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Sample records for renal sodium chloride

  1. Protective Role of Sodium Selenite on Mercuric Chloride Induced Oxidative and Renal Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necib, Youcef

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Reactive oxygen species are known to play a major role in mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress. Sodium selenite as an exogenous source of selenium is used for endogenous selenoprotein synthesis to scavenge the free radicals. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite in mercuric chloride induced renal stress, by using biochemical approaches. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was served as the control, the second group was given sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg b.w, while the third group was given mercuric chloride (0.25 mg/kg, finally, the fourth group was given combined treatment of sodium selenite and mercuric chloride for 3 weeks.Results: The effects of sodium selenite on mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress were evaluated by serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, billirubin levels and LDH activity, kidney tissue lipid peroxidation, GSH levels, GSH-Px, GST and catalase activities and hematological parameters. Administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin concentration showing renal stress. Mercuric chloride also induced oxidative stress, as indicate by decreased kidney tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px, GST, and catalase activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of kidney weight and decreased body weight and erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit levels. Sodium selenite treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin levels, and LDH activity and conteracted the deterious effects of mercuric chloride on oxidative stress markers and hematological parameters and atteneuated histopathological changes caused by HgCl2 in kidney.Conclusion: Our results indicate that sodium selenite could have a beneficial role against mercuric

  2. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on PEPT2 (SLC15A2) mediated renal clearance of cephalexin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Tang, Audrey May Yi; Tan, Yen Ling; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2011-01-01

    PEPT2 mediates the H(+) gradient-driving reabsorption of di- and tri-peptides, and various peptidomimetic compounds in the kidney. This study examines the influence of urinary pH modification through sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on the function of PEPT2 in healthy subjects, using cephalexin as the probe drug. Sixteen male subjects received a single oral dose of 1000 mg cephalexin under ammonium chloride and sodium bicarbonate treatment, respectively, with a wash-out period of one week. The study subjects were genotyped for PEPT2 polymorphic variants. Cephalexin concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean renal clearance of cephalexin was significantly higher under ammonium chloride treatment than that under sodium bicarbonate treatment (P < 0.01). This difference was significant for PEPT2*2/*2 (P = 0.017) but not for PEPT2*1/*1 (P = 0.128). No differences were observed for other pharmacokinetic parameters. The findings of this study suggest that urinary pH changes may alter the pharmacokinetics of PEPT2's substrates. This effect was more obvious for the PEPT2*2/*2.

  3. Altered expression of renal bumetanide-sensitive sodium-pota-ssium-2 chloride cotransporter and Cl- channel -K2 gene in angiotensin Ⅱ-infused hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tao; LIU Zhi-quan; SUN Chao-feng; ZHENG Yong; MA Ai-qun; FANG Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Little information is available regarding the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) on the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC2), the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC), and the Cl- channel (CLC)-K2 at both mRNA and protein expression level in Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertensive rats. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of Ang Ⅱ with chronic subpressor infusion on nephron-specific gene expression of NKCC2, NCC and CLC-K2. Results Ang Ⅱ significantly increased blood pressure and up-regulated NKCC2 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney. Expression of CLC-K2 mRNA in the kidney increased 1.6 fold (P<0.05).There were no changes in NCC mRNA or protein expression in AngII-treated rats versus control. Conclusions Chronic subpressor Ang Ⅱ infusion can significantly alter NKCC2 and CLC-K2 mRNA expression in the kidney, and protein abundance of NKCC2 in kidney is positively regulated by Ang Ⅱ. These effects may contribute to enhanced renal Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in response to Ang Ⅱ.

  4. Renal and cardiovascular effects of dopamine and 7.5% sodium chloride infusion: experimental study in dogs with water restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Aparecida Lima Verderese; Pedro Thadeu Galvão Vianna; Eliana Marisa Ganem; Luiz Antonio Vane

    2003-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: É controvertido o uso da infusão de dopamina na proteção renal. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o efeito da dopamina, da solução hipertônica e da associação de ambas em cães com restrição hídrica, simulando o jejum pré-operatório. MÉTODO: Foram estudados, em 32 cães anestesiados com tiopental sódico e fentanil, os seguintes parâmetros da função renal: fluxo plasmático efetivo renal (depuração de para-aminohipurato de sódio), ritmo de filtração glomerular (depu...

  5. Renal sodium handling and sodium sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa A. Frame

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of hypertension, which affects over 1 billion individuals worldwide, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The kidney, which governs sodium excretion via several mechanisms including pressure natriuresis and the actions of renal sodium transporters, is central to long term blood pressure regulation and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. The impact of renal sodium handling and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure in health and hypertension is a critical public health issue owing to the excess of dietary salt consumed globally and the significant percentage of the global population exhibiting salt sensitivity. This review highlights recent advances that have provided new insight into the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure, with a focus on genetic, inflammatory, dietary, sympathetic nervous system and oxidative stress mechanisms that influence renal sodium excretion. Increased understanding of the multiple integrated mechanisms that regulate the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure has the potential to identify novel therapeutic targets and refine dietary guidelines designed to treat and prevent hypertension.

  6. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  7. Is sodium chloride worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Euan; Andrews, Peter J

    2013-06-11

    The choice of fluid for resuscitation of the brain-injured patient remains controversial, and the 'ideal' resuscitation fluid has yet to be identified. Large volumes of hypotonic solutions must be avoided because of the risk of cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. Traditionally, 0.9% sodium chloride has been used in patients at risk of intracranial hypertension, but there is increasing recognition that 0.9% saline is not without its problems. Roquilly and colleagues show a reduction in the development of hyperchloremic acidosis in brain-injured patients given 'balanced' solutions for maintenance and resuscitation compared with 0.9% sodium chloride. In this commentary, we explore the idea that we should move away from 0.9% sodium chloride in favor of a more 'physiological' solution.

  8. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  9. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  10. 硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液致肾损害%Renal injury caused by etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珲; 赵冠人; 李国栋; 冯端浩

    2012-01-01

    患者,男性,57岁,因腹膜后纤维化、双肾积水、泌尿系感染等症,给予硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液0.3 g静脉滴注,每天1次,连续用药9d后,尿素氮由6.74 mmol·L-1上升至9.85 mmol·L-1,血清肌酐由103.0μmol·L-1升至373.9 μmol·L-1.停药6d后尿素氮降至5.11 mmol·L-1,血清肌酐降至122.1 μmol·L-1.随后的20多天里,仍按上述方案间断使用该药,用药过程中尿素氮及血清肌酐随用药或停药而上升或下降.在停药2周并针对原发病治疗后尿素氮恢复至2.94 mmol·L-1,肌酐恢复至76.0μmol·L-1.调整给药方案为硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液,静脉滴注,0.15 g,每天2次,连续使用6d,尿素氮及血清肌酐未见明显升高.%One 57-year-old man with retroperitoneal fibrosis, bilateral hydronephrosis and urinary system infection was administrated with intravenous drop infusion of etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection 0.3 g once daily. Nine days later, his urea nitrogen increased from 6.74 mmol·L-1 to 9.85 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine increased from 103.0 μmol·L-1 to 373.9 umol·L-1. Six days after etimicin withdrawal, his urea nitrogen decreased to 5.11 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine decreased to 122.1 μmol·L-1. About 20 days after etimicin withdrawal, etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection was given again intermittently, urea nitrogen and serum creatine increased or decreased following the etimicin administration or withdrawal. After 2 weeks withdrawal combined with original disease treatment, his urea nitrogen decreased to 2.94 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine decreased to 76.0 umol·L-1. And then the dosage regimen was regulated to intravenous drop infusion of etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection 0.15 g twice daily. After six days of continuous administration, his urea nitrogen and serum creatine did not increase obviously.

  11. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. .... Impurities contents in the feedstock brine. Component. LiCl. Na. Ca. Mg. SO4. 2- ... The pH was varied from 5.0 to 9.0 by careful addition of 0.01 M HCl or ... effect on the structure. ... with sodium ion in lithium chloride brine as follows. +. +. +. +. −= +. yLi. PO. Zr. La.

  12. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  13. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, G.; Stunnenberg, B.C.; Trip, J.; Borm, G.F.; McGill, K.C.; Ginjaar, I.H.; Kooi, A.W. van der; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Faber, C.G.; Stegeman, D.F.; Lateva, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myo

  14. Kainate receptor modulation by sodium and chloride.

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    Plested, Andrew J R

    2011-01-01

    The kainate-type glutamate receptor displays strong modulation by monovalent anions and cations. This modulation is independent of permeation of the ion channel. Instead, structural, computational and biophysical evidence shows that receptor activity is controlled by binding of sodium and chloride ions at sites that stabilize active dimers of glutamate binding domains. Modulation by monovalent ions is a surprisingly general property across ion channel families. However, evidence of a physiological role for ion-dependent effects on glutamate receptors is lacking, perhaps reflecting the adventitious use of ions as structural components of the kainate receptor. "ergo, Hercules, vita humanior sine sale non quit degree […]" "Heaven known, a civilized life is impossible without salt" -Pliny the Elder, Natural History XXXI 88.

  15. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

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    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.

  16. Mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良宵; 虞利军

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions, uniaxial compression test and ultrasonic test were performed. Test results show that the relative dynamic elastic modulus, the mass variation, and the compressive strength of cement mortar increase first, and then decrease with increasing erosion time in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. The relative dynamic elastic moduli and the compressive strengths of cement mortars with water/cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.65 in sodium sulfate solution are lower than those in sodium chloride solution with the same concentration at the 420th day of immersion. The compressive strength of cement mortar with water/cement ratio of 0.65 is more sensitive to strain rate than that with water/cement ratio of 0.55. In addition, the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of cement mortar will increase under attacks of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride solution.

  17. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  18. Dopamine DA1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells are regulated by glucocorticoid and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Horio, T; Takeda, T

    1994-09-01

    The modulation of dopamine DA1 receptors of cultured rat renal arterial smooth muscle cells by glucocorticoid and sodium chloride was studied. At a concentration of 10 nM, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone increased maximum receptor binding but had no effect on the dissociation constant. However, the maximum binding of [3H]Sch-23390 in cells treated with 100 mM sodium chloride did not change. However, the dissociation constant for DA1 receptor was increased by adding sodium chloride. The glucocorticoid effect on DA1 of arterial smooth muscle cells became apparent after hours of incubation in the presence of the steroid and was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide (10 micrograms/ml) or by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-38486, indicating that the effect required protein synthesis through glucocorticoid receptors. Treatment of cells with 1 microM dexamethasone for 24 h increased basal and DA1-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Basal adenylate cyclase was decreased by sodium chloride in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest differential control of DA1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by glucocorticoid or sodium chloride.

  19. Upregulation of renal sodium transporters in D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Luo, Yingjin; Escano, Crisanto S; Yang, Zhiwei; Asico, Laureano; Li, Hewang; Jones, John E; Armando, Ines; Lu, Quansheng; Sibley, David R; Eisner, Gilbert M; Jose, Pedro A

    2010-06-01

    D(5) dopamine receptor (D(5)R)-deficient (D(5)(-/-)) mice have hypertension that is aggravated by an increase in sodium intake. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a dysregulation of renal sodium transporters is related to the salt sensitivity in D(5)(-/-) mice. D(5)R was expressed in the renal proximal tubule, thick ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule, and cortical and outer medullary collecting ducts in D(5)(+/+) mice. On a control Na(+) diet, renal protein expressions of NKCC2 (sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter), sodium chloride cotransporter, and alpha and gamma subunits of the epithelial sodium channel were greater in D(5)(-/-) than in D(5)(+/+) mice. Renal renin abundance and urine aldosterone levels were similar but renal angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) protein expression was increased in D(5)(-/-) mice. An elevated Na(+) diet increased further the elevated blood pressure of D(5)(-/-) mice but did not affect the normal blood pressure of D(5)(+/+) mice. The increased levels of NKCC2, sodium chloride cotransporter, and alpha and gamma subunits of the epithelial sodium channel persisted with the elevated Na(+) diet and unaffected by chronic AT(1)R blockade (losartan) in D(5)(-/-) mice. The expressions of proximal sodium transporters NHE3 (sodium hydrogen exchanger type 3) and NaPi2 (sodium phosphate cotransporter type 2) were increased by the elevated Na(+) diet in D(5)(-/-) mice; the increased expression of NHE3 but not NaPi2 was abolished by AT(1)R blockade. Our findings suggest that the increased protein expression of sodium transporters/channels in distal nephron segments may be the direct consequence of the disruption of D(5)R, independent of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system.

  20. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C; Ginjaar, Ieke H B; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Zwarts, Machiel J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Catharina G; Stegeman, Dick F; Lateva, Zoia

    2015-01-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myotonia has its basis in an electrical instability of the sarcolemmal membrane. In the present study we examine the discriminative power of the resulting myotonic discharges for these disorders. Needle electromyography was performed by an electromyographer blinded for genetic diagnosis in 66 non-dystrophic myotonia patients (32 chloride and 34 sodium channelopathy). Five muscles in each patient were examined. Individual trains of myotonic discharges were extracted and analyzed with respect to firing characteristics. Myotonic discharge characteristics in the rectus femoris muscle almost perfectly discriminated chloride from sodium channelopathy patients. The first interdischarge interval as a single variable was longer than 30 ms in all but one of the chloride channelopathy patients and shorter than 30 ms in all of the sodium channelopathy patients. This resulted in a detection rate of over 95%. Myotonic discharges of a single muscle can be used to better guide toward a molecular diagnosis in non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B

    2012-01-01

    DAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1......The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho...

  2. Mechanism of chloride interaction with neurotransmitter:sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomot, Elia; Bendahan, Annie; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Yongfang; Javitch, Jonathan A; Kanner, Baruch I

    2007-10-11

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) have a critical role in regulating neurotransmission and are targets for psychostimulants, anti-depressants and other drugs. Whereas the non-homologous glutamate transporters mediate chloride conductance, in the eukaryotic NSS chloride is transported together with the neurotransmitter. In contrast, transport by the bacterial NSS family members LeuT, Tyt1 and TnaT is chloride independent. The crystal structure of LeuT reveals an occluded binding pocket containing leucine and two sodium ions, and is highly relevant for the neurotransmitter transporters. However, the precise role of chloride in neurotransmitter transport and the location of its binding site remain elusive. Here we show that introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at or near one of the two putative sodium-binding sites of the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) transporter GAT-1 from rat brain (also called SLC6A1) renders both net flux and exchange of GABA largely chloride independent. In contrast to wild-type GAT-1, a marked stimulation of the rate of net flux, but not of exchange, was observed when the internal pH was lowered. Equivalent mutations introduced in the mouse GABA transporter GAT4 (SLC6A11) and the human dopamine transporter DAT (SLC6A3) also result in chloride-independent transport, whereas the reciprocal mutations in LeuT and Tyt1 render substrate binding and/or uptake by these bacterial NSS chloride dependent. Our data indicate that the negative charge, provided either by chloride or by the transporter itself, is required during binding and translocation of the neurotransmitter, probably to counterbalance the charge of the co-transported sodium ions.

  3. Sodium chloride intake: is lower always better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerspink, Hiddo Lambers; Ritz, Eberhard

    2012-07-01

    Current treatment of kidney disease is not completely satisfactory, particularly when initiated in the late stages of renal progression. There is an urgent need for additional interventions, especially reduction of salt intake, which is rather high in the Western world. In this commentary we provide a critical assessment of post hoc analyses of recent interventional and observational studies on the effect of salt intake on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. To evaluate the mechanisms and safety of reduced salt intake, studies specifically designed to assess salt intake as an endpoint are needed. This approach will have implications for health care policies and labeling of the salt content of purchased foods.

  4. Sodium Chloride Intake : Is Lower Always Better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Ritz, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    Current treatment of kidney disease is not completely satisfactory, particularly when initiated in the late stages of renal progression. There is an urgent need for additional interventions, especially reduction of salt intake, which is rather high in the Western world. In this commentary we provide

  5. Sodium Chloride Intake : Is Lower Always Better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Ritz, Eberhard

    Current treatment of kidney disease is not completely satisfactory, particularly when initiated in the late stages of renal progression. There is an urgent need for additional interventions, especially reduction of salt intake, which is rather high in the Western world. In this commentary we provide

  6. Epithelial Sodium and Chloride Channels and Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Wang; Hong-Long Ji

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To focus on the asthmatic pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/chlorine ion channel.Data Sources:The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2015 from journal databases,primarily PubMed and Google Scholar.The terms used in the literature search were:(1) ENaCs;cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR);asthma/asthmatic,(2) ENaC/sodium salt;CF;asthma/asthmatic,(3) CFTR/chlorine ion channels;asthma/asthmatic,(4) ENaC/sodium channel/scnn1a/scnn1b/scnn1g/scnn1d/amiloride-sensitive/amiloride-inhibtable sodium channels/sodium salt;asthma/asthmatic,lung/pulmonary/respiratory/tracheal/alveolar,and (5) CFTR;CF;asthma/asthmatic (ti).Study Selection:These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies covering asthma pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to ENaC/chlorine ion channels within the last 25 years (from 1990 to 2015).The data involving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CF obtained from individual studies were also reviewed by the authors.Results:Airway surface liquid dehydration can cause airway inflammation and obstruction.ENaC and CFTR are closely related to the airway mucociliary clearance.Ion transporters may play a critical role in pathogenesis of asthmatic exacerbations.Conclusions:Ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthmatic pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease.

  7. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  8. [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snejdrová, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M

    2002-09-01

    An increase in the availability of the active ingredient from silicone matrices can be achieved by using sodium chloride as the filler. An addition of sodium chloride also influences the mechanical properties of silicone systems. The temperature dependence of real Young's model E' of addition silicone systems with sodium chloride was measured. With increasing NaCl concentration in the silicone system, the values of Young's module E are increased. The increase is also influenced by the particle size of NaCl. The values of the module are moderately increased also with increasing temperature, which corresponds to the kinetic theory of caoutchouc elasticity. A significant increase in E takes place at NaCl concentrations higher than 20%. With a 50% NaCl content in the system, E is increased approximately 3.5 times in comparison with an unfilled sample. Various theories of elastic behaviour of composites can be employed for the description of the effect of the filler on the mechanical properties of silicone systems under small deformations. The effect of chloride is best described by the relation proposed by Nielsen. The value of the constant A in Nielsen's relation, dependent on the shape of the filler particles and Poisson's constant of the unfilled matrix, decreases with increasing particle size. With a change in particle size, a certain change in particle shape takes place. Hydrodynamic theory provides good results for sodium chloride particle size of 102.5 microns, but for particle sizes of 20 microns and 60 microns it is less successful than Nielsen's relation.

  9. Enthalpy and entropy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with some monosaccharides in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO; Kelei; WANG; Jianji; BAI; Guangyue; YAN; Haike; WANG

    2004-01-01

    Dilution enthalpies of sodium chloride and some monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fructose) in water and mixing enthalpies of aqueous sodium chloride and these monosaccharide solutions were measured by using an improved precision semimicro-titration calorimeter. Transfer enthalpies of sodium chloride from water to aqueous saccharide solutions were evaluated as well as enthalpy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with these monosaccharides in water. Combined with Gibbs energy interaction parameters, entropy interaction parameters were also obtained. The results show that interactions of the saccharides with sodium chloride depend on the stereochemistry of saccharide molecules. These interaction parameters can identify stereochemical structure of saccharide molecules.

  10. Enhancement by sodium caprate and sodium deoxycholate of the gastrointestinal absorption of berberine chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dongjiao; Wu, Xiaorong; Dong, Wenna; Sun, Wei; Li, Jinzhuo; Tang, Xing

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two absorption enhancers, sodium caprate (C10) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC), in increasing the bioavailability of a poorly absorbed paracellar flux drug, berberine chloride, across the intestinal mucosae of rats in vivo, together with examination of their effects on mucosal damage. In addition, all four intestinal segments were collected after administration of the enhancers and sodium saline. The results of the bioavailability experiments showed the oral absorption of berberine chloride was poor and both C10 and SDC could significantly improve the very poor absorption of berberine chloride. After co-administration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of berberine chloride was increased 41.1-fold by C10 (100 mg/kg) and 35.3-fold by SDC (100 mg/kg) compared with that in the absence of C10 and SDC, respectively. Local toxicity experiment indicated that both enhancers caused no specific damage to the intact intestine. This study demonstrates that C10 and SDC could significantly promote the absorption of berberine chloride from the gastrointestinal tract with few toxic effects, which might be due mainly to relaxing the absorption limitation while inhibiting the efflux transporter of berberine chloride by the enhancers. Besides, this could lead to the development of new drug-enhancers.

  11. Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    1997-06-01

    Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

  12. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  13. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Rajarao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental effects on the environment and even cost, have been avoided by using a water soluble support. The structure of products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The purity of the grown products and purified products were determined by the thermal analysis and X‐ray diffraction method. Here we report the 7600, 7000 and 6500 wt% yield of CNFs synthesized over nickel, cobalt and iron oxalate. The long, curved and worm shaped CNFs were obtained on Ni, Co and Fe catalysts respectively. The lengthy process of calcination and reduction for the preparation of catalysts is avoided in this method. This synthesis route is simple and economical, hence, it can be used for CNF synthesis in industries.

  14. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  15. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pica

    Full Text Available Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  16. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.

  17. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter;

    of ice appearing to be resistant to road salt, a comparative study has been made on a number of different surfaces measuring the friction index. The friction measurements were performed with a Portable Skid-Resistance Tester. Discontinuous surfaces consisting of small islands of hydrohalite...... was classified as potentially slippery surfaces. It is therefore possible that the formation of hydrohalite contributes to accidents on slippery roads.......From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2014-01-01

    ..., calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food...

  19. FGF23 regulates renal sodium handling and blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Andrukhova, Olena; Slavic, Svetlana; Smorodchenko, Alina; Zeitz, Ute; Shalhoub, Victoria; Lanske, Beate; Pohl, Elena E.; Erben, Reinhold G.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone regulating renal phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D synthesis in renal proximal tubules. Here, we show that FGF23 directly regulates the membrane abundance of the Na+:Cl− co-transporter NCC in distal renal tubules by a signaling mechanism involving the FGF receptor/αKlotho complex, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), and with-no lysine kinase-4 (WNK4). Renal sodium (...

  20. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo van Buren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  1. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-04

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  2. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  3. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Rat Renal Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-29

    response is not mediated by de novo protein synthesis but is secondary to enhanced sodium influx. The osmotic diuresis seen in uncontrolled...mediated increase in renal NaK-ATPase activity. The administration of anti-insulin serum caused a brisk natriuresis in control rat kidneys while having...hydrocortisone on water diuresis and renal function in man. J. Clin. Invest. 36: 767-779, 1957. Rane, S. and A. Aperia. Ontogeny of Na-K-ATPase

  4. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-02-15

    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04 mM Na(+)) for 3 d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/l, 3 d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake.

  5. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  6. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  7. Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, D.; Lefefre, S.; Feron, D. [CEA-Saclay, Lab. d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vaillant, F. [EDF-Les Renardieres - DRD/EMA, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

    2002-07-01

    In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

  8. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maximum daily sod

  9. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den E.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Homan van der Heide, van der J.J.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maxi

  10. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, E. van den; Geleijnse, J.M.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, M.A. van; Homan van der Heide, J.J.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maxim

  11. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maximum daily

  12. The sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) associate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Abinash C; Wynne, Brandi M; Yu, Ling; Tomilin, Viktor; Yue, Qiang; Zhou, Yiqun; Al-Khalili, Otor; Mallick, Rickta; Cai, Hui; Alli, Abdel A; Ko, Benjamin; Mattheyses, Alexa; Bao, Hui-Fang; Pochynyuk, Oleh; Theilig, Franziska; Eaton, Douglas C; Hoover, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) are two of the most important determinants of salt balance and thus systemic blood pressure. Abnormalities in either result in profound changes in blood pressure. There is one segment of the nephron where these two sodium transporters are coexpressed, the second part of the distal convoluted tubule. This is a key part of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, the final regulator of salt handling in the kidney. Aldosterone is the key hormonal regulator for both of these proteins. Despite these shared regulators and coexpression in a key nephron segment, associations between these proteins have not been investigated. After confirming apical localization of these proteins, we demonstrated the presence of functional transport proteins and native association by blue native PAGE. Extensive coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a consistent interaction of NCC with α- and γ-ENaC. Mammalian two-hybrid studies demonstrated direct binding of NCC to ENaC subunits. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and immunogold EM studies confirmed that these transport proteins are within appropriate proximity for direct binding. Additionally, we demonstrate that there are functional consequences of this interaction, with inhibition of NCC affecting the function of ENaC. This novel finding of an association between ENaC and NCC could alter our understanding of salt transport in the distal tubule. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. HEPARIN OR 0.9% SODIUM CHLORIDE TO MAINTAIN CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER PATENCY: A RANDOMISED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Babu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maintaining the lumen patency of Central venous catheters (CVCsusing low dose Heparin is recommended in many guidelines of CVC maintenance. This study is to compare the efficacy of low - dose Heparin 3ml (10U/ml and 0.9% Sodium chloride (10ml flush solutions to maintain Centra l venous catheter (CVC lumen patency. METHODS: We s tudied 100 adult patients between March 2012 and August 2012 who required short - term CVC insertion to compare two flush solutions , Heparin and0.9% Sodium Chloride on catheter lumen patency . RESULTS : The crude catheter non patency was 4% ( two lumensin Heparin group and 8% (four lumens in the Sodium Chloride group . There was no incidence of thrombocytopenia in both the study groups. CONCLUSION : This study has demonstrated no significant difference bet ween Heparin and 0.9% Sodium Chloride flushes with regards to catheter patency in adult patients with short - term use of CVCs .

