimetric analysis of the occurrence and repair of DNA single-strand breaks in irradiated animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchenko, N I; Ivannik, B P; Proskuryakov SYa

    1982-04-01

    The yields of immediate DNA single-strand breaks in normal tumour tissues of irradiated animals were measured by a viscosimetric method of determination of high-polymer single-strand DNA molecular weight in alkaline nuclear lysates. It has been shown that in irradiated thymus, bone marrow leukocytes, Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma and Zaidel hepatoma cells (first group by tissues) in vivo the yields of DNA single-strand breaks were characterized by 80 to 130 eV per break. In in vivo irradiated liver, lymph node, spleen, and sarcoma 180 cells (second group of tissues) the yields of DNA single-strand breaks have been characterized by 30 to 40 eV per break. DNA single-strand breaks of the first group of tissues have rejoined 1 hour after the irradiation in vivo; DNA single-strand breaks of the second group have not done so.

  5. Viscosimetric analysis of the occurrence and repair of DNA single-strand breaks in irradiated animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabchenko, N.I.; Ivannik, B.P.; Proskuryakov, S.Ya. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    1982-04-01

    The yields of immediate DNA single-strand breaks in normal tumour tissues of ..gamma..-irradiated animals were measured by a viscosimetric method of determination of high-polymer single-strand DNA molecular weight in alkaline nuclear lysates. It has been shown that in irradiated thymus, bone marrow leukocytes, Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma and Zaidel hepatoma cells (first group of tissues) in vivo the yields of DNA single-strand breaks were characterized by 80 to 130 eV per break. In in vivo irradiated liver, lymph node, spleen, and sarcoma 180 cells (second group of tissues) the yields of DNA single-strand breaks have been characterized by 30 to 40 eV per break. DNA single-strand breaks of the first group of tissues have rejoined 1 hour after the irradiation in vivo; DNA single-strand breaks of the second group have not done so.

  6. Multiple ectopic calcifications in subcutaneous tissues with chronic renal failure: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, RongKai; Li, GuoWei; Yang, LuKun; Li, YingQin; Ou, Jinghuan; Zhang, DaWei; Chen, Tao; Feng, Shaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple tumor-like ectopic calcifications is a rare syndrome characterized by subcutaneous mass deposits of calcium phosphate in periarticular tissues. Although several cases of the surgical treatment of tumoral calcinosis have been reported, the present case is unique in that multiple ectopic calcifications in subcutaneous tissues were found in a hemodialysis patient who had been operated on a total of five times within a period of 1.5 years. A hemodialysis 60-year-old male presented with multiple tumor-like ectopic calcifications bilateral in the shoulders, right buttock and right thigh. He had been operated on a total of five times within a period of 1.5 years; the operations included a subtotal parathyroidectomy with parathyroid autotransplantation in the right forearm. Complete excisions of the ectopic calcifications were performed in the left shoulder, right buttock and right thigh, without signs of recurrence in the same sites at follow-up. Incomplete excision of the ectopic calcification in the right shoulder resulted in recurrence in the same site, and the patient was operated on two more times 1.5 years following the initial surgery. Subtotal parathyroidectomy with parathyroid autotransplantation decreased serum levels of PTH, but the levels of serum calcium and phosphorus remained unchanged post-surgery, which appeared not to inhibit the recurrence of ectopic calcification in patients with CRF. If conservative therapy failed, then early and complete surgical excision may be a good therapeutic option. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The evaluation of renal ischaemic damage: the value of CD10 monoclonal antibody staining and of biochemical assessments of tissue viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths A Paul

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well recognised that there is often a disparity between the structural changes observed in the kidney following renal injury and the function of the organ. For this reason, we carried out studies to explore possible means of studying and quantifying the severity of renal ischaemic damage using a laboratory model. Methods To do this, freshly isolated rabbit kidney tissue was subjected to warm (37°C or cold (1°C ischaemia for 20 hours. Following this, the tissue was stained using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H+E, Periodic Schiff reagent (PAS and the novel monoclonal antibody CD10 stain. Additionally, ischaemic damage to the kidneys was assessed by biochemical tests of tissue viability using formazan-based colorimetry. Results CD 10 antibody intensely stained the brush border of control kidney tissue with mild or no cytoplasmic staining. Cell injury was accompanied by a redistribution of CD10 into the lumen and cell cytoplasm. There was good correlation between a score of histological damage using the CD 10 monoclonal antibody stain and the biochemical assessment of viability. Similarly, a score of histological damage using traditional PAS staining correlated well with that using the CD10 antibody stain. In particular, the biochemical assay and the monoclonal antibody staining techniques were able to demonstrate the efficacy of Soltran (this solution is used cold to preserve freshly isolated human kidneys prior to transplantation in preserving renal tissue at cold temperatures compared to other randomly selected solutions. Conclusion We conclude that the techniques described using the CD10 monoclonal antibody stain may be helpful in the diagnosis and assessment of ischaemic renal damage. In addition, biochemical tests of viability may have an important role in routine histopathological work by giving additional information about cellular viability which may have implications on the function of the organ.

  8. Renal Primordia Activate Kidney Regenerative Events in a Rat Model of Progressive Renal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberti, Barbara; Corna, Daniela; Rizzo, Paola; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Abbate, Mauro; Longaretti, Lorena; Cassis, Paola; Benedetti, Valentina; Benigni, Ariela; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Morigi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    New intervention tools for severely damaged kidneys are in great demand to provide patients with a valid alternative to whole organ replacement. For repairing or replacing injured tissues, emerging approaches focus on using stem and progenitor cells. Embryonic kidneys represent an interesting option because, when transplanted to sites such as the renal capsule of healthy animals, they originate new renal structures. Here, we studied whether metanephroi possess developmental capacity when transplanted under the kidney capsule of MWF male rats, a model of spontaneous nephropathy. We found that six weeks post-transplantation, renal primordia developed glomeruli and tubuli able to filter blood and to produce urine in cyst-like structures. Newly developed metanephroi were able to initiate a regenerative-like process in host renal tissues adjacent to the graft in MWF male rats as indicated by an increase in cell proliferation and vascular density, accompanied by mRNA and protein upregulation of VEGF, FGF2, HGF, IGF-1 and Pax-2. The expression of SMP30 and NCAM was induced in tubular cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markedly decreased. Our study shows that embryonic kidneys generate functional nephrons when transplanted into animals with severe renal disease and at the same time activate events at least partly mimicking those observed in kidney tissues during renal regeneration. PMID:25811887

  9. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on liver and renal tissue inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tissue lipid peroxidation in obstructive jaundice stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlikülekci, Mehmet; Pata, Cengiz; Apa, Duygu Dusmez; Dirlik, Musa; Tamer, Lulufer; Yaylak, Faik; Kanik, Arzu; Aydin, Suha

    2004-03-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates are very high in obstructive jaundice when it is associated with sepsis and multiple organ failure. Nitric oxide (NO) formation and increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) also take place in obstructive jaundice (OJ). N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has a beneficial effect by demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity such as inhibits cytokine expression/release, inhibiting the adhesion molecule expression and inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on liver and renal tissue iNOS, and liver tissue lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced obstructive jaundice. We randomized 48 rats into six groups. Group A: Sham group; group B: OJ group; group C: OJ+NAC; group D: OJ+LPS (Escherichia coli LPS serotype L-2630, 100mg, Sigma) group E: OJ+NAC+LPS; group F: OJ+LPS+NAC. NAC was started subcutaneously 100mg/kg. LPS was injected intraperitoneally and then at the tenth day we sacrificed the rats. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and liver ATPase decreased in groups B-D when compared to group A. After the administration of NAC (groups C-E), liver MDA levels decreased, tissue ATPase levels increased as compared to other groups. The liver and renal tissue iNOS expression was increased in groups B, D, and F. After the administration of NAC (groups C-E) the liver and renal tissue iNOS expression were decreased. Our results indicated that NAC prevented the deleterious effects of LPS in OJ by reducing iNOS expression via lipid peroxidation in liver and renal tissue; if it was administrated before LPS. But NAC failed to prevent the iNOS expression and lipid peroxidation if there was established endotoxemia in OJ.

  10. Nitrogen Solubility in Adipose Tissues of Diving Animals: Implications for Human Divers and for Modeling Diving Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    in different locations, and even though manunalian and avian body core temperature is regulated to between 37-40 °C, the peripheral regions of the...adipose at different temperatures , because diving animals and humans may experience a range of water temperatures when diving to different depths or... body will experience temperatures along a gradient between core and ambient. Coupled with new knowledge of solubility in adipose tissue was the need

  11. [Production of superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide in renal tissues sutured with different surgical suture material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, V O; Tsebrzhins'kii, O I

    2000-01-01

    The generation of superoxide anion radicals (in mitochondria, microsomes and under respiratory burst of leucocytes) and nitric oxide (NO) in renal tissue has been studied in the experiment with white rats, which had been carried out nephrotomy with following usage for suture such absorbable surgical threads as plain and chromic catgut, biofil (of dura mater spinalis of the cattle), Dexon II (polyglycolic acid) and biofil modified with aethonium, succinate and mexidol. The research proves the use of plai and chromic catgut leads to the development longer oxidative stress with increasing of cytotoxic agents production (superoxide anion and NO). The risk of longitudinal oxidative stress decreases under the use of biofil suture modified with biological active compounds (aethonium, succinate and mexidol). In this case, the generation of superoxide anion radicals in mitochondria and microsomes is normalised earlier. The superoxide generation with respiratory burst of leucocytes and NO production decreases in 14 day of postoperative period under the use of biofil suture modified with succinate and mexidol.

  12. Seeding cell approach for tissue-engineered urethral reconstruction in animal study: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jing-Dong; Gao, Jing; Fu, Qiang; Feng, Chao; Xie, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We systematically reviewed published preclinical studies to evaluate the effectiveness of cell-seeded tissue engineering approach for urethral reconstruction in an animal model. The outcomes were summarized by success factors in the animal experiments, which evaluate the possibility and feasibility of a clinical application in the future. Preclinical studies of tissue engineering approaches for urethral reconstruction were identified through a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Biosis Previews (web of science SP) databases for studies published from 1 January 1980 to 23 November 2014. Primary studies were included if urethral reconstruction was performed using a tissue-engineered biomaterial in any animal species (with the experiment group being a cell-seeded scaffold and the control group being a cell-free scaffold) with histology and urethrography as the outcome measure. A total of 15 preclinical studies were included in our meta-analysis. The histology and urethrography outcome between the experimental and control groups were considered to be the most clinically relevant. Through this systematic approach, our outcomes suggested that applying the cell-seeded biomaterial in creating a neo-urethra was stable and effective. And multi-type cells including epithelial cells as well as smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts seemed to be a better strategy. Stem cells, especially after epithelial differentiation, could be a promising choice for future researches. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  13. Invited review: Pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development in farm animals: from stem cells to adipocyte physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, I; Perruchot, M-H; Bonnet, M; Gondret, F

    2016-11-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants. In contrast to other tissues, the embryonic origin of adipose cells remains the subject of debate. Adipose cells arise from the recruitment of specific multipotent stem cells/progenitors named adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of a variety of those cells being able to differentiate into white, brown or brown-like/beige adipocytes. After commitment to the adipocyte lineage, progenitors undergo large changes in the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle arrest, lipid accumulation and secretory functions. Early nutrition can affect these processes during fetal and perinatal periods and can also influence or pre-determinate later growth of adipose tissue. How these changes may be related to adipose tissue functional maturity around birth and can influence newborn survival is discussed. Altogether, a better knowledge of fetal and postnatal adipose tissue development is important for various aspects of animal production, including neonatal survival, postnatal growth efficiency and health.

  14. Preadipocyte and adipose tissue differentiation in meat animals: influence of species and anatomical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, G J; Basu, U; Wei, S; Hausman, D B; Dodson, M V

    2014-02-01

    Early in porcine adipose tissue development, the stromal-vascular (SV) elements control and dictate the extent of adipogenesis in a depot-dependent manner. The vasculature and collagen matrix differentiate before overt adipocyte differentiation. In the fetal pig, subcutaneous (SQ) layer development is predictive of adipocyte development, as the outer, middle, and inner layers of dorsal SQ adipose tissue develop and maintain layered morphology throughout postnatal growth of SQ adipose tissue. Bovine and ovine fetuses contain brown adipose tissue but SQ white adipose tissue is poorly developed structurally. Fetal adipose tissue differentiation is associated with the precocious expression of several genes encoding secreted factors and key transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ and CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein. Identification of adipocyte-associated genes differentially expressed by age, depot, and species in vivo and in vitro has been achieved using single-gene analysis, microarrays, suppressive subtraction hybridization, and next-generation sequencing applications. Gene polymorphisms in PPARγ, cathepsins, and uncoupling protein 3 have been associated with back fat accumulation. Genome scans have mapped several quantitative trait loci (QTL) predictive of adipose tissue-deposition phenotypes in cattle and pigs.

  15. Reduction of sample size requirements by bilateral versus unilateral research designs in animal models for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Patrick; Zurakowski, David; Alini, Mauro; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2013-11-01

    Advanced tissue engineering approaches for articular cartilage repair in the knee joint rely on translational animal models. In these investigations, cartilage defects may be established either in one joint (unilateral design) or in both joints of the same animal (bilateral design). We hypothesized that a lower intraindividual variability following the bilateral strategy would reduce the number of required joints. Standardized osteochondral defects were created in the trochlear groove of 18 rabbits. In 12 animals, defects were produced unilaterally (unilateral design; n=12 defects), while defects were created bilaterally in 6 animals (bilateral design; n=12 defects). After 3 weeks, osteochondral repair was evaluated histologically applying an established grading system. Based on intra- and interindividual variabilities, required sample sizes for the detection of discrete differences in the histological score were determined for both study designs (α=0.05, β=0.20). Coefficients of variation (%CV) of the total histological score values were 1.9-fold increased following the unilateral design when compared with the bilateral approach (26 versus 14%CV). The resulting numbers of joints needed to treat were always higher for the unilateral design, resulting in an up to 3.9-fold increase in the required number of experimental animals. This effect was most pronounced for the detection of small-effect sizes and estimating large standard deviations. The data underline the possible benefit of bilateral study designs for the decrease of sample size requirements for certain investigations in articular cartilage research. These findings might also be transferred to other scoring systems, defect types, or translational animal models in the field of cartilage tissue engineering.

  16. Assessment of the interaction of Portland cement-based materials with blood and tissue fluids using an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri Wismayer, P.; Lung, C. Y. K.; Rappa, F.; Cappello, F.; Camilleri, J.

    2016-01-01

    Portland cement used in the construction industry improves its properties when wet. Since most dental materials are used in a moist environment, Portland cement has been developed for use in dentistry. The first generation material is mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), used in surgical procedures, thus in contact with blood. The aim of this study was to compare the setting of MTA in vitro and in vivo in contact with blood by subcutaneous implantation in rats. The tissue reaction to the material was also investigated. ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) was implanted in the subcutaneous tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats in opposite flanks and left in situ for 3 months. Furthermore the material was also stored in physiological solution in vitro. At the end of the incubation time, tissue histology and material characterization were performed. Surface assessment showed the formation of calcium carbonate for both environments. The bismuth was evident in the tissues thus showing heavy element contamination of the animal specimen. The tissue histology showed a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate associated with the MTA. MTA interacts with the host tissues and causes a chronic inflammatory reaction when implanted subcutaneously. Hydration in vivo proceeds similarly to the in vitro model with some differences particularly in the bismuth oxide leaching patterns. PMID:27683067

  17. Enhanced detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in animal tissues using a semi-nested probe-based real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Costa

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis has been tackled for decades by costly eradication programs in most developed countries, involving the laboratory testing of tissue samples from allegedly infected animals for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC members, namely Mycobacterium bovis. Definitive diagnosis is usually achieved by bacteriological culture, which may take up to 6-12 weeks, during which the suspect animal carcass and herd are under sanitary arrest. In this work, a user-friendly DNA extraction protocol adapted for tissues was coupled with an IS6110-targeted semi-nested duplex real-time PCR assay to enhance the direct detection of MTC bacteria in animal specimens, reducing the time to achieve a diagnosis and, thus, potentially limiting the herd restriction period. The duplex use of a novel β-actin gene targeted probe, with complementary targets in most mammals, allowed the assessment of amplification inhibitors in the tissue samples. The assay was evaluated with a group of 128 fresh tissue specimens collected from bovines, wild boars, deer and foxes. Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from 57 of these samples. Overall, the full test performance corresponds to a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 98.2% (CIP95% 89.4-99.9% and 88.7% (CIP95% 78.5-94.7%, respectively. An observed kappa coefficient was estimated in 0.859 (CI P95% 0.771-0.948 for the overall agreement between the semi-nested PCR assay and the bacteriological culture. Considering only bovine samples (n = 69, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were estimated in 100% (CIP95% 84.0-100% and 97.7% (CIP95% 86.2-99.9%, respectively. Eight negative culture samples exhibiting TB-like lesions were detected by the semi-nested real-time PCR, thus emphasizing the increased potential of this molecular approach to detect MTC-infected animal tissues. This novel IS6110-targeted assay allows the fast detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in animal specimens with very high

  18. Enhanced detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in animal tissues using a semi-nested probe-based real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Ferreira, Ana S; Amaro, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Cunha, Mónica V; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis has been tackled for decades by costly eradication programs in most developed countries, involving the laboratory testing of tissue samples from allegedly infected animals for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) members, namely Mycobacterium bovis. Definitive diagnosis is usually achieved by bacteriological culture, which may take up to 6-12 weeks, during which the suspect animal carcass and herd are under sanitary arrest. In this work, a user-friendly DNA extraction protocol adapted for tissues was coupled with an IS6110-targeted semi-nested duplex real-time PCR assay to enhance the direct detection of MTC bacteria in animal specimens, reducing the time to achieve a diagnosis and, thus, potentially limiting the herd restriction period. The duplex use of a novel β-actin gene targeted probe, with complementary targets in most mammals, allowed the assessment of amplification inhibitors in the tissue samples. The assay was evaluated with a group of 128 fresh tissue specimens collected from bovines, wild boars, deer and foxes. Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from 57 of these samples. Overall, the full test performance corresponds to a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 98.2% (CIP95% 89.4-99.9%) and 88.7% (CIP95% 78.5-94.7%), respectively. An observed kappa coefficient was estimated in 0.859 (CI P95% 0.771-0.948) for the overall agreement between the semi-nested PCR assay and the bacteriological culture. Considering only bovine samples (n = 69), the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were estimated in 100% (CIP95% 84.0-100%) and 97.7% (CIP95% 86.2-99.9%), respectively. Eight negative culture samples exhibiting TB-like lesions were detected by the semi-nested real-time PCR, thus emphasizing the increased potential of this molecular approach to detect MTC-infected animal tissues. This novel IS6110-targeted assay allows the fast detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in animal specimens with very high sensitivity and

  19. Protocols for the in vitro design of animal articular cartilage based on tissue engineering methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The articular cartilage is the structure that covers the joint ends. It has some specific tasks crucial to the correct joint physiology. It may experience a large amount of injuries that could generate considerable disabilities. Unfortunately its selfrepair capacity is too limited; therefore, many treatments have been developed with partial success, given the suboptimal biomechanical behavior of the resultant tissue. Given that, Tissue Engineering offers an alternative, based on the design of a new tissue with biological and biomechanical features which resembles the native tissue. In this work, the authors describe the methodologies followed to accomplish that goal, studying the chondrocytes harvesting, the cellular cultures, the scaffold seeding processes, the mechanical stimulation and the structural and biomechanical evaluation. Finally, exposed some of the preliminary results, as a experimental validation of the methods proposed are.

  20. Tissue engineering for total meniscal substitution : Animal study in sheep model

    OpenAIRE

    Kon, Elizaveta; Chiari, Catharina; Marcacci, Maurilio; Delcogliano, Marco; Donald M Salter; Martin, Ivan; Ambrosio, Luigi; Fini, Milena; Tschon, Matilde; Tognana, Enrico; Plasenzotti, Roberto; Nehrer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the use of a novel hyaluronic acid/polycaprolactone material for meniscal tissue engineering and to evaluate the tissue regeneration after the augmentation of the implant with expanded autologous chondrocytes. Two different surgical implantation techniques in a sheep model were evaluated. Methods: Twenty-four skeletally mature sheep were treated with total medial meniscus replacements, while two meniscectomies served as empty controls. The an...

  1. Neutron activation analysis of medullar and cortical bone tissues from animals; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de tecidos osseos medular e cortical de animais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Marcelo Kazuo; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    2000-07-01

    In this work, neutron activation analysis was applied in the determination of the elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr and Zn present in animal bone tissues. The obtained results indicated a significant difference between the elemental concentrations present in medullar and cortical tissues. The results obtained for bone tissues from distinct animal species were also different. (author)

  2. Ultrasonic characterization of three animal mammary tumors from three-dimensional acoustic tissue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamou, Jonathan M.

    This dissertation investigated how three-dimensional (3D) tissue models can be used to improve ultrasonic tissue characterization (UTC) techniques. Anatomic sites in tissue responsible for ultrasonic scattering are unknown, which limits the potential applications of ultrasound for tumor diagnosis. Accurate 3D models of tumor tissues may help identify the scattering sites. Three mammary tumors were investigated: a rat fibroadenoma, a mouse carcinoma, and a mouse sarcoma. A 3D acoustic tissue model, termed 3D impedance map (3DZM), was carefully constructed from consecutive histologic sections for each tumor. Spectral estimates (scatterer size and acoustic concentration) were obtained from the 3DZMs and compared to the same estimates obtained with ultrasound. Scatterer size estimates for three tumors were found to be similar (within 10%). The 3DZMs were also used to extract tissue-specific scattering models. The scattering models were found to allow clear distinction between the three tumors. This distinction demonstrated that UTC techniques may be helpful for noninvasive clinical tumor diagnosis.

  3. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  4. Tissue engineered bone using select growth factors: A comprehensive review of animal studies and clinical translation studies in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Gothard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing socio-economic need for effective strategies to repair damaged bone resulting from disease, trauma and surgical intervention. Bone tissue engineering has received substantial investment over the last few decades as a result. A multitude of studies have sought to examine the efficacy of multiple growth factors, delivery systems and biomaterials within in vivo animal models for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. Defect repair requires recapitulation of in vivo signalling cascades, including osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and angiogenesis, in an orchestrated spatiotemporal manner. Strategies to drive parallel, synergistic and consecutive signalling of factors including BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, FGF, PDGF, PTH, PTHrP, TGF-β3, VEGF and Wnts have demonstrated improved bone healing within animal models. Enhanced bone repair has also been demonstrated in the clinic following European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration approval of BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, PDGF, PTH and PTHrP. The current review assesses the in vivo and clinical data surrounding the application of growth factors for bone regeneration. This review has examined data published between 1965 and 2013. All bone tissue engineering studies investigating in vivo response of the growth factors listed above, or combinations thereof, utilising animal models or human trials were included. All studies were compiled from PubMed-NCBI using search terms including ‘growth factor name’, ‘in vivo’, ‘model/animal’, ‘human’, and ‘bone tissue engineering’. Focus is drawn to the in vivo success of osteoinductive growth factors incorporated within material implants both in animals and humans, and identifies the unmet challenges within the skeletal regenerative area.

  5. Bladder tissue regeneration using acellular bi-layer silk scaffolds in a large animal model of augmentation cystoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Duong D; Chung, Yeun Goo; Gil, Eun Seok; Seth, Abhishek; Franck, Debra; Cristofaro, Vivian; Sullivan, Maryrose P; Di Vizio, Dolores; Gomez, Pablo; Adam, Rosalyn M; Kaplan, David L; Estrada, Carlos R; Mauney, Joshua R

    2013-11-01

    Acellular scaffolds derived from Bombyx mori silk fibroin were investigated for their ability to support functional tissue regeneration in a porcine model of augmentation cystoplasty. Two bi-layer matrix configurations were fabricated by solvent-casting/salt leaching either alone (Group 1) or in combination with silk film casting (Group 2) to yield porous foams buttressed by heterogeneous surface pore occlusions or homogenous silk films, respectively. Bladder augmentation was performed with each scaffold group (6 × 6 cm(2)) in juvenile Yorkshire swine for 3 m of implantation. Augmented animals exhibited high rates of survival (Group 1: 5/6, 83%; Group 2: 4/4, 100%) and voluntary voiding over the course of the study period. Urodynamic evaluations demonstrated mean increases in bladder capacity over pre-operative levels (Group 1: 277%; Group 2: 153%) which exceeded nonsurgical control gains (144%) encountered due to animal growth.In addition, animals augmented with both matrix configurations displayed increases in bladder compliance over pre-operative levels(Group 1: 357%; Group 2: 338%) similar to growth-related elevations observed in non-surgical controls (354%) [corrected]. Gross tissue evaluations revealed that both matrix configurations supported extensive de novo tissue formation throughout the entire original implantation site which exhibited ultimate tensile strength similar to nonsurgical counterparts. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses showed that both implant groups promoted comparable extents of smooth muscle regeneration and contractile protein (α-smooth muscle actin and SM22α) expression within defect sites similar to controls. Parallel evaluations demonstrated the formation of a transitional, multi-layered urothelium with prominent cytokeratin, uroplakin, and p63 protein expression in both matrix groups. De novo innervation and vascularization processes were evident in all regenerated tissues indicated by synaptophysin-positive neuronal

  6. Quantitative evaluation of ViOptix's tissue oximeter in an ex-vivo animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jimmy J. M.; Xu, Ronald; Lash, Bob; Wright, Leigh

    2008-02-01

    We evaluate the performance of ODISsey TM Tissue Oximeter (ViOptix, Inc., Fremont, CA) against co-oximeter. Concurrent oxygen saturation measurements were made in three dog limbs surgically removed and perfused with an extracorporeal blood circulation system. Oxygen saturation was adjusted in steps ranging from 95% down to 5% as monitored by the co-oximeter. The co-oximeter was used to measure the oxygen saturation of the whole blood drawn from both the arterial and the venous ports of the limb. The tissue oxygenation measured by the ODISsey TM tissue oximeter was compared with the average of the arterial and the venous blood oxygenation measured by the co-oximeter. Linear correlation was observed between the average oxygenation given by the co-oximeter and the ODISseyTM readings, with a root-mean-square difference of 7.6% and the correlation coefficient of 0.941, calculated from N = 194 data points.

  7. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of marine fish and animals. We analyzed mainly frozen or otherwise preserved marine fish and animals that were purchased in retail network in Slovakia. Mercury content in samples was analyzed by cold vapor AAS with mercury analyser AMA254. The contents of mercury in analysed samples were in the interval 0.0057 – 0,697 mg.kg-1. Our results shows, that no analyzed samples of marine fish and animals had over-limit concetration of Hg, so they are safe for human nutrition.

  8. Multispectral and Photoplethysmography Optical Imaging Techniques Identify Important Tissue Characteristics in an Animal Model of Tangential Burn Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Li, Weizhi; Rodriguez-Vaqueiro, Yolanda; Squiers, John J; Mo, Weirong; Lu, Yang; Plant, Kevin D; Sellke, Eric; King, Darlene R; Fan, Wensheng; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose A; DiMaio, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Burn excision, a difficult technique owing to the training required to identify the extent and depth of injury, will benefit from a tool that can cue the surgeon as to where and how much to resect. We explored two rapid and noninvasive optical imaging techniques in their ability to identify burn tissue from the viable wound bed using an animal model of tangential burn excision. Photoplethysmography (PPG) imaging and multispectral imaging (MSI) were used to image the initial, intermediate, and final stages of burn excision of a deep partial-thickness burn. PPG imaging maps blood flow in the skin's microcirculation, and MSI collects the tissue reflectance spectrum in visible and infrared wavelengths of light to classify tissue based on a reference library. A porcine deep partial-thickness burn model was generated and serial tangential excision accomplished with an electric dermatome set to 1.0 mm depth. Excised eschar was stained with hematoxylin and eosin to determine the extent of burn remaining at each excision depth. We confirmed that the PPG imaging device showed significantly less blood flow where burn tissue was present, and the MSI method could delineate burn tissue in the wound bed from the viable wound bed. These results were confirmed independently by a histological analysis. We found these devices can identify the proper depth of excision, and their images could cue a surgeon as to the preparedness of the wound bed for grafting. These image outputs are expected to facilitate clinical judgment in the operating room.

  9. Tissue sensitive imaging and tomography without contrast agents for small animals with Timepix based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanova, E.; Schyns, L. E. J. R.; Ludwig, D.; Jakubek, J.; Le Pape, A.; Sefc, L.; Lotte, S.; Sykora, V.; Turecek, D.; Uher, J.; Verhaegen, F.

    2017-01-01

    The tissue type resolving X-ray radiography and tomography can be performed even without contrast agents. The differences between soft tissue types such as kidney, muscles, fat, liver, brain and spleen were measured based on their spectral response. The Timepix based X-ray imaging detector WidePIX2×5 with 300 μm thick silicon sensors was used for most of the measurements presented in this work. These promising results are used for further optimizations of the detector technology and radiographic methods.

  10. Determination of closantel residues in milk and animal tissues by HPLC with fluorescence detection and SPE with oasis MAX cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Han-Wen; Wang, Feng-Chi; Ai, Lian-Feng

    2008-04-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of closantel residues in milk and tissues is developed and validated. An acetonitrile-acetone solution (80:20, v/v) is used for the extraction of closantel residues from milk and animal tissues, and the extract is purified by solid-phase extraction with Oasis MAX cartridges and a mixture of formic acid-acetonitrile (5:95, v/v) as the elution solution. A C(18) bonded silica column is used for chromatographic separation. The mobile phase consists of acetonitrile-water (85:15, v/v) containing 0.05% triethylamine at pH 2.5, adjusted with phosphoric acid with the flow-rate set at 1.0 mL/min. Using the fluorescence emission of closantel at lambda(ex) = 335 nm and lambda(ex) = 510 nm, the calibration curve is linear, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 over the concentration range of 10-5000 microg/kg for the tissue sample and 10-5000 microg/L for the milk sample. The detection limit (s/n = 3) is 3 microg/kg for tissue sample and 3 microg/L for milk sample. The intra- and inter-day repeatabilities are between 3.35-7.66% and 4.04-8.67%, respectively. The proposed method enables the quantitative determination of closantel residues at levels as low as 10 microg/kg in animal tissue samples and 10 microg/L in milk samples.

  11. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A; Janeczek, Agnieszka A; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M; Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-08-31

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p < 0.01). This human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering.

  12. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A.; Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-08-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p < 0.01). This human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering.

  13. Identification of tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Prior

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal-cell-carcinoma (MRCC and to evaluate in vitro their mechanism of action in sunitinib resistance. METHODS: We screened 673 microRNAs using TaqMan Low-density-Arrays (TLDAs in tumors from MRCC patients with extreme phenotypes of marked efficacy and resistance to sunitinib, selected from an identification cohort (n = 41. The most relevant differentially expressed microRNAs were selected using bioinformatics-based target prediction analysis and quantified by qRT-PCR in tumors from patients presenting similar phenotypes selected from an independent cohort (n = 101. In vitro experiments were conducted to study the role of miR-942 in sunitinib resistance. RESULTS: TLDAs identified 64 microRNAs differentially expressed in the identification cohort. Seven candidates were quantified by qRT-PCR in the independent series. MiR-942 was the most accurate predictor of sunitinib efficacy (p = 0.0074. High expression of miR-942, miR-628-5p, miR-133a, and miR-484 was significantly associated with decreased time to progression and overall survival. These microRNAs were also overexpressed in the sunitinib resistant cell line Caki-2 in comparison with the sensitive cell line. MiR-942 overexpression in Caki-2 up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion which, in turn, promote HBMEC endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance. CONCLUSIONS: We identified differentially expressed microRNAs in MRCC patients presenting marked sensitivity or resistance to sunitinib. MiR-942 was the best predictor of efficacy. We describe a novel paracrine mechanism through which high miR-942 levels in MRCC cells up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion to enhance endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance. Our results support further validation of these miRNA in clinical confirmatory studies.

