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Sample records for renal sodium excretion

  1. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

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    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron's principal cells. In a dose-response study, we measured the effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium....... CONCLUSIONS: During baseline, fractional excretion of sodium was unchanged. During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, renal water excretion was reduced dose dependently, and renal sodium excretion was reduced unrelated to the dose, partly via an AVP dependent mechanism. Thus, tolvaptan antagonized the reduction...... in renal water and sodium excretion during NO-inhibition. Most likely, the lack of decrease in AQP2 excretion by tolvaptan could be attributed to a counteracting effect of the high level of p-AVP....

  2. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

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    Andersen, L.J.; Jensen, T.U.; Bestle, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered by a nasogas......-angiotensin system....

  3. The Synergistic Roles of Cholecystokinin B and Dopamine D5 Receptors on the Regulation of Renal Sodium Excretion.

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    Xiaoliang Jiang

    Full Text Available Renal dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R and the gastrin receptor (CCKBR are involved in the maintenance of sodium homeostasis. The D1R has been found to interact synergistically with CCKBR in renal proximal tubule (RPT cells to promote natriuresis and diuresis. D5R, which has a higher affinity for dopamine than D1R, has some constitutive activity. Hence, we sought to investigate the interaction between D5R and CCKBR in the regulation of renal sodium excretion. In present study, we found D5R and CCKBR increase each other's expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the HK-2 cell, the specificity of which was verified in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing both human D5R and CCKBR and in RPT cells from a male normotensive human. The specificity of D5R in the D5R and CCKBR interaction was verified further using a selective D5R antagonist, LE-PM436. Also, D5R and CCKBR colocalize and co-immunoprecipitate in BALB/c mouse RPTs and human RPT cells. CCKBR protein expression in plasma membrane-enriched fractions of renal cortex (PMFs is greater in D5R-/- mice than D5R+/+ littermates and D5R protein expression in PMFs is also greater in CCKBR-/- mice than CCKBR+/+ littermates. High salt diet, relative to normal salt diet, increased the expression of CCKBR and D5R proteins in PMFs. Disruption of CCKBR in mice caused hypertension and decreased sodium excretion. The natriuresis in salt-loaded BALB/c mice was decreased by YF476, a CCKBR antagonist and Sch23390, a D1R/D5R antagonist. Furthermore, the natriuresis caused by gastrin was blocked by Sch23390 while the natriuresis caused by fenoldopam, a D1R/D5R agonist, was blocked by YF476. Taken together, our findings indicate that CCKBR and D5R synergistically interact in the kidney, which may contribute to the maintenance of normal sodium balance following an increase in sodium intake.

  4. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion

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    Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M.; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L.; Kravetz, María C.; Lee, Brenda M.; Carranza, Andrea; Del Mauro, Julieta S.; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Toblli, Jorge E.; Fernández, Belisario E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on organic cation transporters (OCTs) expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T), ANP, dopamine (DA), D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects. PMID:27392042

  5. Renal excretion of prostaglandin metabolites, arginine vasopressin, and sodium during endotoxin and endogenous pyrogen induced fever in the goat.

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    Jónasson, H; Basu, S; Andersson, B; Kindahl, H

    1984-04-01

    Responses to intravenous injections of an endotoxin (E. coli-lipopolysaccharide, 1 microgram/kg b.wt.) and endogenous pyrogen were studied in euhydrated and hyperhydrated goats. The biphasic febrile response to the endotoxin was associated with a pronounced increase in the renal excretion of measured prostaglandin (PG) metabolites (11-ketotetranor PGF metabolites). This increase was time-correlated with the elevation of the rectal temperature, and (in hyperhydrated animals) with an inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in renal excretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Other effects of the endotoxin were an immediate depression of renal Na and K excretion followed by the development of pronounced natriuresis, and a reduction of plasma Fe and Zn concentrations. The appearance of the febrile reactions (peripheral vasoconstriction and shivering) was accompanied by miosis. The maximum elevation of the rectal temperature was significantly greater during euhydration than during hyperhydration. Also endogenous pyrogen elicited miosis concomitant with febrile reactions, and an elevation of the renal excretion of PG metabolites which was closely correlated in time with the monophasic febrile response, and (during hyperhydration) with temporary inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in the renal AVP excretion. However, the responses were much weaker than the corresponding endotoxin effects. No appreciable changes in renal excretion of Na and K were observed in response to the endogenous pyrogen. It is concluded that the observed effects on renal cation excretion were manifestations of direct endotoxin influences on kidney function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Effect of sodium nitrite on renal function, sodium and water excretion and brachial and central blood pressure in healthy subjects. A dose-response study

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    Rosenbaek, Jeppe Bakkestroem; Therwani, Safa Al; Jensen, Janni Majgaard

    2017-01-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo and has vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. Our aim was to examine the effects of NaNO2 on hemodynamics, sodium excretion and GFR. In a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we infused placebo (0.9% NaCl) or 0.58, ....... The lack of increase in cGMP accompanying the increase in NO2(-), suggests a direct effect of nitrite or nitrate on the renal tubules and vascular bed with little or no systemic conversion to NO.......Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo and has vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. Our aim was to examine the effects of NaNO2 on hemodynamics, sodium excretion and GFR. In a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we infused placebo (0.9% NaCl) or 0.58, 1.......74, or 3.48 μmol NaNO2/kg/hour for two hours in twelve healthy subjects, after four days standard diet. Subjects were supine and water-loaded. We measured brachial and central blood pressure (BP), plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (P-AVP), and plasma nitrite...

  7. Vascular Type 1A Angiotensin II Receptors Control BP by Regulating Renal Blood Flow and Urinary Sodium Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Matthew A; Stegbauer, Johannes; Chen, Daian; Gomez, Jose A; Griffiths, Robert C; Azad, Hooman A; Herrera, Marcela; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Inappropriate activation of the type 1A angiotensin (AT1A) receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and its associated complications. To define the role for actions of vascular AT1A receptors in BP regulation and hypertension pathogenesis, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMKO mice) using Loxp technology and Cre transgenes with robust expression in both conductance and resistance arteries. We found that elimination of AT1A receptors from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) caused a modest (approximately 7 mmHg) yet significant reduction in baseline BP and exaggerated sodium sensitivity in mice. Additionally, the severity of angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension was dramatically attenuated in SMKO mice, and this protection against hypertension was associated with enhanced urinary excretion of sodium. Despite the lower BP, acute vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II in the systemic vasculature were largely preserved (approximately 80% of control levels) in SMKO mice because of exaggerated activity of the sympathetic nervous system rather than residual actions of AT1B receptors. In contrast, Ang II-dependent responses in the renal circulation were almost completely eliminated in SMKO mice (approximately 5%-10% of control levels). These findings suggest that direct actions of AT1A receptors in VSMCs are essential for regulation of renal blood flow by Ang II and highlight the capacity of Ang II-dependent vascular responses in the kidney to effect natriuresis and BP control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Effects of dopamine on renal haemodynamics tubular function and sodium excretion in normal humans

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    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    The renal functional changes following infusion of dopamine are well documented. The most pronounced effect is the increase in renal blood flow and a marked natriuretic response. Due to its specific renal effects, dopamine has become one of the most frequently used drugs in the treatment...... of critically ill patients with low cardiac output states and/or acute oliguric renal failure. Pharmacological effects of dopamine are dose dependent. Low doses of dopamine predominantly stimulate dopaminergic receptors, but with increasing doses actions secondary to stimulation of adrenergic beta(1) and alpha...... indirectly may dilate the vessels by inhibition of norepinephrine release. Consistent with previous results in animals, the present haemodynamic studies revealed that dopamine in normal subjects elicits a dose dependent biphasic effect on the mean arterial blood pressure. With 1 and 2 micrograms...

  9. Renal blood flow, fractional excretion of sodium and acute kidney injury: time for a new paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowle, John; Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-12-01

    Global renal blood flow is considered pivotal to renal function. Decreased global renal blood flow (decreased perfusion) is further considered the major mechanism of reduced glomerular filtration rate responsible for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. Additionally, urinary biochemical tests are widely taught to allow the differential diagnosis of prerenal (functional) AKI and intrinsic [structural AKI (so-called acute tubular necrosis)]. In this review we will examine recent evidence regarding these two key clinical paradigms. Recent animal experiments and clinical studies in humans using cine-phase contrast magnetic resonance technology are not consistent with the decreased perfusion paradigm. They suggest instead that changes in the intra-renal circulation including modification in efferent arteriolar function and intra-renal shunting are much more likely to be responsible for AKI, especially in sepsis. Similarly, recent human studies indicate the urinary biochemistry has limited diagnostic or prognostic ability and is dissociated form biomarker and microscopic evidence of tubular injury. Intra-renal microcirculatory changes are likely more important than changes in global blood flow in the development of AKI. Urinary biochemistry is not a clinically useful diagnostic or prognostic tool in critically ill patients at risk of or with AKI.

  10. Expression of renin-angiotensin system signalling compounds in maternal protein-restricted rats: effect on renal sodium excretion and blood pressure.

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    Mesquita, Flávia Fernandes; Gontijo, José Antonio Rocha; Boer, Patrícia Aline

    2010-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction due to low maternal dietary protein during pregnancy is associated with retardation of foetal growth, renal alterations and adult hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a coordinated hormonal cascade in the control of cardiovascular, renal and adrenal function that governs body fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as arterial pressure. In the kidney, all the components of the renin-angiotensin system including angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors are expressed locally during nephrogenesis. Hence, we investigated whether low protein diet intake during pregnancy altered kidney and adrenal expression of AT1(R) and AT2(R) receptors, their pathways and if the modified expression of the RAS compounds occurs associated with changes in urinary sodium and in arterial blood pressure in sixteen-week-old males' offspring of the underfed group. The pregnancy dams were divided in two groups: with normal protein diet (pups named NP) (17% protein) or low protein diet (pups LP) (6% protein) during all pregnancy. The present data confirm a significant enhancement in arterial pressure in the LP group. Furthermore, the study showed a significantly decreased expression of RAS pathway protein and Ang II receptors in the kidney and an increased expression in the adrenal of LP rats. The detailed immunohistochemical analysis of RAS signalling proteins in the kidney confirm the immunoblotting results for both groups. The present investigation also showed a pronounced decrease in fractional urinary sodium excretion in maternal protein-restricted offspring, compared with the NP age-matched group. This occurred despite unchanged creatinine clearance. The current data led us to hypothesize that foetal undernutrition could be associated with decreased kidney expression of AT(R) resulting in the inability of renal tubules to handle the hydro-electrolyte balance, consequently causing arterial hypertension.

  11. Selective renal vasoconstriction, exaggerated natriuresis and excretion rates of exosomic proteins in essential hypertension

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    Damkjaer, M.; Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    AimIn essential hypertension (EH), the regulation of renal sodium excretion is aberrant. We hypothesized that in mild EH, (i) abnormal dynamics of plasma renin concentration (PRC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are responsible for the exaggerated natriuresis, and (ii) exosomic protein...... patterns reflect the renal tubular abnormality involved in the dysregulation of sodium excretion. MethodsAfter 2-week drug washout and 4-day diet, systemic and renal hemodynamics, cardio-renal hormones, glomerular filtration and renal excretion were studied in male patients during saline loading (SL...

  12. Renal acid excretion in the domestic fowl.

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    Long, S; Skadhauge, E

    1983-05-01

    1. In order to assess the role of uricotelism in net renal acid excretion, blood and ureteral urine samples were collected from five hens fed a commercial poultry feed (Diet A) and five hens fed a protein-rich, Na-poor feed (Diet B). All samples were analysed for pH, PCO2, ammonium, phosphate, uric acid and urates (UA + U) and inulin. 2. On Diet A, average pH in venous blood was 7.42, while urinary pH (pHu) ranged from 4.74 to 7.25. At average pHu (6.10), uric acid accounted for 52% of total acid excreted, H2PO4 for 20% and NH4 for 28%. Net acid excretion in ureteral urine was 345 muequiv h-1 kg body weight-1, or 5-10 times that observed in ureotelic vertebrates (amphibians and mammals). 3. The relative contributions of these urinary buffers to net renal acid excretion changed with pHu. Significant negative correlations exist between pHu and both total phosphate and ammonium excretion rates (P less than 0.001). Excretion rates of (UA + U) showed a positive correlation (P less than 0.05) with pHu. 4. Feeding on Diet B revealed the homeostatic power of the avian kidney. Blood pH and PCO2 were not changed relative to values in hens fed the control diet while striking increases in excretion rates of all urinary buffers (except HCO3) were observed. Average pHu fell to 5.12, and the average net renal acid excretion rate doubled.

  13. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

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    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  14. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

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    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  15. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

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    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  16. An alternative hypothesis to the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Schmidlin, O.; Tanaka, M.; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2016), s. 965-973 ISSN 0085-2538 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * hypertension * kidney * salt * salt-resistance * salt-sensitivity * sodium * sodium chloride Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 8.395, year: 2016

  17. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  18. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P renal hemodynamics, urine flow, sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly...

  19. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

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    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  20. Urinary excretion of furosemide in rats with HgCl sub 2 -induced acute renal damage

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    Fujimura, Akio; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ebihara, Akio (Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To examine the influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced acute renal damage on urinary excretion of furosemide, HgCl{sub 2} or its vehicle along was given intraperitoneally to Wistar rats. The following two experiments were done. Study 1: three percent body weight (b.w.) of 1% NaCl solution or furosemide in 3% b.w. of 1% NaCl solution was given orally before and after HgCl{sub 2} treatment, and an 8-hour urine was collected. Study 2: furosemide was given orally, and blood samples were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase increased, and urine volume and urinary excretions of furosemide and sodium decreased in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats. There were significant correlations between the urinary furosemide and its diuretic effects. Regression lines after HgCl{sub 2} were significantly different from those before treatment. The values of absorption as well as elimination rate constant were smaller, while the time to maximum concentration and the elimination half-life were longer in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated animals. These results suggest that the urinary excretion of furosemide and the responsiveness of renal tubular cells to this agent are impaired in rats with HgCl{sub 2}-induced acute renal damage.

  1. Renal handling of sodium and water in the hypothyroid rat

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    Michael, Ulrich F.; Barenberg, Robert L.; Chavez, Rafaelita; Vaamonde, Carlos A.; Papper, Solomon

    1972-01-01

    Hypothyroid rats were examined with conventional renal clearance and micropuncture techniques to elicit the mechanism and site within the nephron responsible for the increased salt and water excretion observed in these animals. When compared with age-matched control rats, a decrease in inulin clearance of 30% (P < 0.001) and in Hippuran clearance of 32% (P < 0.005) was observed in the hypothyroid rats. Absolute excretion of sodium and water was increased 3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2-fold (P < 0.025), respectively, while fractional excretion of sodium and water was increased 4.3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2.9-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, in the hypothyroid animals. Fractional proximal reabsorption of sodium as assessed from proximal tubular fluid to plasma ratios of inulin ([TF/P]IN) was found to be decreased by 28% (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. Superficial single nephron filtration rate was reduced proportionately to the decrease in total filtration rate in the hypothyroid rats. These data indicate that the proximal tubule is one of the sites of diminished sodium and water reabsorption in the hypothyroid rat. The data also suggest that the observed decrease in glomerular filtration rate in the hypothyroid animals is not caused by a decrease in the number of functioning nephrons and that the observed increase in sodium and water excretion is not caused by a redistribution of filtrate from juxtamedullary to superficial nephrons. Although the exact mechanisms of the observed changes in proximal tubular function remain unknown, the data suggest that they are probably related to the lack of thyroid hormone. Whatever their mechanism, it appears that the enhanced sodium and water excretion observed in the hypothyroid animals must be determined by further reduction in tubular sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:5024038

  2. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

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    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  3. Renal function, sodium and water homeostasis in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At baseline there were no differences in inulin clearance, PAH clearance, fractional excretion of sodium and free water excretion. During and after the saline infusion both groups showed a significant increase in sodium excretion with a reduction in water excretion, while the PAH and inulin clearances remained unchanged.

  4. Low sodium intake does not impair renal compensation of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis.

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    Höhne, Claudia; Boemke, Willehad; Schleyer, Nora; Francis, Roland C; Krebs, Martin O; Kaczmarczyk, Gabriele

    2002-05-01

    Acute hypoxia causes hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis, often combined with increased diuresis and sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate excretion. With a low sodium intake, the excretion of the anion bicarbonate may be limited by the lower excretion rate of the cation sodium through activated sodium-retaining mechanisms. This study investigates whether the short-term renal compensation of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis is impaired by a low sodium intake. Nine conscious, tracheotomized dogs were studied twice either on a low-sodium (LS = 0.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) or high-sodium (HS = 7.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) diet. The dogs breathed spontaneously via a ventilator circuit during the experiments: first hour, normoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.21); second to fourth hour, hypoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.1). During hypoxia (arterial PO2 34.4 +/- 2.1 Torr), plasma pH increased from 7.37 +/- 0.01 to 7.48 +/- 0.01 (P respiratory alkalosis was not impaired by a low sodium intake. The increased sodium excretion during hypoxia seems to be combined with a decrease in plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II in LS as well as in HS dogs. Other factors, e.g., increased mean arterial blood pressure, minute ventilation, and renal blood flow, may have contributed.

  5. Renal sodium retention in cirrhotic rats depends on glucocorticoid-mediated activation of mineralocorticoid receptor due to decreased renal 11beta-HSD-2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiesson, Helle; Jensen, Boye L; Bistrup, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Downregulation of the renal glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD-2) during liver cirrhosis may allow activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by glucocorticoids and contribute to sodium retention. We tested this hypothesis in male Wistar...... rats with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites 7 wk after bile duct ligation (BDL). Renal 11beta-HSD-2 mRNA, protein, and activity were significantly decreased in decompensated rats. The urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio was reduced by 40%. Renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNA and immunostaining...... were only slightly affected. Complete metabolic studies, including fecal excretion, showed that the BDL rats had avid renal sodium retention. Treatment of the BDL rats with dexamethasone suppressed endogenous glucocorticoid production, normalized total sodium balance and renal sodium excretion...

  6. Alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin-induced renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Luo, Xuan; Wu, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Tiffany; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-02-20

    The kidney plays a major part in the elimination of many drugs and their metabolites, and drug-induced kidney injury commonly alters either glomerular filtration or tubular transport, or both. However, the renal excretion pathway of drugs has not been fully elucidated at different stages of renal injury. This study aimed to evaluate the alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin (GEN)-induced renal injury in rats. Results showed that serum cystatin C, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were greatly increased by the exposure of GEN (100 mg kg -1 ), and creatinine concentration was increased by 39.7% by GEN (50 mg kg -1 ). GEN dose-dependently upregulated the protein expression of rOCT1, downregulated rOCT2 and rOAT1, but not affected rOAT2. Efflux transporters, rMRP2, rMRP4 and rBCRP expressions were significantly increased by GEN(100), and the rMATE1 level was markedly increased by GEN(50) but decreased by GEN(100). GEN(50) did not alter the urinary excretion of inulin, but increased metformin and furosemide excretion. However, GEN(100) resulted in a significant decrease of the urinary excretion of inulin, metformin and p-aminohippurate. In addition, urinary metformin excretions in vivo were significantly decreased by GEN(100), but slightly increased by GEN(50). These results suggested that GEN(50) resulted in the induction of rOCTs-rMATE1 and rOAT3-rMRPs pathway, but not changed the glomerular filtration rate, and GEN(100)-induced acute kidney injury caused the downregulated function of glomerular filtration -rOCTs-rMATE1 and -rOAT1-rMRPs pathway. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Excretion of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium in Lactating Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the excretion of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na via milk, urine and faeces during the lactation period of sows. Six clinically healthy lactating sows (crossbreed Large White × Landrace were selected for these experiments and were housed in standard conditions and fed with commercially prepared dry mixture for this category of sows. The blood serum, milk, urine and faecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of lactation. During four weeks of lactation, we recorded the relatively stable and physiological concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Na in blood serum. The analysis of the sow’s milk showed the highest concentration of Ca and P at the end of lactation, while the highest concentration of Mg and Na was observed on the 7th lactation day. The following macro-mineral excretion was recorded in urine: 98.83-194.00 mg.l-1 for Ca; 11.88- 53.09 mg.l-1 for P; 171.67-344.05 mg.l-1 for Mg; and 56.50-74.83 mg.l-1 for Na; and in the faeces, 1824.5- 3045.5 mg.kg-1 for Ca; 1566.93-2483.2 mg.kg-1 for P; 1916.2-2505.2 mg.kg-1 for Mg; and 516.8-748.2 mg. kg-1 for Na.

  8. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion levels of preschool children: Individual, daily, and seasonal differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Nagafuchi, Mikako; Izu, Ryoji; Kajiyama, Tomomi; Imai, Katsumi; Murata, Yusuke; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the authors measured sodium and potassium concentrations in spot urine samples of preschool children on multiple days, and evaluated individual, daily, and seasonal effects. A total of 104 healthy preschool children aged 4 to 5 years were studied. Urine samples were collected from the first urine of the day after waking for three consecutive days (Monday-Wednesday) four times a year (spring, summer, autumn, winter). The authors estimated the daily urine volume as 500 mL and daily creatinine excretion as 300 mg, and used these to calculate daily sodium and potassium excretion levels. Daily sodium and potassium excretion levels and sodium to potassium ratios were highly variable. The coefficient variant in the children's excretion levels were also high within and between individuals. Sodium excretion levels and sodium to potassium ratios were higher on Monday (weekend sodium intakes) than Tuesday. Season had no effect on sodium or potassium excretion levels, but the sodium to potassium ratio was higher in summer than in winter. In conclusion, levels of urinary sodium excretion are comparatively high and those of potassium are low in preschool students, with high variability within and between individuals. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia O Amaral

    Full Text Available Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT, but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1, i.v.. A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP and renal blood flow (RBF. Renal vascular conductance (RVC was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6, OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1, i.v. induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1 b.wt., i.v. was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6, hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1 • h(-1, i.v.; n = 7 and renal denervation (RX reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7 completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively, whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  10. Effect of renal venous pressure elevation on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Amtorp, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    of [51Cr]EDTA was used as a measure of the rate of glomerular filtration (GFR). GFR, urinary excretion rates of sodium and water, and lithium clearance were used for assessing the absolute and fractional reabsorption rates of sodium and water in the proximal as well as in more distal segments......This study was performed in order to quantify the effects of renal venous pressure (RVP) elevation on absolute and fractional reabsorption rates of sodium and water in proximal and distal segments of the nephron in dog kidneys. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured electromagnetically. Clearance...

  11. Association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity in Korean adults: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Viscosity of iodinated contrast agents during renal excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, Gregor; Lengsfeld, Philipp; Lenhard, Diana C.; Pietsch, Hubertus; Huetter, Joachim; Sieber, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Modern iodinated non-ionic contrast agents (CAs) can be classified based on their molecular structure into monomeric and dimeric CAs and have at comparable iodine concentrations a different viscosity and osmolality. During their renal excretion, CAs are concentrated in the renal tubuli which might enhance the viscosity difference between monomeric and dimeric CAs. The viscosity of a CA might have an underestimated importance for renal safety, as suggested by recent publications. In this study, we investigated the viscosities of CAs at the concentrations expected to be present in renal tubules. This concentration process was simulated in vitro using dialysis. Furthermore, we investigated urine viscosity and urine flow in rodents after administration of several non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. Materials and methods: To estimate the viscosity of the CAs in vivo, we performed an in vitro dialysis of monomeric and dimeric CAs at various physiological osmolalities of the renal tubulus (290, 400, 500, 700 and 1000 mOsm/kg H 2 O). Following the dialysis, the iodine concentrations and the viscosities of the CAs were determined. Furthermore, to investigate the concentration process in vivo, we measured the urine viscosity and the urine flow in Han Wister rats after the administration of Iopromide, Iohexol, Ioversol, Iomeprol, Iodixanol, and Iosimenol at comparable iodine concentrations. As a control, saline was injected at the same volume. Results: In vitro dialysis of the dimeric CA increased the iodine concentration and strongly increased the viscosity at all tested osmolalities. In contrast, for the monomeric agents an increase in concentration and viscosity was observed only at 700 as well 1000 mOsm/kg H 2 O but to a lesser extent. In summary, dialysis strongly enhanced the viscosity differences between the non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. The administration of dimeric CAs leads to a strong increase in urine viscosity; this was not observed for the

  13. Viscosity of iodinated contrast agents during renal excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor, E-mail: Gregor.Jost@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Lengsfeld, Philipp, E-mail: Philipp.Lengsfeld@bayer.com [Global Medical Affairs Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Lenhard, Diana C., E-mail: Diana.Lenhard@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus, E-mail: Hubertus.Pietsch@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Huetter, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.Huetter@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Sieber, Martin A., E-mail: Martin.Sieber@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: Modern iodinated non-ionic contrast agents (CAs) can be classified based on their molecular structure into monomeric and dimeric CAs and have at comparable iodine concentrations a different viscosity and osmolality. During their renal excretion, CAs are concentrated in the renal tubuli which might enhance the viscosity difference between monomeric and dimeric CAs. The viscosity of a CA might have an underestimated importance for renal safety, as suggested by recent publications. In this study, we investigated the viscosities of CAs at the concentrations expected to be present in renal tubules. This concentration process was simulated in vitro using dialysis. Furthermore, we investigated urine viscosity and urine flow in rodents after administration of several non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. Materials and methods: To estimate the viscosity of the CAs in vivo, we performed an in vitro dialysis of monomeric and dimeric CAs at various physiological osmolalities of the renal tubulus (290, 400, 500, 700 and 1000 mOsm/kg H{sub 2}O). Following the dialysis, the iodine concentrations and the viscosities of the CAs were determined. Furthermore, to investigate the concentration process in vivo, we measured the urine viscosity and the urine flow in Han Wister rats after the administration of Iopromide, Iohexol, Ioversol, Iomeprol, Iodixanol, and Iosimenol at comparable iodine concentrations. As a control, saline was injected at the same volume. Results: In vitro dialysis of the dimeric CA increased the iodine concentration and strongly increased the viscosity at all tested osmolalities. In contrast, for the monomeric agents an increase in concentration and viscosity was observed only at 700 as well 1000 mOsm/kg H{sub 2}O but to a lesser extent. In summary, dialysis strongly enhanced the viscosity differences between the non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. The administration of dimeric CAs leads to a strong increase in urine viscosity; this was not observed for

  14. Infarction of renal transplant with extrarenal excretion of Tc-99m MAG3 demonstrated by renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Min Woo; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2003-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman with end stage renal disease received a living related donor-renal transplant to the right iliac fossa. She developed anuria a week later. Tc-99m MAG 3 renal scintigraphy demonstrated no perfusion, uptake, or excretion of the radioactive tracer from the renal transplant. The expected area of the renal allograft appeared as a photopenic area with increased rim activity. The gallbladder and bowel activities were observed on delayed images at 24 hours. There was no blood flow within the renal artery on renal doppler examination. This case shows total absence of perfusion and function in the infarcted renal transplant with extrarenal excretion of Tc-99m MAG 3 caused by acute renal artery thrombosis

  15. Effects of sodium nitrite on renal function and blood pressure in hypertensive vs. healthy study participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbæk, Jeppe B; Hornstrup, Bodil G; Jørgensen, Andreas N

    2018-01-01

    to determine the effects of NaNO2 on blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium and water regulation in patients with EHT compared with healthy control study participants (CON). METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused 240 μg NaNO2/kg/h or isotonic saline for 2 h in 14 EHT and 14 CON. During...... infusion, we measured changes in brachial and central BP, free water clearance, fractional sodium excretion, and urinary excretion rate of γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (U-ENaCγ), and aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2). RESULTS: Placebo-adjusted brachial SBP decreased 18 mmHg (P ... infusion in EHT and 12 mmHg (P fractional sodium excretion, free water clearance, and U...

  16. The renal handling of sodium and water is not affected by the standard-dose cisplatin treatment for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Renal clearances of 51Cr-EDTA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured before and after each of four consecutive treatment series with cisplatin in 15 men with testicular cancer. Since lithium is reabsorbed like sodium and water in the proximal tubules, but not reabsorbed to any measurable...... and all other parameters of glomerular filtration and renal sodium handling remained normal throughout the study (with the exception of a fall in fractional sodium excretion after the first treatment series). Plasma magnesium declined during all four treatment periods, signifying renal magnesium wasting....

  17. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  18. Evaluation of the process of recycling and renal parenchymal injury after eswl with metabolites excreted in the urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Cavit; Dogan, Serkan; Saydam, Gulsevim; Kocak, Mehmet Zait; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    To show renal parenchymal injury depending on extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The patients with one renal stone and in whom ESWL is planned among the patients in whom renal stone was determined. Their 24-h urine samples were collected just before and after the ESWL treatment. Cit (citrate), UrA (uric acid), RBP (retinol-binding protein), NAG (N-acetyl-β-Đ-glucosaminidase), Cr (creatinine), Na (sodium), K (potassium), P (phosphor), Ca (calcium), and Cl (chlorine) metabolites excreted in urine were evaluated after urine samples were taken on the study day. Changes in the metabolites excreted; the number, frequency, and duration of ESWL shock wave; the energy; and the body mass index were recorded. The results for p ESWL were applied to a total of 20 patients. When metabolites excreted in the urine before (B1E) and after (A1E) the first session of ESWL, and before (B2E) and after (A2E) the second session of ESWL, were evaluated, no statistically significant result for Ca and Cl excretion was noted. For NAG and Cr, a significant difference was observed in terms of metabolite excretion between B1E and B2E. For other metabolites, we saw that there is no difference between B1E and B2E. While a significant metabolite change was observed for RBP, NAG, Cr, and Na as long as A1E and A2E ESWL session number increases, other metabolites were not significant. Shock waves induce significant damage to the renal and adjacent tissues as indicated by a significant increase in cell-escaped enzymes and electrolytes and the extent of damage depends on the energy and the number of shock wave exposure.

  19. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  20. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    were examined in three groups of rats with increased renal excretion of urine: uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria. Twenty-four hour urine samples were obtained after 7, 14 and 21 days. The urinary volume per kidney was doubled in uninephrectomy when compared to controls....... There was a seven-fold increase in urinary volume in rats with non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria, as compared to controls. Uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetes all affected the urinary excretion of EGF and THP differently. The EGF excretion in uninephrectomized rats was 60......-80% of that of the controls, whereas THP excretion was unchanged, indicating that EGF excretion varied with renal tissue mass. Non-osmotic polyuria caused a five-fold increase in THP excretion but no change in EGF excretion. THP excretion in the diabetic rats was increased three-fold after 21 days when compared to controls...

  1. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitch, William E.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2015-01-01

    Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excretion, although often considered only in the context of acid-base homeostasis, accounts for approximately 10% of total renal nitrogen excretion under basal conditions, but can increase substantially in a variety of clinical conditions. Because renal ammonia metabolism requires intrarenal ammoniagenesis from glutamine, changes in factors regulating renal ammonia metabolism can have important effects on glutamine in addition to nitrogen balance. This review covers aspects of protein metabolism and the control of the two major molecules involved in renal nitrogen excretion: urea and ammonia. Both urea and ammonia transport can be altered by glucocorticoids and hypokalemia, two conditions that also affect protein metabolism. Clinical conditions associated with altered urine concentrating ability or water homeostasis can result in changes in urea excretion and urea transporters. Clinical conditions associated with altered ammonia excretion can have important effects on nitrogen balance. PMID:25078422

  2. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... of 65 ml/min (median) was reduced to a nadir of 46 ml/min (p less than 0.01) during the first 2 h after infusion of cimetidine. GFR remained unchanged, and thus the fractional clearance of creatinine (CCr/CTh) was reduced from 1.43 (median) to 1.03 (p less than 0.01). CNa and the fractional excretion...... of sodium decreased throughout the study (p less than 0.05); CLi was unchanged. In conclusion cimetidine, when measured during 1-h clearance periods, interferes with tubular creatinine secretion in the denervated kidney of transplant recipients without affecting the glomerular filtration rate or proximal...

  3. [Extracellular hydration status and residual urinary sodium excretion in chronic hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochette, Romain; Lobbedez, Thierry; Hanoy, Mélanie; Le Roy, Frank; Potier, Jacky; Besselièvre, Thibault; Cardineau, Éric; Landru, Isabelle; Ficheux, Maxence; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Henri, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    In dialysis patients, a misevaluation of dry weight may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional multicenter study was to evaluate the association between residual urinary sodium excretion and extracellular volume status in chronically treated hemodialysis patients. Dry weight was determined clinically and by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy (Body Composition Monitor, Fresenius Medical Care) prior to a mid-week session in 40 chronic hemodialysis patients with significant residual diuresis (more than 250 mL per day) and receiving treatment in four dialysis centers. Regarding their hydration status assessed by the Body Composition Monitor and in comparison to a healthy reference population, patients were assigned to 1 of the 3 categories: overhydrated, normohydrated and dehydrated. Urine output, urinary sodium excretion and residual renal function were measured for all patients within 30 days before dry weight assessment. The median post-HD session FO was of-0.40 L (IQR: from-1.95 to+0.90) and the median residual urinary sodium excretion was of 64 mmol/L (IQR: 46-79). Among these patients, 16 were normohydated, 16 were dehydrated and 8 were overhydrated. There was a linear relationship between the hydration status after HD session and the urinary sodium excretion (estimate: 5.6±1.5; phydration status evaluated by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy. Copyright © 2013 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

  5. Urine sodium excretion increased slightly among U.S. adults between 1988 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Hughes, Jeffery P; Cogswell, Mary E; Burt, Vicki L; Lacher, David A; Lavoie, Donna J; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Johnson, Clifford L; Pirkle, James L

    2014-05-01

    Little information is available on temporal trends in sodium intake in the U.S. population using urine sodium excretion as a biomarker. Our aim was to assess 1988-2010 trends in estimated 24-h urine sodium (24hUNa) excretion among U.S. adults (age 20-59 y) participating in the cross-sectional NHANES. We used subsamples from a 1988-1994 convenience sample, a 2003-2006 one-third random sample, and a 2010 one-third random sample to comply with resource constraints. We estimated 24hUNa excretion from measured sodium concentrations in spot urine samples by use of calibration equations (for men and women) derived from the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure study. Estimated 24hUNa excretion increased over the 20-y period [1988-1994, 2003-2006, and 2010; means ± SEMs (n): 3160 ± 38.4 mg/d (1249), 3290 ± 29.4 mg/d (1235), and 3290 ± 44.4 mg/d (525), respectively; P-trend = 0.022]. We observed significantly higher mean estimated 24hUNa excretion in each survey period (P trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion remained significant (P-trend = 0.004). We observed no temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion among BMI subgroups, nor after adjusting for BMI. Although several limitations apply to this analysis (the use of a convenience sample in 1988-1994 and using estimated 24hUNa excretion as a biomarker of sodium intake), these first NHANES data suggest that mean estimated 24hUNa excretion increased slightly in U.S. adults over the past 2 decades, and this increase may be explained by a shift in the distribution of BMI.

  6. Spot urine sodium excretion as prognostic marker in acutely decompensated heart failure: the spironolactone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João Pedro; Girerd, Nicolas; Medeiros, Pedro Bettencourt; Santos, Mário; Carvalho, Henrique Cyrne; Bettencourt, Paulo; Kénizou, David; Butler, Javed; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Loop diuretic resistance characterized by inefficient sodium excretion complicates many patients with acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in natriuretic doses may improve spot urine sodium excretion and outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess the association of high-dose spironolactone with short-term spot urine sodium excretion, and our secondary aim was to determine if this higher short-term spot urine sodium excretion is associated with reduction in the composite clinical outcome (of cardiovascular mortality and/or ADHF hospitalization) event rate at 180 days. Single-centre, non-randomized, open-label study enrolling 100 patients with ADHF. Patients were treated with standard ADHF therapy alone (n = 50) or oral spironolactone 100 mg/day plus standard ADHF therapy (n = 50). Spot urine samples were collected at day 1 and day 3 of hospitalization. Spironolactone group had significantly higher spot urine sodium levels compared to standard care group at day 3 (84.13 ± 28.71 mmol/L vs 70.74 ± 34.43 mmol/L, p = 0.04). The proportion of patients with spot urinary sodium spot urinary sodium and urinary sodium/potassium ratio of >2 at day 3 (both, p spot urine sodium levels were associated with a lower event rate [HR for urinary sodium >100 mmol/L = 0.16 (0.06-0.42), p Spot urinary sodium levels >60 mmol/L and urinary sodium/potassium ratio >2 measured at day 3 of hospitalization for ADHF are associated with improved mid-term outcomes. Spironolactone is associated with increased spot urinary sodium and sodium/potassium ratio >2.

  7. Fetal kidney programming by severe food restriction: effects on structure, hormonal receptor expression and urinary sodium excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Barbara; Mesquita, Flavia F; Gontijo, Jose A R; Boer, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigates, in 23-day-old and adult male rats, the effect of severe food restriction in utero on blood pressure (BP), and its association with nephron structure and function changes, angiotensin II (AT1R/AT2R), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor expression. The daily food supply to pregnant rats was measured and one group (n=15) received normal quantity of food (NF) while the other received 50% of that (FR50%) (n=15). Kidneys were processed to AT1R, AT2R, MR, and GR immunolocalization and for western blotting analysis. The renal function was estimated by creatinine and lithium clearances in 12-week-old offspring. By stereological analyses, FR50% offspring present a reduction of nephron numbers (35%) with unchanged renal volume. Expression of AT1R and AT2R was significantly decreased in FR50% while the expression of GR and MR increased in FR50%. We also verified a pronounced decrease in urinary sodium excretion accompanied by increased BP in 12-week-old FR50% offspring. The current data suggest that changes in renal function are conducive to excess sodium tubule reabsorption, and this might potentiate the programming of adult hypertension. It is plausible to arise in the current study an association between decreasing natriuresis, reciprocal changes in renal AngII and steroid receptors with the hypertension development found in FR50% compared with age-matched NF offspring. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  9. High Prolactin Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Jakob; Moreno-Vega, Aura Ileana; Vázquez-Membrillo, Miguel; Nava, Gabriel; García-Franco, Renata; López-Star, Ellery; Baldivieso-Hurtado, Olivia; Ochoa, Daniel; Macotela, Yazmín; Bertsch, Thomas; Martinez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic clearance of prolactin (PRL) is partially executed by the kidney. Here, we investigate the urine excretion of PRL in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and renal impairment. Serum and urine samples were collected from male, mestizo patients in central Mexico employing a cross-sectional study design. Ninety-eight individuals had either no diabetes and normal renal function (control), diabetes and normal renal function, or diabetes with impaired renal function. PRL was determined by a chemiluminescent immunometric assay; protein, albumin, and creatinine were evaluated using quantitative colorimetric assays. The results were analyzed using ANOVA-testing. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and renal impairment had significantly higher urine PRL levels than patients with Diabetes Mellitus and normal renal function and control patients. Higher urine PRL levels were associated with lower glomerular filtration rates, higher serum creatinine, and higher urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR). Urine PRL levels correlated positively with UACR. Serum PRL levels were similar among groups. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and impaired renal function demonstrate a high urinary PRL excretion. Urinary PRL excretion in the context of proteinuria could contribute to PRL dysregulation in renal impairment.

  10. Increased renal sodium absorption by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis during fasting in healthy man. A possible role of the epithelial sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graffe Carolina C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment with prostaglandin inhibitors can reduce renal function and impair renal water and sodium excretion. We tested the hypotheses that a reduction in prostaglandin synthesis by ibuprofen treatment during fasting decreased renal water and sodium excretion by increased absorption of water and sodium via the aquaporin2 water channels and the epithelial sodium channels. Methods The effect of ibuprofen, 600 mg thrice daily, was measured during fasting in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study of 17 healthy humans. The subjects received a standardized diet on day 1, fasted at day 2, and received an IV infusion of 3% NaCl on day 3. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2, the beta-fraction of the epithelial sodium channel (u-ENaCbeta, cyclic-AMP (u-cAMP, prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2. Free water clearance (CH2O, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa, and plasma concentrations of vasopressin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial-, and brain natriuretic peptide. Results Ibuprofen decreased u-AQP2, u-PGE2, and FENa at all parts of the study. During the same time, ibuprofen significantly increased u-ENaCbeta. Ibuprofen did not change the response in p-AVP, u-c-AMP, urinary output, and free water clearance during any of these periods. Atrial-and brain natriuretic peptide were higher. Conclusion During inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, urinary sodium excretion decreased in parallel with an increase in sodium absorption and increase in u-ENaCbeta. U-AQP2 decreased indicating that water transport via AQP2 fell. The vasopressin-c-AMP-axis did not mediate this effect, but it may be a consequence of the changes in the natriuretic peptide system and/or the angiotensin-aldosterone system Trial Registration Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00281762

  11. [Renal excretion of methylene-diphosphate-technium-99m. Preliminary observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Martini, G

    1983-11-30

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of the renal excretion of 99mTc-MDP in man. We compared the renal clearance of 99mTc-MDP and 51Cr-EDTA (glomerular filtration rate agent). Since the 99mTc-MDP is bound to the plasma protein, the free fraction was calculated by dialysis. The clearances were obtained by single-injection technique. The plasma disappearance of the tracers was resolved into three exponential functions and area was calculated. The clearance was calculated by dividing the amount of the tracers excreted during the first four hours and the plasma area. In this study no difference was found in the clearance of the two agents. These findings suggest that the renal excretion of diphosphonate is related to the glomerular filtration rate.

  12. Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Renal urea excretion was studied in three llamas under various feeding conditions. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from inulin clearance. Tubular reabsorbed urea was the difference between glomerular filtered and renal excreted urea. Plasma urea concentration increased significantly when feeding was reduced by 40% and 60%, not applicable to a straw diet. With reduced hay feeding and on a straw diet only a slight and insignificant decrease was observed in renal urea excretion, with only a 3% lowering in GFR and glomerular filtered urea. With a straw diet, the glomerular filtered urea was significantly below the controls. The fraction of filtered urea reabsorbed in the tubules was constant (36%-47%). Very high reabsorption (87%) on a supplemented straw dietwas observed in one llama which after nearly 6 months on this low protein diet - could be shown to have lost only 5% of its body weight

  13. Control of sodium excretion in patients with cranial diabetes insipidus maintained on desamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutters, M; Brace, C; Hatfield, E; Whitehurst, A; Lightman, S L; Peart, W S

    1993-11-01

    1. We have studied the response of six patients with cranial diabetes insipidus and six age-matched control subjects to dietary sodium restriction during constant administration of the synthetic vasopressin analogue desamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin. 2. Urine flow increased on the first low salt day in the normal control subjects but not in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. Body weight fell 1.35 kg in the control subjects but was constant in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 3. Urinary sodium excretion fell at the same rate in both groups. Diurnal variation of urinary sodium excretion and creatinine clearance was present in the control subjects but not in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 4. Changes in plasma sodium concentration and osmolality were similar. Plasma protein concentration increased more in the control subjects (from 69.1 +/- 1.5 to 73 +/- 1.2 versus from 71.7 +/- 1 to 73.2 +/- 1.1 milligrams). The responses of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, plasma renin activity and salivary aldosterone concentration were similar between the two groups. Salivary aldosterone concentration levels were consistently higher in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 5. We confirm that the low salt diuresis is triggered by release from the antidiuretic activity of arginine vasopressin. In the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus extracellular fluid osmoregulation appeared to be achieved by the movement of water out of and sodium into the extracellular fluid. 6. Absent posterior pituitary function and hypothalamic disturbances did not alter renal sodium conservation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Genetic variation underlying renal uric acid excretion in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor, Geetha; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Laston, Sandra; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Butte, Nancy F; Voruganti, V Saroja

    2017-01-17

    Reduced renal excretion of uric acid plays a significant role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout in adults. Hyperuricemia has been associated with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. There are limited genome-wide association studies associating genetic polymorphisms with renal urate excretion measures. Therefore, we investigated the genetic factors that influence the excretion of uric acid and related indices in 768 Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. We performed a genome-wide association analysis for 24-h urinary excretion measures such as urinary uric acid/urinary creatinine ratio, uric acid clearance, fractional excretion of uric acid, and glomerular load of uric acid in SOLAR, while accounting for non-independence among family members. All renal urate excretion measures were significantly heritable (p uric acid clearance with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in zinc finger protein 446 (ZNF446) (rs2033711 (A/G), MAF: 0.30). The minor allele (G) was associated with increased uric acid clearance. Also, we found suggestive associations of uric acid clearance with SNPs in ZNF324, ZNF584, and ZNF132 (in a 72 kb region of 19q13; p <1 × 10 -6 , MAFs: 0.28-0.31). For the first time, we showed the importance of 19q13 region in the regulation of renal urate excretion in Hispanic children. Our findings indicate differences in inherent genetic architecture and shared environmental risk factors between our cohort and other pediatric and adult populations.

  15. Renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media after enema in the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Je, Bo-Kyung; Cha, Sang Hoon; Choi, Byung Min; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hwa

    2014-08-01

    When abdominal distention occurs or bowel obstruction is suspected in the neonatal period, a water-soluble contrast enema is helpful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The water-soluble contrast medium is evacuated through the anus as well as excreted via the kidneys in some babies. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of renal excretion after enemas using water-soluble contrast media and presume the causes. Contrast enemas using diluted water-soluble contrast media were performed in 23 patients under 2 months of age. After the enema, patients were followed with simple abdominal radiographs to assess the improvement in bowel distention, and we could also detect the presence of renal excretion of contrast media on the radiographs. Reviewing the medical records and imaging studies, including enemas and consecutive abdominal radiographs, we evaluated the incidence of renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media and counted the stay duration of contrast media in urinary tract, bladder, and colon. Among 23 patients, 12 patients (52%) experienced the renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media. In these patients, stay-in-bladder durations of contrast media were 1-3 days and stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-10 days, while stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-3 days in the patients not showing renal excretion of contrast media. The Mann-Whitney test for stay-in-colon durations demonstrated the later evacuation of contrast media in the patients with renal excretion of contrast media (p = 0.07). The review of the medical records showed that 19 patients were finally diagnosed as intestinal diseases, including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileum, meconium plug syndrome, and small bowel atresia or stenosis. Fisher's exact test between the presence of urinary excretion and intestinal diseases indicated a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). The intestinal diseases causing bowel obstruction may increase the

  16. [Influence of non-sodium restricted diet with diuretics on plasma rennin, renal blood flow and in patients with cirrhotic ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin-fang; Gu, Xi-bing; Zhu, Hong-ying; Yang, Xiao-juan; Wang, Dong; Yu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    To explore influence of sodium restricted diet and non-sodium restricted diet on plasma rennin (PRA), angiotensin II (All), ALD, renal blood flow (RBF) and subside of ascites in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Eighty cases of hepatitis B with cirrhotic ascites were randomly divided into sodium restricted diet group and non-sodium restricted diet group. 39 cases were in non-sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 6500-8000 mg daily; 41 cases were in sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 5000 mg daily. Both groups received diuretics furosemide and spironolactone. Blood sodium, urine sodium, PRA, AII, ALD, RBF ascites subsiding were compared after treatment. In non-sodium restricted diet group, blood sodium and urine sodium increased 10 days after treatment compared with those before treatment, and compared with those of sodium restricted diet group 10 days after treatment, P Renal damage induced by low blood sodium after treatment was less in non-sodium restricted diet group than that in sodium restricted diet group, P blood sodium, thus increasing excretion of urine sodium and diuretic effect. It can also decrease levels of PRA, AII and ALD, increase renal blood flow and prevent renal damage induced by low blood sodium and facilitate subsiding of ascites.

  17. [Renal excretion of total porphyrins and hippuric acid in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1986-09-01

    The amounts of total porphyrins, hippuric acid and creatinine, excreted in urine by adult male Wistar rats, exhibited normal distributions for hippuric acid and creatinine, but a bimodal distribution for total porphyrins. This typical distribution of total porphyrins was still observed when creatinine was used as reference parameter. In biochemical and toxicological experiments in rats, the tested parameters should be therefore be investigated for homogeneity.

  18. Urinary albumin excretion is associated with renal functional abnormalities in a nondiabetic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Janssen, WMT; Hillege, HL; Navis, G; De Zeeuw, D; De Jong, PE

    2000-01-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is an important early sign of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperfiltration and impaired filtration in relation to albuminuria has been well investigated in diabetic subjects. This study tested the hypothesis that an increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with renal

  19. Antipyrine metabolite formation and excretion in patients with chronic renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, M W; Kampf, D; Roots, I; Vermeulen, N P; Breimer, D D

    1985-01-01

    In the present study the influence of chronic renal insufficiency on antipyrine clearance, metabolite formation and excretion was investigated in 8 patients. After oral administration of antipyrine, the parent compound, its metabolites and their conjugates were assayed in plasma and urine. Besides

  20. Urinary Urea Excretion and Long-Term Outcome After Renal Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Said, M. Yusof; Kromhout, Daan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Navis, Gerjan; Joosten, Michel M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about optimal protein intake after transplantation. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate associations of urinary urea excretion, a marker for protein intake, with graft failure and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR) and potential effect

  1. Urinary Urea excretion and Long-Term outcome after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, P.E.; Said, M.Y.; Kromhout, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about optimal protein intake after transplantation. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate associations of urinary urea excretion, a marker for protein intake, with graft failure and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR) and potential effect

  2. Renal excretion of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate in osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, J.D.; Khairi, M.R.A.; Ricciardone, M.; Wellman, H.N.; Johnston, C.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Bone scans were performed on a patient with osteomalacia using /sup 99m/technetium-ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (/sup 99m/Tc-EHDP). The renal excretion of /sup 99m/Tc-EHDP was measured and the results were compared with those obtained in 4 patients with idiopathic osteoporosis

  3. A novel description of FDG excretion in the renal system: application to metformin-treated models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, S.; Caviglia, G.; Sambuceti, G.; Benvenuto, F.; Piana, M.

    2014-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel compartmental model describing the excretion of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) in the renal system and a numerical method based on the maximum likelihood for its reduction. This approach accounts for variations in FDG concentration due to water re-absorption in renal tubules and the increase of the bladder’s volume during the FDG excretion process. From the computational viewpoint, the reconstruction of the tracer kinetic parameters is obtained by solving the maximum likelihood problem iteratively, using a non-stationary, steepest descent approach that explicitly accounts for the Poisson nature of nuclear medicine data. The reliability of the method is validated against two sets of synthetic data realized according to realistic conditions. Finally we applied this model to describe FDG excretion in the case of animal models treated with metformin. In particular we show that our approach allows the quantitative estimation of the reduction of FDG de-phosphorylation induced by metformin.