  14. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  15. CFTR mediated chloride secretion in the avian renal proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Gary; Anttila, Ashley; Carty, Jenava; Reddy, Varudhini; Yum, Jamie; Arnason, Sighvatur S

    2012-01-01

    In primary cell cultures of the avian (Gallus gallus) renal proximal tubule parathyroid hormone and cAMP activation generate a Cl(-)-dependent short circuit current (I(SC)) response, consistent with net transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. In this study we investigated the expression and physiological function of the Na-K-2Cl (NKCC) transporter and CFTR chloride channel, both associated with Cl(-) secretion in a variety of tissues, in these proximal tubule cells. Using both RT-PCR and immunoblotting approaches, we showed that NKCC and CFTR are expressed, both in proximal tubule primary cultures and in a proximal tubule fraction of non-cultured (native tissue) fragments. We also used electrophysiological methods to assess the functional contribution of NKCC and CFTR to forskolin-activated I(SC) responses in filter grown cultured monolayers. Bumetanide (10 μM), a specific blocker of NKCC, inhibited forskolin activated I(SC) by about 40%, suggesting that basolateral uptake of Cl(-) is partially mediated by NKCC transport. In monolayers permeabilized on the basolateral side with nystatin, forskolin activated an apical Cl(-) conductance, manifested as bidirectional diffusion currents in the presence of oppositely directed Cl(-) gradients. Under these conditions the apical conductance appeared to show some bias towards apical-to-basolateral Cl(-) current. Two selective CFTR blockers, CFTR Inhibitor 172 and GlyH-101 (both at 20 μM) inhibited the forskolin activated diffusion currents by 38-68%, with GlyH-101 having a greater effect. These data support the conclusion that avian renal proximal tubules utilize an apical CFTR Cl(-) channel to mediate cAMP-activated Cl(-) secretion.

  16. Aluminum chloride for accelerating hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, U. B.; Akdim, O.; Miele, P.

    The present research paper reports preliminary results about the utilization of anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) for accelerating hydrogen generation through hydrolysis of aqueous solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) at 80 °C. To the best of our knowledge, AlCl 3 has never been considered for that reaction although many transition metal salts had already been assessed. AlCl 3 reactivity was compared to those of AlCl 3·6H 2O, AlF 3, CoCl 2, RuCl 3 and NiCl 2. With AlCl 3 and a NaBH 4 solution having a gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (GHSC) of 2.9 wt.%, almost 100% hydrogen was generated in few seconds, i.e., with a hydrogen generation rate (HGR) of 354 L min -1 g -1(Al). This HGR is one of the highest rates ever reported. Higher HGRs were obtained by mixing AlCl 3 with CoCl2, RuCl 3 or NiCl 2. For example, the system RuCl 3:AlCl 3 (50:50 mass proportion) showed a HGR > 1000 L min -1 g -1(Ru:Al). The hydrolysis by-products (once dried) were identified (by XRD, IR and elemental analysis) as being Al(OH) 3, NaCl and Na 2B(OH) 4Cl and it was observed that even in situ formed Al(OH) 3 has catalytic abilities with HGRs of 5 L min -1 g -1(Al). All of these preliminary results are discussed, which concludes that AlCl 3 has a potential as accelerator for single-use NaBH 4-based storage system.

  17. [Sodium transport in chronic renal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, D

    1985-03-24

    From an analysis of the literature covering the problem of sodium contribution in uraemic patients subjected to both conservative treatment and maintenance dialysis, it has been shown that excessive reduction in dietary sodium intake can be harmful unless it is justified by severe hypertension or oedema since it aggravates the state of uraemia. In these cases, the addition of a minimum controlled amount of hyposodic salt to an otherwise salt free diet is undoubtedly useful. The hyposodic salt, "Misura" manufactured by the company "Plasmon" was used in the dietary treatment of a series of patients subjected to mild restriction in dietary salt intake. Misura was well tolerated and well accepted thanks to its pleasing taste.

  18. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  19. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  20. Vitamin E and Sodium Selenite Against Mercuric Chloride-Induced Lung Toxicity in the Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Celikoglu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to elucidate the possible protective role of vitamin E and / or sodium selenite on mercuric chloride-induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the lung tissue of the rats. Adult male albino Wistar rats were exposed to mercuric chloride (1.0 mg/kg day for four weeks. Treatment with mercuric chloride led to oxidative stress by enhancing MDA level and also decreasing superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione S transferaz (GST activities. However, mercuric chloride exposure resulted in histopathological changes in the lung tissue in the rats. MDA level and SOD, CAT GPx and GST activities and histopathological changes modulated in concomitantly supplementation of vitamin E (100 mg/kg day and /or sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg day to mercuric chloride-treated groups.

  1. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bellesia, Giovanni; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange m...

  2. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species.

  3. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  4. Report of moderate or severe sodium and chloride disturbance on 82 cases with acute cerebral stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma shun-tian

    2000-01-01

    Abtract Objective: To decrease the fatality rate and prevalence rotc of acute cerebral stroke complicated with morderate or servere serum sodium and chioride disturbance by explonng the relation between the pathogency and prognosis Methods: Medical records were surveyed and clinical presentation, laboratory test, complicated。 Actiology pathogency and prognosis were analyzed m 82 cases with moderate or severe serum sodium and chloride disturbance among 736 cases with acute cerebral stroke collected, Results: The prevalence rate and fatality rate of acutc cerebral stroke complicated with moderate or severe serum sodium and chlorede disturbance were 11.3% (82/ 736) and 60.8% (49/52) which were different significantly form that complicated with normal or minimal sedium sodium and chloride disturbame (p (0.001) 。 The 82 cases occured at 3-13 days after hospitalization (mean 6 days) 。 The actiology and pathogency were mainly ralated with some endogenic and iatrogenic factors such as hypothalamic-pituitary system were destroyed resultly from acute cerbral stroke which led to SIADH。 Conclusion: The fatality rate of acute cerebral stroke complicatee with moderate or seyere serum sodium and chloride disturbance is mcreased significantly, Put prophylaxis first to decrease the prevalence rate and fatalty rate。 Pay attlention to comprehensive therapy of acute cerebral stoke to prevent endogenic sodium and chloride disturbance and especially place importance on iatrogenic disturbance。

  5. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  6. Mechanisms regulating the renal excretion of sodium during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, C A; Davis, J O; Johnson, J A; Blaine, E H; Schneider, E G; Baumber, J S

    1970-05-01

    Observations were made on the relation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and renal hemodynamic function to sodium balance in 43 pregnant dogs. Daily balance studies revealed that about 30-40% of ingested sodium was retained during the last half of pregnancy; during the same period, potassium balance was also positive but to a lesser extent. For groups of pregnant dogs, plasma renin activity (n = 14) and aldosterone secretion (n = 19) were significantly higher than normal; however, in some animals one or both functions were normal even though sodium retention was present. In contrast, plasma renin substrate concentration was consistently elevated during pregnancy in seven dogs. In a group of nine dogs in which both aldosterone secretion and plasma renin activity were measured, aldosterone secretion was elevated in the three dogs with the highest values for plasma renin activity; in two of the remaining six animals aldosterone secretion was elevated but plasma renin activity was normal or only slightly increased. The sequestration of sodium and water into the uterine contents was defined quantitatively in this study but evidence was lacking to support the idea that such changes led to renin release. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly elevated throughout pregnancy but a significant decrease from the high level of mid-pregnancy occurred during the last half of pregnancy; this decrease in GFR probably contributed to the sodium retention. Administration of a large dose of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) to dogs in late pregnancy produced marked sodium retention but "escape" from the sodium-retaining steroid occurred. The data demonstrate that although increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was frequently present during pregnancy, a normal rate of aldosterone secretion occurred. This finding and the observed "escape" from DOCA suggest the existence of sodium-retaining mechanisms other than the mechanism provided by

  7. Use of sodium chloride and zeolite during shipment of Ancistrus triradiatus under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson F. Ramírez-Duarte

    Full Text Available The use of sodium chloride (0.5 g/L and 1 g/L and zeolite (22.7 g/L during shipment (48 h of Ancistrus triradiatus at high temperatures (between 24.5 and 34ºC were evaluated. Several water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and total ammonia were measured before and after shipment. Glycemia was measured before shipment and at 24 and 48 h after shipment. After shipment, a resistance test was carried out in a high concentration of sodium chloride, and mortality was recorded after shipment, and 7 days post-shipment. While the two evaluated substances increased survival of A. triradiatus challenged by high temperatures during shipment, the best result was obtained with 1 g/L of sodium chloride.

  8. Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, Georg; Szellas, Tanjef; Riordan, John R.; Friedrich, Thomas; Hartung, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of 22Na+ through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we found that the effect of CFTR activation could be mimicked by other chloride ...

  9. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

    2011-07-15

    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts.

  10. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  11. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  12. Sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient from crystallization experiment in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal growth of sodium chloride from an aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with analytical and numerical computations. The crystal growth kinetics is recorded using a high speed camera in order to determine the intrinsic precipitation reaction coefficient. The study reveals that the crystal growth rates determined in previous studies are all affected by the ions transport phenomena in the solution and thus not representative of the precipitation reaction. It is suggested that accurate estimate of sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient presented here offers new opportunities for a better understanding of important issues involved in the damages of porous materials induced by the salt crystallization.

  13. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Electrical conductivity measurements for the ternary systems of glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water and their applications in cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shu, Zhiquan; Woods, Erik J; Gao, Dayong

    2009-03-01

    Electrical conductivity of a solution is a property that can be easily determined through the measurement of a conductivity probe. The present study demonstrates the measurements of electrical conductivity for two ternary solutions: glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water. When the concentration of sodium chloride to water ratio (R) is fixed, the existence of either glycerol or ethylene glycol, both cryoprotective agents (CPAs), can be quantitatively determined by their depressive influence on electrical conductivity of the solution. The measurements were performed on solutions with a set of 10 different concentrations of CPAs, ranging from 3.2% to 50% (v/v), along with five ratios of NaCl/water solutions. Equations to fit the experimental measurements were devised to characterize the relations among electrical conductivity, CPAs concentration, and R. A conductivity meter used in this study required conductivity, which is faster than the measurement using osmometry method. The charts of ternary solutions associated with their electrical conductivity and concentrations make it especially useful for monitoring the cryopreservation processes, including addition and removal of CPAs, to prevent osmotic damages to biological samples.

  15. Evidence for renal ischaemia as a cause of mercuric chloride nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, G. [Farmacologia, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Rosario (Argentina); Elias, M.M. [Farmacologia, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Rosario (Argentina)

    1995-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if the source of oxidative stress and the renal injury produced by mercuric chloride could be renal ischaemia. Verapamil Vp was used because it was described that calcium channel blockers protect cells from nephrotoxicants and from ischaemia. Vp (75 {mu}g/kg, i.v.; 30 min before HgCl{sub 2} injection) prevented mercuric chloride renal injury observed 1 h post-HgCl{sub 2} injection as measured by clearance techniques. Vp also prevented the diminution of non-protein-sulfhydryls (NPSH) and the increased lipd peroxidation (LPO) induced by HgCl{sub 2} in renal tissue. Hg{sup 2+} toxicokinetic alterations were not observed in Vp plus HgCl{sub 2} treated rats, nor was Vp ability found as a free radical scavenger in renal tissue homogenates. The results described in this study give some evidence for the role of renal ischaemia in the production of oxidative stress, generating LPO and functional and morphological renal injury described in mercuric chloride treated rats. (orig.)

  16. Effects of sodium citrate on salt sensitivity and kidney injury in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sejoong; Yang, Jin Young; Jung, Eun Sook; Lee, Jeonghwan; Heo, Nam Ju; Lee, Jae Wook; Na, Ki Young; Han, Jin Suk

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic acidosis, which is observed in salt-sensitive hypertension, is also associated with kidney injury. Alkali therapy in chronic renal failure (CRF) may ameliorate the progression of kidney disease; however, few studies have examined the effects of alkali therapy on salt sensitivity and kidney injury in CRF. We randomly administered standard diet (SD), sodium chloride with 20% casein diet (NACL), or sodium citrate with 20% casein diet (NACT) to Sprague-Dawley rats after a CRF or a sham operation. Four weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, serum bicarbonate levels were higher in the NACT-treated group. On the pressure-natriuresis curve, NACT-treated CRF rats were more salt-resistant than NACL-treated CRF rats. Additionally, the NACT-treated CRF group showed less tubulointerstitial damage than the NACL-treated CRF group. The expression and immunoreactivity of NHE3 in the kidney in the NACT-treated CRF group were lower than those in the NACL-treated CRF group. We observed that dietary NACT as alkali therapy in CRF might improve the altered salt-sensitivity and ameliorate the progression of kidney injury compared to the NACL diet, which may be related to reduced renal NHE3 expression.

  17. The influence of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on benzalkonium chloride-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiel, K A; Beasley, R; Holgate, S T

    1988-01-01

    1. Benzalkonium chloride, an antibacterial preservative that is added to nebuliser solutions, has been shown to cause bronchoconstriction when inhaled by asthmatic subjects. 2. To investigate the potential role of reflex and mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchoconstriction produced by benzalkonium chloride we examined the effects of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on this response in both concentration-response and time-course studies in nine asthmatic subjects. 3. Pretreatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide (1 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg) displaced the benzalkonium chloride concentration-response curves to the right by a mean 2.2 fold and 3.1 fold respectively. 4. Ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate markedly attenuated the airway response to benzalkonium chloride throughout the 45 min time course period, inhibiting the overall response by 56% and 78% respectively. 5. We conclude that benzalkonium chloride provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects through a combination of mast cell activation and stimulation of peripheral and central neural pathways. PMID:2972308

  18. Effect of inhibition of converting enzyme on renal hemodynamics and sodium management in polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, V E; Wilson, D M; Burnett, J C; Johnson, C M; Offord, K P

    1991-10-01

    We compared the tubular transport of sodium and the erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport activity in hypertensive patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and in normotensive control subjects. In addition, we assessed the effects of inhibition of converting enzyme on renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion in hypertensive patients with ADPKD to provide information on mechanisms responsible for the increased renal vascular resistance and filtration fraction and the adjustment of the pressure-natriuresis relationship during saline expansion, observed in patients with ADPKD, hypertension, and preserved renal function. In comparison with normotensive control subjects, the hypertensive patients with ADPKD had lower renal plasma flows, higher renal vascular resistances and filtration fractions, and similar proximal and distal fractional reabsorptions of sodium. The administration of enalapril resulted in significant increases in the renal plasma flow and significant reductions in mean arterial pressure, renal vascular resistance, and filtration fraction, but the glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged. Despite the significant reduction in mean arterial pressure during inhibition of converting enzyme, the distal fractional reabsorption of sodium decreased while the total fractional excretion of sodium remained unchanged or increased slightly. No significant differences were detected between the normotensive control subjects and the hypertensive patients with ADPKD in erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport activity, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone concentration, or atrial natriuretic factor. These results suggest that the renal renin-angiotensin system plays a central role in the alterations in renal hemodynamics and sodium management associated with the development of hypertension in ADPKD.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  20. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput r

  1. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Jiang, L.M.; de Soet, J.J.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  2. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  3. Sodium perbarate and benzalkonium chloride induce DNA damage in Chang conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huina; Wu, Han; Yang, Jun; Ye, Juan

    2017-02-06

    Content and objective: To investigate and compare the toxic effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and new type oxidative preservative sodium perborate (NaBO3) on DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell survival in immortalized human Chang conjunctival cells.

  4. RasGRP1 stimulation enhances ubiquitination and endocytosis of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, B.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Cooke, L.L.; Moddes, L.N.; Deen, P.M.T.; Hoover, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the principal salt-absorptive pathway in the distal convoluted tubule. Recently, we described a novel pathway of NCC regulation in which phorbol esters (PE) stimulate Ras guanyl-releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), triggering a cascade ultimately activating ERK1/

  5. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  6. Salt microspheres and potassium chloride usage for sodium reduction: Case study with sushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Đani; Buchtová, Hana; Macharáčková, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate possibilities of salt substitutes usage in the preparation of two sushi types (nigiri and maki) prepared with different seafood (salmon: Salmo salar, tuna: Thunnus albacares, and shrimp: Pleoticus muelleri). Potassium chloride (Mary samples), Soda-Lo (hollowed microsphere of regular salt crystals), and regular salt (sodium chloride) were used in the experiment. Sushi samples (n = 1960) were evaluated by 40 trained panelists who noticed that maki shrimp samples prepared with Mary salt had higher bitterness (21.48 ± 28.01) in comparison with 2% sodium chloride (7.91 ± 8.80). The saltiness was lower in nigiri tuna prepared with Mary (49.59 ± 17.47) than 2% sodium chloride (61.11 ± 15.75). The study clearly showed the possibility of lowering sodium content in sushi meal with the usage of salt substitutes, with emphasis that Soda-Lo should be considered as a better option due to the retention of sensory properties in sushi samples prepared with this salt substitute.

  7. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not m

  8. RasGRP1 stimulation enhances ubiquitination and endocytosis of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, B.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Cooke, L.L.; Moddes, L.N.; Deen, P.M.T.; Hoover, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the principal salt-absorptive pathway in the distal convoluted tubule. Recently, we described a novel pathway of NCC regulation in which phorbol esters (PE) stimulate Ras guanyl-releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), triggering a cascade ultimately activating

  9. Clinical experience of supplying sodium chloride for the treatment of patients with severe heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丽霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and safety of supplying sodium chloride in the treatment of patients with severe heart failure. Methods Consecutive 51 hospitalized patients with severe heart failure and cardiac edema were included in this study. Normal diet (6g NaCl/d) was supplied

  10. Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaerewijck, M J M; Sabbe, K; Baré, J; Spengler, H-P; Favoreel, H W; Houf, K

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and two Tetrahymena spp. was determined based on the European Standard EN 1276:2009 suspension test. Trophozoite viability was assessed by determination of the membrane integrity using flow cytometry as a fast screening technique. Bovine serum albumin was added to simulate clean (0.3 g/liter) and dirty (3 g/liter) conditions. Benzalkonium chloride caused cell lysis at concentrations above 50 mg/liter under clean and dirty conditions. A concentration of 50 mg of free chlorine per liter had a strong biocidal effect on acanthamoebae and tetrahymenae after 15 min under clean and dirty conditions. Our results suggest that benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite were effective against the three microorganisms at concentrations commonly applied in the food industry.

  11. Salt, sodium chloride or sodium? Content and relationship with chemical, instrumental and sensory attributes in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameník, Josef; Saláková, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Pechová, Alena; Haruštiaková, Danka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt content in selected cooked meat products by the methods of determining the sodium content and the content of chlorides. The resulting data was compared with other chemical, instrumental and sensory parameters of the analysed samples. A total of 133 samples of 5 meat products were tested. The sodium content ranged from 558.0 to 1308.0mgNa/100g. Salt level determined by the two methods strongly correlated and did not differ in any meat product. Intensity of salty taste of the product was independent on its salt content. The salt (sodium) content may be reduced without a negative impact on sensory or instrumental properties of meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct effect of methylprednisolone on renal sodium and water transport via the principal cells in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Thomas G; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N;

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids influence renal concentrating and diluting ability. We tested the hypothesis that methylprednisolone treatment increased renal water and sodium absorption by increased absorption via the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels and the epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) respectively....

  13. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  14. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B; MacAulay, N; Fenton, R A

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antibodies targeting pS124-NCC demonstrated a band of 160 kDa in the kidney cortex, but not medulla, which was preabsorbed by a corresponding phosphorylated peptide. Confocal microscopy with kidney tubule segment-specific markers localized pS124-NCC to all distal convoluted tubule cells. Double immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that pS124-NCC co-localized with total NCC in the apical plasma membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells and intracellular vesicles. Acute treatment of Munich-Wistar rats or vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats with the vasopressin type 2 receptor-specific agonist dDAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and mTOR/FRAP) showed weak but significant phosphorylation activity at S124. In oocytes, (36)Cl uptake studies combined with biochemical analysis showed decreased activity of plasma membrane-associated NCC when replacing S124 with alanine (A) or aspartic acid (D). In novel tetracycline-inducible MDCKII-NCC cell lines, S124A and S124D mutants were able to traffic to the plasma membrane similarly to wildtype NCC.

  15. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove.

  16. [Renal and extra-renal mechanisms of sodium and water retention in cirrhosis with ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, J C

    1995-01-01

    In this work we analyze the renal and systemic factors involved in the sodium retention in two conditions: in extracellular volume depletion and in edema forming states, particularly liver cirrhosis with ascitis. In this paper we accept that the volume loss of body fluids stimulates the "effective arterial blood volume" (VAE). This term results from a decrease in the arterial blood volume secondary to a fall in cardiac output or a peripheral arterial vasodilatation. The reduction in the VAE stimulates: the high pressure baroreceptors (carotid sinus and aortic arch); the intrarrenal mechanisms, such as the yuxtaglomerular apparatus and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system; the sympathetic adrenergic system; the non osmotic release of antidiuretic hormone; prostaglandins (PGE1, Tromboxane) and endothelin; and inhibits the atrial natriuretic peptide. We also describe the sodium transport mechanisms along the nephron during physiological conditions and after volume depletion, and in edema formation states, specially hepatic cirrhosis with ascitis. We speculate that the intrarenal mechanisms are more important and persistent than the systemic mechanisms. It is possible that the sodium retention of these states might be the result of direct stimuli of the tubular sodium transport mechanisms in the different segments of the nephron, mediated by the co and counter transports, ATPase activity or by the second messengers cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. The clonation and structural characterization of the different sodium transports may help us to establish, more precisely, the intracellular tubular mechanisms responsible for the tendency of the body to retain sodium. The amount of information generated in the future may help us to demonstrate, with more precision, the mechanisms responsible for the sodium retention and excretion in normal and pathological conditions, particularly the edema forming states such as cardiac failure, nephrotic syndrome and hepatic cirrhosis with

  17. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  18. Stability of piperacillin sodium-tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J S; Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Ulrich, R W; Gill, M A

    1994-09-15

    The stability of piperacillin sodium plus tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration was studied. Triplicate test solutions of piperacillin 40 mg/mL plus tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) or piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) were mixed 1:1 with ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). The solutions were stored at 23 degrees C, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for measurement of drug concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of sampling and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for color and precipitation, and pH was determined. At all sampling times, the concentrations of piperacillin, tazobactam, and ranitidine were > 90% of initial concentrations. There were no substantial changes in pH or color. Tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration. Piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration.

  19. The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzymińska Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

  20. Removal of sodium and chloride ions from aqueous solutions using fique fibers (Furcraea spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Nikolay; Hinestroza, Juan P; Husserl, Johana

    2016-01-01

    Fique fibers obtained from the leaves of Furcraea spp., a highly abundant plant in the mountains of South America, may offer an alternative as biosorbents in desalination processes as they exhibit high removal capacities (13.26 meq/g for chloride ions and 15.52 meq/g for sodium ions) up to four times higher than exchange capacities commonly observed in synthetic resins. The ion removal capacity of the fibers was also found to be a function of the pH of the solution with the maximum removal of ions obtained at pH 8. Unlike most commercial ion exchange resins, our results suggest that fique fibers allow simultaneous removal of chloride and sodium ions.

  1. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...... 500 mug digoxin showed a significant rise in CK, which lasted for 48 hours, and 6 of them had CK values exceeding the upper normal limit. Pentazocine in a dose of 30 mg given to 9 patients caused a significant rise in CK and LDH isoenzyme 1, but in no case did the level exceed the upper normal limit....... No rise in ASAT or total LDH was found after digoxin and pentazocine injections. No changes in enzymes were discovered after bumetanide or isotonic sodium chloride. In the diagnostic evaluation of acute myocardial infarction, a moderate rise in CK must be assessed with caution when the patients have...

  2. Renal Toxicity of Mercuric Chloride at Different Time Intervals in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Al-Madani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to study the renal toxicity of mercuric chloride in rats at different periods of time. The following groups of rats were studied: i control, ii placebo, iii rats injected with a single ip dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of 2, 3 dimercapto- 1-propanesulfonic acid, iv rats injected with a single ip dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of 2, 3 dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS followed by a single dose ip of 2.0 mg HgCl2/kg body weight one hour after DMPS injection v rats injected with a single ip dose of 2.0 mg HgCl2/kg body weight. Results indicate that mercuric chloride was more toxic after 48 hours of its administration when compared to 24 hours. Mercuric chloride administration caused an impairment of renal function which was evident from a significant decrease in urine volume, urinary excretion of urea, creatinine and glomerular filteration rate (P < 0.001 when compared to other treated groups. There was an increased excretion of protein, albumin and γ—glutamyltransferase in the urine of mercuric chloride treated rats. Administration of 2, 3 dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid before mercuric chloride treatment caused the altered indices to return to near normal levels.