  14. Identification of tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Celia; Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Garcia-Donas, Jesus; Rodriguez-Antona, Cristina; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Esteban, Emilio; Suarez, Cristina; Castellano, Daniel; del Alba, Aránzazu González; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Carles, Joan; Climent, Miguel Angel; Arranz, Jose Angel; Gallardo, Enrique; Puente, Javier; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Gurpide, Alfonso; Lopez-Picazo, Jose Maria; Hernandez, Alvaro Gonzalez; Mellado, Begoña; Martínez, Esther; Moreno, Fernando; Font, Albert; Calvo, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    To identify tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal-cell-carcinoma (MRCC) and to evaluate in vitro their mechanism of action in sunitinib resistance. We screened 673 microRNAs using TaqMan Low-density-Arrays (TLDAs) in tumors from MRCC patients with extreme phenotypes of marked efficacy and resistance to sunitinib, selected from an identification cohort (n = 41). The most relevant differentially expressed microRNAs were selected using bioinformatics-based target prediction analysis and quantified by qRT-PCR in tumors from patients presenting similar phenotypes selected from an independent cohort (n = 101). In vitro experiments were conducted to study the role of miR-942 in sunitinib resistance. TLDAs identified 64 microRNAs differentially expressed in the identification cohort. Seven candidates were quantified by qRT-PCR in the independent series. MiR-942 was the most accurate predictor of sunitinib efficacy (p = 0.0074). High expression of miR-942, miR-628-5p, miR-133a, and miR-484 was significantly associated with decreased time to progression and overall survival. These microRNAs were also overexpressed in the sunitinib resistant cell line Caki-2 in comparison with the sensitive cell line. MiR-942 overexpression in Caki-2 up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion which, in turn, promote HBMEC endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance. We identified differentially expressed microRNAs in MRCC patients presenting marked sensitivity or resistance to sunitinib. MiR-942 was the best predictor of efficacy. We describe a novel paracrine mechanism through which high miR-942 levels in MRCC cells up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion to enhance endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance. Our results support further validation of these miRNA in clinical confirmatory studies.

  15. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, W. S.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g-1 for Fe to 7 μg g-1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p ANVISA).

  16. Towards Implantable Body Sensor Networks - Performance of MICS Band Radio Communication in Animal Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppiah Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja; Meratnia, Nirvana; Zhang, Kui; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Reliable wireless communication inside the human body is crucial for the design of implantable body sensor networks (IBSN). The tissues in human body are heterogeneous and have dierent conductivity and permitivity, which make the modeling of the wireless channel challenging. The design of upper

  17. Magnetic sensor for configurable measurement of tension or elasticity with validation in animal soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Kalpesh; Rajamani, Rajesh; Ahmadi, Mahdi; Serdar Sezen, A; Bechtold, Joan E

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a novel Hall-effect-based magnetic sensor for handheld measurement of either elasticity or tension in soft tissues. A theoretical model is developed for the mechanical interaction of the sensor with the tissue, and conditions are established under which the separate effects of tension or elasticity can be measured. A model of the magnetic field within the sensor is developed and a technique to estimate the sensor response in the presence of multiple magnets is established. This paper then provides analytical sensor responses and compares them with experimental results obtained on synthetic materials. It is found that the sensor can measure tension values upto 100 N with a resolution of 10 N in handheld operation and elasticity of upto 0.87 MPa with a resolution of 0.02 MPa. Significant experimental characterization and statistical analysis of sensor repeatability is performed. The viability of this sensor to make tension and elasticity measurements with biological tissues is then demonstrated using turkey tendons and fresh swine tissues.

  18. Using tissue residues in aquatic animals to ground-truth ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, T.M. [EA Engineering, Science and Technology, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ecological risks are often estimated by comparing expected environmental exposures (EEE) to a toxicity benchmark (TB). This comparison is expressed quantitatively as a Hazard Quotient (HQ) by dividing the TB into the EEE. HQs are designed to be environmentally conservative to minimize false negatives. This conservatism allows risk managers to conclude with a high degree of certainty that HQs < 1.0 represent acceptable ecological risks. HQs > 1.0, however, are more difficult to interpret. Current state-of-the-practice is to conduct a weight-of-evidence analysis where multiple lines of information are considered in addition to the HQ results. This analysis indicates to the risk manager what level of certainty he or she should place in the HQ results. One line of evidence is the presence/absence of chemicals of concern in the tissues of field-collected receptors. This presentation will demonstrate how residue data were used to ground-truth HQs generated for an ecological risk assessment conducted at a DOD facility in the southeastern US. For some receptor-chemical combinations, tissue residues rescind substantial ecological risks suggested by elevated HQs. In other instances, tissue residues corroborated the HQ results suggesting where true ecological hazards exist. Specific examples will be given for when the use of tissue residue data is inappropriate. Finally, this presentation will suggest how tissue residue data can be incorporated in a weight-of-evidence Risk Characterization that is consistent with EPA`s Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment and draft Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund.

  19. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Bajčan; Július Árvay; Janette Musilová

    2013-01-01

    Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of ...

  20. Optical properties of animal tissues in the wavelength range from 350 to 2600 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Serafima A.; Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.

    2017-03-01

    The optical properties of different cow and pig biological tissues such as skeletal muscle, adipose, spinal cord, and dura mater of the spinal cord were investigated in the spectral range of 350 to 2600 nm. The measurements were carried out by a commercially available spectrophotometer SHIMADZU UV 3101PC. The wavelength dependence on the scattering coefficient has been observed to follow a power-law decay for skeletal muscle and dura mater of spinal cord. The influence of time delay between the sample preparation and measuring of transmittance spectra on the data reasonableness was reviewed. The conclusion about the benefits of 2-μm lasers application in surgery is given for the tissue types listed above.

  1. Identification of the redox partners of ERdj5/JPDI, a PDI family member, from an animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokura, Hiroshi; Saito, Michiko; Tsuru, Akio; Hosoda, Akira; Iwawaki, Takao; Inaba, Kenji; Kohno, Kenji

    2013-10-18

    ERdj5 (also known as JPDI) is a member of PDI family conserved in higher eukaryotes. This protein possesses an N-terminal J domain and C-terminal four thioredoxin domains each having a redox active site motif. Despite the insights obtained at the cellular level on ERdj5, the role of this protein in vivo is still unclear. Here, we present a simple method to purify and identify the disulfide-linked complexes of this protein efficiently from a mouse tissue. By combining acid quenching and thiol-alkylation, we identified a number of potential redox partners of ERdj5 from the mouse epididymis. Further, we show that ERdj5 indeed interacted with two of the identified proteins via formation of intermolecular disulfide bond. Thus, this approach enabled us to detect and identify redox partners of a PDI family member from an animal tissue.

  2. ELF (extremely-low-frequency) field interactions at the animal, tissue and cellular levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    A description is given of the fundamental physical properties of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, and the mechanisms through which these fields interact with the human body at a macroscopic level. Biological responses to ELF fields at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels are summarized, including new evidence that ELF field exposure produces alterations in gene expression and the cytoplasmic concentrations of specific proteins.

  3. Low dose X -ray effects on catalase activity in animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focea, R.; Nadejde, C.; Creanga, D.; Luchian, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effect of low-dose X ray-irradiation upon the activity of catalase (CAT) in freshly excised chicken tissues (liver, kidney, brain, muscle). The tissue samples were irradiated with 0.5Gy and 2Gy respectively, in a 6 MV photon beam produced by a clinical linear accelerator (VARIAN CLINAC 2100SC). The dose rate was of 260.88cGy/min. at 100 cm source to sample distance. The catalase level was assayed spectrophotometrically, based on reaction kinetics, using a catalase UV assay kit (SIGMA). Catalase increased activity in various tissue samples exposed to the studied X ray doses (for example with 24 % in the liver cells, pantioxidant enzyme biosynthesis within several hours after exposure at doses of 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy; the putative enzyme inactivation could also occur (due to the injuries on the hydrogen bonds that ensure the specificity of CAT active site) but the resulted balance of the two concurrent processes indicates the cell ability of decomposing the hydrogen peroxide-with benefits for the cell physiology restoration for the chosen low dose radiation.

  4. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Vardkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  5. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bidar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  6. Characterisation of new monoclonal antibodies reacting with prions from both human and animal brain tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, H.; Bergstrom, A.L.; Ohm, J.

    2008-01-01

    Post-mortem diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases) is primarily based on the detection of a protease resistant, misfolded disease associated isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the prion protein (PrP(C)) on neuronal cells. These methods depend on antibodies directed against Pr...... that the specificity of 6H4 is not defined completely by PrP153-165. The two antibodies performed similarly to 6H4 in western blotting with human samples, but showed less reactivity and enhanced background staining with animal samples in this method. In immunohistochemistry 1.5D7 and 1.6F4 performed better than 6H4...

  7. Characterisation of new monoclonal antibodies reacting with prions from both human and animal brain tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Ohm, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Post-mortem diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopaties (prion diseases) is primarily based on the detection of a protease resistant, misfolded disease associated isoform (PrPSc) of the prion protein (PrPc) on neuronal cells. These methods depend on antibodies directed aganinst Pr...... that the specificity of 6H4 is not defined completely by PrP153 - 165. The two antibodies performed similarly to 6H4 in western blotting with human samples, but showed less reactivity and enhanced background staining with animal samples in this method. In immunohistochemistry 1.5D7 and 1.6F4 performed better than 6H4...

  8. Subcutaneous Connective Tissue Reactions to Various Endodontic Biomaterials: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Saghiri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials is a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the biocompatibility of a variety of commercial ProRoot WMTA cements and a resin-based cement (Geristore® with different pH values of setting reaction and different aluminum contents, implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats at various time intervals. Materials and methods. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes were filled with Angelus WMTA, ProRoot WMTA, Bioaggregate, and Geristore. Empty control tubes were implanted into subcutaneous tissues and harvested at 7-, 14-, 28- and 60-day intervals. Tissue sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed under a light microscope. Inflammatory reactions were categorized as 0, none (without inflammatory cells; 1, mild (inflammatory cells ≤25; 2, moderate (25–125 inflammatory cells; and 3, severe (>125 inflammatory cells. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Results. ProRoot WMTA and Angelus elicited significantly less inflammation than other materials (P<0.05. After 7 days, however, all the materials induced significantly more inflammation than the controls (P<0.05. Angelus-MTA group exhibited no significant differences from the Bioaggregate group (P=0.15; however, ProRoot WMTA elicited significantly less inflammation than Bioaggregate (P=0.02. Geristore induced significantly more inflammation than other groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Geristore induced an inflammatory response higher than ProRoot WMTA; therefore, it is not recommended for clinical use.

  9. Subcutaneous Connective Tissue Reactions to Various Endodontic Biomaterials: An Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Tanideh, Nader; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Karamifar, Kasra; Amanat, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials is a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the biocompatibility of a variety of commercial ProRoot WMTA cements and a resin-based cement (Geristore®) with different pH values of setting reaction and different aluminum contents, implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats at various time intervals. Materials and methods Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes were filled with Angelus WMTA, ProRoot WMTA, Bioaggregate, and Geristore. Empty control tubes were implanted into subcutaneous tissues and harvested at 7-, 14-, 28- and 60-day intervals. Tissue sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed under a light microscope. Inflammatory reactions were categorized as 0, none (without inflammatory cells); 1, mild (inflammatory cells ≤25); 2, moderate (25–125 inflammatory cells); and 3, severe (>125 inflammatory cells). Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Results ProRoot WMTA and Angelus elicited significantly less inflammation than other materials (P<0.05). After 7 days, however, all the materials induced significantly more inflammation than the controls (P<0.05). Angelus-MTA group exhi-bited no significant differences from the Bioaggregate group (P=0.15); however, ProRoot WMTA elicited significantly less inflammation than Bioaggregate (P=0.02). Geristore induced significantly more inflammation than other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Geristore induced an inflammatory response higher than ProRoot WMTA; therefore, it is not recommended for clinical use. PMID:23486841

  10. Determination of sulphonamides in animal tissues by high performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization of 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qiong-Hui; Xie, Meng-Xia; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jin; Song, Jia; Gao, Hui; Han, Jie

    2007-11-01

    A novel approach for simultaneous determination of 12 sulphonamides (sulphadiazine, sulphamethazine, sulphathiazole, sulphadimethoxine, sulphamerazine, sulphapyridine, sulphamethoxazole, suphamethizole, sulphaquinoxaline, sulphameter, sulphamonomethoxine, and sulphachloropyridazine) in animal tissues (swine muscle and liver, chicken muscle, beef muscle) by HPLC with UV detection has been developed. A pre-column derivatization of the sulphonamide compounds with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) has been proposed and the reaction conditions have been optimized. The FMOC-sulphonamide derivatives were purified by SPE with silica gel as solid support prior to HPLC separation. The limits of detection for the sulphonamide compounds were greatly improved after the derivatization and purification step for the derivatives. Sulphonamide residues in animal tissues were extracted by acetonitrile and purified by solid phase extraction with C(18) as the solid support. The method developed has high sensitivity and good repeatability, and the average recoveries for most of the sulphonamides at various spiking levels were above 70% with relative standard deviations below 13.7%. The limits of detection for most sulphonamides can reach 3-5 microg/kg.

  11. Detection of animal tissue thickness using simple vertical electric sounding (VES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C A; offniga, O; Padilla, L E

    1997-02-01

    Tetrapolar linear arrays are commonly used in geophysics to explore the vertical distribution of resistivity values in a geological section of a specific point on the earth. This technique, known as vertical electric sounding (VES), uses different electrode configurations. For our experiments, we utilized its more popular variation, called the Schlumberger arrangement (VES-Sch), to make measurements on a system composed of pig backfat placed on a conductive paste that simulates the longitudinal resistivity of muscle. The results show that the physical and mathematical principles involved in VES-Sch are applicable to animal structures such as that composed of skin and fat and that it could be possible, for instance, to determine the thickness of the subcutaneous fat. This might be useful in studies of body composition and to evaluate nutritional status. In the future, an electrical impedance tomograph (EIT) of low frequency could be used to obtain static images using this approach.

  12. Resting Afferent Renal Nerve Discharge and Renal Inflammation: Elucidating the Role of Afferent and Efferent Renal Nerves in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate Salt Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banek, Christopher T; Knuepfer, Mark M; Foss, Jason D; Fiege, Jessica K; Asirvatham-Jeyaraj, Ninitha; Van Helden, Dusty; Shimizu, Yoji; Osborn, John W

    2016-12-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDNx) has emerged as a novel therapy for hypertension; however, the therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. Efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity has recently been implicated in trafficking renal inflammatory immune cells and inflammatory chemokine and cytokine release. Several of these inflammatory mediators are known to activate or sensitize afferent nerves. This study aimed to elucidate the roles of efferent and afferent renal nerves in renal inflammation and hypertension in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt rat model. Uninephrectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats (275-300 g) underwent afferent-selective RDNx (n=10), total RDNx (n=10), or Sham (n=10) and were instrumented for the measurement of mean arterial pressure and heart rate by radiotelemetry. Rats received 100-mg DOCA (SC) and 0.9% saline for 21 days. Resting afferent renal nerve activity in DOCA and vehicle animals was measured after the treatment protocol. Renal tissue inflammation was assessed by renal cytokine content and T-cell infiltration and activation. Resting afferent renal nerve activity, expressed as a percent of peak afferent nerve activity, was substantially increased in DOCA than in vehicle (35.8±4.4 versus 15.3±2.8 %Amax). The DOCA-Sham hypertension (132±12 mm Hg) was attenuated by ≈50% in both total RDNx (111±8 mm Hg) and afferent-selective RDNx (117±5 mm Hg) groups. Renal inflammation induced by DOCA salt was attenuated by total RDNx and unaffected by afferent-selective RDNx. These data suggest that afferent renal nerve activity may mediate the hypertensive response to DOCA salt, but inflammation may be mediated primarily by efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity. Also, resting afferent renal nerve activity is elevated in DOCA salt rats, which may highlight a crucial neural mechanism in the development and maintenance of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. The role of Chlamydia Trachomatis in renal tissue in the pathogenesis IGA-nephropathy related to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rakityanskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgA-nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world and therefore the mechanisms of this isease are actively explored. In our study, an analysis of renal biopsy issue from 117 patients IgA-nephropathy in the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen related to age (before and after 60 years. It was shown that the presence of C. trachomatis in the glomerular zone influence on the severity of segmental sclerosis (p <0.05, and its presence in the interstitium affect on the size of the glomeruli (p <0.02 and severity of degeneration of epithelial tubules (p <0.02 regardless of patient age. It was shown the effect of C. trachomatis on the expression of local immune response of kidney tissue. In patients under 60 years: C. trachomatis in the glomeruli affects the number of cells of the phenotype CD25 (p = 0,04 and CD19 / κ (p = 0,034 in the glomerular infiltration and the presence of antigen in the interstitium affect the expression of CD95 (APO-1/Fas (p = 0,038 by mononuclear cells infiltration and formation of deposits S5b-C9 (p = 0,042 in the interstitial space. In patients older than 60 years of presence C. trachomatis in the glomerular zone impacts on the expression of TNF-α (p = 0,039 in the glomeruli, the presence of antigen in interstitium affect the number of cells CD71 (p = 0,025 in the interstitial infiltrate. Based on these results, we concluded that the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen has an impact on the development and course of the disease and is the etiologic agent in patients with IgA-nephropathy, regardless of age.

  14. DNA Amplification Techniques for the Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Tissue Cysts in Meat Producing Animals: A Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq RIAZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite, which infects one-third population of world. Humans and animals acquire infection by ingesting oocytes from feces of cats or by meat of other animals having cysts that may lead to congenital, ocular or cephalic toxoplasmosis. Either it is important to detect T. gondii from meat of food animals from retail shops or directly at slaughterhouses, which is meant for export.Methods: The current research was done without time limitation using such terms as follows: “Toxoplasma gondii”, “Meat”, “Tissue cyst”, “PCR”, “LAMP”, “Screening” and “Immunological assay” alone or in combination, in English language. The used electronic databases for searching included as follows: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct. The searches were limited to the published papers to English language.Results: Sensitivity of different molecular techniques for diagnosis of Toxoplasma is real-time PCR > LAMP > conventional PCR. In addition to these DNA analysis tools, bioassay in mice and cats is considered as “gold standard” to detect T. gondii. Conclusion: This review article will help the readers for grasping advantages and limitations of different diagnostic tools for screening meat samples for T. gondii. This review also makes bibliography about the type of meat sample to be processed for diagnosis and different primers or sequences to be targeted for T. gondii by number of researches for its detection from meat or tissue sample using DNA amplification techniques.

  15. Cytokine investigations in organs and tissues of experimental animals under prenatal hypoxic conditions of varying severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talgat Kudaibergenov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of varying severity experimental hypoxia influences on the content of cytokines (IGF-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ in organs, tissues and cells (blood, liver, brain, uterus, adrenal glands, placenta, placental lymphocytes and macrophages of pregnant rats. The results showed the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis on the local and system levels during experimental hypoxia augmentation. There was found the difference between placental lymphocytes and macrophages secretion. These changes of cytokine profile leads to local deficiency of anti-inflammatory factors and indicate on development of pregnancy complications and “mother-placenta-fetus” system dysfunction.

  16. The use of thermography to design tissue flaps – experimental studies on animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokaj, Marek; Falkowski, Aleksander; Prowans, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Methods allowing one to locate the position of a cutaneous perforator do not allow one to determine the boundaries of the vascularized skin. In clinical practice this causes complications in the form of marginal necrosis of the flap. Aim To examine the usefulness of thermography to assess the extent of vascularization of the skin and subcutaneous tissue by a single perforator. Material and methods Thirty-one male rats were used. Using dynamic thermography the perforators on the abdominal skin were located. Afterwards the flap was prepared on a randomly chosen perforator. After 24 h the extent of vascularization of the skin by a single perforator was examined. Results In 22.5% of cases the number of perforators marked in the thermography was equal to the number of perforators marked intraoperatively, in 64.5% it was lower and in 13% higher. The use of thermography has shown that basing the flap vascularization on the perforator with low efficiency resulted in statistically more frequent occurrence of ischemia and partial necrosis of the flap (p = 0.024). Partial necrosis of the flap occurred in 12 of 31 cases, always in the area in which during the preoperative thermography no perforators were found. The areas of necrosis occurred irrespectively of the distance from the supplying vessel. Conclusions When designing the shape of the flap, the distribution of all perforators must be considered. The perforators need to be included in the area of prepared tissues because their location indicates the area with a more efficient network of vessels. PMID:25337153

  17. Detection of free and covalently bound microcystins in animal tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neffling, Milla-Riina, E-mail: mneffling@gmail.co [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6 A, Biocity 3rd floor, FI-20520, Turku (Finland); Lance, Emilie [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, University of Rennes 1, Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042, Rennes Cedex (France); Meriluoto, Jussi [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6 A, Biocity 3rd floor, FI-20520, Turku (Finland)

    2010-03-15

    Microcystins are cyanobacterial hepatotoxins capable of accumulation into animal tissues. The toxins act by inhibiting specific protein phosphatases and both non-covalent and covalent interactions occur. The 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB) method determines the total, i.e. the sum of free and protein-bound microcystin in tissues. The aim of the method development in this paper was to tackle the problems with the MMPB methodology: the rather laborious workflow and the loss of material during different steps of the method. In the optimised workflow the oxidation recovery was of acceptable level (29-40%), the extraction efficiency good (62-97%), but the signal suppression effect from the matrix remained severe in our system (16-37% signal left). The extraction efficiency for the determination of the free, extractable microcystins, was found to be good, 52-100%, depending on the sample and the toxin variant and concentration. - The study concerns method development for the LC-MS-MS analysis of both free and protein-bound microcystin in tissue materials.

  18. Multiplexed color-coded probe-based gene expression assessment for clinical molecular diagnostics in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human renal allograft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Benjamin; Afzali, Bahman; Dominy, Katherine M; Chapman, Erin; Gill, Reeda; Hidalgo, Luis G; Roufosse, Candice; Sis, Banu; Mengel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Histopathologic diagnoses in transplantation can be improved with molecular testing. Preferably, molecular diagnostics should fit into standard-of-care workflows for transplant biopsies, that is, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) processing. The NanoString(®) gene expression platform has recently been shown to work with FFPE samples. We aimed to evaluate its methodological robustness and feasibility for gene expression studies in human FFPE renal allograft samples. A literature-derived antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) 34-gene set, comprised of endothelial, NK cell, and inflammation transcripts, was analyzed in different retrospective biopsy cohorts and showed potential to molecularly discriminate ABMR cases, including FFPE samples. NanoString(®) results were reproducible across a range of RNA input quantities (r = 0.998), with different operators (r = 0.998), and between different reagent lots (r = 0.983). There was moderate correlation between NanoString(®) with FFPE tissue and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with corresponding dedicated fresh-stabilized tissue (r = 0.487). Better overall correlation with histology was observed with NanoString(®) (r = 0.354) than with qRT-PCR (r = 0.146). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of multiplexed gene expression quantification from FFPE renal allograft tissue. This represents a method for prospective and retrospective validation of molecular diagnostics and its adoption in clinical transplantation pathology.

  19. Early programing of uterine tissue by bisphenol A: Critical evaluation of evidence from animal exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Alexander; Waxman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) during the critical window of uterine development has been proposed to program the uterus for increased disease susceptibility based on well-documented effects of the potent xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol. To investigate this proposal, we reviewed 37 studies of prenatal and/or perinatal BPA exposure in animal models and evaluated evidence for: molecular signatures of early BPA exposure; the development of adverse uterine health effects; and epigenetic changes linked to long-term dysregulation of uterine gene expression and health effects. We found substantial evidence for adult uterine effects of early BPA exposure. In contrast, experimental support for epigenetic actions of early BPA exposure is very limited, and largely consists of effects on Hoxa gene DNA methylation. Critical knowledge gaps were identified, including the need to fully characterize short-term and long-term uterine gene responses, interactions with estrogens and other endogenous hormones, and any long-lasting epigenetic signatures that impact adult disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitochondria and chloroplasts shared in animal and plant tissues: significance of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher; Stefano, George B

    2015-05-25

    Mitochondria have long been recognized as the main source of energy production for the eukaryotic cell. Recent studies have found that the mitochondria have a variety of dynamic functions aside from the production of energy. It communicates bidirectionally with other organelles in order to modulate its energy balance efficiently, as well as maintain homeostasis, ultimately prolonging its own and the cell's longevity. The mitochondria achieves this level of regulation via specific and common bidirectional chemical messengers, especially involving the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR), deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTP's), ATP and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its communication network is also involved in stress associated events. In this regard, the activation of the Bax family proteins and the release of cytochrome c occurs during cellular stress. The communication can also promote apoptosis of the cell. When mitochondrial abnormalities cannot be dealt with, there is an increased chance that major illnesses like type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer may occur. Importantly, functioning chloroplasts can be found in animals, suggesting conserved chemical messengers during its evolutionary path. The dynamic capacity of mitochondria is also noted by their ability to function anaerobically. Indeed, this latter phenomenon may represent a return to an earlier developmental stage of mitochondria, suggesting certain disorders result from its untimely appearance.

  1. TOR pathway activation in Zea mays L. tissues: conserved function between animal and plant kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrocho-Villegas, Verónica; de Jiménez, Estela Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    In most non-photosynthetic eukaryotes it has been demonstrated a conserved signal transduction pathway, namely TOR-S6K, that coordinates growth and cell proliferation. This pathway targets the translational apparatus to induce selective translation of ribosomal mRNAs as well as stimulate the cell cycle transition through the G1/S phase. Thus, by activation of this pathway through environmental signals, nutrients, stress, or specific growth factors, such as insulin or insulin-like growth factors (IGF), this pathway allows organisms to regulate growth and cell division. In plants, evidence has shown that TOR protein has been highly conserved through evolution, being involved in growth and cell proliferation control as well. Particularly in maize, a peptide named ZmIGF has been found in actively growing tissues. It targets the maize TOR pathway at the same extent as insulin and, by doing so it induces growth, as well as ribosomal proteins and DNA synthesis. Thus, higher metazoans and plants seem to conserve similar biochemical paths to regulate cell growth through equivalent targets that conduce to activation of the TOR-S6K pathway. Recent research shows evidence that supports this proposal by uncovering the ZmIGF receptor in maize, providing further means for analyzing the role of the conserved TOR signaling pathway in this plant.

  2. Effects of benazepril on renal function and kidney expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-zhen; WANG Yi; LI Qian; TIAN Yong-jie; LIU Ming-hua; YU Yong-hui

    2006-01-01

    Background Excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the kidney is the hallmark of diabetic nephropathy. Increased matrix synthesis has been well documented but the effects of diabetes on degradative pathways, particularly in the in vivo setting. The renal protective effect of these pathways on matrix accumulation has not been fully elucidated. The present study was understaken to investigate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), the expression of MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in kidney tissues of diabetic rats, and to explore the degradative pathway of type Ⅳ collagen (Ⅳ-C) and the renal protective effects of ACE inhibition-benazepril.Methods Twenty-four healthy male Wistar rats were divided randomly into normal control group (NC group),untreated diabetes mellitus group (DM group), and diabetes mellitus group treated with benazepril (DL group).The rat model of diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (60 mg/kg). After the volume of water was given to the other two groups. At the end of 12 weeks, renal function was evaluated with 24-hour urinary protein (Upro), clearance of creatinine (Ccr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). MMP-2 activity was determined by gelatin zymography. The levels of MMP-2,TIMP-2 and collagen Ⅳ (Ⅳ-C) protein in the kidney tissue were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The gene expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results The levels of BUN, Upro and Ccr in the DM group were higher than those in the NC group. In the DM group, the mRNA, enzymatic activity and proteins of MMP-2 decreased, but the expressions of Ⅳ-C and TIMP-2 increased. All diabetes-associated changes in renal function and MMP/TIMP were attenuated after benazepril treatment with reduced Ⅳ-C accumulation.Conclusions The changes of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expressions in kidney tissues of diabetes rats may contribute to the

  3. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, W.S., E-mail: fernandez@usp.br [Graduate Program in Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g{sup −1} for Fe to 7 μg g{sup −1} for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  4. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pistello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  5. Illumination of parainfluenza virus infection and transmission in living animals reveals a tissue-specific dichotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal W Burke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The parainfluenza viruses (PIVs are highly contagious respiratory paramyxoviruses and a leading cause of lower respiratory tract (LRT disease. Since no vaccines or antivirals exist, non-pharmaceutical interventions are the only means of control for these pathogens. Here we used bioluminescence imaging to visualize the spatial and temporal progression of murine PIV1 (Sendai virus infection in living mice after intranasal inoculation or exposure by contact. A non-attenuated luciferase reporter virus (rSeV-luc(M-F* that expressed high levels of luciferase yet was phenotypically similar to wild-type Sendai virus in vitro and in vivo was generated to allow visualization. After direct intranasal inoculation, we unexpectedly observed that the upper respiratory tract (URT and trachea supported robust infection under conditions that result in little infection or pathology in the lungs including a low inoculum of virus, an attenuated virus, and strains of mice genetically resistant to lung infection. The high permissivity of the URT and trachea to infection resulted in 100% transmission to naïve contact recipients, even after low-dose (70 PFU inoculation of genetically resistant BALB/c donor mice. The timing of transmission was consistent with the timing of high viral titers in the URT and trachea of donor animals but was independent of the levels of infection in the lungs of donors. The data therefore reveals a disconnect between transmissibility, which is associated with infection in the URT, and pathogenesis, which arises from infection in the lungs and the immune response. Natural infection after transmission was universally robust in the URT and trachea yet limited in the lungs, inducing protective immunity without weight loss even in genetically susceptible 129/SvJ mice. Overall, these results reveal a dichotomy between PIV infection in the URT and trachea versus the lungs and define a new model for studies of pathogenesis, development of live

  6. Losartan attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular cell apoptosis in a rat model of obstructive nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Li, Detian; Zhang, Beiru

    2014-08-01

    Ureteral obstruction leads to renal injury and progresses to irreversible renal fibrosis, with tubular cell atrophy and apoptosis. There is conflicting evidence concerning whether losartan (an angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist) mitigates renal interstitial fibrosis and renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis following unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of losartan on renal tubular cell apoptosis and renal fibrosis in a rat model of UUO. The rats were subjected to UUO by ureteral ligation and were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) or losartan. The controls underwent sham surgery. The renal tissues were collected 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after surgery for measurement of various indicators of renal fibrosis. UUO increased the expression levels of α‑smooth muscle actin and collagen I, and the extent of renal tubular fibrosis and apoptosis in a time‑dependent manner. Losartan treatment partially attenuated these responses. Progression of renal interstitial fibrosis was accompanied by phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and altered the expression levels of two apoptosis‑related proteins (Bax and Bcl2). Losartan treatment also partially attenuated these responses. The results indicated that losartan attenuated renal fibrosis and renal tubular cell apoptosis in a rat model of UUO. This effect appeared to be mediated by partial blockage of STAT3 phosphorylation.

  7. Bringing together components of the fly renal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Barry; Skaer, Helen

    2009-10-01

    The function of all animal excretory systems is to rid the body of toxins and to maintain homeostatic balance. Although excretory organs in diverse animal species appear superficially different they are often built on two common principals: filtration and tubular secretion/reabsorbtion. The Drosophila excretory system is composed of filtration nephrocytes and Malpighian (renal) tubules. Here we review recent molecular genetic data on the development and differentiation of nephrocytes and renal tubules. We focus in particular on the molecular mechanisms that underpin key cell and tissue behaviours during morphogenesis, drawing parallels with other species where they exist. Finally we assess the implications of patterned tissue differentiation for the subsequent regulation of renal function. These studies highlight the continuing usefulness of the fly to provide fundamental insights into the complexities of organ formation.

  8. Cutaneous and renal geotrichosis in a giant tortoise (Geochelone elephantopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J M; Arteaga, E; Martinez, J; Rubio, E M; Torres, J M

    1980-03-01

    A case of cutaneous and renal geotrichosis in a giant tortoise, Geochelone elephantopus, at the Zoological Park of Barcelona is reported. Fungal hyphae and spores were seen in skin and kidney. Culture of these tissues yielded Geotrichum candidum. This fungus was isolated from the faeces of 5 other giant tortoises that were housed with the dead animal and from specimens of corn hydroponic culture which is part of their diet. Arthrospore suspensions of the 2 strains isolated from the dead animal's skin and kidney were experimentally inoculated into mice and turtles (Testudo horsfiedi) in order to determine the pathogenicity of G. candidum for animal tissues. Our results confirm its low pathogenicity.