  4. A novel description of FDG excretion in the renal system: application to metformin-treated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, S; Caviglia, G; Piana, M; Sambuceti, G; Benvenuto, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel compartmental model describing the excretion of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) in the renal system and a numerical method based on the maximum likelihood for its reduction. This approach accounts for variations in FDG concentration due to water re-absorption in renal tubules and the increase of the bladder’s volume during the FDG excretion process. From the computational viewpoint, the reconstruction of the tracer kinetic parameters is obtained by solving the maximum likelihood problem iteratively, using a non-stationary, steepest descent approach that explicitly accounts for the Poisson nature of nuclear medicine data. The reliability of the method is validated against two sets of synthetic data realized according to realistic conditions. Finally we applied this model to describe FDG excretion in the case of animal models treated with metformin. In particular we show that our approach allows the quantitative estimation of the reduction of FDG de-phosphorylation induced by metformin. (paper)

  5. Gadolinium-enhanced turbo FLASH MR imaging of renal perfusion and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, A.; Teresi, L.M.; Herbst, M.; O'Sullivan, R.M.; Lee, R.; Smith, C.; Renner, J.; Rappaport, A.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to MR imaging of renal perfusion and excretion using gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted TURBP, fast low-angle shot (FLASH) imaging. Five normal volunteers and four patients were studied on a 1.5-T imaging system. Time-intensity curves of the appearance of gadolinium in each kidney and the bladder were then generated. In normal volunteers, marked first-pass enhancement of renal cortex followed by renal pyramids and collecting systems could be demonstrated on the first-pass gadolinium images. Delayed images showed hyperintense gadolinium within the bladder

  6. Estimation model for habitual 24-hour urinary-sodium excretion using simple questionnaires from normotensive Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sook Kong

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop an equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion that can serve as an alternative to 24-h dietary recall and 24-h urine collection for normotensive Korean adults. In total, data on 640 healthy Korean adults aged 19 to 69 years from 4 regions of the country were collected as a training set. In order to externally validate the equation developed from that training set, 200 subjects were recruited independently as a validation set. Due to heterogeneity by gender, we constructed a gender-specific equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion by using a multivariable linear regression model and assessed the performance of the developed equation in validation set. The best model consisted of age, body weight, dietary behavior ('eating salty food', 'Kimchi consumption', 'Korean soup or stew consumption', 'soy sauce or red pepper paste consumption', and smoking status in men, and age, body weight, dietary behavior ('salt preference', 'eating salty food', 'checking sodium content for processed foods', 'nut consumption', and smoking status in women, respectively. When this model was tested in the external validation set, the mean bias between the measured and estimated 24-h urinary-sodium excretion from Bland-Altman plots was -1.92 (95% CI: -113, 110 mmol/d for men and -1.51 (95% CI: -90.6, 87.6 mmol/d for women. The cut-points of sodium intake calculated based on the equations were ≥4,000 mg/d for men and ≥3,500 mg/d for women, with 89.8 and 76.6% sensitivity and 29.3 and 64.2% specificity, respectively. In this study, a habitual 24-hour urinary-sodium-excretion-estimation model of normotensive Korean adults based on anthropometric and lifestyle factors was developed and showed feasibility for an asymptomatic population.

  7. Mechanisms controlling renal hemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, L.L.; Mizelle, H.L.; Montani, J.P.; Hall, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the mechanisms by which increased plasma amino acids elevate renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since transport of amino acids and Na + is linked in the proximal tubule, the authors hypothesized that increased amino acids might stimulate proximal tubular Na + reabsorption (PR/sub Na/) and thus increase RBF and GFR by a macula densa feedback mechanism. A solution of four amino acids (Ala, Ser, Gly, Pro) was infused intravenously into anesthetized dogs with normal kidneys (NK) and with kidneys in which the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was blunted by lowering renal artery pressure (LPK) or blocked by making the kidneys nonfiltering (NFK). In NK, RBF and GFR increased by 35 +/- 4% and 30 +/- 7% after 90 min of amino acid infusion, while PR/sub Na/ (estimated from lithium clearance) and O 2 consumption increased by 31 +/- 5% and 29 +/- 5% and distal Na + delivery remained relatively constant. Autoregulation of RBF and GFR in response to step deceases in renal artery pressure was impaired during amino acids in NK. The hemodynamic responses to amino acids were abolished in LPK and NFK. Infusion of the nonmetabolized α-aminoisobutyric acid into NK produced changes in renal hemodynamics that were similar to the responses observed with the four metabolizable amino acids. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevation of plasma amino acids increases RBF and GFR by a mechanism that requires an intact macula densa feedback. Metabolism of the amino acids does not appear to be necessary for these changes to occur

  8. Mechanisms controlling renal hemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, L.L.; Mizelle, H.L.; Montani, J.P.; Hall, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the mechanisms by which increased plasma amino acids elevate renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since transport of amino acids and Na is linked in the proximal tubule, the authors hypothesized that increased amino acids might stimulate proximal tubular Na reabsorption (PR/sub Na/) and thus increase RBF and GFR by a macula densa feedback mechanism. A solution of four amino acids (Ala, Ser, Gly, Pro) was infused intravenously into anesthetized dogs with normal kidneys (NK) and with kidneys in which the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was blunted by lowering renal artery pressure (LPK) or blocked by making the kidneys nonfiltering (NFK). In NK, RBF and GFR increased by 35 +/- 4% and 30 +/- 7% after 90 min of amino acid infusion, while PR/sub Na/ (estimated from lithium clearance) and O2 consumption increased by 31 +/- 5% and 29 +/- 5% and distal Na delivery remained relatively constant. Autoregulation of RBF and GFR in response to step deceases in renal artery pressure was impaired during amino acids in NK. The hemodynamic responses to amino acids were abolished in LPK and NFK. Infusion of the nonmetabolized -aminoisobutyric acid into NK produced changes in renal hemodynamics that were similar to the responses observed with the four metabolizable amino acids. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevation of plasma amino acids increases RBF and GFR by a mechanism that requires an intact macula densa feedback. Metabolism of the amino acids does not appear to be necessary for these changes to occur.

  9. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of renal excretion of creatinine by the pony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finco, D.R.; Groves, C.

    1985-01-01

    Free-flow and stop-flow procedures conducted on 2 female and 2 testosterone-treated castrated male ponies indicated that [ 14 C]inulin and exogenous creatinine clearance values were the same. These results indicated that creatinine was neither reabsorbed nor secreted by the renal tubules and that exogenous creatinine clearance was an accurate method for determining glomerular filtration rate. As in other species which have been studied, endogenous creatinine clearance probably underestimated glomerular filtration rate because of the presence of noncreatinine chromogens in plasma

  11. PGI2 synthesis and excretion in dog kidney: evidence for renal PG compartmentalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.M.; Nasjletti, A.; Heerdt, P.M.; Baer, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the concept of compartmentalization of renal prostaglandins (PG), we compared entry of PGE2 and the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha into the renal vascular and tubular compartments, in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Renal arterial 6-keto-PGF1 alpha infusion increased both renal venous and urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow. In contrast, renal arterial infusion of arachidonic acid (AA) or bradykinin (BK) increased renal venous 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow but had no effect on its urinary outflow. Both urinary and renal venous PGE2 outflows increased during AA or BK infusion. Ureteral stopped-flow studies revealed no postglomerular 6-keto-PGF1 alpha entry into tubular fluid. During renal arterial infusion of [3H]PGI2 and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 40% of inulin clearance; 35% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and two other urinary metabolites were found. During renal arterial infusion of [3H]6-keto-PGF1 alpha and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 150% of inulin clearance; 75% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and only one other metabolite was found. We conclude that in the dog PGE2 synthesized in the kidney enters directly into both the renal vascular and tubular compartments, but 6-keto-PGF1 alpha of renal origin enters directly into only the renal vascular compartment

  12. [Clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q H; Liang, J J; Chen, L X; Mo, Y Q; Wei, X N; Zheng, D H; Dai, L

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients. Methods: Consecutive inpatients with primary gout were recruited between 2013 and 2017. The patients with gout onset younger than 30 were defined as early-onset group while the others were enrolled as control group. Clinical characteristics and uric acid (UA) indicators were compared between two groups. Results: Among 202 recruited patients, the early-onset group included 36 patients (17.8%). Compared with control group, the early-onset group presented more patients with obesity [13 patients (36.1%) vs. 22 patients (13.3%), Pgout early onset. Conclusion: The gout patients with early-onset younger than 30 present high serum and glomerular load of uric acid which might be due to obesity and relative under-excretion of renal uric acid.

  13. Urinary prostaglandin excretion in pregnancy: the effect of dietary sodium restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Thomas, C M; van den Berg, R J; Jongsma, H W; Steegers, E A

    2000-10-01

    Dietary sodium restriction results in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system. In the non-pregnant situation renin release in response to a low sodium diet is mediated by prostaglandins. We studied the effect of dietary sodium restriction on urinary prostaglandin metabolism in pregnancy. In a randomized, longitudinal study the excretion of urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)) and thromboxane A(2)(TxB(2)and 2,3-dinor-TxB(2)) was determined throughout pregnancy and post partum in 12 women on a low sodium diet and in 12 controls. In pregnancy the excretion of all urinary prostaglandins is increased. The 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)/ TxB(2)-ratio as well as the 2, 3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)/ 2,3-dinor-TxB(2)-ratio did not significantly change in pregnancy. CONCLUISION Prostacyclin and thromboxane do not seem to play an important role in sodium balance during pregnancy. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  14. Assessment of dietary sodium intake using a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Rachael M; Farmer, Victoria L; Nettleton, Alice; Cameron, Claire M; Cook, Nancy R; Campbell, Norman R C

    2017-12-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary sodium intake, although 24-hour urinary excretion is the most accurate measure of intake. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate whether FFQs are a reliable and valid way of measuring usual dietary sodium intake. Results from 18 studies are described in this review, including 16 validation studies. The methods of study design and analysis varied widely with respect to FFQ instrument, number of 24-hour urine collections collected per participant, methods used to assess completeness of urine collections, and statistical analysis. Overall, there was poor agreement between estimates from FFQ and 24-hour urine. The authors suggest a framework for validation and reporting based on a consensus statement (2004), and recommend that all FFQs used to estimate dietary sodium intake undergo validation against multiple 24-hour urine collections. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The urinary excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in high serum creatinine rats: Can creatinine predict renal tubular elimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Jing; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Pei; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-03-01

    The renal excretion of creatinine and most drugs are the net result of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion, and their tubular secretions are mediated by individual transporters. Thus, we hypothesized that the increase of serum creatinine (SCr) levels attributing to inhibiting tubular transporters but not glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine. In this work, we firstly developed the creatinine excretion inhibition model with normal GFR by competitively inhibiting tubular transporters, and investigated the renal excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the 24-hour urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime in model rats were decreased by 25% and 17% compared to that in control rats, respectively. The uptake amount and urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime could be inhibited by creatinine in renal cortical slices and isolated kidney perfusion. However, the urinary excretion of ofloxacin was not affected by high SCr. These results showed that the inhibition of tubular creatinine transporters by high SCr resulted to the decrease of urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime, but not ofloxacin, which implied that the increase of SCr could also be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine in normal GFR rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of enalapril on urinary protein excretion of essential and renal parenchymal hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucca, N.; Falciani, C.; Morini, V.; Bigazzi, R.; Paparatto, P.; Setti, G.P.; Bianchi, S.; Baldari, G.; Valteriani, C.; Chiapponi, I.

    1988-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting drugs are able to reduce urinary protein excretion in experimental hypertension and in hypertensive patients with diabetes. Fifteen essential (group I) and six renal parenchymal (group II) mild or moderate hypertensive patients were treated with the ACE inhibitor Enalapril in monotherapy or in combination with a diuretic. Twenty-four hour urinary protein excretion was measured by means of colorimetric and RIA methods. All patients of group I had a significant decrease of arterial pressure with Enalapril alone and this reduction was dosage dependent. Three out of six patients of group II required the addition of diuretic to achieve a good pressure control. Serum creatinine values were stable in group I, while one patient of group II, who already had high baseline creatinine levels, showed an impairment of renal function requiring discontinuation of therapy. Twenty-four hour urinary protein excretion did not change in group I, while after two months of therapy a significant decrease was observed in group II (P<0.05), which was even more evident after 4 months (P<0.03). In this group a good correlation between MAP and proteinuria was observed. Finally, compared to the colorimetric method, RIA method seems to be more sensitive to assess the variations under Enalapril treatment. In conclusion, Enalapril is an effective drug in patients with moderate or mild hypertension. Caution must be exercised in administering Enalapril to patients with severe renal failure. Also in hypertensive patients with mild renal failure ACE inhibition appears to induce an antiproteinuric effect during long term therapy. This fact could be related to an improved hemodynamic intraglomerular status due to the renal effects of the drug. Finally urinary albumin RIA method seems to be more sensitive than colorimetric evaluation to follow-up the variations of proteinuria under Enalapril treatment

  17. Changes in urinary excretion of water and sodium transporters during amiloride and bendroflumethiazide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni M; Mose, Frank H; Kulik, Anna-Ewa O

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo. METHODS: In a randomized, double....... General linear model with repeated measures or related samples Friedman's two-way analysis was used to compare differences. Post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons of post infusion periods to baseline within each treatment group. RESULTS: At baseline there were no differences in u...... by the constant infusion clearance technique with (51)Cr-EDTA as reference substance. To estimate the changes in water transport via AQP2 and sodium transport via NKCC2 and ENaC, u-NKCC2, the gamma fraction of ENaC (u-ENaCγ), and u-AQP2 were measured at baseline and after infusion with 3% hypertonic saline. U...

  18. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF KANAMYCIN IN DOMESTIC RUMINANT SPECIES

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    I. JAVED, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, Z. IQBAL AND B. ASLAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/min.kg in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/min.kg. Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  19. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the util...

  20. Impaired renal function and increased urinary isoprostane excretion in Ghanaian women with pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetteh PW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Winston Tetteh,1,4 Charles Antwi-Boasiako,1 Ben Gyan,3 Daniel Antwi,1 Festus Adzaku,1 Kwame Adu-Bonsaffoh,1,2 Samuel Obed21Department of Physiology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 3Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; 4Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, The NetherlandsBackground: The cause of pre-eclampsia remains largely unknown, but oxidative stress (an imbalance favoring oxidant over antioxidant forces has been implicated in contributing to the clinical symptoms of hypertension and proteinuria. Assessment of oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia using urinary isoprostane has produced conflicting results, and it is likely that renal function may affect isoprostane excretion. The aim of this study was to determine the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and to assess the effect of renal function on isoprostane excretion in pre-eclampsia in the Ghanaian population.Methods: This was a case-controlled study, comprising 103 pre-eclamptic women and 107 normal pregnant controls and conducted at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital between December 2006 and May 2007. The study participants were enrolled in the study after meeting the inclusion criteria and signing their written informed consent. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urinary excretion of isoprostane and total antioxidant capacity using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Renal function was assessed by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula.Results: The pre-eclampsia group had significantly (P = 0.0006 higher urinary isoprostane excretion (2.81 ± 0.14 ng/mg creatinine than the control group (2.01 ± 0.18 ng/mg creatinine and a significantly (P = 0.0008 lower total antioxidant power (1

  1. Usefulness and Pitfalls in Sodium Intake Estimation: Comparison of Dietary Assessment and Urinary Excretion in Chilean Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campino, Carmen; Hill, Caroline; Baudrand, Rene; Martínez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Aglony, Marlene; Carrasco, Carmen A; Ferrada, Clarita; Loureiro, Carolina; Vecchiola, Andrea; Bancalari, Rodrigo; Grob, Francisca; Carvajal, Cristian A; Lagos, Carlos F; Valdivia, Carolina; Tapia-Castillo, Alejandra; Fuentes, Cristobal A; Mendoza, Carolina; Garcia, Hernan; Uauy, Ricardo; Fardella, Carlos E

    2016-10-01

    High sodium intake has been associated with various noncommunicable disease like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or stroke. To estimate accurately sodium intake is challenging in clinical practice. We investigate the usefulness and limitations of assessing sodium intake simultaneously by dietary assessment and urinary samples in both children and adults. We used a cross-sectional study design inviting 298 Chilean subjects (74 children and 222 adults) aged between 9 and 66 years of both genders. Sodium intake by dietary assessment was obtained from Chilean food composition data, based on FAO tables. Sodium and creatinine excretion were measured in 24-hour urine samples, in all participants. Adequate urinary collection was obtained in 81% of children (59/74) and 61% of adults (135/222). The mean sodium intake by dietary assessment was similar to the sodium excretion in 24 hours (3,121±1,153mg/d vs. 3,114±1,353mg/24h, P = nonsignificant) in children but was significantly lower (3,208±1,284mg/d vs. 4,160±1,651mg/24h, P < 0.001) in adults. In both children and adults, sodium intake correlated with urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.456, P < 0.003 and r = 0.390, P < 0.001, respectively). Secondary analyses also suggested that the dietary assessment was more inaccurate in overweight adult subjects. Our results showed that average sodium intake was higher than recommended in both children and adults (WHO ≤2,000mg/d). The sodium intake estimated by dietary assessment correlated with urinary excretion in all subjects, but in obese adults was more inaccurate than in children. Future studies to validate the appropriate test to assess sodium intake by age and nutritional status are warranted. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Urinary C-type natriuretic peptide excretion: a potential novel biomarker for renal fibrosis during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Heublein, Denise M; Grande, Joseph P; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Rule, Andrew D; McKie, Paul M; Martin, Fernando L; Burnett, John C

    2011-11-01

    Renal aging is characterized by structural changes in the kidney including fibrosis, which contributes to the increased risk of kidney and cardiac failure in the elderly. Studies involving healthy kidney donors demonstrated subclinical age-related nephropathy on renal biopsy that was not detected by standard diagnostic tests. Thus there is a high-priority need for novel noninvasive biomarkers to detect the presence of preclinical age-associated renal structural and functional changes. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) possesses renoprotective properties and is present in the kidney; however, its modulation during aging remains undefined. We assessed circulating and urinary CNP in a Fischer rat model of experimental aging and also determined renal structural and functional adaptations to the aging process. Histological and electron microscopic analysis demonstrated significant renal fibrosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, and mesangial matrix expansion with aging. While plasma CNP levels progressively declined with aging, urinary CNP excretion increased, along with the ratio of urinary to plasma CNP, which preceded significant elevations in proteinuria and blood pressure. Also, CNP immunoreactivity was increased in the distal and proximal tubules in both the aging rat and aging human kidneys. Our findings provide evidence that urinary CNP and its ratio to plasma CNP may represent a novel biomarker for early age-mediated renal structural alterations, particularly fibrosis. Thus urinary CNP could potentially aid in identifying subjects with preclinical structural changes before the onset of symptoms and disease, allowing for the initiation of strategies designed to prevent the progression of chronic kidney disease particularly in the aging population.

  3. Renal enhancement and excretion of the hepatobiliary contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangos, S.; Hammerstingl, R.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K.; Vogl, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of the renal clearance using MR imaging with different doses of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-DTPA (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in comparison to gadolinium DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Material and Methods: In a double-blind and randomized clinical phase II study. MR imaging at 1.5 T was performed in 61 patients with five different doses of Gd-EOB-DTPA (3, 6, 12.5, 25 and 50 μmol/kg b.w. as a bolus injection). The study protocol comprised T 1 - and T 2 -weighted spin-echo magnetic resonance and two-dimensional fast low-angle shot imaging before and at increasing intervals for up to 45 min after injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. These images were compared with Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging (0.1 mmol/kg b. w. as a bolus injection). Results: After bolus injection of the hepatobiliary MR contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA a renal elimination was observed. Immediately after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA until the eighth minute a corticomedullary enhancement of the kidney was conspicuous. After the fourth minute a contrast enhancement could be seen in the renal pelvis. The best enhancement was noted after 20 minutes in the FLASH GRE and T 1 -weighted images with good pelvicaliceal contrast. After 45 minutes an outflow of Gd-EOB-DTPA into the ureter could be observed. Conclusion: In addition to the hepatobiliary secretion Gd-EOB-DTPA appears useful for the evaluation of renal structures and renal function on account of the renal excretion without diuretic preparation of the patients. (orig.) [de

  4. Patterns of sodium and potassium excretion and blood pressure in the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayo, B O; Luke, A; McKenzie, C A; Kramer, H; Cao, G; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Forrester, T; Adeyemo, A A; Cooper, R S

    2012-05-01

    Habitual levels of dietary sodium and potassium are correlated with age-related increases in blood pressure (BP) and likely have a role in this phenomenon. Although extensive published evidence exists from randomized trials, relatively few large-scale community surveys with multiple 24-h urine collections have been reported. We obtained three 24-h samples from 2704 individuals from Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States to evaluate patterns of intake and within-person relationships with BP. The average (±s.d.) age and weight of the participants across all the three sites were 39.9±8.6 years and 76.1±21.2 kg, respectively, and 55% of the total participants were females. Sodium excretion increased across the East-West gradient (for example, 123.9±54.6, 134.1±48.8, 176.6±71.0 (±s.d.) mmol, Nigeria, Jamaica and US, respectively), whereas potassium was essentially unchanged (for example, 46.3±22.9, 40.7±16.1, 44.7±16.4 (±s.d.) mmol, respectively). In multivariate analyses both sodium (positively) and potassium (negatively) were strongly correlated with BP (P<0.001); quantitatively the association was stronger, and more consistent in each site individually, for potassium. The within-population day-to-day variation was also greater for sodium than for potassium. Among each population group, a significant correlation was observed between sodium and urine volume, supporting the prior finding of sodium as a determinant of fluid intake in free-living individuals. These data confirm the consistency with the possible role of dietary electrolytes as hypertension risk factors, reinforcing the relevance of potassium in these populations.

  5. The effect of glutamine administration on urinary ammonium excretion in normal subjects and patients with renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, T; Weber, M; Bank, N

    1972-07-01

    The effect of acute changes in the delivery rate of glutamine to the kidney on urinary ammonium excretion was studied in man. Healthy subjects and patients with intrinsic renal disease were studied under three different acid-base conditions: unaltered acid-base balance; NH(4)Cl-induced acidosis; and NaHCO(3)-induced alkalosis. Anhydrous L-glutamine was administered orally in a single dose of 260 mmoles during each of these three acid-base states. We found that endogenous venous plasma glutamine concentration fell during acidosis and rose during alkalosis in both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease. In healthy subjects, orally administered glutamine raised plasma glutamine concentration markedly over a 2-3 hr period. This was accompanied by an increase in urinary ammonium excretion and a rise in urine pH under normal acid-base conditions and during metabolic acidosis. No increase in ammonium excretion occurred when glutamine was administered during metabolic alkalosis in spite of an equivalent rise in plasma glutamine concentration. In patients with renal disease, endogenous venous plasma glutamine concentration was lower than in healthy subjects, perhaps as a result of mild metabolic acidosis. Acute oral glutamine loading failed to increase urinary ammonium excretion significantly during either unaltered acid-base conditions or after NH(4)Cl-induced acidosis, even though plasma glutamine rose as high as in healthy subjects. We conclude from these observations that glutamine delivery to the kidney is a rate-limiting factor for ammonium excretion in healthy subjects, both before and after cellular enzyme adaptation induced by metabolic acidosis. In contrast, in patients with renal disease, glutamine delivery is not rate-limiting for ammonium excretion. Presumably other factors, such as surviving renal mass and the activity of intracellular enzymes necessary for ammonia synthesis limit ammonium excretion in these patients.

  6. Advantage of multiple spot urine collections for estimating daily sodium excretion: comparison with two 24-h urine collections as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Ri, Yui; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Several estimation methods for 24-h sodium excretion using spot urine sample have been reported, but accurate estimation at the individual level remains difficult. We aimed to clarify the most accurate method of estimating 24-h sodium excretion with different numbers of available spot urine samples. A total of 370 participants from throughout Japan collected multiple 24-h urine and spot urine samples independently. Participants were allocated randomly into a development and a validation dataset. Two estimation methods were established in the development dataset using the two 24-h sodium excretion samples as reference: the 'simple mean method' estimated by multiplying the sodium-creatinine ratio by predicted 24-h creatinine excretion, whereas the 'regression method' employed linear regression analysis. The accuracy of the two methods was examined by comparing the estimated means and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) in the validation dataset. Mean sodium excretion by the simple mean method with three spot urine samples was closest to that by 24-h collection (difference: -1.62  mmol/day). CCC with the simple mean method increased with an increased number of spot urine samples at 0.20, 0.31, and 0.42 using one, two, and three samples, respectively. This method with three spot urine samples yielded higher CCC than the regression method (0.40). When only one spot urine sample was available for each study participant, CCC was higher with the regression method (0.36). The simple mean method with three spot urine samples yielded the most accurate estimates of sodium excretion. When only one spot urine sample was available, the regression method was preferable.

  7. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Socioeconomic Status Associated With Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion in Japan: NIPPON DATA2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Miyagawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although socioeconomic status (SES may affect food and nutrient intakes, few studies have reported on sodium (Na and potassium (K intakes among individuals with various SESs in Japan. We investigated associations of SES with Na and K intake levels using urinary specimens in a representative Japanese population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 2,560 men and women (the NIPPON DATA2010 cohort who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan in 2010. Casual urine was used to calculate estimated excretion in 24-hour urinary Na (E24hr-Na and K (E24hr-K. The urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K ratio was calculated from casual urinary electrolyte values. An analysis of covariance was performed to investigate associations of aspects of SES, including equivalent household expenditure (EHE, educational attainment, and job category, with E24hr-Na, E24hr-K, and the Na/K ratio for men and women separately. A stratified analysis was performed on educational attainment and the job category for younger (<65 years and older (≥65 years participants. Results: In men and women, average E24hr-Na was 176.2 mmol/day and 172.3, average E24hr-K was 42.5 and 41.3, and the average Na/K ratio was 3.61 and 3.68, respectively. Lower EHE was associated with a higher Na/K ratio in women and lower E24hr-K in men and women. A shorter education was associated with a higher Na/K ratio in women and younger men, and lower E24hr-K in older men and women. Conclusion: Lower EHE and a shorter education were associated with a lower K intake and higher Na/K ratio estimated from casual urine specimens in Japanese men and women.

  11. Renal Cu and Na excretion and hepatic Cu metabolism in both Cu acclimated and non acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, M.; Hogstrand, C.; Wood, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    protein depending on whether the Cu is derived from recent branchial uptake or is already present in the plasma prior to Cu-64 exposure. The plasma Cu pool derived from recent branchial uptake and the Cu pool present in the plasma prior to Cu-64 exposure is accessible to renal excretion to different...... Na+ efflux decreased by 40%, which was largely due to increased tubular Na+ reabsorption. Renal compensation for the impaired branchial Na+ uptake, seen during Cu exposure, thus seems to be involved in Cu acclimation in rainbow trout. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  12. Urinary Excretion of Tetrodotoxin Modeled in a Porcine Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cell Line, LLC-PK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Matsumoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the urinary excretion of tetrodotoxin (TTX modeled in a porcine renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1. Time course profiles of TTX excretion and reabsorption across the cell monolayers at 37 °C showed that the amount of TTX transported increased linearly for 60 min. However, at 4 °C, the amount of TTX transported was approximately 20% of the value at 37 °C. These results indicate that TTX transport is both a transcellular and carrier-mediated process. Using a transport inhibition assay in which cell monolayers were incubated with 50 µM TTX and 5 mM of a transport inhibitor at 37 °C for 30 min, urinary excretion was significantly reduced by probenecid, tetraethylammonium (TEA, l-carnitine, and cimetidine, slightly reduced by p-aminohippuric acid (PAH, and unaffected by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+, oxaliplatin, and cefalexin. Renal reabsorption was significantly reduced by PAH, but was unaffected by probenecid, TEA and l-carnitine. These findings indicate that TTX is primarily excreted by organic cation transporters (OCTs and organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTNs, partially transported by organic anion transporters (OATs and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs, and negligibly transported by multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporters (MATEs.

  13. Discriminative power of three indices of renal calcium excretion for the distinction between familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia and primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Signe Engkjær; Nissen, Peter H; Vestergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) must be differentiated from primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) since prognosis and treatment differ. In daily practice this discrimination is often based on the renal calcium excretion or the calcium/creatinine clearance ratio (CCCR). However......, the diagnostic performance of these variables is poorly documented. Aim: To appraise the power of various simple biochemical variables to differentiate between FHH and PHPT using calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene analysis and histopathological findings as gold standards. Design: Follow-up approach (direct...

  14. Effects of renal denervation on tubular sodium handling in rats with CBL-induced liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, T.E.; Brond, L.; Torp, M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of bilateral renal denervation (DNX) on thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) function in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by common bile duct ligation (CBL). The CBL rats had, as previously shown, sodium retention associated with hypertrophy...... renal sympathetic nerve activity known to be present in CBL rats plays a significant role in the formation of sodium retention by stimulating sodium reabsorption in the TAL via increased renal abundance of NKCC2....

  15. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... tubular flow. This suggests that on-going cimetidine treatment must be taken into account when graft function is evaluated by the CCr alone....

  16. Evaluation of Equations for Predicting 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion from Casual Urine Samples in Asian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Clare; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Wei-Yen; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-01

    The collection of 24-h urine samples for the estimation of sodium intake is burdensome, and the utility of spot urine samples in Southeast Asian populations is unclear. We aimed to assess the validity of prediction equations with the use of spot urine concentrations. A sample of 144 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 y were recruited from the Singapore Health 2 Study conducted in 2014. Participants collected urine for 24 h in multiple small bottles on a single day. To determine the optimal collection time for a spot urine sample, a 1-mL sample was taken from a random bottle collected in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Published equations and a newly derived equation were used to predict 24-h sodium excretion from spot urine samples. The mean ± SD concentration of sodium from the 24-h urine sample was 125 ± 53.4 mmol/d, which is equivalent to 7.2 ± 3.1 g salt. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement at the group level between estimated and actual 24-h sodium excretion, with biases for the morning period of -3.5 mmol (95% CI: -14.8, 7.8 mmol; new equation) and 1.46 mmol (95% CI: -10.0, 13.0 mmol; Intersalt equation). A larger bias of 25.7 mmol (95% CI: 12.2, 39.3 mmol) was observed for the Tanaka equation in the morning period. The prediction accuracy did not differ significantly for spot urine samples collected at different times of the day or at a random time of day (P = 0.11-0.76). This study suggests that the application of both our own newly derived equation and the Intersalt equation to spot urine concentrations may be useful in predicting group means for 24-h sodium excretion in urban Asian populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  18. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition does not improve renal function in cirrhotic patients with ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiesson, Helle C; Skøtt, Ole; Jespersen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    because of a reduction in renal blood flow of up to 29.1 +/- 8.1% (p inhibition of NO synthesis does not improve sodium and water excretion in decompensated cirrhosis, probably because of an accompanying decrease in renal...

  19. Saline-induced natriuresis and renal blood flow in conscious dogs: effects of sodium infusion rate and concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study focused on static and dynamic changes in total renal blood flow (RBF) during volume expansion and tested whether a change in RBF characteristics is a necessary effector mechanism in saline-induced natriuresis. METHODS: The aortic flow subtraction technique was used to measure RBF...... continuously. Identical amounts of NaCl (2.4 mmol kg(-1)) were given as slow isotonic (Iso, 120 min), slow hypertonic (Hyper, 120 min), and rapid isotonic loads (IsoRapid, 30 min). RESULTS: During Iso and IsoRapid, arterial blood pressure increased slightly (6-7 mmHg), and during Hyper it remained unchanged...... saline loading simulating daily sodium intake, the rate of sodium excretion may increase 10-20-fold without any change in mean arterial blood pressure or in RBF. Regulatory responses to changes in total body NaCl levels appears, therefore, to be mediated primarily by neurohumoral mechanisms and may occur...

  20. Estimating the population distribution of usual 24-hour sodium excretion from timed urine void specimens using a statistical approach accounting for correlated measurement errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Chen, Te-Ching; Loria, Catherine M; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    High US sodium intake and national reduction efforts necessitate developing a feasible and valid monitoring method across the distribution of low-to-high sodium intake. We examined a statistical approach using timed urine voids to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. A sample of 407 adults, aged 18-39 y (54% female, 48% black), collected each void in a separate container for 24 h; 133 repeated the procedure 4-11 d later. Four timed voids (morning, afternoon, evening, overnight) were selected from each 24-h collection. We developed gender-specific equations to calibrate total sodium excreted in each of the one-void (e.g., morning) and combined two-void (e.g., morning + afternoon) urines to 24-h sodium excretion. The calibrated sodium excretions were used to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. Participants were then randomly assigned to modeling (n = 160) or validation (n = 247) groups to examine the bias in estimated population percentiles. Median bias in predicting selected percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th) of usual 24-h sodium excretion with one-void urines ranged from -367 to 284 mg (-7.7 to 12.2% of the observed usual excretions) for men and -604 to 486 mg (-14.6 to 23.7%) for women, and with two-void urines from -338 to 263 mg (-6.9 to 10.4%) and -166 to 153 mg (-4.1 to 8.1%), respectively. Four of the 6 two-void urine combinations produced no significant bias in predicting selected percentiles. Our approach to estimate the population usual 24-h sodium excretion, which uses calibrated timed-void sodium to account for day-to-day variation and covariance between measurement errors, produced percentile estimates with relatively low biases across low-to-high sodium excretions. This may provide a low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-h collections in monitoring population sodium intake among healthy young adults and merits further investigation in other population subgroups. © 2015 American

  1. Urinary Excretion of N-Nitroso Compounds in Rats Fed Sodium Nitrite and/or Hot Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1–4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1–4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40–60% hot dogs contained 12–13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11–17 or 23–48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds. PMID:25183213

  2. Direct effect of methylprednisolone on renal sodium and water transport via the principal cells in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Thomas G; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids influence renal concentrating and diluting ability. We tested the hypothesis that methylprednisolone treatment increased renal water and sodium absorption by increased absorption via the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels and the epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) respectively....

  3. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  5. Urinary excretion of fatty acid-binding protein 4 is associated with albuminuria and renal dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Okazaki

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is expressed in not only adipocytes and macrophages but also peritubular capillaries in the normal kidney. We recently demonstrated that ectopic expression of FABP4, but not FABP1 known as liver FABP (L-FABP, in the glomerulus is associated with progression of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. However, urinary excretion of FABP4 has not been investigated.Subjects who participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a study with a population-based cohort design, in 2011 (n = 392, male/female: 166/226 were enrolled. Urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR were measured. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was followed up one year later.In 93 (23.7% of the 392 subjects, U-FABP4 level was below the sensitivity of the assay. Subjects with undetectable U-FABP4 were younger and had lower UACR and higher eGFR levels than subjects with measurable U-FABP4. U-FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure and levels of serum FABP4 (S-FABP4, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, urinary FABP1 (U-FABP1 and UACR (r = 0.360, p<0.001. Age, S-FABP4, U-FABP1 and UACR were independent predictors of U-FABP4. On the other hand, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and U-FABP4 were independently correlated with UACR. Reduction in eGFR after one year was significantly larger in a group with the highest tertile of baseline U-FABP4 than a group with the lowest tertile.Urinary FABP4 level is independently correlated with level of albuminuria and possibly predicts yearly decline of eGFR. U-FABP4 would be a novel biomarker of glomerular damage.

  6. Steroid hormone release as well as renal water and electrolyte excretion of mice expressing PKB/SGK-resistant GSK3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boini, Krishna M; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Mack, Andreas; Lang, Florian

    2008-09-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) participate in the regulation of renal electrolyte excretion. Insulin- and IGF1-dependent signaling includes phosphatidylinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 as well as protein kinase B (PKB) and serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK) isoforms, which in turn phosphorylate and thus inhibit glycogen synthase kinase GSK3alpha,beta. Replacement of the serines in the PKB/SGK consensus sequences by alanine (gsk3 ( KI )) confers resistance of GSK3 to PKB/SGK. To explore the role of PKB/SGK-dependent inhibition of GSK3 in the regulation of water/electrolyte metabolism, mice carrying the PKB/SGK resistant mutant (gsk3 ( KI )) were compared to their wild-type littermates (gsk3 ( WT ) ). Body weight was similar in gsk3 ( KI ) and gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Plasma aldosterone at 10 A.M: . and corticosterone concentrations at 5 P.M: . were significantly lower, but 24-h urinary aldosterone was significantly higher, and corticosterone excretion tended to be higher in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Food and water intake, fecal excretion, glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow rate, urine osmolarity, as well as urinary Na+, K+, urea excretion were significantly larger, and plasma Na+, urea, but not K+ concentration, were significantly lower in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Body temperature was significantly higher in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. When allowed to choose between tap water and saline, gsk3 ( WT ) mice drank more saline, whereas gsk3 ( KI ) mice drank similar large volumes of tap water and saline. During high-salt diet, urinary vasopressin excretion increased to significantly higher levels in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. After water deprivation, body weight decreased faster in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Blood pressure, however, was significantly higher in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. The observations disclose a role of PKB/SGK-dependent GSK3

  7. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Dimke, H.; Schoeber, J.P.H.; Hsu, S.C.; Lin, S.H.; Chu, P.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had

  8. Renal albumin excretion: twin studies identify influences of heredity, environment, and adrenergic pathway polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Fangwen; Wessel, Jennifer; Wen, Gen

    2007-01-01

    biosynthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase), catabolism (monoamine oxidase A), storage/release (chromogranin A), receptor target (dopamine D1 receptor), and postreceptor signal transduction (sorting nexin 13 and rho kinase). Epistasis (gene-by-gene interaction) occurred between alleles at rho kinase, tyrosine...... hydroxylase, chromogranin A, and sorting nexin 13. Dopamine D1 receptor polymorphism showed pleiotropic effects on both albumin and dopamine excretion. These studies establish new roles for heredity and environment in albumin excretion. Urinary excretions of albumin and catecholamines are highly heritable......, and their parallel suggests adrenergic mediation of early glomerular permeability alterations. Albumin excretion is influenced by multiple adrenergic pathway genes and is, thus, polygenic. Such functional links between adrenergic activity and glomerular injury suggest novel approaches to its prediction, prevention...

  9. Renal thorium and uranium excretion in non-exposed subjects: influence of age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Roth, P.; Wendler, I.; Schramel, P.

    1998-01-01

    The excretion of 238 U and 232 Th was investigated by ICP-MS in a group of 30 males (mean age 41 ± 18 years, range 7 to 73 years) and 33 females (43 ± 21 years, 11 to 84 years). For the thorium excretion, the geometric mean is 34 μBq/day (SD 1.90) for the whole group, 40 μBq/day (SD 2.01) for the males and 30 μBq/day (SD 1.78) for the females. The difference between the males and females is statistically insignificant. A certain increase in the excretion was observed with increasing age but the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship is statistically insignificant. For uranium, the geometric means (SD) for the whole group, the male subgroup, and the female subgroup, in μBq/day, are 237 (2.50), 287 (2.09), and 200 (2.81). The difference between the two subgroups is statistically insignificant. The excretion increases slightly with age; the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship is statistically significant. The day-to-day fluctuations in the excretion of both Th and U are considerable. (P.A.)

  10. Association Between Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Blood Pressure Among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Terry, Ana L; Wang, Chia-Yih; Wright, Jacqueline; Coleman King, Sallyann M; Bowman, Barbara; Chen, Te-Ching; Merritt, Robert; Loria, Catherine M

    2018-01-16

    Higher levels of sodium and lower levels of potassium intake are associated with higher blood pressure. However, the shape and magnitude of these associations can vary by study participant characteristics or intake assessment method. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium are unaffected by recall errors and represent all sources of intake, and were collected for the first time in a nationally representative US survey. Our objective was to assess the associations of blood pressure and hypertension with 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium among US adults. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 766 participants age 20 to 69 years with complete blood pressure and 24-hour urine collections in the 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative survey of the US noninstitutionalized population. Usual 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion (sodium, potassium, and their ratio) was estimated from ≤2 collections on nonconsecutive days, adjusting for day-to-day variability in excretion. Outcomes included systolic and diastolic blood pressure from the average of 3 measures and hypertension status, based on average blood pressure ≥140/90 and antihypertensive medication use. After multivariable adjustment, each 1000-mg difference in usual 24-hour sodium excretion was directly associated with systolic (4.58 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64-6.51) and diastolic (2.25 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.83-3.67) blood pressures. Each 1000-mg difference in potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (-3.72 mm Hg; 95% CI, -6.01 to -1.42). Each 0.5 U difference in sodium-to-potassium ratio was directly associated with systolic blood pressure (1.72 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.76-2.68). Hypertension was linearly associated with progressively higher sodium and lower potassium excretion; in comparison with the lowest quartile of excretion, the adjusted odds of hypertension for the highest quartile was

  11. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2) a...... effect. Changes in renal prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the decrease in renal blood flow. The lithium clearance data suggest that an increased proximal tubular reabsorption rate may contribute to the decreased sodium clearance during recombinant interleukin-2 treatment....

  12. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  13. Fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine of patients with normal or reduced renal function and hepatic coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Dalhoff, K; Joffe, P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m) as a differential diagnostic indicator between hepatic nephropathy (HN) and acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy (ATIN) in patients with reduced renal function and hepatic coma, and to determine whether beta 2m...... excretion could be used as a marker of renal impairment before increased serum creatinine (S-Cr) concentration or decreased creatinine clearance (Cr-Cl). Finally, the use of beta 2m as a prognostic indicator was investigated. Eighteen patients in hepatic coma grade III-IV were entered in the study and were...... to the small number of patients. FE-beta 2m could not predict the development of renal failure earlier than the increase in S-Cr or decrease in Cr-Cl. However, a few patients who survived paracetamol intoxication had increased FE-beta 2M in the beginning of the coma and normal S-Cr and Cr-Cl. Patients who died...

  14. Excreção renal de fósforo em cães nefropatas sob estimulação dopaminérgica Renal excretion of phosphorus in nephropathy dogs under dopaminergic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martini de Brum

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A dopamina possui um amplo espectro de ação no sistema urinário. Aumento da taxa de filtração glomerular, do fluxo sanguíneo renal e da excreção fracionada de sódio e fósforo é um efeito renal esperado em indivíduos normais. Este estudo foi realizado com o propósito de testar a hipótese de que a dopamina é capaz de aumentar a excreção fracionada de fósforo em cães nefropatas. Cinco cães sadios e quatro cães nefropatas, com doença predominantemente túbulo-intersticial, foram submetidos à infusão de solução controle (NaCl 0,9% e solução de dopamina em duas taxas de infusão diferentes (1µg kg-1 min-1 e 3µg kg-1 min-1, sendo realizadas avaliações antes, durante e 30 minutos após a infusão. Os cães sadios apresentaram aumento significativo (P≤0,05 na excreção fracionada e excreção renal de fósforo durante a infusão de 3µg kg-1 min-1, porém a concentração sérica permaneceu sem alterações durante o tratamento. Já os cães nefropatas apresentaram aumento significativo (P≤0,05 na excreção fracionada e excreção renal de fósforo, tanto na dose de 1µg kg-1 min-1, como na de 3µg kg-1 min-1. Além disso, após a infusão de 1µg kg-1min-1, a concentração sérica de fósforo apresentou redução significativa. Os resultados são indicativos de que a dopamina nas doses de 1µg kg-1 min-1 e 3µg kg-1 min-1 podem ser incluídas na terapia de cães nefropatas para melhorar a homeostase de fosfato.The dopamine has a wide spectrum of action on the urinary system. Increases in glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, sodium and phosphate fractioned excretion are renal effects expected in healthy people. Thus, this study was conducted in order to test the hypothesis that the dopamine is efficient to increase the fractioned excretion of phosphorus in nephropathic dogs. Five healthy dogs and four dogs nephropathic, predominantly with tubule-interstitial illness were submitted to a solution control

  15. Effect of castration on renal glycosaminoglycans and their urinary excretion in male and female rats with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, C.C.S.; Tovar, A.M.F.; Guimarães, M.A.M.; Bregman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) participate in a variety of processes in the kidney, and evidence suggests that gender-related hormones participate in renal function. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of GAGs, gender, and proteinuria in male and female rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). GAGs were analyzed in total kidney tissue and 24-h urine of castrated (c), male (M), and female (F) Wistar control (C) rats (CM, CMc, CF, CFc) and after 30 days of CRF induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (CRFM, CRFMc, CRFF, CRFFc). Total GAG quantification and composition were determined using agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. Renal GAGs were higher in CF compared to CM. CRFM presented an increase in renal GAGs, heparan sulfate (HS), and proteinuria, while castration reduced these parameters. However, CRFF and CRFFc groups showed a decrease in renal GAGs concomitant with an increase in proteinuria. Our results suggest that, in CRFM, sex hormones quantitatively alter GAGs, mainly HS, and possibly the glomerular filtration barrier, leading to proteinuria. The lack of this response in CRFMc, where HS did not increase, corroborates this theory. This pattern was not observed in females. Further studies of CRF are needed to clarify gender-dependent differences in HS synthesis

  16. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxia; Yin, Xuejun; Zhang, Ruijuan; Liu, Furong; Yang, Danrong; Fan, Yameng; Rong, Jie; Tian, Maoyi; Yu, Yan

    2017-10-11

    Background : 24-h urine collection is regarded as the "gold standard" for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective : To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods : Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results : The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p h sodium excretion were observed (all p h sodium excretion. Conclusion : The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine specimens were inadequate for the assessment of sodium intake at the population level in high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province, although the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods.

  17. Increased Renal Clearance of Rocuronium Compensates for Chronic Loss of Bile Excretion, via upregulation of Oatp2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Zhou, Mai-Tao; Chen, Cai-Yang; Yin, Wen; Wen, Da-Xiang; Cheung, Chi-Wai; Yang, Li-Qun; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2017-01-13

    Requirement for rocuronium upon surgery changes only minimally in patients with end-stage liver diseases. Our study consisted of both human and rat studies to explore the reason. The reduction rate of rocuronium infusion required to maintain neuromuscular blockade during the anhepatic phase (relative to paleohepatic phase) was examined in 16 children with congenital biliary atresia receiving orthotopic liver transplantation. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of rocuronium were studied based on BDL rats. The role of increased Oatp2 and decrease Oatp1 expressions in renal compensation were explored. The reduction of rocuronium requirements significantly decreased in obstructively jaundiced children (24 ± 9 vs. 39 ± 11%). TOF50 in BDL rats was increased by functional removal of the kidneys but not the liver, and the percentage of rocuronium excretion through urine increased (20.3 ± 6.9 vs. 8.6 ± 1.8%), while that decreased through bile in 28d-BDL compared with control group. However, this enhanced renal secretion for rocuronium was eliminated by Oatp2 knock-down, rather than Oatp1 overexpression (28-d BDL vs. Oatp1-ShRNA or Oatp2-ShRNA, 20.3 ± 6.9 vs. 17.0 ± 6.6 or 9.3 ± 3.2%). Upon chronic/sub-chronic loss of bile excretion, rocuronium clearance via the kidneys is enhanced, by Oatp2 up-regulation.

  18. Association between 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and diet quality in six-year-old children: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristbjornsdottir Oddny K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data is available on sodium (Na and potassium (K intake in young children estimated by 24 hour (24h excretion in urine. The aim was to assess 24h urinary excretion of Na and K in six-year-old children and its relationship with diet quality. Methods The study population was a subsample of a national dietary survey, including six-year-old children living in the greater Reykjavik area (n=76. Three day weighed food records were used to estimate diet quality. Diet quality was defined as adherence to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines. Na and K excretion was analyzed from 24h urine collections. PABA check was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The associations between Na and K excretion and diet quality were estimated by linear regression, adjusting for gender and energy intake. Results Valid urine collections and diet registrations were provided by 58 children. Na and K excretion was, mean (SD, 1.64 (0.54 g Na/24h (approx. 4.1 g salt/24h and 1.22 (0.43 g K/24h. In covariate adjusted models Na excretion decreased by 0.16 g Na/24h (95% CI: 0.31, 0.06 per 1-unit increase in diet quality score (score range: 1–4 while K excretion was increased by 0.18 g K/24h (95% CI: 0.06, 0.29. Conclusions Na intake, estimated by 24h urinary excretion was on average higher than recommended. Increased diet quality was associated with lower Na excretion and higher K excretion in six-year-old children.

  19. Inhibition of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 reduces sodium excretion and arterial blood pressure in patients with NaCl retention and ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiesson, Helle C; Jensen, Boye L; Jespersen, Bente

    2005-01-01

    ANG II, and aldosterone concentrations significantly after 60 min. Plasma cGMP concentration was increased after 120 and 180 min, and urinary sodium excretion and mean arterial blood pressure were decreased significantly at 120 and 180 min. Plasma ANP concentration, GFR, and RBF did not change after...

  20. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Okuda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students (n = 66 collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not (pfor trend < 0.05. A number of foods to which the students added seasonings were positively associated with Na excretion (pfor trend = 0.005. The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods (pfor trend < 0.05. Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  1. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced 131I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

  2. Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizerski Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1, and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2 - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the administration of dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes, is associated with the reduction of HbA1c concentration by 0.45-1.11%. Additional benefits from the treatment with dapagliflozin are the reduction of arterial blood pressure and a permanent reduction of body weight. This outcome is related to the effect of osmotic diuresis and to the considerable loss of the glucose load by way of urine excretion. Dapagliflozin may be successfully applied in type 2 diabetes monotherapy, as well as in combined therapy (including insulin, where it is equally effective as other oral anti-diabetic drugs. Of note: serious adverse effects of dapagliflozin administration are rarely observed. What is more, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia related with the treatment occur only sporadically, most often in the course of diabetes polytherapy. The most frequent effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors are inseparably associated with the mechanism of their action (the glucuretic effect, and cover urogenital infections with a mild clinical course. At present, clinical trials are being continued of the administration of several subsequent drugs from this group, the most advanced of these being the use of canagliflozin and empagliflozin.

  3. Influence of injected caffeine on the metabolism of calcium and the retention and excretion of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J K; Aloia, J F; Semla, H M; Chen, S Y

    1986-02-01

    Mineral metabolism was studied by the metabolic balance technique in rats with and without administration of caffeine. Caffeine was injected subcutaneously each day at either 2.5 mg or 10 mg/100 g body weight for 2 wk before the balance studies. Urinary volume excretion was higher in the group given caffeine than in the control group, but the creatinine clearance was not different. Urinary excretion of potassium, sodium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium and calcium, but not of zinc and copper, was also higher in the rats given caffeine. The rank order of the difference was the same as the percent of ingested mineral excreted in urine in the absence of caffeine. Caffeine caused a negative balance of potassium, sodium and inorganic phosphate. There was no significant difference from the control levels and in the apparent metabolic balance of calcium and magnesium. The urinary and fecal excretion of zinc and copper were found to be unaffected by caffeine. It is suggested that chronic administration of caffeine may lead to a tendency toward deficiency of those minerals that are excreted primarily in urine.