  3. Effect of Salinity Stress on Chloride, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorophyll and Soluble Sugars Content in Citrus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Golein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine salinity-tolerant genotypes among the citrus germplasm present in Kotra collection, a greenhouse experiment was carried out as factorial, completely randomized design with three replications, at four levels of NaCl (0, 2, 4 and 6 dS/m and 10 unknown genotypes, for 16 weeks. Cleopatra mandarin and Swingle Citromelo, as tolerant (control and sensitive cultivars, respectively, were used. After 6 months of seedlings growth in pots containing equal amounts of perlite, sand and garden soil, the irrigation water, containing different concentrations of sodium chloride was applied every 5 days (considering climatic conditions and plant requirements. At the end of the experiment, concentration of chloride and sodium in leaf and root, chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll content and concentration of soluble sugars in leaves were measured. Results showed that salinity increased chloride and sodium concentration in root and leaf. The lowest level of accumulation of chloride in leaf was related to genotype g9 and Cleopatra mandarin. Potassium concentration and chlorophyll a and b content decreased with salinity, while the interaction of genotype and salinity did not show significant difference in these characteristics. Genotypes were different in content of soluble sugars, in response to salinity. Based on the results, genotype g9, because of the lowest increase in leaf chloride content and also the lower decrease in total chlorophyll content, in comparison with most of the studied genotypes, can be considered as a tolerant genotype to salinity stress, and could be utilized in breeding programs of rootstocks.

  4. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna; Staub, Olivier; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na(+)) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K(+)) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Here, we developed the use of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) mammalian epithelial cell lines with tetracycline-inducible human NCC expression to study NCC activity and membrane abundance in the same system. In radiotracer assays, induced cells grown on filters had robust thiazide-sensitive and chloride dependent sodium-22 ((22)Na) uptake from the apical side. To minimize cost and maximize throughput, assays were modified to use cells grown on plastic. On plastic, cells had similar thiazide-sensitive (22)Na uptakes that increased following preincubation of cells in chloride-free solutions. NCC was detected in the plasma membrane, and both membrane abundance and phosphorylation of NCC were increased by incubation in chloride-free solutions. Furthermore, in cells exposed for 15 min to low or high extracellular K(+), the levels of phosphorylated NCC increased and decreased, respectively. To demonstrate that the system allows rapid and systematic assessment of mutated NCC, three phosphorylation sites in NCC were mutated, and NCC activity was examined. (22)Na fluxes in phosphorylation-deficient mutants were reduced to baseline levels, whereas phosphorylation-mimicking mutants were constitutively active, even without chloride-free stimulation. In conclusion, this system allows the activity, cellular localization, and abundance of wild-type or mutant NCC to be examined in the same polarized mammalian expression system in a rapid, easy, and low-cost fashion. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  6. OVER-EXPRESSION OF THE SODIUM CHLORIDE COTRANSPORTER IS NOT SUFFICIENT TO CAUSE FAMILIAL HYPERKALEMIC HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, James A.; Nelson, Joshua H.; Yang, Chao-Ling; Curry, Joshua N.; Ellison, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC) is the primary target of thiazides diuretics, drugs used commonly for long-term hypertension therapy. Thiazides also completely reverse the signs of Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt), suggesting that the primary defect in FHHt is increased NCC activity. To test whether increased NCC abundance alone is sufficient to generate the FHHt phenotype, we generated NCC transgenic mice; surprisingly, these mice did not display an FHHt-like phenotype. Sys...

  7. Monitoring sodium chloride during cod fish desalting process by flow injection spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Ildikó V. Tóth; Portela, Ana; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Rangel,António O. S. S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to adapt to the market trends that are moving towards ready-to-use products cod !sh industry is including into their industrial operations as the desalting step. The desalting process is a high cost and time demanding operation. The optimization of the desalting process is of vital importance for the !sh industry in order to assure the homogeneity and predictable concentration of sodium chloride in the !nal hydrated cod !sh product. On the other hand, consumers are more a...

  8. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  9. Evaluation of angiogenesis, epithelialisation and microcirculation after application of polyhexanide, chitosan and sodium chloride in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ole; Lauer, Henrik; Hirsch, Tobias; Daigeler, Adrien; Harati, Kamran; Stricker, Ingo; Lehnhardt, Marcus; von der Lohe, Leon

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polyhexanide and a new developed chitin-based wound dressing on skin microcirculation, epithelialisation and angiogenesis. A full-thickness dermal layer extending to the underlying cartilage was excised on the dorsal side of hairless mice (n = 27; 2·3 ± 0·3 mm(2) ). A polyhexanide ointment, a chitosan solution and a sodium chloride group as control were analysed using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenesis, epithelialisation and microcirculatory standard parameters were measured over a time period of 20 days. The non-perfused area is regarded as a parameter for angiogenesis and showed the following results: on days 12, 16 and 20, the sodium chloride group was significantly superior to chitosan solution (P polyhexanide group was superior to chitosan solution (P polyhexanide and control group on day 8 versus chitosan solution. Whereas polyhexanide and sodium chloride were nearly completely epithelialised, treatment with chitosan solution showed still an open wound of 11% of the initial wound size. Altogether, we could demonstrate the advantageous effects of a polyhexanide ointment on microcirculation, angiogenesis and epithelialisation. Chitosan solution appears to inhibit angiogenesis and delays epithelialisation. Further studies in different models would be worthwhile to confirm these results. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Nathalia O; de Oliveira, Thiago S; Naves, Lara M; Filgueira, Fernando P; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Schoorlemmer, Gerard H M; de Castro, Carlos H; Freiria-Oliveira, André H; Xavier, Carlos H; Colugnati, Diego B; Rosa, Daniel A; Blanch, Graziela T; Borges, Clayton L; Soares, Célia M A; Reis, Angela A S; Cravo, Sergio L; Pedrino, Gustavo R

    2014-01-01

    Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT), but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g) were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1), i.v.). A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF). Renal vascular conductance (RVC) was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6), OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1), i.v.) induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR) reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1) b.wt., i.v.) was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6), hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1) • h(-1), i.v.; n = 7) and renal denervation (RX) reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7) completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively), whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  11. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia O Amaral

    Full Text Available Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT, but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1, i.v.. A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP and renal blood flow (RBF. Renal vascular conductance (RVC was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6, OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1, i.v. induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1 b.wt., i.v. was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6, hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1 • h(-1, i.v.; n = 7 and renal denervation (RX reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7 completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively, whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  12. Stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0. 9% sodium chloride injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, R.J.; Puchala, A.H.; Nail, S.L.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections was studied. Vials of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (125-3000 mg) were reconstituted and added to 50- and 100-ml volumes of the two diluents. These piggyback solutions were visually inspected for the development of haze over a 24-hour period. A nephelometer was used to quantitate the development of turbidity with time. The effect of pH on haze formation was investigated, and infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the haze. Nephelometer readings were found to correlate well with visual inspections. The haze was identified as being formed by the precipitation of free methylprednisolone. The rate of change of turbidity was directly related to the pH. A 1.4-3.2 percentage-point increase in the free methylprednisolone concentration secondary to hydrolysis over the 24-hour period was noted. The duration of stability was variable among the investigated lots and concentrations. Nineteen of the 24 admixtures stored at room temperature remained stable and free of visible haze for at least 12 hours after preparation. For all dosage strengths of methylprednisolone sodium succinate studied, these data indicate that solutions can be made stable for at least 12 hours by selecting the appropriate volume of diluent.

  13. Stability of Melphalan in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solutions Prepared in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags for Intravenous Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaris, Romain-Pacôme; Mercier, Lionel; Paci, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Melphalan is an alkylating agent frequently used in an intravenous formulation to treat hematologic malignancies and solid tumors in both adults and children. According to the manufacturer, melphalan is stable in sterile 0.9% sodium chloride for 90 min at room temperature (RT). Several authors have studied the stability of different concentrations of melphalan; however, most were not adapted to the current manufacturing process applied in pharmaceutical centralized units. This study was conducted to determine the stability of melphalan in 0.9% sodium chloride solutions at concentrations used for intravenous injection in practice. Melphalan is commonly prepared in diluted solutions ranging from 2 to 4 mg/ml for the treatment of adult patients and at lower concentrations (down to 0.5 mg/ml) for pediatric use. Accordingly, these were the three concentrations chosen for this study. Melphalan concentrations were measured with high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). At RT, admixtures prepared at 4 mg/ml were stable for up to 8 h without protection from light; however, at lower concentrations, such as 0.5 and 2 mg/ml, stability did not exceed 2 h. When refrigerated, melphalan was stable for 24 h at 2 mg/ml; however, at 0.5 and 4 mg/ml, the drug was not stable. Melphalan solutions present with limited stability at 0.5, 2, and 4 mg/ml and are not adapted for delayed administration in pharmaceutical centralized units. However, at 4 mg/ml and at RT, a stability of 8 h is very interesting in practice and allows sufficient time for preparation, pharmaceutical control, transport, and administration.

  14. Determination of Potassium Chloride in Compound Sodium Chloride Injection%复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钾含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红彩

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钾含量的测定方法。方法分别采用四苯硼钠重量法和容量法测定复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钾的含量。结果四苯硼钠容量法测得氯化钾含量无显著性差异,符合分析准确度的要求。结论容量法测定方法迅速,简单快速,方便,适合药品制剂快速测定的要求。%Objective: To establish the method for the determination of the content of potassium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection. Methods: The contents of potassium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection were determined by sodium tetraphenylborate volumetric method and sodium tetraphenylborate gravimetric method respectively, the results of which were compared. Results: There was no significant dif erence in the test comparison between the determination results of volumetric method and that of the gravimetric method, and the sodium tetraphenylborate volumetric method meet the accuracy requirements analysis. Conclusion: The sodium tetraphenylborate volumetric method is simple, fast and accurate, which is suitable for the requirements of rapid determination.

  15. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  16. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  17. Reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones using sodium borohydride in the presence of silica chloride under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heshmatollah; Alinezhad; Mahmood; Tajbakhsh; Neda; Hamidi

    2010-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for the preparation of amines from aldehydes and ketones with sodium borohydride activated by silica chloride as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described.A variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes,ketones and amines when mixed with NaBH_4/silica chloride at room temperature,afforded excellent yield of the corresponding amines.

  18. Comparison of different methods for determination of sodium chloride in cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of NaCl (weight fraction of Cl-ions, in % was analysed in different cheeses, which were bought in supermarkets, and made by domestic manufacturers. Sodium chloride in cheese samples was analysed after the extraction of chloride by nitric acid solution. Concentration of chloride ions was potentiometricly determined, with the chloride selective electrode and titrimetricly by Volhard method. According to the results in the analysis of the content of NaCl in %, by different methods it was determined that the share of NaCl in % ranged from 0.66 to 4.43% (determined by potentiometric route that is from 0.97 to 4.72% (determined by titrimetric route by Volhard method. The difference in received results in different methods is less if the share of NaCl, in % is higher than 3%. If the share is less than 3%, the difference in results rapidly increases, and the biggest difference is when the share is less than 1%. This analysis was done according to the results received by Volhard method, which is accepted as a standard method. As Volhard method is in connection with cheese resolving by intense oxidation means, azotic acid and potassium permanganate, obligatory in fume board (hood, it is not a practical method. On the other hand, the potentiometric method with usage of the chloride-selective electrode is very simple and gives reliable and reproductive results. In case of a small content of NaCl, in %, higher precision and accuracy of determination by chloride-selective electrode can be obtained by indirect measurement of chloride-ions (by standard addition method.

  19. Impaired intestinal sodium and chloride transport in the blind loop syndrome of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzke, J D; Fromm, M; Menge, H; Riecken, E O

    1987-03-01

    Self-filling blind loops of rat jejunum were used as a model for the blind loop syndrome in humans. Electrical resistance, short circuit current, and unidirectional sodium and chloride fluxes were measured using the Ussing technique. Whereas net fluxes for sodium and chloride did not differ significantly from zero in the blind loop or in the control, unidirectional fluxes of either direction were decreased and electrical resistance was increased, indicating an increase in the tightness of the intestinal wall. Measurements of alternating current impedance and micropuncture experiments revealed that this was due to an increase in epithelial resistance from 9 +/- 1 omega X cm2 (n = 15, results of both methods) to 27 +/- 4 omega X cm2 (n = 15) and in subepithelial resistance from 40 +/- 2 omega X cm2 (n = 15) to 76 +/- 7 omega X cm2 (n = 15). As the ratio of epithelial to subepithelial resistance was similar in the blind loop and in the control, lower transport rates in the blind loop are indicative of impaired epithelial transport function. Subsequently, two different transport systems were characterized. First, the 3-o-methyl-glucose-induced, phlorizin-reversible increase in short circuit current, representing glucose-coupled sodium absorption, showed a 77% decrease in maximum velocity in the blind loop and no change in Km. Second, the chloride-induced, bumetanide-reversible increase in short circuit current in tissues stimulated simultaneously by prostaglandin E1 and theophylline, representing rheogenic chloride secretion, also showed a decrease in maximum velocity (of 83%) and no change in Km. A morphometric analysis revealed that the crypt surface area increased by 100% in the blind loop, whereas the villous surface area was not significantly different between blind loops and controls. We conclude that the jejunal self-filling blind loop is characterized by impaired active ion transport processes and an increase in epithelial and subepithelial resistance.

  20. Disorders of body fluids, sodium and potassium in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitch, W E; Wilcox, C S

    1982-03-01

    A stable volume and composition of extracellular fluid are essential for normal functioning of the body. Since the kidney is primarily responsible for regulating extracellular fluid, loss of kidney function should have catastrophic consequences. Fortunately, even with loss of more than 90 percent of renal function, a remarkable capacity to regulate body fluid volumes and sodium and potassium persists. Nevertheless, this capacity is limited to chronic renal disease and this has important consequences for clinical management of these patients. How can sodium and potassium homeostasis be assessed? Methods for evaluating the steady-state regulation of sodium include measurement of body fluids and their distribution in different compartments and measurement of exchangeable and intracellular sodium. Short-term regulation of body sodium can be assessed from measurement of sodium balance during changes in dietary salt. Potassium is predominantly contained within cells and thus the assessment of its regulation requires special emphasis on measurement of steady-state body stores and potassium distribution across cell membranes. However, the methods used to make all of these measurements require assumptions that may not hold in the altered state of uremia. This raises problems in interpretation requiring critical analysis before conclusions can be made regarding sodium and potassium homeostasis in patients with chronic renal failure. This review focuses on abnormalities of body fluids, sodium and potassium in patients with creatinine clearances of less than 20 ml/min due to chronic renal failure and the impact of conservative therapy, dialysis and renal transplantation on these patients.

  1. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Navis, Gerjan J; Lewis, Julia B; Ritz, Eberhard; de Graeff, Pieter A; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2012-08-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the RENAAL and IDNT trials to test this in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy randomized to ARB or non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (non-RAASi)-based antihypertensive therapy. Treatment effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were compared in subgroups based on dietary sodium intake during treatment, measured as the 24-h urinary sodium/creatinine ratio of 1177 patients with available 24-h urinary sodium measurements. ARB compared to non-RAASi-based therapy produced the greatest long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular events in the lowest tertile of sodium intake. Compared to non-RAASi, the trend in risk for renal events was significantly reduced by 43%, not changed, or increased by 37% for each tertile of increased sodium intake, respectively. The trend for cardiovascular events was significantly reduced by 37%, increased by 2% and 25%, respectively. Thus, treatment effects of ARB compared with non-RAASi-based therapy on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were greater in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy with lower than higher dietary sodium intake. This underscores the avoidance of excessive sodium intake, particularly in type 2 diabetic patients receiving ARB therapy.

  2. Renal sodium avidity in heart failure: from pathophysiology to treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Wilfried; Verbrugge, Frederik Hendrik; Nijst, Petra; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson

    2017-02-23

    Increased neurohumoral stimulation resulting in excessive sodium avidity and extracellular volume overload are hallmark features of decompensated heart failure. Especially in case of concomitant renal dysfunction, the kidneys often fail to elicit effective natriuresis. While assessment of renal function is generally performed by measuring serum creatinine-a surrogate for glomerular filtration-, this only represents part of the nephron's function. Alterations in tubular sodium handling are at least equally important in the development of volume overload and congestion. Venous congestion and neurohumoral activation in advanced HF further promote renal sodium and water retention. Interestingly, early on, before clinical signs of heart failure are evident, intrinsic renal derangements already impair natriuresis. This clinical review discusses the importance of heart failure (HF) induced changes in different nephron segments. A better understanding of cardiorenal interactions which ultimately result in sodium avidity in HF might help to treat and prevent congestion in chronic and acute HF.

  3. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

    2013-03-01

    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  4. Renal aquaporins and sodium transporters with special focus on urinary tract obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Li, Chunling; Shi, Yimin

    2003-01-01

    seven aquaporins are expressed at distinct sites in the kidney and 4 members of this family (AQP1-4) have been demonstrated to play pivotal roles in the physiology and pathophysiology for renal regulation of body water balance. Osmotic equilibration via renal aquaporins is maintained by active transport...... of NaCl. The major sodium transporters and channels in the individual renal tubule segments have been identified and the regulation of these transporters and channels are fundamental for renal sodium reabsorption and for establishing the driving force. In this mini-review the role of renal aquaporins...... and sodium transporters and channels is briefly described and their key role for the impaired urinary concentrating capacity in response to urinary tract obstruction is reviewed. Thus this review updates previous detailed reviews (1-5)....

  5. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo Elvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods : Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results : M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions : The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

  6. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  7. Inhibition of sodium current by taurine magnesium coordination compound prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongqiang; Wen, Ke; Wu, Yanna; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism(s) by which taurine magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) inhibits experimental arrhythmias remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of TMCC against cesium chloride-induced arrhythmia in the rabbit heart and find whether the antiarrhythmic activity is related to inhibition of sodium current. Early afterdepolarization was induced by 1.5 mM cesium chloride (1 ml kg(-1)) through intravenous injection. The monophasic action potentials (MAP) and electrocardiograms were simultaneously recorded. The effect of TMCC on functional refractory periods (FRPs) in the left atrium was also observed in vitro. Arrhythmias onset was significantly retarded by TMCC. The number of ventricular premature contractions and incidence of monophasic ventricular tachycardia and polyphasic ventricular tachycardia in 10 min were decreased by TMCC. These effects can be abolished by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). MAP duration at 90% repolarization was significantly prolonged by TMCC, which can be prolonged even longer by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). In vitro experiments showed that FRPs was prolonged by TMCC which can be cancelled by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). TMCC prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias, and inhibition of sodium current, in part, contributes to the antiarrhythmic effect of TMCC.

  8. Stability of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Lorazepam, and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Collin R; Halford, Zachery; MacKay, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is problematic for many patients undergoing chemotherapy. Multiple-drug treatments have been developed to mitigate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. A patient-controlled infusion of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lorazepam, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been studied in patients who are refractory to first-line therapy. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical compatibility of this three-drug combination is not available in the published literature. Chemical compatibility was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Visual observation was employed to detect change in color, clarity, or gas evolution. Turbidity and pH measurements were performed in conjunction with visual observation at hours 0, 24, and 48. Results showed that diphenhydramine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.27 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polypropylene syringes were compatible, and components retained greater than 95% of their original concentration over 48 hours when stored at room temperature.

  9. Effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on sodium sensitivity and renal sodium handling in hypertensive Hispanic postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Richard A; Afshartous, David; Materson, Barry J; Rodco, Rolando; Alonso, Alberto B

    2014-08-01

    Several consistent lines of evidence indicate an association between sodium sensitivity and impaired nitric oxide bioactivity. Nevertheless, whether restoring nitric oxide in humans by pharmacological means can ameliorate sodium sensitivity has not been investigated. Because nebivolol has been demonstrated to increase nitric oxide bioactivity in both laboratory and clinical investigations, we hypothesized that nebivolol might ameliorate sodium sensitivity and improve renal sodium handling in comparison to metoprolol. We therefore conducted a randomized, 2-treatment-period crossover trial in 19 Hispanic postmenopausal women with hypertension to determine the comparative effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on (1) 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure response to an increase in dietary sodium from 5 days of low sodium to 5 days of high sodium, (2) renal natriuretic response to a 1-L saline challenge, and (3) asymmetrical dimethylarginine. Clinic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly reduced after 4 weeks of treatment with both nebivolol and metoprolol. Twenty-four–hour mean systolic blood pressure increased sharply from low sodium to high sodium for both nebivolol and metoprolol. Nevertheless, the increases in blood pressure did not differ between the 2 drugs: 7.7 (3.1, 12.3) mm Hg with metoprolol and 9.3 (4.6, 13.9) mm Hg with nebivolol (P=0.63). Furthermore, we observed no differences between the drugs in natriuretic response to saline challenge or asymmetrical dimethylarginine. In a sodium-sensitive population, at doses sufficient to produce reductions in blood pressure and heart rate, nebivolol did not demonstrate a significant effect on sodium sensitivity or sodium handling compared with metoprolol.

  10. Intravenous bicarbonate and sodium chloride both prolong endurance during intense cycle ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T H; Abraham, G; Wing, S; Magder, S A; Cosio, M G; Deschamps, A; Marliss, E B

    1990-08-01

    To determine the effects of neutralizing exercise systemic acidosis via the intravenous route upon endurance and metabolic responses, eight lean, normal, postabsorptive men exercised to exhaustion at about 80% of their VO2 max (69 +/- 3%, mean +/- SEM, of maximum power output) on a cycle ergometer. Exercise studies were performed either with no infusion (control) or with a total infusion volume of about 1.5 L, mainly as 1.3% sodium bicarbonate or as 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl), infused (double-blind) throughout exercise. The sodium bicarbonate was to prevent acid-base change, the sodium chloride was as a control for the volume infused. Arterialized venous blood and breath-by-breath analysis of expired gases were obtained. [H+] (nmol.L-1) and [HCO3-] (mmol.L-1) at exhaustion were similar in control and NaCl (46.5 +/- 1.8, 19.9 +/- 0.9), but remained unchanged from rest values with bicarbonate (38.4 +/- 0.9, 24.8 +/- 1.5, p less than 0.005 vs control and NaCl). At exhaustion, VO2, VCO2, RER, heart rate, and systolic BP as well as FFA, glycerol, alanine, insulin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine did not differ among protocols. Endurance was markedly prolonged (p less than 0.01) with bicarbonate (31.9 +/- 5.8 min) and NaCl (31.8 +/- 4.1 min) compared with the control (19.0 +/- 2.9 min) condition. Plasma glucose at exhaustion was higher (p less than 0.025) in the control compared to bicarbonate and NaCl experiments, while lactate was higher (p less than 0.025) in the bicarbonate than in the control and NaCl experiments. Thus, the prolonged endurance with sodium bicarbonate infusion could not be explained either by its effect of maintaining blood acid-base equilibrium or concomitant metabolic changes.

  11. Renal sodium handling and haemodynamics are equally affected by hyperinsulinaemia in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; Donker, AJM; Gans, ROB

    2001-01-01

    Objective It is well-known that insulin induces renal sodium retention. It is not yet known whether insulin's renal effects are involved in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. We assessed the effects of insulin on renal sodium handling and haemodynamics in 10 salt-sensitive (SS) and 10 s

  12. Renal sodium handling and haemodynamics are equally affected by hyperinsulinaemia in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; Donker, AJM; Gans, ROB

    Objective It is well-known that insulin induces renal sodium retention. It is not yet known whether insulin's renal effects are involved in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. We assessed the effects of insulin on renal sodium handling and haemodynamics in 10 salt-sensitive (SS) and 10

  13. Use of sodium chloride and zeolite during shipment of Ancistrus triradiatus under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson F. Ramírez-Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sodium chloride (0.5 g/L and 1 g/L and zeolite (22.7 g/L during shipment (48 h of Ancistrus triradiatus at high temperatures (between 24.5 and 34ºC were evaluated. Several water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and total ammonia were measured before and after shipment. Glycemia was measured before shipment and at 24 and 48 h after shipment. After shipment, a resistance test was carried out in a high concentration of sodium chloride, and mortality was recorded after shipment, and 7 days post-shipment. While the two evaluated substances increased survival of A. triradiatus challenged by high temperatures during shipment, the best result was obtained with 1 g/L of sodium chloride.O uso de cloreto de sódio (0,5 g/L e 1 g/L e zeolita (22,7 g/L foram avaliados durante o transporte (48 h de Ancistrus triradiatus em altas temperaturas (entre 24,5 e 34ºC. Os seguintes parâmetros foram monitorados: pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade e amônia antes e depois do transporte. Também foi mensurada a concentração de glicose no sangue antes do transporte e 0, 24 e 48 h após o transporte. Foi realizado um teste de resistência a altas concentrações de cloreto de sódio após o transporte, sendo registrada a mortalidade no final do transporte e após 7 dias. As duas substâncias testadas aumentam a sobrevivência de A. triradiatus a altas temperaturas durante o transporte, porém o melhor resultado foi obtido com o uso de 1 g/L cloreto de sódio.

  14. Effects of sodium chloride and fat supplementation on finishing steers exposed to hot and cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L

    2009-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat and salt (sodium chloride) on DMI, daily water intake (DWI), body temperature, and respiration rate (RR) in Bos taurus beef cattle. In Exp. 1 and 2, whole soybeans (SB) were used as the supplemental fat source. In Exp. 3, palm kernel meal and tallow were used. Experiment 1 (winter) and Exp. 2 (summer) were undertaken in an outside feedlot. Experiment 3 was conducted in a climate-controlled facility (mean ambient temperature = 29.9 degrees C). In Exp. 1, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 1% sodium chloride); and 3) salt-SB (control + 5% SB + 1% sodium chloride), were fed to 144 cattle (BW = 327.7 kg), using a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (BW = 334.1 kg) were used. In Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were used as in Exp. 1, and a 5% SB dietary treatment was included in an incomplete 3 x 4 Latin square design. In Exp. 3, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 0.92% NaCl); and 3) salt-fat (control + 3.2% added fat + 0.92% NaCl) were fed to 12 steers (BW = 602 kg) in a replicated Latin square design. In Exp. 1, cattle fed the salt-SB diet had elevated (P benefit to the animal during winter. Nevertheless, adding salt plus fat to diets resulted in increased DWI under hot conditions. Diet ingredients or the combination of ingredients that can be used to regulate DMI may be useful to limit large increases in DMI during adverse weather events.