  9. Sample Preparation and Staining Methods for Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins from Animal Tissues

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    Levente Czegledi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics in animal science as well as in other biological sciences is a significant tool in the post-genomic era. In proteomic studies the presence and relative abundance of expressed proteins of a cell, tissue or biological fluid is studied. Recently, the whole genome of more and more domestic animal species is known, but genes and the transcribed mRNA have no direct effect on biological systems as they are regulated by proteins, which explain the importance of proteomics. The most common tool in proteomic approach is the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE, when proteins are separated by their isoelectric point followed by their mass separation as a second dimension. In this study authors used different sample preparation and protein staining methods on meat,  liver and blood plasma and carried out 2D PAGE experiments. The most appropriate sample preparation methods are described in this paper. We concluded that depletion of major proteins in plasma is required but not necessary for meat and liver samples.

  10. Effect of diet on animal performance, lipid composition of subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglou, N; McDowell, L R; Johnson, D D

    1987-01-01

    Two trials were carried out with Brahman beef cattle to study animal performance and carcass characteristics as well as fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose and hepatic tissue, as influence by length of grain feeding period or a pasturing regimen. In trial 1, steers were allotted to three feedlot finishing periods (76, 104 and 146 days) after being backgrounded on pasture. Steers fed 76 days had greater average daily gains (P 0.·05) in these individual subclasses of liver lipids or in triglycerides were observed between the feedlot groups. Liver polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were higher (P < 0·001) at 104 than 76 days. In trial 2, steers fed a concentrate diet gained faster (P < 0·05) than the pasture group after 138 days. Marbling scores, yield grade, quality grade, fat over ribeye and per cent KPH were higher (P < 0·01) for the concentrate group while fat color scores were higher (P < 0·01) for the pasture group. Liver fatty acid analysis of summed ω6 PUFAs of triglyceride, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine were higher for the feedlot than the pasture group. Linoleic acid was higher (P < 0·05) in the TG and PC liver subclass of the feedlot animals while higher (P < 0·05) linolenic acid occurred in the pasture group.

  11. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  12. Detection of Bartonella tamiae, Coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulmi, Hamza; Aouadi, Atef; Bitam, Idir; Bessas, Amina; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-20

    In recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. In Algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. For this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in El Tarf and Souk Ahras, Algeria. Using real-time PCR, standard PCR and sequencing, the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp. and Coxiella burnetii was evaluated in 268/1626 ticks, 136 fleas, 11 Nycteribiidae flies and 16 spleens of domestic and/or wild animals from the El Tarf and Souk Ahras areas. For the first time in Algeria, Bartonella tamiae was detected in 12/19 (63.2%) Ixodes vespertilionis ticks, 8/11 (72.7%) Nycteribiidae spp. flies and in 6/10 (60%) bat spleens (Chiroptera spp.). DNA from Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, was also identified in 3/19 (15.8%) I. vespertilionis from bats. Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of tick-borne lymphadenopathy, was detected in 1/1 (100%) Haemaphysalis punctata and 2/3 (66.7%) Dermacentor marginatus ticks collected from two boars (Sus scrofa algira) respectively. Ri. massiliae, an agent of spotted fever, was detected in 38/94 (40.4%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected from cattle, sheep, dogs, boars and jackals. DNA of Ri. aeschlimannii was detected in 6/20 (30%) Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and 6/20 (30%) Hy. scupense from cattle. Finally, Ri. felis, an emerging rickettsial pathogen, was detected in 80/110 (72.7%) Archaeopsylla erinacei and 2/2 (100%) Ctenocephalides felis of hedgehogs (Atelerix algirus). In this study, we expanded knowledge about the repertoire of ticks and flea-borne bacteria present in ectoparasites and/or tissues of domestic and wild animals in Algeria.

  13. 核因子-κB在慢性移植肾失功中作用机制的研究%Expression of NF-κB p65 in Renal Tissue from Patients with Chronic Renal Allograft Dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊; 李淦洪; 刘璐璐; 姜华; 晏强; 李乾伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of NF-κB p65 and its downstream signal molecules in renal tissue with chronic renal allograft dysfunction (CRAD), and explore their relationship with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy(IF/TA) and urine protein. Methods Immunohistochemical assay and computer-assisted genuine col-ored image analysis system were used to detect the expression of NF-κB p65, regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in 103 renal allografts with CRAD. The relationship of NF-κB p65, RANTES, MCP-1 in renal allografts with IF/TA, serum creatinine and 24h urine protein were analyzed. Ten specimens from healthy renal tissue were used as controls. Results Com-pared to normal tissue, the expressions of NF-κB p65 were significantly higher in renal tissue with CRAD (IF/TA-I: 22.63%±6.37%, IF/TA-II: 38.59%±5.36%, IF/TA-III: 53.36%±8.77% vs control: 7.83%±0.57%, P<0.001), and the expressions were positively related to the pathological grade of IF/TA and RANTES and MCP-1 (r=0.904, 0.736, and 0.857, respectively, all P<0.001). The expression of NF-κB p65 was positively related with inflammato-ry cellular infiltration (r=0.851, P<0.001); serum creatinine level and 24h urine protein were increased with IF/TA grades (r=0.902 and 0.870, all P<0.001). Conclusion The expression of NF-κB p65 in renal allografts is in-creased and is closely related to up-regulated RANTES and MCP-1, inflammatory cellular infiltration, IF/TA, and chronic allograft dysfunction. This may indicate the involvement of NF-κB p65 and its downstream signal molecules in progression of chronic renal allograft dysfunction.%目的 探讨核因子-κB(NF-κB)及其下游信号分子调节激活正常T细胞表达和分泌的细胞因子(RANTES)和单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(MCP-1)在慢性移植肾失功(CRAD)患者移植肾组织的表达及与肾间质纤维化/小管萎缩(IF/TA)和

  14. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  15. Renal morphology of Bradypus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Kastein Faria da Cunha Bianchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the Xenarthras, sloths present a hydric ingestion restricted to water from leaves, fruits, and vegetables. As a first approach to verify whether these animals have some morphophysiological difference which could justify or compensate this low hydric ingestion, the renal anatomy of these animals was investigated, particularly that of maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus. Kidneys from these animals were macroscopically analyzed, through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Bradypus torquatus kidneys are bean-shaped paired organs, located dorso-cranially to the pelvic girdle, between the peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall. The use of histological techniques allowed us to identify, in the cortical region, the renal corpuscles and tubules, and, in the medullary region, a significant amount of interstitial tissue with a collecting duct. The results of this study showed that, although Bradypus torquatus doesn’t drink water directly, its kidneys doesn’t differ from that of most mammals, presenting the same anatomical structure, suggesting that these animals fully reach their hydric needs, basically by consuming leaves, fruits, and sprouts. Nevertheless, in order to confirm this hypothesis, studies on the effectiveness of water reabsorption, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, must be carried out.

  16. Renal dopamine receptors and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tahir; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2003-02-01

    Dopamine has been recognized as an important modulator of central as well as peripheral physiologic functions in both humans and animals. Dopamine receptors have been identified in a number of organs and tissues, which include several regions within the central nervous system, sympathetic ganglia and postganglionic nerve terminals, various vascular beds, the heart, the gastrointestinal tract, and the kidney. The peripheral dopamine receptors influence cardiovascular and renal function by decreasing afterload and vascular resistance and promoting sodium excretion. Within the kidney, dopamine receptors are present along the nephron, with highest density on proximal tubule epithelial cells. It has been reported that there is a defective dopamine receptor, especially D(1) receptor function, in the proximal tubule of various animal models of hypertension as well as in humans with essential hypertension. Recent reports have revealed the site of and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the defect in D(1) receptors in hypertension. Moreover, recent studies have also demonstrated that the disruption of various dopamine receptor subtypes and their function produces hypertension in rodents. In this review, we present evidence that dopamine and dopamine receptors play an important role in regulating renal sodium excretion and that defective renal dopamine production and/or dopamine receptor function may contribute to the development of various forms of hypertension.

  17. Oral Manifestations of Chronic Kidney Disease and Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that significant associations exist between oral disease and diseases involving non-oral tissues. Occasionally, the roles may be reversed and the oral cavity can be severely affected by systemic disease originating in another part of the body. Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrinopathy that occurs as a consequence of chronic azotemic kidney disease. Renal osteodystrophy, the most dramatic clinical consequence of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism is uncommon, but can result in demineralization of maxillofacial bones, loosening of teeth, and pathological jaw fractures. The purpose of this report is to update the current understanding of the pathophysiology of this endocrine disease and to compare the oral manifestations of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in humans and companion animals. A 50-year review of the veterinary literature was undertaken to examine the clinical presentation of renal osteodystrophy in dogs, and to determine what clinical consequences of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism have been reported in domestic cats.

  18. Analysis of 19-nortestosterone residue in animal tissues by ion-trap gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-qing JIANG; Lei ZHANG; Guang-ling LI; Hai-tang ZHANG; Xue-feng YANG; Jun-wei LIU; Ren-feng LI; Zi-liang WANG; Jian-hua WANG

    2011-01-01

    A rapid sample treatment procedure for the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination of 19-nortestosterone (19-NT) in animal tissues has been developed. In our optimized procedures, enzymatic hydrolysis with p-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli was performed in an acetate buffer (pH 5.2,0.2 mol/L). Next, the homogenate was mixed with methanol and heated at 60 掳C for 15 min, then placed in an ice-bath at -18 掳C for 2 h. After liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, the analytes were subjected to a normal-phase solid phase extraction (SPE) C18 cartridge for clean-up. The dried organic extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), and then the products were injected into GC-MS. Using electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with positive chemical ionization (PCI), four diagnostic ions (mlz 666, 453, 318, and 306) were determined. A standard calibration curve over the concentration range of 1-20 ng/g was reached, with Y=467084X-68354 (R2=0.9997) for 19-NT, and the detection limit was 0.3 ng. When applied to spiked samples collected from bovine and ovine, the recoveries ranged from 63% to 101% with relative standard deviation (RSD) between 2.7% and 8.9%. The procedure is a highly efficient, sensitive, and more economical method which offers considerable potential to resolve cases of suspected nandrolone doping in husbandry animals.

  19. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vivian M.; Wes, Ari M.; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Methods: Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. Results: The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). Conclusions: This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time. PMID:25426394

  20. Using stable isotope compositions of animal tissues to infer trophic interactions in Gulf of Mexico lower slope seep communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Becker

    Full Text Available We analyzed the tissue carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope contents of macrofaunal communities associated with vestimentiferan tubeworms and bathymodiolin mussels from the Gulf of Mexico lower continental slope (970-2800 m. Shrimp in the genus Alvinocaris associated with vestimentiferans from shallow (530 m and deep (1400-2800 m sites were used to test the hypothesis that seep animals derive a greater proportion of their nutrition from seeps (i.e. a lower proportion from the surface at greater depths. To account for spatial variability in the inorganic source pool, we used the differences between the mean tissue δ(13C and δ(15N of the shrimp in each collection and the mean δ (13C and δ(15N values of the vestimentiferans from the same collection, since vestimentiferans are functionally autotrophic and serve as a baseline for environmental isotopic variation. There was a significant negative relationship between this difference and depth for both δ(13C and δ(15N (p=0.02 and 0.007, respectively, which supports the hypothesis of higher dependence on seep nutrition with depth. The small polychaete worm Protomystides sp. was hypothesized to be a blood parasite of the vestimentiferan Escarpialaminata. There was a highly significant linear relationship between the δ(13C values of Protomystides sp. and the E. laminata individuals to which they were attached across all collections (p < 0.001 and within a single collection (p = 0.01, although this relationship was not significant for δ(15N and δ(34S. We made several other qualitative inferences with respect to the feeding biology of the taxa occurring in these lower slope seeps, some of which have not been described prior to this study.

  1. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vivian M; Wes, Ari M; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Percec, Ivona

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  2. Dynamic and static small-animal SPECT in rats for monitoring renal function after 177Lu-labeled Tyr3-octreotate radionuclide therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, M.; Swart, J.; Visser, M. de; Berndsen, S.C.; Koelewijn, S.; Valkema, R.; Boerman, O.C.; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    High kidney radiation doses during clinical peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with beta-particle-emitting radiolabeled somatostatin analogs will lead to renal failure several months after treatment, urging the coinfusion of the cationic amino acids lysine and arginine to reduce the renal

  3. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Kumar

    Full Text Available The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI, which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA induced acute kidney injury (AKI characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI. Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI.

  4. Observation on the Efficiency of the Mongolian Gerbil Kidney Tissue Culture Inactivated Bivalent Vaccine for Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董关木; 朱智勇; 安祺; 朱凤才; 刘文雪; 孔艳; 杨立宏; 俞永新

    2004-01-01

    The Z10 and Z37 strains of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) virus and the Mongolian gerbil (Merions unguiculatus ) kidney cells were used to prepare the inactivated bivalent vaccine. A phase Ⅱ clinical trial use of this vaccine was made in 750 Chinese volunteers. The results showed that the side reaction rate was 2.5% and the sero-conversion rate of neutralizing antibodies against Hantaan and Seoul viruses in the inoculated volunteers were 87.6% and 96.3% respectively.

  5. Parathyroid hormone-mitogen-activated protein kinase axis exerts fibrogenic effect of connective tissue growth factor on human renal proximal tubular cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yun-shan; YUAN Wei-jie; ZHANG Ai-ping; DING Yao-hai; WANG Yan-xia

    2010-01-01

    Background Enhanced and prolonged expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is associated with kidney fibrosis. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is involved in the genesis of disturbed calcium/phosphate metabolism and ostitis fibrosa in renal failure. PTH activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is present in renal tubular cells. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism how the signal is transduced to result in extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation, leading to upregulation of CTGF.Methods The levels of CTGF mRNA and protein in human kidney proximal tubular cells (HK-2) treated with PTH in the presence or absence of the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting assay. The activation of the CTGF promoter in HK-2 cells was determined by the dual-luciferase assay. The effects of the protein kinase A (PKA) activator 8-Br-cAMP and protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on MAPK phosphorylation, and the effects of the PKA inhibitor H89 and PKC inhibitor calphostin C on MAPK phosphorylation and CTGF expression were detected by immunoblotting assay.Results PD98059 inhibited the PTH stimulated expression of CTGF, which strongly suggested that the MAPK signaling pathway plays an important role in the PTH-induced CTGF upregulation in renal tubular cells. A PKA activator as well as PKC activators induced MAPK phosphorylation, and both PKA and PKC inhibitors antagonized PTH-induced MAPK phosphorylation and CTGF expression.Conclusion CTGF expression is upregulated by PTH through a PKC/PKA-ERK-dependent pathway.

  6. Prognostic implication of p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 expression in renal cell carcinoma: a tissue microarray study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Facheng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p27Kip1 plays a major role as a negative regulator of the cell cycle. The regulation of p27Kip1 degradation is mediated by its specific ubiquitin ligase subunits S-phase kinase protein (Skp 2 and cyclin-dependent kinase subunit (Cks 1. However, little is known regarding the prognostic utility of p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 expression in renal cell carcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed for p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 in tissue microarrays of 482 renal cell carcinomas with follow-up. The data were correlated with clinicopathological features. The univariate and multivariate survival analyses were also performed to determine their prognostic significance. Results Immunoreactivity of p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 was noted in 357, 71 and 82 patients, respectively. Skp2 and Cks1 expression were not noted in chromophobe cancers. A strong correlation was found between Skp2 and Cks1 expression (P Kip1 levels (P = 0.006 and P Kip1 expression and Skp2 expression were correlated with larger tumor size and higher stage, as well as tumor necrosis. Cks1 expression was only correlated with tumor size. In univariate analysis, low p27Kip1 expression, Skp2 and Cks1 expression were all associated with a poor prognosis, while in multivariate analysis, only low p27Kip1 expression were independent prognostic factors for both cancer specific survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with RCC. Conclusion Our results suggest that immunohistochemical expression levels of p27Kip1, Skp2 and Cks1 may serve as markers with prognostic value in renal cell carcinoma.

  7. Animal-free toxicology: the use of human tissue to replace the use of animals - examples from human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-12-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data.

  8. TLR9 Mediates Remote Liver Injury following Severe Renal Ischemia Reperfusion.

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    Pieter J Bakker

    Full Text Available Ischemia reperfusion injury is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterized by tubular damage. Mitochondrial DNA is released upon severe tissue injury and can act as a damage-associated molecular pattern via the innate immune receptor TLR9. Here, we investigated the role of TLR9 in the context of moderate or severe renal ischemia reperfusion injury using wild-type C57BL/6 mice or TLR9KO mice. Moderate renal ischemia induced renal dysfunction but did not decrease animal well-being and was not regulated by TLR9. In contrast, severe renal ischemia decreased animal well-being and survival in wild-type mice after respectively one or five days of reperfusion. TLR9 deficiency improved animal well-being and survival. TLR9 deficiency did not reduce renal inflammation or tubular necrosis. Rather, severe renal ischemia induced hepatic injury as seen by increased plasma ALAT and ASAT levels and focal hepatic necrosis which was prevented by TLR9 deficiency and correlated with reduced circulating mitochondrial DNA levels and plasma LDH. We conclude that TLR9 does not mediate renal dysfunction following either moderate or severe renal ischemia. In contrast, our data indicates that TLR9 is an important mediator of hepatic injury secondary to ischemic acute kidney injury.

  9. 牛磺酸对缺血/再灌注大鼠肾脏GRP78和Caspase-12表达的影响%Effect of taurine on expression of gene GRP78 and Caspase-12 of renal tissue at rats in ischemia reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚慧; 万慧芳; 涂硕; 刘卓琦; 余乐涵; 万福生

    2012-01-01

    观察牛磺酸(Tau)对肾缺血/再灌注(I/R)大鼠肾脏GRP78、Caspase-12表达的影响及其意义.将Wistar 大鼠30只随机分为假手术组(对照组)、I/R组和I/R+TMP组.采用夹闭双侧肾蒂45 min再灌注24 h制备肾I/R模型.I/R+TMP组在手术前1h按200 mg· kg-1腹腔注射Tau,余操作同I/R组.检测血清尿素氮(BUN)和肌酐(Cr);光镜观察肾小管组织结构变化; RT-PCR和免疫组化检测GRP78、Caspase-12 mRNA和蛋白表达.与假手术组比较,I/R组大鼠血清BUN,Cr水平显著升高,肾组织损伤严重,GRP78和Caspase-12 mRNA和蛋白表达呈显著性增加(P<0.01);与I/R组比较,I/R+ Tau组血清BUN、Cr水平及GRP78、Caspase-12表达均有显著性下降(P<0.05),肾脏损伤明显减轻.牛磺酸对肾脏缺血/再灌注大鼠GRP78、Caspase-12过度表达升高有很好的抑制作用,这可能是它减轻肾脏缺血/再灌注损伤的重要机制之一.%The effects of taurine (Tau) on expressions of GRP78,Caspase-12 of the renal tissue at rats in renal ischemia /reperfusion (I/R) injury was observed. Thirty Wistar rats of either sex were randomly divided into sham operation group (control),I/R group and I/R+Tau group. The animal model of acute renal 1/ R injury was prepared by clamping bilateral renal pedicle for 45 mins and then reperfusion over 24 hours. 1/ R+Tau group was treated with intraperitoneal injection of 200 nag · kg-1 Tau solution 1 hour before surgery, and the rest operations followed the same as that in I/R group. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were detected. The histological changes of renal were observed by HE stainingtthe mRNA and protein expressions of GRP78. Caspase-12 in the renal tissue were analyzed by RT-PCR and immuno-histochemistry,respectively. Compared with the Sham group,the serum BUN.Cr in I/R group had significant increases ,the damage of renal tissue was much severer.the mRNA and protein expressions of GRP78 and Caspase-12 were significantly increased(p<0

  10. Quantitative analysis of penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed using derivatisation with piperidine and stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthoon, van F.L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Heskamp, H.H.; Zuidema, T.; Rhijn, van J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillins are used universally in both human and veterinary medicine. The European Union (EU) has established maximum residue levels (MRLs) for most ß-lactam antibiotics in milk and animal tissues and included them in the National Residue Monitoring Programs. In this study, a novel method is descr

  11. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury Materials & Methods: Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining.Results: The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any

  12. A STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL TISSUE CULTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tick-borne encephalitis virus is successfully reproduced in tissue cultures of the human embryo, HeLa cells , monkey and dog kidney tissue, skin...tissue and the HeLa cells . A cytopathogenic effect is registered regularly in the cultures of human skin-muscle and kidney tissued on the 2nd-4th day...the embryonic skin-muscle tissue of the white rat. The virus’s cytopathogenic effect is not developed in cultures of human lung tissue, HeLa cells , monkey

  13. Renal allograft rejection. Unusual scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, A.G.; Park, C.H.

    1986-11-01

    During sequential renal imagining for evaluation of clinically suspected rejection, focal areas of functioning renal tissue were seen in two cases of renal transplant in the midst of severe and irreversible renal allograft rejection. A probable explanation for this histopathologically confirmed and previously unreported finding is discussed.

  14. Complex behavior of marine animal tissue extracts in the competitive binding assay of brevetoxins with rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, P L; Delgado, J A; Baden, D G

    1997-01-01

    Brevetoxins are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis, an organism linked to red tide outbreaks, and the accompanying toxicity to marine animals and to neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in humans. Brevetoxins bind with high affinity to voltage-sensitive sodium channels and cause increased sodium ion conductance and nerve cell depolarization. The brevetoxin competitive binding assay with tritium-labeled brevetoxin 3 (3H-PbTx-3) and rat brain synaptosomes is a sensitive and specific assay for pure brevetoxins. Here we report that extracts of manatee, turtle, fish, and clam tissues contain components that interfere with the assay by cooperative, noncompetitive inhibition of 3H-PbTx-3 specific binding and increased nonspecific binding to synaptosomes. By determining the "apparent" toxin concentration ("[Toxin]") in the extract at several assay concentrations, a reasonable correction for the complex inhibition could be made using a semilog plot to extrapolate [Toxin] to zero extract concentration to obtain [Toxin]0. Spiking 4 extracts with 60 nM PbTx-3 caused [Toxin]0 to increase by 41 +/- 8 nM, indicating that the noncompetitive components did not prevent the assay of toxin but did reduce the accuracy of the result. Fourfold repetition of the assay of 4 samples gave standard deviations of 25 to 60% of the value of [Toxin]0, so the error can be fairly large, especially for samples with little toxin. Purification of an extract with a 1 g sample prep column of C-18 decreased the complex inhibition by about 3-fold but did not eliminate interference in the assay.

  15. Histopathological changes of renal tissue following sodium fluoride administration in two consecutive generations of mice. Correlation with the urinary elimination of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimcevici Poesina, Nicoleta; Bălălău, Cristian; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Nimigean, Victor; Ion, Ion; Baconi, Daniela; Bârcă, Maria; Băran Poesina, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes) of sodium fluoride on the kidney in two consecutive generations of NMRI mice. An attempt to correlate the toxicity with the urinary elimination of fluoride has been made, as urinary fluoride excretion has been widely used as an indicator of fluoride intake and exposure. Six mixed (males and females) animal groups have been constituted by dividing the populations of mice derived from pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.5 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.5 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage and pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.25 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.25 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage; three types of sodium fluoride treatments were administrated: homeopathic, allopathic-homeopathic and allopathic. When the animals reached the adulthood, by randomization, they were selected in pairs for giving birth to the second generation of mice. No treatments were administrated to the second generation of mice; thus, the urinary elimination of fluoride in the second generation is attributed to exposure at sodium fluoride before birth. The administration of sodium fluoride to the first generation (F1) is realized until the mice reached the adulthood. For the first generation, the urine was collected at three times, every three weeks: at the age of four weeks, seven weeks and 11 weeks; single sampling urine, at the age of four weeks, has been conducted for the second generation. The urine samples have been analyzed using the ion selective electrode method for fluoride. For the histopathological examination, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation; the kidneys were collected in a 10% formalin solution. The preparation of samples for optical microscopy was realized with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The results indicate that the elimination of fluoride was similar (at the second evaluation, at 7-week-old of the first generation) for the both generations

  16. Prediction of drug intestinal absorption in human using the Ussing chamber system: A comparison of intestinal tissues from animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Masateru; Koga, Toshihisa; Kondo, Satoshi; Yoda, Noriaki; Emoto, Chie; Mukai, Tadashi; Toguchi, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    An adequate evaluation system for drug intestinal absorption is essential in the pharmaceutical industry. Previously, we established a novel prediction system of drug intestinal absorption in humans, using the mini-Ussing chamber equipped with human intestinal tissues. In this system, the TI value was defined as the sum of drug amounts transported to the basal-side component (X(corr)) and drug amounts accumulated in the tissue (T(corr)), which are normalized by AUC of a drug in the apical compartment, as an index for drug absorption. In order to apply this system to the screening assay, it is important to understand the differences between animal and human tissues in the intestinal absorption of drugs. In this study, the transport index (TI) values of three drugs, with different levels of membrane permeability, were determined to evaluate the rank order of drug absorbability in intestinal tissues from rats, dogs, and monkeys. The TI values in small intestinal tissues in rats and dogs showed a good correlation with those in humans. On the other hand, the correlation of TI values in monkeys was lower compared to rats and dogs. The rank order of the correlation coefficient between human and investigated animal tissues was as follows: dog (r(2)=0.978), rat (r(2)=0.955), and monkey (r(2)=0.620). TI values in large intestinal tissues from rats (r(2)=0.929) and dogs (r(2)=0.808) also showed a good correlation. The obtained TI values in small intestinal tissues in rats and dogs were well correlated with the fraction of drug absorbed (Fa) in humans. From these results, the mini-Ussing chamber, equipped with intestinal tissues in rats and dogs, would be useful as a screening tool in the drug discovery stage. In addition, the obtained TI values can be used for the prediction of the Fa in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of bioburden on human and animal tissues: part 2--results of testing of human tissue and qualification of a composite sample for routine bioburden determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, John B; Merritt, Karen; Gocke, David; Osborne, Joel

    2012-08-01

    A quantitative method was developed and validated to assess bioburden on tissue from human donors and to compare bioburden determination results to swab culture results from the same donor. An initial study with allograft tissue from 101 donors showed a wide range of bioburden levels; values from no colony-forming units (CFU) detected to >28,000 CFU were observed. Tissues from donors that had swab cultures negative for objectionable microorganisms generally had lower bioburden than tissues from donors where objectionable microorganisms were recovered by swab culturing. In a follow-up study with 1,445 donors, a wide range of bioburden levels was again observed on tissues from donors that were swab culture negative for objectionable microorganisms. Tissues from 885 (61%) of these donors had no recoverable bioburden (donors had recoverable bioburden which ranged from 1 to >24,000 CFU. Identification of bioburden isolates showed a diversity of genera and species. In compliance with the recent revision of the American Association of Tissue Banks K2.210 Standard, the quantitative bioburden determination method was validated with a composite tissue sample that contains bone and soft tissue sections tested together in one extraction vessel. A recovery efficiency of 68% was validated and the composite sample was shown to be representative of all of the tissues recovered from a donor. The use of the composite sample in conjunction with the quantitative bioburden determination method will facilitate an accurate assessment of the numbers and types of contaminating microorganisms on allografts prior to disinfection/sterilization. This information will ensure that disinfection/sterilization processes are properly validated and the capability of the overall allograft process is understood on a donor by donor basis.

  18. Evaluation of water jet morcellation as an alternative to hand morcellation of renal tissue ablation during laparoscopic nephrectomy: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkarakis, John M; McAllister, Marc; Ong, Albert M; Solomon, Stephen B; Allaf, Mohamad E; Inagaki, Takeshi; Bhayani, Sam B; Trock, Bruce; Jarrett, Thomas W

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of morcellation with a new prototype device that uses high-pressure water flow as a cutting/ablating tool and compare it with standard manual morcellation. Ten porcine kidneys were morcellated with the new water jet device and ten with conventional manual morcellation. Morcellation in all cases was performed in commercially available entrapment bags. The two groups were evaluated for morcellation time, fragment size, and perforation rates (macroscopic and microscopic). The kidney size in both groups was similar. Morcellation was significantly (P water jet morcellator group than in the hand morcellation group (5.6 versus 11.9 minutes). The macroscopic evaluation after filling the entrapment bags with normal saline revealed 4 (40%) and 2 (20%) pinhole perforations in the water jet and hand morcellation groups, respectively. The microscopic evaluation revealed an 80% perforation rate in the water jet group and a 20% rate in the hand morcellator group. The size of the resulting fragments in the water jet group was not available, because the morcellated kidney was transformed in a semiliquid form. Therefore, cytology evaluation of the tissue was not possible. Water jet technology can be used to morcellate renal porcine tissue effectively. It is faster, but the problems of safety and histologic evaluation must be solved before this promising technology can be used in a clinical setting.

  19. Tangeretin ameliorates oxidative stress in the renal tissues of rats with experimental breast cancer induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Arivazhagan; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai

    2014-09-02

    Tangeretin, a citrus polymethoxyflavone, is an antioxidant modulator which has been shown to exhibit a surfeit of pharmacological properties. The present study was hypothesized to explore the therapeutic activity of tangeretin against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced kidney injury in mammary tumor bearing rats. Recently, we have reported the chemotherapeutic effect of tangeretin in the breast tissue of DMBA induced rats. Breast cancer was induced by "air pouch technique" with a single dose of 25mg/kg of DMBA. Tangeretin (50mg/kg/day) was administered orally for four weeks. The renoprotective nature of tangeretin was assessed by analyzing the markers of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence in DMBA induced rats. Tangeretin treatment revealed a significant decline in the levels of lipid peroxides, inflammatory cytokines and markers of DNA damage, and a significant improvement in the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the kidney tissue. Similarly, mRNA, protein and immunohistochemical analysis substantiated that tangeretin treatment notably normalizes the renal expression of Nrf2/Keap1, its downstream regulatory proteins and the inflammatory cytokines in the DMBA induced rats. Histological and ultrastructural observations also evidenced that the treatment with tangeretin effectively protects the kidney from DMBA-mediated oxidative damage, hence, proving its nephroprotective nature.

  20. The Use of Fibrous, Supramolecular Membranes and Human Tubular Cells for Renal Epithelial Tissue Engineering : Towards a Suitable Membrane for a Bioartificial Kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Boomker, Jasper M.; Huizinga-van der Vlag, Ali; Smedts, Frank M. M.; Harmsen, Martin C.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    2010-01-01

    A bioartificial kidney, which is composed of a membrane cartridge with renal epithelial cells, can substitute important kidney functions in patients with renal failure. A particular challenge is the maintenance of monolayer integrity and specialized renal epithelial cell functions ex vivo. We hypoth

  1. Boldine Prevents Renal Alterations in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue homeostasis. Since current treatments for diabetic nephropathy do not prevent renal damage, we postulated an alternative treatment with boldine, an alkaloid obtained from boldo with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated or not treated with boldine (50 mg/Kg/day for ten weeks. In addition, mesangial cells were cultured under control conditions or in high glucose concentration plus proinflammatory cytokines, with or without boldine (100 µmol/L. Boldine treatment in diabetic animals prevented the increase in glycemia, blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Boldine also reduced alterations in matrix proteins and markers of renal damage. In mesangial cells, boldine prevented the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in gap junctional communication, and the increase in cell permeability due to connexin hemichannel activity induced by high glucose and proinflammatory cytokines but did not block gap junction channels. Thus boldine prevented both renal and cellular alterations and could be useful for preventing tissue damage in diabetic subjects.