  4. Dual energy CT monitoring of the renal corticomedullary sodium gradient in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rahi; Wang, Zhen J.; Forsythe, Carlos; Fu Yanjun; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) for monitoring dynamic changes in the renal corticomedullary sodium gradient in swine. Material and methods: This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Four water-restricted pigs were CT-scanned at 80 and 140 kVp at baseline and at 5 min intervals for 30 min during saline or furosemide diuresis. The renal cortical and medullary CT numbers were recorded. A DECT basis material decomposition method was used to quantify renal cortical and medullary sodium concentrations and medulla-to-cortex sodium ratios at each time point based on the measured CT numbers. The sodium concentrations and medulla-to-cortex sodium ratios were compared between baseline and at 30 min diuresis using paired Student t-tests. The medulla-to-cortex sodium ratios were considered to reflect the corticomedullary sodium gradient. Results: At baseline prior to saline diuresis, the mean medullary and cortical sodium concentrations were 103.8 ± 8.7 and 65.3 ± 1.7 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.59. At 30 min of saline diuresis, the medullary and cortical sodium concentrations decreased to 72.3 ± 1.0 and 56.0 ± 1.4 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a significantly reduced medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.29 (P < 0.05). At baseline prior to furosemide diuresis, the mean medullary and cortical sodium concentrations were 110.5 ± 3.6 and 66.7 ± 4.1 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.66. At 30 min of furosemide diuresis, the medullary and cortical sodium concentrations decreased to 68.5 ± 0.3 and 58.9 ± 4.0 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a significantly reduced medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.16 (P < 0.05). One of the 4 pigs developed acute tubular necrosis likely related to prolonged hypoxia during intubation prior to the furosemide diuresis experiment. The medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio for this

  5. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masayuki; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-11-28

    We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na) excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years) from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students ( n = 66) collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not ( p for trend trend = 0.005). The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods ( p for trend < 0.05). Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  6. Servo-control of water and sodium homeostasis during renal clearance measurements in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Klaus; Shirley, David G

    2007-01-01

    Servo-controlled fluid and sodium replacement during clearance studies is used in order to prevent loss of body fluid and sodium following diuretic/natriuretic procedures. However, even under control conditions, the use of this technique is sometimes associated with increases in proximal tubular fluid output (assessed by lithium clearance) and excretion rates. The present study examined the reason for these increases. The first series of experiments showed that one cause is volume overloading. This can occur if the servo system is activated from the start, i.e., during the establishment of a suitably high urine flow rate by constant infusion of hypotonic glucose solution. The second series of experiments showed that replacement of blood samples with donor blood can also lead to increases in fractional lithium excretion and accompanying increases in water and sodium excretion, a problem not seen when blood samples are replaced with the animal's own red blood cells resuspended in isotonic saline. When these pitfalls are avoided, servo-controlled sodium and fluid replacement is a reliable technique that makes it possible to study the effects of natriuretic and/or diuretic stimuli without interference from unwanted changes in extracellular volume. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Renal excretion of iodine-131 labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine and metabolites after therapeutic doses in patients suffering from different neural crest-derived tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafelman, A.R.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Maessen, H.J.M.; Maes, R.A.A.; Beijnen, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine-131 labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine ([ 131 I[MIBG) is used for diagnostic scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy of neural crest-derived tumours. After administration of therapeutic doses of [ 131 I[MIBG (3.1-7.5 GBq) to 17 patients (n=32 courses), aged 2-73 years, 56%±10%, 73%±11%, 80%±10% and 83%±10% of the dose was cumulatively excreted as total radioactivity in urine at t=24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h, respectively. Except for two adult patients, who showed excretion of 14%-18% of [ 131 I[meta-iodohippuric acid ([ 131 I[MIHA), the cumulatively excreted radioactivity consisted of >85% [ 131 I[MIBG, with 6% of the dose excreted as free [ 131 I[iodide, 4% as [ 131 I[MIHA and 2.5% as an unknown iodine-131 labelled metabolite. Cumulative renal excretion rates of total radioactivity and of [ 131 I[MIBG appeared to be higher in neuroblastoma and phaeochromocytoma patients than in carcinoid patients. Based on the excretion of small amounts of [ 131 I[meta-iodobenzoic acid in two patients, a possible metabolic pathway for [ 131 I[MIBG is suggested. The degree of metabolism was not related to the extent of liver uptake of radioactivity. (orig.). With 2 figs., 5 tabs

  8. 5C.07: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE 24-HOUR SODIUM EXCRETION THROUGH SPOT URINE SAMPLES AND ITS APPLICATION VALUE FOR TARGET-ORGAN DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhao, L; Xi, Y; Sun, N

    2015-06-01

    24-h urine sodium excretion is considered the most reliable method to evaluate the salt intakes. However, this method is cumbersome. So we want to develop formulas to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urinary samples in Chinese hypertensive population and explore the application value of this method in salt intake assessment and target organ damage. 1. We enrolled 510 cases of hospitalized patients with hypertension, 2/3 of them were arranged randomly to formula group to develop a new formula and the remainings were used to test the performance of the formula. All participants were instructed to collect a 24-h urine sample, a second morning voiding urine sample (SMU), and a post-meridiem urine sample in the late afternoon or early evening, prior to the evening meal (PMU). All samples were sent to measure sodium and creatinine concentration.2. We compared the differences of office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular stiffness and urine protein among groups of different sodium intake. 24hour sodium excretion formulas was obtained using SMU and PMU respectively, which have good cosistency. The difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium excretion is 12.66mmol/day (SMU) and 9.41mmol/day (PM), to be equal to 0.7 g (SMU) and 0.6 g (PM) salt intake. Comparing with Kawasaki and Tanaka method, the new formula shows the lower degree of deviation, and higher accuracy and precision. Blood pressure of high urinary sodium group is higher than that in low urinary sodium group (P < 0.05). Left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin/creatinine aggravated with the salt intake increase, this has eliminated the influence of other factors. All of morphologies of the relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness index, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness with quartiles of sodium intake resembled a J-shaped curve. In Chinese hypertensive population, the

  9. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-08-01

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

  11. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF

  12. Early diagnostic value of determination of urinary excretion amount of proteins for renal lesions in pediatric patients with anaphylactoid purpura (AP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guocheng; Li Zhiqi; Guo Benbiao; Shen Yina; Mao Shuanggen; Zhang Xinlu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the early diagnostic value of determination of urinary excretion amourt of proteins for renal damage in pediatric patients with AP. Methods: Morning arine specimen contents of albumin, IgG and β 2 -m (with RIA) as well as serum BUN and creatinine levels were measured in 25 pediatric patients with simple A P, 27 pediatric patients with purpura nephritis (PN) and 32 controls. Results: The urinary contents of proteins in all the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Changes of urinary excretion of proteins occurred much earlier than changes of BUN and creatinine in purpura patients complicated with renal involvement and might be used as an indicator for early diagnosis. (authors)

  13. Plasma exogenous creatinine excretion for the assessment of renal function in avian medicine--pharmacokinetic modeling in racing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Schauberger, Günther

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic evaluation of the glomerular filtration rate by urinary clearance has significant practical limitations in birds because urine is excreted together with feces. Thus, pharmacokinetic modeling of an exogenous plasma creatinine clearance could be useful for assessing renal creatinine excretion in birds. For this study, creatinine (50 mg/kg) was administered to 2 groups of 15 pigeons (Columba livia) each; in one group by the intravenous (IV) route and in the second by the intramuscular (IM) route. The time series of the plasma creatinine concentrations were analyzed by pharmacokinetic models. Body mass-specific creatinine excretion was determined for IV and IM administration to be between 6.30 and 6.44 mL/min per kg, respectively. Body surface area-specific creatinine clearance, which is related to the metabolic rate, was calculated between 0.506 and 0.523 mL/min per dm2, respectively. The results showed that IV as well as IM administration can be used for assessing renal creatinine excretion in pigeons. For practical reasons, IM administration is recommended, with the use of the Bateman function to calculate creatinine elimination.

  14. Ecophysiological adaptations to variable salinity environments in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus from the Southeastern Pacific coast: Sodium regulation, respiration and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Ángel; Urbina, Mauricio A

    2017-08-01

    The estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus is a key benthic species of estuarine and intertidal ecosystems of the South Pacific, habitats that experience wide fluctuations in salinity. The physiological strategies that allow this crab to thrive under variable salinities, and how they change during the benthic stages of their life cycle, were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and the regulatory capacity of Na + through the normal range of environmental salinities (i.e. 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30) were evaluated in three size classes, ranging from juveniles to adults. In all sizes, the oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and regulatory capacity of Na + decreased as salinity increased, with the highest values at 5 and the lowest values at 30 salinity. Bigger crabs showed a higher capacity to regulate Na + , as well as higher respiration and excretion rates compared to smaller crabs, suggesting that they are better equipped to exploit areas of the estuary with low salinity. Regardless of its size, H. crenulatus is a strong hyper regulator in diluted media (i.e. 5-20) while a conformer at salinities higher than 20. The regulatory capacity of Na + was positively related with oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates. These relationships between sodium regulation, respiration and excretion are interpreted as adaptive physiological mechanisms that allow H. crenulatus to maintain the osmotic and bioenergetic balance over a wide range of environmental salinities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of saponins from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke on the renal Na+ pumps’ activities and urinary excretion of natriuretic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Lúcio Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we showed that a saponin mixture isolated from the roots of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke (SAPAaD reduces urine excretion in rats that were given an oral loading of 0.9 % NaCl (4 ml/100 g body weight. In the present study, we investigated whether atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP and renal ATPases play a role in the SAPAaD- induced antidiuresis in rats. Methods To evaluate the effect of SAPAaD on furosemide-induced diuresis, Wistar rats (250-300 g were given an oral loading of physiological solution (0.9 % NaCl, 4 ml/100 g body weight to impose a uniform water and salt state. The solution containing furosemide (Furo, 13 mg/kg was given 30 min after rats were orally treated with 50 mg/kg SAPAaD (SAPAaD + Furo or 0.5 ml of 0.9 % NaCl (NaCl + Furo. In the SAPAaD + NaCl group, rats were pretreated with SAPAaD and 30 min later they received the oral loading of physiological solution. Animals were individually housed in metabolic cages, and urine volume was measured every 30 min throughout the experiment (3 h. To investigate the role of ANP and renal Na+ pumps on antidiuretic effects promoted by SAPAaD, rats were given the physiological solution (as above containing SAPAaD (50 mg/kg. After 90 min, samples of urine and blood from the last 30 min were collected. Kidneys and atria were also removed after previous anesthesia. ANP was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA and renal cortical activities of Na+- and (Na+,K+-ATPases were calculated from the difference between the [32P] Pi released in the absence and presence of 1 mM furosemide/2 mM ouabain and in the absence and presence of 1 mM ouabain, respectively. Results It was observed that SAPAaD inhibited furosemide-induced diuresis (at 90 min: from 10.0 ± 1.0 mL, NaCl + Furo group, n = 5, to 5.9 ± 1.0 mL, SAPAaD + Furo group n = 5, p +-ATPase (from 25.0 ± 5.9 nmol Pi

  16. Dietary sodium modulation of aldosterone activation and renal function during the progression of experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Borgeson, Daniel D; Grantham, J Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M; Burnett, John C

    2015-02-01

    Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium–fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: (i) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 g) per day, n =6]; (ii) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 g) per day, n =6]; and (iii) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 g) per day, n =6]. During the 38-day study, haemodynamics, renal function, plasma renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in haemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups; however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression.

  17. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of...

  18. Fetal development and renal function in adult rats prenatally subjected to sodium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D; Cabral, Edjair V; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate two factors that affect fetal development--placental oxidative stress (Ox) and plasma volume (PV)--in dams with sodium overload and (2) to correlate possible alterations in these factors with subsequent modifications in the renal function of adult offspring. Wistar dams were maintained on 0.17 M NaCl instead of water from 20 days before mating until either the twentieth pregnancy day/parturition or weaning. Colorimetric methods were used to measure Ox in maternal and offspring tissues, PV, 24-h urinary protein (U(Prot24 h)) and serum triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (Chol). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated in the offspring at 90 days of age using a blood pressure transducer, a flow probe and inulin clearance to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively. The number of nephrons (NN) was counted in kidney suspensions. Dams showed unchanged PV, placental Ox and fetal weight but increased U(Prot24 h) (150%, P sodium-overloaded pups showed increased U(Prot24 h) (45%, P sodium-overloaded rats showed increased U(Prot24 h) (27%, P sodium-overloaded group. We conclude that salt overload from the prenatal stage until weaning leads to alterations in lipid metabolism and in the renal function of the pups, which are additional to those alterations seen in rats only overloaded prenatally.

  19. Sodium intake, RAAS-blockade and progressive renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H; Navis, Gerjan

    Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is the current standard treatment to prevent progressive renal function loss in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet in many patients the

  20. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU. A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF. Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p=0.002. Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p=0.012 and magnesium by 30% (p=0.029. Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

  1. Body Composition Analysis Allows the Prediction of Urinary Creatinine Excretion and of Renal Function in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Carlo

    2017-05-28

    The aim of this study was to predict urinary creatinine excretion (UCr), creatinine clearance (CCr) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from body composition analysis. Body cell mass (BCM) is the compartment which contains muscle mass, which is where creatinine is generated. BCM was measured with body impedance analysis in 165 chronic kidney disease (CKD) adult patients (72 women) with serum creatinine (SCr) 0.6-14.4 mg/dL. The GFR was measured ( 99m Tc-DTPA) and was predicted using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. The other examined parameters were SCr, 24-h UCr and measured 24-h CCr (mCCr). A strict linear correlation was found between 24-h UCr and BCM ( r = 0.772). Multiple linear regression (MR) indicated that UCr was positively correlated with BCM, body weight and male gender, and negatively correlated with age and SCr. UCr predicted using the MR equation (MR-UCr) was quite similar to 24-h UCr. CCr predicted from MR-UCr and SCr (MR-BCM-CCr) was very similar to mCCr with a high correlation ( r = 0.950), concordance and a low prediction error (8.9 mL/min/1.73 m²). From the relationship between the GFR and the BCM/SCr ratio, we predicted the GFR (BCM GFR). The BCM GFR was very similar to the GFR with a high correlation ( r = 0.906), concordance and a low prediction error (12.4 mL/min/1.73 m²). In CKD patients, UCr, CCr and the GFR can be predicted from body composition analysis.

  2. Servo-control of water and sodium homeostasis during renal clearance measurements in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Klaus; Shirley, David G

    2007-01-01

    Servo-controlled fluid and sodium replacement during clearance studies is used in order to prevent loss of body fluid and sodium following diuretic/natriuretic procedures. However, even under control conditions, the use of this technique is sometimes associated with increases in proximal tubular...... fluid output (assessed by lithium clearance) and excretion rates. The present study examined the reason for these increases. The first series of experiments showed that one cause is volume overloading. This can occur if the servo system is activated from the start, i.e., during the establishment...... not seen when blood samples are replaced with the animal's own red blood cells resuspended in isotonic saline. When these pitfalls are avoided, servo-controlled sodium and fluid replacement is a reliable technique that makes it possible to study the effects of natriuretic and/or diuretic stimuli without...

  3. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: Evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  4. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: 24-h urine collection is regarded as the “gold standard” for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective: To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods: Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results: The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.38, p < 0.01 for the Kawasaki; r = 0.35, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.31, p < 0.01 for the INTERSALT; r = 0.37, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.34, p < 0.01 for the Tanaka. Significant biases between estimated and measured 24-h sodium excretion were observed (all p < 0.01 for three methods. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods (mean bias: 31.90, 95% Cl: 23.84, 39

  5. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  6. Fractional excretion of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure. In: Mann DL, Felker GM, eds. Heart Failure: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease . 3rd ed. ... Professor, Rutgers Medical School, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. ...

  7. Thiazolidinediones and Edema: Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Thiazolidinediones-Induced Renal Sodium Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Horita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are one of the major classes of antidiabetic drugs that are used widely. TZDs improve insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and ameliorate diabetic and other nephropathies, at least, in experimental animals. However, TZDs have side effects, such as edema, congestive heart failure, and bone fracture, and may increase bladder cancer risk. Edema and heart failure, which both probably originate from renal sodium retention, are of great importance because these side effects make it difficult to continue the use of TZDs. However, the pathogenesis of edema remains a matter of controversy. Initially, upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC in the collecting ducts by TZDs was thought to be the primary cause of edema. However, the results of other studies do not support this view. Recent data suggest the involvement of transporters in the proximal tubule, such as sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and sodium-proton exchanger. Other studies have suggested that sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of Henle and aquaporins are also possible targets for TZDs. This paper will discuss the recent advances in the pathogenesis of TZD-induced sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and edema.

  8. Thiazolidinediones and Edema: Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Thiazolidinediones-Induced Renal Sodium Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Shoko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Seki, George

    2015-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are one of the major classes of antidiabetic drugs that are used widely. TZDs improve insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and ameliorate diabetic and other nephropathies, at least, in experimental animals. However, TZDs have side effects, such as edema, congestive heart failure, and bone fracture, and may increase bladder cancer risk. Edema and heart failure, which both probably originate from renal sodium retention, are of great importance because these side effects make it difficult to continue the use of TZDs. However, the pathogenesis of edema remains a matter of controversy. Initially, upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the collecting ducts by TZDs was thought to be the primary cause of edema. However, the results of other studies do not support this view. Recent data suggest the involvement of transporters in the proximal tubule, such as sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and sodium-proton exchanger. Other studies have suggested that sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of Henle and aquaporins are also possible targets for TZDs. This paper will discuss the recent advances in the pathogenesis of TZD-induced sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and edema.

  9. Effect of sodium chloride intake on urine volume, urinary urea excretion, and milk urea concentration in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine

  10. Histopathological changes of renal tissue following sodium fluoride administration in two consecutive generations of mice. Correlation with the urinary elimination of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimcevici Poesina, Nicoleta; Bălălău, Cristian; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Nimigean, Victor; Ion, Ion; Baconi, Daniela; Bârcă, Maria; Băran Poesina, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes) of sodium fluoride on the kidney in two consecutive generations of NMRI mice. An attempt to correlate the toxicity with the urinary elimination of fluoride has been made, as urinary fluoride excretion has been widely used as an indicator of fluoride intake and exposure. Six mixed (males and females) animal groups have been constituted by dividing the populations of mice derived from pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.5 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.5 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage and pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.25 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.25 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage; three types of sodium fluoride treatments were administrated: homeopathic, allopathic-homeopathic and allopathic. When the animals reached the adulthood, by randomization, they were selected in pairs for giving birth to the second generation of mice. No treatments were administrated to the second generation of mice; thus, the urinary elimination of fluoride in the second generation is attributed to exposure at sodium fluoride before birth. The administration of sodium fluoride to the first generation (F1) is realized until the mice reached the adulthood. For the first generation, the urine was collected at three times, every three weeks: at the age of four weeks, seven weeks and 11 weeks; single sampling urine, at the age of four weeks, has been conducted for the second generation. The urine samples have been analyzed using the ion selective electrode method for fluoride. For the histopathological examination, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation; the kidneys were collected in a 10% formalin solution. The preparation of samples for optical microscopy was realized with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The results indicate that the elimination of fluoride was similar (at the second evaluation, at 7-week-old of the first generation) for the both generations

  11. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors: blocking renal tubular reabsorption of glucose to improve glycaemic control in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, S A; Goldstein, B J

    2008-08-01

    The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of plasma glucose levels, although until recently this has not been widely appreciated or considered a target for therapeutic intervention. The sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) located in the plasma membrane of cells lining the proximal tubule mediates the majority of renal glucose reabsorption from the tubular fluid, which normally prevents the loss of glucose in the urine. Competitive inhibitors of SGLT2 that provoke the renal excretion of glucose have been discovered, thereby providing a unique mechanism to potentially lower the elevated blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. To explore the physiology of SGLT2 action and discuss several SGLT2 inhibitors that have entered early clinical development. All publicly available data were identified by searching the internet for 'SGLT2' and 'SGLT2 inhibitor' through 1 November 2007. Published articles, press releases and abstracts presented at national and international meetings were considered. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibition is a novel treatment option for diabetes, which has been studied in preclinical models and a few potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitors have been reported and are currently in clinical development. These agents appear to be safe and generally well tolerated, and will potentially be a beneficial addition to the growing battery of oral antihyperglycaemic agents.

  12. Kidney injury after sodium phosphate solution beyond the acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Juárez, Gema; Parejo, Leticia; Villacorta, Javier; Tato, Ana; Cazar, Ramiro; Guerrero, Carmen; Marin, Isabel Martinez; Ocaña, Javier; Mendez-Abreu, Angel; López, Katia; Gruss, Enrique; Gallego, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Screening colonoscopy with polipectomy reduces colonorectal cancer incidence and mortality. An adequate bowel cleansing is one of the keys to achieving best results with this technique. Oral sodium phosphate solution (OSP) had a widespread use in the 90s decade. Its efficacy was similar to polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, but with less cost and convenient administration. Series of patients with acute renal failure due to OSP use have been reported. However, large cohorts of patients found no difference in the incidence of renal damage between these two solutions. From 2006 to 2009 we identified twelve cases of phosphate nephropathy after colonoscopy prepared with OSP. All patients were followed up to six months. All patients had received just a single dose. We analyzed 12 cases with phosphate nephropathy; three patients debuted with AKI and nine patients had chronic renal injury. Four cases were confirmed with renal biopsy. One patient with AKI needed hemodialysis at diagnosis without subsequent recovery. Two patients (both with chronic damage) fully recovered their previous renal function. The remaining patients (nine) had an average loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate of 24ml/min/1.73m(2). The use of OSP can lead to both acute and chronic renal damage. However, chronic injury was the most common pattern. Both forms of presentation imply a significant and irreversible loss of renal function. Further studies analyzing renal damage secondary to bowel cleaning should consider these two different patterns of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Response of copper deficient rats to inhibitors of renal sodium reabsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordewier, B.; Saari, J.T. (Northwestern College, Orange City, IA (United States) USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of furosemide (Furo), a Loop diuretic, and amiloride (Am), a potassium (K)-sparing diuretic, on the excretion of sodium (Na) and K in copper-adequate (CuAdeq) and copper-deficient (CuDef) rats. Weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a CuDef or CuAdeq diet ad libitum and given deionized water to drink. After 5 weeks on the diets, rats were assigned to one of four treatment regimens: Furo, Am or Furo + Am. Rats were anesthetized and electrolyte excretion was measured in 2 {times} 15 min control periods followed by 3 {times} 15 min treatment periods. Furo increased Na excretion in a dose dependent manner in both the CuAdeq and the CuDef rats. The response of the CuAdeq rats was slightly greater than that of the CuDef rats in each of the 3 treatment groups in which Furo was given. K excretion following Furo increased to the same extent in the CuAdeq and CuDef rats. The natriuretic response to Am alone was slightly greater in the CuDef than the CuAdeq rats. The antikaliuretic response of the CuDef rats was similar to that of the CuAdeq rats whether Am was given alone or in combination with Furo. These data show that CuDef rats respond to Furo and Am in a manner which is similar to that of CuAdeq rats, this indicates that the sensitivity of the Na reabsorption mechanisms to inhibition by diuretics is not markedly affected by copper deficiency.

  14. Is the renal excretion of orally applied diatrizoate (Gastrografin copyright) a reliable marker of gastrointestinal perforation or dehiscence of a gastrointestinal anastomosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, M.; Axmann, C.; Kader, R.; Falkenhausen, M. von; Manka, C.; Willinek, W.A.; Schild, H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Renal excretion of orally or rectally applied Gastrografin is reported to be a reliable indicator of a perforation or a post-operative anastomotic dehiscence of the GI-tract. The study was conducted to determine whether increased attenuation of the urine measured by CT after oral or rectal application of Gastrografin can give reliable evidence of any leakage from the gastrointestinal tract. Materials and Methods: Urine samples of 33 patients, who underwent a Gastrografin-enhanced fluoroscopic examination of the esophagus or the GI-tract for different clinical reasons, were examined by CT. The samples had been taken immediately before and 60 to 90 minutes after application of 100 ml Gastrografin. The results were compared with those of 5 healthy volunteers, who took urine samples before, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after drinking 100 ml of Gastrografin. Results: Maximal attenuation of the volunteers' urine samples was achieved 60 to 90 minutes after Gastrografin application with a mean of 50 Hounsfield units (HU), SD=17 HU. The urine of three patients with radiologically proven fistula or dehiscence of a GI-tract anastomosis had no relevant increase in attenuation. Three other cases without any clinical or radiological evidence of an anastomotic leak had a substantial increase in the attenuation of the urine probes (87, 110, and 290 HU, respectively). Conclusion: The CT-measured urine samples as evidence of renal excretion of orally or rectally applied Gastrografin are not reliable for the detection of leaks from the GI-tract. (orig.)

  15. Does the renin-angiotensin system determine the renal and systemic hemodynamic response to sodium in patients with essential hypertension?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanPaassen, P; deZeeuw, D; Navis, G; deJong, PE

    Many patients with essential hypertension respond to a high dietary sodium intake with a rise in blood pressure. Experimental evidence suggests that the renal hemodynamic response to sodium determines, at least partially, this rise in blood pressure. Our aim was to clarify the role of the

  16. Sodium butyrate suppresses angiotensin II-induced hypertension by inhibition of renal (pro)renin receptor and intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Qing; Lu, Aihua; Liu, Xiaofen; Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Chuanming; Liu, Xiyang; Li, Haobo; Yang, Tianxin

    2017-09-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is the end product of the fermentation of complex carbohydrates by the gut microbiota. Recently, sodium butyrate (NaBu) has been found to play a protective role in a number of chronic diseases. However, it is still unclear whether NaBu has a therapeutic potential in hypertension. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of NaBu in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and to further explore the underlying mechanism. Ang II was infused into uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats with or without intramedullary infusion of NaBu for 14 days. Mean arterial blood pressure was recorded by the telemetry system. Renal tissues, serum samples, and 24-h urine samples were collected to examine renal injury and the regulation of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) and renin. Intramedullary infusion of NaBu in Sprague-Dawley rats lowered the Ang II-induced mean arterial pressure from 129 ± 6 mmHg to 108 ± 4 mmHg (P renal injury, including urinary albumin, glomerulosclerosis, and renal fibrosis, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6. The renal expression of PRR, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I-converting enzyme and the urinary excretion of soluble PRR, renin, and angiotensinogen were all increased by Ang II infusion but decreased by NaBu treatment. In cultured innermedullary collecting duct cells, NaBu treatment attenuated Ang II-induced expression of PRR and renin. These results demonstrate that NaBu exerts an antihypertensive action, likely by suppressing the PRR-mediated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

  17. Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene variants increase sodium and bicarbonate transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Kemp, Brandon A; Carlson, Julia M; Tran, Hanh T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Langouët-Astrié, Christophe J; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2018-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure affects >30% of the hypertensive and >15% of the normotensive population. Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene, SLC4A5, are associated with increased blood pressure in several ethnic groups. SLC4A5 variants are also highly associated with salt sensitivity, independent of hypertension. However, little is known about how NBCe2 contributes to salt sensitivity, although NBCe2 regulates renal tubular sodium bicarbonate transport. We hypothesized that SLC4A5 rs10177833 and rs7571842 increase NBCe2 expression and human renal proximal tubule cell (hRPTC) sodium transport and may be a cause of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. To characterize the hRPTC ion transport of wild-type (WT) and homozygous variants (HV) of SLC4A5. The expressions of NBCe2 mRNA and protein were not different between hRPTCs carrying WT or HV SLC4A5 before or after dopaminergic or angiotensin (II and III) stimulation. However, luminal to basolateral sodium transport, NHE3 protein, and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity in hRPTCs were higher in HV than WT SLC4A5. Increasing intracellular sodium enhanced the apical location of NBCe2 in HV hRPTCs (4.24±0.35% to 11.06±1.72% (P<0.05, N = 3, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)) as determined by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM). In hRPTCs isolated from kidney tissue, increasing intracellular sodium enhanced bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate and increased NBCe2 mRNA and protein expressions to a greater extent in HV than WT SLC4A5 (+38.00±6.23% vs HV normal salt (P<0.01, N = 4, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)). In hRPTCs isolated from freshly voided urine, bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery was also faster in those from salt-sensitive and carriers of HV SLC4A5 than from salt-resistant and carriers of WT SLC4A5. The faster NBCe2-specific bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate in HV SCL4A5 was normalized by SLC4A5- but not SLC4A4-shRNA. The binding of purified hepatocyte

  18. Peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis: a proposal for the initiation of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrier, R W; Arroyo, V; Bernardi, M

    1988-01-01

    Renal sodium and water retention and plasma volume expansion have been shown to precede ascites formation in experimental cirrhosis. The classical "underfilling" theory, in which ascites formation causes hypovolemia and initiates secondary renal sodium and water retention, thus seems unlikely...... with cirrhosis. Arterial vasodilators and arteriovenous fistula are other examples in which renal sodium and water retention occur secondary to a decreased filling of the arterial vascular tree. An increase in cardiac output and hormonal stimulation are common features of cirrhosis, arteriovenous fistula...... and drug-induced peripheral arterial vasodilation. However, a predilection for the retained sodium and water to transudate into the abdominal cavity occurs with cirrhosis because of the presence of portal hypertension. The Peripheral Arterial Vasodilation Hypothesis also explains the continuum from...

  19. Urinary Magnesium Excretion and Risk of Hypertension The Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Kootstra-Ros, J.E.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Observational studies on dietary or circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations, but have lacked measures of actual dietary uptake. Urinary magnesium excretion, an indicator of intestinal magnesium absorption, may provide a better insight in this

  20. Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension. The prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Mukamal, K.J.; Kootstra-Ros, J.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies on dietary or circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations, but have lacked measures of actual dietary uptake. Urinary magnesium excretion, an indicator of intestinal magnesium absorption, may provide a better insight in this

  1. Altered regulation of renal sodium transporters in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats induced by uninephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Yong; Lee, Jay Wook; Kim, Sejoong; Jung, Eun Sook; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2009-12-01

    Uninephrectomy (uNx) in young rats causes salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH). Alterations of sodium handling in residual nephrons may play a role in the pathogenesis. Therefore, we evaluated the adaptive alterations of renal sodium transporters according to salt intake in uNx-SSH rats. uNx or sham operations were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and normal-salt diet was fed for 4 weeks. Four experimental groups were used: sham-operated rats raised on a high-salt diet for 2 weeks (CHH) or on a low-salt diet for 1 week after 1 week's high-salt diet (CHL) and uNx rats fed on the same diet (NHH, NHL) as the sham-operated rats were fed. Expression of major renal sodium transporters were determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Systolic blood pressure was increased in NHH and NHL groups, compared with CHH and CHL, respectively. Protein abundances of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the CHH group were lower than the CHL group. Expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-γ increased in the CHH group. In contrast, expressions of NKCC2 and NCC in the NHH group didn't show any significant alterations, compared to the NHL group. Expressions of ENaC-α and ENaC-β in the NHH group were higher than the CHH group. Adaptive alterations of NKCC2 and NCC to changes of salt intake were different in the uNx group, and changes in ENaC-α and ENaC-β were also different. These altered regulations of sodium transporters may be involved in the pathogenesis of SSH in the uNx rat model.

  2. Dietary Sodium Modulation of Aldosterone Activation and Renal Function During the Progression of Experimental Heart Failure Miller: Dietary Sodium and Early Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L.; Borgeson, Daniel D.; Grantham, J. Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium-fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Methods and Results Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: 1) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 grams) per day, n=6]; 2) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 grams) per day, n=6]; and 3) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 grams) per day, n=6]. During the 38 day study hemodynamics, renal function, renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in hemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups, however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Conclusions Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression. PMID:25823360

  3. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, F V; Lapsley, M; Sansom, P A; Cohen, S L

    1992-07-01

    To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive of primary glomerular disease and

  4. Associations between the intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles, both traditional Japanese dishes, is recommended in order to decrease dietary salt intake. With the Westernization of dietary habits, however, these dishes are now consumed less frequently, and thus a reduction in their effect on sodium intake is suspected. This study examined cross-sectional associations between the frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion using data obtained from health examination surveys conducted in 2013 in Sado City, Japan. The level of daily salt intake was estimated based on spot urine sodium and creatinine measurements. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations. Among a total of 8,821 participants (3,956 men; age range, 19-97 years), the mean daily salt intake was 9.4 g/day. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles increased with age and was associated with the level of daily salt intake (p for trend soup (psoup and Japanese pickles may be an effective approach for decreasing the level of dietary salt intake in the general Japanese population, although not in octogenarians or nonagenarians.

  5. Calcium EDTA toxicity: renal excretion of endogenous trace metals and the effect of repletion on collagen degradation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braide, V B

    1984-01-01

    Studies on total hydroxyproline concentrations in urine of rats infused with toxic doses of CaEDTA at 6 mmol/kg per 24 hr for 48 hr or injected i.p. with the chelate at 4.8 mmol/kg/day for 10 days, indicate a two- to six-fold increase in urine excretion of the imino acid. This is due to increased degradation of collagen induced by CaEDTA. CaEDTA infusion was also shown to enhance urine excretion of some trace metals (Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe). Rats infused with CaEDTA for 36 hr showed a gradual fall in concentration of hydroxyproline in the urine, following cessation of chelate infusion. The decline in hydroxyproline concentrations was faster in rats receiving trace metal (Zn, Co, Mn or Ni) treatment during the post-CaEDTA infusion period; suggesting that the metals may affect collage, making the protein less susceptible to degradation in the body.

  6. Renal and sympathoadrenal responses in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Drummer, C; Norsk, P

    2001-01-01

    According to a classic hypothesis, weightlessness should promote the renal excretion rate of sodium and water and lead to a fluid- and electrolyte-depleted state. This hypothesis is based on experiments in which weightlessness has been simulated in humans by head-down bed rest and water immersion...

  7. The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after Cardiothoracic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Regina Turner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI is reported to be between 3-30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate during cardiac surgery will attenuate the postoperative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury when compared to a perioperative infusion with normal saline. An interim analysis was performed after data was available on the first 120 participants. A similar number of patients in the two treatment groups developed acute kidney injury (AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine the first 48 hours after surgery of 0.3 mg/dl or more. Specifically 14 patients (24% who received sodium chloride (SC and 17 patients (27% who received sodium bicarbonate (SB were observed to develop AKI post surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.1, chi-square p-value=0.68 for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC . The data safety monitoring board for the trial recommended closing the study early as there was only a 12% probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected. We therefore concluded that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate failed to attenuate the risk of CSA-AKI.

  8. Experimental dissociation of the effects of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, E; Branca, G F; Faedda, R; Olmeo, N A; Satta, A; Soggia, G

    1982-07-01

    1 The relative importance of the effect of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption was assessed in rats. 2 Clearance experiments were performed on 24 anaesthetized rats divided into 3 groups. Each group was infused throughout either with Ringer solution at 9 ml/h (Protocol I), or at 3 ml/h (Protocol II) or with hypotonic fluid at 5 ml/h (Protocol III). Clearance periods were performed before and after intravenous injection of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) and then of aspirin (20 mg/kg). The natriuretic response to different degrees of volume expansion was not modified during the action of the inhibitors. 3 When baseline urine osmolality (Uosm) was high (Protocol II) no further increase occurred in the presence of prostaglandin inhibition. Conversely, Uosm rose from 771 +/- 134 to 1356 +/- 414 and from 575 +/- 245 to 841 +/- 407 mosm/kg (P less than 0.05) in Protocol I and Protocol III respectively, when antidiuretic hormone secretion was inhibited by the higher degree of volume expansion. 4 There was a significant correlation between the change in urine flow rate induced by cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the attendant variations in Na excretion, r = 0.42, n = 41, P less than 0.01. 5 Thus, prostaglandins affect Na loss during saline load as a side effect of their action on water permeability. They could play an important role in volume depletion by counterbalancing the large secretion rate of renal vasoconstrictors.

  9. Experimental dissociation of the effects of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, E.; Branca, G. F.; Faedda, R.; Olmeo, N. A.; Satta, A.; Soggia, G.

    1982-01-01

    1 The relative importance of the effect of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption was assessed in rats. 2 Clearance experiments were performed on 24 anaesthetized rats divided into 3 groups. Each group was infused throughout either with Ringer solution at 9 ml/h (Protocol I), or at 3 ml/h (Protocol II) or with hypotonic fluid at 5 ml/h (Protocol III). Clearance periods were performed before and after intravenous injection of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) and then of aspirin (20 mg/kg). The natriuretic response to different degrees of volume expansion was not modified during the action of the inhibitors. 3 When baseline urine osmolality (Uosm) was high (Protocol II) no further increase occurred in the presence of prostaglandin inhibition. Conversely, Uosm rose from 771 +/- 134 to 1356 +/- 414 and from 575 +/- 245 to 841 +/- 407 mosm/kg (P less than 0.05) in Protocol I and Protocol III respectively, when antidiuretic hormone secretion was inhibited by the higher degree of volume expansion. 4 There was a significant correlation between the change in urine flow rate induced by cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the attendant variations in Na excretion, r = 0.42, n = 41, P less than 0.01. 5 Thus, prostaglandins affect Na loss during saline load as a side effect of their action on water permeability. They could play an important role in volume depletion by counterbalancing the large secretion rate of renal vasoconstrictors. PMID:6809089

  10. High maternal sodium intake alters sex-specific renal renin-angiotensin system components in newborn Wistar offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, D R R; Lopes, K L; Heimann, J C; Furukawa, L N S

    2016-01-28

    This study aimed to evaluate the systemic and renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) at birth in male and female offspring and in mothers fed a high sodium diet (HSD) before and during gestation. Female Wistar rats were fed a HSD (8.0% NaCl) or a normal sodium diet (1.3% NaCl) from 8 weeks of age until delivery of their first litter. Maternal body weight, tail blood pressure, and food and water intake were evaluated. The litter sizes were assessed, and the body and kidney weights of the offspring were measured. Both mothers and offspring were euthanized immediately following the birth of the pups to evaluate plasma renin activity (PRA), renal renin content (RRC), renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, renal angiotensin (Ang) II content, serum aldosterone (ALDO) levels, and renal cortical and medullary renin messenger RNA expression. In mothers in the HSD group, water intake and kidney mass were higher, whereas renal ACE activity, Ang II, PRA, ALDO and RRC were decreased. In the offspring of HSD-fed dams, the body and kidney mass were lower in both genders, renal ACE activity was lower in females and renal Ang II was lower in males. PRA, RRC, renin gene expression and ALDO levels did not differ between the groups of offspring. The data presented herein showed that a maternal HSD during pregnancy induces low birth weight and a sex-specific response in the RAAS in offspring.

  11. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and renal response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Jensen, N G; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    baseline values or exercise-induced decreases in renal plasma flow or glomerular filtration rate. Indomethacin, but not nabumetone, decreased sodium excretion, urine flow rate and free water clearance. The renal response to exercise, however, remained unchanged. In contrast with nabumatone, indomethacin...

  12. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on

  13. Renal nerves and nNOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Wolff, Helle; Kuczeriszka, Marta

    2008-01-01

    ). This was tested by NaLoad after chronic renal denervation with and without inhibition of nNOS by S-methyl-thiocitrulline (SMTC). In addition, the acute effects of renal denervation on MABP and sodium balance were assessed. Rats were investigated in the conscious, catheterized state, in metabolic cages...... of acutely and chronically denervated rats were less than control (15% and 9%, respectively, P reduced by renal denervation (14.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 19.3 +/- 1.3 mIU/l, P reduced...... PRC (P sodium excretion six-fold, irrespective of renal denervation and SMTC. The metabolic data demonstrated that renal denervation lowered sodium balance during the first days after denervation (P

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation of Na/K-ATPase Regulates Fibrosis and Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Na/K-ATPase is the primary force regulating renal sodium handling and plays a key role in both ion homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Recently, cardiotonic steroids (CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling has been shown to regulate fibrosis, renal proximal tubule (RPT sodium reabsorption, and experimental Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension in response to a high-salt diet. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are an important modulator of nephron ion transport. As there is limited knowledge regarding the role of ROS-mediated fibrosis and RPT sodium reabsorption through the Na/K-ATPase, the focus of this review is to examine the possible role of ROS in the regulation of Na/K-ATPase activity, its signaling, fibrosis, and RPT sodium reabsorption.

  15. Effects of Sodium Selenite on Formaldehyde Induced Renal Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Mohammadi 1,2 * , Maryam Moghimian 3, Hanieh Torabzadeh 4, Mahla Langari 4, Roghayeh Nazeri 4, Zahra Karimi 4, Elham Sangari 4, Najmeh Jagarmi 5, Alireza Mohammad Zadeh 3, Mehdi Karimi 7, Kamyar Tavakkoli 8, Ali Delshad 9, Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh 3, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan 10

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Formaldehyde is widely used for industrial applications. Renal injury is an adverse effect associated with formaldehyde. Few studies have explored the potential benefits of protective factors on formaldehyde induced renal toxicity. This study evaluated the dose dependent effects of sodium selenite on the biochemical and histopathological effects of formaldehyde on murine kidney. Methods: Forty eight adult Balb/c male mice were randomized into six groups: a control group, a formaldehyde group and experimental III-VI groups. Formaldehyde group was injected with 10 mg/kg formaldehyde and groups III-VI received intraperitoneally doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/kg selenium. After two weeks, a stereological study was done in accordance with the principle of Cavalieri and serum concentrations of urea and creatinine were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and SPSS software. Results: Glomerosclerosis, necrosis and vacuolization were observed in the convoluted tubules of animals treated with formaldehyde. The biochemical markers, volume and count of glomeruli in the group treated with formaldehyde was significantly difference compared to the control group (P<0.05. The volume of the glomeruli in the group treated with 0.2 and 0.4 mg selenium and urea level in the group treated with 0.4 and 0.1 mg/kg selenium was significantly difference compared to the control group (P <0.05. The count of glomeruli and creatinine level in the selenium group was significantly difference compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusions: A dose of 0.2 mg/kg of sodium selenite caused partial protective effect on the renal tissue and function in exposed to formaldehyde.

  16. Fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine of patients with normal or reduced renal function and hepatic coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Dalhoff, K; Joffe, P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m) as a differential diagnostic indicator between hepatic nephropathy (HN) and acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy (ATIN) in patients with reduced renal function and hepatic coma, and to determine whether beta 2m e...

  17. Identification of galactose as the immunodominant sugar of leishmanial excreted factor and subsequent labeling with galactose oxidase and sodium boro[3H]hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky, G M; Greenblatt, C L

    1982-01-01

    Inhibition by low-molecular-weight sugars of precipitin line formation between a polysaccharide (EF) excreted by Leishmania tropica subsp. major, Leishmania enriettii, and rabbit antileishmanial antibodies on double gel diffusion plates revealed that galactose residues, possibly as components of lactosyl groups, were the critical immunodominant sugars mediating antibody recognition of EF. The galactose residues of the EF of L. tropica subsp. major were specifically labeled with tritium via galactose oxidase and sodium boro[3H]hydride. The radioactive EF had an apparent molecular weight of about 85,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and was precipitated by antileishmanial antibodies as well as Ricinus communis lectins I and II (galactose specific). Lectins specific for glucose-mannose residues, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylgalactosamine did not precipitate the labeled EF. Treatment of [3H]EF with proteolytic (trypsin, papain, protease) or glycosidic (alpha-amylase, beta-galactosidase) enzymes had no effect on either the electrophoretic pattern of the material or on its recognition by antileishmanial antibodies or R. communis lectin. This resistance to enzyme activity suggests that EF may be a useful marker for the presence of the parasite in vivo if it can be detected in minute quantities. PMID:6179874

  18. Measurement of renal blood flow by 131I-labelled sodium iodohippurate imaging in a rat model of herpes encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleator, G.M.; Klapper, P.E.; Lewis, A.G.; Sharma, H.L.; Smith, A.M.; Manchester Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Renal blood flow was assessed qualitatively over a 30 min period in a rat model of herpes encephalitis by extra-renal scintigraphic imaging following the injection of 131 I-labelled sodium iodohippurate. No significant differences were observed for renal blood flow in either kidney between (or within) infected and control groups. Our data suggest that kidney function is not compromised in this animal model of encephalitis. The results are discussed in the context of the development of a non-invasive protocol for the in vivo diagnosis of herpes encephalitis. (orig.)

  19. Renal handling of drugs in renal failure. I: Differential effects of uranyl nitrate- and glycerol-induced acute renal failure on renal excretion of TEAB and PAH in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.H.; Lin, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Two etiologically different models of experimental acute renal failure were induced in rats by administration of either glycerol or uranyl nitrate. Both compounds caused a substantial decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the net tubular secretion of tetraethylammonium bromide (TEAB) and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). The degree of renal impairment induced by uranyl nitrate and glycerol appeared to be dose related. Deprivation of drinking water 24 hr before the administration of glycerol potentiated the renal damage. In uranyl nitrate-induced renal failure, the decline of the net tubular secretion for TEAB and PAH was not proportional to the decrease in GFR; the secretion process deteriorated faster than the GFR. For example, when 0.5 mg/kg uranyl nitrate was administered, GFR fell to approximately 65% of normal, whereas the net tubular secretion was decreased to 30% of normal. These results suggest that the tubular transport was preferentially affected by uranyl nitrate. In contrast, in glycerol-induced renal failure, the decline of TEAB secretion fell in a parallel fashion with the GFR, suggesting that the glomeruli and the proximal tubules were equally damaged by glycerol. However, in this latter model, the decline of PAH secretion did not parallel the decrease in GFR, contradicting the proposal that glycerol affects equally the glomeruli and the proximal tubules. This discrepancy may be due to the selective competitive inhibition of PAH secretion by the accumulation of naturally occurring organic acids

  20. Urea and ammonia excretion into gastric juice in regularly dialyzed patients and patients after renal transplantation. I. Dialyzed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skála, I; Marecková, O; Růzicková, J; Bláha, J; Straková, M; Reneltová, I; Jirka, J; Kocandrle, V; Zvolánková, K

    1978-01-01

    In regularly dialyzed patients in basal gastric juice and after stimulation with pentagastrin the volume of titrable acidity, urea and ammonia were assessed. It was revealed that in relation to the plasma urea concentration in basal juice the mean urea and ammonia concentration is roughly half and in stimulation juice roughly one third. The urea concentration in gastric juice is negatively correlated to the ammonia concentration. Urea excretion into the stomach depends on the plasma urea level and on the secretory gastric activity. The decisive factor of gastric secretion is probably parietal cell secretion. From the results ensues that gastric juice of dialyzed patients contains a quantitatively significant amount of urea and ammonia. Ammonia due to its neutralizing action distorts the examination of gastric acidity assessed by titration. The findings call for a revision of hitherto known data concerning gastric secretion of uraemic patients.

  1. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition exacerbates renal dysfunction in cirrhotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, M.; Brond, L.; Christensen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated sodium balance and renal tubular function in cirrhotic rats with chronic blockade of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Rats were treated with the nonselective NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) starting on the day of common bile duct ligation...... (CBL). Three weeks of daily sodium balance studies showed that CBL rats developed sodium retention compared with sham-operated rats and that l-NAME treatment dose dependently deteriorated cumulative sodium balance by reducing urinary sodium excretion. Five weeks after CBL, renal clearance studies were...

  2. Pazopanib-Induced Hypertension in Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma Is Associated With Low Urine Excretion of NO Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinning, Anne Robdrup; Bengtsen, Camilla; Jensen, Niels Viggo

    2018-01-01

    -NAME or by impaired endothelin-1 leads to hypertension. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that VEGF receptor inhibitor treatment leads to hypertension through decreased renal medullary formation of NO and endothelin-1. With a single-center prospective observational design, patients with metastatic...... increased, whereas heart rate decreased significantly; urine protein/creatinine ratio increased significantly, whereas estimated glomerular filtration rate was unchanged. Urine nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and cGMP/creatinine ratios decreased significantly, whereas urine endothelin-1/creatinine ratio and FENa...

  3. Renal glucose handling in diabetes and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham Raj Poudel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a major role in glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption via sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs. The defective renal glucose handling from upregulation of SGLTs, mainly the SGLT2, plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genetic mutations in a SGLT2 isoform that results in benign renal glycosuria, as well as clinical studies with SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes support the potential of this approach. These studies indicate that inducing glycosuria by suppressing SGLT2 can reduce plasma glucose and A1c levels, as well as decrease weight, resulting in improved β-cell function and enhanced insulin sensitivity in liver and muscle. Because the mechanism of SGLT2 inhibition is independent of insulin secretion and sensitivity, these agents can be combined with other antidiabetic agents, including exogenous insulin. This class represents a novel therapeutic approach with potential for the treatment of both type 2 and type 1 diabetes.

  4. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  6. Associations between Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and Renal Biomarkers in Nonsmoking Females: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Areas of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-rui Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the relationship between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd and biomarkers of renal dysfunction. Methods: One hundred eighty five non-smoking female farmers (aged from 44 to 71 years were recruited from two rural areas with different cadmium levels of exposure in southern China. Morning spot urine samples were collected for detecting U-Cd, urinary creatinine (U-cre, β2-microglobulin (β2-MG, α1-microglobulin (α1-MG, metallothionein (MT, retinol binding protein (RBP, albumin (AB, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1. Spearman’s rank correlation was carried out to assess pairwise bivariate associations between continuous variables. Three different models of multiple linear regression (the cre-corrected, un-corrected and cre-adjusted model were used to model the dose-response relationships between U-Cd and nine urine markers. Results: Spearman’s rank correlation showed that NAG, ALP, RBP, β2-MG and MT were significantly associated with U-Cd for both cre-corrected and observed data. Generally, NAG correlated best with U-Cd among the nine biomarkers studied, followed by ALP and MT. In the un-corrected model and cre-adjusted model, the regression coefficients and R2 of nine biomarkers were larger than the corresponding values in the cre-corrected model, indicating that the use of observed data was better for investigating the relationship between biomarkers and U-Cd than cre-corrected data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAG, MT and ALP in urine were better biomarkers for long-term environmental cadmium exposure assessment among the nine biomarkers studied. Further, data without normalization with creatinine show better relationships between cadmium exposure and renal dysfunction.

  7. Diclofenac toxicity in Gyps vulture is associated with decreased uric acid excretion and not renal portal vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, V; Swan, G E

    2009-04-01

    Diclofenac (DF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is largely regarded as one of the most devastating environmental toxicant in recent times, after accidental exposure via their food-chain lead to massive mortalities in three vulture species on the Asian subcontinent. Although the use of diclofenac was recently banned on the Indian subcontinent, following the favourable safety profile of meloxicam, its mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. In an attempt to establish this mechanism, we test three hypotheses using models established from either the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) or the African White-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We demonstrate that both DF and meloxicam are toxic to renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells following 12 h of exposure, due to an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could be temporarily ameliorated by pre-incubation with uric acid (UA). When cultures were incubated with either drug for only 2 h, meloxicam showed no toxicity in contrast to diclofenac. In both cases no increase in ROS production was evident. In addition, diclofenac decreased the transport of uric acid, by interfering with the p-amino-hippuric acid (PAH) channel. We conclude that vulture susceptibility to diclofenac results from a combination of an increased ROS, interference with UA transport and the duration of exposure.