  15. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  16. The evaporation of the water-sodium chlorides solution droplets on the heated substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Evgenija; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Feoktistov, Dmitriy

    2014-08-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the evaporation of a sessile water- sodium chlorides solution drop to open atmosphere on the solid substrate (anodized aluminum) under the varying heat flux. The main parameters defining drop profile were obtained: contact diameter, contact angle, height of the drop. The specific evaporation rate was calculated. The influence of the initial concentration of the evaporated solution to a value of the specific evaporation rate has been found out. The specific evaporation rate decreases with increasing of the concentration.

  17. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rozenfelde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

  18. Production of carbon nanofibers in high yields using a sodium chloride support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Junfeng; Kinloch, Ian A; Singh, Charanjeet; Golovko, Vladimir B; Johnson, Brian F G; Shaffer, Milo S P; Li, Yali; Windle, Alan H

    2005-09-08

    A new route for the highly convenient scalable production of carbon nanofibers on a sodium chloride support has been developed. Since the support is nontoxic and soluble in water, it can be easily removed without damage to the nanofibers and the environment. Nanofiber yields of up to 6500 wt % relative to the nickel catalyst have been achieved in a growth time of 15 min. Electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the catalytically grown carbon had relatively little thermal over-growth and possessed either a herringbone or a semi-ordered nanostructure, depending on the growth conditions.

  19. EFFECTS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF PURPLETOP VERVAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising demand for salt-tolerant species for landscaping. Purpletop vervain is an excellent landscape plant for gardens and parks, with fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers. However, little is known concerning the effect of sodium chloride on morphological characteristics, flowering and mineral uptake of purpletop vervain. In this study, carried out in 2013–2014, the plants of purpletop vervain were grown in pots in an unheated plastic tunnel. The plants were watered with 200 mM NaCl solution four times, every seven days. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by slightly reduced plant height, weight of the aboveground part and visual score. Salt stress caused also an increase in leaf content sodium, chlorine and manganese. Salinity had no effect on earliness of flowering and content in leaves of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Purpletop vervain seems to be plant species able to tolerate salt stress under controlled conditions.

  20. Chelerythrine chloride induces apoptosis in renal cancer HEK-293 and SW-839 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Meng; Fan, Peng-Li; Qin, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid chelerythrine chloride (CC) has inhibitory effects on various tumors. However, the anticancer activity of CC and its underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in renal cancer cells. The present study examined the effects of CC on growth inhibition and apoptosis of renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays revealed that CC markedly suppressed the growth of HEK-293 and human renal cancer SW-839 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The xenograft mouse model, which was performed in nude mice, exhibited a reduced tumor growth following CC treatment. In addition, the present study revealed that CC significantly decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, which was accompanied by upregulation of p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and downregulation of Bcl-2, caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, the use of PD98059, a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, potentiated the proapoptotic effects of CC, which indicated that CC may induce apoptosis in renal cancer cells partly via inhibition of ERK activity. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that CC may be developed as a potential anticancer treatment for patients with renal cancer.

  1. Anoctamin 1 induces calcium-activated chloride secretion and proliferation of renal cyst-forming epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Bjoern; Faria, Diana; Schley, Gunnar; Schreiber, Rainer; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by multiple bilateral renal cysts that gradually enlarge and lead to a decline in renal function. Cyst enlargement is driven by transepithelial chloride secretion, stimulated by enhanced levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which activates apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channels. However, chloride secretion by calcium-dependent chloride channels, activated through stimulation of purinergic receptors, also has a major impact. To identify the molecular basis of calcium-dependent chloride secretion in cyst expansion, we determined the role of anoctamin 1 and 6, two recently discovered calcium-activated chloride channels both of which are expressed in epithelial cells. We found that anoctamin 1, which plays a role in epithelial fluid secretion and proliferation, is strongly expressed in principal-like MDCK cells (PLCs) forming cysts within a collagen matrix, in an embryonic kidney cyst model, and in human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease tissue. Knockdown of anoctamin 1 but not anoctamin 6 strongly diminished the calcium-dependent chloride secretion of PLCs. Moreover, two inhibitors of anoctamin ion channels, tannic acid and a more selective inhibitor of anoctamin 1, significantly inhibited PLC cyst growth and cyst enlargement in an embryonic kidney cyst model. Knockdown of ANO1 by morpholino analogs also attenuated embryonic cyst growth. Thus, calcium-activated chloride secretion by anoctamin 1 appears to be a crucial component of renal cyst growth.

  2. Ultrastructural alterations of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica caused by treatment with aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Rioux, Danny; Simard, Marie; Arul, Joseph; Tweddell, Russell J

    2004-11-01

    Aluminum and bisulfite salts inhibit the growth of several fungi and bacteria, and their application effectively controls potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora. In an effort to understand their inhibitory action, ultrastructural changes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica after exposure (0 to 20 min) to different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) of these salts were examined by using transmission electron microscopy. Plasma membrane integrity was evaluated by using the SYTOX Green fluorochrome that penetrates only cells with altered membranes. Bacteria exposed to all aluminum chloride concentrations, especially 0.2 M, exhibited loosening of the cell walls, cell wall rupture, cytoplasmic aggregation, and an absence of extracellular vesicles. Sodium metabisulfite caused mainly a retraction of plasma membrane and cellular voids which were more pronounced with increasing concentration. Bacterial mortality was closely associated with SYTOX stain absorption when bacteria were exposed to either a high concentration (0.2 M) of aluminum chloride or prolonged exposure (20 min) to 0.05 M aluminum chloride or to a pH of 2.5. Bacteria exposed to lower concentrations of aluminum chloride (0.05 and 0.1 M) for 10 min or less, or to metabisulfite at all concentrations, did not exhibit significant stain absorption, suggesting that no membrane damage occurred or it was too weak to allow the penetration of the stain into the cell. While mortality caused by aluminum chloride involves membrane damage and subsequent cytoplasmic aggregation, sulfite exerts its effect intracellularly; it is transported across the membrane by free diffusion of molecular SO2 with little damage to the cellular membrane.

  3. Renal effects of in utero exposure to mercuric chloride in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, A.M.; Collette, C.; Lauwerys, R. (Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine Unit, Brussels (Belgium))

    1992-08-01

    The transplacental nephrotoxicity of mercuric chloride has been studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Mercuric chloride was injected s.c. to rats at the dose of 1 mg/kg during the last 8 gestational days or the whole pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns developed a transient renal dysfunction resulting in an increased urinary excretion of beta[sub 2]-microglobulin and albumin. In mothers and their female offspring, these effects were completely reversible and did not influence the subsequent evolution of the renal function. In the male offspring, however, transitory changes in protein excretion were again observed a few months later, concomitantly with an enhanced accumulation of alpha[sub 2u]-globulin in the kidney. The transfer of mercury from maternal to fetal tissues was very small. The kidney concentrations of mercury in newborns were more than 300 times lower than in mothers. The barrier role of the placenta is not sufficient to prevent the occurrence of renal effects in the offspring of rats treated with inorganic mercury during pregnancy. (orig.).

  4. Analgesic effect of intrathecal bumetanide is accompanied by changes in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbing He; Shiyuan Xu; Junjie Huang; Qingjuan Gong

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 have a role in the modulation of pain transmission at the spinal level through chloride regulation in the pain pathway and by effecting neuronal excitability and pain sensitization. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of the speciifc sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 inhibitor bumetanide, and the change in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain. Results showed that intrathecal bumetanide could decrease cumulative pain scores, and could increase thermal and mechanical pain thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain. Sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression in-creased in neurons from dorsal root ganglion and the deep laminae of the ipsilateral dorsal horn following incision. By contrast, potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression decreased in neurons of the deep laminae from the ipsilateral dorsal horn. These ifndings suggest that spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression was up-regulated and spinal potassi-um-chloride co-transporter 2 expression was down-regulated following incision. Intrathecal bumetanide has analgesic effects on incisional pain through inhibition of sodium-potassi-um-chloride co-transporter 1.

  5. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  6. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  7. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis...... of the RENAAL and IDNT trials to test this in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy randomized to ARB or non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (non-RAASi)-based antihypertensive therapy. Treatment effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were compared in subgroups based on dietary sodium intake...... effects of ARB compared with non-RAASi-based therapy on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were greater in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy with lower than higher dietary sodium intake. This underscores the avoidance of excessive sodium intake, particularly in type 2 diabetic patients receiving...

  8. The antilisterial effect of Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and leucocins 4010 in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite examined in a structured gelatin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbaek, Tina; Brocklehurst, Tim F; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn

    2004-04-15

    To further enhance biopreservation of meat products, the antilisterial effect of the newly described protective culture Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and its bacteriocins, leucocins 4010, was examined in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite in a solid matrix using a structured gelatin system. Interaction between Listeria monocytogenes 4140 and Leuc. carnosum 4010 or the leucocins 4010-resistant mutant L. monocytogenes 4140P showed that the inhibitory effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the gelatin system was caused by the production and activity of leucocins 4010. The presence of sodium chloride (2.5% w/v) and sodium nitrite (60 mg/l) reduced the antilisterial effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the structured gel system compared to the use of Leuc. carnosum 4010 alone. Investigations carried out at 10 degrees C showed that the lag phase of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 was reduced from 71 to 58 h by the addition of sodium chloride and to 40 h by the addition of sodium nitrite. Addition of sodium chloride increased the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 from 0.02 to 0.06 h(-1), whereas no change was observed by the addition of sodium nitrite. Compared to the antilisterial effect of leucocins 4010 alone, the addition of sodium chloride (2.5%, w/v) decreased the antilisterial effect at high concentrations of leucocins 4010 (5.3 and 10.6 AU/ml) as measured after 11 days of incubation at 10 degrees C. In gels with added leucocins 4010, the most pronounced reduction in growth of L. monocytogenes 4140 was observed at the highest concentration of leucocins 4010 (10.6 AU/ml) together with sodium nitrite (60 mg/l). More detailed information on the lag phase and the maximum specific growth rate of single colonies of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of leucocins 4010 was obtained using microscopy and image analysis. No pronounced difference in the growth of single colonies was

  9. Sodium chloride as effective antifungal treatment for artificial egg incubation in Austropotamobius pallipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Policar T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sodium chloride at three different concentrations, 30 000 ppm (S30, 60 000 ppm (S60 and 90 000 ppm (S90, and formaldehyde at one concentration, 3000 ppm (F, were tested as antifungal chemicals during artificial incubation (AI of Austropotamobius pallipes eggs. Two treatments were tested without chemicals as control groups with (R and without (C the removal of dead eggs. After AI, formaldehyde treatment ensured high survival of stage 1 (89.7 ± 2.3% and stage 2 (85.5 ± 2.4% of juveniles. However, comparable survival rate to stage 1 and stage 2 (85.5 ± 5.5% and 80.6 ± 3.2% were also found in the treatment with the highest sodium chloride concentration (S90. Significantly lower survival rate of juveniles (stage 1: 60.6–70.3% and stage 2: 56.1–67.3% were evident in groups S60, S30 and R. However, group R demanded high labor and related costs. The lowest juvenile survival levels to stage 1 (46.4 ± 8.2% and stage 2 (45.2 ± 6.8% were observed in treatments without fungicide chemicals and removal of dead eggs (C.

  10. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  11. Dopamine and angiotensin type 2 receptors cooperatively inhibit sodium transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Wang, Xiaoli; Shah, Neema; Tran, Hanh; Spinosa, Michael; Van Sciver, Robert; Sasaki, Midori; Yatabe, Junichi; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-08-01

    Little is known regarding how the kidney shifts from a sodium and water reclaiming state (antinatriuresis) to a state where sodium and water are eliminated (natriuresis). In human renal proximal tubule cells, sodium reabsorption is decreased by the dopamine D(1)-like receptors (D(1)R/D(5)R) and the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT(2)R), whereas the angiotensin type 1 receptor increases sodium reabsorption. Aberrant control of these opposing systems is thought to lead to sodium retention and, subsequently, hypertension. We show that D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation increased plasma membrane AT(2)R 4-fold via a D(1)R-mediated, cAMP-coupled, and protein phosphatase 2A-dependent specific signaling pathway. D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation also reduced the ability of angiotensin II to stimulate phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, an effect that was partially reversed by an AT(2)R antagonist. Fenoldopam did not increase AT(2)R recruitment in renal proximal tubule cells with D(1)Rs uncoupled from adenylyl cyclase, suggesting a role of cAMP in mediating these events. D(1)Rs and AT(2)Rs heterodimerized and cooperatively increased cAMP and cGMP production, protein phosphatase 2A activation, sodium-potassium-ATPase internalization, and sodium transport inhibition. These studies shed new light on the regulation of renal sodium transport by the dopaminergic and angiotensin systems and potential new therapeutic targets for selectively treating hypertension.

  12. Blood pressure and amiloride-sensitive sodium channels in vascular and renal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, David G; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Tarjus, Antoine; Sheng, Shaohu; Oberleithner, Hans; Kleyman, Thomas R; Jaisser, Frederic

    2014-03-01

    Sodium transport in the distal nephron is mediated by epithelial sodium channel activity. Proteolytic processing of external domains and inhibition with increased sodium concentrations are important regulatory features of epithelial sodium channel complexes expressed in the distal nephron. By contrast, sodium channels expressed in the vascular system are activated by increased external sodium concentrations, which results in changes in the mechanical properties and function of endothelial cells. Mechanosensitivity and shear stress affect both epithelial and vascular sodium channel activity. Guyton's hypothesis stated that blood pressure control is critically dependent on vascular tone and fluid handling by the kidney. The synergistic effects, and complementary regulation, of the epithelial and vascular systems are consistent with the Guytonian model of volume and blood pressure regulation, and probably reflect sequential evolution of the two systems. The integration of vascular tone, renal perfusion and regulation of renal sodium reabsorption is the central underpinning of the Guytonian model. In this Review, we focus on the expression and regulation of sodium channels, and we outline the emerging evidence that describes the central role of amiloride-sensitive sodium channels in the efferent (vascular) and afferent (epithelial) arms of this homeostatic system.

  13. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in the formulation of French bread: effect on the physical, physicochemical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Abrantes Souza GUSMÃO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to the replacement of sodium chloride (0.4 to 1.6% by potassium chloride (0.2 to 0.8% in French bread formulation and evaluate its effect on physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. For the preparation of bread was used a factorial design 22 with 4 factorial points and 3 central points, totaling 7 experiments. The physical and physicochemical parameters analyzed were: specific volume, moisture, color of the peel and crumb, pH, acidity and texture profile, sodium and potassium. The sensory evaluation of bread was performed using quantitative descriptive analysis, with 12 sensory terminologies. Response variables of salty taste and sensory chewiness generated statistically significant models. The results indicated optimal ranges of 0.2 to 0.5% of potassium chloride, and 1.0 to 1.6% for sodium chloride, and proved the technical feasibility of producing French bread with 50% salt reduction (174.09 mg.50 g–1, compared to a standard formulation of 1.88% (306.5 mg.50g-1 salt, corresponding to the prognosis recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency.

  14. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist, streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist, stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments, Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.  Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when

  15. Compatibility and stability of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injeciton solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, I; Tan, E

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of 80 mmol/L potassium chloride and 16 mmol/L magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection solutions at 22 deg C have been studied by means of a Beckman Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Synchron CX5 Delta. The infusions were stable for 24 hours at 22 deg C. The results from both diluents showed an average of +/-5% fluctuations in concentration. None of the samples appeared to form visible precipitation or to change in color or clarity.

  16. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Skram, Thomas Ulrik; Bestle, M H;

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered by a nasogas......The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered......-angiotensin system....

  17. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    ) and 48 h post therapy. Cardiac output was measured by impedance cardiography. Effective renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were determined by the renal clearances of 131I-hippuran and 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) respectively. Renal clearance of lithium (CLi) was used....../82) ml/min (P=0.04). The urinary excretion rate of thromboxane B2 and the ratio between excretion rates of thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1alpha increased by 98% (P=0.022) and 175% (P=0.022) respectively. 4. The study suggests a specific recombinant interleukin-2-induced renal vasoconstrictor...... effect. Changes in renal prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the decrease in renal blood flow. The lithium clearance data suggest that an increased proximal tubular reabsorption rate may contribute to the decreased sodium clearance during recombinant interleukin-2 treatment....

  18. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

  19. High sodium diet converts renal proteoglycans into pro-inflammatory mediators in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmans, Ryanne S; Shrestha, Pragyi; Sarpong, Kwaku A; Yazdani, Saleh; El Masri, Rana; de Jong, Wilhelmina H A; Navis, Gerjan; Vivès, Romain R; van den Born, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    High dietary sodium aggravates renal disease by affecting blood pressure and by its recently shown pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic effects. Moreover, pro-inflammatory modification of renal heparan sulfate (HS) can induce tissue remodeling. We aim to investigate if high sodium intake in normotensive rats converts renal HS into a pro-inflammatory phenotype, able to bind more sodium and orchestrate inflammation, fibrosis and lymphangiogenesis. Wistar rats received a normal diet for 4 weeks, or 8% NaCl diet for 2 or 4 weeks. Blood pressure was monitored, and plasma, urine and tissue collected. Tissue sodium was measured by flame spectroscopy. Renal HS and tubulo-interstitial remodeling were studied by biochemical, immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR approaches. High sodium rats showed a transient increase in blood pressure (week 1; p<0.01) and increased sodium excretion (p<0.05) at 2 and 4 weeks compared to controls. Tubulo-interstitial T-cells, myofibroblasts and mRNA levels of VCAM1, TGF-β1 and collagen type III significantly increased after 4 weeks (all p<0.05). There was a trend for increased macrophage infiltration and lymphangiogenesis (both p = 0.07). Despite increased dermal sodium over time (p<0.05), renal concentrations remained stable. Renal HS of high sodium rats showed increased sulfation (p = 0.05), increased L-selectin binding to HS (p<0,05), and a reduction of sulfation-sensitive anti-HS mAbs JM403 (p<0.001) and 10E4 (p<0.01). Hyaluronan expression increased under high salt conditions (p<0.01) without significant changes in the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican. Statistical analyses showed that sodium-induced tissue remodeling responses partly correlated with observed HS changes. We show that high salt intake by healthy normotensive rats convert renal HS into high sulfated pro-inflammatory glycans involved in tissue remodeling events, but not in increased sodium storage.

  20. Renin-sodium profile and renal prostaglandins in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    range of the relation of ambulatory PRA to daily urinary sodium excretion in. nOflTlotensives Is ... decrease in systolic arterial pressure during sodium restriction, and ..... clinical course culminating in death in the teenage years. A similar but ...

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  3. The effects of elevated levels of sodium chloride on ascites and related problems in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W D; Ferguson, A E; Pettit, J R; Cunnigham, D C

    1975-01-01

    The response of young poults to diets containing 0.7, 1.2, 1.7 and 2.7 per cent sodium chloride was studied. Water intake, feed intake and wieght gain were not significantly influenced by treatment. Only the highest level caused a significant increase in mortality. Ascites was not a consistent finding even on high levels of salt. A straight line best described the response but confidence limits were large and this was also true for heart, kidney and lung lesions. Lesions showing myocardial distension with pericardial adhesions, severe congestion of the lungs and enlarged pale kidneys seemed more indicative of salt intoxication than classic ascites. Microscopically heterophilic (eosinophilic) lung and meningeal infiltrates accompanied by myocardial degeneration and adhesions were suggestive, but not specific, of salt intoxication.

  4. CORROSION MONITORING OF LY12 IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Q. Zhang; Z. Zhang; J.M. Wang; H.B. Shao; C.N. Cao

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous electrochemical noise (EN) can be a rich source of information concerning the processes simultaneously occurring on a corroding interface. But the noise signal is often difficult to be analyzed due to the complicated nature of the specific systems being investigated. In this paper, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of commercial aluminum alloy LY12 in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with different techniques. The typical results showed that the fractal dimension (D,n) obtained from spectral power density (SPD) is mainly directly proportional to the intensity of pitting corrosion and to the value of pitting parameter (SE) derived from dimensional analysis, while the fractal dimension (DE) obtained from EIS is mainly related to the uniform corrosion.

  5. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  6. Analysis of corrosion behavior of LY12 in sodium chloride solution with wavelet transform technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭; 曹发和; 程英亮; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transforms(WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limitations of fast Fourier transforms(FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise(EN) data. The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposing electrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients(distinct type of events), which contains information about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. In this context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of commercial aluminum alloy LY12 in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transform technique. The typical results show that the EN signal is composed of distinct type of events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants. Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot(EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of EN signals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE ANALYSIS OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; Q.D. Zhong; J.Q. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; F.H. Cao; J.M. Wang; C.N. Cao

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transforms (WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limita-tions of Fourier transforms (FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise (EN) data.The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposingelectrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients, which containinformation about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. Inthis context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of pure alu-minum in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transformtechnique. The typical results showed that the EN signal is composed of distinct typeof events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants.Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot (EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of ENsignals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  8. The influence of sodium chlorides fog on corrosion resistance of heat exchangers used in automotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peta, Katarzyna; Grochalski, Karol; Piasecki, Adam; Żurek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the work, the most important factors which influence on the exploitative durability of heat exchangers are classified. Particular attention was paid to the compounds of sodium chloride used in the winter season for road maintenance. In order to determine their impact on automotive heat exchanger corrosion resistance, a test of heaters in a salt chamber which imitates the conditions of their work was realized. It also allows to verify the durability of these products. To evaluate the corrosion changes, observation with the use of light microscopy and scanning microscopy SEM were made supplemented with microanalysis of chemical composition by EDS spectroscopy method. Critical areas in the heat exchangers which are mostly exposed to damage including the formation of local corrosion pits were located and analyzed.

  9. The influence of sodium chlorides fog on corrosion resistance of heat exchangers used in automotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the most important factors which influence on the exploitative durability of heat exchangers are classified. Particular attention was paid to the compounds of sodium chloride used in the winter season for road maintenance. In order to determine their impact on automotive heat exchanger corrosion resistance, a test of heaters in a salt chamber which imitates the conditions of their work was realized. It also allows to verify the durability of these products. To evaluate the corrosion changes, observation with the use of light microscopy and scanning microscopy SEM were made supplemented with microanalysis of chemical composition by EDS spectroscopy method. Critical areas in the heat exchangers which are mostly exposed to damage including the formation of local corrosion pits were located and analyzed.

  10. Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

  11. Study on the Diffusion Coefficient of Sodium Chloride at Infrinite Dilution in Supercritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖吉; 陆九芳; 陈健; 李以圭

    2003-01-01

    The molecular dynamics(MD) was employed to simulate the diffusion coefficient of sodium chloride at infinite dilution in supercritical water from 703.2K to 763.2K and from 30 MPa to 45 MPa ,Based on the simulated data and the Patel-Teja(PT) equation of state and the Liu-Ruckenstein equation,an equation for calculating the diffusion coefficient of NaCl at infinite dilution in supercritical water is proposed,Both the agreement between the simulated and correlated data,and that between the simulated and predicted data of diffusion coefficients for NaCl in supercritical water ranging from 703.2K to 803.2K and from 25 MPa to 50MPa show that this equation is applicable for calculation of diffusion coefficients.

  12. Mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of saccharides in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Mikihito; Kameoka, Takaharu; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    The infrared spectral characteristics of three different types of disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, and sucrose) and four different types of monosaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose, and fructose) in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride (NaCl) were determined. The infrared spectra were obtained using the FT-IR/ATR method and the absorption intensities respected the interaction between the saccharide and water with NaCl were determined. This study also focused on not only the glycosidic linkage position and the constituent monosaccharides, but also the concentration of the saccharides and NaCl and found that they have a significant influence on the infrared spectroscopic characterization of the disaccharides in an aqueous solution with NaCl. The absorption intensities representing the interaction between a saccharide and water with NaCl were spectroscopically determined. Additionally, the applications of MIR spectroscopy to obtain information about saccharide-NaCl interactions in foods and biosystems were suggested.