  2. Trauma renal Renal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste de observação contínua, repouso no leito, hidratação endovenosa adequada e antibioti- coterapia profilática, evitando-se uma exploração cirúrgica desnecessária e possível perda renal. As indicações para exploração cirúrgica imediata são abdome agudo, rápida queda do hematócrito ou lesões associadas determinadas na avaliação radiológica. Quando indicada, a exploração renal após controle vascular prévio é segura, permitindo cuidadosa inspeção do rim e sua reconstrução com sucesso, reduzindo a probabilidade de nefrectomia.We present a revision of the renal trauma with emphasis in the radiographic evaluation, particularly CT scan that it has largely replaced the excretory urogram and arteriogram in the diagnostic worh-up and management of the patient with renal trauma. The successful management of renal injuries depends upon the accurate assessment of their extent in agreement with Organ Injury Scaling classification. The conservative therapy managed by careful continuous observation, bed rest, appropriate fluid ressuscitation and prophylactic antibiotic coverage after radiographic staging for severely injured kidneys can yield favorable results and save patients from unnecessary exploration and possible renal loss. The indications for immediate exploratory laparotomy were acute abdomen, rapidly dropping hematocrit or associated injuries as determinated from radiologic evaluation. When indicated, renal exploration

  3. Acute renal graft-versus-host disease in a murine model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Peter M; Bouazzaoui, Abdellatif; Schmid, Karin; Birner, Christoph; Schach, Christian; Maier, Lars S; Holler, Ernst; Endemann, Dierk H

    2017-03-23

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and associated with poor prognosis. Generally kidneys are assumed to be no direct target of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to two different intensity protocols. Syngeneically transplanted and untreated animals served as controls. 4 weeks after transplantation, allogeneic animals developed acute GvHD that was more pronounced in the high-intensity protocol (HIP) group than in the low-intensity protocol (LIP) group. Urea and creatinine as classic serum markers of renal function could not verify renal impairment 4 weeks after BMT. Creatinine levels were even reduced as a result of catabolic metabolism and loss of muscle mass due to acute GvHD. Proteinuria, albuminuria, and urinary N-acetyl-beta-Dglucosaminidase (NAG) levels were measured as additional renal markers before and after transplantation. Albuminuria and NAG were only significantly increased after allogeneic transplantation, correlating with disease severity between HIP and LIP animals. Histological investigations of the kidneys showed renal infiltration of T-cells and macrophages with endarteriitis, interstitial nephritis, tubulitis, and glomerulitis. T-cells consisted of CD4+, CD8+, and FoxP3+ cells. Renal expression analysis of allogeneic animals showed increases in indoleamine-2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), different cytokines (TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL2, IL-6, and IL-10), and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1), resembling findings from other tissues in acute GvHD. In summary, our study supports the entity of renal GvHD with histological features suggestive of cell-mediated renal injury. Albuminuria and urinary NAG levels may serve as early markers of renal

  4. Skeletal Muscle Troponin I (TnI) in Animal Fat Tissues to Be Used as Biomarker for the Identification of Fat Adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong-Sup; Oh, Young-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Jin; Shim, Won-Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the existence of skeletal muscle troponin I (smTnI), well-known as a muscle protein in fat tissues, and the utilization of smTnI as a biomarker for the identification of fat adulteration were investigated. A commercial antibody (ab97427) specific to all of animals smTnI was used in this study. Fat and meat samples (cooked and non-cooked) of pork and beef, and chicken considered as representative meats were well minced and extracted by heating and non-heating methods, and the extracts from fat and meat tissues were probed by the antibody used in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot. The antibody exhibited a strong reaction to all meat and fat extracts in ELISA test. On the other hand, the results of immunoblot analsis revealed a 23 kDa high intensity band corresponding to the molecular weight of smTnI (23786 Da). These results demonstrate that the existence of smTnI in all animal fat tissues. Since there are monoclonal antibodies specific to each species smTnI, smTnI in fat tissues could be used as a biomarker to identify or determine animal species adulterated in meat products. Therefore, an analytical method to identify fraudulent fat adulteration can be developed with an antibody specific to each species smTnI.

  5. Skeletal Muscle Troponin I (TnI) in Animal Fat Tissues to Be Used as Biomarker for the Identification of Fat Adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong-Sup; Oh, Young-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the existence of skeletal muscle troponin I (smTnI), well-known as a muscle protein in fat tissues, and the utilization of smTnI as a biomarker for the identification of fat adulteration were investigated. A commercial antibody (ab97427) specific to all of animals smTnI was used in this study. Fat and meat samples (cooked and non-cooked) of pork and beef, and chicken considered as representative meats were well minced and extracted by heating and non-heating methods, and the extracts from fat and meat tissues were probed by the antibody used in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot. The antibody exhibited a strong reaction to all meat and fat extracts in ELISA test. On the other hand, the results of immunoblot analsis revealed a 23 kDa high intensity band corresponding to the molecular weight of smTnI (23786 Da). These results demonstrate that the existence of smTnI in all animal fat tissues. Since there are monoclonal antibodies specific to each species smTnI, smTnI in fat tissues could be used as a biomarker to identify or determine animal species adulterated in meat products. Therefore, an analytical method to identify fraudulent fat adulteration can be developed with an antibody specific to each species smTnI. PMID:26761680

  6. 糖尿病大鼠肾脏纤维化与CTGF表达的相关性%Correlation between renal fibrosis and protein expression of renal connective tissue growth factor in rats with diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树华; 张俊玲; 孙冬梅; 马琳; 李静; 谢芳; 杨华; 孙萌; 薛瑞凤; 刘洋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between renal fibrosis and protein expression of renal connective tissue growth factor ( CTGF ) in rats with diabetic nephropathy ( DN ) . Methods 18 rat models of DN was established by the intraperitonea injection of streptozotocin ( STZ ) , and then were divided into 4-week group ( n=6 ) ,12-week group ( n=6 ) and 24-week group ( n=6 ) , and 18 rats were included as control group, [which wew, randomly dividing 4-week group, 12-week group and 24-week group ( each n=6 ) ]. The level of renal CTGF was detected by immunohistochemistry technique respectively at different time points, and pathological changes were observed simultaneously. Results The level of CTGF was higher in DN group than that in control group at all time points, and increased gradually with the development of the disease ( P<0.05 ) . The level of CTGF was ( 0.88 ± 0.05 ) ×103/μm2 vs. (0.41±0.06) ×103/μm2 on the 4th week, ( 0.29 ± 0.05 ) × 103/μm2 vs. ( 0.60 ± 0.05 ) ×103/μm2 on the 12th week, and (3.13 ±0.08) ×103/μm2 vs. (1.50±0.05) ×103/μm2 on the 24th week ( P<0.05 ) . The level of CTGF was positively related to the correlation coefficients of renal fibrosis indexes including PVCA ( r=0.89 ) , GCDS ( r=0.87 ) , TIDS ( r=0.76 ) and Ms/Gs ( r=0.82, P <0.05 ) . Conclusion The expression of CTGF may be related to renal fibrosis, so terting of CTGF can be taken as an important method for prognose renal fibrosis.%目的 探讨糖尿病大鼠肾脏纤维化与结缔组织生长因子(CTGF)表达的关系.方法 应用腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(STZ)的方法诱导糖尿病大鼠模型,共成功造模23只,其中18只按照饲养时间随机分为3组;4周(n=6)、12周(n=6)、24周(n=6)],同时设置18只大鼠作为对照组,分别饲养4周(n=6),12周(n=6)和24周(n=6),在相应时间点采用免疫组织化学法检测肾脏CTGF含量,同时进行肾脏病理检测并进行组间比较.结果 糖尿病模型组CTGF蛋白表达在各时间

  7. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read More Acute arterial occlusion - kidney Acute kidney failure Aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Blood clots Renal cell carcinoma Renal venogram X-ray Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Jason Levy, ...

  8. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  9. Tissue-level cytoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, L E; Brown; Renfro, J L; Perdrizet, G A; Rewinski, M; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T; House, S D

    2000-11-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprotected tissues. These functions include transepithelial transport in renal epithelium and attachment and transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelium in response to mediators of inflammation. Evidence pointing to inflammation as a major venue for the heat shock response in vertebrates continues to mount. One such venue is wound healing. Heat shock proteins are induced early in wound responses, and some are released into the extracellular wound fluid where they appear to function as proinflammatory cytokines. However, within responding cells in the wound, heat shock proteins contribute to the acquisition of a state of cytoprotection that protects cells from the hostile environment of the wound, an environment created to destroy pathogens and essentially sterilize the wound. We propose that the cytoprotected state is an anti-inflammatory state that contributes to limiting the inflammatory response; that is, it serves as a brake on inflammation.

  10. The development and application of a cold atmospheric plasma generator for treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Petrova, N. O.; Smirnova, N. V.; Shemet, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    We describe a device for obtaining cold plasma in air at atmospheric pressure using a system of positive high-voltage pin electrodes, which is intended for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals. Plasma is generated due to the development of periodic pulsed discharge of nanosecond duration at current pulse amplitudes 10-20 mA, characteristic frequencies 10-20 kHz, and applied voltages within 8-10 kV. The high efficacy of the proposed device and method is confirmed by the good clinical results of treating large domestic animals with traumatic injuries.

  11. A phase I study of temsirolimus and bryostatin-1 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimack, Elizabeth R; Tan, Tingting; Wong, Yu-Ning; von Mehren, Margaret M; Malizzia, Lois; Roethke, Susan K; Litwin, Samuel; Li, Tianyu; Hudes, Gary R; Haas, Naomi B

    2014-04-01

    Temsirolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1, is approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Bryostatin-1 inhibits protein kinase C, a downstream effector of mTOR complex 2. We observed antitumor effects with the combination of temsirolimus and bryostatin-1 in RCC cell lines. METHODS. Four cohorts of patients received weekly bryostatin-1 (20 μg/m²) with temsirolimus (10, 15, 25, or 37.5 mg) in 28-day cycles. Thirty patients received a total of 138 cycles across four dose levels. Twenty-five patients had RCC (17 clear cell, 7 papillary, and 1 unclassified). Two sarcoma patients with prior cytotoxic therapy experienced dose-limiting toxicity at 15 mg of temsirolimus (grade 3 neutropenia and grade 3 hypophosphatemia). Subsequently, patients with prior cytotoxic therapy were excluded. Two additional dose-limiting toxicities were noted with 37.5 mg of temsirolimus (grade 3 neutropenia and grade 3 creatinine elevation). Consequently, the maximum tolerated dose was defined as temsirolimus at 25 mg and bryostatin-1 at 20 μg/m² every 28 days. Of the 25 RCC patients, 3 patients had partial responses that lasted for 14 months, 28 months, and ≥ 80 months, respectively. Partial responses were seen in both clear cell and papillary histology. This combination of 37.5 mg of temsirolimus with 20 μg/m² of bryostatin-1 was reasonably safe and well tolerated. Durable responses were observed in 3 of 25 patients with RCC.

  12. Precision-cut human kidney slices as a model to elucidate the process of renal fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stribos, Elisabeth G D; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Leliveld, Anna M.; de Jong, Igle J; van Son, Willem J; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Seelen, Marc A.; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; Mutsaers, Henricus A M

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health concern, and experimental models bridging the gap between animal studies and clinical research are currently lacking. Here, we evaluated precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) as a potential model for renal disease. PCKSs were prepared from human cortical tissue

  13. Deuterium MR spectroscopy at 4.7 T. Quantification of tumour and subcutaneous tissue blood flow in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirestam, R; Larsen, V.A.; Stubgaard, M

    1995-01-01

    Deuterium MR spectroscopy was used for the determination of tissue blood flow (TBF). The tracer D2O was injected into the tissue of interest, and tracer washout was followed using a 4.7 T spectroscopy/imaging unit. Normal subcutaneous tissue in rats was studied, as well as tissue influenced...... by vasoactive agents (papaverine and adrenaline). The vasoactive agents introduced changes of 40% in TBF, compared with normal tissue. Normal tissue measurements were repeated using various D2O injection volumes (5-400 microliters). The injection volume 5 microliters gave TBF 11.7 +/- 2.0 ml/100 g.min (mean...... +/- 1 SD). This value was 40% higher than corresponding values observed at larger injection volumes (200-400 microliters). This injection volume effect is probably partly due to a capillary dilution caused by tracer administration, and partly related to the non-physiological deuterium signal decrease...

  14. Identificação da Leptospira interrogans sorovar pomona em camundongos geneticamente selecionados, para a alta e baixa produção de anticorpos, através da técnica de imunoperoxidase em tecido renal e isolamento bacteriano em meio de Fletcher Identification of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in mice genetically selected for high and low antibody production, by means of the immunoperoxidase technique in renal tissue and bacterial isolation in Fletcher medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Santos Haanwinckel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a presença da Leptospira interrogans sorovar pomona em camundongos geneticamente selecionados para a alta e baixa resposta a anticorpos. Todos os animais foram submetidos ao isolamento bacteriano, imunohistoquímica (imunoperoxidase em cortes de tecido renal e coloração através da hematoxilina-eosina. A técnica de imunoperoxidase apresentou-se pouco mais sensível em relação ao cultivo, entretanto, ambas foram bons parâmetros de identificação do agente. Presença de lesões renais mais intensas ocorreram em períodos em que houve maior número de bactérias isoladas em meio de cultivo. Camundongos da linhagem HIV-A conseguiram eliminar as leptospiras com maior eficiência e rapidez em relação as linhagem LIV-A, entretanto o estudo demonstrou que ambas linhagens da seleção IV-A foram eficientes em controlar o processo infeccioso.The present work had the objective of identifying the presence of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in mice that had been genetically selected for high and low response to antibodies. All the animals were subjected to bacterial isolation, immunohistochemical analysis (immunoperoxidase in renal tissue sections and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The immunoperoxidase technique was little more sensitive than culturing, but both were good parameters for agent identification. More severe renal lesions were present at times when there were greater numbers of bacteria isolated in culture medium. Mice of the lineage HIV-A were able to eliminate the Leptospira more efficiently and faster than the lineage LIV-A could. However, the study demonstrated that both lineages of the IV-A selection were efficient in controlling the infectious process.

  15. A pliable electroporation patch (ep-Patch) for efficient delivery of nucleic acid molecules into animal tissues with irregular surface shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zewen; Huang, Yuanyu; Zhao, Deyao; Hu, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhihong; Liang, Zicai

    2015-01-05

    Delivery of nucleic acids into animal tissues by electroporation is an appealing approach for various types of gene therapy, but efficiency of existing methodsis not satisfactory. Here we present the validation of novel electroporation patch (ep-Patch) for efficient delivery of DNA and siRNA into mouse tissues. Using micromachining technology, closely spaced gold electrodes were made on the pliable parylene substrate to form a patch-like electroporation metrics. It enabled large coverage of the target tissues and close surface contact between the tissues and electrodes, thus providing a uniform electric field to deliver nucleic acids into tissues, even beneath intact skin. Using this ep-Patch for efficiently delivery of both DNA and siRNA, non-invasive electroporation of healthy mouse muscle tissue was successfully achieved. Delivery of these nucleic acids was performed to intact tumors with satisfactory results. Silencing of tumor genes using the ep-Patch was also demonstrated on mice. This pliable electroporation patch method constitutes a novel way of in vivo delivery of siRNA and DNA to certain tissues or organs to circumvent the disadvantages of existing methodologies for in vivo delivery of nucleic acid molecules.

  16. Protect Effect of Total Saponins from Momordica charantia on Renal Tissue of Diabetic Rats and Its Mechanism%苦瓜总皂苷对糖尿病大鼠肾保护作用及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关悦; 李扬

    2012-01-01

    探讨苦瓜总皂苷(TSMC)对糖尿病大鼠肾脏保护作用及其作用机制。将Wistar大鼠随机分为4组,A:正常对照组;B:模型组;C:300mg/kg苦瓜总皂苷组;D:100mg/kg苦瓜总皂苷组。灌胃给药每日1次,8周后,检测各组肾组织中空腹血糖、肌酐(Cr)、尿素氮(BUN);放免分析检测血清胰岛素(Ins)、α1微球蛋白(α1-MG)、β2微球蛋白(β2-MG)。RT-PCR检测肾组织血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)水平的变化。与糖尿病组相比,苦瓜总皂苷治疗组肌酐、尿素氮、α1-MG、β2-MG显著降低(P〈0.05),VEGF mRNA的表达减弱(P〈0.05)。苦瓜总皂苷可显著降低糖尿病大鼠组织VEGF mRNA的表达,改善肾功能,延缓糖尿病肾病发展。%To investigate the effect and mechanism of total saponins from Momordica charantia(TSMC)on renal function in diabetic rats.Wistar rats were randomly divided into diabetic model group,diabetic model treated with 300mg/kg TSMC,100mg/kg TSMC and normal control group.The animals were intra-gastriclly administered with corresponding drugs once daily.After 8 weeks,the fasting blood glucose(FBG),blood urea nitrogen(BUN)and creatinine(Cr)were measured,and serum levels of insulin(Ins),α1-MG and β2-MG was determined by radioimmunoassay.RT-PCR were used to detect the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)mRNA in the renal tissue of rats.The levels of α1-MG,β2-MG,BUN,Cr and the mRNA Expression of VEGF in TSMC group were lower than that of diabetic model(P0.05).TSMC could obviously improve renal function and decrease the mRNA expression of VEGF in kidney tissue,and delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic nephropathy model rats.

  17. A correlative study on the resistance index of rabbit renal artery after ischemia-reperfusion and the TNF-α expression in renal tissue%缺血再灌注的兔肾动脉阻力指数与肾组织TNF-α表达的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓梅; 李明星; 李昆萍; 宣吉晴

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨肾组织肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-α)表达与肾缺血再灌注(I/R)后肾动脉阻力指数(RI)的相关性,为评价肾缺血再灌注损伤(IRI)的发生提供可行方法.方法 将48只大白兔随机分为假手术组、I/R组.应用彩色多普勒血流显像(CDFI)监测各组大白兔主肾动脉(MRA)、段动脉(SRA)、叶间动脉(IRA)的RI变化,免疫组化检测肾组织中TNF-α的表达.结果 与假手术组比较,I/R组大白兔再灌注2 h肾动脉无明显RI改变,再灌注8 h 及24 h分别出现SRA、IRA的 RI增大及MRA、SRA、IRA 的RI增大(P<0.05).I/R组8、24 h大白兔肾组织的TNF-α表达水平高于假手术组(P<0.05).各组MRA、SRA和IRA的RI与肾组织TNF-α表达呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 利用CDFI检测缺血再灌注的肾动脉的RI是一种无创、及时的评价肾IRI发生的可行方法.%Objective To explore the correlation of expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) in renal tissue and the resistance index (RI) of renal artery after renal ischemia-reperfusion(I/R) , and provide a feasible method to evaluate the occurrence of renal I/R injury. Methods 48 rabbits were randomly divided into sham operation group and I/R group. Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) was adopted to monitor the changes of RI of main renal artery (MRA) ,segmental renal artery (SRA) and interlobar renal artery (IRA) of rabbits in each group. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expression of TNF-α in renal tissue. Results Compared with sham operation group, RI of renal artery showed no significant changes in rabbits subjected to 2 hours of reperfusion in I/R group,while that of SRA,IRA and that of MRA,SRA,IRA increased in rabbits subjected to 8 and 24 hours of reperfusion in I/R group,respectively(Prenal tissue of rabbits in I/R 8,24 h group was higher than that in sham operation group(P<0. 05). RI of MRA, SRA and IRA in each group had positive correlation with its TNF

  18. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of diabetic and fat fed animals: Effects of insulin and manganese

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baquer, Najma Z; Sinclair, M; Kunjara, S; Yadav, Umesh C. S; McLean, P

    2003-01-01

    ... on these parameters were measured from adipose tissue. An insulin-mimetic effect of manganese was observed in the adipose tissue in the controls and an additive effect of insulin and manganese on glucose oxidation was seen when Mn2+ was addedin vitro...

  19. Nanotechnology combined therapy: tyrosine kinase-bound gold nanorod and laser thermal ablation produce a synergistic higher treatment response of renal cell carcinoma in animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunologically naïve nude mice (Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu) were injected bilaterally on the flanks (n=36) with 2.5 x 106 cells of a human metastatic renal cell carcinoma cell line (RCC 786-O). Subcutaneous xenograft tumors developed 1 cm palpable nodules. AuNR encapsulated in Human Serum Albumin (HSA) P...

  20. [Hyperuricemia and renal risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazzi, Francesca; Bonino, Barbara; Ratto, Elena; Desideri, Giovambattista; Pontremoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an association between elevated levels of uric acid and conditions correlated to chronic kidney diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebral disease, insulin resistance. Several pathogenetic mechanisms at cellular and tissue levels could justify a direct correlation between serum uric acid levels and renal damage. Growing evidence indicating a correlation between urate lowering therapy and renal morbidity could encourage the use of urate lowering therapy in primary or secondary prevention in chronic kidney disease.

  1. Effects of Opioids on Macromolecular Constituents of Animal Tissues%阿片对动物组织大分子成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李定健

    2012-01-01

    阿片系统是调节机体生理活动的系统之一。根据近几十年进行的调查,阿片被认为在控制家畜和其他种类动物生长中起着重要作用。然而有关阿片对家畜组织重量及组织DNA、RNA和蛋白质影响的研究甚少。阐述了阿片对豚鼠、负鼠以及真螈组织大分子成分的影响。虽然阿片是否影响组织功能尚不清楚,但是阿片可以抑制小白鼠和人类的免疫功能。%Opioid system is one of the systems to modulate physiological activities in the body. According to the investigations in recent decades, opioids are presumed to play a vital role in the control of growth in farm animals and other species. However little information is available regarding the effects of opioids on tissue weights and DNA, RNA and protein levels of tissues in farm animals. Effects of opioids on macromolecular constituents of tissues in guinea pigs, opossums and salamanders are described in the article. Although it is unclear whether opioids could affect the function of tissues or not, opioids can induce immunosuppression in mice and humans.

  2. Detecting quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal tissues by using sensitive rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tao; Yu, Huan; Niu, Xiaodong

    2015-05-15

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) based on an anti-N-butylquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (BQCA) monoclonal antibody were standardized and validated for quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) screening in animal tissues and its performance were compared to HPLC. The sensitivities obtained for edible tissue extracts were 1.62 and 1.12 ng ml(-1) for ic-ELISA and TR-FIA detection, respectively. Two samples were spiked with QCA and analyzed by both methods. The recovery values ranged from 92.6% to 112.2% and the coefficients of variation were less than 15% for QCA spiking into swine tissue samples at concentrations of 2.5-50.0 μg kg(-1). Excellent correlations (r(2)=0.987-0.996) of the ic-ELISA/HPLC and TR-FIA/HPLC data were observed for processed samples. The results demonstrated that the ic-ELISA and TR-FIA methods were rapid and accurate for the residue detection of QCA in animal tissues.

  3. 牙周组织再生动物模型的研究进展%Animal models in periodontal tissue regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶成凤

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is an oral disease that causes destruction of the periodontal tissue, periodontal liga-ment is an important part of the periodontal tissue, the loss of periodontal tissue is the main cause of adult tooth loss, and how to terminate the lesions and regenerate the periodontal tissue is likely to be one of the new treatments for peri-odontitis. Animal model counts for much in the periodontal regeneration research, a review about animal model in the periodontal regeneration research and their characteristics will be present here.%牙周炎是以造成牙周组织破坏为特点的口腔疾病,牙周膜是口腔牙周组织重要的组成部分,牙周组织的丧失是成年人失牙的主要原因,如何有效地终止病变并再生牙周组织在将来有可能会成为牙周炎新的治疗方法之一。牙周组织的再生研究中,动物模型起到了非常重要的作用,本文对牙周组织再生研究中使用的动物及其特点做一综述。

  4. The role of Toll-like receptor 2 in inflammation and fibrosis during progressive renal injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaklien C Leemans

    Full Text Available Tissue fibrosis and chronic inflammation are common causes of progressive organ damage, including progressive renal disease, leading to loss of physiological functions. Recently, it was shown that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 is expressed in the kidney and activated by endogenous danger signals. The expression and function of TLR2 during renal fibrosis and chronic inflammation has however not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we studied TLR2 expression in human and murine progressive renal diseases and explored its role by inducing obstructive nephropathy in TLR2(-/- or TLR2(+/+ mice. We found that TLR2 is markedly upregulated on tubular and tubulointerstitial cells in patients with chronic renal injury. In mice with obstructive nephropathy, renal injury was associated with a marked upregulation and change in distribution of TLR2 and upregulation of murine TLR2 danger ligands Gp96, biglycan, and HMGB1. Notably, TLR2 enhanced inflammation as reflected by a significantly reduced influx of neutrophils and production of chemokines and TGF-beta in kidneys of TLR2(-/- mice compared with TLR2(+/+ animals. Although, the obstructed kidneys of TLR2(-/- mice had less interstitial myofibroblasts in the later phase of obstructive nephropathy, tubular injury and renal matrix accumulation was similar in both mouse strains. Together, these data demonstrate that TLR2 can initiate renal inflammation during progressive renal injury and that the absence of TLR2 does not affect the development of chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

  5. The Design and Use of Animal Models for Translational Research in Bone Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    repair,40,41 evaluation of the differential effects of marrow-derived and periosteal - derived cell populations,42 and in screening for the effects of cell...defect or gap in bone (caused by either tissue loss or distraction maintained by internal or external fixation), local tissue loss (particularly periosteal ...as an excel- lent resource. Critical defects are defined as ‘‘a defect that will not heal without intervention.’’ The femur and tibial diaphysis tend

  6. Simvastatin protects bladder and renal functions following spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuler Thomas C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary bladder and renal dysfunction are secondary events associated with spinal cord injury (SCI in humans. These secondary events not only compromise quality of life but also delay overall recovery from SCI pathophysiology. Furthermore, in experimental models the effects of SCI therapy on bladder and renal functions are generally not evaluated. In this study, we tested whether simvastatin improves bladder and renal functions in a rat model of experimental SCI. Methods SCI was induced by controlled contusion of T9-T10 in adult female rats. Simvastatin (5 mg/Kg body weight was administered at two hours after SCI and repeated every 24 hours until the end point. Simvastatin-treated SCI animals (simvastatin group were compared with vehicle-treated SCI animals (vehicle group in terms of the Basso Beattie Bresnahan score, tissue morphology, cell death, and bladder/renal functions. Results The urinary bladder of vehicle animals showed a 4.3-fold increase in size and a 9-fold increase in wet weight compared to sham animals. Following SCI, the urine to plasma osmolality ratio increased initially but decreased 1 week after SCI. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of bladder tissue showed transitional epithelial hyperplasia, degeneration of lamina propria, and enlargement of tunica adventia in addition to detrusor muscle hypertrophy. Rats treated with simvastatin for 14 days displayed remarkable recovery by showing decreased bladder size and maintenance of a normal urine/plasma osmolality ratio, in addition to improved locomotion. The muscularis layer of the bladder also regained its compact nature in simvastatin animals. Moreover, SCI-induced renal caspase-3 activity was significantly decreased in the simvastatin group indicating the ability of simvastatin to reduce the renal tubular apoptosis. Conclusion Post-injury administration of simvastatin ameliorates bladder and renal dysfunction associated with SCI in rats.

  7. Invited review: Diagnosis of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure of farm animals and transfer of its residues into edible tissues (carry over).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Winkler, Janine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the review was to evaluate the opportunities for diagnosing the zearalenone (ZEN) exposure and intoxication of farm animals by analyzing biological specimens for ZEN residue levels. Metabolism is discussed to be important when evaluating species-specific consequences for the overall toxicity of ZEN. Besides these toxicological facts, analytics of ZEN residues in various animal-derived matrices requires sensitive, matrix-adapted multi-methods with low limits of quantification, which is more challenging than the ZEN analysis in feed. Based on dose-response experiments with farm animals, the principle usability of various specimens as bio-indicators for ZEN exposure is discussed with regard to individual variation and practicability for the veterinary practitioner. ZEN residue analysis in biological samples does not only enable evaluation of ZEN exposure but also allows the risk for the consumer arising from contaminated foodstuffs of animal origin to be assessed. It was compiled from literature that the tolerable daily intake of 0.25 μg ZEN/kg body weight and day is exploited to approximately 8%, when a daily basket of animal foodstuffs and associated carry over factors are assumed at reported ZEN contamination levels of complete feed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Renal blood flow in experimental septic acute renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, C.; Wan, L.; Egi, M.; May, C. N.; Bellomo, R.

    2006-01-01

    Reduced renal blood flow (RBF) is considered central to the pathogenesis of septic acute renal failure (ARF). However, no controlled experimental studies have continuously assessed RBF during the development of severe septic ARF. We conducted a sequential animal study in seven female Merino sheep. F

  9. Primary renal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma,the result of chronic pyelonephritis?%肾脏黏膜相关淋巴瘤,是慢性肾孟肾炎的后果吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To report 2 cases of primary renal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), and observe the relations between this rare tumor of kidney and chronic pyelonephritis. Methods: 2renal MALT lymphomas were collected from referral consultation. Detailed clinical information were reviewed, morphological analysis based on the HE section, and immunohistochemistry were performed by CD20, CD79a, CDS, CD10, CD43, CD23,BCL10 and Cyclin D1 antibodies. Results: 2 female patients with age of 48 and 55, respectively, all had a history of chronic pyelonephritis. Under the B ultrasonic and CT scanning a bump in the kidney was found. Renal carcinoma suspected and hereby the whole nephrectomy performed. In the macroscopic, tumors were laid in the renal medulla, with dark red color and ill-defined boundary. In the microscopic, there were mixed lymphoid cells infiltrate which mainly consisted of small lymphocytes, centrocyte-like cells, lymphoplasmacytoid and plasma cells, reactive follicles and lymphoepithelial lesions also could be seen in the lesion, but follicles colonization was rare. In fact, except changes of lymphoma, basic renal disease also could be seen. Most glomeruli were atrophic, some glomeruli were hyperplastic and hypertrophic. Tubules were dilated or contacted, many dilated tubules contained pink-color glassy-appearing casts that suggest the appearance of thyroid tissue.As a result, those 2 cases showed juxtaposed changes of lymphoma and pyelonephritis. Immunohistochemistry showed that tumor cells were CD20 and CD79a positive, CD43 was weak positive, but CD5, CD10, CD23, BCL10 and Cyclin D1 were all negative. Conclusion: Primary renal MALT lymphoma was very rare disease. According to the clinical manifestation, it's hard to differentiate from renal cell carcinoma. But the morphological features were consistent with the classic MALT lymphomas in other sites. Immunophenotypic profiles were helpful for diagnosis. Based

  10. A simple device to convert a small-animal PET scanner into a multi-sample tissue and injection syringe counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael V; Seidel, Jurgen; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M

    2017-10-01

    We describe a simple fixture that can be added to the imaging bed of a small-animal PET scanner that allows for automated counting of multiple organ or tissue samples from mouse-sized animals and counting of injection syringes prior to administration of the radiotracer. The combination of imaging and counting capabilities in the same machine offers advantages in certain experimental settings. A polyethylene block of plastic, sculpted to mate with the animal imaging bed of a small-animal PET scanner, is machined to receive twelve 5-ml containers, each capable of holding an entire organ from a mouse-sized animal. In addition, a triangular cross-section slot is machined down the centerline of the block to secure injection syringes from 1-ml to 3-ml in size. The sample holder is scanned in PET whole-body mode to image all samples or in one bed position to image a filled injection syringe. Total radioactivity in each sample or syringe is determined from the reconstructed images of these objects using volume re-projection of the coronal images and a single region-of-interest for each. We tested the accuracy of this method by comparing PET estimates of sample and syringe activity with well counter and dose calibrator estimates of these same activities. PET and well counting of the same samples gave near identical results (in MBq, R(2)=0.99, slope=0.99, intercept=0.00-MBq). PET syringe and dose calibrator measurements of syringe activity in MBq were also similar (R(2)=0.99, slope=0.99, intercept=- 0.22-MBq). A small-animal PET scanner can be easily converted into a multi-sample and syringe counting device by the addition of a sample block constructed for that purpose. This capability, combined with live animal imaging, can improve efficiency and flexibility in certain experimental settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Renal effects of renal x irradiation and induced autoallergic glomerulonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Casarett, G.W.

    1979-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine what influence a single large x-ray exposure of kidney has on the development and course of an experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) in rats. EAG was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by immunization with Bordetella pertussis vaccine and homogenate of homologous kidney tissue and Freund's complete adjuvant. Progressive arteriolonephrosclerosis (ANS) was observed in right (irradiated) kidneys following unilateral renal irradiation (1500 rad). Rats were either immunized, sham-immunized, irradiated, sham-irradiated, or both immunized and irradiated. Light and immunofluorescent microscopic observation, urine protein content, and kidney weights were evaluated. In immunized-irradiated animals the effects of irradiation and immunization were largely additive. Immunization did not considerably influence the development and course of ANS and irradiation did not considerably influence the development and course of EAG.