  8. Renal Development and Blood Pressure in Offspring from Dams Submitted to High-Sodium Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezila M. Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to an adverse environment in utero appears to programme physiology and metabolism permanently, with long-term consequences for health of the fetus or offspring. It was observed that the offspring from dams submitted to high-sodium intake during pregnancy present disturbances in renal development and in blood pressure. These alterations were associated with lower plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII and changes in renal AII receptor I (AT1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK expressions during post natal kidney development. Clinical and experimental evidence show that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS participates in renal development. Many effects of AII are mediated through MAPK pathways. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs play a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, high-sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation can provoke disturbances in renal development in offspring leading to functional and structural alterations that persist in adult life. These changes can be related at least in part with the decrease in RAS activity considering that this system has an important role in renal development.

  9. Increased renal alpha-epithelial sodium channel (ENAC) protein and increased ENAC activity in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Crystal; Zhang, Zheng; Ecker, Geoffrey; Masilamani, Shyama M E

    2010-11-01

    Pregnancy-mediated sodium (Na) retention is required to provide an increase in plasma volume for the growing fetus. The mechanisms responsible for this Na retention are not clear. We first used a targeted proteomics approach and found that there were no changes in the protein abundance compared with virgin rats of the β or γ ENaC, type 3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), bumetanide-sensitive cotransporter (NKCC2), or NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in mid- or late pregnancy. In contrast, we observed marked increases in the abundance of the α-ENaC subunit. The plasma volume increased progressively during pregnancy with the greatest plasma volume being evident in late pregnancy. ENaC inhibition abolished the difference in plasma volume status between virgin and pregnant rats. To determine the in vivo activity of ENaC, we conducted in vivo studies of rats in late pregnancy (days 18-20) and virgin rats to measure the natriuretic response to ENaC blockade (with benzamil). The in vivo activity of ENaC (U(Na)V postbenzamil-U(Na)V postvehicle) was markedly increased in late pregnancy, and this difference was abolished by pretreatment with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone. These findings demonstrate that the increased α-ENaC subunit of pregnancy is associated with an mineralocorticoid-dependent increase in ENaC activity. Further, we show that ENaC activity is a major contributor of plasma volume status in late pregnancy. These changes are likely to contribute to the renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion required for an optimal pregnancy.

  10. Lowering Plasma Glucose Concentration by Inhibiting Renal Sodium-Glucose Co-Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining normoglycaemia not only reduces the risk of diabetic microvascular complications but also corrects the metabolic abnormalities that contribute to the development and progression of hyperglycaemia (i.e. insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction). Progressive beta-cell failure, in addition to the multiple side effects associated with many current antihyperglycaemic agents (e.g., hypoglycaemia and weight gain) presents major obstacle to the achievement of the recommended goal of glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, novel effective therapies are needed for optimal glucose control in subjects with DM. Recently, specific inhibitors of renal sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) have been developed to produce glucosuria and lower the plasma glucose concentration. Because of their unique mechanism of action (which is independent of the secretion and action of insulin), these agents are effective in lowering the plasma glucose concentration in all stages of DM and can be combined with all other antidiabetic agents. In this review, we summarize the available data concerning the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of this novel class of antidiabetic agent. PMID:24690096

  11. Renal sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibition in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A.; Norton, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is the primary factor responsible for the microvascular, and to a lesser extent macrovascular, complications of diabetes. Despite this well-established relationship, approximately half of all type 2 diabetic patients in the US have a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥7.0%. This is associated in part with the side effects, i.e., weight gain and hypoglycemia, of currently available antidiabetic agents and in part with the failure to utilize medications that reverse the basic pathophysiological defects present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The kidney has been shown to play a central role in the development of hyperglycemia by excessive production of glucose throughout the sleeping hours and enhanced reabsorption of filtered glucose by the renal tubules secondary to an increase in the threshold at which glucose spills into the urine. Recently, a new class of antidiabetic agents, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, has been developed and approved for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we examine their mechanism of action, efficacy, safety, and place in the therapeutic armamentarium. Since the SGLT2 inhibitors have a unique mode of action that differs from all other oral and injectable antidiabetic agents, they can be used at all stages of the disease and in combination with all other antidiabetic medications. PMID:26354881

  12. A longitudinal study on urinary cadmium and renal tubular protein excretion of nickel-cadmium battery workers after cessation of cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanhua; Zhang, Yanfang; Yi, Juan; Zhou, Jinpeng; Huang, Xianqing; Shi, Xinshan; Xiao, Shunhua; Lin, Dafeng

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to predict the outcome of urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion and renal tubular function by analyzing their evolution through 10 years after Cd exposure ceased. Forty-one female, non-smoking workers were recruited from the year 2004 to 2009 when being removed from a nickel-cadmium battery factory, and they were asked to provide morning urine samples on three consecutive days at enrollment and in every follow-up year until 2014. Urinary Cd and renal tubular function biomarkers including urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-m) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) concentrations were determined with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The medians of baseline Cd, β2-m and RBP concentrations at enrollment were 6.19, 105.38 and 71.84 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary β2-m and RBP concentrations were both related to Cd concentrations over the years (β absolute-β2-m = 9.16, P = 0.008 and β absolute-RBP = 6.42, P < 0.001, respectively). Cd, β2-m and RBP concentrations in the follow-up years were all associated with their baseline concentrations (β absolute-Cd = 0.61, P < 0.001; β absolute-β2-m = 0.64, P < 0.001; and β absolute-RBP = 0.60, P < 0.001, respectively), and showed a decreasing tendency with the number of elapsed years relative to their baseline concentrations (β relative-Cd = -0.20, P = 0.010; β relative-β2-m = -17.19, P = 0.002; and β relative-RBP = -10.66, P < 0.001, respectively). Urinary Cd might eventually decrease to the general population level, and Cd-related tubular function would improve under the baseline conditions of this cohort.

  13. Effects of intravenous bumetanide administration on renal haemodynamics and proximal and distal tubular sodium reabsorption in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalmi, M.; Petersen, J.S.; Christensen, S. (Department of pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    The renal effects of 0.02-62.5 mg/kg bumetanide given as intravenous bolus injections were studied in water diuretic conscious rats. Clearances of {sup 14}C-tetraethylammonium, {sup 3}H-inulin and lithium were used as markers for renal plasma flow (RPF), glomerular filtion rate (GFR) and proximal tubular output, respectively. Bumetanide caused biphasic, transient and dose-independent changes in the renal haemodynamics without significant alterations of the filtration fraction. At dose-levels above 0.02 mg/kg bumetanide increased urine flow, absolute and fractional Na excretion as well as the indices for fractional output of Na from the proximal tubules (C{sub Li}/C{sub I}n) and the distal nephron segments (C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}). The changes in C{sub Li}/C{sub In} became maximal at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, whereas C{sub Na}/C{sub Li} was increased with the dose up to 12.5 mg/kg. Paradoxically, doses above 12.5 mg/kg were less natriuretic due to a decrease of C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}. It is concluded that in rats bumetanide is an effective although short-acting diuretic when administered intravenously. When comparing peak responses bumetanide is equipotent to furosemide but has a lower maximal efficacy. Judged from the changes in fractional lithium excretion, the natriuretic effect of bumetanide is effected by inhibition of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule in addition to the well-known effect on the distal nephron segment. (author).

  14. Effects of insulin detemir and NPH insulin on renal handling of sodium, fluid retention and weight in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, K V; Jensen, Tonny Joran; Oturai, P

    2012-01-01

    In type 2 diabetic patients, insulin detemir (B29Lys(ε-tetradecanoyl),desB30 human insulin) induces less weight gain than NPH insulin. Due to the proposed reduction of tubular action by insulin detemir, type 2 diabetic patients should have increased urinary sodium excretion, thereby reducing extr...

  15. Normotensive sodium loading in normal man: Regulation of renin secretion during beta-receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølstrøm, Simon; Larsen, Nils Heden; Simonsen, Jane Angel

    2008-01-01

    and renal excretion during slow saline loading at constant plasma sodium con-centration (Na-loading: 12 micromol Na(+) kg(-1) min(-1) for 4 h). Normal subjects were studied on low-sodium intake with and without beta1-adrenergic blockade by metoprolol. Metoprolol per se reduced RAAS activity as expected. Na......Saline administration may change renin system (RAAS) activity and sodium excretion at constant mean arterial pressure (MAP). We hypothesized that such responses are elicited mainly by renal sympathetic nerve activity by beta1-receptors (beta1-RSNA), and tested the hypothesis by studying RAAS......-loading decreased plasma renin (PRC) by 1/3, AngII by 1/2, and aldosterone (pAldo) by 2/3, (all psodium excretion increased indistinguishably with and without metoprolol (16+/-2 to 71...

  16. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  17. A Population WB-PBPK Model of Colistin and its Prodrug CMS in Pigs: Focus on the Renal Distribution and Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Alexis; Henri, Jérôme; Bouchène, Salim; Laroche, Julian; Rolland, Jean-Guy; Manceau, Jacqueline; Laurentie, Michel; Couet, William; Grégoire, Nicolas

    2018-03-12

    The objective was the development of a whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model for colistin, and its prodrug colistimethate sodium (CMS), in pigs to explore their tissue distribution, especially in kidneys. Plasma and tissue concentrations of CMS and colistin were measured after systemic administrations of different dosing regimens of CMS in pigs. The WB-PBPK model was developed based on these data according to a non-linear mixed effect approach and using NONMEM software. A detailed sub-model was implemented for kidneys to handle the complex disposition of CMS and colistin within this organ. The WB-PBPK model well captured the kinetic profiles of CMS and colistin in plasma. In kidneys, an accumulation and slow elimination of colistin were observed and well described by the model. Kidneys seemed to have a major role in the elimination processes, through tubular secretion of CMS and intracellular degradation of colistin. Lastly, to illustrate the usefulness of the PBPK model, an estimation of the withdrawal periods after veterinary use of CMS in pigs was made. The WB-PBPK model gives an insight into the renal distribution and elimination of CMS and colistin in pigs; it may be further developed to explore the colistin induced-nephrotoxicity in humans.

  18. Renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water during infusion of low-dose dopamine in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hansen, J M; Ladefoged, S D

    1990-01-01

    of sodium and water during dopamine infusion (3 micrograms min-1 kg-1) were estimated in 12 normal volunteers. 2. CNa increased by 128% (P less than 0.001). Effective renal plasma flow and GFR increased by 43% (P less than 0.001) and 9% (P less than 0.01), respectively. CLi increased in all subjects by......, on average, 44% (P less than 0.001). Fractional proximal reabsorption [1-(CLi/GFR)] decreased by 13% after dopamine infusion (P less than 0.001), and estimated absolute proximal reabsorption rate (GFR-CLi) decreased by 8% (P less than 0.01). Absolute distal sodium reabsorption rate [(CLi-CNa) x PNa, where...... PNa is plasma sodium concentration] increased (P less than 0.001), and fractional distal sodium reabsorption [(CLi-CNa)/CLi] decreased (P less than 0.001). 3. It is concluded that natriuresis during low-dose dopamine infusion is caused by an increased outflow of sodium from the proximal tubules...

  19. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C......(Li) and ADR(Na) (Spearman coefficients of variation 0.88, 0.69, and 0.74, respectively). The correlations between the excretion rate of THP and GFR, C(Li) and ADR(Na) were weaker (Spearman coefficients of variation 0.68, 0.42, and 0.44). When the effect of GFR had been accounted for by multiple variance...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  20. Fluid electrolyte excretion during different hypokinetic body positions of trained subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different body positions on renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes after exposure to 364 days of decreased number of steps per day (hypokinesia, HK). The studies were performed on 18 endurance trained male volunteers aged 19-24 years who had an average of VO 2max 67 ml/kg body/min. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the 1st group subjected to 12 h orthostatic position (OP) and 12 h clinostatic position (CP)/day, the 2nd group exposed to 8 h orthostatic position and 14 h clinostatic position/day, and the 3rd group submitted to 10 h orthostatic position and 16 h clinostatic position/day for 364 days. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept under an average of 3000 steps/day for 364 days. Diuresis and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium as well as excretion of creatine were determined in 24-h urine samples. By the end of the hypokinetic period all volunteers, regardless of their body position during HK, manifested a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes as compared to prehypokinetic period values. It was concluded that prolonged restriction of motor activity induced a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes in endurance trained subjects regardless to their body position and duration thereof per day.

  1. Lithium clearance and renal tubular sodium handling during acute and long-term nifedipine treatment in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, N E; Ibsen, H; Skøtt, P

    1988-01-01

    1. In two separate studies the lithium clearance method was used to evaluate the influence of acute and long-term nifedipine treatment on renal tubular sodium reabsorption. 2. In the acute study, after a 4 week placebo period two doses of 20 mg of nifedipine decreased supine blood pressure from 155...... were also unchanged, as were potassium clearance, urine flow and body weight. 3. In the long-term study, lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate, sodium clearance, potassium clearance, urine flow and body fluid volumes were measured after a 4 weeks placebo period and after 6 and 12 weeks....../101 (20.6/13.5) +/- 11/4 (1.5/0.5) to 139/88 (18.5/11.7) +/- 16/9 (2.1/1.2) mmHg (kPa) (means +/- SD; P less than 0.01). Lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate and sodium clearance did not change. Therefore the calculated values of absolute proximal and absolute distal sodium reabsorption rates...

  2. Effects of pelleted or powdered diets containing soy protein or sodium caseinate on lipid concentrations and bile acid excretion in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butteiger, Dustie N; Krul, Elaine S

    2015-08-01

    Custom diets are a convenient vector for oral administration of test articles, but the processing and physical form of a diet can affect its nutritional properties and how it is consumed. Here, the authors evaluated the feeding behavior and physiology of golden Syrian hamsters fed diets of either soy or caseinate protein in pelleted or powdered forms for 28 d to determine whether dietary processing and form mediates the physiological effects of dietary proteins. The authors compared body weight, food consumption, serum cholesterol concentration, serum triglyceride concentration, fecal weight and fecal excretion of bile acids between treatment groups. Hamsters fed powdered diets showed higher food consumption than hamsters fed pelleted diets, regardless of protein source. Hamsters fed soy pelleted diets showed lower serum cholesterol concentration and higher fecal excretion of bile acid than hamsters fed caseinate pelleted diets, and serum cholesterol concentration correlated strongly with fecal excretion of bile acid. This correlation suggests that the physiological effects of soy protein on cholesterol and excretion of bile acid might be related or similarly mediated through diet. The differences observed between hamsters on different diets indicate that dietary form can influence both feeding behavior and the physiological effects of a diet in hamsters.

  3. Limitation on the use of amiloride in early renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, H; Reuter, K; Mutschler, E

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a single oral dose of 10 mg amiloride was studied on urinary excretion of Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++ in healthy subjects and in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment. Amiloride produced a moderate diuresis and sodium excretion, and a slight calciuresis. Urinary excretion of potassium was significantly reduced as compared to the controls. Despite its diuretic and natriuretic effects, amiloride did not change the excretion of Mg++ as compared to the pretreatment period. When the creatinine clearance was below 50 ml/min, the net excretion of Na+ and Ca++ was drastically reduced. However, K+ retention and neutrality of Mg++ excretion were maintained down to end-stage renal disease. In the healthy volunteers the mean elimination half-life of amiloride was 20 h, and it rose to about 100 h in end-stage renal disease. This was because about 3/4 of native amiloride was eliminated through the kidney. Nonrenal elimination of amiloride was calculated to amount to only 1/4 of the total elimination. Therefore, the anticaliuretic amiloride is a valuable comedication in subjects with normal kidney function to prevent K+ and Mg++ loss. However, its use is hazardous if plasma creatinine is raised.

  4. Mathematical Model of Ammonia Handling in the Rat Renal Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiret, Lorette; Baigent, Stephen; Jalan, Rajiv; Thomas, S. Randall

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is one of the main organs that produces ammonia and release it into the circulation. Under normal conditions, between 30 and 50% of the ammonia produced in the kidney is excreted in the urine, the rest being absorbed into the systemic circulation via the renal vein. In acidosis and in some pathological conditions, the proportion of urinary excretion can increase to 70% of the ammonia produced in the kidney. Mechanisms regulating the balance between urinary excretion and renal vein release are not fully understood. We developed a mathematical model that reflects current thinking about renal ammonia handling in order to investigate the role of each tubular segment and identify some of the components which might control this balance. The model treats the movements of water, sodium chloride, urea, NH3 and NH4+, and non-reabsorbable solute in an idealized renal medulla of the rat at steady state. A parameter study was performed to identify the transport parameters and microenvironmental conditions that most affect the rate of urinary ammonia excretion. Our results suggest that urinary ammonia excretion is mainly determined by those parameters that affect ammonia recycling in the loops of Henle. In particular, our results suggest a critical role for interstitial pH in the outer medulla and for luminal pH along the inner medullary collecting ducts. PMID:26280830

  5. Effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium, GFR and central hemodynamics in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during inhibition of the nitric oxide system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa; Malmberg, My Emma Sofie; Rosenbaek, Jeppe Bakkestroem

    2017-01-01

    -dependent mechanism. U-AQP2 was not changed by tolvaptan, presumeably due to a counteracting effect of elevated p-AVP. The reduced GFR during tolvaptan most likely is caused by the reduction in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Trial registration: Clinical Trial no: NCT02527863. Registered 18 February...... received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min. We measured: GFR, urine output (UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium...... (FENa), urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaCγ), plasma concentrations of vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensinII (p-AngII), aldosterone (p-Aldo), and central blood pressure (cBP). Results: During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, a more pronounced...

  6. Efeitos da efedrina sobre as funções cardiovascular e renal de cães sob anestesia com pentobarbital sódico Efectos de la efedrina sobre las funciones cardiovascular y renal de perros bajo anestesia con pentobarbital sódico Effects of rphedrine on cardiovascular and renal function of dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Beatriz Amorim

    2002-07-01

    verifying whether different ephedrine doses determine differentiated hemodynamic and renal effects. METHODS: Cardiovascular and renal hemodynamics and renal function were evaluated in 32 dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (SP for surgical preparation, catheterization, extracellular fluid volume expansion and mechanical ventilation. Dogs were randomly distributed in four groups: G control (n = 8, in which dogs remained only under the effect of SP; G ephedrine 2 µg (n = 8; G ephedrine 10 µg (n = 8; and G ephedrine 100 µg (n = 8, in which dogs received 2, 10, and 100 µg.kg-1.min-1 ephedrine, respectively. Cardiovascular and renal parameters were studied at control (M1 and M2, during ephedrine infusion (M3 and M4 and after ephedrine infusion withdrawal (M5. RESULTS: There were no significant differences among groups. There has been a significant increase in heart rate, aortic blood flow, urinary output and fractional sodium excretion in G ephedrine 2 µg. There has been a significant increase in heart rate and filtration fraction in G ephedrine 10 µg while in G ephedrine 100 µg there has been a significant increase in heart rate, mean blood pressure, aortic blood flow, central venous pressure, renal vascular resistance and hematocrit, and a significant decrease in renal plasma and blood flow. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that ephedrine has differentiated dose-dependent hemodynamic and renal effects.

  7. Effects of Gentamicin on Urinary Electrolyte Excretion in Admitted Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Falakolaflaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used during the neonatal period. It is associated with nephrotoxic effects in neonates, including glomerular impairment and renal tubular dysfunction. Electrolyte balance is very important, especially in the sick premature neonate receiving aminoglycosides. The purpose of this study was early diagnosis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 23 neonates (11 full – term and 12 preterm with suspected sepsis who were admitted and treated with gentamicin. Blood and urine samples were collected before infusion and on the 3rd day of treatment. Serum and urine concentration of Na, K, creatinine (Cr and urine concentration of Ca were measured. Then fractional excretion of Na and K were estimated. Ca excretion was estimated as the UCa/UCr ratio. Then the collected data were analyzed using SPSS package.Results: In all neonates, increase in fractional excretion of Na and UCa/UCr, in the 3rd day of treatment were observed as compared to those of before infusion (P=0.01 and P=0.02 respectively. Serum creatinine levels decreased in all patients. Serum level of electrolytes during therapy was normal.Conclusion: The results of this study clearly demonstrate an effect of gentamicin infusion on renal sodium and calcium excretion. These results may be of clinical importance especially for sick preterm neonates receiving treatment with gentamicin. These babies are usually salt-losers and are also more susceptible to early onset hypocalcemia. Gentamicin can aggravate these complications.

  8. The Association between Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Eun; Lee, Hong Soo; Lee, Sang Wha; Shim, Kyung Won; Byun, A Ri; Kim, Jung Hwa; An, Hee Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Background The sodium intake of Koreans was higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization. Urinary sodium, which is correlated with sodium intake, can be easily calculated by the Tanaka's equation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods A total of 5,870 participants from the 2010–2011 KNHANES were included in this study. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium was calculated by the Tanaka's equation using spot urine. Participants were divided into tertiles based on urinary sodium levels. The association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of urinary sodium levels was 1.51 (1.16–1.97) and 1.56 (1.23–1.97) compared to the lowest tertile of urinary sodium in men. The ORs and 95% CIs of metabolic syndrome in women were 1.20 (0.95–1.51) for the 2nd tertile and 2.16 (1.68–2.78) for the 3rd tertile. These associations remained statistically significant, even after adjusting for multiple covariates such as age, education, regular exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion These findings indicate that urinary sodium is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. PMID:28775809

  9. Renal aquaporins and sodium transporters with special focus on urinary tract obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Li, Chunling; Shi, Yimin

    2003-01-01

    seven aquaporins are expressed at distinct sites in the kidney and 4 members of this family (AQP1-4) have been demonstrated to play pivotal roles in the physiology and pathophysiology for renal regulation of body water balance. Osmotic equilibration via renal aquaporins is maintained by active transport......The discovery of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) by Agre and colleagues explained the long-standing biophysical question of how water specifically crosses biological membranes. These studies led to the discovery and identification of a whole new family of membrane proteins, the aquaporins. At present, at least...

  10. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  11. Comparative study of unilateral renal tubule function using 131I-o-hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid with regard to renal depth and excretion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Good agreement was found between sonographic and nuclear renal depth data. In patients with undisturbed postrenal urodynamics, the data of unilateral renal clearance obtained by DMSA and OIH are in good agreement after depth correction. With OIH, the activity measured for unilateral congestion kidneys was higher than with DMSA. However, both methods may overestimate unilateral congestion kidneys. The OIH method should be favoured in nuclear renal diagnostics. In patients with mobile kidneys, the lower function calculated for the ptotic kidney can be evaluated only after depth correction. To reduce the radiation exposure, renal depth data required for depth correction should be determined by sonographic methods. The peak/scatter method of renal depth determination cannot be employed in practice in the 131 J hippurane test; in the sup(99m)Tc-DMSA test, sufficient agreement between peak/scatter quotient and renal depth is only obtained after background correction. The result does not warrant the tedious procedure. DMSA studies of the kidneys are appropriate in the following cases: 1. Emergency studies of unilateral renal function in cases of acute anuria due to postrenal stoppage. 2. Assessment of unilateral parenchymal function in patients with mobile kidneys if the ptotic kidney cannot be imaged by sonographic processes. 3. Search for extremely displaced renal tissue. 4. Unilateral renal function studies in patients with unilateral kidney diseases if the postrenal situation and the global renal function can be assessed by other methods. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Thiazolidinediones enhance sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules via PPARγ-dependent nongenomic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoko; Suzuki, Masashi; Yamada, Hideomi; Horita, Shoko; Kunimi, Motoei; Yamazaki, Osamu; Shirai, Ayumi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Iso-O, Naoyuki; Li, Yuehong; Hara, Masumi; Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa; Moriyama, Nobuo; Kudo, Akihiko; Kawakami, Hayato; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kume, Haruki; Enomoto, Yutaka; Homma, Yukio; Seki, George; Fujita, Toshiro

    2011-05-04

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve insulin resistance by activating a nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). However, the use of TZDs is associated with plasma volume expansion through a mechanism that remains to be clarified. Here we showed that TZDs rapidly stimulate sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from the renal proximal tubule in vitro and in vivo. TZD-induced transport stimulation is dependent on PPARγ-Src-EGFR-ERK and observed in rat, rabbit and human, but not in mouse proximal tubules where Src-EGFR is constitutively activated. The existence of PPARγ-Src-dependent nongenomic signaling, which requires the ligand-binding ability, but not the transcriptional activity of PPARγ, is confirmed in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The enhancement of the association between PPARγ and Src by TZDs supports an indispensable role of Src in this signaling. These results suggest that the PPARγ-dependent nongenomic stimulation of renal proximal transport is also involved in TZD-induced volume expansion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Construction of bioartificial renal tubule assist device in vitro and its function of transporting sodium and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinggang; Chen, Jianghua; He, Qiang; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Wei

    2009-08-01

    To explore a new way of constructing bioartificial renal tubule assist device (RAD) in vitro and its function of transporting sodium (Na(+)) and glucose and to evaluate the application of atomic force microscope in the RAD construction, rat renal tubular epithelial cell line NRK-52E was cultured in vitro, seeded onto the outer surfaces of hollow fibers in a bioreactor, and then cultured for two weeks to construct RAD. Bioreactor hollow fibers without NRK-52E cells were used as control. The morphologies of attached cells were observed with scanning electron microscope, and the junctions of cells and polysulfone membrane were observed with atomic force microscope. Transportation of Na(+) and glucose was measured. Oubaine and phlorizin were used to inhibit the transporting property. The results showed that NRK-52E cells and polysulfone membrane were closely linked, as observed under atomic force microscope. After exposure to oubaine and phlorizin, transporting rates of Na(+) and glucose were decreased significantly in the RAD group as compared with that in the control group (Pconstructed successfully in vitro, and it is able to selectively transport Na(+) and glucose.

  14. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnberg, P O; de Villota, E D; Eklund, J; Granberg, P O

    1978-01-01

    The effects were studied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on renal function in eight patients with acute respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation. On application of PEEP + 10 cm H2O, central venous pressure increased, systolic blood pressure decreased, urine flow and PAH-clearance were reduced, while inulin clearance remained stable. There was a marked increase in fractional sodium reabsorption and a concurrent decrease in fractional osmolal excretion. Fractional free-water clearance and the ratio UOsm/POsm did change.

  15. Neuroendocrine and renal effects of intravascular volume expansion in compensated heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, A; Bie, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    2001-01-01

    To examine if the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal function is preserved in compensated chronic heart failure [HF, ejection fraction 0.29 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SE)] we tested the hypothesis that intravascular and central blood volume expansion by 3 h of water immersion (WI) elicits...... sustained angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, n = 9) absolute and fractional sodium excretion increased (P Renal free water clearance increased during WI in control subjects but not in HF......, albeit plasma vasopressin concentrations were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal sodium excretion is preserved in compensated HF. The natriuresis of WI is, however, modulated by the prevailing ANG II and Aldo concentrations. In contrast...

  16. Renal function and plasma volume following ultramarathon cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, G; Pfister, R; Hoertnagl, H; Mitterbauer, G; Prokop, W; Joannidis, M

    2005-01-01

    In recreational cyclists marathon cycling influences renal function only on a minimal scale. Respective information on extreme ultramarathon cycling in better trained athletes is not available. The objective was to evaluate the renal and haematological effects of ultraendurance cycling in the world's best ultramarathon cyclists. Creatinine (CR), urea, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV) were investigated in 16 male ultramarathon cyclists during the 1st Race Across the Alps in 2001 (distance: 525 km; cumulative altitude difference: 12,600 m). All renal functional parameters were normal pre-exercise. During the race serum CR, urea and uric acid rose significantly by 33, 97 % and 18 % (p training kilometers. The serum urea/CR ratio rose above 40 in 12 athletes (75 %). Mean fractional sodium excretion and fractional uric acid excretion fell below 0.5 % (p 0.40; p training.

  17. Mechanisms of hypertension in renal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juncos, L.; Cornejo, J.C.; Cejas, H.; Broglia, C.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role played by renal functional and structural changes in the development of radiation-induced hypertension. Four groups of rats were studied: (1) left kidney radiated, (2) sham procedure, (3) uninephrectomy followed 3 weeks later by radiation of the contralateral kidney, and (4) uninephrectomy followed by sham procedure 3 weeks later. All radiated rats became hypertensive at 12 weeks (p less than 0.05) and had higher protein excretion (p less than 0.05). In the presence of an intact contralateral kidney, radiation causes mild-to-moderate histological abnormalities, and therefore, creatinine clearance and water and sodium handling do not change. Plasma renin activity increased in this group (p less than 0.05). Radiated uninephrectomized rats showed decreased creatinine clearance (p less than 0.05), but renin activity remained unchanged. These rats developed severe histological abnormalities in glomeruli, interstitia, tubuli, and vessels resulting in increased sodium and water output. The average of individual tubular and interstitial scores correlated significantly with both water intake and output but not with sodium excretion. These studies suggest that in the presence of an intact kidney, renin is an important determinant in the development or maintenance of radiation hypertension, whereas in the absence of the contralateral kidney, severe histological changes and renal failure are prominent despite increased water intake and output. The more severe glomerular sclerosis and proteinuria in the latter model could be related to diminished renal mass

  18. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Intake and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  20. Predictors of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor - Induced reduction of urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wal, Ruud M. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Harst, Pim; Boomsma, Frans; Thijs Plokker, H. W.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; de Jong, Paul E.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2006-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated which parameters determine baseline urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic subjects, without renal disease. In addition, we evaluated the parameters that predict the albuminuria-lowering efficacy

  1. Hemodynamic and renal implications of sodium-glucose cotransporter- 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor Jorge, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    In DM2, there is increased expression of the proximal glucose transporter SGLT2. The increased glucose reabsorption from the urine to the proximal tubule and subsequently to the bloodstream, has three direct effects on the prognosis of patients with DM2: a) it increases the daily glucose load by raising the renal threshold for glucose, thus augmenting requirements for oral antidiabetics and insulin. This progressive increase occurs throughout the course of the disease and in parallel with the increase in renal mass (renal hypertrophy); b) because of the greater glucose reabsorption, glycosuria is lower than the level corresponding to glycaemia, decreasing the stimulus on the tubuloglomerular feedback system of the distal nephron. As a result, the glomerular vasodilation caused by hyperglycaemia is not arrested, maintaining glomerular hyperfiltration, and c) the excess glucose transported to the proximal tubular cells modifies their redox status, increasing local production of glycosylating products and activating local production of proinflammatory and profibrotic proliferative mediators. These mediators are responsible for the direct free radical damage to proximal tubular cells, for increased SGLT2 expression, increased production of collagen IV and extracellular matrix, and activation of monocyte/macrophages able to cause endothelial injury. The use of SGLT2 inhibitors not only reduces the reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulationthus improving metabolic control in diabetesbut also restores tubuloglomerular feedback by increasing glycosuria and distal urinary flow. However, the most notable effect is due to inhibition of glucose entry to the proximal tubular cells. Glycosuria is toxic to the kidney: it harms glucosetransporting cells, that is, the proximal cells, which contain SGLT2. In animal models, SGLT2 inhibition reduces local production of oxygen-free radicals, the formation of mesangial matrix and collagen IV

  2. Urinary ET-1 excretion after exposure to radio-contrast media in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting mild impaired renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunisch, Fabian; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus; Weist, Andreas; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Hocher, Berthold

    2014-11-24

    Contrast media-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The renal endothelin system has been associated with disease progression of various acute and chronic renal diseases. However, robust data coming from adequately powered prospective clinical studies analyzing the short and long-term impacts of the renal ET system in patients with CIN are missing so far. We thus performed a prospective study addressing this topic. We included 327 patients with diabetes or renal impairment undergoing coronary angiography. Blood and spot urine were collected before and 24 h after contrast media (CM) application. Patients were followed for 90 days for major clinical events like need for dialysis, unplanned rehospitalization or death. The concentration of ET-1 and the urinary ET-1/creatinine ratio decreased in spot urine after CM application (ET-1 concentration: 0.91±1.23 pg/ml versus 0.63±1.03 pg/ml, pET-1/creatinine ratio: 0.14±0.23 versus 0.09±0.19, pET-1 concentrations in patients with CIN decreased significantly more than in patients without CIN (-0.26±1.42 pg/ml vs. -0.79±1.69 pg/ml, p=0.041), whereas the decrease of the urinary ET-1/creatinine ratio was not significantly different (non-CIN patients: -0.05±0.30; CIN patients: -0.11±0.21, p=0.223). Urinary ET-1 concentrations as well as the urinary ET-1/creatinine ratio were not associated with clinical events (need for dialysis, rehospitalization or death) during the 90 day follow-up after contrast media exposure. However, the urinary ET-1 concentration and the urinary ET-1/creatinine ratio after CM application were higher in those patients who had a decrease of GFR of at least 25% after 90 days of follow-up. In general the ET-1 system in the kidney seems to be down-regulated after contrast media application in patients with moderate CIN risk. Major long-term complications of CIN (need for dialysis, rehospitalization or death) are not associated with the renal ET system

  3. [Renal response to intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate in newborn infants of different gestational ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Gutiérrez, L; Araujo, B; Fuse-Moteji, R; del Castillo, E D

    1976-01-01

    The study comprised a series of 16 neonates made up of 5 patients of 33 weeks of gestation, 5 infants of 35 weeks and 6 more of 40 weeks of gestation. Blood pH, PaCO2 and HCO3- were measured together with bicarbonate, ammonium, titrable acidity and hydrogen ions in urine before and after intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate. Before infusion of bicarbonate, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity in urine were higher in accordance with a greater gestational age. As the administration of bicarbonate elapsed, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity dropped with increase in concentration of bicarbonate. A hypothesis is set forth that the differences found in the factors evaluated in urine before administration of bicarbonate depend on the physiologic characteristics set in the newborn by gestational age.

  4. Safety evaluation of a trial of lipocalin-directed sodium bicarbonate infusion for renal protection in at-risk critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Antoine G; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Reade, Michael; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Eastwood, Glenn M; Garcia, Mercedes; Moore, Elizabeth; Harley, Nerina

    2013-06-01

    Urine alkalinisation with sodium bicarbonate decreases renal oxidative stress and might attenuate sepsisassociated acute kidney injury (s-AKI). The safety and feasibility of urine alkalinisation in patients at risk of s-AKI has never been tested. We randomly assigned patients at risk of s-AKI (those with systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS], oliguria and elevated [≥150 µg/L] serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [sNGAL] concentration) to receive sodium bicarbonate (treatment group) or sodium chloride (placebo group) in a 0.5 mmol/kg bolus followed by an infusion of 0.2 mmol/kg/hour. Among 50 patients with SIRS and oliguria, 25 (50%) had an elevated sNGAL concentration. Of these, 13 were randomised to receive sodium bicarbonate and 12 to receive sodium chloride infusion. Study drugs were infused for a mean period of 25.9 hours (SD, 10 hours). Severe electrolyte abnormalities occurred in seven patients (28%) (four [30.8%] in the treatment group and three [25%] in the placebo group). These abnormalities resulted in early protocol cessation in six patients (24%) and study drug suspension in one patient (4%). This adverse event rate was judged to be unacceptable and the study was terminated early. There was no difference between the two groups in sNGAL or urinary NGAL concentrations over time, occurrence of acute kidney injury, requirement for renal replacement therapy, hospital length-of-stay or mortality. Administration of sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride solutions to patients at risk of s-AKI was associated with frequent major electrolyte abnormalities and early protocol cessation. The tested protocol does not appear safe or feasible.

  5. Excretion of complement proteins and its activation marker C5b-9 in IgA nephropathy in relation to renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onda Kisara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glomerular damage in IgA nephropathy (IgAN is mediated by complement activation via the alternative and lectin pathways. Therefore, we focused on molecules stabilizing and regulating the alternative pathway C3 convertase in urine which might be associated with IgAN pathogenesis. Methods Membrane attack complex (MAC, properdin (P, factor H (fH and Complement receptor type 1 (CR1 were quantified in urine samples from 71 patients with IgAN and 72 healthy controls. Glomerular deposition of C5, fH and P was assessed using an immunofluorescence technique and correlated with histological severity of IgAN and clinical parameters. Fibrotic changes and glomerular sclerosis were evaluated in renal biopsy specimens. Results Immunofluorescence studies revealed glomerular depositions of C5, fH and P in patients with IgAN. Urinary MAC, fH and P levels in IgAN patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (p Conclusions Complement activation occurs in the urinary space in IgAN and the measurement of levels of MAC and fH in the urine could be a useful indicator of renal injury in patients with IgAN.

  6. Nocturnal polyuria and saluresis in renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M K; Varghese, Z; Fernando, O N; Moorhead, J F

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of nocturnal polyuria and saluresis in renal allograft recipients was studied by comparing the day to night (D:N) ratios of urine volume and sodium excretion in 15 patients who had undergone transplantation less than one year previously (recent-transplant group) with those in 11 patients who had undergone transplantation at least one year previously. Eleven patients with chronic renal failure and 12 normal subjects served as controls. Patients in the recent-transplant group had significantly lower D:N ratios of urine volume and sodium excretion than the patients who had undergone transplantation at least a year before, while the ratios in this last group did not differ significantly from those in the normal subjects. Nocturnal polyuria and saluresis gradually subsided in five patients studied for three months. Chronic renal failure and uraemic autonomic neuropathy were unlikely causes of the nocturia. The patients in the recent-transplant group had significantly lower D:N ratios of urine volume than the controls with chronic renal failure, and the mean Valsalva ratio in eight of them was not significantly different from that in the normal subjects. An undue sensitivity of renal allografts to postural influences was proposed. PMID:6986946

  7. Positioning of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in national and international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) selectively and reversibly inhibit sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), promoting renal glucose excretion and reducing plasma glycaemia. By increasing renal glucose excretion, these drugs favour a negative energy balance, leading to weight loss. Their glucoselowering effect is independent of insulin. Although these drugs have only recently been developed, they have been included in all the main national and international guidelines since 2014. The present review summarises the most important recommendations on the use of SGLT2 in patients with DM2 contained in the most recently published guidelines and consensus statements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of dietary sodium restriction and diuretics, but not angiotensin receptor blockade, in proteinuric renal patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Waanders, Femke; Vogt, Liffert; Damman, Kevin; Hemmelder, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.

    Background. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade only partly reduces blood pressure, proteinuria and renal and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but often requires sodium targeting [i.e. low sodium diet (LS) and/or diuretics] for optimal efficacy. However, both

  9. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of dietary sodium restriction and diuretics, but not angiotensin receptor blockade, in proteinuric renal patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Waanders, Femke; Vogt, Liffert; Damman, Kevin; Hemmelder, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade only partly reduces blood pressure, proteinuria and renal and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but often requires sodium targeting [i.e. low sodium diet (LS) and/or diuretics] for optimal efficacy. However, both

  10. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  11. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  12. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  13. Acute renal failure with sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 inhibitors: Analysis of the FDA adverse event report system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, A; Heyman, S N; Matok, I; Stokar, J; Muszkat, M; Szalat, A

    2017-12-01

    Sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently been approved for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been proposed that these agents could induce acute renal failure (ARF) under certain conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the association between SGLT2-inhibitors and ARF in the FDA adverse event report system (FAERS) database. We analyzed adverse event cases submitted to FAERS between January 2013 and September 2016. ARF cases were identified using a structured medical query. Medications were identified using both brand and generic names. During the period evaluated, 18,915 reports (out of a total of 3,832,015 registered in FAERS) involved the use of SGLT2-inhibitors. SGLT2-inhibitors were reportedly associated with ARF in 1224 of these cases (6.4%), and were defined as the "primary" or "secondary" cause of the adverse event in 96.8% of these cases. The proportion of reports with ARF among reports with SGLT2 inhibitor was almost three-fold higher compared to reports without these drugs (ROR 2.88, 95% CI 2.71-3.05, p SGLT2-inhibitors was significantly greater than the proportion of ARF among cases with T2DM without SGLT2-inhibitors (ROR 1.68, 95% CI 1.57-1.8, p SGLT2-inhibitors, canagliflozin was associated with a higher proportion of reports of renal failure (7.3%), compared to empagliflozin and dapagliflozin (4.7% and 4.8% respectively, p SGLT2-inhibitors are associated with an increase in the proportion of reports of ARF compared to other medications. SGLT2-inhibitor agents may differ from one another in their respective risk for ARF. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors Influencing the Increase in Na-K-ATPase in Compensatory Renal Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H.; Charney, Alan N.; Silva, Patricio

    1978-01-01

    An increase in Na-K-ATPase in kidney homogenates usually accompanies compensatory renal hypertrophy. While it may be evident in both the cortex and medulla of the kidney, it is most marked in the outer medulla and may be present only in that region. The increase in enzyme activity does not depend on an intact adrenal cortex and can be elicited in the absence of adrenal glucocorticoids. It is not seen in the form of renal hypertrophy produced by potassium depletion, in which the transport of sodium and potassium by the kidney is not increased. When present in compensatory renal growth, the enzyme change is correlated with an increase in the reabsorption of sodium, or the excretion of potassium, or both, per unit of renal tissue. It proceeds in the presence of either, but not in the absence of both. PMID:216164

  15. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt DG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available David G Levitt,1,* Michael D Levitt2,* 1Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of Minnesota, 2Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Serum albumin concentration (CP is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%, gastrointestinal (≈10%, and catabolic (≈84% clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy. The latter may occur

  16. Effect of perioperative sodium bicarbonate administration on renal function following cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Sun; Soh, Sarah; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, Sanghwa; Choi, Haegi; Kwak, Young-Lan

    2017-01-05

    Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) have an elevated risk of renal dysfunction because of extensive systemic inflammation and use of nephrotoxic antibiotics. In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated whether perioperative sodium bicarbonate administration could attenuate postoperative renal dysfunction in patients with IE undergoing cardiac surgery. Seventy patients randomly received sodium chloride (n = 35) or sodium bicarbonate (n = 35). Sodium bicarbonate was administered as a 0.5 mmol/kg loading dose for 1 h commencing with anesthetic induction, followed by a 0.15 mmol/kg/h infusion for 23 h. The primary outcome was peak serum creatinine (SCr) level during the first 48 h postoperatively. The incidence of acute kidney injury, SCr level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and major morbidity endpoints were assessed postoperatively. The peak SCr during the first 48 h postoperatively (bicarbonate vs. 1.01 (0.74, 1.37) mg/dl vs. 0.88 (0.76, 1.27) mg/dl, P = 0.474) and the incidence of acute kidney injury (bicarbonate vs. 29% vs. 23%, P = 0.584) were similar in both groups. The postoperative increase in SCr above baseline was greater in the bicarbonate group than in the control group on postoperative day 2 (0.21 (0.07, 0.33) mg/dl vs. 0.06 (0.00, 0.23) mg/dl, P = 0.028) and postoperative day 5 (0.23 (0.08, 0.36) mg/dl vs. 0.06 (0.00, 0.23) mg/dl, P = 0.017). Perioperative sodium bicarbonate administration had no favorable impact on postoperative renal function and outcomes in patients with IE undergoing cardiac surgery. Instead, it was associated with possibly harmful renal effects, illustrated by a greater increase in SCr postoperatively, compared to control. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01920126 . Registered on 31 July 2013.

  17. LOW FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF UREA IN HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCED HYPONATREMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:El hipotiroidismo puede causar alteraciones del metabolismo del agua, los electrolitos, la hemodinamia e histología renales, siendo la hiponatremia y la reducción del filtrado glomerular sus consecuencias más significativas, pero poco prevalentes. Todos estos cambios son corregibles con el suministro de hormona tiroidea exógena.La excreción fraccional de urea (EFU es un índice útil en la evaluación de la hiponatremia, pero no se ha descripto aun el valor que este índice alcanza en la hiponatremia inducida por hipotiroidismo. En el presente reporte mostramos que la EFU y excreción fraccional de sodio (EFNa fueron baja (EFU: 29% y alta (EFNa: 2.2% respectivamente en un paciente que padecía hipotiroideo severo. El tratamiento con hormona tiroidea normalizó el valor de ambos índices.ABSTRACTHypothyroidism can cause disturbance of renal hemodinamics, kidney histology, water and electrolyte metabolism, being hyponatremia and glomerular filtration reduction their low prevalent but most significant consequences. All these changes are largely corrected by substitution of exogenous thyroid hormone.Fractional excretion of urea (FEU is a useful index in the evaluation of hyponatremia. However, it was not still reported in the literature the FEU value in hyponatremia induced by hypothyroidism. Because of that we presented a case report showing that the value of FEU and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa were low (FEU: 29% and high (FENa: 2.2 % respectively in a severe hypothyroid patient. Treatment based on thyroid hormone normalized both indeces.

  18. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, Dapagliflozin, on Renal Renin-Angiotensin System in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seok Joon; Chung, Sungjin; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Young-Hye; Kim, Ji-Won; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Sung-Dae; Kim, Myung-Jun; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is one of the important pathogenic mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, on renal RAS in an animal model with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin (1.0 mg/kg, OL-DA) or voglibose (0.6 mg/kg, OL-VO, diabetic control) (n = 10 each) was administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for 12 weeks. We used voglibose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, as a comparable counterpart to SGLT2 inhibitor because of its postprandial glucose-lowering effect without proven renoprotective effects. Control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LT) and OLETF (OL-C) rats received saline (n = 10, each). Changes in blood glucose, urine albumin, creatinine clearance, and oxidative stress were measured. Inflammatory cell infiltration, mesangial widening, and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney were evaluated by histological analysis. The effects of dapagliflozin on renal expression of the RAS components were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR in renal tissue. After treatment, hyperglycemia and urine microalbumin levels were attenuated in both OL-DA and OL-VO rather than in the OL-C group (P renal RAS component expression, oxidative stress and interstitial fibrosis in OLETF rats. We suggest that, in addition to control of hyperglycemia, partial suppression of renal RAS with an SGLT2 inhibitor would be a promising strategy for the prevention of treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor ablation does not alter blood pressure, kidney function or renal vessel contractility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Sidsel B.; Finsen, Stine; Marcussen, Niels

    2018-01-01

    afferent arterioles. Urinary sodium excretion was determined by use of metabolic cages. EC-MR transgenics had markedly decreased MR expression in isolated aortic endothelial cells as compared to littermates (WT). Blood pressure and effective renal plasma flow at baseline and following AngII infusion...... vasculature and examined this by ablating the Nr3c2 gene in endothelial cells (EC-MR) in mice. Blood pressure, heart rate and PAH clearance were measured using indwelling catheters in conscious mice. The role of the MR in EC on contraction and relaxation was investigated in the renal artery and in perfused......Aldosterone blockade confers substantial cardiovascular and renal protection. The effects of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) expressed in endothelial cells (EC) within the renal vasculature have not been delineated. We hypothesized that lack of MR in EC may be protective in renal...

  20. Sodium lactate improves renal microvascular thrombosis compared to sodium bicarbonate and 0.9% NaCl in a porcine model of endotoxic shock: an experimental randomized open label controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duburcq, Thibault; Durand, Arthur; Tournoys, Antoine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Gmyr, Valery; Pattou, François; Jourdain, Mercedes; Tamion, Fabienne; Besnier, Emmanuel; Préau, Sebastien; Parmentier-Decrucq, Erika; Mathieu, Daniel; Poissy, Julien; Favory, Raphaël

    2018-02-14

    Sodium lactate seemed to improve fluid balance and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to determine if these beneficial effects can be at least partly explained by an improvement in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-associated renal microvascular thrombosis. Ancillary work of an interventional randomized open label controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "Large White" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of E. coli endotoxin. Three groups of five animals were randomly assigned to receive different fluids: a treatment group received sodium lactate 11.2% (SL group); an isotonic control group received 0.9% NaCl (NC group); a hypertonic control group, with the same amount of osmoles and sodium than SL group, received sodium bicarbonate 8.4% (SB group). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) markers, coagulation and inflammation parameters were measured over a 5-h period. Immediately after euthanasia, kidneys were withdrawn for histological study. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric tests and the Dunn correction for multiple comparisons. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. The direct immunofluorescence study revealed that the percentage of capillary sections thrombosed in glomerulus were significantly lesser in SL group [5 (0-28) %] compared to NC [64 (43-79) %, p = 0.01] and SB [64 (43-79), p = 0.03] groups. Alterations in platelet count and fibrinogen level occurred earlier and were significantly more pronounced in both control groups compared to SL group (p < 0.05 at 210 and 300 min). The increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes was significantly higher in NC [754 (367-945) μg/mL; p = 0.03] and SB [463 (249-592) μg/mL; p = 0.03] groups than in SL group [176 (37-265) μg/mL]. At the end of the experiment, creatinine clearance was significantly higher in SL group [55.46 (30.07-67.85) mL/min] compared to NC group [1.52 (0.17-27.67) mL/min, p = 0.03]. In this study, we

  1. The crosstalk between the kidney and the central nervous system: the role of renal nerves in blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Erika E; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Campos, Ruy R

    2015-04-20

    What is the topic of this review? This review describes the role of renal nerves as the key carrier of signals from the kidneys to the CNS and vice versa; the brain and kidneys communicate through this carrier to maintain homeostasis in the body. What advances does it highlight? Whether renal or autonomic dysfunction is the predominant contributor to systemic hypertension is still debated. In this review, we focus on the role of the renal nerves in a model of renovascular hypertension. The sympathetic nervous system influences the renal regulation of arterial pressure and body fluid composition. Anatomical and physiological evidence has shown that sympathetic nerves mediate changes in urinary sodium and water excretion by regulating the renal tubular water and sodium reabsorption throughout the nephron, changes in the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate by regulating the constriction of renal vasculature, and changes in the activity of the renin-angiotensin system by regulating the renin release from juxtaglomerular cells. Additionally, renal sensory afferent fibres project to the autonomic central nuclei that regulate blood pressure. Hence, renal nerves play a key role in the crosstalk between the kidneys and the CNS to maintain homeostasis in the body. Therefore, the increased sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney and the renal afferent nerve activity to the CNS may contribute to the outcome of diseases, such as hypertension. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  2. [Serum sodium imbalance in the bedridden elderly. Part One: Realities and problem of management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, A; Kogure, D; Ogawa, K; Sakurai, H; Katsunuma, H; Maehata, Y; Takasaki, M

    1996-06-01

    Symptoms and other abnormalities associated with serum sodium imbalance were studied in bedridden elderly and healthy elderly subjects. 1. A significantly higher number of the bedridden elderly suffered from chronic wasting disease. 2. The average serum sodium concentration in bedridden elderly subjects was significantly lower than in healthy subjects, as was the sodium intake and the sodium content in urine, which indicate that the bedridden elderly subjects suffered from chronic sodium deficiency. 3. The bedridden elderly subjects had high levels of plasma PRA and antidiuretic hormone, and their aldosterone levels were low, which indicate that their condition was associated with a decrease in available circulating plasma, hypersecretion of antidiuretic hormone, and a decline in the ability to retain sodium. 4. Measurement of 24-hr creatinine clearance, albumin, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine revealed that bedridden elderly subjects had high levels of renal dysfunction, the result of which may a disturbance in water excretion. Abnormalities in serum sodium levels in the bedridden elderly subjects were related to a chronic deficiency in sodium intake, which reduced their ability to maintain sodium levels and impaired their renal function. Iatrogenic factors are likely to play an important role in the genesis of this condition, and should be taken into account in during management.