  13. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils when associated with sodium chloride or fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantatoui-Elaraki, Abdelthafour

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mycelium growth in a Zygorhynchus sp. and an Aspergillus niger isolates was studied. The inhibition rates (IR caused by 4 essential oils (EO, 5 fatty acids and sodium chloride at various concentrations were determined in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
    A synergy of action was observed between sodium chloride at 7.5% and the EO of thyme (0.04%, camomile (0.4% and mugwort (0.2 and 0.1% on A. niger and between sodium chloride (5% and the EO of camomile (0.1% and mugwort (0.1 and 0.01% and sodium chloride (7.5% and eucalyptus EO (0.4 and 0.2% on Zygorhynchus sp.
    Camomile EO (0.13% associated with propionic acid (0.075%, lauric acid (0.05% or oleic acid (0.15% led to synergetic effect on Zygorhynchus sp. as well as thyme EO (0.04 and 0.05%, respectively with propionic acid (0.1% and linolenic acid (0.075% on A. niger. Other combinations exerted no higher effects than each of the substances used alone.
    Practical applications of the results observed were discussed

    Se ha estudiado la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar en un aislamiento de Zygorhynchus sp. y otro de Aspergillus niger. Se determinaron las tasas (o índices de inhibición (IR en Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa provocados por varias concentraciones de 4 aceites esenciales (EG, 5 ácidos grasos y cloruro sódico.
    Se observó un efecto sinérgico entre cloruro sódico al 7.5% y los aceites esenciales de tomillo (0.04%, manzanilla (0.4% y artemisa (0.2 y 0.1% sobre A. niger, y entre cloruro sódico (5% y los aceites esenciales de manzanilla (0.1% y de artemisa (0.1 y 0.01%, así como cloruro sódico (7.5% y aceite esencial de eucalipto (0.4 y 0.2%, sobre Zygorhynchus sp.
    El aceite esencial de manzanilla (0.13% en asociación con ácido propiónico (0.075%, ácido láurico (0.05% o ácido oleico (0.15% provocó un efecto sinérgico sobre Zygorhynchus sp., de la misma forma

  15. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  17. Supplementation of fibrin gels with sodium chloride enhances physical properties and ensuing osteogenic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H E; Miller, S L; Case, E M; Leach, J K

    2011-02-01

    Modifying the relative concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin can control the physical properties of fibrin gels, while the viability of associated cells has been linked to the gel's final network structure. It was hypothesized that increasing the gel ionic strength during fabrication through supplementation with sodium chloride (NaCl) would provide an improved approach for tailoring the physical properties of fibrin gels and maintaining the viability and osteogenic potential of entrapped cells. Fibrin gels were formed by mixing fibrinogen, thrombin and calcium chloride with varying masses of NaCl (0-4.40% w/v), and the osteogenic potential of entrapped human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was examined over 14 days. Physical properties including gelation time, compressive modulus and fiber diameter were dependent upon NaCl content, with gels containing 2.60% NaCl possessing compressive moduli threefold higher than gels without NaCl. Alkaline phosphatase activity was highest for MSC entrapped in gels containing 2.15-2.60% NaCl after 14 days, and all gels exhibited increased calcium incorporation over the culture period. These data confirm that varying the salt concentration of the pre-gel solution can modulate the material properties of fibrin constructs without additional fibrinogen or thrombin, thereby offering a new approach for generating improved cell transplantation vehicles for use in bone tissue regeneration.

  18. EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS DURING PITTING CORROSION OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; C. Cai; F.H. Cao; Z.N. Gao; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in neutral 3.0% (mass fraction) sodium chloride (NaCl) solution has been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ELS) measurement in conjunction with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. EIS information on the evolution of pitting corrosion over a period of 15 days has been obtained and analyzed with equivalent circuit technique. The results shown that, during the ensemble constant immersion time, two time constants involved, the high frequency one originated from the protective layer on the corroding surface while the low frequency one from the diffusion process or the corrosion reaction and so on. And there existed a period for oxide film to growth and thickening prior to the commencement of the attacking of chloride ions to the substrate. Meanwhile, good relationship between EIS and the material corrosion type/severity has been obtained, which has been interpreted according to the characteristics of corrosion process such as auto acceleration of pitting corrosion and the protection of local anodic reaction to the area around them.

  19. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  20. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  1. Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2008-01-01

    The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in...

  2. Effect of sodium chloride on efficiency of cisplatinum dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2014-04-01

    Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt's solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt's solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt's stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt + NaCl + DMSO and Cispt + DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p reduction of 45 % in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt + DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt.

  3. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  4. Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water; surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanhanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid, as a surface active compound, tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data and extrapolated to the whole concentration range by using estimated surface tensions for pure compounds. As a result, we obtained an estimate of surface tensions beyond solubility limits in addition to a fit to the experimental data. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30°C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

  5. Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Mizerski Grzegorz; Kicinski Pawel; Jaroszynski Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1), and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2) - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the a...

  6. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    during 60 min. We measured urine output (UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), urinary aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaCγ), plasma vasopressin (p-AVP) and central blood pressure (cBP). RESULTS: During baseline, FENa was unchanged...... in renal water and sodium excretion during NO-inhibition. Most likely, the lack of decrease in AQP2 excretion by tolvaptan could be attributed to a counteracting effect of the high level of p-AVP....

  7. Determination of the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide chloride, Na3OCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klösters, G; Jansen, M

    2000-07-01

    The (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor gammainifinity (Na+) was determined by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide-chloride, Na3OCl. The quadrupolar coupling constant of the sodium ion in Na3OCI was determined to QCC = 11.34 MHz, which presents the largest coupling constant of a sodium nucleus observed so far. Applying a simple point charge model, the largest principal value of the electric field gradient at the sodium site was calculated to V(zz) = -6.76762 x 10(20) V/m2. From these values we calculated the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor to gammainifinity (Na+)= -5.36. In sodium oxide, Na2O, we observed an isotropic chemical shift of deltaCS = 55.1 ppm, referenced to 1 M aqueous NaCI (delta = 0 ppm).

  8. CEN standard for water-soluble chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels; CEN standard for vandoploeseligt chlorid, natrium og kalium i faste biobraendsler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    In 2000 a European work of standardization for 'Solid bio-fuels' under CEN/TC 335 was started. In Denmark this work is followed through the Danish mirror committee S-358. Denmark was asked to prepare a draft for a European standard concerning determination of the water-soluble content of chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The draft should be based on the Danish 'Recommended analysis methods' no. 10 and 11 concerning respectively the determination of the water-soluble content of chloride and the water soluble content of sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a fuel is important for the use of the fuel, as high contents can contribute significantly to utilisation problems such as corrosion, fouling and slagging in furnaces. The gaseous emissions from the thermal processes may also be affected. Concerning sodium and potassium it is furthermore the content of the water-soluble and readily volatile salts which is problematic in relation with energy conversion processes. Sodium and potassium bound in non-water soluble compounds as clay minerals (silicates) normally will not volatilises during the process and therefore do not contribute to the formation of deposits. A determination of the water-soluble content of sodium and potassium is therefore not an alternative routine method for sodium and potassium, but a separate method for a determination of the 'aggressive' contents of sodium and potassium. For some solid bio-fuels the water-soluble contents will however be equal to the total contents, this goes for instance for potassium in straw. There is a very large variation in the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium for the different types of solid bio-fuel, from the low contents in clean wood to contents in percentage in straw. Knowledge of the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a bio-fuel is thus important in relation to e.g. plant design and fuel purchasing

  9. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Holtkamp, Frank A.; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Navis, Gerjan J.; Lewis, Julia B.; Ritz, Eberhard; de Graeff, Pieter A.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of th

  10. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Holtkamp, Frank A.; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Navis, Gerjan J.; Lewis, Julia B.; Ritz, Eberhard; de Graeff, Pieter A.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of th

  11. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Holtkamp, Frank A.; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Navis, Gerjan J.; Lewis, Julia B.; Ritz, Eberhard; de Graeff, Pieter A.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of

  12. Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-10-01

    Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs.

  13. Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin and mist-fan cooling on the renal tubular handling of sodium in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsanit, Dolrudee; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2012-08-01

    The effect of supplementary administration of recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) on the renal tubular handling of sodium in crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle housed in normal shade (NS) or mist-fan cooled (MF) barns was evaluated. The cows were injected with 500 mg rbST at three different stages of lactation. The MF barn housed cows showed a slightly decreased ambient temperature and temperature humidity index, but an increased relative humidity. Rectal temperature and respiration rates were significantly lower in cooled cows. The rbST treated cows, housed in NS or MF barns, showed markedly increased milk yields, total body water, extracellular fluid and plasma volume levels, along with a reduced rate of urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and osmolar clearance, in all three stages of lactation. Renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption were increased after rbST administration without any alteration in the renal hemodynamics. Lithium clearance data suggested that the site of response is in the proximal nephron segment, which may be mediated via increases in the plasma levels of aldosterone and IGF-1, but not vasopressin, during rbST administration.

  14. Sodium intake, RAAS-blockade and progressive renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is the current standard treatment to prevent progressive renal function loss in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet in many patients the rena

  15. Sodium intake, RAAS-blockade and progressive renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is the current standard treatment to prevent progressive renal function loss in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet in many patients the rena

  16. Sodium intake, RAAS-blockade and progressive renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H; Navis, Gerjan

    Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is the current standard treatment to prevent progressive renal function loss in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet in many patients the

  17. Thyroid hormone modulates ClC-2 chloride channel gene expression in rat renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Ornellas, D; Grozovsky, R; Goldenberg, R C; Carvalho, D P; Fong, P; Guggino, W B; Morales, M

    2003-09-01

    Thyroid hormones has its main role in controlling metabolism, but it can also modulate extracellular fluid Volume (ECFV) through its action on the expression and activity of Na(+) transporters. Otherwise, chloride is the main anion in the ECFV and the influence of thyroid hormones in the regulation of chloride transporters is not yet understood. In this work, we studied the effect of thyroid hormones in the expression of ClC-2, a cell Volume-, pH- and voltage-sensitive Cl(-) channel, in rat kidney. To analyze the modulation of ClC-2 gene expression by thyroid hormones, we used hypothyroid (Hypo) rats with or without thyroxine (T(4)) replacement and hyperthyroid (Hyper) rats as our experimental models. Total RNA was isolated and the expression of ClC-2 mRNA was evaluated by a ribonuclease protection assay, and/or semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Renal ClC-2 expression decreased in Hypo rats and increased in Hyper rats. In addition, semi-quantitative RT-PCR of different nephron segments showed that these changes were due exclusively to the modulation of ClC-2 mRNA expression by thyroid hormone in convoluted and straight proximal tubules. To investigate whether thyroid hormones action was direct or indirect, renal proximal tubule primary culture cells were prepared and subjected to different T(4) concentrations. ClC-2 mRNA expression was increased by T(4) in a dose-dependent fashion, as analyzed by RT-PCR. Western blotting demonstrated that ClC-2 protein expression followed the same profile of mRNA expression.

  18. Arterial blood pressure and renal sodium excretion in dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Torsten; Pech, Bärbel; Tappe, Michael; Gross, Gerhard; Mühlbauer, Bernd; Luippold, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    Alterations in the dopaminergic system may contribute to the development of hypertension. Recently, it has been reported that pentobarbital-anesthetized mice with deficient dopamine D(3) receptors showed renin-dependent elevation in blood pressure. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the contribution of the dopamine D(3) receptor to the renal sodium excretion and arterial blood pressure behavior in conscious as well as anesthetized dopamine D(3) receptor knockout (-/-) mice. The blood pressure measuring study was designed as a cross-over trial to investigate the influence of different sodium loads. The animals were fed a normal salt diet (0.6% NaCl, NS) for 1 week and afterwards a low (0.2% NaCl, LS) or a high salt diet (4.6% NaCl, HS) for 2 weeks. After the third week, the animals were switched to the corresponding protocol. Systolic blood pressure in conscious (-/-) mice measured by tail-cuff plethysmography was not different from that of wild-type (+/+) animals, irrespective of the time course or the salt diet. In another experiment, challenge of an acute sodium loading per gavage in conscious D(3) receptor (-/-) and (+/+) animals on HS or NS diet did not show significant differences in renal sodium excretion between the two genotypes. Additionally, animals were fed an NS diet for 1 week and an HS diet for another week. As expected, sodium excretion significantly increased after the change from the NS to the HS diet. A slightly lower urinary sodium excretion was observed when comparing D(3) receptor (-/-) mice to their corresponding (+/+) mice, both on an HS diet. Clearance experiments with anesthetized D(3) receptor (-/-) and (+/+) mice were performed to investigate the renal sodium excretion capacity, when exposed to a moderate volume expansion (VE). Urinary sodium excretion increased in response to the VE; however, no difference were observed between the two genotypes. Taking these results together, we conclude that in the present animal model renal

  19. Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fractional factorial design was used to assess the combined effects of four internal temperatures (55.0, 57.5, 60.0 and 62.5C) and five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 wt/wt%) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) (0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 wt/wt%) on the heat resis...

  20. Rhubarb Anthraquinones Protect Rats against Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2-Induced Acute Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg causes severe nephrotoxicity in subjects with excess exposure. This work attempted to identify whether a natural medicine—rhubarb—has protective effects against mercuric chloride (HgCl2-induced acute renal failure (ARF, and which of its components contributed most to the treatment. Total rhubarb extract (TR were separated to the total anthraquinones (TA, the total tannins (TT and remaining component extract (RC. Each extract was orally pre-administered to rats for five successive days followed by HgCl2 injection to induce kidney injury. Subsequently, renal histopathology and biochemical examinations were performed in vitro to evaluate the protective effects. Pharmacological studies showed that TR and TA, but not TT or RC manifested significant protection activity against HgCl2-induced ARF. There were also significant declines of serum creatine, urea nitrogen values and increases of total protein albumin levels in TR and TA treated groups compared to HgCl2 alone (p < 0.05. At last, the major components in TA extract were further identified as anthraquinones by liquid chromatography coupled mass spectroscopy. This study thus provides observational evidences that rhubarb could ameliorate HgCl2-induced ARF and its anthraquinones in particular are the effective components responsible for this activity in rhubarb extract.

  1. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1–4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60–62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05). This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis. PMID:28045916

  2. Lack of the sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE impairs visual function in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Hilgen

    Full Text Available Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10, a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pH(i and chloride concentration ([Cl(-](i in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABA(A receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pH(i regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function.

  3. Sodium chloride-enriched Diet Enhanced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Exacerbated Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Ivan; Marafini, Irene; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Di Fusco, Davide; Troncone, Edoardo; Zorzi, Francesca; Laudisi, Federica; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Environmental factors are supposed to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs]. Increased dietary salt intake has been linked with the development of autoimmune diseases, but the impact of a salt-enriched diet on the course of IBD remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether high salt intake alters mucosal cytokine production and exacerbates colitis. Normal intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells [LPMCs] were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] and/or SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38/MAP Kinase. For in vivo experiments, a high dose of NaCl was administered to mice 15 days before induction of trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid [TNBS]-colitis or dextran sulfate sodium [DSS]-colitis. In parallel, mice were given SB202190 before induction of TNBS-colitis. Transcription factors and effector cytokines were evaluated by flow-cytometry and real-time PCR. IL-17A, IL-23R, TNF-α, and Ror-γT were significantly increased in human LPMCs following NaCl exposure, while there was no significant change in IFN-γ, T-bet or Foxp3. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38/MAPK abrogated the NaCl-inducing effect on LPMC-derived cytokines. Mice receiving the high-salt diet developed a more severe colitis than control mice, and this effect was preventable by SB202190. Our data indicated that exposure of intestinal mononuclear cells to a high-NaCl diet enhanced effector cytokine production and contributed to the exacerbation of experimental colitis in mice. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A role for sodium and chloride in kainic acid-induced beading of inhibitory interneuron dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W

    2000-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.

  5. Effect of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase on blood pressure and renal sodium handling in renal denervated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of sympathetic nerve activity in the changes in arterial blood pressure and renal function caused by the chronic administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO synthesis, was examined in sham and bilaterally renal denervated rats. Several studies have demonstrated that sympathetic nerve activity is elevated acutely after L-NAME administration. To evaluate the role of renal nerve activity in L-NAME-induced hypertension, we compared the blood pressure response in four groups (N = 10 each of male Wistar-Hannover rats weighing 200 to 250 g: 1 sham-operated vehicle-treated, 2 sham-operated L-NAME-treated, 3 denervated vehicle-treated, and 4 denervated L-NAME-treated rats. After renal denervation or sham surgery, one control week was followed by three weeks of oral administration of L-NAME by gavage. Arterial pressure was measured weekly in conscious rats by a tail-cuff method and renal function tests were performed in individual metabolic cages 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after the beginning of L-NAME administration. L-NAME (60 mg kg-1 day-1 progressively increased arterial pressure from 108 ± 6.0 to 149 ± 12 mmHg (P<0.05 in the sham-operated group by the third week of treatment which was accompanied by a fall in creatinine clearance from 336 ± 18 to 222 ± 59 µl min-1 100 g body weight-1 (P<0.05 and a rise in fractional urinary sodium excretion from 0.2 ± 0.04 to 1.62 ± 0.35% (P<0.05 and in sodium post-proximal fractional excretion from 0.54 ± 0.09 to 4.7 ± 0.86% (P<0.05. The development of hypertension was significantly delayed and attenuated in denervated L-NAME-treated rats. This was accompanied by a striking additional increase in fractional renal sodium and potassium excretion from 0.2 ± 0.04 to 4.5 ± 1.6% and from 0.1 ± 0.015 to 1.21 ± 0.37%, respectively, and an enhanced post-proximal sodium excretion compared to the sham-operated group. These differences occurred despite an

  6. Proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon as affected by the partial substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Yingyang; Long, Men; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

    2014-03-01

    Quadriceps femoris muscle samples (48) from 24 pigs were processed into dry-cured bacon. This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon. Three salt treatments were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (60% NaCl, 40% KCl), and III (30% NaCl, 70% KCl). No significant differences were observed among treatments in the proteolysis, which was reflected by SDS-PAGE, proteolysis index, amino acid nitrogen, and peptide nitrogen contents. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the moisture content between control and treatment II, whereas the moisture content in treatment III was significantly higher (pbacon with less hardness and saltiness and higher (p<0.05) juiciness and bitterness.

  7. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  8. Pitting corrosion of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pitting corrosion behavior of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. When pitting corrosion of the alloy occurs, there exists a passive region in the anodic branch of PDS polarization curve, which is enlarged with the increasing of immersion time due to the competition of the halide ions with OH- ions to adsorb on the oxide film to form the corrosion products film and the increase of pitting corrosion area. Two capacitive semicircles were observed in complex plane plot. For more extensive pitting and general corrosion of Al2024-T3, the passive region in PDS disappeared, while another depressed semicircle was observed in Nyquist plot because of the formation of corrosion products film. On the other hand, the low frequency inductive loop, which had often been regarded as a manifestation of pitting or formation and precipitation of a salt film, was not observed, which indicates that the low frequency inductive loop can not be the characteristic of pitting corrosion or the formation of salt film. The results also show that higher reactant CPE exponent values will correspond to more extensive transformation of a metal surface by very localized corrosion, while general corrosion can result in a smaller CPE exponent value.

  9. Impact of sodium chloride on wheat flour dough for yeast-leavened products. I. Rheological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Margit; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The rheological properties of wheat dough for yeast-leavened products were tested at different levels of sodium chloride (NaCl) addition ranging from 0 to 40 g NaCl kg⁻¹ wheat flour. Rheological tests carried out to make this evaluation included (1) empirical rheological methods of the Farinograph, load extension and a dough stickiness test and (2) fundamental rheological methods of creep recovery and dynamic rheometry. Modifications to the gluten matrix microstructure by NaCl were examined by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Highly significant (P⩽0.001) differences due to NaCl addition could be determined in particular by the stickiness test as well as by examination of the creep test with the Burger model. Rheological changes measured in the creep test probably depend on protein charge shielding due to NaCl interaction, resulting in an improvement in gluten network formation. An increase in dough stickiness was measured when using NaCl. The present result for stickiness is contrary to the common subjective results. Therefore the theory proposed here for increased stickiness suggests that it is based on more non-protein-bound water in the dough system due to NaCl interaction and thus more viscous dough behaviour, which leads to higher stickiness as measured with the stickiness test. This may also suggest that the objectively measured 'stickiness' in this case does not properly indicate the subjectively measured stickiness it was designed to represent. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose. All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  11. Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Ni-P Deposits in a Sodium Chloride Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P deposits with phosphorous contents from 12% to 14% in sodium chloride solutions was studied. The deposits were immersed in 3.5% NaCl solutions for 29 d to obtain the electrochemical parameters and were examined in a standard salt spray test for 15 d respectively. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied by potentio-dynamic scan, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cold-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The patterns of XRD and the results of FE-SEM showed that the prepared deposits were amorphous. But after a 15 d standard salt spray test, a few pinholes appeared on the surface of the deposit and the weight content of phosphorus on the surface of the deposit was higher (which was beneficial to the formation of the passivation films) than that before the standard salt spray test when the nickel content was lower because the dissolved weight of nickel was greater than that of phosphorus. The results from potentio-dynamic scan and EIS showed that passivation films formed on the Ni-P deposit after immersion in the NaC1 solutions, which decreased the corrosion rate of Ni-P samples. The results of this work show their potential applications in marine corrosion.

  12. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-10-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  13. Filtration of sodium chloride from seawater using carbon hollow tube composed of carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Ravi Prakash Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with filtration of seawater to remove sodium chloride (NaCl using filter made from organized structures of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. The filter consists of hollow carbon cylinder (length ~10 cm, diameter ~1 cm, which is composed of radially aligned CNTs. This carbon hollow cylinder has been synthesized by continuous spray pyrolysis of ferrocene–benzene solution in argon atmosphere. The hollow cylinder has been turned into a water filter by closing one end and keeping a small funnel at the other. Filtration of seawater (Marina Beach, Chennai, India has been obtained both under the self pressure of seawater column in the hollow cylinder and under the difference of pressure created by enclosing the filter in a vacuum tight container. It has been found that the efficiency of filtration is about two times higher under partial vacuum (~10–2 torr created on the filtrate (water side. After filtration of seawater, a deposit in the inner surface of hollow cylinder has been found. This deposit has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and it has been found that the deposit was NaCl. The filtration leads to almost complete removal of NaCl from the seawater.

  14. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast.

  15. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  16. Uncoupling of sodium and chloride to assist breeding for salinity tolerance in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Yusuf; Oldach, Klaus; Taylor, Julian; Lyons, Graham H

    2016-04-01

    The separation of toxic effects of sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) by the current methods of mixed salts and subsequent determination of their relevance to breeding has been problematic. We report a novel method (Na(+) humate) to study the ionic effects of Na(+) toxicity without interference from Cl(-), and ionic and osmotic effects when combined with salinity (NaCl). Three cereal species (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum ssp. durum with and without the Na(+) exclusion gene Nax2) differing in Na(+) exclusion were grown in a potting mix under sodicity (Na(+) humate) and salinity (NaCl), and water use, leaf nutrient profiles and yield were determined. Under sodicity, Na(+)-excluding bread wheat and durum wheat with the Nax2 gene had higher yield than Na(+)-accumulating barley and durum wheat without the Nax2 gene. However, under salinity, despite a 100-fold difference in leaf Na(+), all species yielded similarly, indicating that osmotic stress negated the benefits of Na(+) exclusion. In conclusion, Na(+) exclusion can be an effective mechanism for sodicity tolerance, while osmoregulation and tissue tolerance to Na(+) and/or Cl(-) should be the main foci for further improvement of salinity tolerance in cereals. This represents a paradigm shift for breeding cereals with salinity tolerance.

  17. WATER AND SODIUM CHLORIDE EFFECTS ON Mimosa Tenuiflora (WILLD. POIRET SEED GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Alves Bakke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and saline soils of the Brazilian semi-arid northeastern region are limiting factors to the development of many plants. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret is a small, multiple use tree that abundantly colonizes unfavorable sites, including environments with severe water stress. This work had the objective of investigating the tolerance of jurema preta seeds to water and salt stresses during germination. Seeds germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions was analyzed under five different osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa, in order to simulate water and salt stress, respectively, in four 100-seed replications for each treatment. Seeds were placed into 10cmx10cmx4cm boxes, and germination accomplished in BOD germinator adjusted to 30oC. The number of germinated seeds was monitored every 24 hours, and percentage and speed of seed germination were generated from these data. Mean percentage germination in the control treatment was ~95%, reducing to 63-53% at -0.9 to -1.2-MPa PEG solutions, and to 27- 9.5% at NaCl solutions at equivalent osmotic potentials. Velocity of germination index was more affected, and decreased up to 1/8 of the control, at -0.6 MPa. Jurema preta seeds showed lower tolerance to NaCl than to water stress, and this species can be classified as a glycophyte.