  12. Plastination of tissues and organs: interdisciplinary approach to replace laboratory animals that are in use for education and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieski Vlatko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to apply the plastination as an alternative method for protection on animals that are used in education, experiments and research according the European Directive 86/609/EEC. A two years old female guinea pig is used as material. The dissection of muscles as well subcutaneous structures and organs from abdominal cavity is preformed immediately after the death of animal. The guinea pig is plastinated using the protocol for S10 plastination. The plastinated guinea pig has firm consistention, it is dry on hand touch, oddorless and free of any chemical substances. The dissected skeletal muscle enable to learn their topography and easy to understand their function. Because of permanent preservation, the organs from abdominal cavity retain their topographical position enabling complete view of anatomical relationship of organs like stomach, spleen, pancreas and left kidney are, the mesenteries with apart of thin and large intestines, the relationship between the ovary and the horns of the uterus. According the results, the S10 plastination technique can be use for developing an anatomical model from one laboratory animal witch can be used for education process in anatomy. The method of plastination is an important tool allowing 3.R concept to be aplied and widely accepted since plastinated models can reduce using the laboratory animals for education and research purposes.

  13. Military ‘live tissue trauma training’ using animals in the US – its purpose, importance and commentary on military medcal research and the debate on use of animals in military training

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    G Martinic

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant change in the types of injuries sustained on the modern battlefield due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs which are designed to cause severe penetrating injuries to limbs and torso, often resulting in massive haemorrhage in injured soldiers. Massive haemorrhage is the most common preventable cause of death for soldiers wounded in combat1. Hence life saving training techniques and practices are being used by US military medical personnel in an effort to reduce this incidence. ‘Live tissue trauma training’ (LTTT, or ‘combat medic training’2, as it is referred to in the US, involves the use of animals (mostly goats and pigs for the purposes of direct surgical intervention in which physicians and paramedical personnel (military and civilian obtain surgical skills by treating severe traumatic injuries. Once animals are deeply anaesthetized, wounds of the type army paramedics and doctors are likely to see in combat situations are inflicted. Such wounds are then appropriately treated in order to gain valuable ‘trauma care’ experience not likely to be offered in any other form. Upon completion of LTTT, animals are humanely euthanased without ever regaining consciousness. Despite the understandable highly emotive and sensitive nature of LTTT, by providing new combat medics with methods in how to manage critically-injured soldiers within the first few hours post-event, and where there is no local access to doctors or medical facilities, military personnel assert that such realistic training programs are necessary and have facilitated the saving of countless lives of soldiers who have sustained life-threatening injuries on the battlefield.2,7,8,9 In this ‘opinion’ article the author explains how and why animals are used for LTTT and in some areas of military medical research (MMR, as well as why he feels that the continued use of animals for LTTT is justified at this time. He also highlights

  14. Establishment of a model of renal impairment with mild renal insufficiency associated with atrial fibrillation in canines.

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    Zhuo Liang

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF are closely related. No studies have examined whether renal impairment (RI without severe renal dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of AF.Unilateral RI with mild renal insufficiency was induced in beagles by embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney for 2 weeks using gelatin sponge granules in the model group (n = 5. The sham group (n = 5 underwent the same procedure, except for embolization. Parameters associated with RI and renal function were tested, cardiac electrophysiological parameters, blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, and AF vulnerability were investigated. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammation, and oxidative stress were measured. Histological studies associated with atrial interstitial fibrosis were performed.Embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney led to ischemic RI with mild renal insufficiency. The following changes occurred after embolization. Heart rate and P wave duration were increased. Blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure were elevated. The atrial effective refractory period and antegrade Wenckebach point were shortened. Episodes and duration of AF, as well as atrial and ventricular rate during AF were increased in the model group. Plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone were increased, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in atrial tissue were elevated, and atrial interstitial fibrosis was enhanced after 2 weeks of embolization in the model group.We successfully established a model of RI with mild renal insufficiency in a large animal. We found that RI with mild renal insufficiency was associated with AF in this model.

  15. 3D reconstructions with pixel-based images are made possible by digitally clearing plant and animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reconstruction of 3D images from a series of 2D images has been restricted by the limited capacity to decrease the opacity of surrounding tissue. Commercial software that allows color-keying and manipulation of 2D images in true 3D space allowed us to produce 3D reconstructions from pixel based imag...

  16. Experimental Approach to Evaluate the 11C Perfusion and Diffusion in Small Animal Tissues for HadronPET Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rovira, Immaculada; Boisgard, Raphaël; Pottier, Géraldine; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Jan, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The development of a reliable dose monitoring system in hadron therapy is essential in order to control the treatment plan delivery. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the only method used in clinics nowadays for quality assurance. However, the accuracy of this method is limited by the loss of signal due to the biological washout processes. Up to the moment, very few studies measured the washout processes and there is no database of washout data as a function of the tissue and radioisotope. One of the main difficulties is related to the complexity of such measurements, along with the limited time slots available in hadron therapy facilities. Thus, in this work, we proposed an alternative in vivo methodology for the measurement and modeling of the biological washout parameters without any radiative devices. It consists in the implementation of a point-like radioisotope source by direct injection on the tissues of interest and its measurement by means of high-resolution preclinical PET systems. In particular, the washout of 11C carbonate radioisotopes was assessed, considering that 11C is is the most abundant β+ emitter produced by carbon beams. 11C washout measurements were performed in several tissues of interest (brain, muscle and 9L tumor xenograf) in rodents (Wistar rat). Results show that the methodology presented is sensitive to the washout variations depending on the selected tissue. Finally, a first qualitative correlation between 11C tumor washout properties and tumor metabolism (via 18F-FDG tracer uptake) was found.

  17. Experimental Approach to Evaluate the 11C Perfusion and Diffusion in Small Animal Tissues for HadronPET Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculada Martínez-Rovira

    Full Text Available The development of a reliable dose monitoring system in hadron therapy is essential in order to control the treatment plan delivery. Positron Emission Tomography (PET is the only method used in clinics nowadays for quality assurance. However, the accuracy of this method is limited by the loss of signal due to the biological washout processes. Up to the moment, very few studies measured the washout processes and there is no database of washout data as a function of the tissue and radioisotope. One of the main difficulties is related to the complexity of such measurements, along with the limited time slots available in hadron therapy facilities. Thus, in this work, we proposed an alternative in vivo methodology for the measurement and modeling of the biological washout parameters without any radiative devices. It consists in the implementation of a point-like radioisotope source by direct injection on the tissues of interest and its measurement by means of high-resolution preclinical PET systems. In particular, the washout of 11C carbonate radioisotopes was assessed, considering that 11C is is the most abundant β+ emitter produced by carbon beams. 11C washout measurements were performed in several tissues of interest (brain, muscle and 9L tumor xenograf in rodents (Wistar rat. Results show that the methodology presented is sensitive to the washout variations depending on the selected tissue. Finally, a first qualitative correlation between 11C tumor washout properties and tumor metabolism (via 18F-FDG tracer uptake was found.

  18. PF-03882845, a non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, prevents renal injury with reduced risk of hyperkalemia in an animal model of nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eOrena

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR antagonists PF 03882845 and eplerenone were evaluated for renal protection against aldosterone mediated renal disease in uninephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD rats maintained on a high salt diet and receiving aldosterone by osmotic mini pump for 27 days. Serum K+ and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR were assessed following 14 and 27 days of treatment. Aldosterone induced renal fibrosis as evidenced by increases in UACR, collagen IV staining in kidney cortex, and expression of pro fibrotic genes relative to sham operated controls not receiving aldosterone. While both PF 03882845 and eplerenone elevated serum K+ levels with similar potencies, PF 03882845 was more potent than eplerenone in suppressing the rise in UACR. PF 03882845 prevented the increase in collagen IV staining at 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg BID while eplerenone was effective only at the highest dose tested (450 mg/kg BID. All doses of PF 03882845 suppressed aldosterone induced increases in collagen IV, transforming growth factor 1 (Tgf 1, interleukin 6 (Il-6, intermolecular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam-1 and osteopontin gene expression in kidney while eplerenone was only effective at the highest dose. The therapeutic index (TI, calculated as the ratio of the EC50 for increasing serum K+ to the EC50 for UACR lowering, was 83.8 for PF 03882845 and 1.47 for eplerenone. Thus the TI of PF 03882845 against hyperkalemia was 57 fold superior to that of eplerenone indicating that PF 03882845 may present significantly less risk for hyperkalemia compared to eplerenone.

  19. 黄芪对糖尿病肾病大鼠尾加压素Ⅱ表达的影响%Effect of Astragalus on Expression of Urotensin Ⅱ in Renal Tissues of Rats with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志珍; 陈卫东; 杨萍; 张燕; 常保超

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨黄芪对糖尿病肾病大鼠表达的影响.方法 采用高糖高脂饮食和链脲佐菌素(STZ)腹腔注射法建立大鼠糖尿病肾病模型.将大鼠分为正常对照组(NC,n=10)、糖尿病肾病组(DN,n=10)、黄芪治疗组(HZ,n=10)(予黄芪注射液5 ml/kg灌胃).于14周末处死动物,进行以下实验:测定血糖(BG)、胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、血肌酐(Scr)、尿素氮(BUN)和尿蛋白定量(24 h UTP);免疫组织化学技术检测UⅡ蛋白表达,RT-PCR技术检测U Ⅱ mRNA表达.结果 与NC组相比,各模型组肾脏肥大指数(KI)、BG、TC、TG、Scr、BUN和24 h UTP明显升高,HDL明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);HZ组的上述指标与DN组比较,则有明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).与NC组比较,DN组肾组织UⅡ表达增加,U Ⅱ mRNA表达增加(P<0.01);与DN组比较,HZ组肾组织UⅡ表达明显降低,U ⅡmRNA表达显著减少(P<0.05).结论 黄芪可治疗糖尿病肾病,其机制可能与降低肾组织 U Ⅱ蛋白及其mRNA的过度表达有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of Astragalus on the expression of urotensin Ⅱ in renal tissues of rats with diabetic nephropathy.Methods Rat model with diabetic nephropathy was established by high-carbonhydrate and high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ).The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups that is normal control group( NC ,n = 10) ,diabetic nephropathy group( DN,n = 10) ,Astragalus treated group( HZ,n = 10) ( fed to the Astragalus 5 nd/kg).Animals were sacrificed at 14 weekends and under experiment: Determination of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ,low density lipoprotein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urinary albumin quantitative (24 h).immunohistochemical techniques U Ⅱ detection protein expression, RT-PCR technology detection U Ⅱ mRNA expressions.Results Compared with NC group,each model group

  20. Relationship between plasma and tissue corticosterone in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus): implications for stress physiology and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, C R; Hemsworth, P H; Leury, B J; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    This study directly compared the dynamics of change in plasma corticosterone concentration with the dynamics of change in tissue corticosterone concentration in laying hens. In concert, we measured the rate of gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and heart. We evaluated these changes acutely, over 3 h in response to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection, and chronically, over 24 h in response to food and water deprivation. In response to ACTH injection, there was a significant (P physiology under acute and chronic conditions. Our data suggest that extending our evaluation of stress to the site of corticosterone action, that is, the target tissue, may enhance our ability to evaluate stress and the welfare of laying hens.

  1. Effect of plasma immersion ion implantation in TiNi implants on its interaction with animal subcutaneous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotkov, Aleksandr I.; Kashin, Oleg A.; Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A.; Shishkova, Darya K.; Krukovskii, Konstantin V.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.

    2016-08-01

    Here we investigated in vivo interaction of Si-modified titanium nickelide (TiNi) samples with adjacent tissues in a rat subcutaneous implant model to assess the impact of the modification on the biocompatibility of the implant. Modification was performed by plasma immersion ion processing, which allows doping of different elements into surface layers of complex-shaped articles. The aim of modification was to reduce the level of toxic Ni ions on the implant surface for increasing biocompatibility. We identified a thin connective tissue capsule, endothelial cells, and capillary-like structures around the Si-modified implants both 30 and 90 days postimplantation. No signs of inflammation were found. In conclusion, modification of TiNi samples with Si ions increases biocompatibility of the implant.

  2. Expression and clinical significance of NF-κB, CTGF and OPN in mononuclear cells in peripheral blood as well as renal tissues in patients with IgA nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Luo Hao; Chang-Bin Liao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression and clinical significance of NF-κB, CTGF and OPN in mononuclear cells in peripheral blood as well as renal tissues in patients with IgA nephropathy. Methods:A total of 25 nephropathy patients diagnosed with IgA nephropathy and 25 patients receiving nephrectomy due to trauma or tumor in our hospital were studied. Peripheral blood and kidney tissues were collected to test NF-κB, CTGF, OPN, T-bet, GATA-3, RORγT and Foxp3 expressions.Results:CTGF and OPN percentages in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and kidney tissues of nephropathy patients were higher than those of the control group. NF-κB, CTGF and OPN expressions were significantly higher in M1, E1, S1 group patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells and renal tissues than those in M0, E1 and S1 group. T-bet, GATA-3 and RORγT expressions in nephropathy patients’ peripheral blood were significantly higher than those in the control group, and were positively correlated with NF-κB, CTGF and OPN expressions. The expression of Foxp3 was significantly lower than that of control group, and was negatively correlated with NF-κB, CTGF and OPN expressions.Conclusions: The expression of NF-κB, CTGF and OPN in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and renal tissue in patients with IgA nephropathy is abnormally high and can evaluate the prognosis of the disease and the differentiation of CD4+T cells.

  3. Regulation of polygonati polysaccharide on expression of glycosylated end-product receptor mRNA in cardiac and renal tissues of diabetic mice%黄精多糖对糖尿病鼠心、肾组织糖基化终产物受体mRNA表达的调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友元; 邓洪波; 王蓉; 吴燊荣

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Siberian solomonseal rhizome is a sort of Chinese traditional medicine for anti-senilism. The effective component, poly gonati polysaccharide, has the effects of reducing blood glucose and glycosylhemoglobin.OBJECTIVE: To assay regulative effect of polygonati polysaccharide on expression of the key substance of non-enzymic glycosylation of proteinsglycosylated end-product receptor mRNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, so as to develop effective inhibitor for non-enzymic glycosylation of proteins and provide experimental evidences for preventing diabetes and its complications.DESIGN: Randomized control animal trial SETTING: Department of Geriatrics, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University; Department of Cardiology, Haikou Hospital Affiliated to Xiangya Medical College, Central South University.MATERIALS: The experiment was completed in Animal Room of Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University form March to June 2004. A total of 30 BALB/C mice of clean grade were selected and randomly divided into normal control group, model control group and polygonati polysaccharide group, with 10 in each group.METHODS: Diabetic models were established by intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin to mice in model control group and polygonati polysaccharide group. Model establishment would be regard as successful if blood glucose of mouse was 8.0 mmoL/L or above. Mice in polygonati polysaccharide group were treated with polygonati polysaccharide (2 mL/kg per day), while mice in normal control group and model control group were treated with injection of 0.5 mL water once a day for 12 consecutive weeks.After medicine had been given to the mice, they were put to death by decapitation. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to assay expression of glycosylated end-product receptor mRNA in cardiac and renal tissues of experimental animals.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Observation of general situation of mice in each

  4. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  5. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  6. Renal calculus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiantao; Lei, Jun; He, Leye; Yin, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding renal calculus is a risk factor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis. It is highly aggressive and usually diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. We present two cases of kidney stone complications with renal pelvic SCC. These two patients had a radical nephrectomy and the dissected tissues were renal pelvic SCC. Our cases further emphasize that renal pelvic SCC should be considered in patients with longstanding renal calculus. These cases contribute greatly to an early diagnosis and early treatment, both of which will significantly minimize the damage of, and markedly improve the prognosis of, renal pelvic SCC.

  7. [Analysis of the role of neurohumoral systems in action of dopaminomimetic dopamine on ion-regulating renal function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landar', L N; Kuz'min, O B

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine causes in anesthetized rats expressed diuretic response that is accompanied by an increase in GRF and a significant enhance of sodium and potassium excretion. Pretreatment the animals in diclofenac sodium or contrical in doses, that inhibit respectively activity of renal PG-system and kallikrein-kinin system, don't prevent of renal effects of dopamine. Preliminary assignment a direct renin inhibitor aliskiren enhances the diuretic, natriuretic and kaliyuretic effects of the drug. It is concluded that renal PG-system and kallikrein-kinin system are not involved in the formation of renal effects of dopamine. Renal tissue RAS directly included in the mechanism of action of dopamine in the kidney, acting as a modulator, preventing excessive loss of water and electrolytes with urine.

  8. 血管周围脂肪组织在肾性高血压中的作用%The function of perivascular adipose tissue in renal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史吉莹; 刘唐威; 陈蒙华; 谢露; 黎静; 杨晓梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血管周围脂肪组织(PVAT)在肾性高血压发生、发展中的的作用.方法 用两肾一夹型(左侧肾动脉狭窄,右侧肾保留)建立肾性高血压大鼠模型,将20只SD大鼠随机均分为假手术组和肾性高血压组(RH),术前及术后8周末检测大鼠尾动脉血压、心率,术后8周检测动脉环不带血管外周脂肪组织的裸血管环[F(-)]和保留血管外周脂肪组织的血管环[F(+)]对苯肾上腺素(PHE)及乙酰胆碱的反应性;免疫组化法检测一氧化氮合酶(NOS)的表达;光镜下观察PVAT中脂肪细胞和血管结构,并计算脂肪细胞的体积、胸主动脉中层壁厚(MT)、血管内径(LD)及MT/LD.结果 假手术组和RH组中带有脂肪的与无脂肪的胸主动脉比较,前者对PHE的收缩反应下降(P<0.05),而假手术组对乙酰胆碱的舒张反应,在浓度为10-5 mol/L和10-4 mol/L上,F(+)和F(-)差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),F(+)舒张反应性较F(-)高;RH组只有在10-4 mol/L浓度上,F(+)较F(-)舒张反应性高(P<0.05).RH组的血管NOS表达较假手术组降低.PVAT中脂肪细胞形态与大小、两组的动脉结构无明显区别.结论 PVAT对血管舒缩有调节功能;在RH组PVAT这种调节作用减弱;PVAT可能成为干预高血压的新靶点.%Objective To investigate the roles of the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in renal hypertension. Methods Renal hypertension rat mode was established with two kidney one clip (2K1C) technique. Twenty SD rats were randomly divided equally into sham group (SH) and renal hypertension group (RH). Vasomotoricity of aorta with PVAT or without PVAT from the 2 groups of rats in response to phenylephrine (PHE) and acetylcholine ( Ach) was tested after model established for 8 weeks. The expression of NOS was assayed by immunohistochemis-try. Caudal arterial blood pressure, heart rate (HR), microscopic changes in adipose cells and vascular structure and intima media thickness (MT), lumen diameter (LD

  9. Impact of Pregnancy on Underlying Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Baylis, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Normal pregnancy involves marked renal vasodilation and large increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Studies in rats reveal that the gestational renal vasodilation is achieved by parallel reductions in tone in afferent and efferent arterioles so GFR rises without a change in glomerular blood pressure. There is some evidence from animal studies that increased renal generation of nitric oxide (NO) may be involved. Although chronic renal vasodilation has been implicated in causing progre...

  10. Tissue-specific posttranscriptional downregulation of expression of the S100A4(mts1) gene in transgenic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambartsumian, N; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, M

    1998-01-01

    The S100A4(mts1) is a gene associated with generation of metastatic disease. In order to analyze the consequences of alteration of the pattern of expression of the S100A4(mts1) gene we obtained strains of transgenic mice bearing the S100A4(mts1) gene under the control of a ubiquitous...... and constitutive 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) gene promoter. In transgenic animals the expression of the transgene RNA was detected in all organs, but only some of the organs showed elevated levels of the protein. Expression of the S100A4(Mts1) protein was downregulated in the organs...... that normally do not express the gene in the wild-type animal. The transgene RNA is detected in the polysomes indicating that it could be translated into the S100A4(Mts1) protein. The specificity of the S100A4(Mts1) protein expression is determined by a complex mechanism including regulation of translation and...

  11. Proliferative endocrine effects of adipose tissue from obese animals on MCF7 cells are ameliorated by resveratrol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriau, Christopher F; Sauvé, O'Llenecia S; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Wright, David C; Connor, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is clearly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The purpose was to determine if obesity alters the adipocyte adipokine secretion profile, thereby altering the adipose-dependent paracrine/endocrine growth microenvironment surrounding breast cancer cells (MCF7). Additionally, we determined whether resveratrol (RSV) supplementation can counteract any obesity-dependent effects on breast cancer tumor growth microenvironment. Obese ZDF rats received standard chow diet or diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg body weight RSV. Chow-fed Zucker rats served as lean controls. After 6 weeks, conditioned media (CM) prepared from inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) was added to MCF7 cells for 24 hrs. Experiments were also conducted using purified isolated adipocytes to determine whether any endocrine effects could be attributed specifically to the adipocyte component of adipose tissue. scAT from ZDF rats promoted cell cycle entry in MCF7 cells which was counteracted by RSV supplementation. RSV-CM had a higher ratio of ADIPO:LEP compared to ZDF-CM. This altered composition of the CM led to increased levels of pAMPKT172, p27, p27T198 and AdipoR1 while decreasing pAktT308 in MCF7 cells grown in RSV-CM compared to ZDF-CM. RSV-CM increased number of cells in G0/G1 and decreased cells in S-phase compared to ZDF-CM. Co-culture experiments revealed that these obesity-dependent effects were driven by the adipocyte component of the adipose tissue. Obesity decreased the ratio of adiponectin:leptin secreted by adipocytes, altering the adipose-dependent growth microenvironment resulting in increased breast cancer cell proliferation. Supplementation with RSV reversed these adipose-dependent effects suggesting a potential for RSV as a nutritional supplementation to improve breast cancer treatment in obese patients.

  12. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  13. Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonamides in animal tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; He, Mengyu; Jiang, Chunzhu; Zhang, Fengqing; Du, Shanshan; Feng, Wennan; Zhang, Hanqi

    2015-12-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction was developed and applied to the extraction of some sulfonamides, including sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadoxine, sulfisoxazole, and sulfaphenazole, in animal tissues. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the separation and determination of the target analytes. The solid sample was directly treated by matrix solid-phase dispersion and the eluate obtained was treated by homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction. The ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent in this method, which may result in the improvement of the recoveries of the target analytes. To avoid using organic solvent and reduce environmental pollution, water was used as the elution solvent of matrix solid-phase dispersion. The effects of the experimental parameters on recoveries, including the type and volume of ionic liquid, type of dispersant, ratio of sample to dispersant, pH value of elution solvent, volume of elution solvent, amount of salt in eluate, amount of ion-pairing agent (NH4 PF6 ), and centrifuging time, were evaluated. When the present method was applied to the analysis of animal tissues, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.4 to 118.0%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 9.30%. The detection limits for the analytes were 4.3-13.4 μg/kg.

  14. Multiresidue analysis of sulfonamides, quinolones, and tetracyclines in animal tissues by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2016-08-01

    A multiresidue method for the efficient identification and quantification of 38 compounds from 3 different classes of antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones) in animal tissues has been developed. The method optimization involved the selection of extraction solutions, comparison of different solid-phase extraction cartridges and different mobile phases. As a result, the samples were extracted with Mcllvaine and phosphate buffers, followed by clean-up step based on solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridge. All compounds were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in one single injection with a chromatographic run time of only 9min. The method efficiency was evaluated in 5 tissues including muscle, liver, and kidney, and the mean recoveries ranged from 54% to 102%, with inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 14%. The limits of quantification were between 0.5 and 10μg/kg, which were satisfactory to support future surveillance monitoring. The developed method was applied to the analysis of swine liver and chicken samples from local markets, and sulfamethazine was the most commonly detected compound in the animal samples, with the highest residue level of 998μg/kg.

  15. Ultrasensitive and rapid screening of mercury(II) ions by dual labeling colorimetric method in aqueous samples and applications in mercury-poisoned animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi; Wang, Xin; Xue, Feng [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zheng, Lei [School of Medical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Liu, Jian [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yan, Feng [Applied Physics Department, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Xia, Fan, E-mail: xiafan@hust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Wei, E-mail: chenweishnu@163.com [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-04-08

    Highlights: • Rapid and ultrasensitive screening of mercury ions are achieved by using gold nanoparticles based colorimetric method. • Dual labeling strategy is adopted for sensing signal amplification. • The proposed method is successfully used for analysis of mercury-poisoned animal tissues. - Abstract: Rapid and ultrasensitive detection of trace heavy metal mercury(II) ions (Hg{sup 2+}) are of significant importance due to the induced serious risks for environment and human health. This presented article reports the gold nanoparticle-based dual labeling colorimetric method (Dual-COLO) for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Hg{sup 2+} using the specific thymine–Hg{sup 2+}–thymine (T–Hg{sup 2+}–T) as recognition system and the dual labeling strategy for signal amplification. Both qualitative and quantitative detections of Hg{sup 2+} are achieved successfully in aqueous samples. More importantly, the achieved detection limit of 0.005 ng mL{sup −1} (0.025 nM) without any instruments is very competitive to other rapid detection methods even ICP-MS based methods. This Dual-COLO method is also applied directly for real water sample monitoring and, more importantly, applied in analysis of mercury poisoned animal tissues and body fluidic samples, indicating a potentially powerful and promising tool for environmental monitoring and food safety control.

  16. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Robert Y., E-mail: rx-tang@laurentian.ca [Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); McDonald, Nancy, E-mail: mcdnancye@gmail.com; Laamanen, Curtis, E-mail: cx-laamanen@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); LeClair, Robert J., E-mail: rleclair@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6, Canada and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the

  17. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: animal tissue evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Robert Y; McDonald, Nancy; Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν¯fat) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν¯fat in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μs of the remaining fatless tissue. The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, νfat for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν¯fat were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10(-5) sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μs was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μs of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μs of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. For chicken and beef composites, ν¯fat=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μs for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μs of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the differences did not vary from zero in a statistically significant way thereby validating the methods. The methodology to

  18. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  19. Eppur Si Muove: The dynamic nature of physiological control of renal blood flow by the renal sympathetic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter Ricci; Zucker, Irving H

    2016-08-03

    Tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response are widely appreciated as important regulators of renal blood flow, but the role of the sympathetic nervous system in physiological renal blood flow control remains controversial. Where classic studies using static measures of renal blood flow failed, dynamic approaches have succeeded in demonstrating sympathetic control of renal blood flow under normal physiological conditions. This review focuses on transfer function analysis of renal pressure-flow, which leverages the physical relationship between blood pressure and flow to assess the underlying vascular control mechanisms. Studies using this approach indicate that the renal nerves are important in the rapid regulation of the renal vasculature. Animals with intact renal innervation show a sympathetic signature in the frequency range associated with sympathetic vasomotion that is eliminated by renal denervation. In conscious rabbits, this sympathetic signature exerts vasoconstrictive, baroreflex control of renal vascular conductance, matching well with the rhythmic, baroreflex-influenced control of renal sympathetic nerve activity and complementing findings from other studies employing dynamic approaches to study renal sympathetic vascular control. In this light, classic studies reporting that nerve stimulation and renal denervation do not affect static measures of renal blood flow provide evidence for the strength of renal autoregulation rather than evidence against physiological renal sympathetic control of renal blood flow. Thus, alongside tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response, renal sympathetic outflow should be considered an important physiological regulator of renal blood flow. Clinically, renal sympathetic vasomotion may be important for solving the problems facing the field of therapeutic renal denervation.

  20. Efeitos da intoxicação por lítio sobre a locomoção de ratos em um modelo animal de insuficiência renal aguda cirurgicamente induzido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt José Augusto Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O lítio é um metal usado sob a forma de sal para tratamento de episódios agudos de mania e no controle profilático de desordens afetivas bipolares. Pacientes com algum grau de insuficiência renal podem rapidamente sofrer intoxicação por esse fármaco. Nosso objetivo foi verificar a influência da litemia na locomoção em um modelo animal cirurgicamente induzido de insuficiência renal aguda (IRA. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos 61 ratos Wistar a tratamento com lítio por uma semana previamente a nefrectomia unilateral. Trinta ratos foram induzidos a IRA. Foi administrado lítio ou solução fisiológica aos ratos e após observada sua locomoção e concentração de creatinina sérica. Utilizou-se análise estatítica. RESULTADOS: A creatina apresentou-se elevada nos ratos com IRA. A locomoção foi menor nos ratos com IRA que receberam lítio, havendo relação inversa entre a litemia e a atividade locomotora. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo animal cirúrgico de IRA foi efetivo. Ratos insuficientes renais que receberam lítio apresentaram alterações locomotoras comparados aos demais. O aumento da litemia causa diminuição proporcional na locomoção dos ratos.

  1. Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Induces Neurological Side Effects Independent on Thrombolysis in Mechanical Animal Models of Focal Cerebral Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Xue Dong

    Full Text Available Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA is the only effective drug approved by US FDA to treat ischemic stroke, and it contains pleiotropic effects besides thrombolysis. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify effect of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA on cerebral infarction besides its thrombolysis property in mechanical animal stroke.Relevant studies were identified by two reviewers after searching online databases, including Pubmed, Embase, and ScienceDirect, from 1979 to 2016. We identified 6, 65, 17, 12, 16, 12 and 13 comparisons reporting effect of endogenous tPA on infarction volume and effects of rtPA on infarction volume, blood-brain barrier, brain edema, intracerebral hemorrhage, neurological function and mortality rate in all 47 included studies. Standardized mean differences for continuous measures and risk ratio for dichotomous measures were calculated to assess the effects of endogenous tPA and rtPA on cerebral infarction in animals. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable score. Subgroup analysis, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity. Funnel plot, Trim and Fill method and Egger's test were obtained to detect publication bias.We found that both endogenous tPA and rtPA had not enlarged infarction volume, or deteriorated neurological function. However, rtPA would disrupt blood-brain barrier, aggravate brain edema, induce intracerebral hemorrhage and increase mortality rate.This meta-analysis reveals rtPA can lead to neurological side effects besides thrombolysis in mechanical animal stroke, which may account for clinical exacerbation for stroke patients that do not achieve vascular recanalization with rtPA.