  3. Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on cardio-renal protection in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    The specific sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) inhibit glucose reabsorption in proximal renal tubular cells, and both fasting and postprandial glucose significantly decrease because of urinary glucose loss. As a result, pancreatic β-cell function and peripheral insulin action significantly improve with relief from glucose toxicity. Furthermore, whole-body energy metabolism changes to relative glucose deficiency and triggers increased lipolysis in fat cells, and fatty acid oxidation and then ketone body production in the liver during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors have profound hemodynamic effects including diuresis, dehydration, weight loss and lowering blood pressure. The most recent findings on SGLT2 inhibitors come from results of the Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes trial. SGLT2 inhibitors exert extremely unique and cardio-renal protection through metabolic and hemodynamic effects, with long-term durability on the reduction of blood glucose, bodyweight and blood pressure. Although a site of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is highly specific to inhibit renal glucose reabsorption, whole-body energy metabolism, and hemodynamic and renal functions are profoundly modulated during the treatment of SGLT2 inhibitors. Previous studies suggest multifactorial clinical benefits and safety concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors. Although ambivalent clinical results of this drug are still under active discussion, the present review summarizes promising recent evidence on the cardio-renal and metabolic benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  5. Early effects of synthetic bovine parathyroid hormone and synthetic salmon calcitonin on urinary excretion of cyclic AMP, phosphate and calcium in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniggia, A; Gennari, C; Vattimo, A; Nardi, P; Nuti, R; Galli, M

    1976-04-20

    Bovine synthetic parathyroid hormone infused intravenously in man increased both the urinary excretion of cyclic AMP and the urinary excretion of phosphate whereas a Salmon synthetic calcitonin infusion increased the urinary excretion of phosphate without change in urinary excretion of cyclic AMP. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that different renal mechanisms are involved in the response to each hormone.

  6. Renal structure and function evaluation of rats from dams that received increased sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation submitted or not to 5/6 nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Evelyn Cristina Santana; Balbi, Ana Paula Coelho; Francescato, Heloísa Della Coletta; Alves da Silva, Cleonice Giovanini; Costa, Roberto Silva; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2008-01-01

    Adult rats submitted to perinatal salt overload presented renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functional disturbances. The RAS contributes to the renal development and renal damage in a 5/6 nephrectomy model. The aim of the present study was to analyze the renal structure and function of offspring from dams that received a high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation. We also evaluated the influence of the prenatal high-salt intake on the evolution of 5/6 nephrectomy in adult rats. A total of 111 sixty-day-old rat pups from dams that received saline or water during pregnancy and lactation were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (nephrectomized) or to a sham operation (sham). The animals were killed 120 days after surgery, and the kidneys were removed for immunohistochemical and histological analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were evaluated. Increased SBP, albuminuria, and decreased GFR were observed in the rats from dams submitted to high-sodium intake before surgery. However, there was no difference in these parameters between the groups after the 5/6 nephrectomy. The scores for tubulointerstitial lesions and glomerulosclerosis were higher in the rats from the sham saline group compared to the same age control rats, but there was no difference in the histological findings between the groups of nephrectomized rats. In conclusion, our data showed that the high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation in rats leads to structural changes in the kidney of adult offspring. However, the progression of the renal lesions after 5/6 nephrectomy was similar in both groups.

  7. Human Sodium Phosphate Transporter 4 (hNPT4/SLC17A3) as a Common Renal Secretory Pathway for Drugs and Urate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutabha, Promsuk; Anzai, Naohiko; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Kaneko, Shuji; Yan, Kunimasa; Yamada, Hideomi; Shimada, Hidetaka; Kimura, Toru; Katada, Tomohisa; Fukutomi, Toshiyuki; Tomita, Kimio; Urano, Wako; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Seki, George; Fujita, Toshiro; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Yamada, Akira; Uchida, Shunya; Wempe, Michael F.; Endou, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary loss of hepatic urate oxidase (uricase) has resulted in humans with elevated serum uric acid (urate). Uricase loss may have been beneficial to early primate survival. However, an elevated serum urate has predisposed man to hyperuricemia, a metabolic disturbance leading to gout, hypertension, and various cardiovascular diseases. Human serum urate levels are largely determined by urate reabsorption and secretion in the kidney. Renal urate reabsorption is controlled via two proximal tubular urate transporters: apical URAT1 (SLC22A12) and basolateral URATv1/GLUT9 (SLC2A9). In contrast, the molecular mechanism(s) for renal urate secretion remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that an orphan transporter hNPT4 (human sodium phosphate transporter 4; SLC17A3) was a multispecific organic anion efflux transporter expressed in the kidneys and liver. hNPT4 was localized at the apical side of renal tubules and functioned as a voltage-driven urate transporter. Furthermore, loop diuretics, such as furosemide and bumetanide, substantially interacted with hNPT4. Thus, this protein is likely to act as a common secretion route for both drugs and may play an important role in diuretics-induced hyperuricemia. The in vivo role of hNPT4 was suggested by two hyperuricemia patients with missense mutations in SLC17A3. These mutated versions of hNPT4 exhibited reduced urate efflux when they were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings will complete a model of urate secretion in the renal tubular cell, where intracellular urate taken up via OAT1 and/or OAT3 from the blood exits from the cell into the lumen via hNPT4. PMID:20810651

  8. [Salt, renal function and high blood pressure--reflections on a current issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Mattias

    2002-11-21

    The role of salt intake for blood pressure control has been discussed for a long time. A brief review is given of some pertinent physiological facts to explain this relationship and evolutionary aspects of renal function are emphasized. Salt intake is very high in the modern society, often as high as 15 g sodium chloride per 24 hours while 3-6 g may be more than enough to maintain an adequate salt balance. If the kidneys cannot cope with this severe sodium overload, blood pressure will rise. Therefore, the kidneys' ability to excrete sodium is a key factor and the salt excretion capacity is the kidneys' major barostatic function. As barostats, the kidneys control the blood pressure by ultimately determining the sodium excretion. Reducing sodium intake is, however, difficult as more than 50% of the intake is contained in the food we buy such as bread, sausages, canned food, chips and fast-food. Food products should therefore be "salt declared", but information on this aspect is generally lacking. If the population's salt intake could be reduced by 50%, the prevalence of hypertension will be much reduced, perhaps also by as much as 50%. The cost to society for treating hypertension would be reduced accordingly. Salt intake is also an important aspect of the overweight problem among today's youth. Salt and overweight impose great health risks later in life. Preventive measures in this area must be given high priority in future health care work.

  9. Mathematical model of renal elimination of fluid and small ions during hyper- and hypovolemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Christina C; Bowen, Bruce D; Reed, Rolf K; Bert, Joel L

    2003-02-01

    This study is concerned with the formulation of a 'kidney module' linked to the plasma compartment of a larger mathematical model previously developed. Combined, these models can be used to predict, amongst other things, fluid and small ion excretion rates by the kidney; information that should prove useful in evaluating values and trends related to whole-body fluid balance for different clinical conditions to establish fluid administration protocols and for educational purposes. The renal module assumes first-order, negative-feedback responses of the kidney to changes in plasma volume and/or plasma sodium content from their normal physiological set points. Direct hormonal influences are not explicitly formulated in this empiric model. The model also considers that the renal excretion rates of small ions other than sodium are proportional to the excretion rate of sodium. As part of the model development two aspects are emphasized (1): the estimation of parameters related to the renal elimination of fluid and small ions, and (2) model validation via comparisons between the model predictions and selected experimental data. For validation, model predictions of the renal dynamics are compared with new experimental data for two cases: plasma overload resulting from external fluid infusion (e.g. infusions of iso-osmolar solutions and/or hypertonic/hyperoncotic saline solutions), and untreated hypo volemic conditions that result from the external loss of blood. The present study demonstrates that the empiric kidney module presented above can provide good short-term predictions with respect to all renal outputs considered here. Physiological implications of the model are also presented. Copyright Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 47 (2003)

  10. Renal and cardiovascular effects of dopamine and 7.5% sodium chloride infusion: experimental study in dogs with water restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Verderese, Marisa Aparecida Lima [UNESP; Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvão [UNESP; Ganem, Eliana Marisa [UNESP; Vane, Luiz Antonio [UNESP

    2003-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: É controvertido o uso da infusão de dopamina na proteção renal. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o efeito da dopamina, da solução hipertônica e da associação de ambas em cães com restrição hídrica, simulando o jejum pré-operatório. MÉTODO: Foram estudados, em 32 cães anestesiados com tiopental sódico e fentanil, os seguintes parâmetros da função renal: fluxo plasmático efetivo renal (depuração de para-aminohipurato de sódio), ritmo de filtração glomerular (depu...

  11. Neural regulation of the kidney function in rats with cisplatin induced renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Niamh E.; Johns, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often associated with a disturbed cardiovascular homeostasis. This investigation explored the role of the renal innervation in mediating deranged baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and renal excretory function in cisplatin-induced renal failure. Methods: Rats were either intact or bilaterally renally denervated 4 days prior to receiving cisplatin (5 mg/kg i.p.) and entered a chronic metabolic study for 8 days. At day 8, other groups of rats were prepared for acute measurement of RSNA or renal function with either intact or denervated kidneys. Results: Following the cisplatin challenge, creatinine clearance was 50% lower while fractional sodium excretion and renal cortical and medullary TGF-β1 concentrations were 3–4 fold higher in both intact and renally denervated rats compared to control rats. In cisplatin-treated rats, the maximal gain of the high-pressure baroreflex curve was only 20% that of control rats, but following renal denervation not different from that of renally denervated control rats. Volume expansion reduced RSNA by 50% in control and in cisplatin-treated rats but only following bilateral renal denervation. The volume expansion mediated natriuresis/diuresis was absent in the cisplatin-treated rats but was normalized following renal denervation. Conclusions: Cisplatin-induced renal injury impaired renal function and caused a sympatho-excitation with blunting of high and low pressure baroreflex regulation of RSNA, which was dependent on the renal innervation. It is suggested that in man with CKD there is a dysregulation of the neural control of the kidney mediated by its sensory innervation. PMID:26175693

  12. The impact of intrarenal nitric oxide synthase inhibition on renal blood flow and function in mild and severe hyperdynamic sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ken; Bellomo, Rinaldo; May, Clive N

    2011-04-01

    In experimental hyperdynamic sepsis, renal function deteriorates despite renal vasodilatation and increased renal blood flow. Because nitric oxide is increased in sepsis and participates in renal blood flow control, we investigated the effects of intrarenal Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in mild and severe sepsis. Prospective crossover and randomized control interventional studies. University-affiliated research institute. Thirty-two merino ewes. Examination of responses to intrarenal infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester for 8 hrs in unilaterally nephrectomized normal sheep and in sheep administered Escherichia coli. : In normal sheep, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester decreased renal blood flow (301 ± 30 to 228 ± 26 mL/min) and creatinine clearance (40.0 ± 5.8 to 31.1 ± 2.8 mL/min), whereas plasma creatinine increased, but fractional excretion of sodium was unchanged. In sheep with nonhypotensive hyperdynamic sepsis, plasma creatinine increased and there were decreases in creatinine clearance (34.5 ± 4.6 to 20.1 ± 3.7 mL/min) and fractional excretion of sodium despite increased renal blood flow. Infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester normalized renal blood flow and increased urine output, but creatinine clearance did not improve and plasma creatinine and fractional excretion of sodium increased. In sheep with severe hypotensive sepsis, creatinine clearance decreased further (31.1 ± 5.4 to 16.0 ± 1.7 mL/min) despite increased renal blood flow. Infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester restored mean arterial pressure and reduced renal blood flow but did not improve plasma creatinine or creatinine clearance. In hyperdynamic sepsis, with or without hypotension, creatinine clearance decreased despite increasing renal blood flow. Intrarenal Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester infusion reduced renal blood flow but did not improve creatinine clearance. These data indicate that septic acute kidney

  13. Effect of a keto acid-amino acid supplement on the metabolism and renal elimination of branched-chain amino acids in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplan, V; Schück, O; Horácková, M; Skibová, J; Holecek, M

    2000-10-27

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids-amino acids on renal function and urinary excretion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). In a prospective investigation 28 patients with CRI (16 male, 12 female, aged 28-66 yrs, CCr 18.6 +/- 10.2 ml/min) on a low-protein diet (0.6 g of protein /kg BW/day and energy intake 140 kJ/kg BW/day) for a period of one month were included. Subsequently, this low protein diet was supplemented with keto acids-amino acids at a dose of 0.1 g/kg BW/day orally for a period of 3 months. Examinations performed at baseline and at the end of the follow-up period revealed significant increase in the serum levels of BCAA leucine (p Keto acid-amino acid administration had no effect on renal function and on the clearance of inulin, para-aminohippuric acid. Endogenous creatinine and urea clearance remained unaltered. A significant correlation between fractional excretion of sodium and leucine (p diet the supplementation of keto acids-amino acids does not affect renal hemodynamics, but is associated--despite increases in plasma concentrations--with a reduction of renal amino acid and protein excretion suggesting induction of alterations in the tubular transport mechanisms.

  14. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.

  15. High-salt diets during pregnancy affected fetal and offspring renal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Caiping; Liu, Rong; Bo, Le; Chen, Ningjing; Li, Shigang; Xia, Shuixiu; Chen, Jie; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2013-07-01

    Intrauterine environments are related to fetal renal development and postnatal health. Influence of salty diets during pregnancy on renal functions and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was determined in the ovine fetuses and offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed high-salt diet (HSD) or normal-salt diet (NSD) for 2 months during middle-to-late gestation. Fetal renal functions, plasma hormones, and mRNA and protein expressions of the key elements of renal RAS were measured in the fetuses and offspring. Fetal renal excretion of sodium was increased while urine volume decreased in the HSD group. Fetal blood urea nitrogen was increased, while kidney weight:body weight ratio decreased in the HSD group. The altered ratio was also observed in the offspring aged 15 and 90 days. Maternal and fetal plasma antidiuretic hormone was elevated without changes in plasma renin activity and Ang I levels, while plasma Ang II was decreased. The key elements of local renal RAS, including angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, AT1, and AT2 receptor expression in both mRNA and protein, except renin, were altered following maternal high salt intake. The results suggest that high intake of salt during pregnancy affected fetal renal development associated with an altered expression of the renal key elements of RAS, some alterations of fetal origins remained after birth as possible risks in developing renal or cardiovascular diseases.

  16. MRP-1 expression levels determine strain-specific susceptibility to sodium arsenic-induced renal injury between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiko; Ishida, Yuko; Wada, Takashi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Mukaida, Naofumi; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    To clarify the pathophysiological mechanism underlying acute renal injury caused by acute exposure to arsenic, we subcutaneously injected both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with sodium arsenite (NaAs; 13.5 mg/kg). BALB/c mice exhibited exaggerated elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels, compared with C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, half of BALB/c mice died by 24 h, whereas all C57BL/6 mice survived. Histopathological examination on kidney revealed severe hemorrhages, acute tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, cast formation, and disappearance of PAS-positive brush borders in BALB/c mice, later than 10 h. These pathological changes were remarkably attenuated in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied with lower intrarenal arsenic concentrations, compared with BALB/c mice. Among heavy metal inducible proteins including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-1, multidrug resistance gene (MDR)-1, metallothionein (MT)-1, and arsenite inducible, cysteine- and histidine-rich RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), intrarenal MDR-1, MT-1, and AIRAP gene expression was enhanced to a similar extent in both strains, whereas NaAs challenge augmented intrarenal MRP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. Moreover, the administration of a specific inhibitor of MRP-1, MK-571, significantly exaggerated acute renal injury in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, MRP-1 is crucially involved in arsenic efflux and eventually prevention of acute renal injury upon acute exposure to NaAs

  17. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2018-04-11

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Signaling pathways involved in renal oxidative injury: role of the vasoactive peptides and the renal dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavina Mikusic, N L; Kravetz, M C; Kouyoumdzian, N M; Della Penna, S L; Rosón, M I; Fernández, B E; Choi, M R

    2014-01-01

    The physiological hydroelectrolytic balance and the redox steady state in the kidney are accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide and intrarenal dopamine play a pivotal role in this interactive network. The balance between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide, by one side, and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system, by the other side, contributes to ensuring the normal function of the kidney. Different pathological scenarios, as nephrotic syndrome and hypertension, where renal sodium excretion is altered, are associated with an impaired interaction between two natriuretic systems as the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide that may be involved in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. The aim of this review is to update and comment the most recent evidences about the intracellular pathways involved in the relationship between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation.

  1. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  2. Deregulated Renal Calcium and Phosphate Transport during Experimental Kidney Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco P Pulskens

    Full Text Available Impaired mineral homeostasis and inflammation are hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD, yet the underlying mechanisms of electrolyte regulation during CKD are still unclear. Here, we applied two different murine models, partial nephrectomy and adenine-enriched dietary intervention, to induce kidney failure and to investigate the subsequent impact on systemic and local renal factors involved in Ca(2+ and Pi regulation. Our results demonstrated that both experimental models induce features of CKD, as reflected by uremia, and elevated renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL expression. In our model kidney failure was associated with polyuria, hypercalcemia and elevated urinary Ca(2+ excretion. In accordance, CKD augmented systemic PTH and affected the FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D axis by elevating circulatory FGF23 levels and reducing renal αklotho expression. Interestingly, renal FGF23 expression was also induced by inflammatory stimuli directly. Renal expression of Cyp27b1, but not Cyp24a1, and blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 were significantly elevated in both models. Furthermore, kidney failure was characterized by enhanced renal expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5, calbindin-D28k, and sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2b (NaPi2b, whereas the renal expression of sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2a (NaPi2a and type 3 (PIT2 were reduced. Together, our data indicates two different models of experimental kidney failure comparably associate with disturbed FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D signalling and a deregulated electrolyte homeostasis. Moreover, this study identifies local tubular, possibly inflammation- or PTH- and/or FGF23-associated, adaptive mechanisms, impacting on Ca(2+/Pi homeostasis, hence enabling new opportunities to target electrolyte disturbances that emerge as a consequence of CKD development.

  3. Interaction of prostaglandins and angiotensin II in the modulation of renal function in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, M

    1988-06-01

    Despite a dramatic fall in renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate is usually preserved in patients with congestive heart failure until the terminal stages of the disease. This maintenance of renal function appears to be achieved in part by the synthesis of two vasoactive factors within the kidney--angiotensin II and prostaglandins--which are rapidly released whenever renal perfusion is compromised or sympathetic nerve traffic to the kidneys is increased. Although these two hormonal systems exert opposite effects on systemic and renal blood flow and sodium and water excretion, both act to preserve glomerular filtration rate: prostaglandins by a vasodilator action exerted primarily on the afferent arteriole and angiotensin II by a vasoconstrictor effect on the efferent arteriole. Consequently, when the synthesis of these hormones is experimentally blocked, renal function deteriorates, especially in subjects with marked renal hypoperfusion and sodium depletion; these two factors interact to determine the importance of intrarenal hormonal release in the modulation of renal function. Clinically, four specific factors have been identified that predispose patients with heart failure to the development of functional renal insufficiency after treatment with converting-enzyme or cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors: (1) marked renal hypoperfusion, (2) vigorous diuretic therapy, (3) diabetes mellitus, and (4) intensity of hormonal inhibition within the kidney. This last risk factor may provide the basis for differentiating among enzyme-inhibitory drugs and suggests that renal insufficiency in low-output states may be minimized by the development of therapeutic agents that block hormonal synthesis selectively at sites that are critical to the disease process but spare the homeostatic tissue-based enzyme systems that exist within the kidney.

  4. Low urine pH and acid excretion do not predict bone fractures or the loss of bone mineral density: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon Andrew W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid-ash hypothesis, the alkaline diet, and related products are marketed to the general public. Websites, lay literature, and direct mail marketing encourage people to measure their urine pH to assess their health status and their risk of osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1 low urine pH, or 2 acid excretion in urine [sulfate + chloride + 1.8x phosphate + organic acids] minus [sodium + potassium + 2x calcium + 2x magnesium mEq] in fasting morning urine predict: a fragility fractures; and b five-year change of bone mineral density (BMD in adults. Methods Design: Cohort study: the prospective population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion (urine pH and urine acid excretion in fasting morning with the incidence of fractures (6804 person years. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion with changes in BMD over 5-years at three sites: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip (n = 651. Potential confounders controlled included: age, gender, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity, smoking, calcium intake, vitamin D status, estrogen status, medications, renal function, urine creatinine, body mass index, and change of body mass index. Results There were no associations between either urine pH or acid excretion and either the incidence of fractures or change of BMD after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Urine pH and urine acid excretion do not predict osteoporosis risk.

  5. Prenatal programming of renal salt wasting resets postnatal salt appetite, which drives food intake in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwasel, Saleh H; Barker, David J P; Ashton, Nick

    2012-03-01

    Sodium retention has been proposed as the cause of hypertension in the LP rat (offspring exposed to a maternal low-protein diet in utero) model of developmental programming because of increased renal NKCC2 (Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter 2) expression. However, we have shown that LP rats excrete more rather than less sodium than controls, leading us to hypothesize that LP rats ingest more salt in order to maintain sodium balance. Rats were fed on either a 9% (low) or 18% (control) protein diet during pregnancy; male and female offspring were studied at 4 weeks of age. LP rats of both sexes held in metabolism cages excreted more sodium and urine than controls. When given water to drink, LP rats drank more and ate more food than controls, hence sodium intake matched excretion. However, when given a choice between saline and water to drink, the total volume of fluid ingested by LP rats fell to control levels, but the volume of saline taken was significantly larger [3.8±0.1 compared with 8.8±1.3 ml/24 h per 100 g of body weight in control and LP rats respectively; Psodium content and ECF (extracellular fluid) volumes were greater in LP rats. These results show that prenatal programming of renal sodium wasting leads to a compensatory increase in salt appetite in LP rats. We speculate that the need to maintain salt homoeostasis following malnutrition in utero stimulates greater food intake, leading to accelerated growth and raised BP (blood pressure).

  6. In Utero Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Causes Hypertension Due to Impaired Renal Dopamine D1 Receptor in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmeng Ye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Adverse environment in utero can modulate adult phenotypes including blood pressure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 exposure in utero causes hypertension in the offspring, but the exact mechanisms are not clear. Renal dopamine D1 receptor (D1R, regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4, plays an important role in the regulation of renal sodium transport and blood pressure. In this present study, we determined if renal D1R dysfunction is involved in PM2.5–induced hypertension in the offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were given an oropharyngeal drip of PM2.5 (1.0 mg/kg at gestation day 8, 10, and 12. The blood pressure, 24-hour sodium excretion, and urine volume were measured in the offspring. The expression levels of GRK4 and D1R were determined by immunoblotting. The phosphorylation of D1R was investigated using immunoprecipitation. Plasma malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels were also measured in the offspring. Results: As compared with saline-treated dams, offspring of PM2.5-treated dams had increased blood pressure, impaired sodium excretion, and reduced D1R-mediated natriuresis and diuresis, accompanied by decreased renal D1R expression and GRK4 expression. The impaired renal D1R function and increased GRK4 expression could be caused by increased reactive oxidative stress (ROS induced by PM2.5 exposure. Administration of tempol, a redox-cycling nitroxide, for 4 weeks in the offspring of PM2.5-treated dam normalized the decreased renal D1R expression and increased renal D1R phosphorylation and GRK4 expression. Furthermore, tempol normalized the increased renal expression of c-Myc, a transcription factor that regulates GRK4 expression. Conclusions: In utero exposure to PM2.5 increases ROS and GRK4 expression, impairs D1R-mediated sodium excretion, and increases blood pressure in the offspring. These studies suggest that normalization of D1R function may be a target for the

  7. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    Sodium-reduced packaged food products are increasingly available to consumers; however, it is not clear whether they are suitable for inclusion in a potassium-reduced diet. For individuals with impaired renal potassium excretion caused by chronic kidney disease and for those taking certain medications that interfere with the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone axis, the need to limit dietary potassium is important in view of the risk for development of hyperkalemia and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the reduction of sodium in packaged meat and poultry products (MPPs) on the content of potassium and phosphorus from food additives. This was a cross-sectional study comparing chemically analyzed MPPs (n=38, n=19 original, n=19 sodium-reduced), selected from the top three grocery chains in Canada, based on market share sales. All MPPs with a package label containing a reduced sodium content claim together with their non-sodium-reduced packaged MPP counterparts were selected for analysis. The protein, sodium, phosphorus, and potassium contents of sodium-reduced MPPs and the non-sodium-reduced (original) MPP counterparts were chemically analyzed according to the Association of Analytical Communities official methods 992.15 and 984.27 and compared by using a paired t test. The frequency of phosphorus and potassium additives appearing on the product labels' ingredient lists were compared between groups by using McNemar's test. Sodium-reduced MPPs (n=19) contained 44% more potassium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium-reduced counterparts (n=19) (mean difference [95% CI): 184 [90-279]; P=0.001). The potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs varied widely and ranged from 210 to 1,500 mg/100 g. Potassium-containing additives were found on the ingredient list in 63% of the sodium-reduced products and 26% of the non-sodium-reduced products (P=0.02). Sodium-reduced MPPs contained 38% less sodium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium

  8. Renal hemodynamic response to L-dopa during acute renal failure in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, P.; Collard, M.; Guey, A.; Plantier, J.; Bernard, M.; Berthoux, F.; Pinet, A.; Traeger, J.

    1975-01-01

    Twelve patients with acute renal failure underwent L.dopa infusion into a renal artery and 133 Xenon wash-out recordings before and during the infusion. Urine volume and sodium output were also compared during two 24 hours periods, before and after the procedure. Hemodynamic data were compared with data obtained from a matched group of patients receiving Furosemide (8 patients) in place of L.dopa. Only L.dopa infusion significantly increased outer cortical distribution. No blood flow change could be demonstrated in any component nor did the drug improve unitary excretion or the general course of the disease. Control data shows that reduced cortical distribution is the most consistent feature of acute renal failure, so that L.dopa does partially improve intrarenal hemodynamics in this condition. The failure of the drug to restore kidney function may be explained by the following reasons: inability of the agent to restore a normal wash-out pattern: involvment of non-hemodynamic factors, as suggested by comparing similar wash-out improvements after L.dopa in acute glomerulonephritis and in reversible acute renal failure [fr

  9. Renal hemodynamic response to L-dopa during acute renal failure in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zech, P; Collard, M; Guey, A; Plantier, J; Bernard, M; Berthoux, F; Pinet, A; Traeger, J [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1975-12-20

    Twelve patients with acute renal failure underwent L-dopa infusion into a renal artery and /sup 133/Xenon wash-out recordings before and during the infusion. Urine volume and sodium output were also compared during two 24 hours periods, before and after the procedure. Hemodynamic data were compared with data obtained from a matched group of patients receiving Furosemide (8 patients) in place of L-dopa. Only L-dopa infusion significantly increased outer cortical distribution. No blood flow change could be demonstrated in any component nor did the drug improve unitary excretion or the general course of the disease. Control data shows that reduced cortical distribution is the most consistent feature of acute renal failure, so that L-dopa does partially improve intrarenal hemodynamics in this condition. The failure of the drug to restore kidney function may be explained by the following reasons: inability of the agent to restore a normal wash-out pattern: involvment of non-hemodynamic factors, as suggested by comparing similar wash-out improvements after L-dopa in acute glomerulonephritis and in reversible acute renal failure.

  10. Is the renal kallikrein-kinin system a factor that modulates hypercalciuria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Luis Negri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular calcium reabsorption is one of the principal factors that determine serum calcium concentration and calcium excretion. Calcium excretion is regulated by the distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, where the epithelial calcium channel TRPV5 can be found, which limits the rate of transcellular calcium transport. The dynamic presence of the TRPV5 channel on the surface of the tubular cell is mediated by an endosomal recycling process. Different intrarenal factors are involved in calcium channel fixation in the apical membrane, including the anti-ageing hormone klotho and tissue kallikrein (TK. Both proteins are synthesised in the distal tubule and secreted in the tubular fluid. TK stimulates active calcium reabsorption through the bradykinin receptor B2 that compromises TRPV5 activation through the protein kinase C pathway. TK-deficient mice show hypercalciuria of renal origin comparable to that seen in TRPV5 knockout mice. There is a polymorphism with loss of function of the human TK gene R53H (allele H that causes a marked decrease in enzymatic activity. The presence of the allele H seems to be common at least in the Japanese population (24%. These individuals have a tendency to greater calcium and sodium excretion in urine that is more evident during furosemide infusion. Future studies should analyse if manipulating the renal kallikrein-kinin system can correct idiopathic hypercalciuria with drugs other than thiazide diuretics.

  11. Expression of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in rats with cirrhosis: correlationship with sympathetic activity and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Martins Monte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a direct analysis ofKATP mRNA expression by RT-PCR in kidney and isolated aorta fromrats with cirrhosis (induced by carbon tetrachloride and controls.The present study also analyses the relation between induced cirrhosisand urinary excretion of sodium and sympathetic activity in cirrhoticrats. Methods: Rats were placed in metabolic cages and allowedfree access to food and water. Cirrhosis was induced by repeateddoses of carbon tetrachloride by gastric gavage. After some weeks,the kidney and aorta were dissected and utilized for RNA extraction.Blood and urine were analyzed for electrolytes. Renal function wasestimated by creatinine clearance and sodium urinary excretion.Serum catecholamines were measured by HPLC analysis. Results:First, RT-PCR analysis showed that KATP mRNA is expressed in liverwith cirrhosis and intense fibrosis, but not with moderate fibrosis.Second, RT-PCR analysis revealed that KATP mRNA was detectedonly in aorta dissected from rats with cirrhosis. Finally, an enhancedreabsorption of sodium without renal failure suggests a potentialmediator would increase the activity of the sympathetic system.Conclusion: These results suggest that KATP mRNA is expressed incirrhotic rats with sympathetic activation and renal dysfunction. Thischannel might be involved in another route where the vascular tonecan be modulated in cirrhosis.

  12. [Effects of sodium ethamsylate on anticoagulant and anti-aggregation activity of vascular endothelium in hemorrhagic fever patients with renal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, I M; Sirotin, B Z; Parshina, T A

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate effects of sodium ethamsylate (SE) on anticoagulant and antiaggregation activity of vascular endothelium in patients suffering from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). A trial of SE enrolled 70 HFRS patients (58 males, 12 females aged under 30 years) compatible by the disease severity. They were divided into two groups. 42 patients of the control group received standard therapy, 28 patients of the study group received adjuvant 12% solution of SE in daily dose 1500-2000 mg in the course of HFRS oliguria period. Hemostatic parameters were measured before and after the cuff test to investigate the condition of vascular wall with calculation of the athrombogenicity index (the ratio of the relevant indices before and after the cuff test). SE effects on vascular endothelium was assessed by a blind method. In oliguria, both groups had baseline antiaggregation indices significantly higher than in the control. After the cuff test, control patients' indices tended to an increase while in the study group there was a marked decrease. The trend in anticoagulant activity of microvascular endothelium did not differ much with the groups. This picture persisted also in polyuria. In convalescence hemostasis was similar in both groups. SE enhances antiaggregant activity of vascular endothelium in oliguria period of HFRS without affecting its anticoagulant properties. This is explained by a direct effect of SE on vascular endothelium.

  13. Lithium increases ammonium excretion leading to altered urinary acid-base buffer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepiccione, Francesco; Altobelli, Claudia; Capasso, Giovambattista; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster; Frische, Sebastian

    2017-11-24

    Previous reports identify a voltage dependent distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) secondary to lithium (Li + ) salt administration. This was based on the inability of Li + -treated patients to increase the urine-blood (U-B) pCO 2 when challenged with NaHCO 3 and, the ability of sodium neutral phosphate or Na 2 SO 4 administration to restore U-B pCO 2 in experimental animal models. The underlying mechanisms for the Li + -induced dRTA are still unknown. To address this point, a 7 days time course of the urinary acid-base parameters was investigated in rats challenged with LiCl, LiCitrate, NaCl, or NaCitrate. LiCl induced the largest polyuria and a mild metabolic acidosis. Li + -treatment induced a biphasic response. In the first 2 days, proper urine volume and acidification occurred, while from the 3rd day of treatment, polyuria developed progressively. In this latter phase, the LiCl-treated group progressively excreted more NH 4 + and less pCO 2 , suggesting that NH 3 /NH 4 + became the main urinary buffer. This physiological parameter was corroborated by the upregulation of NBCn1 (a marker of increased ammonium recycling) in the inner stripe of outer medulla of LiCl treated rats. Finally, by investigating NH 4 + excretion in ENaC-cKO mice, a model resistant to Li + -induced polyuria, a primary role of the CD was confirmed. By definition, dRTA is characterized by deficient urinary ammonium excretion. Our data question the presence of a voltage-dependent Li + -induced dRTA in rats treated with LiCl for 7 days and the data suggest that the alkaline urine pH induced by NH 3 /NH 4 + as the main buffer has lead to the interpretation dRTA in previous studies.

  14. Angiotensin 2 directly increases rabbit renal brush-border membrane sodium transport: Presence of local signal transduction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morduchowicz, G.A.; Sheikh-Hamad, D.; Dwyer, B.E.; Stern, N.; Jo, O.D.; Yanagawa, N. (Sepulveda Veterans Administration, CA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    In the present study, the authors have examined the direct actions of angiotensin II (AII) in rabbit renal brush border membrane (BBM) where binding sites for AII exist. Addition of AII (10(-11)-10(-7) M) was found to stimulate 22Na+ uptake by the isolated BBM vesicles directly. All did not affect the Na(+)-dependent BBM glucose uptake, and the effect of AII on BBM 22Na+ uptake was inhibited by amiloride, suggesting the involvement of Na+/H+ exchange mechanism. BBM proton permeability as assessed by acridine orange quenching was not affected by AII, indicating the direct effect of AII on Na+/H+ antiport system. In search of the signal transduction mechanism, it was found that AII activated BBM phospholipase A2 (PLA) and that BBM contains a 42-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G-protein) that underwent pertussis toxin (PTX)-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Addition of GTP potentiated, while GDP-beta S or PTX abolished, the effects of AII on BBM PLA and 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the involvement of G-protein in AII's actions. On the other hand, inhibition of PLA by mepacrine prevented AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake, and activation of PLA by mellitin or addition of arachidonic acid similarly enhanced BBM 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the role of PLA activation in mediating AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake. In summary, results of the present study show a direct stimulatory effect of AII on BBM Na+/H+ antiport system, and suggest the presence of a local signal transduction system involving G-protein mediated PLA activation.

  15. Angiotensin 2 directly increases rabbit renal brush-border membrane sodium transport: Presence of local signal transduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morduchowicz, G.A.; Sheikh-Hamad, D.; Dwyer, B.E.; Stern, N.; Jo, O.D.; Yanagawa, N.

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, the authors have examined the direct actions of angiotensin II (AII) in rabbit renal brush border membrane (BBM) where binding sites for AII exist. Addition of AII (10(-11)-10(-7) M) was found to stimulate 22Na+ uptake by the isolated BBM vesicles directly. All did not affect the Na(+)-dependent BBM glucose uptake, and the effect of AII on BBM 22Na+ uptake was inhibited by amiloride, suggesting the involvement of Na+/H+ exchange mechanism. BBM proton permeability as assessed by acridine orange quenching was not affected by AII, indicating the direct effect of AII on Na+/H+ antiport system. In search of the signal transduction mechanism, it was found that AII activated BBM phospholipase A2 (PLA) and that BBM contains a 42-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G-protein) that underwent pertussis toxin (PTX)-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Addition of GTP potentiated, while GDP-beta S or PTX abolished, the effects of AII on BBM PLA and 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the involvement of G-protein in AII's actions. On the other hand, inhibition of PLA by mepacrine prevented AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake, and activation of PLA by mellitin or addition of arachidonic acid similarly enhanced BBM 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the role of PLA activation in mediating AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake. In summary, results of the present study show a direct stimulatory effect of AII on BBM Na+/H+ antiport system, and suggest the presence of a local signal transduction system involving G-protein mediated PLA activation

  16. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  17. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  18. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  19. Contribution of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) to the renal excretion of p-aminohippurate (PAH) and identification of MRP4 (ABCC4) as a novel PAH transporter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.H.E.; Aubel, R.A.M.H. van; Wouterse, A.C.; Heuvel, J.J.T.M.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    p-Aminohippurate (PAH) is the classical substrate used in the characterization of organic anion transport in renal proximal tubular cells. Although basolateral transporters for PAH uptake from blood into the cell have been well characterized, there is still little knowledge on the apical urinary

  20. Sodium intake modifies the negative prognostic value of renal damage prior to treatment with ACE inhibitors on proteinuria induced by adriamycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Andrea B.; Bos, Hendrik; van Goor, Harry; Navis, Gerjan J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Antiproteinuric treatment by ACE inhibition (ACEi) provides renoprotection. However, resistance to antiproteinuric intervention occurs frequently, resulting in progressive renal damage. The extent of renal damage prior to treatment with ACEi reversely correlates with the antiproteinuric

  1. A possible simplification for the estimation of area under the curve (AUC₀₋₁₂) of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in renal transplant patients receiving tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Denise H; Mathew, Binu S; Prasanna, Samuel; Annapandian, Vellaichamy M; John, George T

    2011-04-01

    Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) is widely used in renal transplantation. With a delayed absorption profile, it has not been possible to develop limited sampling strategies to estimate area under the curve (mycophenolic acid [MPA] AUC₀₋₁₂), which have limited time points and are completed in 2 hours. We developed and validated simplified strategies to estimate MPA AUC₀₋₁₂ in an Indian renal transplant population prescribed EC-MPS together with prednisolone and tacrolimus. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling (17 samples each) was performed in 18 patients to measure MPA AUC₀₋₁₂. The profiles at 1 month were used to develop the simplified strategies and those at 5.5 months used for validation. We followed two approaches. In one, the AUC was calculated using the trapezoidal rule with fewer time points followed by an extrapolation. In the second approach, by stepwise multiple regression analysis, models with different time points were identified and linear regression analysis performed. Using the trapezoidal rule, two equations were developed with six time points and sampling to 6 or 8 hours (8hrAUC[₀₋₁₂exp]) after the EC-MPS dose. On validation, the 8hrAUC(₀₋₁₂exp) compared with total measured AUC₀₋₁₂ had a coefficient of correlation (r²) of 0.872 with a bias and precision (95% confidence interval) of 0.54% (-6.07-7.15) and 9.73% (5.37-14.09), respectively. Second, limited sampling strategies were developed with four, five, six, seven, and eight time points and completion within 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, and 8 hours after the EC-MPS dose. On validation, six, seven, and eight time point equations, all with sampling to 8 hours, had an acceptable r with the total measured MPA AUC₀₋₁₂ (0.817-0.927). In the six, seven, and eight time points, the bias (95% confidence interval) was 3.00% (-4.59 to 10.59), 0.29% (-5.4 to 5.97), and -0.72% (-5.34 to 3.89) and the precision (95% confidence interval) was 10

  2. Renal Tubular Function in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immune' diseases such as. Sjogren's syndrome,'" systemic lupus erythematosus. (SLE),3 alveolitis' and chronic active hepatitis.' The reported abnormalities of renal tubular function include impairment of acid excretion and urinary concentration.

  3. The phosphaturic effect of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Milford; Brazeau, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Urinary inorganic phosphate excretion was studied before and during the administration of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs that were not given infusions of phosphate. The excretion fraction of filtered phosphate increased after sodium bicarbonate or acetazolamide was given. This phosphaturia was attributed to decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate consequent to alkalinization of either tubular urine or cells. PMID:5645865

  4. The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek E. Mirrakhimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to be beneficial in the management of a patient with the above-mentioned toxidromes. However, most of the available evidence originates from case reports, case series, and expert consensus recommendations. The potential mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate include high sodium load and the development of metabolic alkalosis with resultant decreased tissue penetration of the toxic substance with subsequent increased urinary excretion. While receiving sodium bicarbonate, patients must be monitored for the development of associated side effects including electrolyte abnormalities, the progression of metabolic alkalosis, volume overload, worsening respiratory status, and/or worsening metabolic acidosis. Patients with oliguric/anuric renal failure and advanced decompensated heart failure should not receive sodium bicarbonate.

  5. The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Ayach, Taha; Barbaryan, Aram; Talari, Goutham; Chadha, Romil; Gray, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to be beneficial in the management of a patient with the above-mentioned toxidromes. However, most of the available evidence originates from case reports, case series, and expert consensus recommendations. The potential mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate include high sodium load and the development of metabolic alkalosis with resultant decreased tissue penetration of the toxic substance with subsequent increased urinary excretion. While receiving sodium bicarbonate, patients must be monitored for the development of associated side effects including electrolyte abnormalities, the progression of metabolic alkalosis, volume overload, worsening respiratory status, and/or worsening metabolic acidosis. Patients with oliguric/anuric renal failure and advanced decompensated heart failure should not receive sodium bicarbonate.

  6. Renal Ammonia Metabolism and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I. David; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism and transport mediates a central role in acid-base homeostasis. In contrast to most renal solutes, the majority of renal ammonia excretion derives from intrarenal production, not from glomerular filtration. Renal ammoniagenesis predominantly results from glutamine metabolism, which produces 2 NH4+ and 2 HCO3− for each glutamine metabolized. The proximal tubule is the primary site for ammoniagenesis, but there is evidence for ammoniagenesis by most renal epithelial cells. Ammonia produced in the kidney is either excreted into the urine or returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. Ammonia excreted in the urine promotes acid excretion; ammonia returned to the systemic circulation is metabolized in the liver in a HCO3−-consuming process, resulting in no net benefit to acid-base homeostasis. Highly regulated ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells determines the proportion of ammonia excreted in the urine versus returned to the systemic circulation. The traditional paradigm of ammonia transport involving passive NH3 diffusion, protonation in the lumen and NH4+ trapping due to an inability to cross plasma membranes is being replaced by the recognition of limited plasma membrane NH3 permeability in combination with the presence of specific NH3-transporting and NH4+-transporting proteins in specific renal epithelial cells. Ammonia production and transport are regulated by a variety of factors, including extracellular pH and K+, and by several hormones, such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and angiotensin II. This coordinated process of regulated ammonia production and transport is critical for the effective maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. PMID:23720285

  7. Transintestinal cholesterol excretion in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskamp, Laurens F.; Meessen, Emma C. E.; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent insights into the measurement and cellular basis of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) in humans and to explore TICE as a therapeutic target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport. Recent findings TICE is the net effect of cholesterol excretion by

  8. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of dietary sodium restriction and diuretics, but not angiotensin receptor blockade, in proteinuric renal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagman, Maartje C J; Waanders, Femke; Vogt, Liffert; Damman, Kevin; Hemmelder, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D

    2012-03-01

    Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade only partly reduces blood pressure, proteinuria and renal and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but often requires sodium targeting [i.e. low sodium diet (LS) and/or diuretics] for optimal efficacy. However, both under- and overtitration of sodium targeting can easily occur. We evaluated whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker of volume expansion, predicts the benefits of sodium targeting in CKD patients. In a cross-over randomized controlled trial, 33 non-diabetic CKD patients (proteinuria 3.8 ± 0.4 g/24 h, blood pressure 143/86 ± 3/2 mmHg, creatinine clearance 89 ± 5 mL/min) were treated during 6-week periods with placebo, angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB; losartan 100 mg/day) and ARB plus diuretics (losartan 100 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/day), combined with LS (93 ± 52 mmol Na(+)/24 h) and regular sodium diet (RS; 193 ± 62 mmol Na(+)/24 h, P diuretics and was normalized by ARB + diuretic + LS [39 (26-59) pg/mL, P = 0.65 versus controls]. NT-proBNP levels above the upper limit of normal (>125 pg/mL) predicted a larger reduction of blood pressure and proteinuria by LS and diuretics but not by ARB, during all steps of the titration regimen. Elevated NT-proBNP levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of sodium targeting, but not RAAS blockade, in proteinuric CKD patients. Importantly, this applies to the untreated condition, as well as to the subsequent treatment steps, consisting of RAAS blockade and even RAAS blockade combined with diuretics. NT-proBNP can be a useful tool to identify CKD patients in whom sodium targeting can improve blood pressure and proteinuria.

  9. Clinical analysis of the changes of plasma PRA, AT-II and Aid levels in patients with acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiuyue; Yang Yongqing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of changes of plasma PRA, AT-II and Ald levels in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure. Methods: Plasma PRA, AT-II and Ald levels were determined with RIA in 40 normal subjects and 72 cases of acute renal failure. Results: Plasma PRA, AT-II and Ald levels in the patients were markedly increased as compared with those in normal subjects (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 respectively). There were no linearity and exponential relationship between plasma PRA, AT-II, Ald levels and the 24 h urinary sodium excretion amount (within the range of 89.1 - 365.2 mEq). Conclusion: Acute renal failure could activate the RAAS function

  10. Alteration of the renal regulatory hormonal pattern during experimental obstructive jaundice Alteración del patrón hormonal regulatorio renal durante la ictericia obstructiva experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J Padillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the alteration of hormones regulating sodium and water status is related to renal failure in obstructive jaundice (OJ. Experimental design: OJ was induced by common bile duct ligation. Samples were obtained from the control (SO and OJ groups at 24 and 72 hours, and at 7 days. Different parameters related to biliary obstruction, liver and renal injury, and vasoactive mediators such as renin, aldosterone, endothelin-1 (ET-1 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were studied. Results: bile duct ligation caused an increase in total bilirubin (p < 0.001 and alkaline phosphatase (AP (p < 0.001. The SO and OJ groups had the same values for diuresis, renin, and creatinine clearance at 24 h. However, animals with OJ had a lower sodium concentration in urine than SO animals (p < 0.01, as well as an increase in aldosterone levels (p < 0.03. ANP levels were moderately increased during OJ but did not reach statistical significance when compared to the SO group. In contrast, OJ animals showed a rise in serum ET-1 concentration (p < 0.001 and increased PGE2 in urine (p < 0.001. Conclusions: biliary obstruction induced an increase in ET-1 release and PGE2 urine excretion. These hormones might play a role during the renal complications associated with renal disturbances that occur during OJ.

  11. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited.

  12. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  13. Sodium homeostasis is preserved in a global 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 knockout mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thorbjørn H; Bailey, Matthew A; Kenyon, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    hypothesized that loss of renal 11βHSD1 would result in salt wasting and tested this in a knockout mouse model in which 11βHSD1 was deleted in all body tissues. In balance studies, 11βHSD1 deletion had no effect on water, sodium or potassium metabolism; transition to a low-sodium diet did not reveal...... that global deletion of 11βHSD1 in the mouse would give rise to a salt-wasting renal phenotype. What is the main finding and its importance? We subjected a mouse model of global 11βHSD1 deletion to studies of water and electrolyte balance, renal clearance, urinary steroid excretion, renin-angiotensin system...... a natriuretic phenotype. Renal clearance studies demonstrated identical haemodynamic parameters (arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate) in knockout and wild-type mice, but revealed an augmented kaliuretic response to thiazides in 11βHSD1 knockout animals. There was no effect...

  14. Kidney Modelling for FDG Excretion with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting Qiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to detect the physiological process of FDG's filtration from blood to urine and to establish a mathematical model to describe the process. Dynamic positron emission tomography scan for FDG was performed on seven normal volunteers. The filtration process in kidney can be seen in the sequential images of each study. Variational distribution of FDG in kidney can be detected in dynamic data. According to the structure and function, kidney is divided into parenchyma and pelvis. A unidirectional three-compartment model is proposed to describe the renal function in FDG excretion. The time-activity curves that were picked up from the parenchyma, pelvis, and abdominal aorta were used to estimate the parameter of the model. The output of the model has fitted well with the original curve from dynamic data.

  15. DIETARY SODIUM ADHERENCE IS POOR IN CHRONIC HEART FAILURE PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuray, Anupam; Dolansky, Mary; Josephson, Richard; Sattar, Abdus; Grady, Ellen M.; Vehovec, Anton; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph; Fang, James; Hughes, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the rates and predictors of dietary sodium restriction, while evaluating the reliability of the 24-hour urine collection as a tool to estimate dietary sodium intake in heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results We evaluated the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion of 305 outpatients with HF and reduced ejection fraction who were educated on following a sodium diet. The mean sodium excretion using a single sample from each participant was 3.15 ± 1.58 grams, and 23% were adherent to the sodium excretion of 3.21 ± 1.20 grams and lower adherence rates to the sodium and creatinine showed poor reproducibility between samples. Conclusions In this chronic HF population, sodium consumption probably exceeds recommended amounts, particularly in men and those with higher BMI. Urine analyses were not highly reproducible, suggesting variation in both diet and urine collection. PMID:25576680

  16. Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.B.; Orskov, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD), namely allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine, in ruminants have been carried out with an objective to use the excretion of these purine metabolites as a parameter to estimate the intestinal flow of microbial protein. This paper reviews the published literature, from the first paper in 1931 to the current date. The current status of understanding in some key topics is discussed. The topics include: endogenous excretion, modelling the response of PD excretion to purine absorption, calculation of microbial N supply from PD excretion, use of spot urine measurement, possible use of plasma or milk PD as an alterative index, and applications in ruminant nutrition research. This review also covers the current understanding of PD excretion in different animal species, including sheep, cattle, goats, buffaloes, llamas, camels, yak and deer. Progress in analytical methods for the determination of purine derivatives is also discussed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted. The paper stresses the need for more studies on metabolism of PD in the tissue, the kinetics of PD in the blood and physiological processes of renal excretion, so as to understand better the mechanism that accounts for the between-species and within species variation in PD excretion. Development of simpler and more rapid methods for defining the endogenous excretion and purine input-output relationship is also an area for future work. (author)

  17. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide and subsequently [99mTc]pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both 123 I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid

  18. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  20. Dapagliflozin Aggravates Renal Injury via Promoting Gluconeogenesis in db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingli; He, Jinzhao; Wang, Liang; Su, Limin; Lei, Lei; Huang, Wei; Geng, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shun; Meng, Xiaolu; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2018-01-01

    A sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin is widely used for lowering blood glucose and its usage is limited in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with moderate renal impairment. As its effect on kidney function is discrepant and complicated, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of dapagliflozin on the progression of diabetic nephropathy and related mechanisms. Twelve-week-old male C57BL/6 wild-type and db/db mice were treated with vehicle or 1 mg/kg dapagliflozin for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood glucose, insulin tolerance, glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance and 24-hour urine were measured every 4 weeks. At 24 weeks of age, renal function was evaluated by blood urea nitrogen level, creatinine clearance, urine output, urinary albumin excretion, Periodic Acid-Schiff staining, Masson's trichrome staining and electron microscopy. Changes in insulin signaling and gluconeogenic key regulatory enzymes were detected using Western blot analysis. Dapagliflozin did not alleviate but instead aggravated diabetic nephropathy manifesting as increased levels of microalbuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, and glomerular and tubular damage in db/db mice. Despite adequate glycemic control by dapagliflozin, urinary glucose excretion increased after administration before 24 weeks of age and was likely associated with renal impairment. Increased urinary glucose excretion was mainly derived from the disturbance of glucose homeostasis with elevated hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis induced by dapagliflozin. Although it had no effect on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, dapagliflozin further induced the expression of gluconeogenic key rate-limiting enzymes through increasing the expression levels of FoxO1 in the kidney and liver. These experimental results indicate that dapagliflozin aggravates diabetes mellitus-induced kidney injury, mostly through increasing gluconeogenesis. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. ACE and SGLT2 inhibitors: the future for non-diabetic and diabetic proteinuric renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, Norberto; Ruggenenti, Piero; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Most chronic nephropathies progress relentlessly to end-stage kidney disease. Research in animals and humans has helped our understanding of the mechanisms of chronic kidney disease progression. Current therapeutic strategies to prevent or revert renal disease progression focus on reduction of urinary protein excretion and blood pressure control. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers is the most effective treatment to achieve these purposes in non-diabetic and diabetic proteinuric renal diseases. For those individuals in which nephroprotection by RAS blockade is only partial, sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors could be a promising new class of drugs to provide further renoprotective benefit when added on to RAS blockers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic value of determination of amount of urinary excretion of proteins for early diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhuocheng; Chen Jianxiong; Yan Dewen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of detection of changes of the amount of usinary excretion of albumin, β 2 -m, Tamm- Horsfall protein and α 1 -m for diagnosis of early diabetic nephropathy. Methods: The amounts of 24h urinary excretion of albumin, β 2 -m, Tamm-Horsfall protein and α 1 -m were determined with RIA in 78 patients with diabetes mellitus and 40 controls. Results: The amounts of 24h urinary excretion of albumin, β 2 -m, α 1 -m in patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01 ), while the amount of Tamm-Horsfall protein was significantly lower (P<0.01). Among the diabetic patients, the changes of the amount of protein excretion were more pronounced in those with advanced impairment of renal function. Conclusion: Determination of amount of urinary excretion of proteins was helpful for diagnosis and assessment of early diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  3. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...... than its blood flow. This is probably due to decreased filtration fraction and filtered sodium with subsequent reduction in absolute tubular re-absorption of sodium ions....