  18. Effect of sodium chloride on the gelatinization of starch: a multimeasurement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotelli, Eleni; Pilosio, Giorgio; Le Meste, Martine

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride on the gelatinization and rheological properties of wheat and potato starches has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and electron spin resonance techniques. All samples contained 60% water (w/w wet starch basis) and the salt content ranged from 0 to 16% (g/100 g starch-water). The presence of salt affected the onset (T(o)), peak (T(p)), and end (T(e)) temperatures of gelatinization, gelatinization enthalpy (DeltaH), storage modulus (G'), and rotational mobility coefficient (D(rot)), and the effect differed by salt concentration. 1H-NMR was used in parallel in order to elucidate how salts affect the properties of water in starch suspensions and in aqueous salt solutions according to their position on the Hofmeister series classification. The obtained results suggest that the mechanism of starch gelatinization in salt solutions can be attributed to the effect of solute on water properties and direct polymer-solute interactions. These two effects conflict with one another and result in complex effect patterns depending on the concentration of the salts. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  20. Sodium Chloride Diffusion in Low-Acid Foods during Thermal Processing and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at modeling sodium chloride (NaCl) diffusion in foods during thermal processing using analytical and numerical solutions and at investigating the changes in NaCl concentrations during storage after processing. Potato, radish, and salmon samples in 1% or 3% NaCl solutions were heated at 90, 105, or 121 °C for 5 to 240 min to simulate pasteurization and sterilization. Selected samples were stored at 4 or 22 °C for up to 28 d. Radish had the largest equilibrium NaCl concentrations and equilibrium distribution coefficients, but smallest effective diffusion coefficients, indicating that a greater amount of NaCl diffused into the radish at a slower rate. Effective diffusion coefficients determined using the analytical solution ranged from 0.2 × 10(-8) to 2.6 × 10(-8) m²/s. Numerical and analytical solutions showed good agreement with experimental data, with average coefficients of determination for samples in 1% NaCl at 121 °C of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. During storage, food samples equilibrated to a similar NaCl concentration regardless of the thermal processing severity. The results suggest that sensory evaluation of multiphase (solid and liquid) products should occur at least 14 d after processing to allow enough time for the salt to equilibrate within the product. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Sodium Chloride and Its Influence on the Aroma Profile of Yeasted Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C. E.; Axel, Claudia; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.; Czerny, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the yeast activity in bread dough and its influence on the aroma profile of the baked bread was investigated. Key aroma compounds in the bread samples were analysed by two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solvent-assisted flavour evaporation distillation. High-sensitivity proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify 2-phenylethanol in the headspace of the bread dough during fermentation. The analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05) changes in the aroma compounds 2-phenylethanol, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2,4-(E,E)-decadienal. Descriptive sensory analysis and discriminating triangle tests revealed that significant differences were only determinable in samples with different yeast levels but not samples with different NaCl concentrations. This indicates that a reduction in NaCl does not significantly influence the aroma profile of yeasted bread at levels above the odour thresholds of the relevant compounds, thus consumers in general cannot detect an altered odour profile of low‑salt bread crumb. PMID:28805678

  2. Electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1999-02-01

    The electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different temperatures were investigated. The initial corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The initial corrosion potential changed when titanium was coupled with other metals. Naval brass and alloy 600 (UNS N06600) anodically polarized titanium, while zinc and aluminum caused titanium to become a cathode. HY80 steel (UNS K31820), type 316 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S31600), and Monel K500 (UNS N05500, a copper-nickel alloy), polarized titanium anodically or cathodically depending upon temperature and pH. Hydrides formed on the titanium surface at potentials < {approximately} {minus}600 mV{sub SCE} to {minus}700 mV{sub SCE}. Zinc at all temperatures and HY80 at high temperatures caused hydride formation in titanium when coupled galvanically with titanium. Mechanical tests showed an {approx} 10% decrease in ductility under prior and dynamic hydrogen charging conditions.

  3. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly....... There was a significant inverse relationship between superficial nephron ED(NaCl) and PRC. We conclude that ED(Na) decreases during osmotic diuresis, suggesting that the increase in PRC was mediated by the macula densa. The results suggest that the natriuresis during osmotic diuresis is a result of impaired sodium...

  4. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag

    OpenAIRE

    Rocchio MA; Belisle CD; Greenwood BC; Cotugno MC; Szumita PM

    2013-01-01

    Megan A Rocchio, Caryn D Belisle, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Cotugno, Paul M SzumitaDepartment of Pharmacy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of suc...

  5. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchio MA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Megan A Rocchio, Caryn D Belisle, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Cotugno, Paul M SzumitaDepartment of Pharmacy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of such extemporaneously prepared regular human insulin, stored under refrigeration, to the maximum beyond-use-date allowed by United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797.Methods: At time “0” three admixtures of regular human insulin were prepared by withdrawing 1 mL of regular human insulin with a concentration of 100 units/mL and adding it to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL. The three admixtures were stored under refrigeration (2°C–8°C [36°F–46°F], and one sample of each admixture was withdrawn and tested in duplicate at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, 312, and 336 hours. Utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, each sample underwent immediate testing. The time points were stable if the mean concentration of the samples exceeded 90% of the equilibrium concentration at 6 hours.Results: The equilibrium concentration was 0.89 units/mL. Time points were stable if the mean concentration was at least 0.80 units/mL. All time points retained at least 90% of the equilibrium concentration, with the exception of hour 168 (0.79 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 192 hours the mean concentration was 0.88 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 336 hours the mean concentration was 0.91 ± 0.02 units/mL.Conclusion: Based on these results, regular human insulin 100 units added to 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL is stable for up to 336 hours

  6. Comparative study of renal sodium transport between ouabain-hypertensive rats and ouabain-nonhypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Heng; Lü Zhuo-ren

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare renal sodium transport, using fractional excretions of lithium(FEii)as a marker of proximal tubule sodium reabsorption, between hypertensive and non-hypertensive ouabaintreated rats and further to elucidate the role of ouabain in pathogenesis of hypertension. Methods:Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighting 180-200 g were randomly divided into normal control group and ouabain treated group. Rats were infused with 1 ml/kg · d normal saline or 27.8 μg/kg · d ouabain intraperitoneally once a day respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate and body weight were recorded weekly. Rats were sacrificed 6 weeks after treatment. Blood and 24-hour urine sample were collected to measure the serum and urinary concentration of sodium, trace lithium and creatinine. Endogenous creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), fractional excretions of sodium (FENa), fractional excretions of lithium (FELi) and fractional reabsorption of sodium in the postproximal tubules (FDRNa) were calculated.Ouabain levels of plasma and renal tissue, plasma renin activity, angiotensin Ⅱ and aldosterone concentration were determined. Results: 65% of the ouabain-treated rats achieved significantly higher SBP after 4weeks, compared with that of the saline control groups or self baseline (P<0. 01). But in the other 35%of the ouabain-treated rats, their SBP was similar with control group during the experiment (P>0. 05).The body weight, heart rate and food intake between the 3 groups were no significant differences (P>0.05). FELi and FDRNa were significantly lower in ouabain-hypertensive group compared with ouabain-nonhypertensive group and control group(P<0.01 and P<0.05). The FELi and FDRNa of ouabain-nonhypertensive groups were similar with control group(P>0.05). Ccr and FENa were comparable between the 3 groups (P>0. 05). Plasma and renal tissue ouabain levels, plasma renin activity, angiotensin Ⅱ and aldosterone contents in ouabain-hypertensive rats were

  7. Paradoxical activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) without hypertension in kidney deficient in a regulatory subunit of Na,K-ATPase, FXYD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arystarkhova, Elena; Ralph, Donna L; Liu, Yi Bessie; Bouley, Richard; McDonough, Alicia A; Sweadner, Kathleen J

    2014-12-01

    Na,K-ATPase generates the driving force for sodium reabsorption in the kidney. Na,K-ATPase functional properties are regulated by small proteins belonging to the FXYD family. In kidney FXYD2 is the most abundant: it is an inhibitory subunit expressed in almost every nephron segment. Its absence should increase sodium pump activity and promote Na(+) retention, however, no obvious renal phenotype was detected in mice with global deletion of FXYD2 (Arystarkhova et al. 2013). Here, increased total cortical Na,K-ATPase activity was documented in the Fxyd2(-/-) mouse, without increased α1β1 subunit expression. We tested the hypothesis that adaptations occur in distal convoluted tubule (DCT), a major site of sodium adjustments. Na,K-ATPase immunoreactivity in DCT was unchanged, and there was no DCT hypoplasia. There was a marked activation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC; Slc12a3) in DCT, predicted to increase Na(+) reabsorption in this segment. Specifically, NCC total increased 30% and NCC phosphorylated at T53 and S71, associated with activation, increased 4-6 fold. The phosphorylation of the closely related thick ascending limb (TAL) apical NKCC2 (Slc12a1) increased at least twofold. Abundance of the total and cleaved (activated) forms of ENaC α-subunit was not different between genotypes. Nonetheless, no elevation of blood pressure was evident despite the fact that NCC and NKCC2 are in states permissive for Na(+) retention. Activation of NCC and NKCC2 may reflect an intracellular linkage to elevated Na,K-ATPase activity or a compensatory response to Na(+) loss proximal to the TAL and DCT. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  8. Thiazide diuretics directly induce osteoblast differentiation and mineralized nodule formation by interacting with a sodium chloride co-transporter in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Melita M; De Joussineau, Cyrille; Carter, D Howard; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A; Gamba, Gerardo; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2007-09-01

    Thiazide diuretics are used worldwide as a first-choice drug for patients with uncomplicated hypertension. In addition to their antihypertensive effect, thiazides increase bone mineral density and reduce the prevalence of fractures. Traditionally, these effects have been attributed to increased renal calcium reabsorption that occurs secondary to the inhibition of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule. The aim of the current study was to determine whether thiazides exert a direct bone-forming effect independent of their renal action. We found that the osteoblasts of human and rat bone also express NCC, suggesting that these bone-forming cells may be an additional target for thiazides. In vitro, NCC protein was virtually absent in proliferating human and fetal rat osteoblasts, whereas its expression dramatically increased during differentiation. Thiazides did not affect osteoblast proliferation, but directly stimulated the production of the osteoblast differentiation markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2) and osteopontin. Using overexpression/knockdown studies in fetal rat calvarial cells, we show that thiazides increase the formation of mineralized nodules, but loop diuretics do not. Overall, our study demonstrates that thiazides directly stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone mineral formation independent of their effects in the kidney. Therefore, in addition to their use as antihypertensive drugs, our results suggest that thiazides may find a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  9. Parathyroid hormone-related protein stimulates plasma renin activity via its anorexic effects on sodium chloride intake

    OpenAIRE

    Atchison, Douglas K.; Westrick, Elizabeth; Szandzik, David L.; Gordish, Kevin L; Beierwaltes, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) increases renin release from isolated perfused kidneys and may act as an autacoid regulator of renin secretion, but its effects on renin in vivo are unknown. In vivo, PTHrP causes hypercalcemia and anorexia, which may affect renin. We hypothesized that chronically elevated PTHrP would increase plasma renin activity (PRA) indirectly via its anorexic effects, reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) intake and causing NaCl restriction. We infused male Sprague-...

  10. RENAL ENDOGENOUS ET-1 AND URINARY SODIUM EXCRETION AND MICROALBUMINURIA IN HUMAN SALT-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the urinary endothelin-1 (ET-1) excretion and urinary sodium excretion,microalbuminuria and ambulatory blood pressure(ABP) in salt-sensitive(SS) hypertension patients. Methods Twenty-one cases of normotensive subjects and 32 cases of uncomplicated hypertensive patients were recruited in this study. Salt sensitivity was determined by acute venous saline loading test. Before saline loading, 24-hour ABP measurements were performed. Urine samples were collected to assay ET-1 ,urinary sodium excretion and urinary albumin excretion(UAF). Results Compared to slat-resistant(SR) subgroup, SS showed low urinary ET-1 excretion in normotensive group (P<0.05) or hypertensive group (P<0.01) ,regardless of saline loading or not. The nighttime MAP of SS was higher than SR subgroup in normotensive or hypertensive group. Urinary sodium excretion during 4h of saline loading was significantly lower in SS than that in SR hypertensive patients (P<0. 05). Twenty-four-hour UAE of SS patients was higher than SR group (P<0.01). Results of further correlation analysis indicated that the urinary ET-1 excretion was positively related to urinary sodium content and negatively to ABP and UAE. Conclusion Urinary ET-1 is low in SS normotensives or hypertension patients,which may play a role in renal sodium retention and renal impairment of SS hypertension patients.

  11. Lithium clearance and renal tubular sodium handling during acute and long-term nifedipine treatment in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, N E; Ibsen, H; Skøtt, P

    1988-01-01

    1. In two separate studies the lithium clearance method was used to evaluate the influence of acute and long-term nifedipine treatment on renal tubular sodium reabsorption. 2. In the acute study, after a 4 week placebo period two doses of 20 mg of nifedipine decreased supine blood pressure from 155...... reabsorption did not change. Sodium clearance, fractional sodium excretion, potassium clearance, plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume were also unchanged. 4. In conclusion, we found no changes of renal tubular sodium reabsorption during acute nifedipine treatment, whereas long-term nifedipine treatment...

  12. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vespúcio BIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  13. Oral calcium pectinate-insulin nanoparticles: influences of alginate, sodium chloride and Tween 80 on their blood glucose lowering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tin W; Sumiran, Nurjaya

    2014-05-01

    Examine the formation of pectin-insulin nanoparticles and their blood glucose lowering properties. The calcium pectinate nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation method, with alginate, sodium chloride or Tween 80 as additive. Their in vitro physicochemical, drug release and in vivo blood glucose lowering characteristics were evaluated. Spherical calcium pectinate-insulin nanoparticles were characterized by size, zeta potential, insulin content and insulin association efficiency of 348.4 ± 12.9 nm, -17.9 ± 0.8 mV, 8.4 ± 1.0% and 63.8 ± 7.4%, respectively. They released less than 25% insulin following 24 h in simulated intestinal medium and exhibited delayed blood glucose lowering effect in rats. Incorporation of solubilizer sodium chloride or Tween 80 into nanoparticles did not enhance blood glucose lowering capacity owing to sodium chloride reduced matrix insulin content and Tween 80 interacted with water and had its blood glucose dilution effect negated. Combination of nanoparticles with alginate gel to allow prolonged intestinal residence and more insulin release did not enhance their blood glucose lowering capacity because of calcium alginate-cross-linked gel formation that could retard insulin release and migration into systemic circulation. Physicochemical responses of additives in vivo affected blood glucose regulation property of pectin-insulin nanoparticles. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water during infusion of low-dose dopamine in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hansen, J M; Ladefoged, S D

    1990-01-01

    1. Using the renal clearance of lithium (CLi) as an index of proximal tubular outflow of sodium and water, together with simultaneous measurements of effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and sodium clearance (CNa), renal function and the tubular segmental reabsorption rates...... of sodium and water during dopamine infusion (3 micrograms min-1 kg-1) were estimated in 12 normal volunteers. 2. CNa increased by 128% (P less than 0.001). Effective renal plasma flow and GFR increased by 43% (P less than 0.001) and 9% (P less than 0.01), respectively. CLi increased in all subjects by......, on average, 44% (P less than 0.001). Fractional proximal reabsorption [1-(CLi/GFR)] decreased by 13% after dopamine infusion (P less than 0.001), and estimated absolute proximal reabsorption rate (GFR-CLi) decreased by 8% (P less than 0.01). Absolute distal sodium reabsorption rate [(CLi-CNa) x PNa, where...

  15. Renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water during infusion of low-dose dopamine in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hansen, J M; Ladefoged, S D

    1990-01-01

    1. Using the renal clearance of lithium (CLi) as an index of proximal tubular outflow of sodium and water, together with simultaneous measurements of effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and sodium clearance (CNa), renal function and the tubular segmental reabsorption rates...... of sodium and water during dopamine infusion (3 micrograms min-1 kg-1) were estimated in 12 normal volunteers. 2. CNa increased by 128% (P less than 0.001). Effective renal plasma flow and GFR increased by 43% (P less than 0.001) and 9% (P less than 0.01), respectively. CLi increased in all subjects by......, on average, 44% (P less than 0.001). Fractional proximal reabsorption [1-(CLi/GFR)] decreased by 13% after dopamine infusion (P less than 0.001), and estimated absolute proximal reabsorption rate (GFR-CLi) decreased by 8% (P less than 0.01). Absolute distal sodium reabsorption rate [(CLi-CNa) x PNa, where...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  17. The influence of different sodium loads on renin release in hypertensive and normotensive states of chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, H J

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of different sodium loads on renin release in the hypertensive and normotensive state of chronic renal failure. Blood pressure (BP), plasma renin concentration (PRC) and exchangeable sodium (NaE) were measured in eighteen patients with advanced chronic renal failure, nine hypertensives and nine normotensives, and in seven normal subjects (a) 6 days after a fixed sodium intake of 10 mmol/day, and (b) 6 days after a fixed sodium intake of 150 mmol/day. Mean NaE was 14-19% higher in the hypertensives compared with the normotensives and values of NaE correlated significantly to values of mean BP. No significant differences were present in PRC between the groups of patients and controls on either of the sodium regimens and no correlation was found between BP and PRC. However, average decreases of PRC in the hypertensives on high sodium intake, 33-34%, were significantly lower than the corresponding values of 69-71% in the normotensive patients and controls, respectively. Furthermore, the percentage changes of PRC on high sodium intake correlated significantly to mean BP as well as to NaE. These results suggest that renin release is relatively unresponsive to different sodium intakes in hypertension following chronic renal failure. This alteration in renin release may contribute to the maintenance of hypertension in chronic renal failure, PRC being "inappropriately' increased in relationship to the sodium excess.

  18. Asymptomatic Cecal Perforation in a Renal Transplant Recipient After Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Montish; Shikha, Deep; Lee, Sunggeun; Baumstein, Donald; Chaudhari, Ashok; Carbajal, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) is a medication commonly used for the treatment of hyperkalemia. There have been many cases of colonic necrosis and perforation associated with administration of SPS. There are very few such cases reported in renal transplant patients. We present a case of renal transplant recipient who developed cecal perforation after a single oral dose of SPS. She had no signs or symptoms suggestive of intestinal perforation and was incidentally diagnosed with it on abdominal imaging performed to find cause of acute blood loss anemia. This case underlines the importance of recognizing this severe and potentially life-threatening complication associated with SPS. The clinicians should also consider renal/solid organ transplant and immunosuppression as potential risk factors.

  19. Heterozygous mutations of the sodium chloride cotransporter in Chinese children: prevalence and association with blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Yang, Sung-Sen; Chu, Nain-Feng; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2009-04-01

    Gitelman's syndrome (GS), which is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), usually manifests in children and is associated with low blood pressure. However, the prevalence of heterozygous NCC mutations and their association with blood pressure in children have not yet been studied. Five hundred unrelated children from the Taipei Children Heart Study were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and the SLC12A3 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 15 NCC mutations previously identified in Chinese patients with GS were evaluated using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Blood pressure, biochemistry and urine pH were measured. The allelic frequency of heterozygous NCC mutations and their association with low blood pressure were also investigated. RFLP analysis for the 15 NCC mutations revealed heterozygous T60M in 1 child, T163M in 1, S283Y in 4, R642C in 2, W844X in 2, R928C in 9 and R959frameshift in 10 children. The overall incidence of positive heterozygous NCC mutations was approximately 2.9%. There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure, biochemical profiles or urine pH between children with heterozygous NCC mutations (n = 29) and non-affected controls (n = 471), except for slightly higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations in NCC-heterozygous children (91 +/- 2.3 versus 88 +/- 0.4 mg/dL, P pressures. We found a relatively high prevalence of heterozygous NCC mutations in Chinese children, suggesting that GS may not be rare in this population. Heterozygous NCC mutations were not associated with lower blood pressure in these Chinese children.

  20. Biofilm Formation by Clostridium ljungdahlii Is Induced by Sodium Chloride Stress: Experimental Evaluation and Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Jo; Rabaey, Korneel; Lovley, Derek R; Vargas, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii is capable of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilm formation could benefit both these applications, but was not yet reported for C. ljungdahlii. Biofilm formation does not occur under standard growth conditions, but attachment or aggregation could be induced by different stresses. The strongest biofilm formation was observed with the addition of sodium chloride. After 3 days of incubation, the biomass volume attached to a plastic surface was 20 times higher with than without the addition of 200 mM NaCl to the medium. The addition of NaCl also resulted in biofilm formation on glass, graphite and glassy carbon, the latter two being often used electrode materials for microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilms were composed of extracellular proteins, polysaccharides, as well as DNA, while pilus-like appendages were observed with, but not without, the addition of NaCl. A transcriptome analysis comparing planktonic (no NaCl) and biofilm (NaCl addition) cells showed that C. ljungdahlii coped with the salt stress by the upregulation of the general stress response, Na+ export and osmoprotectant accumulation. A potential role for poly-N-acetylglucosamines and D-alanine in biofilm formation was found. Flagellar motility was downregulated, while putative type IV pili biosynthesis genes were not expressed. Moreover, the gene expression analysis suggested the involvement of the transcriptional regulators LexA, Spo0A and CcpA in stress response and biofilm formation. This study showed that NaCl addition might be a valuable strategy to induce biofilm formation by C. ljungdahlii, which can improve the efficacy of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis applications.

  1. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  2. Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2 S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2 S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2 S with or without Cl(-) channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K(+) channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca(2+) channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Na2 S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2 S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2 S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3 (-) , suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2 S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. The relaxant effects of Na2 S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl(-) -pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca(2+) -dependent. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Kidney injury after sodium phosphate solution beyond the acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Juárez, Gema; Parejo, Leticia; Villacorta, Javier; Tato, Ana; Cazar, Ramiro; Guerrero, Carmen; Marin, Isabel Martinez; Ocaña, Javier; Mendez-Abreu, Angel; López, Katia; Gruss, Enrique; Gallego, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Screening colonoscopy with polipectomy reduces colonorectal cancer incidence and mortality. An adequate bowel cleansing is one of the keys to achieving best results with this technique. Oral sodium phosphate solution (OSP) had a widespread use in the 90s decade. Its efficacy was similar to polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, but with less cost and convenient administration. Series of patients with acute renal failure due to OSP use have been reported. However, large cohorts of patients found no difference in the incidence of renal damage between these two solutions. From 2006 to 2009 we identified twelve cases of phosphate nephropathy after colonoscopy prepared with OSP. All patients were followed up to six months. All patients had received just a single dose. We analyzed 12 cases with phosphate nephropathy; three patients debuted with AKI and nine patients had chronic renal injury. Four cases were confirmed with renal biopsy. One patient with AKI needed hemodialysis at diagnosis without subsequent recovery. Two patients (both with chronic damage) fully recovered their previous renal function. The remaining patients (nine) had an average loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate of 24ml/min/1.73m(2). The use of OSP can lead to both acute and chronic renal damage. However, chronic injury was the most common pattern. Both forms of presentation imply a significant and irreversible loss of renal function. Further studies analyzing renal damage secondary to bowel cleaning should consider these two different patterns of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Renal sodium handling in children with nephrotic relapse: relation to hypovolaemic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Walle, J G; Donckerwolcke, R A; Greidanus, T B; Joles, J A; Koomans, H A

    1996-11-01

    We studied renal sodium handling during water diuresis in children in the early phase of relapse of minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome (MLNS). Findings were related to presence or absence of symptoms suggestive of hypovolaemia, and to neurohumoral factors, and were compared to results of similar studies in the same children in remission. Nine children (aged 7.8 +/- 3.1 years) presented with hypovolaemic symptoms, and 10 (7.4 +/- 4.3 years) without such symptoms. Both groups displayed severe proteinuria, hypoproteinaemia and oedema. Symptomatic patients showed tendency for a low glomerular filtration rate, and significantly impaired urine dilution, decreased fractional sodium and lithium excretions, and elevated diluting segment reabsorption [CH2O/(CH2O + CNa)] and sodium/potassium exchange [UK/(UK + UNa)]. In the non-symptomatic patients these parameters were normal. Plasma renin and aldosterone were significantly elevated in the symptomatic children, and strongly correlated with all parameters of tubule sodium reabsorption. Weaker associations were found for plasma noradrenaline and atrial natriuretic peptide. Vasopressin was also relatively high in the symptomatic group, but showed no association with impaired urine dilution. The diffusely stimulated tubular sodium reabsorption in the symptomatic children, in association with stimulated neurohumoral factors, indicates that secondary sodium retention contributes to oedema formation in at least a subset of children developing a nephrotic relapse. This may be limited to the early stage, and be more pronounced in some patients than in others. The tubular defect responsible for maintenance of oedema in stabilized MLNS remains unclear.

  5. A case of sodium chlorite toxicity managed with concurrent renal replacement therapy and red cell exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovsky, Adam; Djogovic, Dennis; Chin, Dat

    2013-03-01

    Sodium chlorite is a powerful oxidizing agent with multiple commercial applications. We report the presentation and management of a single case of human toxicity of sodium chlorite. A 65-year-old man presented to hospital after accidentally ingesting a small amount of a sodium chlorite solution. His principal manifestations were mild methemoglobinemia, severe oxidative hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and anuric acute kidney injury. He was managed with intermittent hemodialysis, followed by continuous venovenous hemofiltration for management of acute kidney injury and in an effort to remove free plasma chlorite. Concurrently, he underwent two red cell exchanges, as well as a plasma exchange, to reduce the burden of red cells affected by chlorite. These interventions resulted in the cessation of hemolysis with stabilization of serum hemoglobin and platelets. The patient survived and subsequently recovered normal renal function. This is only the second case of sodium chlorite intoxication reported in the medical literature and the first to report the use of renal replacement therapy in combination with red cell exchange in its management.

  6. Chronic effects of lead on renin and renal sodium excretion. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, N.; Mouw, D.R.; Vander, A.J.

    1980-05-01

    Rats were chronically give 0.5 mg/ml Pb in drinking water. This produced blood and renal lead concentratoins of approximately 30 )g/dl and 20)g/gm, respectively, significant kidney swelling, but no change in body weight or hematocrit. After 6 weeks of Pb treatment and during ingestion of a sodium-free diet, plasma, renin activity (PRA) was elevated (controls: same diet, no lead), but there was no change in plasma resin substrate (PRS). After 5 months the PRA was significantly higher in the lead-treated group even on a 1% NaCl diet, but the difference between groups disappeared on an Na-free diet; that is, the renin response to sodium deprivation was blunted. As early as 6 weeks after beginning lead treatment, the treated group manifested reduced ability to decrease Na excretion following removal of NaCl from the diet; steady-state sodium excretion was normal on either the 1% NaCl or Na-free diet. We conclude that changes in the renin angiotensin system and renal sodium handling may be important toxic effects of low doses of lead on the kidneys of rats.

  7. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities. Th

  8. The renal handling of sodium and water is not affected by the standard-dose cisplatin treatment for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Renal clearances of 51Cr-EDTA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured before and after each of four consecutive treatment series with cisplatin in 15 men with testicular cancer. Since lithium is reabsorbed like sodium and water in the proximal tubules, but not reabsorbed to any measurable...