  2. Percutaneous Steerable Robotic Tool Delivery Platform and Metal MEMS Device for Tissue Manipulation and Approximation: Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Gosline, Andrew H.; Butler, Evan; Lang, Nora; Codd, Patrick J.; Yamauchi, Haruo; Feins, Eric N.; Folk, Chris R.; Cohen, Adam L.; Chen, Richard; Zurakowski, David; del Nido, Pedro J.; Dupont, Pierre E

    2013-01-01

    Background Beating-heart image-guided intracardiac interventions have been evolving rapidly. To extend the domain of catheter-based and transcardiac interventions into reconstructive surgery, a new robotic tool delivery platform (TDP) and tissue approximation device have been developed. Initial results employing these tools to perform patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure are described. Methods and Results A robotic TDP comprised of superelastic metal tubes provides the capability of delivering and manipulating tools and devices inside the beating heart. A new device technology is also presented that utilizes a metal-based MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) manufacturing process to produce fully-assembled and fully-functional millimeter-scale tools. As a demonstration of both technologies, a PFO creation and closure was performed in a swine model. In the first group of animals (N=10), a preliminary study was performed. The procedural technique was validated with a transcardiac handheld delivery platform and epicardial echocardiography, video-assisted cardioscopy and fluoroscopy. In the second group (N=9), the procedure was performed percutaneously using the robotic TDP under epicardial echocardiography and fluoroscopy imaging. All PFO’s were completely closed in the first group. In the second group, the PFO was not successfully created in 1 animal, and the defects were completely closed in 6 of the 8 remaining animals. Conclusions In contrast to existing robotic catheter technologies, the robotic TDP utilizes a combination of stiffness and active steerability along its length to provide the positioning accuracy and force application capability necessary for tissue manipulation. In combination with a MEMS tool technology, it can enable reconstructive procedures inside the beating heart. PMID:23899870

  3. Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Induces Neurological Side Effects Independent on Thrombolysis in Mechanical Animal Models of Focal Cerebral Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, You-Dong; Liu, Yi-Yun; Ren, Yi-Fei; Liang, Zi-Hong; Wang, Hai-Yang; Zhao, Li-Bo; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is the only effective drug approved by US FDA to treat ischemic stroke, and it contains pleiotropic effects besides thrombolysis. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify effect of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on cerebral infarction besides its thrombolysis property in mechanical animal stroke. Methods Relevant studies were identified by two reviewers after searching online databases, including Pubmed, Embase, and ScienceDirect, from 1979 to 2016. We identified 6, 65, 17, 12, 16, 12 and 13 comparisons reporting effect of endogenous tPA on infarction volume and effects of rtPA on infarction volume, blood-brain barrier, brain edema, intracerebral hemorrhage, neurological function and mortality rate in all 47 included studies. Standardized mean differences for continuous measures and risk ratio for dichotomous measures were calculated to assess the effects of endogenous tPA and rtPA on cerebral infarction in animals. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable score. Subgroup analysis, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity. Funnel plot, Trim and Fill method and Egger’s test were obtained to detect publication bias. Results We found that both endogenous tPA and rtPA had not enlarged infarction volume, or deteriorated neurological function. However, rtPA would disrupt blood-brain barrier, aggravate brain edema, induce intracerebral hemorrhage and increase mortality rate. Conclusions This meta-analysis reveals rtPA can lead to neurological side effects besides thrombolysis in mechanical animal stroke, which may account for clinical exacerbation for stroke patients that do not achieve vascular recanalization with rtPA. PMID:27387385

  4. Determination of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion of animal tissues and sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, R; Das, A K; Cervera, M L; De La Guardia, M

    1996-04-01

    The determination of cadmium in different sample types has been carried out by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with D(2)-background correction using a unpyrocoated graphite tube, after pressurized microwave-assisted digestion. Five chemical modifiers [(NH(4))(2)HPO(4), Pd(NO)(3))(2), Ni(NO(3))(2), thiourea and Triton X-100] have been assayed and nickel nitrate has been found to be most effective for an accurate determination of cadmium in mussel tissue, pig kidney and sewage sludge. The characteristic mass of the method is of the order of 1 pg and the limit of detection is lower than 0.1 ng/ml.

  5. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH detection in animal adipose tissue by means of extracorporeal microdialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, F.; Bizzarri, A.; Cajlakovic, M.; Feichtner, F.; Gianesello, L.; Giannetti, A.; Gori, G.; Konrad, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Mori, E.; Pavoni, V.; Perna, A. M.; Trono, C.

    2007-05-01

    Atypical physiological symptoms can be developed in healthy people under critically ill conditions. pH, pO II and pCO II are informative indicators of the conditions of a living system and can be valuable in determining the physiologic status of the critically ill patients. The continuous monitoring of these small molecules into the interstitial fluid (ISF) is a promising approach to reduce diagnostic blood loss and painful stress associated with blood sampling. Microdialysis is the approach followed for the extraction of the sample from the subcutaneous adipose tissue; the drawn interstitial fluid flows through a microfluidic circuit formed by the microdialysis catheter in series with a glass capillary on the internal wall of which the appropriate chemistry for sensing is immobilised. Absorption changes for pH sensor and modulation of the fluorescence lifetime for pO II and pCO II are the working principle. Phenol red covalently bound into the internal wall of a glass capillary by means of the Mannich reaction and platinum(II) tetrakis-pentafluorophenyl-porphyrine entrapped within a polymerised polystyrene layer are the chemical transducers used for pH and oxygen detection; the ion pair 8- hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt/ tetraoctylammonium hydroxide, dissolved in a silicon-based polymeric matrix, is used for the carbon dioxide detection. A suitable hemorrhagic shock model was developed in order to validate clinically the developed sensors in the condition of extreme stress and the obtained results show that the adipose tissue can become an alternative site for the continuous oitoring of pH, pO II and pCO II.

  6. DNA Advanced Glycation End Products (DNA-AGEs) Are Elevated in Urine and Tissue in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Richard; Shuck, Sarah C; Chan, Yin S; Liu, Xueli; Bates, Steven E; Lim, Punnajit P; Tamae, Daniel; Lacoste, Sandrine; O'Connor, Timothy R; Termini, John

    2017-02-20

    More precise identification and treatment monitoring of prediabetic/diabetic individuals will require additional biomarkers to complement existing diagnostic tests. Candidates include hyperglycemia-induced adducts such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The potential for DNA-AGEs as diabetic biomarkers was examined in a longitudinal study using the Lepr(db/db) animal model of metabolic syndrome. The DNA-AGE, N(2)-(1-carboxyethyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (CEdG) was quantified by mass spectrometry using isotope dilution from the urine and tissue of hyperglycemic and normoglycemic mice. Hyperglycemic mice (fasting plasma glucose, FPG, ≥ 200 mg/dL) displayed a higher median urinary CEdG value (238.4 ± 112.8 pmol/24 h) than normoglycemic mice (16.1 ± 11.8 pmol/24 h). Logistic regression analysis revealed urinary CEdG to be an independent predictor of hyperglycemia. Urinary CEdG was positively correlated with FPG in hyperglycemic animals and with HbA1c for all mice. Average tissue-derived CEdG was also higher in hyperglycemic mice (18.4 CEdG/10(6) dG) than normoglycemic mice (4.4 CEdG/10(6) dG). Urinary CEdG was significantly elevated in Lepr(db/db) mice relative to Lepr(wt/wt), and tissue CEdG values increased in the order Lepr(wt/wt) < Lepr(wt/db) < Lepr(db/db). These data suggest that urinary CEdG measurement may provide a noninvasive quantitative index of glycemic status and augment existing biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes.

  7. leflunomide对IgA肾病大鼠肾脏保护作用的机制研究%Study on protective effects and its mechanism of leflunomide on renal tissue in rat IgA nephropathy model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤颖; 娄探奇; 王成; 彭晖; 刘迅; 唐骅

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察leflunomide对实验性IgA肾病(IgAN)大鼠肾脏病理及肾组织转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)、单核细胞趋化因子-1(MCP-1)表达的影响.方法 建立IgAN大鼠模型,随机分成模型组、泼尼松组、leflunomide组,同时设立正常对照组.用免疫荧光和光镜观察免疫复合物在肾脏的沉积及系膜区基质增生程度;用免疫组化和逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)方法分别检测肾组织TGF-β1、MCP-1的蛋白和基因表达水平.结果 与模型组比较,leflunomide组免疫复合物在肾脏的沉积明显减少,系膜区基质增生程度显著减轻(P均<0.01);leflunomide在基因和蛋白水平均能够有效抑制TGF-β1和MCP-1在肾组织中的表达(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 leflunomide能减少免疫复合物在肾脏的沉积,并且下调TGF-β1、MCP-1在肾脏的表达,减少局部炎症反应,减轻系膜区基质增生,延缓肾脏纤维化的进程,保护肾脏.%Objective To observe the effects of leflunomide on renal pathology and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), monocyte chemotaxis peptidel (MCP-1) in renal tissue of experimental IgA nephropathy in rat. Methods IgA nephropathy model was reproduced in rats. They were randomly divided into leflunomide group, prednisone group, nephropathy control group, and normal control group. The deposition of immunocomplex in renal tissue and degree of mesangial matrix hyperplasia in mesangial region were detected by immunofluorescence and light microscope;the level of expression of gene and protein of TGF-β1 and MCP-1 in renal tissue were determined by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. Results Compared with model group,leflunomide lessened the deposit of immunocomplex in renal tissue, alleviated the hyperplasia of mesangial matrix (all P<0. 01). Leflunomide could also inhibit the expression of TGF-β1, MCP-1 at the level of gene and protein in renal tissue (P<0

  8. Expression of Bax/Bcl-2 in renal tissue of rats with lymphatic flow barrier%Bax/Bcl-2在淋巴回流障碍大鼠肾组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桃艳; 李德祥; 柳刚; 关广聚

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阻断肾淋巴循环对大鼠肾脏细胞Bax、Bcl-2表达的影响及与大鼠肾脏功能的关系。方法选取雄性Wistar大鼠48只,将其随机分为模型组和对照组,各24只。各组大鼠分别于术后第1、7、14、28天各处死6只,留取肾组织标本提取组织蛋白、mRNA和制作石蜡切片。运用Real-time PCR、Western blot和免疫组织化学检测Bax、Bcl-2在肾组织中的表达,并测定24 h尿蛋白和血肌酐水平。结果模型组大鼠的肾功能逐渐减退,随着术后时间的延长,肾功能损害逐渐加重。模型组大鼠的Bax表达明显强于对照组,免疫组织化学显示,Bax的表达主要在肾小管及肾间质,远端小管的表达尤其明显,相反,模型组大鼠的Bcl-2的表达明显减弱。结论阻断肾淋巴循环可导致大鼠肾功能及肾小管间质的损害,并随时间延长而加重,肾细胞凋亡与此密切相关,其中Bax/Bcl-2途径发挥了积极作用。%Objective To investigate the influence of blocking renal lymph circulation on the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 in kidney cells of rats and the relationship of between the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and kidney function of rats. Meth-ods 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the model group (n=24) and the Control group (n=24).6 rats in each group were put to death after 1,7.14,28 days reapectively,and nephridial tissue sample were obtained for extracting protein,mRNA and making paraffin section.The expression of Bax/Bcl-2 in renal tissue was tested using Real-time PCR,Western blot and immunohistochemistry.24 hours urine protein and serum creatinine level were determined. Re-sults The renal function of rats in the model group decreased gradually,and with prolonging of postoperative time,renal function injury aggravated gradually.The expression of Bax of rats in the model group was stronger than that of the con-trol group,immunohistochemistry showed that Bax mainly expressed in renal tubule and interstitium

  9. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbania, Thomas H. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kammen, Bamidele F.; Nancarrow, Paul A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Morrell, Rose Ellen [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Nephrology, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  10. Investigating the effects of food available and climatic variables on the animal host density of hemorrhagic Fever with renal syndrome in changsha, china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is influenced by population dynamics of its main host, rodents. It is therefore important to better understand rodents' characteristic in epidemic areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the potential impact of food available and climatic variability on HFRS rodent host and developed forecasting models. Monthly rodent density of HFRS host and climate data in Changsha from January 2004 to December 2011 were obtained. Monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI for rice paddies were extracted from MODIS data. Cross-correlation analysis were carried out to explore correlation between climatic variables and food available with monthly rodent data. We used auto-regressive integrated moving average model with explanatory variables to examine the independent contribution of climatic variables and food supply to rodent density. The results indicated that relative rodent density of HFRS host was significantly correlated with monthly mean temperatures, monthly accumulative precipitation, TVDI and NDVI with lags of 1-6 months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Food available plays a significant role in population fluctuations of HFRS host in Changsha. The model developed in this study has implications for HFRS control and prevention.

  11. Investigating the effects of food available and climatic variables on the animal host density of hemorrhagic Fever with renal syndrome in changsha, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Liu, Hai-Ning; Gao, Li-Dong; Huang, Cun-Rui; Li, Zhou; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Bi-Yun; Tian, Huai-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is influenced by population dynamics of its main host, rodents. It is therefore important to better understand rodents' characteristic in epidemic areas. We examined the potential impact of food available and climatic variability on HFRS rodent host and developed forecasting models. Monthly rodent density of HFRS host and climate data in Changsha from January 2004 to December 2011 were obtained. Monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) for rice paddies were extracted from MODIS data. Cross-correlation analysis were carried out to explore correlation between climatic variables and food available with monthly rodent data. We used auto-regressive integrated moving average model with explanatory variables to examine the independent contribution of climatic variables and food supply to rodent density. The results indicated that relative rodent density of HFRS host was significantly correlated with monthly mean temperatures, monthly accumulative precipitation, TVDI and NDVI with lags of 1-6 months. Food available plays a significant role in population fluctuations of HFRS host in Changsha. The model developed in this study has implications for HFRS control and prevention.

  12. Percutaneous irreversible electroporation for breast tissue and breast cancer: safety, feasibility, skin effects and radiologic-pathologic correlation in an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Chen, Fei; Shen, Lujun; Zeng, Qi; Wu, Peihong

    2016-08-05

    To study the safety, feasibility and skin effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) for breast tissue and breast cancer in animal models. Eight pigs were used in this study. IRE was performed on the left breasts of the pigs with different skin-electrode distances, and the right breasts were used as controls. The electrodes were placed 1-8 mm away from the skin, with an electrode spacing of 1.5-2 cm. Imaging and pathological examinations were performed at specific time points for follow-up evaluation. Vital signs, skin damage, breast tissue changes and ablation efficacy were also closely observed. Eight rabbit models with or without VX2 breast tumor implantations were used to further assess the damage caused by and the repair of thin skin after IRE treatment for breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and elastosonography were used to investigate ablation efficacy and safety. During IRE, the color of the pig breast skin reversibly changed. When the skin-electrode distance was 3 mm, the breast skin clearly changed, becoming white in the center and purple in the surrounding region during IRE. One small purulent skin lesion was detected several days after IRE. When the skin-electrode distance was 5-8 mm, the breast skin became red during IRE. However, the skin architecture was normal when evaluated using gross pathology and hematoxylin-eosin staining. When the skin-electrode distance was 1 mm, skin atrophy and yellow glabrescence occurred in the rabbit breasts after IRE. When the skin-electrode distance was ≥5 mm, there was no skin damage in the rabbit model regardless of breast cancer implantation. After IRE, complete ablation of the targeted breast tissue or cancer was confirmed, and apoptosis was detected in the target tissue and outermost epidermal layer. In the ablated breasts of the surviving animals, complete mammary regeneration with normal skin and hair was observed. Furthermore, no massive fibrosis or mass formation were detected on

  13. Comparison of different methods for PAS staining of renal biopsy tissue sections%Schiff改良热配方与常见3种配方用于肾脏病理染色的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周展眉; 杨芳; 曹维

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the performance of a modified PAS staining, traditional PAS staining, Lyon's PAS staining, and Tsunahico Watanabe staining for staining sections of renal biopsy tissue. Methods The sections of the renal biopsy tissue were stained with the 4 methods and their staining performance was compared. Results The modified PAS staining method produced a better contrast and a higher resolution and showed a greater stability after repeated use than the other 3 methods for staining the renal tissue sections (P<0.05). Conclusion The modified PAS staining method shows a better applicability than the other 3 PAS methods for staining sections of renal biopsy tissue.%目的 比较改良Schiff染液热配方与3种常见Schiff液配方对肾穿刺活检组织切片糖原染色(periodic Acid Schiff,PAS)染色的影响,以确定自制改良配方的应用效果.方法 笔者经历了5843例肾穿刺组织染色的摸索,改良了Schiff染液的热配方.将该配方与传统热配法、Lyon's欧洲标准冷配法、渡边恒彦冷配法的应用效果进行比较.分别将上述4种配方应用于50例肾穿刺病理常规的PAS染色法和微波快速PAS染色法中,使用IPP图像分析系统进行光密度分析.结果 Schiff染液改良热配方对肾脏组织阳性部位的着色鲜艳程度、清晰程度和重复使用率均优于其他3种配法(P,<0.05).结论 改良的Schiff染液热配方,比传统热配法、Lyon's欧洲标准冷配法、渡边恒彦冷配法更适合肾穿刺活检组织切片的PAS染色.

  14. l-Carnitine improves cognitive and renal functions in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ahmad, Nur; Armaly, Zaher; Berman, Sylvia; Jabour, Adel; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Mosenego-Ornan, Efrat; Avital, Avi

    2016-10-01

    Over the past decade, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached epidemic proportions. The search for novel pharmacological treatment for CKD has become an area of intensive clinical research. l-Carnitine, considered as the "gatekeeper" responsible for admitting long chain fatty acids into cell mitochondria. l-Carnitine synthesis and turnover are regulated mainly by the kidney and its levels inversely correlate with serum creatinine of normal subjects and CKD patients. Previous studies showed that l-carnitine administration to elderly people is improving and preserving cognitive function. As yet, there are no clinical intervention studies that investigated the effect of l-carnitine administration on cognitive impairment evidenced in CKD patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of l-carnitine treatment on renal function and on the cognitive performance in a rat model of progressive CKD. To assess the role of l-carnitine on CKD condition, we estimated the renal function and cognitive abilities in a CKD rat model. We found that all CKD animals exhibited renal function deterioration, as indicated by elevated serum creatinine, BUN, and ample histopathological abnormalities. l-Carnitine treatment of CKD rats significantly reduced serum creatinine and BUN, attenuated renal hypertrophy and decreased renal tissue damage. In addition, in the two way shuttle avoidance learning, CKD animals showed cognitive impairment which recovered by the administration of l-carnitine. We conclude that in a rat model of CKD, l-carnitine administration significantly improved cognitive and renal functions.

  15. Effect of Simvastatin on Renal Fibrosis after Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Khayat Nouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Comparative reductase inhibitors, such as simvastatin increase HDL-cholestrol and decrease serum triglyceride and cholesterol. It is widely recognized that statins have organ protective nature and most effective for organ damage progressing. Obstructive uropathy can be used to indicate any obstruction to urinary flow; which causes a developing of hydronephrosis, tubular atrophy and associated renal impairment. The aim of this study was evaluation of the simvastatin effect on renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction in rat. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO and randomly divided into five groups (ten rats in each group as follows: (1 control group; (2 UUO; (3 UUO/SIM; (4 Sham-operated; (5 Sham/SIM. Control animals received orally drug solvent by gavage for 15 days (started one day before operation. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was performed in groups 2 and 3 and sham operations were performed in groups 4 and 5. In group 2 animals received drug solvent and in group 3 animals received simvastatin (2 mg/kg/twice daily for 15 days (started one day before operation. Rats were sacrificed either at day 14 for histopathological evaluation with H&E, masson-trichrome and PAS technique. Results: In this investigation histopathologic evaluation approved that in UUO group, renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular epithelial necrosis, hemorrhage, interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells, tubular atrophy, glumerular tufts expanding, periglomerular sclerosis, subcapsular fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and peritubular capillaries edema were observed. But in simvastatin treated animals this histopatologic lesions and fibrosis significantly (p<0.05 decreased. There was no difference between control and sham groups.Conclusion: In this investigation our results showed that ureteral obstruction increased renal fibrosis and

  16. Impact of pregnancy on underlying renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Normal pregnancy involves marked renal vasodilation and large increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Studies in rats reveal that the gestational renal vasodilation is achieved by parallel reductions in tone in afferent and efferent arterioles so GFR rises without a change in glomerular blood pressure. There is some evidence from animal studies that increased renal generation of nitric oxide (NO) may be involved. Although chronic renal vasodilation has been implicated in causing progression of renal disease in nonpregnant states by glomerular hypertension, there are no long-term deleterious effects of pregnancies on the kidney when maternal renal function is normal because glomerular blood pressure remains normal. When maternal renal function is compromised before conception, there are no long-term adverse effects on renal function in most types of renal disease, providing that the GFR is well maintained before conception. When serum creatinine exceeds approximately 1.4 mg/dL, pregnancy may accelerate the renal disease increases and when serum creatinine >2 mg/dL, the chances are greater than 1 in 3 that pregnancy will hasten the progression of the renal disease. The available animal studies suggest that glomerular hypertension does not occur despite diverse injuries. Thus, the mechanisms of the adverse interaction between pregnancy and underlying renal disease remain unknown.

  17. A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in human and laboratory animal biological fluids and tissues by PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoqin; Wu, Shuangchan; Yue, Yuan; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yuting; Tao, Li; Tian, Hui; Xie, Jianmei; Ding, Hong

    2013-12-30

    A high-throughput method for the determination of 28 mycotoxins involving pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been optimised and validated for determination in various biological fluids and tissues of human and laboratory animals. High-throughput analysis was achieved using PLE pre-treatment and without the need for any cleanup. The extraction solvent was acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/19/1, v/v/v). The static extraction time was 5min. The extraction pressure and temperature were 1500psi and 140°C, respectively. The flush volume was 60%. The limits of detection, which were defined as CCα, varied from 0.01μg/kg (μg/L) to 0.69μg/kg (μg/L). The recoveries of spiked samples from 0.20μg/kg (μg/L) to 2μg/kg (μg/L) ranged from 71% to 100.5% with relative standard deviations of less than 17.5%, except FB1 and FB2 recoveries, which were lower than 60%. The method was successfully applied in real samples, and the data indicate that this technique is a useful analytical method for the determination of mycotoxins from humans and animals. To the best of our knowledge, this method is the first for the large-scale testing of multi-class mycotoxins in all types of biological fluids and tissues that uses PLE and HPLC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  19. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    lesion. Three cases of renal angiomyolipoma, 2 of which underwent perfusion-fixation, were studied by electron microscopy to clarify the cellular composition of this lesion. In the smooth muscle cells abundant accumulation of glycogen was found, whereas the lipocytes disclosed normal ultrastructural......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  20. Traceability of animal byproducts in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica tissues using carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Móri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistent information on meat products consumed by the public is essential. The technique of stable isotopes is a powerful tool to recover consumers' confidence, as it allows the detection of animal byproduct residues in poultry meat, particularly in quail meat. This study aimed at checking the presence of poultry byproduct mixtures in quail diets by applying the technique of carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N stable isotopes in quail breast muscle, keel, and tibia. Sixty four one-day-old male quails were obtained from a commercial farm. Birds were housed in an experimental house from one to 42 days of age, and were randomly distributed into 8 experimental treatments, and fed diets containing poultry offal meal (POM, bovine meat and bone meal (MBM or poultry feather meal (PFM, or their mixtures. Four birds per treatment were slaughtered at 42 days of age, and breast (Pectoralis major, keel, and tibia were collected for analyses. The inclusion of animal byproducts in quail diets was detected by 13C e 15N analyses in the tissues of the birds; however, it was not possible to specify which byproducts were used. It was concluded that quail meat can be certified by the technique of stable isotopes.

  1. Clinical utility of concurrent single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray on fresh tissue as a supplementary test in the diagnosis of renal epithelial neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heidi H; McDermott, Annie; Smith, M Timothy; Savage, Stephen J; Wolff, Daynna J

    2015-11-01

    The histologic and immunohistochemical variability of renal epithelial tumors makes classification difficult; with significant clinical implications, efforts to make the proper diagnoses are necessary. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray analysis has been proposed as a supplementary study for the classification of renal epithelial neoplasms; however, its practical use in the routine clinical setting has not been explored. Surgical pathology cases that were classified histologically as renal epithelial tumor subtypes and had concurrent SNP microarray were retrospectively reviewed to correlate tumor morphology and SNP microarray results. Of the 99 cases reviewed, 88 (89%) had concordant histologic and microarray results. Four (4%) cases were unclassifiable by microarray due to uncharacteristic chromosomal abnormalities. Seven (7%) of the 99 cases had discordant microarray and histologic diagnoses, and following review of the histology, the diagnoses in two of these cases were subsequently changed. For most cases, concurrent SNP microarray confirmed the histologic diagnosis. However, discrepant microarray results prompted review of morphology and further ancillary studies, resulting in amendment of the final diagnosis in 29% of discrepant cases. SNP microarray analysis can be used to assist with the diagnosis of renal epithelial tumors, particularly those with atypical morphologic features. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  2. Significance of Expression of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Renal Biopsy Tissue from Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy%IgA肾病患者肾组织单核细胞趋化蛋白-1表达的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓庆; 高进

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨原发性IgA肾病(IgAN)患者肾组织单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(MCP-1)的表达变化.方法 选择经皮肾组织穿刺活检确诊为IgAN的患者40例.根据肾脏病理Lee氏分级(Ⅰ~Ⅴ级)将纳入研究的患者分为2组:A组20例,病理分级为Ⅰ~Ⅲ级;B组20例,病理分级为Ⅳ~Ⅴ级.对照组20例标本选取手术切除的肾肿瘤、肾囊肿患者远离病变组织的正常肾组织.同时将肾组织的肾小管和肾间质按照Katafuchi标准分为无间质病变组21例,轻度间质病变组8例,中度间质病变组19例和重度间质病变组12例.均采用免疫组织化学方法测定其肾组织中MCP-1的表达(以灰度值反映),观察其肾组织切片的染色强度及染色透光度,灰度值大则MCP-1表达少,反之则表达多.结果 根据肾脏病理Lee分级分组,各组灰度值比较:B组灰度值(68.08±2.37)与A组灰度值(74.50±3.27)比较、B组与对照组灰度值(81.98±3.21)比较、A 组与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(Pa<0.01);根据Katafuchi标准分组,无间质病变组、轻度间质病变组、中度间质病变组及重度间质病变组灰度值分别为82.03±3.13、76.44±2.01、71.49±1.69、66.54±1.23,各组比较差异均有统计学意义(Pa<0.01).结论 MCP-1可反映原发性IgAN患者肾组织的病理损害程度,且表达水平与肾组织损害程度有关.%objective To explore the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein - 1( MCP - 1) in renal biopsy tissue from IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. Methods Forty patients were diagnosed as IgAN by renal biopsy, and they were divided into 2 groups according to Lee classification ( Ⅰ - Ⅴ grade) :group A included 20 cases( Lee Ⅰ - Ⅲ grade) and group B included the other 20 cases( Lee Ⅳ - Ⅴgrade). The control group included 20 patients diagnosed as having normal kidney tissue by renal biopsy, whose kidney tissue came from patients whose renal tumors and renal cysts were removed. In the

  3. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  4. Nova técnica para treinamento em acessos vasculares guiados por ultrassom utilizando modelo de tecido animal New technique for ultrasound-guided vascular access training using an animal tissue model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Barbosa de Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ultrassonografia Doppler deixou de ter seu uso apenas como método diagnóstico e vem galgando espaço nos procedimentos terapêuticos. Com maior aplicabilidade e uso de cateteres venosos centrais e procedimentos guiados por ultrassom, há preocupação com a melhora da eficácia e segurança durante o procedimento, assim como com a diminuição das potenciais complicações. Para isso, o treinamento da técnica em modelos (phantoms é desejável. Os modelos industrializados para treinamento em acesso vascular guiado por ultrassom são caros e não reproduzem adequadamente a ecotextura e a densidade dos tecidos humanos. Na tentativa de treinar e aprimorar os profissionais para o uso do ultrassom em procedimentos de acessos vasculares, desenvolveu-se um modelo animal de baixo custo, fácil confecção e excelente aplicabilidade.Duplex ultrasonography has not been used only as a noninvasive diagnostic method. Recently it has been applied for therapeutic procedures. Due to the increasing use and applicability of central venous catheters and eco-guided vascular procedures, there are concerns about improving results regarding accuracy and safety, reducing complication rates during those procedures. It would be desirable that training was accomplished using phantoms before actual procedures in human subjects. Industrialized phantoms are expensive and they do not reproduce human's ecographic density and texture. In order to train and improve ultrasound guided vascular access, we have developed a cheap animal tissue model, which is of easy preparation and applicability.

  5. Application of the LUminometric Methylation Assay to ecological species: tissue quality requirements and a survey of DNA methylation levels in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jessica A; Mittal, Krittika; Basu, Niladri

    2014-09-01

    The LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA) measures global DNA methylation. LUMA depends on digestion of DNA with methyl-sensitive and methyl-insensitive restriction enzymes, followed by pyrosequencing. Until recently, LUMA has been principally used for biomedical research. Here, we use chickens as a model to investigate sample quality issues relating to LUMA and then apply the method to ecological species. First, we assessed the effect of tissue storage conditions on DNA methylation values. This is an important consideration for ecological species because samples are not always ideally preserved and LUMA is sensitive to poor DNA quality. We found that good quality LUMA data could be obtained from chicken liver and brain tissues stored at 21 °C for at least 2 and 12 h, respectively. Longer storage times introduced nonspecific peaks to pyrograms which were associated with reduced DNA methylation. Repeatedly, freezing and thawing the tissues did not affect LUMA data. Second, we measured DNA methylation in 12 species representing five animal classes: amphibians (African and Western clawed frog), reptiles (green anole lizard), fish (yellow perch, goldfish, lake trout), mammals (American mink, polar bear, short-beaked common dolphin, Atlantic white-sided dolphin) and birds (chicken, Japanese quail). We saw a pattern of high DNA methylation in fish (84-87%), and intermediate levels in mammals (68-72%) and birds (52-71%). This pattern corresponds well with previous measures of DNA methylation generated by HPLC. Our data represent the first CpG methylation values to be reported in several species and provide a basis for studying patterns of epigenetic inheritance in an ecological context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Liuwei Dihuang pill treats diabetic nephropathy in rats by inhibiting of TGF-β/SMADS, MAPK, and NF-kB and upregulating expression of cytoglobin in renal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhong Ju; Shu, Shi; Li, Zhi Jie; Liu, Yu Min; Zhang, Rui Yi; Zhang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Liuwei Dihuang pill (LDP) was assessed for its effects on renal deficiency. 90 STZ induced DN rats were divided into groups (n = 22) without treatment (STZ) and LDP treated (STZ-L) (n = 23), Zhenwu decoction treated (STZ-Z) (n = 22), and valsartan treated (STZ-V) (n = 23) groups, with 16 normal control rats. Total urine protein (TP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Cr) were measured. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as expression/phosphorylation of SMAD3, SMAD2, and α-SMA, TGF-β, RI /II, P38, ERK, and NF-kB in renal tissues were determined. In vitro experiments analyzed the effect of enhanced TGF-β containing rat serums of the STZ groups on mesangial cells with and without transient transfection with a cytoglobin-containing plasmid. LDP treatment reduced the kidney coefficient, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urine protein and prevented pathological changes. Expression of SOD and NOS in kidney tissue was increased but MDA expression reduced. LDP modulated multiple pathways, and its administration inhibited the phosphorylation of SMADS, ERK, p38, and the expression of NF-kB, α-SMA, and TGF-β RI/II, and upregulated the expression of cytoglobin. In vitro studies revealed that overexpression of cytoglobin suppressed phosphorylation of Smad2, ERK, and p38 induced by TGF-β and expression of NF-kB, α-SMA, and TGF-β RI. LDP prevented renal fibrosis and protected glomerular mesangial cells by upregulation of cytoglobin and suppression of multiple pathways involving TGF-β/SMADS, MAPK, NF-kB signaling. PMID:28099346

  7. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all acknowle

  8. Renal fallure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920705 Endothelin and acute renal failure:study on their relationship and possiblemechanisms. LIN Shanyan(林善锬), et al.Renal Res Lab, Huashan Hosp, Shanghai MedUniv, Shanghai, 200040. Natl Med J China 1992;72(4): 201-205. In order to investigate the role of endothelin

  9. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  10. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  11. Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1, 2, 4 and 5) expression in human corneal cell culture models and animal corneal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Jessica; Reichl, Stephan

    2014-07-07

    Preclinical studies addressing the transcorneal absorption of ophthalmic drugs are mainly performed using ex vivo animal corneas and in vitro corneal cell culture models, leaving open the question of transferability to humans in an in vivo situation. While passive drug absorption through corneal tissue is well understood, little is known about the expression of transporter proteins and active drug transport in human and animal corneas as well as corneal cell culture models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct an expression analysis of four multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP1, 2, 4 and 5) in various in vitro and ex vivo corneal models, leading to a better understanding of the comparability of different corneal models regarding drug absorption and transferability to humans. Two well-established in vitro human corneal models, the HCE-T epithelial model and the more organotypic Hemicornea construct, both of which are based on the SV40 immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line HCE-T, were analyzed, as were excised rabbit and porcine cornea. Specimens of abraded epithelia from human donor corneas were also tested. MRP mRNA expression was determined via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression was examined using Western blot experiments and immunohistochemistry. The functional activity of the MRP efflux transporter was detected in transport assays using specific marker and inhibitor substances. The functional expression of all of the tested MRP transporters was detected in the HCE-T epithelial model. Hemicornea constructs displayed a similar expression pattern for MRP1, 4 and 5, whereas no MRP2 protein expression or activity was detected. However, excised animal corneas exhibited different expression profiles. In porcine cornea, no functional expression of MRP1, 2, or 5 was observed, and we failed to detect MRP4 expression in rabbit cornea. The results suggest that MRP1, 2, 4, and 5 are expressed in the human corneal

  12. FTY720 prevents progression of renal fibrosis by inhibiting renal microvasculature endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haifeng; Chen, Junfeng; Pan, Mingming; Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Jiandong; Chen, Pingsheng; Liu, Bicheng

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that chronic endothelial dysfunction can impair multiple aspects of renal physiology and, in turn, contribute to renal fibrosis. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been highlighted as an endothelial barrier-stabilizing mediator. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of FTY720, an S1P analog, on the progression of renal fibrosis by inhibiting renal microvasculature endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of chronic kidney disease. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Seven days after surgery, we placed the animals into three groups: sham surgery; 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rats; and 5/6Nx + FTY720 (1 mg/kg/day). All of the animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery. We obtained and analyzed blood and kidney tissue samples from all of the groups. Glomerular capillary density and peritubular capillary (PTC) density were determined by CD31 immunostaining. The expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), collagen IV, fibronectin, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The 5/6Nx group exhibited increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, visible renal histological changes, pro-fibrotic molecule (TGF-β1) and production of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen IV and fibronectin and decreased glomerular and PTC density, compared to the sham controls (P kidney disease.