  4. Acute renal response to rapid onset respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Stewart, Randolph H; Cudd, Timothy A

    2011-03-01

    Renal strong ion compensation to chronic respiratory acidosis has been established, but the nature of the response to acute respiratory acidosis is not well defined. We hypothesized that the response to acute respiratory acidosis in sheep is a rapid increase in the difference in renal fractional excretions of chloride and sodium (Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na)). Inspired CO(2) concentrations were increased for 1 h to significantly alter P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) from 32 ± 1 mm Hg and 7.52 ± 0.02 to 74 ± 2 mm Hg and 7.22 ± 0.02, respectively. Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) increased significantly from 0.372 ± 0.206 to 1.240 ± 0.217% and returned to baseline at 2 h when P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) were 37 ± 0.6 mm Hg and 7.49 ± 0.01, respectively. Arterial pH and Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) were significantly correlated. We conclude that the kidney responds rapidly to acute respiratory acidosis, within 30 min of onset, by differential reabsorption of sodium and chloride.

  5. Tick-Tock Chimes the Kidney Clock – from Biology of Renal Ageing to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rowland

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing of the kidney is a multi-dimensional process that occurs simultaneously at the molecular, cellular, histological, anatomical and physiological level. Nephron number and renal cortical volume decline, renal tubules become atrophic and glomeruli become sclerotic with age. These structural changes are accompanied by a decline in glomerular filtration rate, decreased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion, reduced urinary concentrating capacity and alterations in the endocrine activity of the kidney. However, the pace of progression of these changes is not identical in everyone - individuals of the same age and seemingly similar clinical profile often exhibit stark differences in the age-related decline in renal health. Thus, chronological age poorly reflects the time-dependent changes that occur in the kidney. An ideal measure of renal vitality is biological kidney age – a measure of the age-related changes in physiological function. Replacing chronological age with biological age could provide numerous clinical benefits including improved prognostic accuracy in renal transplantation, better stratification of risk and identification of those who are on a fast trajectory to an age-related drop in kidney health.

  6. Effect of immobilization on urine calcium excretion in orthopedic patients with pelvic fracture treated by skin traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Ali; Derakhshan, Nima; Namazi, Hamid; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz

    2015-03-31

    To determine the effects on urine calcium excretion of immobilization by skin traction in patients with pelvic fracture. In a prospective study, a consecutive series of patients with pelvic fracture treated by skin traction were enrolled. Serum (calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, sodium, potassium, uric acid, BUN, creatinine) and fasting urine calcium, creatinine, sodium, potassium and uric acid were checked within 48 hours of hospitalization and at 7, 14 and 21 days of immobilization and then after 3 months of mobilization. Trends in changes of variables were recorded. Fifty five patients were enrolled in this study; they were 45 (81.8%) males and 10 (18.2%) females with a mean age 19.4 ± 12.7 years. We found that serum levels of calcium (p = 0.004), phosphorous (p = 0.047) and alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.001) increased significantly during the 3 weeks of immobilization. In the same way, urine calcium/ urine creatinine ratio increased significantly in the study period (p = 0.004). No symptomatic renal stone formation was observed during the study period. Immobilization even in short term causes hypercalciuria in orthopedic patients. Although it is transient and improves with subsequent mobilization, it is needed to be considered specifically by the team caring for this group of patients.

  7. The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) increase urinary glucose excretion through a reduced renal glucose reabsorption. We plan to perform a systematic review of SGLT-2i for treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review with meta-analyses of r......INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) increase urinary glucose excretion through a reduced renal glucose reabsorption. We plan to perform a systematic review of SGLT-2i for treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review with meta......-analyses of randomised clinical trials on SGLT-2i versus placebo, other oral glucose lowering drugs or insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes will be performed. The primary end point will be the glycated haemoglobin. Secondary end points will include changes in body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose......, plasma cholesterol, kidney and liver blood tests, blood pressure and adverse events. Electronic (the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Science Citation Index) and manual searches will be performed. Meta-analyses will be performed and the results presented as mean differences for continuous...

  8. Nocturnal and Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure Is Associated with Renal Structure Damage and Function in Patients with IgAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lirong; Zhang, Huhai; Yang, Jurong; Zhang, Jianguo; Li, Kailong; Huo, Bengang; Dai, Huanzi; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Jie; Tan, Wei; He, Yani

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) is closely related to target organ damage in hypertension. However, the association between abnormal circadian rhythm of BP and renal injury is not clear. We investigated whether renal injury is associated with nocturnal BP and circadian rhythm of BP in Chinese IgAN patients. Clinic and 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring data were obtained from 330 Chinese IgAN patients with mean 24 h BP circadian BP, and 27% had nocturnal hypertension with a nondipping pattern. Compared with nocturnal normotensive patients, patients with nocturnal hypertension had significantly higher levels of blood cystatin C, blood uric acid, and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and significantly a higher mean renal tissue injury score. The nondipping hypertensive group had significantly higher nocturnal diastolic and systolic BP, blood uric acid, and glomerulosclerosis rates, whereas eGFR was lower. In nondipping hypertensive patients, urinary sodium excretion and renal tissue injury scores were significantly higher than dipping patients. Nocturnal hypertension and abnormal circadian BP correlated with renal tissue injury, renal interstitial fibrosis, and aortic arch atherosclerosis. Abnormal circadian rhythm of BP and nocturnal hypertension are common clinical manifestations in Chinese IgAN patients with normal mean 24 h BP. Abnormal circadian BP and nocturnal hypertension may accelerate IgAN progression by inducing renal dysfunction and histopathological damage. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of a long-acting formulation of octreotide on renal function and renal sodium handling in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, L.H.; Aagaard, Niels Kristian; Kiszka-Kanowitz, M.

    2001-01-01

    variable effects. Twenty-five cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension were randomized in a double-blind design to placebo or a single subcutaneous dose of a long-acting formulation of octreotide (octreotide-LAR) (20 mg). Renal function tests were performed before dosing and repeated after 30 days...... with octreotide-LAR. It is concluded that in spite of increased arterial pressure, octreotide-LAR has no significant effect on renal hemodynamics and tubular function in clinically stable cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension....

  10. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Burgess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephropathy following contrast media (CM exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb. The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

  11. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  12. The effect of taurocholate on canine bile flow, biliary excretion and concentration of ioglycamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toetterman, S.; Santavirta, S.; Mankinen, P.; Antila, H.; Lukkari, E.; Goethlin, J.; Korpi-Tommola, T.

    1983-01-01

    The bile acid taurocholate increases the biliary excretion of organic anions, such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP), bilirubin and iopanoic acid. In the present study has been investigated the effect of taurocholate on 1. Canine biliary excretion and concentration of the i.v. contrast medium ioglycamide and 2. Canine bile flow. The experimental model consisted of cholecystectomized, anaesthetized dogs with a fistula, through which the common bile duct could be catheterized and drained. One hour after cannulation, i.v. infusion of ioglycamide at a rate of 4 μmol/min./kg. was started. Two hours after the infusion start a control group received i.v. infusion of saline, while in another a 1.5% sodium taurocholate infusion was started with stepwise increases with 30 min. intervals from 0.4 to 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 μmol/min./kg. Compared with control, all rates of taurocholate infusion increased bile flow and decreased biliary ioglycamide concentration. Although the bile flow with increasing taurocholate infusion rates was enhanced, the biliary ioglycamide excretion did not increase. The results indicate that ioglycamide and taurocholate are excreted into bile by separate excretion mechanisms. As taurocholate increases the biliary excretion of some other organic anions, it supports the hypothesis that organic anions are excreted into bile by more than two excretion mechanisms, taurocholate affecting only some of them. (orig.)

  13. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors: a growing class of anti-diabetic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Vivian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM.

  14. Renal tubular acidosis secondary to jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Ladefoged, Jens; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1985-01-01

    Renal handling of acid and base was studied in patients with persistent metabolic acidosis 3-9 years after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Excretion of acid was studied before and after intravenous infusion of NH4Cl and excretion of bicarbonate after infusion of NaHCO3. Bypass patients...

  15. Creatinine Excretion Rate and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinkeler, Steef J.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Esmatjes, Enric; de Zeeuw, Dick; Navis, Gerjan; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers

    OBJECTIVE-The creatinine excretion rate (CER) is inversely associated with mortality in the general and renal transplant population. The CER is a marker for muscle mass. It is unknown whether the CER is associated with outcome in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the CER is a determinant

  16. The impact of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, Jarir; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Visser, Sipke T.; de Jong, Paul E.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Aim In short-term studies, hormonal contraceptives (HC) have been suggested to induce a rise in blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), while the effect of HC in renal function (GFR) is still under debate. Data on long-term and withdrawal effects of HC use on these outcomes are,

  17. Interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Urinary Sodium, Potassium, and Sodium-Potassium Ratio on the Risk of Hypertension in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Mi Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a complex disease explained with diverse factors including environmental factors and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction effects between gene variants and 24 h estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and sodium-potassium excretion ratios on the risk of hypertension. A total of 8839 participants were included in the genome-wide association study (GWAS to find genetic factors associated with hypertension. Tanaka and Kawasaki formulas were applied to estimate 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. A total of 4414 participants were included in interaction analyses to identify the interaction effects of gene variants according to 24 h estimated urinary factors on the risk of hypertension. CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 were significantly modified by urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. In addition, MKLN rs1643270 with urinary potassium excretion, LOC101929750 rs7554672 with urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and TENM4 rs10466739 with urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio showed significant interaction effects. The present study results indicated that the mutant alleles of CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 had the strongest protective effects against hypertension in the middle group of 24 h estimated urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. Further studies are needed to replicate these analyses in other populations.

  18. Methotrexate-induced Pancytopenia in Two Patients with Renal Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf OĞUZ; Tayfun EYİLETEN; Murat KARAMAN; Seyid Ahmet AY; Mahmut İlker YILMAZ

    2011-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is cleared primarily by renal excretion. The excretion of MTX is delayed in subjects with renal dysfunction and elevated plasma MTX concentrations develop which lead to bone marrow toxicities and possible pancytopenia. In this case report, we presented two advanced age patients with MTX-induced pancytopenia. The first patient on hemodialysis was diagnosed with seronegative arthritis while the second patient with congestive heart failure was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthrit...

  19. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict...... ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants...

  20. Autosomal recessive hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria is not caused by mutations in the type II renal sodium/phosphate cotransporter gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Koul, K. Op de; Knots, E.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present the genetic defect for autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is unknown. Type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NPT2) gene is a serious candidate for being the causative gene in either or both autosomal recessive and

  1. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoocher Soleimani

    Full Text Available Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2 and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2 in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of

  2. Urinary sodium excretion and determinates among adults in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    6Ethiopian Medical Association, YF: yeweyenharegf@yahoo.com, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;. 7Traditional and ... the major causes of morbidity and mortality (1). According to ... difficult, expensive and cumbersome to carry out. ... level of salt intake and factors associated with high salt ... Tourists/visitors, individuals who are not.

  3. Urinary sodium excretion and determinates among adults in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    10All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Rehabilitation Training center (ALERT), YG: ... The global target is to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. ... trans-fatty acid intake, low fruit and vegetable ..... ς BMI=Body mass Index, It measures body weight and height, and calculates body mass index (BMI) (Body weight ...

  4. Cichorium intybus L. promotes intestinal uric acid excretion by modulating ABCG2 in experimental hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Nie, Anzheng; Bian, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Excessive production and/or reduced excretion of uric acid could lead to hyperuricemia, which could be a major cause of disability. Hyperuricemia has received increasing attention in the last few decades due to its global prevalence. Cichorium intybus L., commonly known as chicory, is a perennial herb of the asteraceae family. It was previously shown to exert potent hypouricemic effects linked with decreasing uric acid formation in the liver by down-regulating the activity of xanthine oxidase, and increasing uric acid excretion by up-regulating the renal OAT3 mRNA expression. The present study aimed to evaluate its extra-renal excretion and possible molecular mechanism underlying the transporter responsible for intestinal uric acid excretion in vivo. Chicory was administered intragastrically to hyperuricemic rats induced by drinking 10% fructose water. The uricosuric effect was evaluated by determining the serum uric acid level as well as the intestinal uric acid excretion by HPLC. The location and expression levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family G, member 2 (ABCG2) in jejunum and ileum were analyzed. The administration of chicory decreased the serum uric acid level significantly and increased the intestinal uric acid excretion obviously in hyperuricemic rats induced by 10% fructose drinking. Staining showed that ABCG2 was expressed in the apical membrane of the epithelium and glands of the jejunum and ileum in rats. Further examination showed that chicory enhanced the mRNA and protein expressions of ABCG2 markedly in a dose-dependent manner in jejunum and ileum. These findings indicate that chicory increases uric acid excretion by intestines, which may be related to the stimulation of intestinal uric acid excretion via down-regulating the mRNA and protein expressions of ABCG2.

  5. Bilateral renal metastasis of 261-265huerthle cell thyroid cancer with discordant uptake between I-131 sodium iodide and F-18 FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claimon, Apichaya; Suh, Min Seok; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. Edmund [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Renal metastasis of thyroid cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) with lungs, bones, and bilateral kidneys metastases. The renal metastatic lesions were clearly demonstrated by {sup 131}I whole body scan (WBS) with SPECT/CT. However, they exhibited false-negative results in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, kidney ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT scan. The findings imply that tumors have low glucose metabolism and are able to accumulate radioiodine, which is not commonly found in the relatively aggressive nature of HCTC. The patient received two sessions of 200 mCi {sup 131}I therapy within 6 months duration. There was complete treatment response as evaluated by the second post-therapeutic {sup 131}I SPECT/CT and serum thyroglobulin. To our knowledge, renal metastasis from HCTC with positive {sup 131}I but negative {sup 18}F-FDG uptake has not been reported in the literature. This case suggests that {sup 131}I SPECT/CT is useful for lesion localization and prediction of {sup 131}I therapy response.

  6. Leukocyte and platelet depletion improves blood flow and function in a renal transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Phillip J; Hosgood, Sarah A; Nicholson, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors are an important source of organs for transplantation. Due to warm and cold ischemic injury, DCD kidneys undergo a significant reperfusion insult when transplanted. This is manifested clinically as a high incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) and primary non-function (PNF). The importance of leukocytes in the generation of reperfusion injury is pivotal. Using an ex vivo porcine model of kidney transplantation, the effects of reperfusion with leukocyte and platelet depleted blood (LDB) and whole blood (WB) on renal blood flow and function were compared. Hemodynamic measurements were recorded, and biochemical, hematological, and histologic samples taken at set time-points. Reperfusion with LDB improved renal blood flow significantly compared with WB reperfusion. In addition, there was a significant improvement in creatinine clearance and renal oxygen consumption, but not fractional excretion of sodium, acid-base homeostasis, urinary nitric oxide (NO), or 8-isoprostane levels. This study represents a good model for the initial reperfusion period in renal transplantation. Improvement in only some functional markers and neither urinary NO nor 8-isoprostane levels indicates that improved blood flow alone is not sufficient to reverse the severe ischemic insult endured by DCD kidneys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Renal effects of dexmedetomidine during coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheinin Harry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dexmedetomidine, an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, has been evaluated as an adjunct to anesthesia and for the delivery of sedation and perioperative hemodynamic stability. It provokes dose-dependent and centrally-mediated sympatholysis. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG with extracorporeal circulation is a stressful procedure increasing sympathetic nervous system activity which could attenuate renal function due the interrelation of sympathetic nervous system, hemodynamics and renal function. We tested the hypothesis that dexmetomidine would improve kidney function in patients undergoing elective CABG during the first two postoperative days. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. Patients with normal renal function and scheduled for elective CABG were randomized to placebo or to infusion of dexmedetomidine to achieve a pseudo steady-state plasma concentration of 0.60 ng/ml. The infusion was started after anesthesia induction and continued until 4 h after surgery. The primary endpoint was creatinine clearance. Other variables included urinary creatinine and output, fractional sodium and potassium excretion, urinary potassium, sodium and glucose, serum and urinary osmolality and plasma catecholamine concentrations. The data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA or Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. Results Sixty-six of 87 randomized patients were evaluable for analysis. No significant between-group differences were recorded for any indices of renal function except for a mean 74% increase in urinary output with dexmedetomidine in the first 4 h after insertion of a urinary catheter (p Conclusions Use of intravenous dexmedetomidine did not alter renal function in this cohort of relatively low-risk elective CABG patients but was associated with an increase in urinary output. This study was carried out in 1994-1997 and was thus not registered.

  8. Treatment with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, reduces increased albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M P; Vasselli, J R; Neuman, R G; Witt, J

    1995-10-01

    1. We examined the effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in streptozotocin diabetic rats. 2. Treatment with acarbose for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes prevented the significant increase in UAE observed in untreated diabetic rats relative to nondiabetic controls. 3. Acarbose significantly reduced integrated glycemia, which correlated with albumin excretion rates, and exerts a salutary effect on diabetic renal dysfunction.

  9. Renal dysfunction and barttin expression in Bartter syndrome Type IV associated with a G47R mutation in BSND in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C W; Lim, J H; Youn, D-Y; Chung, S; Lim, M-H; Kim, Y K; Chang, Y S; Lee, J-H

    2011-02-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) Type IV, associated with a G47R mutation in the BSND gene, is known to result in a mild renal phenotype. However, we report here on three brothers with varying degrees of renal dysfunction from mild to end-stage renal disease associated with renal barttin and ClC-K expression. The brothers had histories of polyhydramnios, prematurity, polyuria, deafness, and small body size. Laboratory findings showed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, normotensive hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism, and an increased urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride, consistent with BS Type IV. Microscopic examination of renal tissue showed hyperplasia of cells at the juxtaglomerular apparatus with dilated atrophic tubules and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. A weak barttin signal related to CIC-K expression in the cytoplasm of tubule cells, but not the basement membrane, was noted. A sequence analysis of the BSND gene showed that the affected males were homozygous for a missense G47R mutation in exon 1 of BSND. These findings suggest that the G47R mutation results in a dramatic decrease in barttin expression, which appears to be related to the location of CIC-K being changed from the basement membrane to the cytoplasm in the tubule and might have varying effects on renal function associated with factors other than this gene.

  10. Intestinal radiocalcium transport versus urinary excretion in long term 1.25(OH)2D3 tratment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caniggia, A.; Nuti, R.; Lore, F.; Vattimo, A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a long-term (4-24 months) treatment with physiological doses of 1,25(OH)2D3 (without calcium supplementation) on various parameters related to calcium metabolism and renal function were investigated in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. On 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, the intestinal calcium absorption increased remarkably, as did urinary calcium excretion; on the other hand, hydroxyproline excretion remained unchanged, whereas the cAMP/creatinine ratio in urine decreased. No change was observed concerning blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance, and no renal stones developed. The conclusion is that the increase in urinary calcium excretion ocurring on long-term treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 reflects the increase in calcium absorption without a significant resorptive component and, under the conditions of the present study, has no effect on renal function

  11. Normotensive sodium loading in conscious dogs: Regulation of renin secretion during beta receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Peter; Mølstrøm, Simon; Wamberg, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Cl (20 micromol/kg/min for 180 min, NaLoad) during regular or low-sodium diet (0.03 mmol/kg/d, LowNa) with and without metoprolol (2 mg/kg plus 0.9 mg/kg/h). Vasopressin V2 receptors were blocked by Otsuka compound OPC31260 to facilitate clearance measurements. Body fluid volume was maintained by servo-controlled...... that in this setting, renin secretion and renin-dependent sodium excretion are controlled by via the renal nerves and therefore eliminated or reduced by blocking the action of norepinephrine on the juxtaglomerular cells with the beta1-receptor antagonist metoprolol. This was tested in conscious dogs by infusion of Na...... irrespective of diet. In conclusion, PRC depended on dietary sodium and beta1-adrenergic control as expected; however, the acute sodium-driven decrease in PRC at constant MAP and GFR was unaffected by beta1-receptor blockade demonstrating that renin may be regulated without changes in MAP, GFR, or beta1...

  12. Whites excrete a water load more rapidly than blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, Alan B; Gleiberman, Lillian; Sachdeva, Amit

    2009-04-01

    A recent report demonstrated a racial difference in response to furosemide compatible with increased ion reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in blacks. Urinary dilution is another function of the loop-diuretic-sensitive Na,K,2Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending limb, and racial differences in urinary diluting capacity have not been reported previously. We assessed diluting segment (cortical thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule) function in black and white normotensives in 2 studies using a water-loading approach. In both studies, we found that whites excreted a water load more rapidly than blacks. In the first study, the final free water clearance rates (mean+/-SD) were 7.3+/-4.7 mL/min in whites (n=17, 7 females and 10 males) and 3.8+/-3.6 mL/min in blacks (n=14, 9 females and 5 males; Pwater clearance rates were 8.3+/-2.6 mL/min in whites (n=17, 8 females and 9 males) and 6.4+/-1.8 mL/min in blacks (n=11, 8 females and 3 males; Pwater excretion. We conclude that our observations are most consistent with a lower capacity of ion reabsorption in the renal diluting segment in blacks. Slower excretion of an acute water load may have been an advantage during natural selection of humans living in arid, hot climates.

  13. Renal Blood Flow, Glomerular Filtration Rate, and Renal Oxygenation in Early Clinical Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte Larsson, Jenny; Krumbholz, Vitus; Enskog, Anders; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2018-06-01

    Data on renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation in early clinical septic shock are lacking. We therefore measured renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and oxygenation in patients with early septic shock. Prospective comparative study. General and cardiothoracic ICUs. Patients with norepinephrine-dependent early septic shock (n = 8) were studied within 24 hours after arrival in the ICU and compared with postcardiac surgery patients without acute kidney injury (comparator group, n = 58). None. Data on systemic hemodynamics and renal variables were obtained during two 30-minute periods. Renal blood flow was measured by the infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid, corrected for renal extraction of para-aminohippuric acid. Renal filtration fraction was measured by renal extraction of chromium-51 labeled EDTA. Renal oxygenation was estimated from renal oxygen extraction. Renal oxygen delivery (-24%; p = 0.037) and the renal blood flow-to-cardiac index ratio (-21%; p = 0.018) were lower, renal vascular resistance was higher (26%; p = 0.027), whereas renal blood flow tended to be lower (-19%; p = 0.068) in the septic group. Glomerular filtration rate (-32%; p = 0.006) and renal sodium reabsorption (-29%; p = 0.014) were both lower in the septic group. Neither renal filtration fraction nor renal oxygen consumption differed significantly between groups. Renal oxygen extraction was significantly higher in the septic group (28%; p = 0.022). In the septic group, markers of tubular injury were elevated. In early clinical septic shock, renal function was lower, which was accompanied by renal vasoconstriction, a lower renal oxygen delivery, impaired renal oxygenation, and tubular sodium reabsorption at a high oxygen cost compared with controls.

  14. Dietary sodium adherence is poor in chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuray, Anupam; Dolansky, Mary; Josephson, Richard; Sattar, Abdus; Grady, Ellen M; Vehovec, Anton; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph; Fang, James; Hughes, Joel W

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine the rates and predictors of dietary sodium restriction and to evaluate the reliability of 24-hour urine collection as a tool to estimate dietary sodium intake in heart failure (HF) patients. We evaluated the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion of 305 outpatients with HF and reduced ejection fraction who were educated on following a sodium diet. The mean sodium excretion according to a single sample from each participant was 3.15 ± 1.58 g, and 23% were adherent to the sodium excretion of 3.21 ± 1.20 g and lower adherence rates to the sodium and creatinine showed poor reproducibility between samples. In this chronic HF population, sodium consumption probably exceeds recommended amounts, particularly in men and those with higher BMI. Urine analyses were not highly reproducible, suggesting variation in both diet and urine collection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: from the bark of apple trees and familial renal glycosuria to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Dídac

    2013-09-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus is still inadequate. We are currently witnessing the introduction of a new mode of hypoglycemic treatment through induction of glycosuria to decrease the availability of the metabolic substrate, i.e. glucose. Clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are as efficacious as other oral hypoglycemic drugs. This article discusses the basic features of this new treatment concept and the efficacy and safety of this new drug group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Bone scintigraphy in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Graaf, P.; Schicht, I.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; te Velde, J.; de Graeff, J.

    1978-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m HEDP was performed in 30 patients on maintenance hemodialysis, and the results of quantitative analysis were compared wth those of a normal group. To permit this comparison, elevated background activity due to the absence of renal radiotracer excretion was reduced by hemodialysis to levels found in the normals. Histologic proof of renal osteodystrophy had been obtained in all patients. the incidence of radiographic abnormalities was 46%, whereas abnormal scans were found in 25 patients (83%); skeletal lesions were also more pronounced and detected earlier. However, even when the scans appeared normal, the quantitative analysis showed increased skeletal activity in all patients. The total skeletal activity proved to be a good index of the severity of renal osteodystrophy and appeared dependent on both osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. These findings show that bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method to detect skeletal involvement in renal osteodystrophy

  17. Maternal corticosterone exposure in the mouse programs sex-specific renal adaptations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in 6-month offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, James S M; Burgess, Danielle J; O'Sullivan, Lee; Singh, Reetu R; Moritz, Karen M

    2016-04-01

    Short-term maternal corticosterone (Cort) administration at mid-gestation in the mouse reduces nephron number in both sexes while programming renal and cardiovascular dysfunction in 12-month male but not female offspring. The renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), functions in a sexually dimorphic manner to regulate both renal and cardiovascular physiology. This study aimed to identify if there are sex-specific differences in basal levels of the intrarenal RAAS and to determine the impact of maternal Cort exposure on the RAAS in male and female offspring at 6 months of age. While intrarenal renin concentrations were higher in untreated females compared to untreated males, renal angiotensin II concentrations were higher in males than females. Furthermore, basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were greater in females than males. Cort exposed male but not female offspring had reduced water intake and urine excretion. Cort exposure increased renal renin concentrations and elevated mRNA expression of Ren1, Ace2, and Mas1 in male but not female offspring. In addition, male Cort exposed offspring had increased expression of the aldosterone receptor, Nr3c2 and renal sodium transporters. In contrast, Cort exposure increased Agtr1a mRNA levels in female offspring only. This study demonstrates that maternal Cort exposure alters key regulators of renal function in a sex-specific manner at 6 months of life. These finding likely contribute to the disease outcomes in male but not female offspring in later life and highlights the importance of renal factors other than nephron number in the programming of renal and cardiovascular disease. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  18. Aging increases oxidative stress and renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes that are associated with an increased trend in systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pedro; Simão, Sónia; Silva, Elisabete; Pinto, Vanda; Amaral, João S; Afonso, Joana; Serrão, Maria Paula; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of aging on oxidative stress markers and expression of major oxidant and antioxidant enzymes associate with impairment of renal function and increases in blood pressure. To explore this, we determined age-associated changes in lipid peroxidation (urinary malondialdehyde), plasma and urinary hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, as well as renal H(2)O(2) production, and the expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in young (13 weeks) and old (52 weeks) male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Urinary lipid peroxidation levels and H(2)O(2) production by the renal cortex and medulla of old rats were higher than their young counterparts. This was accompanied by overexpression of NADPH oxidase components Nox4 and p22(phox) in the renal cortex of old rats. Similarly, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms 2 and 3 and catalase were increased in the renal cortex from old rats. Renal function parameters (creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium), diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by aging, although slight increases in systolic blood pressure were observed during this 52-week period. It is concluded that overexpression of renal Nox4 and p22(phox) and the increases in renal H(2)O(2) levels in aged WKY does not associate with renal functional impairment or marked increases in blood pressure. It is hypothesized that lack of oxidative stress-associated effects in aged WKY rats may result from increases in antioxidant defenses that counteract the damaging effects of H(2)O(2).

  19. Chronic activation of plasma renin is log-linearly related to dietary sodium and eliminates natriuresis in response to a pulse change in total body sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjolby, Mads; Bie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    rate, urine flow, plasma potassium, and plasma renin activity did not change. The results indicate that sodium excretion is controlled by neurohumoral mechanisms that are quite resistant to acute changes in plasma volume and colloid osmotic pressure and are not down-regulated within 2 h. With previous......Cl administration increased PV (+6.3-8.9%) and plasma sodium concentration (~2%) and decreased plasma protein concentration (-6.4-8.1%). Plasma ANG II and aldosterone concentrations decreased transiently. Potassium excretion increased substantially. Sodium excretion, arterial blood pressure, glomerular filtration...

  20. Tissular localization and excretion of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guangping; Sun Jiao; Zhong Gaoren

    2012-01-01

    The nanotoxicology as a new subdiscipline of nanotechnology needs to be studied in vivo. To do so, it is essential to understand certain pharmacological information of the nanoparticles in vivo. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been developed for a number of biomedical uses; however, research on their tissular localization and excretion has been limited. In this study, we analyzed the localization of intravenously administered SiNPs with sizes of 20 and 80 nm in liver and spleen and quantitatively investigated the excretion of SiNPs through urine and feces. The results of the tissular localization study showed that the SiNPs were located in liver evenly; however, they were mainly accumulated in the white pulp of spleen. The quantitative excretory assay found the renal excretion being the main excretion pathway of SiNPs and indicated that the accumulated excretory rate of 80 nm SiNPs through urine was higher than that of 20 nm SiNPs because of the higher hemoconcentration. Further analysis of radioactive substances in the excreta showed the convincing confirmatory evidence that the SiNPs of both the sizes of 20 and 80 nm could be excreted through urine. These results provide important information on in vivo distribution and excretion of SiNPs.

  1. Acute renal failure in asphyxiated term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Acute renal failure (ARF is a frequent clinical condition in neonatal intensive care units (NICU. The leading cause of neonatal ARF is perinatal asphyxia (PS. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the degree of PS and the severity of ARF in term neonates. METHODS A prospective survey of 31 term neonates with Ps and but without congenital malformations or sepsis was performed in NICU of the regional Hospital of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Belgrade (average number of deliveries about 6000 per year. ARF was diagnosed in the first 7 days of life when plasma creatinine was above 133 μmοΙ/L for at least 48 hours while maternal renal function was normal. The degree of PS was determined according to Apgar score (AS at 1 min. The severe PS was defined as AS < 3 and moderate PS as AS 4-6. RESULTS Twenty neonates (64% had oliguric ARF with urine output of 0.37 ±0.16 ml/kg/h while the others had nonoliguric ARF with urine output of 2.4 ± 0.7 ml/kg/h. Most of neonates with oliguric ARF (65% had severe perinatal asphuxia while in those with nonoliguric ARF moderate perinatal asphyxia predominated (73%. DISCUSSION During hypoxic-ischaemic events many organs are injured, and the most vulnerable ones are kidneys and central nervous system. Our results showed a strong connection between perinatal asphyxia and A, which was in accordance with the results of other studies. Neonates with severe perinatal asphyxia had serious impairment of renal function, which was confirmed with strong correlation between Apgar score and plasma creatinine. In neonates with oliguric ARF, but not in those with nonoliguric ARF, the highly positive linear correlations were found between AS and urinary output (r = 0.77; p < 0.01, plasma creatinine (r = 0.78; p < 0.01, fractional excretion of sodium (r = 0.76; p < 0.01, and index of renal failure (r = 0.80; p < 0.01. Only in oliguric neonates with severe perinatal asphyxia (31 % the outcome was

  2. Measurement of renal function with /sup 111/In-DTPA in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, G B [Arkansas Univ., Little Rock (USA). Medical Center; Farrer, P A

    1977-07-01

    The renal clearances of /sup 111/In-DTPA were measured and compared with those of /sup 125/I-iothalamate in dogs using three methods: (a) constant infusion method, (b) single injection UV/P method, and (c) single injection slope method. The renal clearances of /sup 111/In-DTPA were on the average 9% higher than those of /sup 125/I-iothalamate. Its urinary excretion was approximately 50% at 1 hr and about 80% at 4 hr, and biliary excretion was negligible. Sequential scintiphotography of the renal system in dogs revealed the flow of the tracer through the kidneys, and excretion into the ureter and bladder.

  3. Tangshen Formula Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy by Promoting ABCA1-Mediated Renal Cholesterol Efflux in db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Peng, Liang; Zhang, Haojun; Tang, Patrick Ming-Kuen; Zhao, Tingting; Yan, Meihua; Zhao, Hailing; Huang, Xiaoru; Lan, Huiyao; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The commonly prescribed Tangshen Formula (TSF) is a traditional Chinese formulation that has been shown to reduce plasma lipid metabolism and proteinuria and improve the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with diabetic kidney disease. This study investigated the underlying mechanism whereby TSF regulates renal lipid accumulation and ameliorates diabetic renal injuries in spontaneous diabetic db/db mice and in vitro in sodium palmitate (PA)-stimulated and Abca1-SiRNA-transfected mouse tubular epithelial cells (mTECs). The results revealed that TSF treatment significantly ameliorated the renal injuries by lowering urinary albumin excretion and improving renal tissue injuries in diabetic (db/db) mice. Interestingly, the treatment with TSF also resulted in decreased cholesterol levels in the renal tissues of db/db mice, which was associated with increased expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), the Liver X receptors (LXR), and ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), suggesting that TSF might attenuate diabetic kidney injury via a mechanism associated with improving cholesterol efflux in the diabetic kidney. This was investigated in vitro in mTECs, and the results showed that TSF reduced the PA-stimulated cholesterol accumulation in mTECs. Mechanistically, the addition of TSF was capable of reversing PA-induced downregulation of PGC-1α, LXR, and ABCA1 expression and cholesterol accumulation in mTECs, suggesting that TSF might act the protection via the PGC-1α-LXR-ABCA1 pathway to improve the cholesterol efflux in the renal tissues of db/db mice. This was further confirmed by silencing ABCA1 to block the promotive effect of TSF on cholesterol efflux in vitro . In conclusion, TSF might ameliorate diabetic kidney injuries by promoting ABCA1-mediated renal cholesterol efflux.

  4. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENAL FUNCTION IN LIVER DISEASES USING COCKCROFT-GAULT FORMULAE AND CREATININE CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem Ravi Teja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Kidney dysfunction in liver disease can be due to different aetiologies and can have diverse manifestations. Most of the abnormalities of kidney function in cirrhosis are of functional origin namely, sodium retention, impaired free water excretion and renal vasoconstriction with decrease in renal perfusion and glomerular filtration rate. Renal dysfunction in chronic liver disease usually follows a progressive course- the final phase being Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included patients with chronic liver disease being treated as inpatients in the Department of General Medicine, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram. Evidence for chronic liver disease being defined by a compatible clinical profile (signs of liver cell failure or reduced liver span along with biochemical (altered liver function tests, reversal of albuminglobulin ratio or sonographic evidence (altered echotexture of liver or tissue diagnosis (positive liver biopsy for cirrhosis. RESULTS Eighteen percent, i.e. 5 out of the 28 patients with creatinine clearance more than 60 mL/minute by Cockcroft-Gault formula were found to have creatinine clearance values less than 40 mL/minute when done by timed urine collection P value calculated was found to be less than 0.0001, which is statistically significant. CONCLUSION In chronic liver disease, serum creatinine alone is not a reliable marker to assess renal dysfunction. Calculating creatinine clearance by using Cockcroft-Gault formula overestimates renal function in cirrhotics. Creatinine clearance measured by timed urine collections should be done routinely to assess renal reserve in advanced liver disease. Alcoholism appears to have adverse effect on renal function when compared with other aetiologies of cirrhosis.

  5. Mobilization and removing of cadmium from kidney by GMDTC utilizing renal glucose reabsorption pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiaojiang; Zhu, Jinqiu; Zhong, Zhiyong; Luo, Minhui; Li, Guangxian; Gong, Zhihong; Zhang, Chenzi; Fei, Fan; Ruan, Xiaolin; Zhou, Jinlin; Liu, Gaofeng; Li, Guoding; Olson, James; Ren, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium compounds (Cd 2+ ) is one of the major public health problems facing humans in the 21st century. Cd 2+ in the human body accumulates primarily in the kidneys which leads to renal dysfunction and other adverse health effects. Efforts to find a safe and effective drug for removing Cd 2+ from the kidneys have largely failed. We developed and synthesized a new chemical, sodium (S)-2-(dithiocarboxylato((2S,3R,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6 pentahydroxyhexyl)amino)-4-(methylthio) butanoate (GMDTC). Here we report that GMDTC has a very low toxicity with an acute lethal dose (LD50) of more than 10,000 mg/kg or 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively, via oral or intraperitoneal injection in mice and rats. In in vivo settings, up to 94% of Cd 2+ deposited in the kidneys of Cd 2+ -laden rabbits was removed and excreted via urine following a safe dose of GMDTC treatment for four weeks, and renal Cd 2+ level was reduced from 12.9 μg/g to 1.3 μg/g kidney weight. We observed similar results in the mouse and rat studies. Further, we demonstrated both in in vitro and in animal studies that the mechanism of transporting GMDTC and GMDTC-Cd complex into and out of renal tubular cells is likely assisted by two glucose transporters, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Collectively, our study reports that GMDTC is safe and highly efficient in removing deposited Cd 2+ from kidneys assisted by renal glucose reabsorption system, suggesting that GMDTC may be the long-pursued agent used for preventive and therapeutic purposes for both acute and chronic Cd 2+ exposure.

  6. Mobilization and removing of cadmium from kidney by GMDTC utilizing renal glucose reabsorption pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaojiang, E-mail: river-t@126.com [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Zhu, Jinqiu [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Zhong, Zhiyong; Luo, Minhui; Li, Guangxian [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Gong, Zhihong [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Zhang, Chenzi; Fei, Fan [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Ruan, Xiaolin [Guangdong Poison Control Center (China); Zhou, Jinlin [Golden Health (Foshan) Technology Co., Ltd (China); Liu, Gaofeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University (China); Li, Guoding [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Olson, James [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Ren, Xuefeng, E-mail: xuefengr@buffalo.edu [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Chronic exposure to cadmium compounds (Cd{sup 2+}) is one of the major public health problems facing humans in the 21st century. Cd{sup 2+} in the human body accumulates primarily in the kidneys which leads to renal dysfunction and other adverse health effects. Efforts to find a safe and effective drug for removing Cd{sup 2+} from the kidneys have largely failed. We developed and synthesized a new chemical, sodium (S)-2-(dithiocarboxylato((2S,3R,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6 pentahydroxyhexyl)amino)-4-(methylthio) butanoate (GMDTC). Here we report that GMDTC has a very low toxicity with an acute lethal dose (LD50) of more than 10,000 mg/kg or 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively, via oral or intraperitoneal injection in mice and rats. In in vivo settings, up to 94% of Cd{sup 2+} deposited in the kidneys of Cd{sup 2+}-laden rabbits was removed and excreted via urine following a safe dose of GMDTC treatment for four weeks, and renal Cd{sup 2+} level was reduced from 12.9 μg/g to 1.3 μg/g kidney weight. We observed similar results in the mouse and rat studies. Further, we demonstrated both in in vitro and in animal studies that the mechanism of transporting GMDTC and GMDTC-Cd complex into and out of renal tubular cells is likely assisted by two glucose transporters, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Collectively, our study reports that GMDTC is safe and highly efficient in removing deposited Cd{sup 2+} from kidneys assisted by renal glucose reabsorption system, suggesting that GMDTC may be the long-pursued agent used for preventive and therapeutic purposes for both acute and chronic Cd{sup 2+} exposure.

  7. The role of endogenous cardiotonic steroids in pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal complications of arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Paczula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS, also called digitalis-like factors, are a group of steroid hormones linking high salt intake and elevated blood pressure and in part responsible for target organ damage in arterial hypertension. CTS act primarily through their ability to inhibit the ubiquitous transport enzyme sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase. A portion of Na+/K+-ATPase does not seem to actively “pump” sodium and potassium but is closely associated with other key signaling proteins. Plasma concentration and urine excretion of CTS are increased in experimental models with volume expansion and on a high salt diet. Elevated plasma concentration of marinobufagenin has been shown in volume-expanded states such as essential hypertension, primary aldosteronism, chronic renal failure, congestive heart failure and pregnancy. In experimental models marinobufagenin induces heart and kidney fibrosis to the same extent as observed in uremia. Neutralization of marinobufagenin with antibodies prevents such heart remodeling. Expanding our understanding of this new class of hormones may lead to development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies in hypertensive patients with renal and cardiovascular complications.

  8. The effect of prolonged of warm ischaemic injury on renal function in an experimental ex vivo normothermic perfusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Shah, K; Patel, M; Nicholson, M L

    2015-06-30

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplants inevitably sustain a degree of warm ischaemic injury, which is manifested clinically as delayed graft function. The aim of this study was to define the effects of prolonged periods of warm ischaemic injury on renal function in a normothermic haemoperfused kidney model. Porcine kidneys were subjected to 15, 60, 90 (n = 6 per group) and 120 min (n = 4) of in situ warm ischaemia (WI) and then retrieved, flushed with cold preservation fluid and stored in ice for 2 h. Kidneys then underwent 3 h of normothermic reperfusion with a whole blood-based perfusate using an ex vivo circuit developed from clinical grade cardiopulmonary bypass technology. Creatinine clearance, urine output and fractional excretion of sodium deteriorated sequentially with increasing warm time. Renal function was severely compromised after 90 or 120 min of WI but haemodynamic, metabolic and histological parameters demonstrated the viability of kidneys subjected to prolonged warm ischaemia. Isolated kidney perfusion using a warm, oxygenated, red cell-based perfusate allows an accurate ex vivo assessment of the potential for recovery from warm ischaemic injury. Prolonged renal warm ischaemic injury caused a severe decrement in renal function but was not associated with tissue necrosis.

  9. Clinical Application of 99mTc-DISIDA Scintigraphy with Nonvisualization of Biliary Excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Yong Ki

    1987-01-01

    Authors analysed biochemical studies and scintigraphic findings of obstructive jaundice and nonobstructive jaundice in 44 cases of 99m Tc-DISIDA scintigraphy with nonvisualization of biliary excretion till 120 min or 240 min after injection of 99m Tc-DISIDA. Causative diseases of 99m Tc-DISIDA scintigraphy with nonvisualization of biliary excretion were in order to choledocholithiasis (25%), hepatitis (25%), cholangiocarcinoma (14%), cholangitis (14%) and pancreas head tumor (11%). In obstructive jaundice, statistically significant findings were elevated alkaline phosphatase above 300 IU/L on biochemical study and single lobe enlargement of the liver, irregular radioisotope uptake of the liver and concave indentation of the gall bladder fossa of the liver on scintigraphy. In nonobstructive jaundice, statistically significant findings were persistent renal excretion of 99m Tc-DISIDA and more increased uptake density of the heart than the liver on scintigraphy.

  10. Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Joosten

    2012-06-01

    We prospectively followed 7747 adults free of diagnosed cardiovascular diseases or cancer at baseline (1997-1998 from the community-based, observational PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease Study. Urinary magnesium excretion was estimated from two 24-h urine collections and was measured by a xylidyl blue method on a Modular analyzer (Roche. During a median follow-up of 10.5 year, 638 CVD events occurred. After adjustment for age, BMI, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption and educational attainment, urinary magnesium excretion showed a nonlinear relationship with CVD risk. The hazard ratios (HR for CVD were significantly lower (PIn conclusion, low urinary magnesium excretion was associated with a higher risk of CVD, even after controlling for possible intermediates in the causal pathway such as blood pressure, diabetes and markers of inflammation and atherosclerosis. These results highlight the need to evaluate whether increasing the uptake of dietary magnesium could be effective for primary prevention of CVD.

  11. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  12. Comparison of hypotensive, diuretic and renal effects between cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica and furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Meryem; Al-Waili, Noori; El-Haskoury, Redouan; El-Menyiy, Nawal; Al-Waili, Thia; Al-Waili, Ali; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the diuretic, hypotensive and renal effect of Opuntia ficus-indica in two different species in oral and intravenous administration. Diuretic activity was evaluated in rats with the plant cladode gel and aqueous extract administrated orally, and was evaluated in rabbits with plant extract administered intravenously. Single and repeated doses of cladode gel or aqueous extract of cladode were tested. Urine volume and blood and urine creatinine, sodium and potassium were measured, and creatinine clearance was calculated. The hypotensive effect of lyophilized extract of cladode was evaluated in rabbits. Two polyethylene PE50 catheters were used: one in the jugular vein for the infusion of the plant extract and the other in the carotid for the evaluation of the arterial pressure. The cladode gel or aqueous extract increased urine volume, creatinine clearance and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium without significant effect on serum creatinine or blood urea. Furosemide, gel and aqueous extract of cladode insignificantly lowered plasma potassium in rats. Intravenous administration of the lyophilized extract caused a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure in rabbits with a significant increase in urine volume and urine sodium and potassium; the effect was dose dependent. Intravenous administration of lyophilized extract did not affect plasma sodium or potassium. Gel and aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode have a significant diuretic effect on rats, and the lyophilized extract has a diuretic and hypotensive effect on normotensive rabbits without deterioration in renal function test. Additional studies on active ingredients are essential to pave the way for clinical studies on diuretic and hypotensive effect of the plant. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Renal physiology in elderly persons with severe immobility syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlos; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Pangre, Norma; DiTrolio, Julio; Jauregui, Ricardo; De Miguel, Raul; Stefanidis, Ioanis; Imperiali, Nora; Algranati, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The immobility syndrome (IS) is a common condition in the elderly and consists of a reduction in the capacity to perform daily activities because of motor function deterioration. This syndrome leads to characteristic structural and physiological changes in the body, but renal physiology studies have not been conducted on this population. For this reason, we decided to study prospectively changes in renal function in these individuals. We enrolled into this study 17 volunteers over 64 years of age, all of whom lived in the same nursing home. The patients were divided into two groups: nine healthy mobile persons and eight others who suffered from severe IS. Exclusion criteria were the presence of any disease or use of any drug that could induce water and electrolytes alteration. Blood and urine samples were drawn to measure sodium, potassium, creatinine, urea, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and uric acid in order to obtain their fractional excretion. Plasma osmolality and vasopressin were also measured. Total body water and lean body mass were obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Statistical analysis was performed applying Student's t-test (P = 0.01) and Pearson's correlation test. A significant difference in body water composition was found between the groups. Thus in the IS group plasma sodium level was slightly lower and total water content was significantly higher than in the mobile subjects: 140 +/- 5 vs. 143 +/- 1 mmol/l (P = 0.01); 61 +/- 8% vs. 50 +/- 10% (P immobility syndrome than in healthy mobile elderly. In contrast with the mobile group, for which there was a good positive correlation between plasma osmolality and plasma vasopressin, for individuals with IS there was no correlation between plasma osmolality and plasma vasopressin.

  14. 3-Methylhistidine excretion in myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griggs, R.C.; Moxley, R.T. III; Forbes, G.B.

    1980-12-01

    3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion reflects the rate of muscle protein catabolism, since 3-MH occurs almost exclusively in muscle actin and myosin and is not reutilized or catabolized. We studied 3-MH excretion in 9 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 8 normals, and 10 disease controls with Duchenne dystrophy and other disorders. 3-MH excretion was expressed relative to muscle mass as determined by both urinary creatinine and total body potassium (/sup 40/K method). Absolute 3-MH excretion was decreased in myotonic dystrophy patients but was normal when related to muscle mass. The finding of normal 3-MH excretion in myotonic dystrophy suggests that the muscle wasting in this disorder results from impaired anabolic processes rather than accelerated muscle destruction.

  15. 3-Methylhistidine excretion in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, R.C.; Moxley, R.T. III; Forbes, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion reflects the rate of muscle protein catabolism, since 3-MH occurs almost exclusively in muscle actin and myosin and is not reutilized or catabolized. We studied 3-MH excretion in 9 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 8 normals, and 10 disease controls with Duchenne dystrophy and other disorders. 3-MH excretion was expressed relative to muscle mass as determined by both urinary creatinine and total body potassium ( 40 K method). Absolute 3-MH excretion was decreased in myotonic dystrophy patients but was normal when related to muscle mass. The finding of normal 3-MH excretion in myotonic dystrophy suggests that the muscle wasting in this disorder results from impaired anabolic processes rather than accelerated muscle destruction

  16. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  17. Effect of endovascular treatment on nitric oxide and renal function in Takayasu's arteritis with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parildar, Zuhal; Gulter, Ceyda; Parildar, Mustafa; Oran, Ismail; Erdener, Dilek; Memis, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    Renal involvement in Takayasu's arteritis (TA) effects the disease outcome and endovascular treatment is an effective treatment of choice. We investigated nitric oxide (NO) levels and the effect of endovascular treatment in renovascular hypertensive TA patients. In five hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis due to TA, serum creatinine, nitrite, nitrate; urinary microalbumin, nitrite, nitrate measurements and blood pressures were recorded at entry and after 24 h and 6 weeks of endovascular treatment. Serum NO levels were higher in patients than controls (p = 0.008). Serum and urine NO levels increased 24 h after the treatment and decreased after 6 weeks (p = 0.015; p = 0.01, respectively). After the treatment blood pressures decreased. Urinary microalbumin excretions increased after the intervention (p = 0.02) and returned to normal in patients 1 and 4, and decreased in the others. There were no significant differences in estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR), serum creatinine, urinary sodium and potassium levels. Increased NO secretion in these patients may contribute to improve the prognosis of renal function through its vasodilator and antiproliferative activities possibly by counterbalancing the excessive vasoconstrictor actions. Endovascular treatment causes a dilatation-induced shear stress that may be responsible for the increased NO release, which in turn leads to the rapid hypotensive response. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  19. Urinary albumin excretion in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and correlation to left ventricle wall thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G B

    1998-01-01

    was independent of blood pressure, body weight, smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, and thrombolytic treatment. There was a positive correlation between urinary albumin excretion and thickness of the left ventricle wall (R = 0.28; p = 0.001) which was independent of blood pressure. Follow-up examination...