  9. The "chloride theory", a unifying hypothesis for renal handling and body fluid distribution in heart failure pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    Body fluid volume regulation is a complex process involving the interaction of various afferent (sensory) and neurohumoral efferent (effector) mechanisms. Historically, most studies focused on the body fluid dynamics in heart failure (HF) status through control of the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the body, and maintaining arterial circulatory integrity is central to a unifying hypothesis of body fluid regulation in HF pathophysiology. The pathophysiologic background of the biochemical determinants of vascular volume in HF status, however, has not been known. I recently demonstrated that changes in vascular and red blood cell volumes are independently associated with the serum chloride concentration, but not the serum sodium concentration, during worsening HF and its recovery. Based on these observations and the established central role of chloride in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, I propose a unifying hypothesis of the "chloride theory" for HF pathophysiology, which states that changes in the serum chloride concentration are the primary determinant of changes in plasma volume and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system under worsening HF and therapeutic resolution of worsening HF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antihypertensive effect of thymectomy in Lyon hypertensive rats. Vascular reactivity, renal histology, and sodium excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataillard, A; Blanc-Brunat, N; Vivier, G; Medeiros, I; Zhang, B L; Touraine, J L; Sassard, J

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this study was to search for the possible mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive effect of neonatal thymectomy that we previously observed in Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats. To that end, we studied in LH and normotensive control (LN) rats the consequences of neonatal thymectomy on vascular reactivity, renal structure, and pressure-natriuresis. The increase in pressor responses to angiotensin I and phenylephrine noted in LH rats as compared to LN animals was abolished by neonatal thymectomy. Histological study showed that kidneys from LH rats exhibited arterial wall hypertrophy, segmental hyalinization of the glomeruli, and were infiltrated by mononuclear cells. All these features of kidney injury were reduced in neonatally thymectomized LH rats. Lastly, the responses of isolated perfused kidneys from LH rats to stepwise reductions in renal perfusion pressure differed from those of LN rats by decreased renal perfusion flow and natriuresis. Neonatal thymectomy tended to improve sodium excretion in parallel with a slight decrease in renal vascular resistances. It is concluded that the normalization of vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor factors, the alleviation of renal lesions and, to a lesser extent, the moderate improvement of pressure natriuresis may account, at least in part, for the antihypertensive effect of neonatal thymectomy in LH rats.

  11. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  12. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples.

  13. Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Lin, Xinxing; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Cao, Shilin; Wang, Huangwei

    2013-07-03

    The nonantibacterial and low strength properties of sodium alginate films negatively impact their application for food packaging. In order to improve these properties, a novel chitosan-benzalkonium chloride (C-BC) complex was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a coagulant, and a biocomposite obtained through the adsorption of C-BC complex on microfibrillated cellulose, MFC/C-BC, was then incorporated into a sodium alginate film. The TEM image showed that the C-BC nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a diameter of about 30 nm, and the adsorption equilibrium time of these nanoparticles on the surface of MFC was estimated to be 6 min under the driving forces of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. According to the disc diffusion method, the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and certain antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli . The strength tests indicated that the tensile strength of the composite sodium alginate film increased about 225% when the loading of MFC/C-BC biocomposite was 10 wt %. These results suggested that the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film with excellent antibacterial and strength properties would be a promising material for food packaging, and the MFC/C-BC may also be a potential multifunctional biocomposite for other biodegradable materials.

  14. Effects of sodium chloride on chronic silver toxicity to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Gail M; Naddy, Rami B; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2007-08-01

    The chronic (early life stage) toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in flow-through exposures. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed to silver (as AgNO3) from 48 h or less postfertilization to 30 d postswimup in soft water in the presence and absence of 49 mg/L of NaCl (30 mg/L of Cl). The studies determined effect levels for rainbow trout exposed throughout an extended development period and assessed possible protective effects of sodium chloride. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations were greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver for survival, mean day to hatch, mean day to swimup, and whole-body sodium content in both studies. Whole-body silver concentrations increased significantly at 0.13 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and at 1.09 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. The maximum-acceptable toxicant concentration for growth was greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and 0.32 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. Whole-body silver concentrations were more sensitive than survival and growth end points in unmodified water. Interpretation of sodium chloride effects on chronic silver toxicity to rainbow trout was complicated by differences in measured effect levels that were potentially the result of strain differences between test organisms in the two studies.

  15. Effect of progesterone on renal sodium handling in man: relation to aldosterone excretion and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparil, S; Ehrlich, E N; Lindheimer, M D

    1975-08-01

    1. The effect of progesterone on renal haemodynamics and intrarenal sodium handing was evaluated in thirteen normal men on a constant diet. Clearances were measured during maximal water diuresis and again 4-7 days later, this time 3 h after progesterone was given intramuscularly. Seven additional studies were performed 3 days after progesterone administration. Another four tests were performed on volunteers who had manifested renal 'escape' from the sodium-retaining effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate. 2. In acute progesterone studies glomerular filtration rate was unchanged, whereas effective renal plasma flow increased, so that filtration fraction decreased significantly. A similar in crease in urinary sodium occurred whether subjects received a low or high sodium diet. Indices which related to the distal delivery of filtrate (fractional urine flow and the sum of fractional free water and sodium clearances) increased significantly in both groups. The progesterone-induced increase in sodium excretion was not related to changes in plasma renin activity, renin substrate or urinary aldosterone. After 3 days of progesterone, the increase of sodium excretion was less than in the acute studies and urinary aldosterone increased tow- to four-fold. Progesterone failed to produce an acute increse in urinary sodium in subjects hyperexpanded by administration of exogenous mineralocorticoids. 3. Results suggest that the acute natriuretic action of progesterone is in part independent of aldosterone inhibition and that progesterone may inhibit sodium reabsorption at proximal as well as distal sites in the nephron.

  16. Durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated sodium chloride radioactive liquid waste: Influence of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: aguerrero@ietcc.csic.es; Goni, S. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: sgoni@ietcc.csic.es; Allegro, V.R. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: allegro@ietcc.csic.es

    2009-03-15

    This work is a continuation of a previous durability study of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) that is very rich in sulphate salts. The same experimental methodology was applied in the present case, but with a SRLW rich in sodium chloride. The study was carried out by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste that was rich in chloride (0.5 M), and demineralised water as a reference, at 20 and 40 deg. C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanism of chloride ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated chloride radioactive liquid waste (SCRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive Friedel's salt inside the pores; accordingly, the microstructure was refined.

  17. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  18. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive.

  19. The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

    2013-10-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 °C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log₁₀ cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log₁₀ cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log₁₀ cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also

  20. Stream Tracer Integrity: Comparative Analyses of Rhodamine-WT and Sodium Chloride through Transient Storage Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Solute transport in natural channels describes the transport of water and dissolved matter through a river reach of interest. Conservative tracers allow us to label a parcel of stream water, such that we can track its movement downstream through space and time. A transient storage model (TSM) can be fit to the breakthrough curve (BTC) following a stream tracer experiment, as a way to quantify advection, dispersion, and transient storage processes. Arctic streams and rivers, in particular, are continuously underlain by permafrost, which provides for a simplified surface water-groundwater exchange. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Rhodamine-WT (RWT) are widely used tracers, and differences between the two in conservative behavior and detection limits have been noted in small-scale field and laboratory studies. This study seeks to further this understanding by applying the OTIS model to NaCl and RWT BTC data from a field study on the Kuparuk River, Alaska, at varying flow rates. There are two main questions to be answered: 1) Do differences in NaCl and RWT manifest in OTIS parameter values? 2) Are the OTIS model results reliable for NaCl, RWT, or both? Fieldwork was performed in the summer of 2012 on the Kuparuk River, and modeling was performed using a modified OTIS framework, which provided for parameter optimization and further global sensitivity analyses. The results of this study will contribute to the greater body of literature surrounding Arctic stream hydrology, and it will assist in methodology for future tracer field studies. Additionally, the modeling work will provide an analysis for OTIS parameter identifiability, and assess stream tracer integrity (i.e. how well the BTC data represents the system) and its relation to TSM performance (i.e. how well the TSM can find a unique fit to the BTC data). The quantitative tools used can be applied to other solute transport studies, to better understand potential deviations in model outcome due to stream tracer choice and

  1. Effects of insulin on renal haemodynamics and sodium handling in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Skøtt, P;

    1991-01-01

    Diabetic patients treated with insulin injected subcutaneously are characterized by peripheral hyperinsulinaemia and an increased mass of total body exchangeable sodium. We hypothesized that this may cause, at least in part, the glomerular hyperfiltration seen in the diabetic state. Six normal...... subjects were studied on 2 days in random order. Day A: Basal state for 40 min, hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp for 1 h (insulin infusion rate 2 mU kg-1 min-1 and 50% glucose infusion) and hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp combined with volume expansion (2 1 isotonic sodium chloride) for 2 h. Day B......: as day A, but without insulin and glucose infusion. During combined volume expansion and hyperinsulinaemia an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (128 +/- 6 vs 117 +/- 8 ml min-1 1.73 m-2, p less than 0.01) and lithium clearance (CLi) (50 +/- 4 vs 33 +/- 5 ml min-1 1.73 m-2, p less than 0...

  2. A Study on the Optimization of Physical and Chemical Parameters for the Precipitate of Sodium Alkylsulfate with Cetylpyridinium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sun Wha; Moon, Sung Doo; Lee, Don Keun; Lee, Dong Jae; Kang, Young Soo [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The optimum conditions for the most effective precipitate of surfactant complex of sodium alkylsulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride were studied in the aqueous solution. The parameters such as the alkyl chain length of anionic surfactants, molar ratio of two surfactants, temperature and the concentration of added NaCl in the aqueous solution were correlatively studied for the productivity of the precipitate formation. By the productivity, the optimum conditions to produce complex of anionic surfactant with cationic surfactant were the longer alkyl chain, equivalent molar ratio between anionic and cationic surfactants, 0 .deg. C and 1.5 M NaCl

  3. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  4. Influence of sodium chloride and weak organic acids (flux residues) on electrochemical migration of tin on surface mount chip components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    The electrolytic properties of sodium chloride and no-clean solder flux residue, and their effects on electrochemical migration and dendrite growth on surface mount chip capacitors were investigated. The leakage current dependency on concentration of contaminants was measured by a solution...... showed a difference which is caused by polarization effects, and demonstrated existing issues when indexing contamination levels on printed circuit board assemblies using a standardised solvent extract method. The experimental results showed that dendrite growth was dependent on the type and amount...

  5. Dietary sodium intake modulates renal excretory responses to intrarenal angiotensin (1-7) administration in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Julie; Corbett, Alan; Johns, Edward J

    2013-02-01

    Angiotensin II at the kidney regulates renal hemodynamic and excretory function, but the actions of an alternative metabolite, angiotensin (1-7), are less clear. This study investigated how manipulation of dietary sodium intake influenced the renal hemodynamic and excretory responses to intrarenal administration of angiotensin (1-7). Renal interstitial infusion of angiotensin (1-7) in anesthetized rats fed a normal salt intake had minimal effects on glomerular filtration rate but caused dose-related increases in urine flow and absolute and fractional sodium excretions ranging from 150 to 200%. In rats maintained for 2 wk on a low-sodium diet angiotensin (1-7) increased glomerular filtration rate by some 45%, but the diuretic and natriuretic responses were enhanced compared with those in rats on a normal sodium intake. By contrast, renal interstitial infusion of angiotensin (1-7) in rats maintained on a high-sodium intake had no effect on glomerular filtration rate, whereas the diuresis and natriuresis was markedly attenuated compared with those in rats fed either a normal or low-sodium diet. Plasma renin and angiotensin (1-7) were highest in the rats on the low-sodium diet and depressed in the rats on a high-sodium diet. These findings demonstrate that the renal hemodynamic and excretory responses to locally administered angiotensin (1-7) is dependent on the level of sodium intake and indirectly on the degree of activation of the renin-angiotensin system. The exact way in which angiotensin (1-7) exerts its effects may be dependent on the prevailing levels of angiotensin II and its receptor expression.

  6. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content.

  7. Cytopathology induced by mercuric chloride and methylmercury in cultured renal cells of the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella plagiodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A; Pfeiffer, C J

    2001-01-01

    High mercury concentrations have been reported in various tissues of cetaceans, but the toxicological effects of mercury on cetaceans remain unclear. In vivo study is difficult due to the endangered status of these marine mammals and co-exposure to both mercury and selenium (antagonist of mercury) in the oceanic environment. The present data are the first ultrastructural information on dolphin renal cells exposed to mercury in vitro. Multiple organelle changes were observed in Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella plagiodon) renal cells treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) or methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl2). Mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticula were swollen after treatment with HgCl2 or MeHgCl. Mitochondrial dense bodies and small cytoplasmic spherical granules of high electron density were also observed after exposure to MeHgCl. Cytoplasmic vacuoles and myelin-like figures were induced by both HgCl2 and MeHgCl. Nuclear changes included karyolysis, nuclear buds, and a novel observation in mercury-treated cells, vacuolization of (micro-)nucleoli after treatment with HgCl2. These morphological changes (multiple organelle damage and nuclear budding) indicated mercury-treated dolphin renal cells underwent oncosis and necrosis, and supported earlier pathophysiologic findings of diverse toxic actions on genetic, respiratory and other cellular functions.

  8. Effect of valsartan combined with beraprost sodium on renal function, blood coagulation function and endothelial injury in patients with hypertension and early renal damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of valsartan combined with beraprost sodium on renal function, blood coagulation function and endothelial injury in patients with hypertension and early renal damage.Method:A total of 200 patients with hypertension and early renal damage were divided into observation group (n=97) (received valsartan combined with beraprost sodium therapy) and control group (n=103) (received valsartan therapy alone) according to different treatment methods. Differences in renal function, blood coagulation function and endothelial injury index levels were compared between the two groups after treatment. Results: Eight weeks after treatment, CysC,β2-MG, Fib, D-D, MPV contents in plasma and UACR,α1-MG, NAG contents in urine of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, ATIII contents in plasma were significantly higher than that of control group; lower limb artery Vmax value of observation group was significantly higher than those of control group, carotid artery IMT value lower limb artery RI, FMD and NMD value were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusions: Valsartan combined with beraprost sodium can protect the renal function and avoid further disease progression in patients with hypertension and early renal damage, and it is an ideal solution to disease treatment.

  9. Clopidogrel attenuates lithium-induced alterations in renal water and sodium channels/transporters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, János; Heiney, Kristina M; Riquier-Brison, Anne; Carlson, Noel G; Müller, Christa E; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    Lithium (Li) administration causes deranged expression and function of renal aquaporins and sodium channels/transporters resulting in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Extracellular nucleotides (ATP/ADP/UTP), via P2 receptors, regulate these transport functions. We tested whether clopidogrel bisulfate (CLPD), an antagonist of ADP-activated P2Y(12) receptor, would affect Li-induced alterations in renal aquaporins and sodium channels/transporters. Adult mice were treated for 14 days with CLPD and/or Li and euthanized. Urine and kidneys were collected for analysis. When administered with Li, CLPD ameliorated polyuria, attenuated the rise in urine prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and resulted in significantly higher urinary arginine vasopressin (AVP) and aldosterone levels as compared to Li treatment alone. However, urine sodium excretion remained elevated. Semi-quantitative immunoblotting revealed that CLPD alone increased renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2), Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2), Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), and the subunits of the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) in medulla by 25-130 %. When combined with Li, CLPD prevented downregulation of AQP2, Na-K-ATPase, and NKCC2 but was less effective against downregulation of cortical α- or γ-ENaC (70 kDa band). Thus, CLPD primarily attenuated Li-induced downregulation of proteins involved in water conservation (AVP-sensitive), with modest effects on aldosterone-sensitive proteins potentially explaining sustained natriuresis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed strong labeling for P2Y(12)-R in proximal tubule brush border and blood vessels in the cortex and less intense labeling in medullary thick ascending limb and the collecting ducts. Therefore, there is the potential for CLPD to be directly acting at the tubule sites to mediate these effects. In conclusion, P2Y(12)-R may represent a novel therapeutic target for Li-induced NDI.

  10. Change in renal function after sodium phosphate preparation for screening colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong; Choon; Seol; Sung; Noh; Hong; Jeong; Hwan; Kim; In; Kyung; Sung; Hyung; Seok; Park; Jung; Hyun; Lee; Chan; Sup; Shim

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the changes in renal function at 12-24 mo in patients following sodium phosphate(NaP) preparation for screening colonoscopy.METHODS:We carried out a retrospective study on the results from patients who received health check-up services as part of an employer-provided wellness program performed between August 2006 and May 2008 and who were followed up for 12-24 mo.Prior to screening colonoscopy,224 patients underwent bowel cleansing with NaP(NaP group) and 113 patients with polyethylene gl...

  11. Membranous nephropathy with renal salt wasting: role of neurohumoral factors in sodium retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommos, Musab; Sinkey, Christine; Haynes, William G; Dixon, Bradley S

    2012-09-01

    The role of neurohumoral factors in the sodium retention of nephrotic syndrome is controversial. We report a case with abrupt onset of severe nephrotic-range proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia due to membranous glomerulonephritis that was associated with renal salt wasting and hypovolemia without edema. Further evaluation showed hypoaldosteronism, hyporeninemia, and primary autonomic failure principally affecting the sympathetic nervous system, determined by the Valsalva maneuver. Administration of exogenous mineralocorticoid and oral salt caused edema and accelerated hypertension. The severe hypoaldosteronism likely was due to use of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, and it improved after this drug treatment was discontinued. The nephrotic proteinuria resolved after treatment with cyclosporine and prednisone, but the primary autonomic failure with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism persisted. The case shows that intratubular factors activated by nephrotic proteinuria are not sufficient to produce sodium retention in the absence of aldosterone and an intact sympathetic nervous system. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic glucose infusion causes sustained increases in tubular sodium reabsorption and renal blood flow in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W; Bell, Tracy D; Rodriquez, Nancy A; Polavarapu, Praveen; Panteleyev, Dmitriy

    2009-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that inducing hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in dogs, by infusing glucose chronically intravenously, would increase tubular sodium reabsorption and cause hypertension. Glucose was infused for 6 days (14 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) iv) in five uninephrectomized (UNX) dogs. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF) were measured 18 h/day using DSI pressure units and Transonic flow probes, respectively. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) decreased significantly on day 1 and remained decreased over the 6 days, coupled with a significant, sustained increase in RBF, averaging approximately 20% above control on day 6. Glomerular filtration rate and plasma renin activity (PRA) also increased. However, although MAP tended to increase, this was not statistically significant. Therefore, the glucose infusion was repeated in six dogs with 70% surgical reduction in kidney mass (RKM) and high salt intake. Blood glucose and plasma insulin increased similar to the UNX dogs, and there was significant sodium retention, but MAP still did not increase. Interestingly, the increases in PRA and RBF were prevented in the RKM dogs. The decrease in UNaV, increased RBF, and slightly elevated MAP show that glucose infusion in dogs caused a sustained increase in tubular sodium reabsorption by a mechanism independent of pressure natriuresis. The accompanying increase in PRA, together with the failure of either RBF or PRA to increase in the RKM dogs, suggests the site of tubular reabsorption was before the macula densa. However, the volume retention and peripheral edema suggest that systemic vasodilation offsets any potential renal actions to increase MAP in this experimental model in dogs.

  13. Lactated Ringer's solution or 0.9% sodium chloride as fluid therapy in pigeons (Columba livia submitted to humerus osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.

  14. RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional change in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata after environmentally relevant sodium chloride exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura S.; Galbraith, Heather S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cornman, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled sodium chloride (NaCl) exposures. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for 7 d, of which 290 had nonoverlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism. The rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of taurine, an amino acid frequently linked to osmotic stress in aquatic species, was upregulated, as was the transmembrane ion pump sodium/potassium adenosine 5′-triphosphatase. These patterns confirm a primary transcriptional response to the experimental dose, albeit likely overlapping with nonspecific secondary stress responses. Substantial involvement of the heat shock protein 70 chaperone family and the water-transporting aquaporin family was not detected, however, in contrast to some studies in other bivalves. A subset of the most significantly regulated genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent sample. Cluster analysis showed separation of mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl from control mussels in multivariate space, but mussels exposed to 1 ppt NaCl were largely indistinguishable from controls. Transcriptome-scale analysis of salt exposure under laboratory conditions efficiently identified candidate biomarkers for further functional analysis and field validation

  15. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  16. Growth/no growth interfaces of table olive related yeasts for natamycin, citric acid and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-04-16

    The present work uses a logistic/probabilistic model to obtain the growth/no growth interfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida boidinii (three yeast species commonly isolated from table olives) as a function of the diverse combinations of natamycin (0-30 mg/L), citric acid (0.00-0.45%) and sodium chloride (3-6%). Mathematical models obtained individually for each yeast species showed that progressive concentrations of citric acid decreased the effect of natamycin, which was only observed below 0.15% citric acid. Sodium chloride concentrations around 5% slightly increased S. cerevisiae and C. boidinii resistance to natamycin, although concentrations above 6% of NaCl always favoured inhibition by this antimycotic. An overall growth/no growth interface, built considering data from the three yeast species, revealed that inhibition in the absence of citric acid and at 4.5% NaCl can be reached using natamycin concentrations between 12 and 30 mg/L for growth probabilities between 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Results obtained in this survey show that is not advisable to use jointly natamycin and citric acid in table olive packaging because of the observed antagonistic effects between both preservatives, but table olives processed without citric acid could allow the application of the antifungal.

  17. The influence of sodium chloride salinity on the growth and mineral nutrition of horsegram, Dolichos biflorus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. Nigwekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dolichos biflorus plants were grown in sand culture in the presence of five levels of sodium chloride ranging from 25 to 150 mM. The plant was found to possess a good salt tolerance capacity since a general decline in growth was evident only above NaCI concentration of 75 mM. Salt concentrations above 100 mM reduced the yield in terms of average pod number. The analysis of inorganic constituents revealed marked alterations in the mineral nutrition of the plant under saline conditions. Salt stress caused accumulation of sodium in all plant parts although it was more prenounced in roots and stem. The leaves accumulated large amounts of chlorides under saline conditions. The potassium content in the roots and stem markedly decreased due to salinity. The leaves retained a high potassium level up to 50 mM NaCl treatment. Salt stress caused an increase in the calcium content in leaves and roots. The accumulation of phosphorus and magnesium in different plant parts was favoured by salt stress. A reduction in the manganese content in salt stressed leaves was noticed while higher doses of salinity favoured iron accumulation in different plant parts. A possible involvement of these alterations in the salt tolerance behaviour of the plant is discussed.