  13. TNT Metabolites in Animal Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    SIGNALS MAY FALL ABOVE THE CONFIDNECE INTERVAL. THIS :3 THE % OF THE TIME YOU ARE WITLING TO RISK MAKING A WRONG DECISION SUCH AS SAYING AN ELEMENT IS...PRESENC AT THE DET LIMIT WHEN IT IS REALLY ABSENT." 210 IN4PUT AP 220 PRINT "WHAT % OF THE SIGNALS MAY FALL BELOW THE CONFIDNECE INTERVAL" 230 INPUT... CONFIDNECE INTERVAL IS " TA 2500 PRINT "ENTER NEW VALUE FOR STUDENT t OR -1 FOR NO CHANGE": INPUT DM 510 IF DMɘ THEN GOTO 530 520 TA D M J30 PRINT ", OF

  14. Role of P-selectin and anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody in apoptosis during hepatic/renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Wu; Xiao Li; Tong Zhou; Wei Ming Wang; Nan Chen; De Chang Dong; Ming Jun Zhang; Jin Lian Chen

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evaluale the potential role of P-selectin and anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody (mAb) in apoptosis during hepatic/renal ischemiareperfusion injury. METHODS Plasma P-selectin level, hepatic/renal P-selectin expression and cell apoptosis were detected in rat model of hepatic/ renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. ELISA, immunohistochemistry and TUNEL were used. Some ischemia-reperfusion rats were treated with antiP-selectin mAb. RESULTS Hepatic/ renal function insufficiency, up-regulated expression of P-selectin in plasma and hepatic/renal tissue, hepatic/renal histopathological damages and cell apoptosis were found in rats with hepatic/renal ischemiareperfusion injury, while these changes became less conspicuous in animals treated with anti-P selectin mAb. CONCLUSION P-selectin might mediate neutrophil infiltration and cell apoptosis and contribute to hepatic/renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, anti-P-selectin mAb might be an efficient approach for the prevention and treatment of hepatic/renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  15. Sciatic nerve repair with tissue engineered nerve: Olfactory ensheathing cells seeded poly(lactic-co-glygolic acid conduit in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C W Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Synthetic nerve conduits have been sought for repair of nerve defects as the autologous nerve grafts causes donor site morbidity and possess other drawbacks. Many strategies have been investigated to improve nerve regeneration through synthetic nerve guided conduits. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs that share both Schwann cell and astrocytic characteristics have been shown to promote axonal regeneration after transplantation. The present study was driven by the hypothesis that tissue-engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA seeded with OECs would improve peripheral nerve regeneration in a long sciatic nerve defect. Materials and Methods: Sciatic nerve gap of 15 mm was created in six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and implanted with PLGA seeded with OECs. The nerve regeneration was assessed electrophysiologically at 2, 4 and 6 weeks following implantation. Histopathological examination, scanning electron microscopic (SEM examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed at the end of the study. Results: Nerve conduction studies revealed a significant improvement of nerve conduction velocities whereby the mean nerve conduction velocity increases from 4.2 ΁ 0.4 m/s at week 2 to 27.3 ΁ 5.7 m/s at week 6 post-implantation ( P < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed presence of spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated the expression of S100 protein in both cell nucleus and the cytoplasm in these cells, hence confirming their Schwann-cell-like property. Under SEM, these cells were found to be actively secreting extracellular matrix. Conclusion: Tissue-engineered PLGA conduit seeded with OECs provided a permissive environment to facilitate nerve regeneration in a small animal model.

  16. Research Progress of Alkaline Hydrolysis Technology for Disposal of Animal Tissues%动物组织碱水解处理技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 吴金辉; 祁建城; 王润泽

    2013-01-01

      Alkaline hydrolysis technology is an approach to disposal of animal tissue. Sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, is used under heat and high pressure to catalyze the hydrolysis of biological material into harmless solid residue and effluent. Alkaline hydrolysis technology has advantages of effective extinction of pathogenic,no hazard gas release,convenient operation and low cost. This paper presents an overall review of the technique principles,applications and research progress of alkaline hydrolysis technology. The superiority of alkaline hydrolysis is also discussed compared with traditional methods and various types of tissue digester,the existing problems and development trends are introduced.%  碱水解是近年来发展起来的一种动物组织处理技术,通过NaOH或KOH等碱性物质在高温高压条件下催化动物组织水解为无害的固体残渣和废液并实现组织的灭菌和分解,具有彻底灭活病原微生物、不产生有害气体、操作简单、费用低廉等优点。本文从原理、应用及研究进展等方面,综述了碱水解处理技术的发展与现状。比较分析了碱水解相对于传统组织处理方法的优势,介绍了组织处理机的类型、存在的问题和未来发展趋势。

  17. Development of the "Three-step MACS": a novel strategy for isolating rare cell populations in the absence of known cell surface markers from complex animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mathia Y; Lufkin, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    To circumvent the difficulty of isolating specific cell populations by MACS from dissociated complex animal tissue, when their proportions reached levels similar to that of the background, we developed the "Three-step MACS" strategy. Cells of interest are defined by their expression of a particular gene(s) of interest rather by than their natural cell surface markers or size. A two-component transgenic cell surface protein, for two sequential rounds of MACS, is expressed under the promoter control of the endogenous gene of interest by means of gene targeting and the generation of transgenic tissue. An initial step to remove dead cells is also used. Here, we describe proof-of-concept experiments, using the biotin acceptor peptide (BAP)-low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor as the two-component protein. The first component, the BAP, can be biotinylated in specific subsets of cells expressing a particular gene by expressing the biotinylating enzyme, hBirA = humanized BirA (hBirA), under the promoter control of another gene defining the specific subpopulation. We showed that a rare population of cells (1.1% of the 13.5 days postcoital mouse embryo) could be enriched to a sufficiently high purity (84.4%). From another sample with 0.1% of our cells of interest, we achieved a 40.3% pure sample. The low cost, speed, and technical ease of the Three-step MACS also make it scalable and hence, an ideal method for preparing sufficient quantities of biological samples for sensitive, high-throughput assays.

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Black Tea-Derived Catechins and Theaflavins in Tissues of Tea Consuming Animals Using Ultra-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Souradipta; G., Taposh Kumar; Mantha, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    The bioavailability, tissue distribution and metabolic fate of the major tea polyphenols, catechins and theaflavins as well as their gallated derivatives are yet to be precisely elucidated on a single identification platform for assessment of their relative bioefficacy in vivo. This is primarily due to the lack of suitable analytical tools for their simultaneous determination especially in an in vivo setting, which continues to constrain the evaluation of their relative health beneficiary potential and therefore prospective therapeutic application. Herein, we report a rapid and sensitive Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based method for the simultaneous determination of the major catechins and theaflavins in black tea infusions as well as in different vital tissues and body fluids of tea-consuming guinea pigs. This method allowed efficient separation of all polyphenols within seven minutes of chromatographic run and had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of ~5 ng/ml. Using this method, almost all bioactive catechins and theaflavins could be simultaneously detected in the plasma of guinea pigs orally administered 5% black tea for 14 days. Our method could further detect the majority of these polyphenols in the lung and kidney as well as identify the major catechin metabolites in the urine of the tea-consuming animals. Overall, our study presents a novel tool for simultaneous detection and quantitation of both catechins and theaflavins in a single detection platform that could potentially enable precise elucidation of their relative bioavailability and bioefficacy as well as true health beneficiary potential in vivo. Such information would ultimately facilitate the accurate designing of therapeutic strategies utilizing high efficacy formulations of tea polyphenols for effective mitigation of oxidative damage and inflammation in humans as well as prevention of associated diseases. PMID:27695123

  19. Renal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas M; Jones, Deborah P; Cooper, William O

    2014-09-01

    In utero exposure to certain drugs early in pregnancy may adversely affect nephrogenesis. Exposure to drugs later in pregnancy may affect the renin-angiotensin system, which could have an impact on fetal or neonatal renal function. Reduction in nephron number and renal function could have adverse consequences for the child several years later. Data are limited on the information needed to guide decisions for patients and providers regarding the use of certain drugs in pregnancy. The study of drug nephroteratogenicity has not been systematized, a large, standardized, global approach is needed to evaluate the renal risks of in utero drug exposures.

  20. The protective activity of noscapine on renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in male Wistar rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Ali Mard, Seyyed; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Nobakht, Malihe; Mahmoudian, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Bradykinin is a part of the kinin-kallikrein system which is involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury via B1 and B2 receptors. Noscapine is a non-competitive antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Noscapine has been reported to to be able to protect some organs against ischemia-reperfusion injury but its effect on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIR) in rats is unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of noscapine on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four rats were randomly assigned to four groups; sham, RIR control, pre-and post-treatment with noscapine. To induce RIR injury, 20 days after right nephrectomy, animals underwent a midline laparotomy and the renal artery was clamped for 40 min to induce ischemia, and the clamp was then removed to allow reperfusion for 48 hr. Animals received noscapine or vehicle 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, animals were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Blood samples were collected to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. The kidneys were also removed for histopathlogical and western-blot analysis. Results: Noscapine treatment 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion protects the renal tissue structure as compared with the control. The expression levels of the studied inflammatory mediators, TNF-α and MCP-1in pretreated-, and treated-noscapine groups decreased as compared with the control group. The levels of BUN and creatinine in pre-, and post-treated noscapine groups were significantly lower than in control animals. Conclusion: Noscapine protects renal tissue structure and function against RIR through down-regulation of the inflammatory mediators. PMID:24904716

  1. Tracing the evolutionary origins of insect renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Kenneth A; Terhzaz, Selim; Cabrero, Pablo; Davies, Shireen A; Dow, Julian A T

    2015-04-21

    Knowledge on neuropeptide receptor systems is integral to understanding animal physiology. Yet, obtaining general insight into neuropeptide signalling in a clade as biodiverse as the insects is problematic. Here we apply fluorescent analogues of three key insect neuropeptides to map renal tissue architecture across systematically chosen representatives of the major insect Orders, to provide an unprecedented overview of insect renal function and control. In endopterygote insects, such as Drosophila, two distinct transporting cell types receive separate neuropeptide signals, whereas in the ancestral exopterygotes, a single, general cell type mediates all signals. Intriguingly, the largest insect Order Coleoptera (beetles) has evolved a unique approach, in which only a small fraction of cells are targets for neuropeptide action. In addition to demonstrating a universal utility of this technology, our results reveal not only a generality of signalling by the evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide families but also a clear functional separation of the types of cells that mediate the signal.

  2. Dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation: first report on a conceptual design validated by an animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik HA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hatem A Tawfik,1 Yousef A Fouad,2 Rashad Hafez3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Oculoplastics Service, Ain Shams University, 2Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 3Eye Subspecialty Centre, Cairo, Egypt Objective: To introduce and evaluate the safety of a novel dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece design for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation. Methods: We designed a prototype double-sided handpiece allowing automatic switching between two electrodes with a simple handpiece flip. The concept of the system as a surgical instrument was assessed by an animal experiment. Results: The skin of 15 Wistar albino white rats could be successfully incised and coagulated using both ends of the handpiece, thereby confirming the prospects and clinical applications of the system. Conclusion: The dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece is a simple and safe alternative to the traditional electrosurgery pencil, allowing the simultaneous use of two electrodes without the hassle of frequent electrode replacement. Keywords: radiosurgery, ablative surgery, laser resurfacing, electrocautery, electrosurgery

  3. Sarcoidose renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AQUINO MARIA ENEDINA CLAUDINO DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia transbrônquica. A paciente foi tratada com metilprednisolona, com discreta melhora pulmonar, o que não ocorreu com a função renal. O diagnóstico final foi de sarcoidose com envolvimento pulmonar, ganglionar torácico e renal.

  4. Betaine supplementation protects against high-fructose-induced renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen-Yu; Wang, Ming-Xing; Ge, Chen-Xu; Wang, Xing; Li, Jian-Mei; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2014-03-01

    High fructose intake causes metabolic syndrome, being an increased risk of chronic kidney disease development in humans and animals. In this study, we examined the influence of betaine on high-fructose-induced renal damage involving renal inflammation, insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. Betaine was found to improve high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome including hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in rats with systemic inflammation. Betaine also showed a protection against renal dysfunction and tubular injury with its restoration of the increased glucose transporter 9 and renal-specific transporter in renal brush bolder membrane and the decreased organic anion transporter 1 and adenosine-triphosphate-binding cassette transporter 2 in the renal cortex in this model. These protective effects were relevant to the anti-inflammatory action by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in renal tissue of high-fructose-fed rat, being more likely to suppress renal NOD-like receptor superfamily, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation than nuclear factor κB activation. Subsequently, betaine with anti-inflammation ameliorated insulin signaling impairment by reducing the up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and lipid accumulation partly by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/palmityltransferase 1/carnitine/organic cation transporter 2 pathway in kidney of high-fructose-fed rats. These results indicate that the inflammatory inhibition plays a pivotal role in betaine's improvement of high-fructose-induced renal injury with insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in rats.

  5. Delayed administration of darbepoetin or erythropoietin protects against ischemic acute renal injury and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D W; Pat, B; Vesey, D A; Guan, Z; Endre, Z; Gobe, G C

    2006-05-01

    Administration of human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) at time of acute ischemic renal injury (IRI) inhibits apoptosis, enhances tubular epithelial regeneration, and promotes renal functional recovery. The present study aimed to determine whether darbepoetin-alfa (DPO) exhibits comparable renoprotection to that afforded by EPO, whether pro or antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are involved, and whether delayed administration of EPO or DPO 6 h following IRI ameliorates renal dysfunction. The model of IRI involved bilateral renal artery occlusion for 45 min in rats (N = 4 per group), followed by reperfusion for 1-7 days. Controls were sham-operated. Rats were treated at time of ischemia or sham operation (T0), or post-treated (6 h after the onset of reperfusion, T6) with EPO (5000 IU/kg), DPO (25 mug/kg), or appropriate vehicle by intraperitoneal injection. Renal function, structure, and immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bax were analyzed. DPO or EPO at T0 significantly abrogated renal dysfunction in IRI animals (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.08 +/- 0.03 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.04 +/- 0.01 mmol/l, P = 0.01). Delayed administration of DPO or EPO (T6) also significantly abrogated subsequent renal dysfunction (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.06 +/- 0.01 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.03 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, P = 0.01). There was also significantly decreased tissue injury (apoptosis, P EPO at T0 or T6. These results reaffirm the potential clinical application of DPO and EPO as novel renoprotective agents for patients at risk of ischemic acute renal failure or after having sustained an ischemic renal insult.

  6. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005234 Association between serum fetuin-A and clinical outcome in end-stage renal disease patients. WANG Kai(王开), Dept Renal Dis, Renji Hosp Shanghai, 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Nephrol, 2005;21(2):72-75. Objective: To investigate the change of serum fetuin-A level before and after dialysis, and the association of serum fetuin-A level with clinical parameters

  7. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950351 Serum erythropoietin levels in chronic renalinsufficiency.ZHAI Depei(翟德佩),et al.DeptNephrol.General Hosp,Tianjin Med Univ,Tianjin,300000.Tianjin Med J 1995;23(1):19-21.Patients with chronic renal insufficiency(CRI) areoften associated with anemia.The deficiency of EPOproduction in the kidney is thought to be a key factorin the pathogenesis of renal anemia.Serum erythropoi-

  8. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008463 Protective effect of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration on kidney in acute renal failure rats. TANG Xiaopeng(唐晓鹏), et al. Dept Nephrol, 2nd Affili Hosp Chongqing Med Univ, Chongqing 400010.Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(6):417-421. Objective To investigate the protective effects of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration (rrALR) on tubular cell injury and renal dysfunction

  9. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  10. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  11. Cerebral Epiphyseal Proteins and Melatonin Modulate the Hepatic and Renal Antioxidant Defense of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral epiphysis (pineal gland secrets melatonin and number of other proteins and peptides. It was thus hypothesized that antioxidant properties of epiphyseal proteins and melatonin could potentially benefit from exogenous therapies. In view of the therapeutic potential of these proteins, the present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of buffalo epiphyseal proteins (BEP, at 100 μg/kg BW, i.p. and melatonin (MEL, at 10 mg/kg BW, i.p on changes in hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes of adult female Wistar rats. Buffalo epiphyseal proteins significantly (P<.05 increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH, and renal LPO, catalase (CAT, GR, GSH, GPx levels as compared to control animals. Similarly, MEL treatment significantly (P<.05 up-regulated hepatic SOD and GPx activity, whereas CAT, GR, GPx, and GSH levels in renal tissues were increased while SOD and LPO remained unaffected. Buffalo epiphyseal protein treatment produced greater effects on hepatic GPx and renal CAT and GSH levels than did MEL. These findings support the conclusion that buffalo epiphyseal proteins and melatonin activate a number of antioxidant mechanisms in hepatic and renal tissues.

  12. Endothelin-1 Overexpression Improves Renal Function in eNOS Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Tsuprykov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the renal phenotype under conditions of an activated renal ET-1 system in the status of nitric oxide deficiency, we compared kidney function and morphology in wild-type, ET-1 transgenic (ET+/+, endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS-/- and ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Methods: We assessed blood pressure, parameters of renal morphology, plasma cystatin C, urinary protein excretion, expression of genes associated with glomerular filtration barrier and tissue remodeling, and plasma metabolites using metabolomics. Results: eNOS-/- and ET+/+eNOS-/- mice developed hypertension. Osteopontin, albumin and protein excretion were increased in eNOS-/- and restored in ET+/+eNOS-/- animals. All genetically modified mice developed renal interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Genes involved in tissue remodeling (serpine1, TIMP1, Col1a1, CCL2 were up-regulated in eNOS-/-, but not in ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Plasma levels of free carnitine and acylcarnitines, amino acids, diacyl phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and hexoses were descreased in eNOS-/- and were in the normal range in ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Conclusion: eNOS-/- mice developed renal dysfunction, which was partially rescued by ET-1 overexpression in eNOS-/- mice. The metabolomics results suggest that ET-1 overexpression on top of eNOS knockout is associated with a functional recovery of mitochondria (rescue effect in β-oxidation of fatty acids and an increase in antioxidative properties (normalization of monounsaturated fatty acids levels.

  13. Renal and cardiac neuropeptide Y and NPY receptors in a rat model of congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Ean Y; Lee, Edward W; Tilan, Jason U; Winaver, Joseph; Haramati, Aviad; Mulroney, Susan E; Zukowska, Zofia

    2007-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is coreleased with norepinephrine and stimulates vasoconstriction, vascular and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via Y1 receptors (R) and angiogenesis via Y2R. Although circulating NPY is elevated in heart failure, NPY's role remains unclear. Activation of the NPY system was determined in Wistar rats with the aortocaval (A-V) fistula model of high-output heart failure. Plasma NPY levels were elevated in A-V fistula animals (115.7 +/- 15.3 vs. 63.1 +/- 17.4 pM in sham, P renal failure (urinary Na(+) excretion renal blood flow (RBF), and death within 5-7 days (DECOMP). Cardiac and renal tissue NPY decreased with heart failure, proportionate to the severity of renal complications. Cardiac and renal Y1R mRNA expression also decreased (1.5-fold, P failure. In contrast, Y2R expression increased up to 72-fold in the heart and 5.7-fold in the kidney (P failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Changes in receptor expression were confirmed since the Y1R agonist, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, had no effect on RBF, whereas the Y2R agonist (13-36)-NPY increased RBF to compensate for disease. Thus, in this model of heart failure, cardiac and renal NPY Y1 receptors decrease and Y2 receptors increase, suggesting an increased effect of NPY on the receptors involved in cardiac remodeling and angiogenesis, and highlighting an important regulatory role of NPY in congestive heart failure.

  14. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  15. Protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury: protective effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Hasan; Fadillioglu, Ersin; Yagmurca, Murat; Uçar, Muharrem; Irmak, M Kemal

    2006-02-01

    Oxygen radicals have roles in the renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury usually encountered in several conditions such as renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the oxidant/antioxidant status and microscopy of renal tissues after IR injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control untreated rats, IR (30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion), IR + NAC (i.p.; 180 mg/kg) and IR + erdosteine (oral; 50 mg/kg/day for 2 days before experiments) groups. After unilateral renal IR, the right kidney was rapidly excised and sectioned vertically into two pieces for microscopic examination and biochemical analysis. Erdosteine and NAC treatment did not cause any significant change in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in comparison with the IR group, even if the SOD activity increased in IR groups than in the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity was decreased in the IR group in comparison with control and IR + erdosteine groups (Perdosteine group than in the IR + NAC group (PErdosteine or NAC treatments ameliorated these increased TBARS and PC contents in comparison with the IR group (PErdosteine but not NAC apparently reduced the renal tissue damage. The pathological damage score after IR was significantly reduced after erdosteine treatment (PErdosteine and NAC treatments improved the biochemical results of IR injury. However, on microscopic evaluations, animals receiving erdosteine showed a great reduction in renal damage when compared with the NAC group.

  16. Outbreaks of renal failure associated with melamine and cyanuric acid in dogs and cats in 2004 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cathy A; Jeong, Kyu-Shik; Poppenga, Robert H; Puschner, Birgit; Miller, Doris M; Ellis, Angela E; Kang, Kyung-Il; Sum, Steffen; Cistola, Alexis M; Brown, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Sixteen animals affected in 2 outbreaks of pet food-associated renal failure (2 dogs in 2004; 10 cats and 4 dogs in 2007) were evaluated for histopathologic, toxicologic, and clinicopathologic changes. All 16 animals had clinical and laboratory evidence of uremia, including anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, polyuria, azotemia, and hyperphosphatemia. Where measured, serum hepatic enzyme concentrations were normal in animals from both outbreaks. All animals died or were euthanized because of severe uremia. Distal tubular lesions were present in all 16 animals, and unique polarizable crystals with striations were present in distal tubules or collecting ducts in all animals. The proximal tubules were largely unaffected. Crystals and histologic appearance were identical in both outbreaks. A chronic pattern of histologic change, characterized by interstitial fibrosis and inflammation, was observed in some affected animals. Melamine and cyanuric acid were present in renal tissue from both outbreaks. These results indicate that the pet food-associated renal failure outbreaks in 2004 and 2007 share identical clinical, histologic, and toxicologic findings, providing compelling evidence that they share the same causation.

  17. Transjugular renal biopsy in the treatment of patients with cirrhosis and renal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouët, P; Meyrier, A; Mal, F; Callard, P; Guettier, C; Stordeur, D; Trinchet, J C; Beaugrand, M

    1996-11-01

    When renal lesions are suspected in patients with cirrhosis, clotting disorders often preclude percutaneous renal biopsy. This study was undertaken to determine whether transjugular renal biopsy is possible, safe, and useful in such patients. From 1987 to 1994, 70 patients with cirrhosis and clotting disorders underwent transjugular renal biopsies, providing renal tissue in 55. Of these 55 patients, 41 were Child-Pugh class B or C, 35 were alcoholic, serum creatinine levels were > or = 130 micromol/L in 46, and proteinuria was > or = 0.5 g/d in 37. Clinically significant complications of transjugular renal biopsy were persistent hematuria in 4 and perirenal hematoma in 4, requiring blood transfusions in 1 and 2 cases, respectively. There were no deaths related to renal biopsy. Renal lesions were identified as glomerular in 41 (74.5%), interstitial in 7, and end-stage in 2 and were absent in 5. Transjugular renal biopsy influenced treatment in 21 patients (38%), including 11 who were proposed for liver transplantation and 4 who had chronic liver rejection. Decisions based on results of transjugular renal biopsy were to perform liver transplantation in 8 and combined renal and liver transplantation in 5, whereas 2 were refused. In 6 other patients, the results of renal biopsy modified the medical regimen. We conclude that transjugular renal biopsy may be a useful procedure in patients with cirrhosis and clotting disorders. This technique does not entail undue risks and may influence treatment decisions, particularly in patients proposed for liver transplantation.

  18. Renal lymphangioma: A cause of neonatal nephromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, S.; Fletcher, B.D.; Bryan, P.J.; Abramowsky, C.R.

    1984-09-01

    A newborn male presented with bilateral nephromegaly and mild hypertension. Function of the right kidney was reduced on excretory urography. Ultrasound showed bilaterally enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity and poorly defined corticomedullary junctions. Areas of decreased medullary enhancement were seen on CT. Renal biopsy demonstrated lymphangioma, probably arising from the peripelvic renal tissues.

  19. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjaer, M; Wang, T; Brøndum, E; Østergaard, K H; Baandrup, U; Hørlyck, A; Hasenkam, J M; Smerup, M; Funder, J; Marcussen, N; Danielsen, C C; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Pedersen, M; Agger, P; Candy, G; Aalkjaer, C; Bie, P

    2015-08-01

    The tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal haemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were instrumented with vascular and bladder catheters to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) was assessed by inserting a needle into the medullary parenchyma. Doppler ultrasound measurements provided renal artery resistive index (RI). Hormone concentrations as well as biomechanical, structural and histological characteristics of vascular and renal tissues were determined. GFR averaged 342 ± 99 mL min(-1) and ERPF 1252 ± 305 mL min(-1) . RIHP varied between 45 and 140 mmHg. Renal pelvic pressure was 39 ± 2 mmHg and renal venous pressure 32 ± 4 mmHg. A valve-like structure at the junction of the renal and vena cava generated a pressure drop of 12 ± 2 mmHg. RI was 0.27. The renal capsule was durable with a calculated burst pressure of 600 mmHg. Plasma renin and AngII were 2.6 ± 0.5 mIU L(-1) and 9.1 ± 1.5 pg mL(-1) respectively. In giraffes, GFR, ERPF and RI appear much lower than expected based on body mass. A strong renal capsule supports a RIHP, which is >10-fold that of other mammals effectively reducing the net filtration pressure and protecting against the high MAP. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Expression of proto-oncogene Pokemon and its biological significance in renal cell carcinoma tissues%肾癌组织Pokemon基因表达及其生物学意义的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯列军; 郑军华; 耿江; 顾闻宇; 王波

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨Pokemon基因在肾细胞癌组织中的表达及其生物学意义.方法:收集47例肾癌手术切除的癌、癌旁及邻近正常组织,用逆转录实时聚合酶链反应(Real time PCR)及蛋白质印迹法分别从核酸及蛋白水平检测标本中Pokemon基因的表达,并结合性别、年龄、肿瘤大小、病理分级和TNM分期等临床资料进行统计分析,对mRNA和蛋白表达的水平进行相关性研究.结果:Real-time PCR及蛋白质印迹法均检测出Pokemon在肾癌、癌旁及正常对照组织中的表达,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05.肾癌组织中,Pokemon的表达与肿瘤病理分级有关,而与患者的性别、年龄、肿瘤最大直径、TNM及病理类型无明显相关性.肾组织中,Pokemon的mRNA与蛋白的表达呈正相关,r=0.494,P<0.05.结论:Pokemon表达和肾癌的发病及恶性程度有关,有望成为肾癌的预后指标和肾癌靶向治疗的有效靶点.%OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression of Pokemon in human renal cell carcinoma and its correlation with clinical features. METHODS: Reverse transcription real-time PCR and Western blot were applied to detect the expression of Pokemon in 47 cases of resection samples, their corresponding paracancerous samples and normal samples. Correlation between expression of Pokemon and clinical features such as gender.age.tumor size.tumor differentiation degree and TNM stages was analyzed. RESULTS: The expression of Pokemon mRNA and protein were both significantly higher in the cancerous tissues than those in the paracancerous tissues and normal tissues (F<0. 05). The expression of Pokemon was related to tumor differentiation degree, but had no correlation with patient's gender, age, maximum diameter of tumor,pathological type and TNM stages. Expression of Pokemon mRNA was positively correlated with protein,the correlation coefficient was 0. 494 (P<0. 05). CONCLUSIONS: Pokemon is expressed in human renal cell carcinoma and it may play a key role

  1. The effects of adenosine A2B receptor inhibition on VEGF and nitric oxide axis-mediated renal function in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leena; Thaker, Aswin

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy are incompletely understood but include overproduction of various growth factors and cytokines. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pathogenic event occurring in most forms of podocytopathy; however, the mechanisms that regulate this growth factor induction are not clearly identified. A2B receptors have been found to regulate VEGF expression under hypoxic environment in different tissues. One proposed hypothesis in mediating diabetic nephropathy is the modulation of VEGF-NO balance in renal tissue. We determined the role of adenosine A2B receptor in mediating VEGF overproduction and nitrite in diabetic nephropathy. The renal content of A2B receptors and VEGF was increased after 8 weeks of diabetes induction. The renal and plasma nitrite levels were also reduced in these animals. In vivo administration of A2B adenosine receptor antagonist (MRS1754) inhibited the renal over expression of VEGF and adverse renal function parameters. The antagonist administration also improved the kidney tissue nitrite levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VEGF induction via adenosine signaling might be the critical event in regulating VEGF-NO axis in diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Essential Heavy Metals in Renal Tumor Tissue and Its Possible Relation to Carcinogenesis: Applying the Scanning Electron Microscopy Coupled with X-Ray Microanalysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Nogueira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metals such as copper and zinc are crucial in several vital functions in the human body; the absence of these metals can cause serious illness. When in excess, however, they can have toxic effects which may be associated with carcinogenesis, as is described in the literature. Thus, it is important to realize that without these essential metals in their due proportion, the human body could not maintain its proper metabolic function. Methods: The main goal of this paper was to compare qualitatively and semi-quantitatively the amount of both copper and zinc present in the tumor tissue (tissue from patients who had undergone partial or radical nephrectomy and in the control tissue (which was adjacent to the tumor tissue. This study was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-Ray Microanalysis (SEM-XRM. Results: There is a different concentration of copper and zinc in the samples of tumor tissue and controls that were studied. Conclusion: This work complements previously published results about the presence of metals in the human body and their probable influence on carcinogenesis.

  3. Macrophage diversity in renal injury and repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricardo, Sharon D.; van Goor, Harry; Eddy, Allison A.

    2008-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages can determine the outcome of the immune response and whether this response contributes to tissue repair or mediates tissue destruction. In addition to their important role in immune-mediated renal disease and host defense, macrophages play a fundamental role in tissue re

  4. Capillary/myocyte mismatch in the heart in renal failure--a role for erythropoietin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, K; Buzello, M; Simonaviciene, A; Miltenberger-Miltenyi, G; Koch, A; Nabokov, A; Gross, M L; Gless, B; Mall, G; Ritz, E

    2000-07-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterized by remodeling of the heart with left ventricular hypertrophy (increasing oxygen demand) and capillary deficit leading to capillary/myocyte mismatch (decreasing oxygen supply). Erythropoietin (Epo) has known angiogenic properties causing endothelial cell activation, migration and sprouting, mediated at least in part via the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription) pathway. In uraemic cardiac hypertrophy the presence of diminished capillary supply implies that capillary growth does not keep pace with development of hypertrophy. To investigate whether this was due to a deficit of the angiogenic hormone Epo we examined whether Epo levels are altered and whether an increase in haematocrit by administration of rhEpo influences capillary supply, i.e. capillary/myocyte mismatch in experimental renal failure. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were either subjected to partial renal ablation or sham operation. Only modest amounts of renal tissue were removed so that the rats were not anemic. Subgroups of rats received either human (rh)Epo alone or in combination with unspecific antihypertensive treatment (dihydralazine plus furosemide) in order to control the Epo induced rise in blood pressure. Capillary supply was measured stereologically as capillary length per volume myocardium using the orientator method. Capillary length density was reduced by approximately 25% after partial renal ablation (3237+/-601 vs 4293+/-501 mm/mm(3) in controls). It was not statistically different in animals with partial renal ablation+rhEpo+antihypertensive treatment (3620+/-828 mm/mm(3)) compared to partial ablation alone. The study shows that lack of Epo does not cause, or contribute to, the deficit of capillary growth in the hypertrophied left ventricle of rats with renal failure. In addition, a rise in haematocrit is not accompanied by beneficial effects on alterations of cardiovascular structure in experimental renal failure.