  20. Urinary Angiotensinogen and Renin Excretion are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Juretzko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies sought to identify new biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD. As the renal renin-angiotensin system is activated in CKD, urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may be suitable candidates. We tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion is elevated in CKD and whether these parameters are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We further tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by albuminuria. Methods: We measured urinary and plasma angiotensinogen, renin, albumin and creatinine in 177 CKD patients from the Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine project and in 283 healthy controls from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The urinary excretion of specific proteins is given as protein-to-creatinine ratio. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression models were calculated. Results: Urinary angiotensinogen [2,511 (196-31,909 vs. 18.6 (8.3-44.0 pmol/g, *P<0.01] and renin excretion [0.311 (0.135-1.155 vs. 0.069 (0.045-0.148 pmol/g, *P<0.01] were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger when urinary angiotensinogen, renin and albumin excretion were combined than with urinary albumin excretion alone. Urinary angiotensinogen (ß-coefficient -2.405, standard error 0.117, P<0.01 and renin excretion (ß-coefficient -0.793, standard error 0.061, P<0.01 were inversely associated with eGFR. Adjustment for albuminuria, age, sex, systolic blood pressure and body mass index did not significantly affect the results. Conclusion: Urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion are elevated in CKD patients. Both parameters are negatively associated with eGFR and these associations are independent of urinary albumin excretion. In CKD patients urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion may

  1. Urinary Angiotensinogen and Renin Excretion are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretzko, Annett; Steinbach, Antje; Hannemann, Anke; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole; Friedrich, Nele; Lendeckel, Uwe; Stracke, Sylvia; Rettig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Several studies sought to identify new biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD). As the renal renin-angiotensin system is activated in CKD, urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may be suitable candidates. We tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion is elevated in CKD and whether these parameters are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We further tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by albuminuria. We measured urinary and plasma angiotensinogen, renin, albumin and creatinine in 177 CKD patients from the Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine project and in 283 healthy controls from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The urinary excretion of specific proteins is given as protein-to-creatinine ratio. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression models were calculated. Urinary angiotensinogen [2,511 (196-31,909) vs. 18.6 (8.3-44.0) pmol/g, *P<0.01] and renin excretion [0.311 (0.135-1.155) vs. 0.069 (0.045-0.148) pmol/g, *P<0.01] were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger when urinary angiotensinogen, renin and albumin excretion were combined than with urinary albumin excretion alone. Urinary angiotensinogen (ß-coefficient -2.405, standard error 0.117, P<0.01) and renin excretion (ß-coefficient -0.793, standard error 0.061, P<0.01) were inversely associated with eGFR. Adjustment for albuminuria, age, sex, systolic blood pressure and body mass index did not significantly affect the results. Urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion are elevated in CKD patients. Both parameters are negatively associated with eGFR and these associations are independent of urinary albumin excretion. In CKD patients urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by

  2. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  3. Fructose suppresses uric acid excretion to the intestinal lumen as a result of the induction of oxidative stress by NADPH oxidase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Chihiro; Ogura, Jiro; Sasaki, Shunichi; Okamoto, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kuwayama, Kaori; Narumi, Katsuya; Iseki, Ken

    2017-03-01

    A high intake of fructose increases the risk for hyperuricemia. It has been reported that long-term fructose consumption suppressed renal uric acid excretion and increased serum uric acid level. However, the effect of single administration of fructose on excretion of uric acid has not been clarified. We used male Wistar rats, which were orally administered fructose (5g/kg). Those rats were used in each experiment at 12h after administration. Single administration of fructose suppressed the function of ileal uric acid excretion and had no effect on the function of renal uric acid excretion. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) predominantly contributes to intestinal excretion of uric acid as an active homodimer. Single administration of fructose decreased BCRP homodimer level in the ileum. Moreover, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), recovered the suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion and the Bcrp homodimer level in the ileum of rats that received single administration of fructose. Single administration of fructose decreases in BCRP homodimer level, resulting in the suppression the function of ileal uric acid excretion. The suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion by single administration of fructose is caused by the activation of Nox. The results of our study provide a new insight into the mechanism of fructose-induced hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nontraumatic Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Leading to Acute Kidney Injury in a Sickle Trait Positive Individual on Renal Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana C. Janga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old African American male with a history of congenital cerebral palsy, sickle cell trait, and intellectual disability presented with abdominal pain that started four hours prior to the hospital visit. The patient denied fever, chills, diarrhea, or any localized trauma. The patient was at a party at his community center last evening and danced for 2 hours, physically exerting himself more than usual. Labs revealed blood urea nitrogen (BUN level of 41 mg/dL and creatinine (Cr of 2.8 mg/dL which later increased to 4.2 mg/dL while still in the emergency room. Urinalysis revealed hematuria with RBC > 50 on high power field. Imaging of the abdomen revealed no acute findings for abdominal pain. With fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa > 3%, findings suggested nonoliguric acute tubular necrosis. Over the next couple of days, symptoms of dyspepsia resolved; however, BUN/Cr continued to rise to a maximum of 122/14 mg/dL. With these findings, along with stable electrolytes, urine output matching the intake, and prior use of proton pump inhibitors, medical decision was altered for the possibility of acute interstitial nephritis. Steroids were subsequently started and biopsy was taken. Biopsy revealed heavy deposits of myoglobin. Creatinine phosphokinase (CPK levels drawn ten days later after the admission were found to be elevated at 334 U/dl, presuming the levels would have been much higher during admission. This favored a diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI secondary to exertional rhabdomyolysis. We here describe a case of nontraumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis in a sickle cell trait (SCT individual that was missed due to findings of microscopic hematuria masking underlying myoglobinuria and fractional excretion of sodium > 3%. As opposed to other causes of ATN, rhabdomyolysis often causes FeNa < 1%. The elevated fractional excretion of sodium in this patient was possibly due to the underlying inability of SCT positive individuals

  5. Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition on renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubin Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition on renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted systematic searches of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to June 2016 and included randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in adult type 2 diabetic patients reporting estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and/or urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR changes. Data were synthesized using the random-effects model. Results Forty-seven studies with 22,843 participants were included. SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with a significant change in eGFR in general (weighted mean difference (WMD, −0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−0.90 to 0.23] or in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD (WMD −0.78 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−2.52 to 0.97]. SGLT2 inhibition was associated with eGFR reduction in short-term trials (WMD −0.98 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−1.42 to −0.54], and with eGFR preservation in long-term trials (WMD 2.01 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [0.86 to 3.16]. Urine ACR reduction after SGLT2 inhibition was not statistically significant in type 2 diabetic patients in general (WMD −7.24 mg/g, 95% CI [−15.54 to 1.06], but was significant in patients with CKD (WMD −107.35 mg/g, 95% CI [−192.53 to −22.18]. Conclusions SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with significant changes in eGFR in patients with type 2 diabetes, likely resulting from a mixture of an initial reduction of eGFR and long-term renal function preservation. SGLT2 inhibition was associated with statistically significant albuminuria reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD.

  6. Circulating Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction Interact With Proteinuria in Predicting Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, Rutger M.; Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P.J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; van Son, Willem J.; Navis, Gerjan; Gans, Reinold O.B.; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proteinuria is associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and increased mortality. We investigated whether urinary protein excretion (UPE) is correlated with markers of ED and whether these markers affect the association of proteinuria with mortality in renal transplant recipients

  7. Circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction interact with proteinuria in predicting mortality in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, Rutger M.; Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; van Son, Willem J.; Navis, Gerjan; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Proteinuria is associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and increased mortality. We investigated whether urinary protein excretion (UPE) is correlated with markers of ED and whether these markers affect the association of proteinuria with mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Six

  8. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  9. DIETARY PROTEIN INTAKE IS INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE URINARY EXCRETION OF PHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dobronravov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of urinary phosphate (P excretion and P retention triggers activation of phosphotonins and subsequent development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in progressing of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The main source of P is dietary protein. No large studies are presented to-date to evaluate the relationship between dietary protein intake and parameters of P metabolism in CKD patients. This was a goal of the cross-sectional cohort study .11315 CKD patients were entered (males 43%. Median (10th-90th percentile of age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were 46 (24-69 and 64 (24-104. The analyzed data were: age, gender, body mass index (BMI serum albumin, creatinine, calcium and phosphate; 24-h urine creatinine, phosphate (P,proteinuria (DP. Estimated parameters includes: eGFR, fractional P excretion (FEP, 24-h P excretion (24-h UP, and P clearance (CP. Dietary protein intake (DPI was based on 24-h urinary urea excretion. No significant differences in serum phosphate were found in groups with various DPI. FEP, 24-h UP and CP were significantly higher in higher DPI range. DPI was positively associated with 24-h UP (β=0,287, p<0.000001 in multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, DP, eGFR, serum P, FEP, BMI, and Ca. Thus, DPI is considered to be the independent factor influencing urinary P excretion and hence contributing to progression of mineral and bone disease in renal dysfunction.

  10. Continuous Excretion of Leptospira borgpetersenii Ballum in Mice Assessed by Viability Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Bierque, Emilie; Geroult, Sophie; Teurlai, Magali; Goarant, Cyrille

    2017-10-01

    Rodents are the main reservoir animals of leptospirosis. In this study, we characterized and quantified the urinary excretion dynamics of Leptospira by Mus musculus infected with 2 × 10 8 virulent Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum. Each micturition was collected separately in metabolic cages, at 12 time points from 7 to 117 days post-infection (dpi). We detected Leptospira in all urine samples collected (up to 8 per time point per mouse) proving that Leptospira excretion is continuous with ca. 90% live L. borgpetersenii Ballum, revealed by viability quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Microscopic visualization by Live/Dead fluorescence confirmed this high proportion of live bacteria and demonstrated that L. borgpetersenii Ballum are excreted, at least partly, as bacterial aggregates. We observed two distinct phases in the excretion dynamics, first an increase in Leptospira concentration shed in the urine between 7 and 63 dpi followed by a plateau phase from 63 dpi onward, with up to 3 × 10 7 Leptospira per mL of urine. These two phases seem to correspond to progressive colonization of renal tubules first, then to stable cell survival and maintenance in kidneys. Therefore, chronically infected adult mice are able to contaminate the environment via urine at each micturition event throughout their lifetime. Because Leptospira excretion reached its maximum 2 months after infection, older rodents have a greater risk of contaminating their surrounding environment.

  11. Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H K; Krusell, Lars Romer; Bælum, Jesper

    1985-01-01

    Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumin...

  12. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were......), while cows in the experimental group were fed the basic diet and supplemented with 1 kg zeolite pellets once daily. During the third week (period 3) both groups were fed the basic ration only and observed for any persistent effects after zeolite withdraw. Daily sampling included blood and urine....... Selected physiological parameters were compared between groups during period 2 and 3, whereas mean values from period 1, 2 and 3 were compared within the groups. Zeolite supplementation revealed a significant influence on calcium homeostasis. A slight decrease in serum Ca and in renal excretion of calcium...

  13. The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) increase urinary glucose excretion through a reduced renal glucose reabsorption. We plan to perform a systematic review of SGLT-2i for treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review with meta......-analyses of randomised clinical trials on SGLT-2i versus placebo, other oral glucose lowering drugs or insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes will be performed. The primary end point will be the glycated haemoglobin. Secondary end points will include changes in body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose...... to the knowledge regarding the beneficial and harmful effects of SGLT-2i in patients with type 2 diabetes. We plan to publish the study irrespective of the results. RESULTS: The study will be disseminated by peer-review publication and conference presentation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42014008960...

  14. Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on the toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, R; Wolffram, S

    2005-06-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) is regarded as a causative agent for endemic nephropathy in farm animals and humans. Reabsorption of OA along the nephron results from nonionic diffusion and by carrier-mediated mechanisms indicating that urine alkalinization may help to accelerate OA excretion and thus reduce its toxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a dietary sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation as a means to increase urinary pH on the systemic availability and excretion of OA in pigs. Dietary supplementation of 2% NaHCO3 increased urinary pH (5.7±0.2 to 8.3±0.1) and daily urine volume (1108±276 to 2479±912ml) significantly. The systemic availability of OA and its dechloro-analog Ochratoxin B (OB) in the NaHCO3 group calculated as the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) was reduced to 75 and 68%, respectively, of the control (P<0.05). This effect was mainly due to an accelerated elimination of OA and OB in the urine. The faster renal elimination might be explained by a reduced reabsorption of the ochratoxins by nonionic diffusion, and other H(+)-dependent mechanisms. Thus, urinary alkalinization might be an efficient means to partially reduce the toxic effects and carry-over of OA in pigs.

  15. Renal venogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be black. Other structures will be shades of gray. Veins are not normally seen in an x- ... Venogram - kidney; Renal vein thrombosis - venogram Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal veins References ...

  16. Spot urine sodium measurements do not accurately estimate dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougher, Carly E; Rifkin, Dena E; Anderson, Cheryl AM; Smits, Gerard; Persky, Martha S; Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium intake influences blood pressure and proteinuria, yet the impact on long-term outcomes is uncertain in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Accurate assessment is essential for clinical and public policy recommendations, but few large-scale studies use 24-h urine collections. Recent studies that used spot urine sodium and associated estimating equations suggest that they may provide a suitable alternative, but their accuracy in patients with CKD is unknown. Objective: We compared the accuracy of 4 equations [the Nerbass, INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure), Tanaka, and Kawasaki equations] that use spot urine sodium to estimate 24-h sodium excretion in patients with moderate to advanced CKD. Design: We evaluated the accuracy of spot urine sodium to predict mean 24-h urine sodium excretion over 9 mo in 129 participants with stage 3–4 CKD. Spot morning urine sodium was used in 4 estimating equations. Bias, precision, and accuracy were assessed and compared across each equation. Results: The mean age of the participants was 67 y, 52% were female, and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 31 ± 9 mL · min–1 · 1.73 m–2. The mean ± SD number of 24-h urine collections was 3.5 ± 0.8/participant, and the mean 24-h sodium excretion was 168.2 ± 67.5 mmol/d. Although the Tanaka equation demonstrated the least bias (mean: −8.2 mmol/d), all 4 equations had poor precision and accuracy. The INTERSALT equation demonstrated the highest accuracy but derived an estimate only within 30% of mean measured sodium excretion in only 57% of observations. Bland-Altman plots revealed systematic bias with the Nerbass, INTERSALT, and Tanaka equations, underestimating sodium excretion when intake was high. Conclusion: These findings do not support the use of spot urine specimens to estimate dietary sodium intake in patients with CKD and research studies enriched with patients with CKD. The parent data for this

  17. Po-210 excretion and radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Clemente, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model is given to describe the metabolism of the 210 Po introduced into the systemic compartiments of the human body. The model has been based on the experimental data referred to the 210 Pb- 210 Po intake, excretion and body burden of members of the general italian population. The model fits also very well the experimental data of 210 Pb- 210 Po intake and excretion reported by other authors. The retention function of 210 Po in total body, soft tissue and bone has been evaluated together with the urinary excretion function and the absorbed fraction by ingestion. The model is very valuable to evaluate the lung exposure to Radon decay products on the basis of the 210 Pb- 210 Po urinary excretions

  18. Relationship Between Urinary Nitrate Excretion and Blood Pressure in the InChianti Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Miranda J; Ble, Alessandro; Melzer, David; Winyard, Paul G; Benjamin, Nigel; Shore, Angela C; Gilchrist, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic nitrate from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO) or consumed in the diet can be reduced to NO via a complex enterosalivary circulation pathway. The relationship between total nitrate exposure by measured urinary nitrate excretion and blood pressure in a large population sample has not been assessed previously. For this cross-sectional study, 24-hour urinary nitrate excretion was measured by spectrophotometry in the 919 participants from the InChianti cohort at baseline and blood pressure measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. After adjusting for age and sex only, diastolic blood pressure was 1.9 mm Hg lower in subjects with ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion compared with those excreting nitrate in 24 hours: systolic blood pressure was 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.5 to -0.4) lower in subjects for the same comparison. Effect sizes in fully adjusted models (for age, sex, potassium intake, use of antihypertensive medications, diabetes, HS-CRP, or current smoking status) were marginally larger: systolic blood pressure in the ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion group was 3.9 (CI: -7.1 to -0.7) mm Hg lower than in the comparison nitrate exposure are associated with lower blood pressure. These differences are at least equivalent to those seen from substantial (100 mmol) reductions in sodium intake. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Renal Parenchymal Hypoxia in Young Children in the Period of Complete Remission of Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis without Renal Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Lukianenko

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions. To predict the formation and for the purpose of early diagnosis of renal parenchymal hypoxia and the processes of nephrothelial membrane destruction in young children with pyelonephritis, it is recommended to use such markers, as indicators of urine ability to prevent crystal formation, daily excretion of salts, excretion of lipid peroxidation products and polar lipids in the urine. It is recommended to apply the methods to correct these changes.

  20. Estimating rumen microbial protein supply for indigenous ruminants using nuclear and purine excretion techniques in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejono, M.; Yusiati, L.M.; Budhi, S.P.S.; Widyobroto, B.P.; Bachrudin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The microbial protein supply to ruminants can be estimated based on the amount of purine derivatives (PD) excreted in the urine. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the PD excretion method for Bali and Ongole cattle. In the first experiment, six male, two year old Bali cattle (Bos sondaicus) and six Ongole cattle (Bos indicus) of similar sex and age, were used to quantify the endogenous contribution to total PD excretion in the urine. In the second experiment, four cattle from each breed were used to examine the response of PD excretion to feed intake. 14 C-uric acid was injected in one single dose to define the partitioning ratio of renal:non-renal losses of plasma PD. The third experiment was conducted to examine the ratio of purine N:total N in mixed rumen microbial population. The fourth experiment measured the enzyme activities of blood, liver and intestinal tissues concerned with PD metabolism. The results of the first experiment showed that endogenous PD excretion was 145 ± 42.0 and 132 ± 20.0 μmol/kg W 0.75 /d, for Bali and Ongole cattle, respectively. The second experiment indicated that the proportion of plasma PD excreted in the urine of Bali and Ongole cattle was 0.78 and 0.77 respectively. Hence, the prediction of purine absorbed based on PD excretion can be stated as Y = 0.78 X + 0.145 W 0.75 and Y = 0.77 X + 0.132 W 0.75 for Bali and Ongole cattle, respectively. The third experiment showed that there were no differences in the ratio of purine N:total N in mixed rumen microbes of Bali and Ongole cattle (17% vs 18%). The last experiment, showed that intestinal xanthine oxidase activity of Bali cattle was lower than that of Ongole cattle (0.001 vs 0.015 μmol uric acid produced/min/g tissue) but xanthine oxidase activity in the blood and liver of Bali cattle was higher than that of Ongole cattle (3.48 vs 1.34 μmol/min/L plasma and 0.191 vs 0.131 μmol/min/g liver tissue). Thus, there was no difference in PD excretion between these two breeds

  1. Distribution and excretion of inhaled mercury vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gage, J C

    1961-01-01

    Rats have been exposed for varying periods to an atmosphere containing 1 mg/cu.m. mercury vapor. The toxic effects produced showed resemblances to signs of mercurialism in man. An attempt has been made to study the kinetics of absorption and excretion of mercury from measurements of the amounts excreted and stored in the tissues. The efficiency of absorption of mercury by the rat lung is about 50%. A small proportion is excreted into the gut. After about 10 days of continuous exposure a steady state is reached in which excretion balances absorption. During short exposures the turnover of mercury in all tissues except brain is fairly rapid and most of the mercury is cleared from the body within a week after exposure. The urinary excretion of mercury, during the initial stage of storage in the tissues and the final stage of clearance, shows divergencies from the simple exponential pattern; there appears to be a delay mechanism in the kidney which, in intermittent exposures, may result in the occurrence of peak excretion during periods of non-exposure. After more prolonged exposures the mercury in the kidney appears to be converted to a form which is only very slowly excreted. The significance of the urinary excretion of mercury by man after industrial exposure to mercury vapour is discussed. The rat experiments suggest that single measurements will give only limited information concerning industrial conditions, but that an approximate assessment of the total absorbed during a working week would be obtained if it were possible to make a seven-day collection of urine. Repeated measurements after exposure would yield information on the duration of exposure and would have some diagnostic value.

  2. Relation between creatinine and uric acid excretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Y

    1992-01-01

    The relation between creatinine and uric acid metabolism was analysed in 77 male patients with primary gout and 62 healthy male subjects. Significant positive correlations between 24 hour urinary creatinine and uric acid excretion were shown in both groups. The mean urinary creatinine and uric acid excretions in the patients with gout were significantly increased as compared with those of normal male controls. These results suggest that there is a close correlation between creatinine and uric...

  3. The effect of puberty on diurnal sodium regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B; Kamperis, K; Ankarberg-Lindgren, C; Djurhuus, J C; Rittig, S

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of sex and puberty stage on circadian changes in sodium excretion, sodium-regulating hormones, and hemodynamics. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers (9 prepuberty boys, 10 prepuberty girls, 10 puberty boys, and 10 puberty girls) were included. They all underwent a 24-h circadian in-patient study under standardized conditions regarding activity, diet, and fluid intake. Blood samples were drawn every 4 h, and the urine was collected in fractions. Blood pressure and heart rate were noninvasively monitored. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), angiotensin II, aldosterone, and renin were measured in blood. Children in puberty had lower plasma levels of renin (Ppuberty group. There is a circadian rhythm of sodium excretion and sodium regulation in 7- to 15-yr-old children. This rhythm is similar in boys and girls. As an important new finding, puberty changes the plasma levels of renin and angiotensin II without changing the amount of sodium excreted or the day to night sodium excretion ratio. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    consumption of chocolate and cola according to general nutritional guidelines, although no studies have assessed in pediatric stone formers the effect of fruit and vegetables supplementation on urinary citrate and the effects of chocolate and cola restriction on urinary oxalate in pediatric stone formers. Despite the low level of scientific evidence, a low-protein ( 3 liters/day) is strongly advised in children with cystinuria. ELDERLY: In older patients dietary counseling for renal stone prevention has to consider some particular aspects of aging. A restriction of sodium intake in association with a higher intake of potassium, magnesium and citrate is advisable in order to reduce urinary risk factors for stone formation but also to prevent the loss of bone mass and the incidence of hypertension, although more hemodynamic sensitivity to sodium intake and decreased renal function of the elderly have to be considered. A diet rich in calcium (1200 mg/day) is useful to maintain skeletal wellness and to prevent kidney stones although an higher supplementation could involve an increase of risk for both the formation of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases. A lower content of animal protein in association to an higher intake of plant products decrease the acid load and the excretion of uric acid has no particular contraindications in the elderly patients, although overall nutritional status has to be preserved.

  5. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of chocolate and cola according to general nutritional guidelines, although no studies have assessed in pediatric stone formers the effect of fruit and vegetables supplementation on urinary citrate and the effects of chocolate and cola restriction on urinary oxalate in pediatric stone formers. Despite the low level of scientific evidence, a low-protein (< 20 g/day low-salt (< 2 g/day diet with high hydration (> 3 liters/day is strongly advised in children with cystinuria. Elderly: In older patients dietary counseling for renal stone prevention has to consider some particular aspects of aging. A restriction of sodium intake in association with a higher intake of potassium, magnesium and citrate is advisable in order to reduce urinary risk factors for stone formation but also to prevent the loss of bone mass and the incidence of hypertension, although more hemodynamic sensitivity to sodium intake and decreased renal function of the elderly have to be considered. A diet rich in calcium (1200 mg/day is useful to maintain skeletal wellness and to prevent kidney stones although an higher supplementation could involve an increase of risk for both the formation of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases. A lower content of animal protein in association to an higher intake of plant products decrease the acid load and the excretion of uric acid has no particular contraindications in the elderly patients, although overall nutritional status has to be preserved.

  6. The 57Co excretion and resorption test in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekier, A.; Holdener, E.; Kantonsspital Sankt Gallen

    1976-01-01

    1971 Sorbie et al. described a simple 57 Co-excretion test (16) as an aid in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. The authors found that renal excretion of a tracer dosis of 0,5 μCi 57 CoCl 2 was significantly elevated in patients with iron deficiency anemia (31% of the adminstered dose in 24 hours' urine) as compared with the controls (18%). Between 1972-1974 we performed the 57 Co-excretion test in 29 patients with different kind of anemia and in 10 healthy volunteers. The test was modified by measurement of the serum activity 1, 2, 3, 7, 11 and 24 hours after the oral administration of the test dosis. In all anemias as well as in the control group we found the maximum of serum activity three hours after the oral administration of the tracer. The three hours serum activity was elevated in patients with iron deficiency anemia (5.53%/l serum) as compared with the control group (1.92%/l) and renal, tumor and infectious anemia (1.20%/l) p 57 Co excretion was moderately elevated in most of the patients with iron deficiency anemia (average 31.5% 57 Co-activity in 24 hours' urine) in comparison to the healthy controls (average 25.30%). Contrary to the results obtained by Sorbie et al. we found a wide range of fluctuation of the Co-excretion test in each group of patients with a poor statistical significance of p > 0.05. (orig.) [de

  7. A novel double-tracer technique to characterize absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of [14C]tofogliflozin after oral administration and concomitant intravenous microdose administration of [13C]tofogliflozin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Dietmar; Portron, Agnes; Backholer, Zoe; Lausecker, Berthold; Kawashima, Kosuke

    2013-06-01

    Human mass balance studies and the assessment of absolute oral bioavailability (F) are usually assessed in separate studies. Intravenous microdose administration of an isotope tracer concomitant to an unlabeled oral dose is an emerging technique to assess F. We report a novel double-tracer approach implemented for tofogliflozin combining oral administration of a radiolabel tracer with concomitant intravenous administration of a stable isotope tracer. Tofogliflozin is a potent and selective sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus currently in clinical development. The objectives of the present study were to assess the systemic exposure of major circulating metabolites, excretion balance, F and contribution of renal clearance (CLR) to total clearance (CL) of tofogliflozin in healthy subjects within one study applying a novel double-tracer technique. Six healthy male subjects received 20 mg [(12)C/(14)C]tofogliflozin (3.73 MBq) orally and a concomitant microdose of 0.1 mg [(13)C]tofogliflozin intravenously. Pharmacokinetics of tofogliflozin were determined for the oral and intravenous route; the pharmacokinetics of the metabolites M1 and M5 were determined for the oral route. Quantification of [(12)C]tofogliflozin in plasma and urine and [(13)C]tofogliflozin in plasma was performed by selective LC-MS/MS methods. For the pre-selected metabolites of tofogliflozin, M1 and M5, a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was applied to plasma and urine samples. Total radioactivity was assessed in plasma, urine and feces. Pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted by non-compartmental methods. The pharmacokinetics of tofogliflozin in healthy subjects were characterized by an F of 97.5 ± 12.3 %, CL of 10.0 ± 1.3 l/h and volume of distribution at steady-state (V(ss)) of 50.6 ± 6.7 l. The main route of elimination of total drug-related material was by excretion into urine (77.0 ± 4.1 % of the dose). The

  8. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  9. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  10. Retrospective study of renal images on whole bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Munetoshi; Machida, Toyohei; Miki, Makoto; Ohishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven cases were surveyed by sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate at Jikei hospital. Renal images on whole-bone scanning were observed in all cases; 75% of all renal images were normal and 25% were abnormal. Thirteen percent of these abnormal images were symmetric and 87% were asymmetric. Four of the symmetric renal images were bilaterally bad. Three of the four bilaterally bad renal images involved prostate carcinomas with general metastases and the last involved serious bilateral hydronephrosis. The reason for the high percentage of asymmetric renal images was that the materials involved many urogenital cases. Asymmetric renal images other than the urogenital cases, were recognised in 8% of all cases. This percentage is consistent with Hattner's report. Unilateral abnormal renal images involved 8 hydronephrosis cases, 2 unilateral nonfunctioning kidneys and one malrotation kidney. Among the hydronephrosis cases, serious cases gave low uptake and mild cases gave high uptake. The reason for this phenomenon was, presumably, that there were differences in renal uptake, renal excretion and renal pelvic accumulation. In nine cases, one kidney was not visualized on whole-bone scanning, 8 of them involved nephrectomy and the remainining one unilateral nonfunctioning kidney. Six cases presented locally abnormal renal images on whole-bone scanning, three of them suffered renal cell carcinomas and the rest renal solitary cyst. Eighty-eight percent of the abnormal renal images agreed with IVP findings. The renal images of whole-bone scanning faithfully reflected the original renal lesion. Two cases of renal carcinoma and renal solitary cyst recognized on whole-bone scanning are presented, to indicate the usefulness of renal images on whole-bone scanning. (auth.)

  11. A new technique for the use of microspheres for the study of intra-cortical distribution of renal blood flow. Results for a normal and sodium overloaded rat. Report of internship performed in the Laboratoire de Physiologie Physico-Chimique (C.E.N. Saclay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poujeol, P.

    1972-06-01

    This academic work reports the simultaneous study on the same kidney of the distribution of glomerular filtrations and the distribution of blood flow rate in the renal cortex. Th author combined the technique of perfusion of sodium "1"4C ferro-cyanide which allows the measurement of individual glomerular filtrations, and a technique based on the use of microspheres which allows the assessment of blood flow distribution in the glomeruli of different nephron classes. Experiments have been performed on a normal rat, and on a rat submitted to a chronic NaCl overload [fr

  12. Effect of high saturated free fatty acids feeding on progression of renal failure in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid O. Ibraheem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the impact of high saturated fat feeding in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were randomized into four groups; the first one received the standard rodents chow for 8 weeks and was treated as control, the second group (HFDreceived an experimental high fat diet rich in palm kernel oil (40% of Calories as fat for the same period. The third group (HFDG was given 80 mg/kg (body weight/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 24 days of the feeding period while the fourth group was given gentamicin as above along with the standard rodents chow. Renal function was assessed through measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium. At the end, rats underwent a surgical procedure for blood pressure measurement. Renal function study showed a stronger nephrotoxicity for HFDG group. Hypertension was observed in HFD group while the pressure declined after gentamicin co-administration. Overall, changing the feeding behavior toward using more SAFFAs for rats injected with gentamicin promotes the progression of renal failure.

  13. Postoperative Compensatory Ammonium Excretion Subsequent to Systemic Acidosis in Cardiac Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrborn, Friederike; Dohle, Daniel-Sebastian; Waack, Indra N; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Jakob, Heinz; Teloh, Johanna K

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative acid-base imbalances, usually acidosis, frequently occur after cardiac surgery. In most cases, the human body, not suffering from any severe preexisting illnesses regarding lung, liver, and kidney, is capable of transient compensation and final correction. The aim of this study was to correlate the appearance of postoperatively occurring acidosis with renal ammonium excretion. Between 07/2014 and 10/2014, a total of 25 consecutive patients scheduled for elective isolated coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled in this prospective observational study. During the operative procedure and the first two postoperative days, blood gas analyses were carried out and urine samples collected. Urine samples were analyzed for the absolute amount of ammonium. Of all patients, thirteen patients developed acidosis as an initial disturbance in the postoperative period: five of respiratory and eight of metabolic origin. Four patients with respiratory acidosis but none of those with metabolic acidosis subsequently developed a base excess > +2 mEq/L. Ammonium excretion correlated with the increase in base excess. The acidosis origin seems to have a large influence on renal compensation in terms of ammonium excretion and the possibility of an overcorrection.

  14. Role of Renal Nerves in the Treatment of Renovascular Hypertensive Rats with L-Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Alves Gouvea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the role of renal nerves in mediating the effects of antihypertensive treatment with L-arginine in a renovascular hypertension model. The 2K1C (two-kidney one-clip model hypertensive rats were submitted to bilateral surgical-pharmacological renal denervation. The animals were subdivided into six experimental groups: normotensive control rats (SHAM, 2K1C rats, 2K1C rats treated with L-arginine (2K1C + L-arg, denervated normotensive (DN rats, denervated 2K1C (2K1C + DN rats, and denervated 2K1C + L-arg (2K1C + DN + L-arg rats. Arterial blood pressure, water intake, urine volume, and sodium excretion were measured. The 2K1C rats exhibited an increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP (from 106 ± 3 to 183 ± 5.8 mmHg, P<0.01, whereas L-arg treatment induced a reduction in the MAP (143 ± 3.4 mmHg without lowering it to the control level. Renal nerve denervation reduced the MAP to normotensive levels in 2K1C rats with or without chronic L-arg treatment. L-arg and denervation induced increases in water intake and urine volume, and L-arg caused a significant natriuretic effect. Our results suggest that renal sympathetic activity participates in the genesis and the maintenance of the hypertension and also demonstrate that treatment with L-arg alone is incapable of normalizing the MAP and that the effect of such treatment is not additive with the effect of kidney denervation.

  15. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  16. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  17. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  18. Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, M.G.; Hursh, J.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Allen, J.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma, and its excretion in urine and feces are described in five human subjects during the first 7 days following inhalation of radioactive mercury vapor. A major portion (98%) of radioactive mercury in whole blood is initially accumulated in the RBCs and is transferred partly to the plasma compartment until the ratio of mercury in RBCs to plasma is about 2 within 20 h. The cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of mercury for 7 days is about 11.6% of the retained dose, and is closely related to the percent decline in body burden of mercury. There is little correlation between either the urinary excretion and plasma radioactivity of mercury, or the specific activities of urine and plasma mercury, suggesting a mechanism other than a direct glomerular filtration involved in the urinary excretion of recently exposed mercury. These studies suggest that blood mercury levels can be used as an index of recent exposure, while urinary levels may be an index of renal concentration of mercury. However, there is no reliable index for mercury concentration in the brain

  19. Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludens, J H; Clark, M A; Lawson, J A

    1995-06-01

    Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats were observed. Effects of K+ channel modulation on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion were studied using the adenosine-triphosphate- (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel blocker 4-morpholinecarboximidine-N-1-adamantyl-N'-cyclohexylhydr ochloride (U-37883A) in conscious rats previously equipped with catheters for clearance studies. In saline-loaded rats, i.v. doses of U-37883A of 1.7, 5.0 and 15 mg/kg increased absolute and fractional Na+ excretion dose-dependently without changing K+ excretion. The glomerular filtration rate remained constant during diuresis. In water-loaded (hypotonic dextrose) rats, free-water clearance studies revealed that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker significantly decreased an index of solute reabsorption (free-water clearance adjusted for chloride clearance) in the diluting segment during peak natriuretic activity. In addition, U-37883A significantly decreased the osmolality of renal papillary interstitial fluid, indicative of an effect in the medullary portion of the diluting segment. Together, these findings suggest that ATP-sensitive K+ channels, possibly those located at the apical boarder, play a pivotal role in Na+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

  20. Ethnicity is important for creatinine excretion among Inuit and Caucasians in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Dehnfeld, Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human nutrition, contamination and renal function are commonly assessed by the analysis of urine. A complete 24-hour urine sample is the ideal but it is inconvenient and unreliable. Thus, spot urine sampling with creatinine adjustment is widely used. Stratification for age and gender is recommended. Still, ethnicity may influence creatinine excretion. We collected 104 24-h urine samples among Inuit and non-Inuit living in Greenland. Completeness of sampling was checked by using para-amino benzoic acid (PABA) that also allowed for compensation of creatinine excretion when sampling was incomplete. We measured creatinine using the Jaffe method and PABA by the HPLC method. Participants were recruited from the capital city, a major town and a settlement (n = 36/48/20). They were aged 30-69 years with 78 Inuit and 26 non-Inuit. Inuit were smaller than non-Inuit (Caucasians): height, 163 vs. 177 cm, p Inuit compared to non-Inuit (men, 1344/1807 mg/24 h; women 894/1259 mg/24 h; p = 0.002; 0.02). It was influenced by age (p Inuit diet in the adjusted analysis. Creatinine excretion was described by: Inuit men, 1925 mg - (13.1 × age); Inuit women, 1701 mg - (17.0 × age). Inuit and Caucasians have different creatinine excretion. It is recommended to stratify by ethnicity in addition to adjustment for age and gender when using creatinine correction of spot urine samples.

  1. Maggot excretions inhibit biofilm formation on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.

  2. Intestinal excretion of metals by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of 65 Zn, sup(115m)Cd, 203 Hg, 207 Bi, 210 Pb, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 85 Sr and 86 Rb in the perfused sections of the intestinal tract in vivo was investigated by the pendular perfusion method. After intravenous administration the excretion of metals was investigated in the jejunum, in the colon and in some experiments also in the ileum. The fluid net movement in the jejunum and colon was measured in dependency on the energy spectrum of the applied metal isotope by means of 14 C or 3 H-polyethylene glycol 2000. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Relationship between arterial hypertension and renal damage in chronic kidney disease: insights from ABPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Ernesto; Bellino, Diego; Amidone, Marco; Rolla, Davide; Cannella, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    To date, few studies have used ambulatory pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the start of dialysis treatment. The aim of this study was therefore to ascertain the correlates of arterial hypertension assessed by ABPM in CKD patients at their first referral to a nephrologist. We studied 244 (164 men; mean age 63 years) nondiabetic patients with CKD. Each patient had blood pres-sure (BP) measured by 24-hour ABPM, creatinine clearance (CrCl) estimated according to the Cockcroft-Gault formula, and Hgb concentration, serum lipids, iPTH, daily urinary protein (Uprot) and sodium (UNa) excretion assessed using routine methods. According to ABPM data analysis, 81 patients were normotensives, 78 were stable hypertensives, 26 had day-time hypertension and 59 had nocturnal hypertension. ANOVA showed both lower CrCl (p=0.0033), and higher Uprot (p nighttime SBP > 24-hour PP > daytime PP > daytime SBP > 24-hour SBP. In CKD patients, proteinuria is the strongest correlate of arterial hypertension and particularly of increased nocturnal PP, possibly as an expression of vascular damage. On the basis of these results, ABPM appears to be the most reliable tool for detecting the associations between raised BP (particularly nighttime hypertension) and renal damage in CKD patients not yet on renal replacement therapy (RRT).

  4. Trace elements in renal disease and hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Suwabe, Akira; Sera, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    A number of considerations suggest that trace element disturbances might occur in patients with renal disease and in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Using particle induced X-ray emission, we demonstrated the relations between serum concentration, urinary excretion of the trace elements and creatinine clearance (Ccr) in randomized 50 patients. To estimate the effects of HD, we also observed the changes of these elements in serum and dialysis fluids during HD. Urinary silicon excretion decreased, and serum silicon concentration increased as Ccr decreased, with significant correlation (r=0.702, p<0.001 and r=0.676, p<0.0001, respectively). We also observed the increase of serum silicon, and the decrease of silicon in dialysis fluids during HD. These results suggested that reduced renal function and also dialysis contributed to silicon accumulation. Although serum selenium decreased significantly according to Ccr decrease (r=0.452, p<0.01), we could detect no change in urinary selenium excretion and no transfer during HD. Serum bromine and urinary excretion of bromine did not correlate to Ccr. However we observed a bromine transfer from the serum to the dialysis fluid that contributed to the serum bromine decrease in HD patients

  5. Dietary Sodium Restriction and Association with Urinary Marinobufagenin, Blood Pressure, and Aortic Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Olga V.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Systolic BP and large elastic artery stiffness both increase with age and are reduced by dietary sodium restriction. Production of the natriuretic hormone marinobufagenin, an endogenous α1 Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, is increased in salt-sensitive hypertension and contributes to the rise in systolic BP during sodium loading. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The hypothesis was that dietary sodium restriction performed in middle-aged/older adults (eight men and three women; 60±2 years) with moderately elevated systolic BP (139±2/83±2 mmHg) would reduce urinary marinobufagenin excretion as well as systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity (randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover design). This study also explored the associations among marinobufagenin excretion with systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity across conditions of 5 weeks of a low-sodium (77±9 mmol/d) and 5 weeks of a normal-sodium (144±7 mmol/d) diet. Results Urinary marinobufagenin excretion (weekly measurements; 25.4±1.8 versus 30.7±2.1 pmol/kg per day), systolic BP (127±3 versus 138±5 mmHg), and aortic pulse-wave velocity (700±40 versus 843±36 cm/s) were lower during the low- versus normal-sodium condition (all Psodium excretion (slope=0.46, Psodium condition (both Psodium restriction reduces urinary marinobufagenin excretion and that urinary marinobufagenin excretion is positively associated with systolic BP, aortic stiffness (aortic pulse-wave velocity), and endothelial cell expression of the oxidant enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. Importantly, marinobufagenin excretion is positively related to systolic BP over ranges of sodium intake typical of an American diet, extending previous observations in rodents and humans fed experimentally high-sodium diets. PMID:23929930

  6. Distribution of glucose transporters in renal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Szablewski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Kidneys play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Renal gluconeogenesis prevents hypoglycemia by releasing glucose into the blood stream. Glucose homeostasis is also due, in part, to reabsorption and excretion of hexose in the kidney. Lipid bilayer of plasma membrane is impermeable for glucose, which is hydrophilic and soluble in water. Therefore, transport of glucose across the plasma membrane depends on carrier proteins expressed in the plasma membrane. In humans, there are three famil...

  7. Angiography in renal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Angiographies on forty cases of renal tuberculosis performed at the National Medical Center during a period 1960 through 1970 were reviewed. Abdominal angiography was performed via the femoral route. Some were followed by selective nephroangiography. All patients were subjected to urographyior to angiography. The results of X-ray findings in the forty cases with renal tuberculosis were follows. 1. The age varied 18 to 57 years, average 30.5 years. Twenty one patients were male, and nineteen were female. 2. The right kidney was involved in 17 cases and the left in 15 cases. Both kidneys were involved in 8 cases. 3. Urographic examination revealed pathologic changes in all patients. 4. Focal destruction in the collecting system was the most common finding in the urography of 16 patients. 5. A varying degree of hydronephrosis was present in 15 patients, of whom nine had complained of palpable mass due to hydronephrosis. 6. In the 7 patients with extensive destruction there was no observable excretion contrast medium from the diseased kidney. 7. Angiographic examination was normal in 6 of the 40 patients. 8. Decreased vascularity in the subsegmental or smaller arteries of the affected kidney was the most frequent finding, being found in 34 patients. 9. Occlusion or abrupt termination of the subsegmental arteries was present in 4 patients. 10. Eighteen of the patients had signs of an expansive process within the cavity, the vessels being displaced and stretched around the lesions.

  8. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  9. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  10. Study of o-125I-benzoate excretion mechanisms in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, R.; Laznicek, M.; Kvetina, J.; Laznickova, A.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the mechanisms of renal clearance of o- 125 I-benzoate in the rabbit based on the inhibition of the secretory transport by probenecid showed that o- 125 I-benzoate was eliminated in the kidneys not only by glomerular filtration but also by tubular secretion. The total amount of the drug excreted in the urine was affected by tubular resorption (apparently by the process of passive diffusion), which exceeded tubular secretion. A comparison of the chromatograms of the plasma and the urine before and after the competitive inhibition of the tubular active transport by probenecid revealed a higher amount of o- 125 I-benzoylglucuronide in the urine in the case of inhibition. The results suggest that the kidneys participated in the total biotransformation of o- 125 I-benzoate. The excretion of the original drug and metabolites in the bile contributed less than 1% to the total clearance in rabbits. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  11. Renal Morphology, Clinical Findings, and Progression Rate in Mesoamerican Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijkström, Julia; González-Quiroz, Marvin; Hernandez, Mario; Trujillo, Zulma; Hultenby, Kjell; Ring, Anneli; Söderberg, Magnus; Aragón, Aurora; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Wernerson, Annika

    2017-05-01

    Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) is a chronic kidney disease affecting rural inhabitants in Central America. We have previously described the renal morphology in 8 patients from El Salvador. To confirm the renal pathology, we have studied kidney biopsies from patients with MeN in Nicaragua. Follow-up urine and blood samples from both biopsy studies were collected to investigate the natural history. Case series. In the kidney biopsy study, 19 male sugarcane workers in Nicaragua with suspected MeN were investigated with questionnaires, kidney biopsies, and blood and urine analysis. Inclusion criteria were age 20 to 65 years and plasma creatinine level of 1.13 to 2.49mg/dL or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30 to 80mL/min/1.73m 2 . Exclusion criteria were proteinuria with protein excretion > 3g/24 h, uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other known kidney disease. In the follow up-study, blood and urine from the kidney biopsy study in Nicaragua (n=18) and our previous biopsy study of MeN cases in El Salvador (n=7) were collected 1 to 1.5 and 2 to 2.5 years after biopsy, respectively. Renal morphology, clinical, and biochemical characteristics, change in eGFR per year. eGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI creatinine (eGFR cr ), cystatin C (eGFR cys ), and creatinine-cystatin C (eGFR cr-cys ) equations. In the kidney biopsy study, participants had a mean eGFR cr of 57 (range, 33-96) mL/min/1.73m 2 . 47% had low plasma sodium and 21% had low plasma potassium levels. 16 kidney biopsies were representative and showed glomerulosclerosis (mean, 38%), glomerular hypertrophy, and signs of chronic glomerular ischemia. Mild to moderate tubulointerstitial damage and mostly mild vascular changes were seen. In the follow up-study, median duration of follow-up was 13 (range, 13-27) months. Mean change in eGFR cr was -4.4±8.4 (range, -27.7 to 10.2) mL/min/1.73m 2 per year. Most patients had stopped working with sugarcane cultivation. 3 biopsy specimens

  12. Dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy: a study on the effects of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis and renal excretory function in spiny mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; LaRosa, Domenic A; Kett, Michelle M; Della Gatta, Paul A; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence obtained from a rodent model of birth asphyxia shows that supplementation of the maternal diet with creatine during pregnancy protects the neonate from multi-organ damage. However, the effect of increasing creatine intake on creatine homeostasis and biosynthesis in females, particularly during pregnancy, is unknown. This study assessed the impact of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis, body composition, capacity for de novo creatine synthesis and renal excretory function in non-pregnant and pregnant spiny mice. Mid-gestation pregnant and virgin spiny mice were fed normal chow or chow supplemented with 5 % w/w creatine for 18 days. Weight gain, urinary creatine and electrolyte excretion were assessed during supplementation. At post mortem, body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or tissues were collected to assess creatine content and mRNA expression of the creatine synthesising enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and the creatine transporter (CrT1). Protein expression of AGAT and GAMT was also assessed by Western blot. Key findings of this study include no changes in body weight or composition with creatine supplementation; increased urinary creatine excretion in supplemented spiny mice, with increased sodium (P < 0.001) and chloride (P < 0.05) excretion in pregnant dams after 3 days of supplementation; lowered renal AGAT mRNA (P < 0.001) and protein (P < 0.001) expressions, and lowered CrT1 mRNA expression in the kidney (P < 0.01) and brain (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation had minimal impact on creatine homeostasis in either non-pregnant or pregnant spiny mice. Increasing maternal dietary creatine consumption could be a useful treatment for birth asphyxia.

  13. Renal Replacement Therapy: Purifying Efficiency of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis in Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Vega-Diaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD, a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and allow for a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane, and the preservation of residual renal function (RRF in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD is crucial for the maintenance of life quality and long-term survival. This retrospective cohort study reviews our experience in automatic peritoneal dialysis (APD patients, with end-stage renal disease (ESRD secondary to diabetic nephropathy (DN in comparison to non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN, using different PD solutions in combination. Design: Fifty-two patients, 29 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic, were included. The follow-up period was 24 months, thus serving as their own control. Results: The fraction of renal urea clearance (Kt relative to distribution volume (V (or total body water (Kt/V, or creatinine clearance relative to the total Kt/V or creatinine clearance (CrCl decreases according to loss of RRF. The loss of the slope of RRF is more pronounced in DN than in NDN patients, especially at baseline time interval to 12 months (loss of 0.29 mL/month vs. 0.13 mL/month, respectively, and is attenuated in the range from 12 to 24 months (loss of 0.13 mL/month vs. 0.09 mL/month, respectively. Diabetic patients also experienced a greater decrease in urine output compared to non-diabetic, starting from a higher baseline urine output. The net water balance was adequate in both groups during the follow up period. Regarding the balance sodium, no inter-group differences in sodium excretion over follow up period was observed. In addition, the removal of sodium in the urine output decreases with loss of renal function. The average concentration of glucose increase in the cycler in both groups (DN: baseline 1.44 ± 0

  14. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  15. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  16. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  17. A simple estimation of the renal plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinpo, Takako

    1987-01-01

    The renal plasma flow was determined conventionally by the excretive ratio to urine using a 131 I-Hippuran renogram. In this report, we proposed the renal clearance, the product of the disappearance rate coefficient and the maximum counts of the bladder, for the simple quantitative value of renal plasma flow. The disappearance rate coefficient was calculated by approximating the exponential function of the initial slope from the disappearance curve of the heart. The renal clearances was compared with the renal plasma flow calculated by the conventional method. The results gave a high correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. The renal clearances can be calculated easily and it offers useful renogram information. (author)

  18. Renal microvascular disease in an aging population: a reversible process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrakul, Narisa; Futrakul, Prasit

    2008-01-01

    Renal microvascular disease and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are usually demonstrated in aging in humans and animals. It has recently been proposed that renal microvascular disease is the crucial determinant of tubulointerstitial disease or fibrosis. Enhanced circulating endothelial cell loss is a biomarker that reflects glomerular endothelial injury or renal microvascular disease, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) is a sensitive biomarker that reflects an early stage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In aging in humans, both of these biomarkers are abnormally elevated. In addition, a glomerular endothelial dysfunction determined by altered hemodynamics associated with peritubular capillary flow reduction is substantiated. A correction of such hemodynamic alteration with vasodilators can effectively improve renal perfusion and restore renal function. Thus, anti-aging therapy can reverse the renal microvascular disease and dysfunction associated with the aging process.