  5. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Tarnow, L.; Jorsal, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic...

  6. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Tarnow, L.; Jorsal, A.; Oliver, N.; Roestenberg, P.M.H.; Ito, Y.; Parving, H.H.; Rossing, P.; Nieuwenhoven, FA van; Goldschmeding, R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic patien

  7. Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  8. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970363 Effect on serum PTH and 1, 25(OH)2 D3levels of rapid correction of metabolic acidosis in CRFpatients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. YUANQunsheng(袁群生), et al. Renal Div, PUMC Hosp,Beijing, 100730. Chin J Nephrol 1996; 12(6): 328-331.

  9. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or post-renal toxicity. Pre-renal ... incidence of drug dose adjustment in renal impairment in the SAMJ. ... Fever, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal impairment and.

  10. [Oral cavity pathology by renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭborodin, I V; Minikeev, I M; Kim, S A; Ragimova, T M

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the scientific literature devoted to organ and tissue changes of oral cavity at the chronic renal insufficiency (CRI)is made. The number of patients in an end-stage of CRI constantly increases and patients receiving renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation will comprise an enlarging segment of the dental patient population. Owing to CRI and its treatment there is a set of changes of teeth and oral cavity fabrics which remain even in a end-stage. Renal replacement therapy can affect periodontal tissues including gingival hyperplasia in immune suppressed renal transplantation patients and increased levels of bacterial contamination, gingival inflammation, formation of calculus, and possible increased prevalence and severity of destructive periodontal diseases. Besides, the presence of undiagnosed periodontitis may have significant effects on the medical management of the patients in end-stage of CRI.

  11. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  12. Effect of renal venous pressure elevation on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Amtorp, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1988-01-01

    unaffected by acute surgical denervation of the kidneys. In contrast, chronic renal denervation or infusion of phentolamine (5 micrograms kg-1 min-1) into the renal artery eliminated the increase in APR and FPR during RVP elevation to 20 mmHg. Chronic, but not acute renal denervation depleted renal tissue...

  13. [Pulmonary-renal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Jorge A; Mazzocchi, Octavio; De All, Jorge; Gnocchi, César A

    2009-01-01

    The pulmonary-renal syndrome is defined as a combination of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. The coexistence of these two clinical conditions is due to diseases with different pathogenic mechanisms. Primary systemic vasculitis and Goodpasture syndrome are the most frequent etiologies. Systemic lupus erythematosus, connective tissue diseases, negative anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis and those secondary to drugs are far less common causes. An early diagnosis based on clinical, radiologic, laboratory and histologic criteria enables early treatment, thus diminishing its high morbidity-mortality rate. Therapy is based on high doses of corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and plasmapheresis.

  14. Renale Osteopathie

    OpenAIRE

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Thera...

  15. Renale Knochenerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Störungen des Mineral- und Knochenstoffwechsels sind bei fast allen Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen anzutreffen. Pathogenetisch spielt eine Neigung zur Phosphatretention bei einer Reduktion der glomerulären Filtrationsrate die zentrale Rolle. Neben typischen, aber sehr variablen Veränderungen der Knochenstruktur (renale Osteopathie besteht auch eine sehr enge Assoziation zwischen diesen Störungen und dem massiv erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko der Patienten.

  16. Peripheral distribution of kynurenine metabolites and activity of kynurenine pathway enzymes in renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, D; Tankiewicz, A; Matys, T; Buczko, W

    2003-06-01

    We investigated L-kynurenine distribution and metabolism in rats with experimental chronic renal failure of various severity, induced by unilateral nephrectomy and partial removal of contralateral kidney cortex. In animals with renal insufficiency the plasma concentration and the content of L-tryptophan in homogenates of kidney, liver, lung, intestine and spleen were significantly decreased. These changes were accompanied by increase activity of liver tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, the rate-limiting enzyme of kynurenine pathway in rats, while indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity was unchanged. Conversely, the plasma concentration and tissue content of L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and anthranilic, kynurenic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids in the kidney, liver, lung, intestine, spleen and muscles were increased. The accumulation of L-kynurenine and the products of its degradation was proportional to the severity of renal failure and correlated with the concentration of renal insufficiency marker, creatinine. Kynurenine aminotransferase, kynureninase and 3-hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase activity was diminished or unchanged, while the activity of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase was significantly increased. We conclude that chronic renal failure is associated with the accumulation of L-kynurenine metabolites, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain uremic syndromes.

  17. Simultaneous Occurrence of Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Ureter and Dioctophyma Renale Infection: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Young; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Byung Hoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Su Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, You Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    A common soft-tissue tumor, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) occurs in mainly limbs, retroperitoneal and peritoneal space, and occurrence in kidneys or the ureter is very rare. Dioctophyma renale (D. renale) since first discovered in dog's kidney was found in the kidneys of animals such as mink, coyote and weasel, and human infection has only been reported in only approximately 20 cases worldwide. MFH of the ureter and D. renale infection very rarely occur in humans, and has not been reported in our country. Here, we described the case of an adult man in whom MFH of the ureter simultaneously occurred with D. renale infection. An initial CT scan showed a well-defined, persistent, enhancing polypoid mass-like lesion in the upper ureter. After 10 months, D. renale was excreted in the urine and a follow-up CT scan showed an increase in the size of that lesion and irregular thickening of the ureter wall. The diagnosis of MFH was pathologically verified.

  18. 声触诊组织定量技术评估兔慢性肾病肾纤维化的实验研究%Renal Fibrosis Assessment in Rabbits with Chronic Renal Nephropathy Using Virtual Touch Tissue Quantiifcation Technique:Experimental Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏; 杜联芳; 王迎春; 徐荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立新西兰兔慢性肾病模型,应用声触诊组织定量(VTQ)技术监测兔慢性肾病的发展,为VTQ评估慢性肾病肾纤维化提供实验依据。材料与方法选取38只健康新西兰大白兔,其中32只每天经耳缘静脉注射阳离子牛血清白蛋白(C-BSA)诱导慢性肾病模型,另外6只未注射C-BSA设为对照组。于0周、2周、4周、6周、8周采用VTQ测量兔肾皮质硬度,随后解剖兔,评估肾脏的病理变化,并分析VTQ参数与病理参数的相关性。结果兔肾皮质0周、2周、4周、6周、8周的VTQ值分别为(1.68±0.25)m/s、(1.70±0.31)m/s、(1.87±0.35)m/s、(2.19±0.31)m/s、(2.46±0.46)m/s,6周VTQ值与4周比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),8周VTQ值与4周、6周比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。4周、6周、8周肾小球硬化指数分别为0.81±0.40、1.43±0.46、2.15±0.46,肾间质胶原纤维面积分别为(14.29±4.62)%、(26.28±11.06)%、(42.37±10.09)%,均明显高于0周、2周,且纤维化随病程进展逐渐增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。肾皮质VTQ与肾小球硬化指数、肾间质胶原纤维面积呈正相关(r=0.663、0.652, P<0.05)。结论VTQ可以检测到兔慢性肾病发展过程中肾皮质硬度增高,与肾纤维化呈正相关,提示VTQ可以成为评价肾纤维化的重要方法。%Purpose Chronic nephropathy model was established with New Zealand rabbit, and the development of chronic nephropathy was monitored using virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) technique, to provide the experimental basis for chronic renal fibrosis assessment using VTQ technique. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight healthy New Zealand white rabbits were selected, of which 32 were induced into chronic nephropathy model with daily intravenous ear vein injection of cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA), with the other 6 rabbits without C-BSA injection as control

  19. Oxidative stress and modification of renal vascular permeability are associated with acute kidney injury during P. berghei ANKA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rosa Maria; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Barreto, Claudiene Rodrigues; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Hayashida, Caroline Y; Castoldi, Angela; Gonçalves, Giselle Martins; Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barboza, Renato; Rios, Francisco José; Keller, Alexandre Castro; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; D'Império-Lima, Maria Regina; Figueiredo-Neto, Antônio Martins; Reis, Marlene Antônia; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the development of malaria-associated AKI during infection by P. berghei ANKA, with special attention to the role played by the inflammatory response and the involvement of oxidative stress. For that, we took advantage of an experimental model of severe malaria that showed significant changes in the renal pathophysiology to investigate the role of malaria infection in the renal microvascular permeability and tissue injury. Therefore, BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. To assess renal function, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and ratio of proteinuria and creatininuria were evaluated. The products of oxidative stress, as well as cytokine profile were quantified in plasma and renal tissue. The change of renal microvascular permeability, tissue hypoxia and cellular apoptosis were also evaluated. Parasite infection resulted in renal dysfunction. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of adhesion molecule, proinflammatory cytokines and products of oxidative stress, associated with a decrease mRNA expression of HO-1 in kidney tissue of infected mice. The measurement of lipoprotein oxidizability also showed a significant increase in plasma of infected animals. Together, our findings support the idea that products of oxidative stress, as well as the immune response against the parasite are crucial to changes in kidney architecture and microvascular endothelial permeability of BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei ANKA.

  20. Oxidative Stress and Modification of Renal Vascular Permeability Are Associated with Acute Kidney Injury during P. berghei ANKA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rosa Maria; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Barreto, Claudiene Rodrigues; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Hayashida, Caroline Y.; Castoldi, Ângela; Gonçalves, Giselle Martins; Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barboza, Renato; Rios, Francisco José; Keller, Alexandre Castro; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; D'Império-Lima, Maria Regina; Figueiredo-Neto, Antônio Martins; Reis, Marlene Antônia; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the development of malaria-associated AKI during infection by P. berghei ANKA, with special attention to the role played by the inflammatory response and the involvement of oxidative stress. For that, we took advantage of an experimental model of severe malaria that showed significant changes in the renal pathophysiology to investigate the role of malaria infection in the renal microvascular permeability and tissue injury. Therefore, BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. To assess renal function, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and ratio of proteinuria and creatininuria were evaluated. The products of oxidative stress, as well as cytokine profile were quantified in plasma and renal tissue. The change of renal microvascular permeability, tissue hypoxia and cellular apoptosis were also evaluated. Parasite infection resulted in renal dysfunction. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of adhesion molecule, proinflammatory cytokines and products of oxidative stress, associated with a decrease mRNA expression of HO-1 in kidney tissue of infected mice. The measurement of lipoprotein oxidizability also showed a significant increase in plasma of infected animals. Together, our findings support the idea that products of oxidative stress, as well as the immune response against the parasite are crucial to changes in kidney architecture and microvascular endothelial permeability of BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei ANKA. PMID:22952850

  1. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  2. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  3. Changes of Apoptosis in Rats of Acute Ischemic Renal Injury under Treatment of Tetrandrine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱玲梅; 王笑云; 冷静

    2002-01-01

    ObjectiveTo elucidate the effect of tetrandrine on acute ischemic renal injury and its relation with apoptosis.MethodsA model for bilateral post-ischemic renal injury in rats was developed by clamping renal pedicles for 45 min.Renal tissular DNA fragmentation analysis and renal tissular HE staining were used.Also quantitative analysis of apoptosis in injured renal tubular epithelium was carried out by using TdT-mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL).ResultsApoptosis of renal tubular epithelium increased in acute ischemic renal injury.Tetrandrine could remarkably decrease the level of apoptosis in injured renal tubule while protecting renal tissue against the ischemic injuries.ConclusionTetrandrine could adjust the level of apoptosis in renal tubular epithelium and alleviate renal tissular injury.``

  4. Changes of Apoptosis in Rats of Acute Ischemic Renal Injury under Treatment of Tetrandrine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱玲梅; 王笑云; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the effect of tetrandrine on acute ischemic renal injury and its relation with apoptosis.Methods A model for bilateral post-ischemic renal injury in rats was developed by clamping renal pedicles for 45 min.Renal tissular DNA fragmentation analysis and renal tissular HE staining were used.Also quantitative analysis of apoptosis in injured renal tubular epithelium was carried out by using TdT-mediated dUTP nick and labeling(TUNEL).Results Apoptosis of renal tubular epithelium increased in acute ischemic renal injury.Tetrandrine could remarkably decrease the level of apoptosis in injured renal tubule while protecting renal tissue against the ischemic injuries.Conclusion Tetrandrine could adjust the level of apoptosis in renal tubular epithelium and alleviate renal tissular injury.

  5. MicroRNAs in renal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Chi-Kong Chung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous short noncoding RNAs that regulate most of important cellular processes by inhibiting gene expression through the post-transcriptional repression of their target mRNAs. . In kidneys, miRNAs have been associated in renal development, homeostasis, and physiological functions. Results from clinical and experimental animal studies demonstrate that miRNAs play essential roles in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases. Chronic kidney diseases (CKD is characterized by renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β is recognized as a major mediator of renal fibrosis because it is able to stimulate the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins to impair normal kidney function. Recently, emerging evidence demonstrate the relationship between TGF-β signaling and miRNAs expression during renal diseases. TGF-β regulates expression of several microRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-192, miR-200, miR-433, and miR-29. MiR-21, miR-192, and miR-433 which are positively induced by TGF-β signaling play a pathological role in kidney diseases. In contrast, members in both miR-29 and miR-200 families which are inhibited by TGF-β signaling protect kidneys from renal fibrosis by suppressing the deposition of extracellular matrix and preventing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, respectively. Clinically, the presence of miRNAs in blood and urine has been examined to be early biomarkers for detecting renal diseases. From experimental animal studies of CKD, targeting microRNAs also provides evidence about therapeutic potential of miRNAs during renal diseases. Now, it comes to the stage to examine the exact mechanisms of miRNAs during the initiation and progression of renal diseases. Therefore, determining the function of miRNAs in renal fibrosis may facilitate the development of both early diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases.

  6. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  7. Use of alkaline or enzymatic sample pretreatment prior to characterization of gold nanoparticles in animal tissue by single-particle ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Brabrand, Myung Suk Jung; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    , not much is known about the applicability of spICPMS for determination of NPs in complex matrices such as biological tissues. In the present study, alkaline and enzymatic treatments were applied to solubilize spleen samples from rats, which had been administered 60-nm gold nanoparticles (Au...... concentration obtained by conventional ICPMS analysis of acid-digested tissue. The recovery of AuNPs from enzymatically digested tissue, however, was approximately four times lower. Spiking experiments of blank spleen samples with AuNPs showed that the lower recovery was caused by an inferior transport...

  8. Expressions of apoptosis-related gene Bax, Bcl-2 and cytochrome C in renal tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats%凋亡相关基因Bax、Bcl-2及细胞色素C在链脲佐菌素糖尿病大鼠肾组织内的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学平; 李玉磊; 金晓梅; 彭彦霄; 贾雪梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察糖尿病大鼠肾组织中促凋亡基因Bax、凋亡抑制基因Bcl-2及细胞色素C(cytochrome C,cytC)的表达变化.方法 雄性SD大鼠24只,随机分为糖尿病组和正常对照组,每组12只.糖尿病组给予2%链脲佐菌素(溶于pH4.4、0.1 mol/L柠檬酸-柠檬酸钠缓冲液)按65 mg/kg单次腹腔注射,复制糖尿病模型.正常对照组只注射相当体积的枸橼酸缓冲液.分别于4周、12周后测体质量、尿蛋白、血糖、血清尿素氮及血清肌酐水平.用H-E染色观察肾形态学变化,免疫组织化学染色观察Bax、Bcl-2和cytC蛋白表达变化,TUNEL法观察大鼠肾皮质细胞凋亡情况.结果 与正常对照组比较,糖尿病组大鼠24 h尿蛋白、血糖、尿素氮及血肌酐水平升高(P<0.05,P<0.01).糖尿病组大鼠4周时肾小球体积增大,12周时肾小球系膜基质增生和肾小球硬化,肾小管上皮细胞空泡样变.随病程延长,糖尿病组大鼠肾小管上皮细胞Bax及cytC表达增加,而Bcl-2表达减弱.细胞凋亡检测结果显示,糖尿病组大鼠4周时凋亡细胞增多,多数在远曲肾小管,12周时远曲肾小管及近曲肾小管均可见凋亡细胞.结论 Bax及cytC表达随糖尿病病程延长而增强,引起细胞凋亡增加,导致肾功能异常,这可能是糖尿病肾病的重要发病机制.%Objective To observe the changes in expressions of apoptosis-promoting gene Bax, apoptosis-inhibiting gene Bcl-2, and cytochrome C in the renal tissue of diabetic rats. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n= 12) : normal control group and diabetic group. Diabetic models were induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 2% streptozotocin (dissolved in pH 4. 4,0. 1 mol/L citric acid sodium buffer, 65 mg/kg). Normal control group was only injected with same volume of folic buffer. Animals were sacrificed at the 4th and 12th week, and body mass, 24-hour urine protein, blood glucose, blood urine

  9. Application of 99mTc-DTPA Radiotracer in Persian Cat's Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    renal organ. dministration of the radioisotope and accumulation of ... cat's renal scintigraphy, and this makes it potentially useful in research and ... system, this compound is excreted by the ... studies from animal and environment were done.

  10. 动物组织中类胡萝卜素分析、分布的研究进展%Process on Analysis and Distribution Research of Carotenoids in Animal Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛峰; 李晨; 潘思轶

    2011-01-01

    对动物组织中类胡萝卜素的分析、分布和类胡萝卜素特异性结合蛋白的研究进行了综述.动物组织中类胡萝卜素的提取主要采用混合有机溶剂提取;分析检测主要采用反相高效液相色谱法和二极管阵列检测器;类胡萝卜素主要由小肠黏膜吸收;脂蛋白被认为参与类胡萝卜素的转运;β-胡萝卜素可经生物转化生成视黄醇;动物各组织对类胡萝卜素表现出选择性吸收,且这种选择性吸收因物种不同而差异显著;类胡萝卜素在吸收过程中相互之间存在交互作用,且这种交互作用主要发生在碳氢类胡萝卜素和含氧类胡萝卜素之间;类胡萝卜素的选择性吸收与交互作用被认为与组织中某种特异性结合蛋白的存在相关.%The carotenoids analysis and distribution in animal tissues and the study of carotenoids binding protein were reviewed in this article. Complete extraction of carotenoids from animal tissues was reported by using slightly polar solvents plus non -polar solvents;Reversed Phase High Pedormance Liquid Chromatography, coupling a photodiode array detector,was most often employed in routine use to analyze the carotenoids;carotenoids were absorbed by the mucosa of the small intestine;lipoproteins played an important role in transportation of carotenoids;the various pathways of β - carotene biotransformation were either known or suspected of occurring in mammalian tissues, and pathways known or proposed were involved in the conversion of β - carotene to retinoids; selective absorption of carotenoids was found in animal tissues and there were obvious variabilities in the selective absorption of carotenoid among animal species;the interactions between carotenoids were found during the process of absorption and antagonistic effects had been reported between the hydrocarbon carotenoids and oxycarotenoids;special carotenoids binding proteins had been isolated and purified from animal tissues, which

  11. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M; Baker, Sandy T; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L; Wolfson, Marla R

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation-6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung.

  12. Precision-cut human kidney slices as a model to elucidate the process of renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribos, Elisabeth G D; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Leliveld, Anna M; de Jong, Igle J; van Son, Willem J; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Seelen, Marc A; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; Mutsaers, Henricus A M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health concern, and experimental models bridging the gap between animal studies and clinical research are currently lacking. Here, we evaluated precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) as a potential model for renal disease. PCKSs were prepared from human cortical tissue obtained from tumor nephrectomies and cultured up to 96 hours. Morphology, cell viability, and metabolic functionality (ie, uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase and transporter activity) were determined to assess the integrity of PCKSs. Furthermore, inflammatory and fibrosis-related gene expressions were characterized. Finally, to validate the model, renal fibrogenesis was induced using transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Preparation of PCKSs induced an inflammatory tissue response, whereas long-term incubation (96 hours) induced fibrogenesis as shown by an increased expression of collagen type 1A1 (COL1A1) and fibronectin 1 (FN1). Importantly, PCKSs remained functional for more than 48 hours as evidenced by active glucuronidation and phenolsulfonphthalein uptake. In addition, cellular diversity appeared to be maintained, yet we observed a clear loss of nephrin messenger RNA levels suggesting that our model might not be suitable to study the role of podocytes in renal pathology. Moreover, TGF-β1 exposure augmented fibrosis, as illustrated by an increased expression of multiple fibrosis markers including COL1A1, FN1, and α-smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, PCKSs maintain their renal phenotype during culture and appear to be a promising model to investigate renal diseases, for example, renal fibrosis. Moreover, the human origin of PCKSs makes this model very suitable for translational research.

  13. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  14. 肾透明细胞癌与癌旁组织差异蛋白表达谱分析%Proteomic profiling of renal clear cell carcinoma and paratumorous tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明山; 王焕昇; 庞增粉; 邹本奎; 边家盛; 张鑫; 石学涛

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE; To compare the proteomic profiling of renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC) and paratumorous tissues, in order to identify novel tumor markers. METHODS: Protein samples from 10 RCC tissues and their paired pa-ratumor tissues were extracted, and isolated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Differently expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: About 20 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated proteins in RCC tissues. Most of the up-regulated proteins were involved in response to hypoxia, anti-apoptosis and Glycolysis, Regulation of actin cy-toskeleton and PPAR cancer-related pathway. CONCLUSION. The differently identified proteins in this study were novel candidate biomarkers for RCC, and its clinical significance deserves further investigation.%目的:通过比较肾透明细胞癌和癌旁组织的蛋白表达谱差异,筛选新的肾癌肿瘤标志,为提高肾癌诊断的敏感性和特异性提供基础.方法:分别提取10例肾透明细胞癌及其癌旁肾组织蛋白,蛋白定量后,采用双向凝胶电泳(2-DE)对组织蛋白表达谱进行分离,采用飞行时间质谱对差异位点进行蛋白鉴定.结果:鉴定出20个肾癌上调蛋白,10个下 调蛋白,上调蛋白集中于缺氧反应和抗凋亡,以及Glycolysis、Regulation of actin cytoskeleton和PPAR信号通路.结论:本研究筛选出一组在肾癌组织中高表达的蛋白,是肾透明细胞癌的候选肿瘤标志,为进一步的验证和功能研究提供了基础.

  15. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA ... excreting it into the urine. Distal renal tubular acidosis (Type I RTA) is caused by a defect ...

  16. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  17. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiene, Reidun; Kristiansen, Veronica; Teige, Jon; Jansen, Johan Høgset

    2007-05-04

    Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence of clinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure.

  18. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teige Jon

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure.

  19. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiene, Reidun; Kristiansen, Veronica; Teige, Jon; Jansen, Johan Høgset

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure. PMID:17480218

  20. Renal dysfunctions in glomerulonephropathy with rapidly declined renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrakul, N; Pochanugool, C; Sitprija, V; Singkhwa, V; Futrakul, P; Yenrudi, S; Sensirivatana, R; Watana, D; Poshyachinda, M

    1996-07-01

    Eight patients aged between 5 and 26 years developed rapid deterioration of renal function and became oliguric/anuric with duration ranging from 1 to 21 days. The initial functional assessment revealed severe degree of glomerular, tubular, and vascular dysfunctions. The magnitude of renal dysfunction was quantified and expressed in terms of a clinical score. The degree of glomerular and tubular dysfunctions were inversely proportional to the renal plasma flow and peritubular capillary blood flow (PTCB), respectively. Similar findings have been observed in a variety of severe glomerulonephropathies. In this aspect, it is likely that the reduction of peritubular capillary blood flow and tubulointerstitial disease are interrelated. Further evidence to support the primary role of reduction of PTCB in inducing tubulointerstitial disease is provided by the following: (a) Reduction of PTCB is documented in mesangial proliferative nephrosis with steroid resistance prior to the detection of tubulointerstitial disease. (b) Ischemic insult can induce tubulointerstitial disease in experimental setting of renal artery occlusion in animal, (c) Improved tubular function can be achieved following the increase in PTCB with the enhanced renal perfusion therapy.

  1. Regulations of enzymes in animals: effects of developmental processes, cancer, and radiation. Final report. [Analysis of enzymes in human cancer tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, W.E.

    1978-09-01

    Low grade tumors of various origins are chemically very different. High grade tumors, whatever their origin, are chemically very similar to one another and to embryonic tissues. Analyses of human tumor tissues and sera from cancer patients were conducted for two new groups of enzymes expected to be informative about the physiological state of the tissue. The enzymes measured in tumors and sera were chosen because they were characteristic of fetal tissues and high grade neoplasms in rats, and could, therefore, be expected to exist in human cancers (and fetuses) and to predominate more in those of higher grade malignancies. Results indicated that the classification of enzymes (or isozymes) as fetal or adult types in the rat could be extended to man. Human cancers do contain most of the enzymes expected, and lack others, as expected. Analyses of the same enzymes in sera gave less clear results. It was recognized at the outset that no simple proportionality existed between tissue and serum levels. The tendency existed in cancer patients to have in serum elevated amounts of those enzymes characteristic of undifferentiated tissues. The abnormalities in a specific patient are conditioned by his physiological state, by the grade of his tumor, and by the mass of tumor present. The tumor mass had a very significant effect, so that monitoring this tumor burden by chemical means should be quite possible. The latest work focused on particular enzymes that have not previously been measured in cancer patients. These studies concentrated on pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P-5-C) reductase and its inhibition and on lysosomal glucosidases and phosphatases. Both groups are relatively high in fetal and neoplastic tissues.

  2. Renale Osteopathie

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    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. Wir beeinflussen dadurch nicht nur die Morbidität und Lebensqualität, sondern auch die Mortalität unserer Patienten.

  3. Effect of glutamine on the total antioxidant system of rats subjected to renal ischemia and reperfusion Efeito da glutamina no sistema antioxidante total de ratos submetidos a isquemia e reperfusão renal

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    Valter Torezan Gouvêa Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the protective effects of glutamine administered before renal ischemia-reperfusion on plasma antioxidant protection, and lung and renal tissue injury. METHODS: 33 rats underwent right nephrectomy. On the eighth postoperative day, animals were randomized into three groups (n=11: glutamine, control and sham. Each group of animals received, by gavage, a particular diet for 7 days. On day 14 following nephrectomy, the animals were subjected to left renal ischemia-reperfusion. After this, blood samples were collected and the animals were killed. At necropsy the kidney and lung were removed for histology. RESULTS: The levels of total antioxidant capacity were higher in the glutamine group and control group compared with the sham group. The levels of glutathione peroxidase in both the sham and glutamine groups were higher when compared with the control group (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos na proteção antioxidante plasmática e na lesão tecidual renal e pulmonar da glutamina oral administrada precedendo a isquemia/ reperfusão renal. MÉTODOS: Trinta e três ratos foram submetidos à nefrectomia à direita. No oitavo dia de pós-operatório, os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n=11: glutamina, controle e sham. Cada grupo de animal recebeu por gavagem uma dieta distinta por sete dias. Ao final do 14º dia da nefrectomia procedeu-se a isquemia renal esquerda e posterior reperfusão. A seguir procedeu-se a coleta de sangue, eutanásia e retirada do rim e pulmões para análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de capacidade antioxidante total foram maiores no grupo glutamina e grupo controle em relação ao grupo sham. Os níveis de glutationa peroxidase nos grupos sham e glutamina foram mais elevados quando comparados com o grupo controle (p<0,05. A dosagem de superóxido dismutase foi maior no grupo sham quando comparado com os grupos glutamina e controle. Não houve diferença na análise histológica do rim e pulm

  4. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  5. Cell therapy in renal and cardiovascular disease Terapia celular en enfermedades renales y cardiovasculares

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    Juan Manuel Senior Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been important advances in the field of molecular biology, the mechanisms responsible for nephrogenesis and the factors that modulate the process of development, proliferation, growth, and maturation during fetal and adult life have not been thoroughly explained. Animals, including mammals, share the intrinsic ability to regenerate tissues and organs as an important biological defense mechanism. In the case of the kidney, after tissue damage secondary to injury, anatomical and functional recovery of integrity is achieved, accompanied by the activation of a complex, poorly understood process, leading to the replacement of damaged tubular cells by functional ones that reorganize tubular architecture. This regeneration and repair process is produced by somatic, exogenous, adult stem cells, and probably by intrinsic renal stem cells, that are responsible for maintaining renal homeostasis Aunque se han logrado grandes avances en el campo de la biología molecular, todavía no se han esclarecido completamente los mecanismos responsables de la organogénesis y los factores que modulan el proceso de desarrollo, proliferación, crecimiento y maduración celulares durante la vida fetal y adulta. Los animales comparten la capacidad de regenerar tejidos y órganos, como un mecanismo biológico importante de defensa. En el caso del riñón, luego del daño tisular secundario a una noxa, se produce recuperación anatómica y funcional de la integridad, acompañada por la activación de un proceso sofisticado, mal comprendido, que lleva al reemplazo de las células tubulares dañadas por otras funcionalmente normales que reorganizan la arquitectura tubular. Este fenómeno de recambio se produce gracias a la presencia de células madre adultas somáticas exógenas, responsables del proceso de mantenimiento de la homeostasis renal, y posiblemente por células renales intrínsecas.

  6. Renal lymphoma: spectrum of computed tomography findings; Linfoma renal: espectro de imagens na tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda; Bauab Junior, Tufik [Faculdade de Medicina do Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base. Dept. de Imagem]. E-mail: tbauab@riopreto.com.br

    2005-04-01

    Isolated renal lymphoma is rare due to the absence of lymphoid tissue in kidneys. Secondary involvement occurs more frequently and is reported in up to 1/3 of the autopsies of patients who died from lymphoma. Some authors believe this is actually the only existing form of renal lymphoma. The involvement of the kidney by lymphoma would occur through hematogenic metastasis or direct tumor invasion of the peri renal space. These different types of involvement determine the several forms of renal lymphoma presentation: multiple nodules, solitary mass, renal invasion from contiguous retroperitoneal disease, peri renal disease and diffuse infiltration. In this study the imaging findings features of the different forms of involvement are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Comparison of veterinary drug residue results in animal tissues by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole ... use of a commercial lipid removal product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods must be monitored to ensure food safety, verify proper veterinary practices, enforce legal limits in domestic and imported foods, and other purposes. A common goal in drug residue analysis in foods is to achieve acceptable monitoring results for as m...

  8. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 can halt and even reverse renal tubule-interstitial fibrosis.

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    Matheus Correa-Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tubule-interstitial fibrosis is the hallmark of progressive renal disease and is strongly associated with inflammation of this compartment. Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a cytoprotective molecule that has been shown to be beneficial in various models of renal injury. However, the role of HO-1 in reversing an established renal scar has not yet been addressed. AIM: We explored the ability of HO-1 to halt and reverse the establishment of fibrosis in an experimental model of chronic renal disease. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO and divided into two groups: non-treated and Hemin-treated. To study the prevention of fibrosis, animals were pre-treated with Hemin at days -2 and -1 prior to UUO. To investigate whether HO-1 could reverse established fibrosis, Hemin therapy was given at days 6 and 7 post-surgery. After 7 and/or 14 days, animals were sacrificed and blood, urine and kidney tissue samples were collected for analyses. Renal function was determined by assessing the serum creatinine, inulin clearance, proteinuria/creatininuria ratio and extent of albuminuria. Arterial blood pressure was measured and fibrosis was quantified by Picrosirius staining. Gene and protein expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules, as well as HO-1 were performed. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with Hemin upregulated HO-1 expression and significantly reduced proteinuria, albuminuria, inflammation and pro-fibrotic protein and gene expressions in