  19. Renal aging in WKY rats: changes in Na+,K+ -ATPase function and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E; Pinto, V; Simão, S; Serrão, M P; Afonso, J; Amaral, J; Pinho, M J; Gomes, P; Soares-da-Silva, P

    2010-12-01

    It has been suggested that alterations in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase mediate the development of several aging-related pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Thus, we evaluated Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function and H(2)O(2) production in the renal cortex and medulla of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats at 13, 52 and 91 weeks of age. Creatinine clearance, proteinuria, urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+) and fractional excretion of Na(+) were also determined. The results show that at 91 weeks old WKY rats had increased creatinine clearance and did not have proteinuria. Despite aging having had no effect on urinary Na(+) excretion, urinary K(+) excretion was increased and fractional Na(+) excretion was decreased with age. In renal proximal tubules and isolated renal cortical cells, 91 week old rats had decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity when compared to 13 and 52 week old rats. In renal medulla, 91 week old rats had increased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, paralleled by an increase in protein expression of α(1)-subunit of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. In addition, renal H(2)O(2) production increased with age and at 91 weeks of age renal medulla H(2)O(2) production was significantly higher than renal cortex production. The present work demonstrates that although at 91 weeks of age WKY rats were able to maintain Na(+) homeostasis, aging was accompanied by alterations in renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function. The observed increase in oxidative stress may account, in part, for the observed changes. Possibly, altered Na(+),K(+)-ATPase renal function may precede the development of age-related pathologies and loss of renal function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect and mechanism of dioscin from Dioscorea spongiosa on uric acid excretion in animal model of hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Jin, Lijun; Liu, Jinchang; Wang, Wei; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jian; Chen, Qian; Wang, Tao

    2018-03-25

    Dioscin, a spirostane glycoside, the rhizoma of Dioscorea septemloba (Diocoreacea) is used for diuresis, rheumatism, and joints pain. Given the poor solubility and stability of Dioscin, we proposed a hypothesis that Dioscin's metabolite(s) are the active substance(s) in vivo to contribute to the reducing effects on serum uric acid levels. The aim of this study is to identify the active metabolite(s) of Dioscin in vivo and to explore the mechanism of its antihyperuricemic activity. After oral administration of Dioscin in potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia rats and adenine-PO induced hyperuricemia mice models, serum uric acid and creatinine levels, clearance of uric acid and creatinine, fractional excretion of uric acid, and renal pathological lesions were determined were used to evaluate the antihyperuricemic effects. Renal glucose transporter-9 (GLUT-9) and organic anion transporter-1 (OAT-1) expressions were analyzed by western blotting method. Renal uric acid excretion was evaluated using stably urate transporter-1 (URAT-1) transfected human epithelial kidney cell line. Intestinal uric acid excretion was evaluated by measuring the transcellular transport of uric acid in HCT116 cells. In hyperuricemia rats, both 25 and 50mg/kg of oral Dioscin decreased serum uric acid levels over 4h. In the hyperuricemia mice, two weeks treatment of Dioscin significantly decreased serum uric acid and creatinine levels, increased clearance of uric acid and creatinine, increased fractional excretion of uric acid, and reduced renal pathological lesions caused by hyperuricemia. In addition, renal GLUT -9 was significantly down-regulated and OAT-1 was up-regulated in Dioscin treated hyperuricemia mice. Dioscin's metabolite Tigogenin significantly inhibited uric acid re-absorption via URAT1 from 10 to 100μM. Diosgenin and Tigogenin increased uric acid excretion via ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2). Decreasing effect of Dioscin on serum uric acid level and

  1. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anke M; Kremer, Stefanie; van Stipriaan, Willeke L; Noort, Martijn W J; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2015-10-01

    Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consuming reduced-sodium lunches on 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. A single-blind randomized controlled pretest-posttest design with two parallel treatment groups was used. Participants chose foods in an experimental real-life canteen setting at the Restaurant of the Future in Wageningen, the Netherlands, from May 16 until July 1, 2011. After a run-in period with regular foods for both groups, the intervention group (n=36) consumed foods with 29% to 61% sodium reduction (some were partially flavor compensated). The control group (n=38) continued consuming regular foods. Outcomes for assessment of acceptance were the amount of foods consumed, energy and sodium intake, remembered food liking, and intensity of sensory aspects. Influence on daily dietary sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Between and within-subject comparisons were assessed by analysis of covariance. Energy intake and amount consumed of each food category per lunch remained similar for both groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group's sodium intake per lunch was significantly reduced by -1,093 mg (adjusted difference) (95% CI -1,285 to -901), equivalent to 43 mmol sodium. Remembered food liking, taste intensity, and saltiness were scored similarly for almost all of the reduced-sodium foods compared with the regular foods. After consuming reduced-sodium lunches, compared with the control group, intervention participants' 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lower by -40 mEq (adjusted difference) (95% CI -63 to -16) than after consuming regular lunches, and this reflects a decreased daily sodium intake of 1 g. Comparing the two treatment groups, consumption of reduced-sodium

  2. Hormonal derangement and abnormal renal haemodynamics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seconds under pentobarbital anaesthesia. A reduction in urinary kallikrein excretion was found (P<0.05) while the renal cortex kallikrein activity remained normal one hour after scalding. An increase in plasma renin activity (P<0.05) and a marked increase in plasma Beta-endorphin concentration (P<0.005) was observed.

  3. Renal clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-diphosphonate in human beings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattimo, A.

    1987-12-01

    The renal clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP was measured in 13 patients who had bone scans and compared with the renal clearance of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. No difference was found between the renal clearance of the two tracers, showing a close correlation (r = 0.98). These data suggest that the /sup 99m/Tc-MDP is excreted by the kidneys by glomerular filtration without tubular secretion.

  4. Renal clearance of 99mTc-methylene-diphosphonate in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattimo, A.

    1987-01-01

    The renal clearance of 99m Tc-MDP was measured in 13 patients who had bone scans and compared with the renal clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA. No difference was found between the renal clearance of the two tracers, showing a close correlation (r = 0.98). These data suggest that the 99m Tc-MDP is excreted by the kidneys by glomerular filtration without tubular secretion. (orig.) [de

  5. Urinary albumin excretion and its relation with C-reactive protein and the metabolic syndrome in the prediction Of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsma, AH; Bakker, SJL; Hillege, HL; De Zeeuw, D; De Jong, PE; Gansevoort, RT

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To investigate urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and its relation with C-reactive protein (CRP) and the metabolic syndrome in the prediction of the development of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We used data from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End Stage Disease

  6. Prognosis for recovery of function in acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, T.H. Jr.; Hiesterman, D.R.; Robinson, R.G.; Cross, D.E.; Whittier, F.C.; Diederich, D.A.; Grantham, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-four survivors of acute, nonobstructive, nonnephritic renal failure had a renal scan using iodohippurate sodium I 131 performed early in the acute illness. Scans were judged according to whether the renal images were prominent, faint, or absent during the first 30 minutes after intravenous injection of 100 to 250 microcuries of iodohippurate sodium I 131. All ten patients with prominent renal images attained life-sustaining renal function with an average postrecovery creatinine clearance of 80 ml/min. Of the seven patients with faint renal images, six recovered life-sustaining renal function (average creatinine clearance of 39 ml/min), and one required chronic hemodialysis. Seven patients had no renal image initially; four recovered life-sustaining renal function with an average creatinine clearance of 25 ml/min; three required chronic hemodialysis. We conclude that, for patients with acute renal failure, the appearance of the renal image obtained using this substance is an important indicator of renal viability and of the likelihood for functional recovery

  7. Pathophysiology of incomplete renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers: evidence of disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Bollerslev, Jens; Hansen, A B

    1993-01-01

    Urinary acidification, bone metabolism and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 recurrent stone formers with incomplete renal tubular acidosis (iRTA), 10 recurrent stone formers with normal urinary acidification (NUA) and 10 normal controls (NC). Patients with iRTA had...

  8. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.F. de; Schonewille, M.; Boesjes, M.; Wolters, H.; Bloks, V.W.; Bos, T.; Dijk, T.H. van; Jurdzinski, A.; Boverhof, R.; Wolters, J.C.; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Elferink, R.P.; Moschetta, A.; Kremoser, C.; Verkade, H.J.; Kuipers, F.; Groen, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis increasingly is recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE)

  9. Method for obtaining more precise measures of excreted organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for concentrating and measuring excreted organic carbon by lyophilization and scintillation counting is efficient, improves measurable radioactivity, and increases precision for estimates of organic carbon excreted by phytoplankton and macrophytes

  10. Excretion and toxicity evaluation of 131I-Sennoside A as a necrosis-avid agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiqi; Sun, Lidan; Jin, Qiaomei; Song, Shaoli; Feng, Yuanbo; Liao, Hong; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei

    2017-11-01

    1. Sennoside A (SA) is a newly identified necrosis-avid agent that shows capability for imaging diagnosis and tumor necrosis targeted radiotherapy. As a water-soluble compound, 131 I-Sennoside A ( 131 I-SA) might be excreted predominately through the kidneys with the possibility of nephrotoxicity. 2. To further verify excretion pathway and examine nephrotoxicity of 131 I-SA, excretion and nephrotoxicity were appraised. The pharmacokinetics, hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity of 131 I-SA were also evaluated to accelerate its possible clinical translation. All these studies were conducted in mice with ethanol-induced muscular necrosis following a single intravenous administration of 131I-SA at 18.5 MBq/kg or 370 MBq/kg. 3. Excretion data revealed that 131 I-SA was predominately (73.5% of the injected dose (% ID)) excreted via the kidneys with 69.5% ID detected in urine within 72 h post injection. Biodistribution study indicated that 131 I-SA exhibited initial high distribution in the kidneys but subsequently a fast renal clearance, which was further confirmed by the results of autoradiography and single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) imaging. The maximum necrotic to normal muscle ratio reached to 7.9-fold at 48 h post injection, which further verified the necrosis avidity of 131 I-SA. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed that 131 I-SA had fast blood clearance with an elimination half-life of 6.7 h. Various functional indexes were no significant difference (p > 0.05) between before administration and 1 d, 8 d, 16 d after administration. Histopathology showed no signs of tissue damage. 4. These data suggest 131 I-SA is a safe and promising necrosis-avid agent applicable in imaging diagnosis and tumor necrosis targeted radiotherapy.

  11. Uric Acid Excretion Predicts Increased Blood Pressure Among American Adolescents of African Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal; Morris, Anjana Madan; Reynolds, Nina; Patel, Anita; Hill, Danielle C; Feig, Daniel I

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia predicts the incidence of hypertension in adults and its treatment has blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in adolescents. To date, no studies have examined the predictive usage of hyperuricemia or urinary uric acid excretion on BP changes in adolescents. Mechanistic models suggest that uric acid impairs both endothelial function and vascular compliance, which would potentially exacerbate a myriad of hypertensive mechanisms, yet little is known about interaction of uric acid and other hypertension risk factors. The primary study was aimed at the effects of stress on BP in adolescents. A community sample of 84 low-income, urban adolescents (50% male, 95% African American, mean age = 13.36 ± 1 years) was recruited from public schools. Youth completed a 12-hour (overnight) urine collection at home and their BP was measured during rest and in response to acute psychosocial stress. Seventy-six of the adolescents participated in a follow-up visit at 1.5 years when their resting BP was reassessed. In this substudy, we assessed the relationship of renal urate excretion and BP reactivity. After adjusting for resting BP levels at baseline and other covariates, higher levels of uric acid excretion predicted greater BP reactivity to acute psychosocial stress and higher resting BP at 18 months. Urinary excretion of uric acid can serve as an alternative, noninvasive measure of serum uric acid levels that are predictive of BP changes. As hyperuricemia-associated hypertension is treatable, urban adolescents may benefit from routine screening for hyperuricemia or high uric acid excretion. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Renal albumin absorption in physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, H; Christensen, E I

    2006-02-01

    Albumin is the most abundant plasmaprotein serving multiple functions as a carrier of metabolites, hormones, vitamins, and drugs, as an acid/base buffer, as antioxidant and by supporting the oncotic pressure and volume of the blood. The presence of albumin in urine is considered to be the result of the balance between glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. Albuminuria has been accepted as an independent risk factor and a marker for renal as well as cardiovascular disease, and during the past decade, evidence has suggested that albumin itself may cause progression of renal disease. Thus, the reduction of proteinuria and, in particular, albuminuria has become a target in itself to prevent deterioration of renal function. Studies have shown albumin and its ligands to induce expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators, and it has been hypothesized that increased filtration of albumin causes excessive tubular reabsorption, resulting in inflammation and fibrosis, resulting in the loss of renal function. In addition, it is known that tubular dysfunction in itself may cause albuminuria owing to decreased reabsorption of filtered albumin, and, recently, it has been suggested that significant amounts of albumin fragments are excreted in the urine as a result of tubular degradation. Thus, although both tubular and glomerular dysfunction influences renal handling of albumin, it appears that tubular reabsorption plays a central role in mediating the effects of albumin on renal function. The present paper will review the mechanisms for tubular albumin uptake and the possible implications for the development of renal disease.

  13. L-arginine does not prevent the renal effects of endothelin in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, J. A.; Rabelink, A. J.; Kaasjager, K. A.; Koomans, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    The infusion of endothelin to obtain plasma levels as present in sodium-retaining conditions such as heart failure and hepatorenal syndrome has been shown to cause sodium retention and renal vasoconstriction. Whether these renal effects of endothelin could be modulated by the stimulation of nitric

  14. Isotonic and hypertonic sodium loading in supine humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Jensen, T U; Bestle, M H

    1999-01-01

    extracellular volume were administered intravenously over 90 min either as isotonic saline or as hypertonic saline (850 mmol L(-1)). A third series without saline infusion served as time control. Experiments lasted 8 h. Water balance and sodium loads were maintained by replacing the excreted amounts every hour...

  15. Antiorthostatic immobilization with varied sodium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Haditsch, B.; Pilz, K.; Rössler, A.; Laszlo, Z.

    The study investigated, in 10 normotensive male persons, heart rate responses to graded lower body suction (LBNP) with adaptation to various oral sodium clamping during both ambulatory (AMB) conditions for 4 days, and thereafter to additional antiorthostatic (6° head down) positioning. A ,low' (LS: 143+/-10 mM Na +/ d excreted) and a ,high' (HS: 434+/-17 mM Na +/d excreted) sodium treatment - in randomized order and separated =1 mo - followed a ,conditioning' run with moderate sodium (237+/-9 mM Na +/d excreted). Urinary volume and sodium output were monitored, hormone levels (PRA, aldosterone, AVP) determined, and extracellular volume (ECV) estimated by whole body electrical impedance spectroscopy. ECV was not differently reduced (p>0.1) in LS (-5.8+/-2.3%, p=0.018) and HS (-4.0+/-1.0%. p=0.002). Morning AVP was lower (5.5+/-0.1 pg/ml) in HS than in LS (7.2+/-0.3 pg/ml; N=7 days), as well as aldosterone (69+/-7 pg/ml in HS vs. 180+/-24 pg/ml in LS). LBNP dose responses of PRA and aldosterone were higher in LS than HS after 8 days AOB, whereas microvascular fluid filtration was unchanged by any experimental condition. Heart rate responses to LBNP were unchanged by sodium supply, whereas mean arterial and pulse pressure was lower in LS than HS during all LBNP intensities. Thus, HS was able to increase arterial blood and pulse pressure and reduced PRA and aldosterone levels during graded simulated orthostatic challenge, but did neither ameliorate AOB-induced ECV decrease nor alter LBNP-induced filtration and heart rate responses. These results are relevant for planning of future countermeasures in astronauts. Supported by the Austrian Research Fund (P13451-MED)

  16. Kidney volume in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with normal or increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hegedüs, L; Mathiesen, E R

    1991-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and 14 normal subjects had renal volume determined by an ultrasonic technique. Renal volume of 299 +/- 49 ml/1.73 m2 (mean +/- SD) in type 1 diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion exceeded that in the normal...... subjects (245 +/- 53 ml/1.73 m2, p less than 0.05). Compared with diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion, renal volume was significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria (372 +/- 24 ml/1.73 m2, p less than 0.05) and patients with clinical nephropathy (352 +/- 48 ml/1.73 m2, p less...... than 0.05). In a multiple linear regression with HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion, age, diabetes duration and mean blood pressure as independent variables, variations in HbA1c could account for 33% of the variations in kidney volume (n = 47, r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). The other variables played...

  17. Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S.; Palermo, Nancy J.; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Rasmussen, Helen M.; Dallal, Gerard E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium bicarbonate and its components on changes in bone resorption and calcium excretion over 3 months in older men and women. Design, Participants, and Intervention: In this double-blind, controlled trial, 171 men and women age 50 and older were randomized to receive placebo or 67.5 mmol/d of potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or potassium chloride for 3 months. All subjects received calcium (600 mg of calcium as triphosphate) and 525 IU of vitamin D3 daily. Main Outcome Measures: Twenty-four-hour urinary N-telopeptide and calcium were measured at entry and after 3 months. Changes in these measures were compared across treatment groups in the 162 participants included in the analyses. Results: Bicarbonate affected the study outcomes, whereas potassium did not; the two bicarbonate groups and the two no bicarbonate groups were therefore combined. Subjects taking bicarbonate had significant reductions in urinary N-telopeptide and calcium excretion, when compared with subjects taking no bicarbonate (both before and after adjustment for baseline laboratory value, sex, and changes in urinary sodium and potassium; P = 0.001 for both, adjusted). Potassium supplementation did not significantly affect N-telopeptide or calcium excretion. Conclusions: Bicarbonate, but not potassium, had a favorable effect on bone resorption and calcium excretion. This suggests that increasing the alkali content of the diet may attenuate bone loss in healthy older adults. PMID:18940881

  18. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  19. PET/CT in renal, bladder and testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Physician, Chief; Choyke, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/CT is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in uro-oncology as well. In both bladder and renal cancer there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with only limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced in these malignancies. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder and testicular cancer. PMID:26099672

  20. [Renal hemodynamics and albuminuria in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stríbrná, J; Englis, M; Peregrin, J; Belán, A; Růzicka, M

    1995-12-06

    The cause of hyperalbuminuria in hypertonic patients can be functional or irreversible structural changes. The objective of the present investigation was an attempt to differentiate these two possibilities by comparing data of hypertonic patients with normal albuminuria (albumin excretion value for microalbuminuria. The results suggest that microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients is as a rule a manifestation of structural renal changes, while also functional and reversible changes participate. The asset of treatment of hypertension by angioplasty of the renal arteries was manifested not only in the renal haemodynamics but also by reduced albuminuria.

  1. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  2. Role of NH3 and NH4+ transporters in renal acid-base transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Verlander, Jill W

    2011-01-01

    Renal ammonia excretion is the predominant component of renal net acid excretion. The majority of ammonia excretion is produced in the kidney and then undergoes regulated transport in a number of renal epithelial segments. Recent findings have substantially altered our understanding of renal ammonia transport. In particular, the classic model of passive, diffusive NH3 movement coupled with NH4+ "trapping" is being replaced by a model in which specific proteins mediate regulated transport of NH3 and NH4+ across plasma membranes. In the proximal tubule, the apical Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE-3, is a major mechanism of preferential NH4+ secretion. In the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, the apical Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, NKCC2, is a major contributor to ammonia reabsorption and the basolateral Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE-4, appears to be important for basolateral NH4+ exit. The collecting duct is a major site for renal ammonia secretion, involving parallel H+ secretion and NH3 secretion. The Rhesus glycoproteins, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), are recently recognized ammonia transporters in the distal tubule and collecting duct. Rhcg is present in both the apical and basolateral plasma membrane, is expressed in parallel with renal ammonia excretion, and mediates a critical role in renal ammonia excretion and collecting duct ammonia transport. Rhbg is expressed specifically in the basolateral plasma membrane, and its role in renal acid-base homeostasis is controversial. In the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase enables active basolateral NH4+ uptake. In addition to these proteins, several other proteins also contribute to renal NH3/NH4+ transport. The role and mechanisms of these proteins are discussed in depth in this review.

  3. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  4. Decrease in urinary creatinine excretion in early stage chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tynkevich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD. We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. METHODS: We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR by (51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. RESULTS: Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3 ± 3.1 to 12.1 ± 3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.04 mmol/kg/24 h in men, with mGFR falling from ≥ 60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2, and from 9.6 ± 1.9 to 7.6 ± 2.5 (0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.12 ± 0.03 in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53 ± 0.12 mL/min/1.73 m(2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28 ± 0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass.

  5. Effects of the vasopressin agonist terlipressin on plasma cAMP and ENaC excretion in the urine in patients with cirrhosis and water retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Pedersen, Erling B; Møller, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue used for its potent V1a effects in cirrhotic patients. Recent data suggest that terlipressin has affinity to renal V2 receptors and modulates Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression and free water clearance. Stimulation of renal V2 receptors may also affect sodium...

  6. Elimination of 3H-methylguanidine at limited renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The serum levels, hepatic and renal excretions and the tissue concentrations of 3 H methyl guanidine 60 to 90 minutes after intravenous injection were measured in rats with healthy kidneys and rats with experimental renal insufficiences. The following results were obtained: Methyl guanidine is quickly eliminated through the kidney and the liver of organisms with healthy kidneys. In the case of experimental renal insufficiency, the renal excretion of methyl guanidine is reduced, whilst the hepatic excretion is increased. Methyl guanidine is subject to an enterohepatic circuit. Methyl guanidine can accumulate to much higher levels in various tissues examined than in serum. The highest organ accumulation level of methyl guanidine was found in the case of renal insufficiency. The most important finding of the study accordingly is the partial rehabilitation of methyl guanidine as a potential uremic poison. In the author's opinion, too much attention has so far been paid to the serum concentration, and too little attention to the tissue level of the substance. (orig.) [de

  7. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  8. The intrinsic renal compartment syndrome: new perspectives in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrler, Tanja; Tischer, Anne; Meyer, Andreas; Feiler, Sergej; Guba, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Rentsch, Markus; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2010-01-15

    Inflammatory edema after ischemia-reperfusion may impair renal allograft function after kidney transplantation. This study examines the effect of edema-related pressure elevation on renal function and describes a simple method to relieve pressure within the renal compartment. Subcapsular pressure at 6, 12, 24, 48 hr, and 18 days after a 45 min warm ischemia was determined in a murine model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Renal function was measured by Tc-MAG3 scintigraphy and laser Doppler perfusion. Structural damage was assessed by histologic analysis. As a therapeutic approach, parenchymal pressure was relieved by a standardized circular 0.3 mm incision at the lower pole of the kidney capsule. Compared with baseline (0.9+/-0.3 mm Hg), prolonged ischemia was associated with a sevenfold increase in subcapsular pressure 6 hr after ischemia (7.0+/-1.0 mm Hg; P<0.001). Pressure levels remained significantly elevated for 24 hr. Without therapy, a significant decrease in functional parameters was found with considerably reduced tubular excretion rate (33+/-3.5%, P<0.001) and renal perfusion (64.5+/-6.8%, P<0.005). Histologically, severe tissue damage was found. Surgical pressure relief was able to significantly prevent loss of tubular excretion rate (62.5+/-6.8%, P<0.05) and renal blood flow (96.2+/-4.8%; P<0.05) and preserved the integrity of renal structures. Our data support the hypothesis of the existence of a renal compartment syndrome as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Surgical pressure relief effectively prevented functional and structural renal impairment, and we speculate that this approach might be of value for improving graft function after renal transplantation.

  9. Renal Control of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. PMID:25287933

  10. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  11. Efeitos do pneumoperitônio sobre a hemodinâmica e função renais de cães ventilados com volume e pressão controlados Efectos del pneumoperitonio sobre la hemodinámica y función renal de perros ventilados con volumen y presión controlados Effects of pneumoperitoneum on renal hemodynamics and function of dogs under volume and pressure-controlled ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Vieira de Almeida

    2004-06-01

    hemodynamics and function changes in dogs under volume and pressure controlled ventilation. METHODS: This study involved 16 dogs anesthetized with sodium thiopental and fentanyl, which were divided in two groups: Group 1: volume controlled; and Group 2: pressure controlled, both submitted to 10 and 15 mmHg pneumoperitoneum. The following parameters were evaluated: renal blood flow, renal vascular resistance, sodium para-aminohippurate clearance, plasma sodium, plasma potassium, plasma osmolality, creatinine clearance, filtration fraction, urinary volume, urinary clearance, osmolar clearance, free water clearance, sodium clearance, sodium urinary excretion, sodium fractional excretion, potassium clearance, potassium urinary excretion and potassium fractional excretion. Data were collected in 4 moments: M1 before pneumoperitoneum, M2, 30 minutes after 10 mmHg pneumoperitoneum, M3, 30 minutes after 15 mmHg pneumoperitoneum, M4, 30 minutes after pneumoperitoneum deflation. RESULTS: Sodium para-aminohippurate and creatinine clearance remained constant for both groups throughout the experiment. Plasma sodium and potassium were not changed. There has been potassium clearance and fractional excretion decrease as from M2 in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Ventilatory modes have not promoted renal hemodynamic differences between groups. Pneumoperitoneum, by compressing renal parenchyma, may have determined changes in potassium reabsorption and/or secretion.

  12. The influence of septal lesions on sodium and water retention induced by Walker 256 tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guimarães

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of studies on the effects of septal area lesions on neuroimmunomodulation and Walker 256 tumor development, it was observed that tumor-induced sodium and water retention was less marked in lesioned than in non-lesioned rats. In the present study possible mechanisms involved in this phenomenon were investigated. The experiments were performed in septal-lesioned (LW; N = 15 and sham-operated (SW; N = 7 8-week-old male Wistar rats, which received multifocal simultaneous subcutaneous (sc inoculations of Walker 256 tumor cells about 30 days after the stereotaxic surgery. Control groups (no tumor, sham-operated food-restricted (SFR, N = 7 and lesioned food-restricted (LFR, N = 10 were subjected to a feeding pattern similar to that observed in tumor-bearing animals. Multifocal inoculation of Walker 256 tumor rapidly induces anorexia, which is paradoxically accompanied by an increase in body weight, as a result of renal Na+ and fluid retention. These effects of the tumor were also seen in LW rats, although the rise in fractional sodium balance during the early clinical period was significantly smaller than in SW rats (day 4: SW = 47.6 ± 6.4% and LW = 13.8 ± 5.2%; day 5: SW = 57.5 ± 3.5% and LW = 25.7 ± 4.8%; day 6: SW = 54.4 ± 3.8% and LW = 32.1 ± 4.4%; P<0.05, suggesting a temporary reduction in tumor-induced sodium retention. In contrast, urine output was significantly reduced in SW rats and increased in LW rats (LW up to -0.85 and SW up to 4.5 ml/100 g body weight, with no change in osmolar excretion. These temporary changes in the tumor's effects on LW rats may reflect a "reversal" of the secondary central antidiuretic response induced by the tumor (from antidiuretic to diuretic.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-01-02

    Jan 2, 2000 ... Nosocomial viral hepatitis and infections transmitted by blood and blood ... absence of liver disease contributes to changes in renal function and renal ... sodium excretion with a reduction in water excretion, while the PAH and ...

  14. Inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption as a novel treatment for diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Cersosimo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the kidney in glucose homeostasis has been recognized for many years. Recent observations indicating a greater role of renal glucose metabolism in various physiologic and pathologic conditions have rekindled the interest in renal glucose handling as a potential target for the treatment of diabetes. The enormous capacity of the proximal tubular cells to reabsorb the filtered glucose load entirely, utilizing the sodium-glucose co-transporter system (primarily SGLT-2, became the focus of attention. Original studies conducted in experimental animals with the nonspecific SGLT inhibitor phlorizin showed that hyperglycemia after pancreatectomy decreased as a result of forced glycosuria. Subsequently, several compounds with more selective SGLT-2 inhibition properties (“second-generation” were developed. Some agents made it into pre-clinical and clinical trials and a few have already been approved for commercial use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In general, a 6-month period of therapy with SGLT-2 inhibitors is followed by a mean urinary glucose excretion rate of ~80 g/day accompanied by a decline in fasting and postprandial glucose with average decreases in HgA1C ~1.0%. Concomitant body weight loss and a mild but consistent drop in blood pressure also have been reported. In contrast, transient polyuria, thirst with dehydration and occasional hypotension have been described early in the treatment. In addition, a significant increase in the occurrence of uro-genital infections, particularly in women has been documented with the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors. Conclusion: Although long-term cardiovascular, renal and bone/mineral effects are unknown SGLT-2 inhibitors, if used with caution and in the proper patient provide a unique insulin-independent therapeutic option in the management of obese type 2 diabetes patients.

  15. Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GHA) renal uptake: Influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m-GHA is widely used for renal imaging but little is known about its handling by the kidney. Simultaneous single injection clearances of Tc-99m-GHA and I-125 Iothalamate were performed on 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats divided among six groups: I Control; II Dehydrated; III Mannitol infusion; IV Probenecid; V Alkaline urine (sodium bicarbonate); and VI Acid urine (ammonium chloride). Plasma concentration and urine excretion were followed during 80 minutes post injection. The livers and kidneys were removed and counted 120 minutes post injection. Total clearance of GHA was lower than Iothalamate in controls (0.90 +- 0.24 S.D. ml/min/100gr vs 1.47 +- 0.18, p < 0.005) but clearance of the protein free supernate was higher (1.67 +- 0.28 p=N.S.) raising a possibility of degree of tubular secretion. Unlike Tc-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) acidification of the urine appeared to have no effect on the amount of GHA in the urine (66.1 +- 6.35% Inj. dose vs 67.19 +- 6.05 p=n.s.) and hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1%. Kidney uptake of GHA was 11.16 +- 1.53 (% Inj. dose) in controls. This varied slightly among groups but was markedly reduced by Probenecid blockade (4.08 +- 1.75, p < 0.0005). It appears that liver uptake of GHA is minimal, the non-protein bound fraction is freely filtered and its clearance correlates significantly with the GFR. Importantly renal accumulation of GHA is blocked by probenecid suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by the enzyme system involved in PAH and Hippuran transport. It thus appears that measurement of renal function with GHA represents a different aspect of function than DMSA

  16. Increase in SGLT1-mediated transport explains renal glucose reabsorption during genetic and pharmacological SGLT2 inhibition in euglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Timo; Masuda, Takahiro; Gerasimova, Maria; Mayoux, Eric; Platt, Kenneth; Powell, David R.; Thomson, Scott C.; Koepsell, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    In the kidney, the sodium-glucose cotransporters SGLT2 and SGLT1 are thought to account for >90 and ∼3% of fractional glucose reabsorption (FGR), respectively. However, euglycemic humans treated with an SGLT2 inhibitor maintain an FGR of 40–50%, mimicking values in Sglt2 knockout mice. Here, we show that oral gavage with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I) dose dependently increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in wild-type (WT) mice. The dose-response curve was shifted leftward and the maximum response doubled in Sglt1 knockout (Sglt1−/−) mice. Treatment in diet with the SGLT2-I for 3 wk maintained 1.5- to 2-fold higher urine glucose/creatinine ratios in Sglt1−/− vs. WT mice, associated with a temporarily greater reduction in blood glucose in Sglt1−/− vs. WT after 24 h (−33 vs. −11%). Subsequent inulin clearance studies under anesthesia revealed free plasma concentrations of the SGLT2-I (corresponding to early proximal concentration) close to the reported IC50 for SGLT2 in mice, which were associated with FGR of 64 ± 2% in WT and 17 ± 2% in Sglt1−/−. Additional intraperitoneal application of the SGLT2-I (maximum effective dose in metabolic cages) increased free plasma concentrations ∼10-fold and reduced FGR to 44 ± 3% in WT and to −1 ± 3% in Sglt1−/−. The absence of renal glucose reabsorption was confirmed in male and female Sglt1/Sglt2 double knockout mice. In conclusion, SGLT2 and SGLT1 account for renal glucose reabsorption in euglycemia, with 97 and 3% being reabsorbed by SGLT2 and SGLT1, respectively. When SGLT2 is fully inhibited by SGLT2-I, the increase in SGLT1-mediated glucose reabsorption explains why only 50–60% of filtered glucose is excreted. PMID:24226519

  17. The metabolic and renal effects of adrenaline and milrinone in patients with myocardial dysfunction after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringlake, Matthias; Wernerus, Marit; Grünefeld, Julia; Klaus, Stephan; Heinze, Hermann; Bechtel, Matthias; Bahlmann, Ludger; Poeling, Jochen; Schön, Julika

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Myocardial dysfunction necessitating inotropic support is a typical complication after on-pump cardiac surgery. This prospective, randomized pilot study analyzes the metabolic and renal effects of the inotropes adrenaline and milrinone in patients needing inotropic support after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods During an 18-month period, 251 patients were screened for low cardiac output upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission after elective, isolated CABG surgery. Patients presenting with a cardiac index (CI) of less than 2.2 liters/minute per square meter upon ICU admission – despite adequate mean arterial (titrated with noradrenaline or sodium nitroprusside) and filling pressures – were randomly assigned to 14-hour treatment with adrenaline (n = 7) or milrinone (n = 11) to achieve a CI of greater than 3.0 liters/minute per square meter. Twenty patients not needing inotropes served as controls. Hemodynamics, plasma lactate, pyruvate, glucose, acid-base status, insulin requirements, the urinary excretion of alpha-1-microglobuline, and creatinine clearance were determined during the treatment period, and cystatin-C levels were determined up to 48 hours after surgery (follow-up period). Results After two to four hours after ICU admission, the target CI was achieved in both intervention groups and maintained during the observation period. Plasma lactate, pyruvate, the lactate/pyruvate ratio, plasma glucose, and insulin doses were higher (p milrinone or control conditions. The urinary excretion of alpha-1-microglobuline was higher in the adrenaline than in the control group 6 to 14 hours after admission (p milrinone or the control group after 48 hours (p milrinone – is associated with unwarranted metabolic and renal effects. Clinical trials registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00446017. PMID:17470271

  18. Purinergic Signalling in Inflammatory Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishkantha eArulkumaran

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular purines have a role in renal physiology and adaption to inflammation. However, inflammatory renal disease may be mediated by extracellular purines, resulting in renal injury. The role of purinergic signalling is dependent on the concentrations of extracellular purines. Low basal levels of purines are important in normal homeostasis and growth. Concentrations of extracellular purines are significantly elevated during inflammation and mediate either an adaptive role or propagate local inflammation. Adenosine signalling mediates alterations in regional renal blood flow by regulation of the renal microcirculation, tubulo-glomerular feedback, and tubular transport of sodium and water. Increased extracellular ATP and renal P2 receptor-mediated inflammation are associated with various renal diseases, including hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and glomerulonephritis. Experimental data suggests P2 receptor deficiency or receptor antagonism is associated with amelioration of antibody-mediated nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic (rather than adaptive role of purinergic signalling. We discuss the role of extracellular nucleotides in adaptation to ischaemic renal injury and in the pathogenesis of inflammatory renal disease.

  19. Interpretation of uranium and thorium excretion data taking into account excretion data caused by natural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, Th.; Helling, K.

    2000-01-01

    At the Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. Rossendorf near Dresden (Germany) occupationally exposed persons are working with Uranium and Thorium. In accordance with German guides urine and faecal analysis is carried out. But for the interpretation the data in terms of dose or intake it is important to have knowledge about the portion of the activity measured caused by natural sources. For this reason 16 occupationally exposed persons who did not have any history of occupational exposure to Thorium or Uranium have been checked concerning the excretion data since 1994. The excretion data in mBq per day for all persons covers the following ranges: Faeces: U-234 1 to 310 mBq/d, U-235 0.2 to 3.7 mBq/d, U-238 1.3 to 72 mBq/d. Th-228 7 to 89 mBq/d, Th-230 0.7 to 19 mBq/d, Th-232 0.7 to 16 mBq/d. Urine: all values below the detection limits of about 1 mBq/l. The large variation results from differences between the individual excretion rates but also from the variation of the excretion rate of one person. For example, the U-234-faecal excretion of one person reaches from 77 to 310 mBq per day. In the paper the faecal excretion for some individuals in dependence on the time are given. These excretion date caused by natural sources are taken into account by interpreting faecal excretion data of occupationally exposed persons working with Uranium or Thorium. If the measured faecal excretion per day is within the range caused by natural sources no interpretation will be done. By exceeding these values additional faeces and urine samples will be collected and measured. In dependence on these additional results intake and dose will be assessed some times by using lung counter or whole body counter measuring results. In the paper some examples are described. (author)

  20. A mouse model for inherited renal fibrosis associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian E. Piret

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis is a common feature of renal failure resulting from multiple etiologies, including diabetic nephropathy, hypertension and inherited renal disorders. However, the mechanisms of renal fibrosis are incompletely understood and we therefore explored these by establishing a mouse model for a renal tubular disorder, referred to as autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD due to missense uromodulin (UMOD mutations (ADTKD-UMOD. ADTKD-UMOD, which is associated with retention of mutant uromodulin in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of renal thick ascending limb cells, is characterized by hyperuricemia, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation and renal failure, and we used targeted homologous recombination to generate a knock-in mouse model with an ADTKD-causing missense cysteine to arginine uromodulin mutation (C125R. Heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice developed reduced uric acid excretion, renal fibrosis, immune cell infiltration and progressive renal failure, with decreased maturation and excretion of uromodulin, due to its retention in the ER. The ER stress marker 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78 was elevated in cells expressing mutant uromodulin in heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice, and this was accompanied, both in vivo and ex vivo, by upregulation of two unfolded protein response pathways in primary thick ascending limb cells from homozygous mutant mice. However, this did not lead to an increase in apoptosis in vivo. Thus, we have developed a novel mouse model for renal fibrosis, which will be a valuable resource to decipher the mechanisms linking uromodulin mutations with ER stress and renal fibrosis.

  1. Exogenous L-Arginine Attenuates the Effects of Angiotensin II on Renal Hemodynamics and the Pressure Natriuresis-Diuresis Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satarupa; Mattson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Administration of exogenous L-Arginine (L-Arg) attenuates Angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated hypertension and kidney disease in rats. The present study assessed renal hemodynamics and pressure-diuresis-natriuresis in anesthetized rats infused with vehicle, AngII (20 ng/kg/min, iv) or AngII + L-Arg (300 µg/kg/min, iv). Increasing renal perfusion pressure (RPP) from approximately 100 to 140 mmHg resulted in a 9–10 fold increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate in control animals. In comparison, AngII infusion significantly reduced renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 40–42% and blunted the pressure-dependent increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate by 54–58% at elevated RPP. Supplementation of L-Arg reversed the vasoconstrictor effects of AngII and restored pressure-dependent diuresis to levels not significantly different from control rats. Experiments in isolated aortic rings were performed to assess L-Arg effects on the vasculature. Dose-dependent contraction to AngII (10−10M to 10−7M) was observed with a maximal force equal to 27±3% of the response to 10−5M phenylephrine. Contraction to 10−7M AngII was blunted by 75±3% with 10−4M L-Arg. The influence of L-Arg to blunt AngII mediated contraction was eliminated by endothelial denudation or incubation with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Moreover, the addition of 10−3M cationic or neutral amino acids, which compete with L-Arg for cellular uptake, blocked the effect of L-Arg. Anionic amino acids did not influence the effects of L-Arg on AngII-mediated contraction. These studies indicate that L-Arg blunts AngII-mediated vascular contraction by an endothelial- and NOS-dependent mechanism involving cellular uptake of L-Arg. PMID:24472006

  2. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  3. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Zeyner

    Full Text Available The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0, 50 (NaCl-50 or 100 (NaCl-100 g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50 at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05. This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  4. Dosing of cytotoxic chemotherapy: impact of renal function estimates on dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, M J; Poole, S G; Rischin, D

    2013-11-01

    Oncology clinicians are now routinely provided with an estimated glomerular filtration rate on pathology reports whenever serum creatinine is requested. The utility of using this for the dose determination of renally excreted drugs compared with other existing methods is needed to inform practice. Renal function was determined by [Tc(99m)]DTPA clearance in adult patients presenting for chemotherapy. Renal function was calculated using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (4v-MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Cockcroft and Gault (CG), Wright and Martin formulae. Doses for renal excreted cytotoxic drugs, including carboplatin, were calculated. The concordance of the renal function estimates according to the CKD classification with measured Tc(99m)DPTA clearance in 455 adults (median age 64.0 years: range 17-87 years) for the 4v-MDRD, CKD-EPI, CG, Martin and Wright formulae was 47.7%, 56.3%, 46.2%, 56.5% and 60.2%, respectively. Concordance for chemotherapy dose for these formulae was 89.0%, 89.5%, 85.1%, 89.9% and 89.9%, respectively. Concordance for carboplatin dose specifically was 66.4%, 71.4%, 64.0%, 73.8% and 73.2%. All bedside formulae provide similar levels of concordance in dosage selection for the renal excreted chemotherapy drugs when compared with the use of a direct measure of renal function.

  5. Sodium intake and multiple sclerosis activity and progression in BENEFIT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Munger, Kassandra L; Hartung, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a high-salt diet, as measured by urinary sodium concentration, is associated with faster conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS activity and disability. METHODS: BENEFIT was a randomized clinical trial comparing early versus...... delayed interferon beta-1b treatment in 465 patients with a CIS. Each patient provided a median of 14 (interquartile range = 13-16) spot urine samples throughout the 5-year follow-up. We estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion level at each time point using the Tanaka equations, and assessed whether...... in T2 lesion volume: -0.11, 95% CI = -0.25 to 0.04; change in EDSS: -0.01, 95% CI = -0.09 to 0.08; relapse rate: HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.56-1.07). Results were similar in categorical analyses using quintiles. INTERPRETATION: Our results, based on multiple assessments of urine sodium excretion over 5...

  6. The effects of GLP-1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors on the renal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Mogensen, Carl Erik; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects an estimated 20%-40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Key modifiable risk factors for DN are albuminuria, anaemia, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, together with lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity. Early detection and treatment of these risk factors can prevent DN or slow its progression, and may even induce remission in some patients. DN is generally preceded by albuminuria, which frequently remains elevated despite treatment in patients with T2DM. Optimal treatment and prevention of DN may require an early, intensive, multifactorial approach, tailored to simultaneously target all modifiable risk factors. Regular monitoring of renal function, including urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate, is critical for following any disease progression and making treatment adjustments. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lower blood glucose levels without additional risk of hypoglycaemia, and may also reduce albuminuria. Further investigation of the potential renal benefits of DPP-4 and SGLT2 inhibitors is underway. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Water and sodium balance in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M

    2001-01-01

    , cumulative water balance and total body water content are stable during flight if hydration, nutritional energy supply, and protection of muscle mass are at an acceptable level. Recent water balance data disclose that the phenomenon of an absolute water loss during space flight, which has often been reported...... and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. The mechanisms for the increased vascular permeability are not known. Evaporation, oral hydration, and urinary fluid excretion, the major components of water balance, are generally diminished during space flight compared with conditions on Earth. Nevertheless...... in the past, is not a consequence of the variable microG. The handling of sodium, however, is considerably affected by microG. Sodium-retaining endocrine systems, such as renin-aldosterone and catecholamines, are much more activated during microG than on Earth. Despite a comparable oral sodium supply, urinary...

  8. Targeted reduction of advanced glycation improves renal function in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harcourt, Brooke E; Sourris, Karly C; Coughlan, Melinda T

    2011-01-01

    -lowering pharmaceutical, alagebrium, and mice in which the receptor for AGE (RAGE) was deleted. Obesity, resulting from a diet high in both fat and AGE, caused renal impairment; however, treatment of the RAGE knockout mice with alagebrium improved urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, the inflammatory profile...... if treatments that lower tissue AGE burden in patients and mice would improve obesity-related renal dysfunction. Overweight and obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 26-39¿kg/m(2)) were recruited to a randomized, crossover clinical trial involving 2 weeks each on a low- and a high-AGE-containing diet. Renal......, and renal oxidative stress. Alagebrium treatment, however, resulted in decreased weight gain and improved glycemic control compared with wild-type mice on a high-fat Western diet. Thus, targeted reduction of the advanced glycation pathway improved renal function in obesity....

  9. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  10. Excretion and retention of cadmium, zinc, and mercury by rabbit kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulkes, E.C.

    1974-01-01

    Mean renal artery-to-vein transit times (anti t) of 109 Cd, 65 Zn, or 203 Hg were compared to those of Evans blue (EB) and inulin in rabbits. All three elements were fully recovered in venous plasma, where they slightly preceded inulin, although anti t exceeded anti t/sub EB/. Competition for the injected metals is suggested between circulating plasma protein and fixed endothelial ligands. Upon addition of mercaptoethanol (ME) to the bolus injection, 109 Cd appeared in urine; total recovery in blood and urine dropped to two-thirds of the dose reaching the kidney. Renal retention of the remaining one-third was reduced by 30% after ureteral occlusion. Both luminal and peritubular cell membranes thus are involved in Cd uptake, a conclusion in agreement with the previous finding of lesions at those two sites. In the presence of ME, essentially all 203 Hg was retained in the kidney but renal handling of Zn was not affected. The stronger chelator EDTA led to recoveries of 109 Cd in blood and urine approaching those of inulin. These results bear on the role of metal ligands in determining renal excretion and accumulation of heavy metals. 17 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  11. Homer W. Smith's contribution to renal physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebisch, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    Homer Smith was, for three decades, from the 1930s until his death in 1962, one of the leaders in the field of renal physiology. His contributions were many: he played a major role in introducing and popularizing renal clearance methods, introduced non-invasive methods for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate, of renal blood flow and tubular transport capacity, and provided novel insights into the mechanisms of excretion of water and electrolytes. Homer Smith's contributions went far beyond his personal investigations. He was a superb writer of several inspiring textbooks of renal physiology that exerted great and lasting influence on the development of renal physiology. Smith's intellectual insights and ability for critical analysis of data allowed him to create broad concepts that defined the functional properties of glomeruli, tubules and the renal circulation. A distinguishing feature of Homer Smith's career was his close contact and collaboration, over many years, with several clinicians of his alma mater, New York University. For initiating these pathophysiological investigations, he is justly credited to have advanced, in a major way, our understanding of altered renal function in disease. Smith's lasting scientific impact is also reflected by a whole school of investigators that trained with him and who applied his methods, analyses and concepts to the study of renal function all over the world. So great was his influence and preeminence that Robert Pitts, in his excellent tribute to Homer Smith in the Memoirs of the National Academy of Science states that his death brought an end to what might be aptly called the Smithian Era of renal physiology.

  12. Skin Sodium Concentration Correlates with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus P; Raff, Ulrike; Kopp, Christoph; Scheppach, Johannes B; Toncar, Sebastian; Wanner, Christoph; Schlieper, Georg; Saritas, Turgay; Floege, Jürgen; Schmid, Matthias; Birukov, Anna; Dahlmann, Anke; Linz, Peter; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Schmieder, Roland E; Titze, Jens M; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD is incompletely understood. Sodium intake, which is usually assessed by measuring urinary sodium excretion, has been inconsistently linked with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, tissues such as skin and muscle may store sodium. Using 23 sodium-magnetic resonance imaging, a technique recently developed for the assessment of tissue sodium content in humans, we determined skin sodium content at the level of the calf in 99 patients with mild to moderate CKD (42 women; median [range] age, 65 [23-78] years). We also assessed total body overhydration (bioimpedance spectroscopy), 24-hour BP, and left ventricular mass (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Skin sodium content, but not total body overhydration, correlated with systolic BP ( r =0.33, P =0.002). Moreover, skin sodium content correlated more strongly than total body overhydration did with left ventricular mass ( r =0.56, P skin sodium content is a strong explanatory variable for left ventricular mass, unaffected by BP and total body overhydration. In conclusion, we found skin sodium content to be closely linked to left ventricular mass in patients with CKD. Interventions that reduce skin sodium content might improve cardiovascular outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  14. Biliary excretion of cadmium in rat. III. Effects of chelating agents and change in intracellular thiol content on billiary transport and tissue distribution of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherian, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of changes in sulfur-containing intracellular ligands on biliary excretion of cadmium were studied in rats. Injection of zinc or copper salts 24 h before intravenous injection of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ (1 mg/kg Cd) decreased biliary excretion of Cd. Pretreatment with cysteine (25 mg/kg) had a similar effect. Depletion of intracellular thiol by injection of diethylmaleate had little effect. The effect of chelating agents on the pharmacokinetics of Cd depended on time of administration of the agents after exposure to Cd. When chelating agents were administered 1/2 h after Cd injection (before the synthesis of metallothionein), the thiol-containing agents (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL), DL-penicillamine, N-acetylpenicillamine, and dithioerythritol increased the biliary excretion of Cd, while the carboxyl-containing ones (EDTA and nitrilotriacetate) increased the urinary excretion of Cd. BAL was the most effective chelating agent, but there was also an increase in the renal concentration of Cd. However, when these chelating agents were administered 24 h after Cd injection (after the synthesis of metallothionein), only BAL increased the biliary excretion of Cd. Renal and hepatic Cd concentrations decreased concurrently after BAL treatment.

  15. Purine derivative excretion and recovery of 14C-uric acid in urine of Ongole cattle given different levels of feed intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejono, M.; Yusiati, L.M.; Budhi, S.P.S.; Widyobroto, B.P.; Bachrudin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial protein supply to ruminants can be estimated based on the amount of purine derivatives (PD) excreted in the urine. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the purine derivatives method for Ongole cattle. In the first experiment, 4 four-year old male Ongole cattle (Bos indicus) were used to calibrate the PD technique using the most common locally available feed at four levels of intake (95, 80, 60 and 40% of voluntary intake). The diet consisted of king grass and rice bran (70:30 on DM basis). The cattle at the level of 95% intake were injected with [ 14 C]-uric acid in a single dose to define the renal:non-renal partitioning ratio of plasma PD excreted in the urine. The results showed that PD excretion responded positively to the level of feed intake. The relative proportion of urinary allantoin and uric acid to PD excretion was 0.87 and 0.13 respectively. The proportion of urea N to total N ranged from 83 to 93%. The glomerular filtration rate and tubular load of PD increased due to the increasing level of feed intake. Nitrogen balance became negative when the level of feed intake decreased to 60%. The proportion of plasma PD excreted in the urine was 0.67. (author)

  16. The Renal Renin-Angiotensin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Bernard, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a critical regulator of sodium balance, extracellular fluid volume, vascular resistance, and, ultimately, arterial blood pressure. In the kidney, angiotensin II exerts its effects to conserve salt and water through a combination of the hemodynamic control of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and…

  17. Effect of methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe crenata on metabolic parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, René; Foyet, Angèle F; Essame, Jean-Louis O; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug.

  18. GlycA, a novel proinflammatory glycoprotein biomarker, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are inversely associated with sodium intake after controlling for adiposity : the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruppen, Eke G.; Connelly, Margery A.; Vart, Priya; Otvos, James D.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The extent to which dietary sodium intake may confer alterations in the inflammatory status is unclear. GlycA is a novel proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-measured biomarker of systemic inflammation, which is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and

  19. Assessment of peritoneal membrane permeability by Tc-99m-excretion in patients undergoing CAPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Senthilnathan, M.S.; Pradhan, P.K.; Jeloka, T.K.; Sharma, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Among various conservative treatment modalities for end stage renal disease (ESRD), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is increasingly being used in many centers. The succes