  18. Comparison of pressure drop and filtration efficiency of particulate respirators using welding fumes and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Chung-Sik; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seung-Joo; Viner, Andrew; Johnson, Erik W

    2011-07-01

    Respirators are used to help reduce exposure to a variety of contaminants in workplaces. Test aerosols used for certification of particulate respirators (PRs) include sodium chloride (NaCl), dioctyl phthalate, and paraffin oil. These aerosols are generally assumed to be worst case surrogates for aerosols found in the workplace. No data have been published to date on the performance of PRs with welding fumes, a hazardous aerosol that exists in real workplace settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of respirators and filters against a NaCl aerosol and a welding fume aerosol and determine whether or not a correlation between the two could be made. Fifteen commercial PRs and filters (seven filtering facepiece, two replaceable single-type filters, and six replaceable dual-type filters) were chosen for investigation. Four of the filtering facepiece respirators, one of the single-type filters, and all of the dual-type filters contained carbon to help reduce exposure to ozone and other vapors generated during the welding process. For the NaCl test, a modified National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health protocol was adopted for use with the TSI Model 8130 automated filter tester. For the welding fume test, welding fumes from mild steel flux-cored arcs were generated and measured with a SIBATA filter tester (AP-634A, Japan) and a manometer in the upstream and downstream sections of the test chamber. Size distributions of the two aerosols were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Penetration and pressure drop were measured over a period of aerosol loading onto the respirator or filter. Photos and scanning electron microscope images of clean and exposed respirators were taken. The count median diameter (CMD) and mass median diameter (MMD) for the NaCl aerosol were smaller than the welding fumes (CMD: 74 versus 216 nm; MMD: 198 versus 528 nm, respectively). Initial penetration and peak penetration were higher with the NaCl aerosol

  19. Prostaglandin E2 mediates proliferation and chloride secretion in ADPKD cystic renal epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Lee, Kim; Battini, Lorenzo; Flores, Daniel; Gusella, G. Luca; Pao, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to cystogenesis in genetically nonorthologous models of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, it remains unknown whether PGE2 induces the classic features of cystic epithelia in genetically orthologous models of ADPKD. We hypothesized that, in ADPKD epithelia, PGE2 induces proliferation and chloride (Cl−) secretion, two archetypal phenotypic features of ADPKD. To test this hypothesis, proliferation and Cl− secretion were measured in renal epithelial cells deficient in polycystin-1 (PC-1). PC-1-deficient cells increased in cell number (proliferated) faster than PC-1-replete cells, and this proliferative advantage was abrogated by cyclooxygenase inhibition, indicating a role for PGE2 in cell proliferation. Exogenous administration of PGE2 increased proliferation of PC-1-deficient cells by 38.8 ± 5.2% (P PGE2-specific E prostanoid (EP) receptor agonists induce intracellular cAMP and downstream β-catenin activation. PGE2 and EP4 receptor agonism (TCS 2510) increased intracellular cAMP concentration and the abundance of active β-catenin in PC-1-deficient cells, suggesting a mechanism for PGE2-mediated proliferation. Consistent with this hypothesis, antagonizing EP4 receptors reverted the growth advantage of PC-1-deficient cells, implicating a central role for the EP4 receptor in proliferation. To test whether PGE2-dependent Cl− secretion is also enhanced in PC-1-deficient cells, we used an Ussing chamber to measure short-circuit current (Isc). Addition of PGE2 induced a fivefold higher increase in Isc in PC-1-deficient cells compared with PC-1-replete cells. This PGE2-induced increase in Isc in PC-1-deficient cells was blocked by CFTR-172 and flufenamic acid, indicating that PGE2 activates CFTR and calcium-activated Cl− channels. In conclusion, PGE2 activates aberrant signaling pathways in PC-1-deficient epithelia that contribute to the proliferative and secretory phenotype characteristic of ADPKD

  20. Increased renal sodium absorption by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis during fasting in healthy man. A possible role of the epithelial sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graffe Carolina C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment with prostaglandin inhibitors can reduce renal function and impair renal water and sodium excretion. We tested the hypotheses that a reduction in prostaglandin synthesis by ibuprofen treatment during fasting decreased renal water and sodium excretion by increased absorption of water and sodium via the aquaporin2 water channels and the epithelial sodium channels. Methods The effect of ibuprofen, 600 mg thrice daily, was measured during fasting in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study of 17 healthy humans. The subjects received a standardized diet on day 1, fasted at day 2, and received an IV infusion of 3% NaCl on day 3. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2, the beta-fraction of the epithelial sodium channel (u-ENaCbeta, cyclic-AMP (u-cAMP, prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2. Free water clearance (CH2O, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa, and plasma concentrations of vasopressin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial-, and brain natriuretic peptide. Results Ibuprofen decreased u-AQP2, u-PGE2, and FENa at all parts of the study. During the same time, ibuprofen significantly increased u-ENaCbeta. Ibuprofen did not change the response in p-AVP, u-c-AMP, urinary output, and free water clearance during any of these periods. Atrial-and brain natriuretic peptide were higher. Conclusion During inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, urinary sodium excretion decreased in parallel with an increase in sodium absorption and increase in u-ENaCbeta. U-AQP2 decreased indicating that water transport via AQP2 fell. The vasopressin-c-AMP-axis did not mediate this effect, but it may be a consequence of the changes in the natriuretic peptide system and/or the angiotensin-aldosterone system Trial Registration Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00281762

  1. Eruca sativa seeds possess antioxidant activity and exert a protective effect on mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar Alam, M; Kaur, Gurpreet; Jabbar, Zoobi; Javed, Kaleem; Athar, Mohammad

    2007-06-01

    Mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) is a well-known nephrotoxic agent. Increasing number of evidences suggest the role of oxidative stress in HgCl(2) induced nephrotoxicity. Eruca sativa is widely used in folklore medicines and has a good reputation as a remedy of renal ailments. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of E. sativa seeds was determined and its protective effect on HgCl(2) induced renal toxicity was investigated. The extract was found to possess a potent antioxidant effect, with a large amount of polyphenols and a high reducing ability. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed glucoerucin and flavonoids to be the major antioxidants present in it. E. sativa extract significantly scavenged several reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Feeding of the extract to rats afforded a significant protection against HgCl(2) induced renal toxicity. Subcutaneous administration of 4 mg/kg body weight HgCl(2) induced renal injury evident as a marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, and histopathological changes such as necrosis, oedema and congestion of stroma and glomeruli. Oxidative modulation of renal tissues following HgCl(2) exposure was evident from a significant elevation in lipid peroxidation and attenuation in glutathione (GSH) contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Oral administration of E. sativa extract to rats at a dose regimen: 50-200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days prior to HgCl(2) treatment significantly and dose dependently protected against alterations in all these diagnostic parameters. The data obtained in the present study suggests E. sativa seeds to possess a potent antioxidant and renal protective activity and preclude oxidative damage inflicted to the kidney.

  2. Renal Development and Blood Pressure in Offspring from Dams Submitted to High-Sodium Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to an adverse environment in utero appears to programme physiology and metabolism permanently, with long-term consequences for health of the fetus or offspring. It was observed that the offspring from dams submitted to high-sodium intake during pregnancy present disturbances in renal development and in blood pressure. These alterations were associated with lower plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII) and changes in renal AII receptor I (AT1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)...

  3. Effects of Sodium Selenite on Formaldehyde Induced Renal Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Mohammadi 1,2 * , Maryam Moghimian 3, Hanieh Torabzadeh 4, Mahla Langari 4, Roghayeh Nazeri 4, Zahra Karimi 4, Elham Sangari 4, Najmeh Jagarmi 5, Alireza Mohammad Zadeh 3, Mehdi Karimi 7, Kamyar Tavakkoli 8, Ali Delshad 9, Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh 3, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan 10

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Formaldehyde is widely used for industrial applications. Renal injury is an adverse effect associated with formaldehyde. Few studies have explored the potential benefits of protective factors on formaldehyde induced renal toxicity. This study evaluated the dose dependent effects of sodium selenite on the biochemical and histopathological effects of formaldehyde on murine kidney. Methods: Forty eight adult Balb/c male mice were randomized into six groups: a control group, a formaldehyde group and experimental III-VI groups. Formaldehyde group was injected with 10 mg/kg formaldehyde and groups III-VI received intraperitoneally doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/kg selenium. After two weeks, a stereological study was done in accordance with the principle of Cavalieri and serum concentrations of urea and creatinine were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and SPSS software. Results: Glomerosclerosis, necrosis and vacuolization were observed in the convoluted tubules of animals treated with formaldehyde. The biochemical markers, volume and count of glomeruli in the group treated with formaldehyde was significantly difference compared to the control group (P<0.05. The volume of the glomeruli in the group treated with 0.2 and 0.4 mg selenium and urea level in the group treated with 0.4 and 0.1 mg/kg selenium was significantly difference compared to the control group (P <0.05. The count of glomeruli and creatinine level in the selenium group was significantly difference compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusions: A dose of 0.2 mg/kg of sodium selenite caused partial protective effect on the renal tissue and function in exposed to formaldehyde.

  4. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  5. Expression of the sodium potassium chloride cotransporter (NKCC1) and sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and their effects on rat lens transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, K N; Vorontsova, I; Lim, J C; Kistler, J; Donaldson, P J

    2010-05-04

    To characterize the expression patterns of the Na+-K+-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and NKCC2, and the Na+-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the rat lens and to determine if they play a role in regulating lens volume and transparency. RT-PCR was performed on RNA extracted from fiber cells to identify sodium dependent cotransporters expressed in the rat lens. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, using NKCC1, NKCC2, and NCC antibodies, were used to verify expression at the protein level and to localize transporter expression. Organ cultured rat lenses were incubated in Artificial Aqueous Humor (AAH) of varying osmolarities or isotonic AAH that contained either the NKCC specific inhibitor bumetanide, or the NCC specific inhibitor thiazide for up to 18 h. Lens transparency was monitored with dark field microscopy, while tissue morphology and antibody labeling patterns were recorded using a confocal microscope. Molecular experiments showed that NKCC1 and NCC were expressed in the lens at both the transcript and protein levels, but NKCC2 was not. Immunohistochemistry showed that both NKCC1 and NCC were expressed in the lens cortex, but NCC expression was also found in the lens core. In the lens cortex the majority of labeling for both transporters was cytoplasmic in nature, while in the lens core, NCC labeling was associated with the membrane. Exposure of lenses to either hypotonic or hypertonic AAH had no noticeable effects on the predominantly cytoplasmic location of either transporter in the lens cortex. Incubation of lenses in isotonic AAH plus the NKCC inhibitor bumetanide for 18 h induced a cortical opacity that was initiated by a shrinkage of peripheral fiber cells and the dilation of the extracellular space between fiber cells in a deeper zone located some approximately 150 microm in from the capsule. In contrast, lenses incubated in isotonic AAH and the NCC inhibitor thiazide maintained both their transparency and their regular fiber cell morphology. We have

  6. Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q.Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.c [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: DDTC is of low toxicity. DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

  7. Influence of brine concentration on sugar and sodium chloride diffusion during the processing of the green olive variety Arauco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miras, N.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The green olive variety Arauco were debittered using lye concentrations of, 2.50% NaOH.They were then subjected to two rinsing processes with tap water. Next, the olives were cured with brines at 7%, 10% and 13% sodium chloride concentration. During this curing process, the loss of reducing sugars from the olives, and the diffusion of sodium chloride into the olives were quantified. Effective diffusion coefficients of both solutes in the skin and the flesh were calculated for this period using a diffusion model for a composite hollow sphere. The skin effective diffusion coefficients for both solutes ranged from entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s to 4,04x10-13 m2/s. The flesh coefficients varied from 2,92x10-9 m2/s to 3,99x10-9 m2/s for sodium chloride and from 9,76x10-11 m2/s to 2,22x10-10 m2/s for reducing sugars.Aceitunas verdes variedad Arauco fueron tratadas con soluciones de hidróxido de sodio al 2,5%. Estas fueron luego sometidas a dos procesos de lavado con agua corriente. Posteriormente, las aceitunas fueron curadas en salmueras con concentraciones de 7%, 10% y 13% de cloruro de sodio. Durante este proceso de curado, se cuantificó la pérdida de azúcares reductores desde, y la difusión de cloruro de sodio hacia el interior de las aceitunas. Durante este período se calcularon los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel y la pulpa, utilizando un modelo de difusión en una esfera hueca compuesta. Los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel estuvieron en un rango entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s y 4,04x10-13 m2/s. Los coeficientes de la pulpa variaron entre 2,92x10-9 m2/s y 3,99x10-9 m2/s para el cloruro de sodio, y entre 9,76x10-11 m2/s y 2,22x10-10 m2/s para los azúcares reductores.

  8. Effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and blood coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Wang; Wei-Xin Yang; Xiu-Hua Zhang; Xian Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery.Methods:A total of 80 cases of hip joint replacement were divided into two groups according to the random number table method, 40 cases in each group. Patients in two groups were conducted with regular hip replacement, postoperative conventional symptomatic treatment. Based on it, patients of the observation group started to get the safflower yellow pigment and sodium chloride injection in the first week after operation, intravenous injection. A total of 3 weeks of treatment. blood rheological index were compared including plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity, red blood cell hematocrit and blood coagulation indexes: prothrombin time (PT), activation activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-Dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FIB) between the two groups postoperative 1 week, postoperative 2 weeks and postoperative 4 weeks.Results:The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in control group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly higher than that of preoperative 1 week; while red blood cell volume, PT, APTT, TT, Fib were significantly lower than preoperative 1 week (P0.05). The PT, APTT in observation group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week, and the TT in observation group postoperative 4 week was significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week (P<0.05); The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in observation group were significantly lower, while the PT, APTT, TT, Fib in observation group were significantly higher than that in control group in the same time point (P<0.05).Conclusions:Hip replacement will cause the change of blood rheology in

  9. Altered renal sodium handling and risk of incident hypertension: Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Elia, Lanfranco; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Iacone, Roberto; Russo, Ornella; Galletti, Ferruccio; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Renal tubular sodium (Na) handling plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Several cross-sectional studies reported a positive association between higher proximal tubule fractional reabsorption of Na and BP, but no prospective investigation has been reported of this possible association. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate the predictive role of renal Na handling on the risk of incident hypertension and the changes in BP occurring in the 8-year follow-up observation of a sample of initially normotensive men (The Olivetti Heart Study). The study included 294 untreated normotensive non-diabetic men with normal renal function examined twice (1994–95 and 2002–04). Renal tubular Na handling was estimated by exogenous lithium clearance. Fractional reabsorption of Na in proximal and distal tubules was calculated and included in the analysis. At baseline, there was no association between BP and either proximal or distal fractional reabsorption of Na. At the end of the 8-year follow-up, direct associations were observed between baseline proximal (but not distal) Na fractional reabsorption and the changes occurred in systolic and diastolic BP over time (+2.79 and +1.53 mmHg, respectively, per 1SD difference in proximal Na-FR; phypertension, independently of potential confounders (OR: 1.34, 95%CI:1.06–1.70). The results of this prospective investigation strongly suggest a causal relationship between an enhanced rate of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule and the risk of incident hypertension in initially normotensive men. PMID:28196131

  10. Water, sodium chloride and acidified sodium chlorite effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus on beef briskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajmeer, M N; Marsden, J L; Fung, D Y C; Kemp, G K

    2004-10-01

    Effectiveness of spray application of potable water wash (WW), 25% (w/v) sodium chloride (NaCl), and 0.1% (v/v) acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus inoculated onto beef briskets. The purpose was to identify antimicrobial treatments which may be applied to beef carcasses and more specifically in kosher meat facilities. Treatments were applied for 10-60 s at pressure of 419 kPa. Water wash, NaCl, and ASC significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 as compared with the control, although, only ASC resulted in improved removal with increased exposure time. Water wash did not significantly reduce S. aureus counts throughout exposure and NaCl was only effective after 60 s of exposure, while ASC reduced counts throughout exposure. E. coli O157:H7 was twice as sensitive to WW and NaCl as S. aureus in terms of percent reduction in cell count.

  11. Vasopressin induces phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Hofmeister, Marlene Vind; Rosenbaek, Lena L;

    2010-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) is important for renal electrolyte balance and its phosphorylation causes an increase in its transport activity and cellular localization. Here, we generated phospho-specific antibodies against two conserved N-terminal phosphorylation sites...

  12. Renal Fractional Excretion of Sodium in Relation to Arterial Blood Gas and Spirometric Parameters in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arterial gas derangement could change urinary sodium excretion in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients.There are very few and conflicting data in regards to the measurement of fractional excretion of sodium in COPD patients. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between renal fractional excretion of sodium(FeNa with arterial blood gas and spirometric parameters in COPD. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study performed on 40 consecutive stable COPD outpatients in 2 main general hospitals (Emam Reza, Ghaem in Mashhad/Iran between 2011 and 2012. We investigated the relationship of renal FeNa with arterial blood gas parameters including HCO3, PH, PaCO2 and PaO2, and spirometric parameters. Analysis was done by SPSS v16 with a statistically meaningful p value of less than 0.05. Results: Mean age was 65.97±10.77 SD years and female to male ratio was 0.26. A renal FeNa of less than 1% was presented in 27% patients. There was a significant, positive relationship between renal FeNa and PaO2 (P=0.005, r=0.456. The correlations between PaCO2, HCO3, PH and spirometric parameters were not seen (P>0.05, but there was a significant relationship between Urine Na and PaO2. Outstanding, it seems likely that kidneys of COPD patients are responsible for sodium retaining state particularly in the presence of hypoxemia. Conclusion: This study indicates that in COPD patients, PaO2 but not PaCO2 is related to renal FeNa which shows the probable role of hypoxemia on sodium output in COPD patients. However, some caution is needed for interpretation of the probable role of hypercapnia on sodium retention in COPD.

  13. Renal Fractional Excretion of Sodium in Relation to Arterial Blood Gas and Spirometric Parameters in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arterial gas derangement could change urinary sodium excretion in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients.There are very few and conflicting data in regards to the measurement of fractional excretion of sodium in COPD patients. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between renal fractional excretion of sodium(FeNa with arterial blood gas and spirometric parameters in COPD. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study performed on 40 consecutive stable COPD outpatients in 2 main general hospitals (Emam Reza, Ghaem in Mashhad/Iran between 2011 and 2012. We investigated the relationship of renal FeNa with arterial blood gas parameters including HCO3, PH, PaCO2 and PaO2, and spirometric parameters. Analysis was done by SPSS v16 with a statistically meaningful p value of less than 0.05. Results: Mean age was 65.97±10.77 SD years and female to male ratio was 0.26. A renal FeNa of less than 1% was presented in 27% patients. There was a significant, positive relationship between renal FeNa and PaO2 (P=0.005, r=0.456. The correlations between PaCO2, HCO3, PH and spirometric parameters were not seen (P>0.05, but there was a significant relationship between Urine Na and PaO2. Outstanding, it seems likely that kidneys of COPD patients are responsible for sodium retaining state particularly in the presence of hypoxemia. Conclusion: This study indicates that in COPD patients, PaO2 but not PaCO2 is related to renal FeNa which shows the probable role of hypoxemia on sodium output in COPD patients. However, some caution is needed for interpretation of the probable role of hypercapnia on sodium retention in COPD.

  14. Changes of free, soluble conjugated and bound polyamine titers of jojoba explants under sodium chloride salinity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Peter A; Pontikis, Constantine A

    2007-07-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) single node explants were cultured in a basal medium supplemented with 17.8 microM 6-benzyladenine and four levels of sodium chloride concentration (0, 56.41, 112.82 and 169.23 mM). The free, the soluble conjugated and the insoluble bound forms of polyamines (PAs) (putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) were determined monthly during a 3-month proliferation stage. Free Put and Spd were found in higher levels in the control treatment, while Spm content was higher in the salt treatments. All soluble conjugated PAs were found to be in lower concentrations in explants growing on medium supplemented with salt, while the opposite was true for the insoluble bound PAs. It appeared that certain PAs and PAs forms could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanism of jojoba under saline conditions.

  15. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of sodium hypophosphite in the presence of copper (II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that in soft conditions (50-70oC, PO2 = 1 atm sodium hypophosphite effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water solutions of copper(II chloride  to give mainly a phosphorous acid. Humic (fulvo- acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, the intermediate and final products, optimal conditions of new catalytic reaction of NaH2PO2 oxidation by oxygen in water solution were defined by kinetics, volumometry, redox-potentiometry and a titration.

  16. Discoloration of Compatibility between Cefotaxime Sodium and Ornidazole Sodium Chloride Injection%头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍变色的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 任美萍; 曾敬怀; 张润; 蒋英蓝

    2013-01-01

    目的 考察注射用头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍后的稳定性.方法 测定两药配伍后的pH值,溶液颜色变化,采用紫外分光光度计测定吸收曲线变化及含量变化.结果 头孢噻肟钠在236nm,奥硝唑在319nm处有最大吸收;混合液在40min时,由微淡黄色澄清液变为淡粉红色;在4h内,混合液的外观、pH值、峰形、含量均无明显变化.结论 头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍后可能会变色,临床应避免配伍.%Objective To investigate the compatible stability of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole chloride sodium injection. Methods The contents and absorption curves of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection after mix were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The appearance of the solution was observed and pH value was determined. Results The absorption peaks of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection were at 236 nm and 319 nm, respectively. The mixture changed from light yellow clear liquid to pale pink at 40min.There were no evident changes in appearance, pH, content and absorption curves during 4 hours. Conclusion The solution might change in color after cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection were mixed. Such compatibility should be avoided in the clinic.

  17. Loss of Renal Tubular PGC-1α Exacerbates Diet-Induced Renal Steatosis and Age-Related Urinary Sodium Excretion in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Svensson

    Full Text Available The kidney has a high energy demand and is dependent on oxidative metabolism for ATP production. Accordingly, the kidney is rich in mitochondria, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a common denominator for several renal diseases. While the mitochondrial master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α is highly expressed in kidney, its role in renal physiology is so far unclear. Here we show that PGC-1α is a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial metabolic pathways in the kidney. Moreover, we demonstrate that mice with an inducible nephron-specific inactivation of PGC-1α in the kidney display elevated urinary sodium excretion, exacerbated renal steatosis during metabolic stress but normal blood pressure regulation. Overall, PGC-1α seems largely dispensable for basal renal physiology. However, the role of PGC-1α in renal mitochondrial biogenesis indicates that activation of PGC-1α in the context of renal disorders could be a valid therapeutic strategy to ameliorate renal mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Hydrochlorothiazide attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus independently of the sodium-chloride cotransporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, A.P.; Kortenoeven, M.L.A.; Groot, T. de; Baumgarten, R.; Devuyst, O.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Loffing, J.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium is the most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI). Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride is the mainstay treatment in Li-NDI. The paradoxical antidiuretic action of HCTZ in Li-NDI is generally attributed to increased sodium and water uptake in proximal tubules

  19. Saltiness enhancement in bread by inhomogeneous spatial distribution of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bread and cereals contribute 30% to the daily intake of sodium (Na) in the western human diet. Since the average Na intake is double the recommended intake, pressure has built up for the food industry to lower Na in their products. Especially replacing functionality of Na as a tastant remains very d

  20. Saltiness enhancement in bread by inhomogeneous spatial distribution of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bread and cereals contribute 30% to the daily intake of sodium (Na) in the western human diet. Since the average Na intake is double the recommended intake, pressure has built up for the food industry to lower Na in their products. Especially replacing functionality of Na as a tastant remains very

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid : a comparison between enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and mycophenolate mofetil in renal transplant recipients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, BC de; Gelder, T van; Glander, P.; Cattaneo, D.; Tedesco-Silva, H.; Neumann, I.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Hest, RM van; Pescovitz, M.D.; Budde, K.; Mathot, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) were compared in renal transplant patients receiving either mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS). METHODS: MPA concentration-time profiles were included from EC-MPS- (n = 208) and MMF-treated (n = 184)

  2. Benefits of a silica-based fluoride toothpaste containing o-cymen-5-ol, zinc chloride and sodium fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Craig S; Rowland, Joanna L; Lynch, Richard J M; Bradshaw, David J; Whitworth, Darren; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Fluoride toothpastes in conjunction with tooth brushing are used to clean teeth, control plaque build-up and for anti-caries benefits. Toothpastes are designed with attractive flavours and appearances to encourage regular prolonged use to maximise these benefits. The incorporation of additional ingredients into toothpaste is a convenient way to provide supplementary protection that fits into people's everyday oral care routine. Such ingredients should not compromise the primary health benefits of toothpaste nor discourage its use. o-Cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride have been incorporated into a sodium fluoride (NaF)/silica toothpaste at 0.1%w/w and 0.6%w/w respectively to provide additional benefits. These include improved gingival health maintenance, in terms of the reduction of plaque, gingival index and bleeding, and an immediate and long lasting reduction in volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) measured on breath. These benefits can be attributed to the antimicrobial and neutralisation actions of the toothpaste. The use of established fluoride models demonstrated no compromise in NaF bioavailability. The toothpaste was formulated without compromising product aesthetics. The combination of o-cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride in toothpaste gave superior maintenance of gingival health and reduction in malodour related VSCs without compromising the primary health benefits of the toothpaste or diminishing attributes preferred for the product's use.

  3. Evaluation of antibiofilm effect of benzalkonium chloride, iodophore and sodium hypochlorite against biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagedar, Ankita; Singh, Jitender

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken with objectives of; a) to investigate and compare Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from two dairies for biofilm formation potential and, b) to compares three common biocides for biofilm eradication efficiencies. Amongst the isolates from commercial dairy, 70 % were strong and/or moderate biofilm former in comparison to 40 % isolates from small scale dairy. All isolates, irrespective of source, exhibited higher susceptibility to biocides in planktonic stage than in biofilm. Antibiofilm efficiencies of three biocides i.e. benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite and iodophore were determined in terms of their microbial biofilms eradicating concentration (MBEC). Our findings show that the three biocides were ineffective against preformed biofilms at recommended in-use concentrations. Biofilms were the most resistant to benzalkonium chloride and least against iodophore. A trend of decreasing MBECs was observed with extended contact time. The findings of present study warrant for a systematic approach for selecting types and concentrations of biocide for application as antibiofilm agent in food industry.

  4. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  5. 氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响%Effects of Sodium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on Corn Starch and Guar Gum Mixed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      通过测定分析玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系在有无氯化钠和氯化钙存在条件下的糊化特性、动态与静态流变学特性,研究氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响。结果表明,氯化钠和氯化钙的加入,提高了玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的成糊温度,降低了崩解值和回升值,峰值黏度也略微下降;玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的弹性模量G′值显著减小,黏性模量G″值的频率依赖性较大;氯化钠和氯化钙使玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的假塑性增强,且氯化钙的作用大于氯化钠。%Through the analysis and determination of pasting property, dynamic and static rheological properties of corn starch and guar gum mixed system with or without sodium chloride and calcium chloride, the effects of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on corn starch and guar gum mixed system were studied. The results showed, the addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride increased the pasting temperature of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, decreased the breakdown value and consistence value, and the peak viscosity also dropped slightly. The G′ value of elastic modulus decreased significantly, the frequency dependence of G" value of viscous modulus was larger. The addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride enhanced pseudo-plasticity of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, and calcium chloride was more effective.

  6. Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

    2014-11-01

    The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats.

  7. The effect of an addition of sodium chloride and sodium triphosphate on fat oxidation products in cold stored beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bilska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Meat and processed meats, depending on the animal species and anatomical element from which they were obtained, exhibit a varied fat content (most typically from 10% to 80% dry matter. Fats are relatively unstable food components. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an addition of model brines on lipid oxidation rate in the selected beef element stored under aerobic conditions and in vacuum at a temperature of 5°C. Material and methods. Material for analyses comprised beef: rump cut (R and the heel of round (L. Meat was cured (at 20% in relation to raw material weight with brine A, containing 1% NaCl in total weight and brine B, containing 1% NaCl and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate E 451i (including 56% P2O5 . Meat after being massaged was stored under aerobic conditions (T and in vacuum (P at a temperature of 5°C for 15 days. During storage of samples changes were determined in peroxide value (PV, contents of secondary fat decomposition products using the TBARS test as well as changes in pH value. Results.  It was observed that with an extension of sample storage time peroxide value was growing gradually, but the dynamics of this growth varied. Samples coming from the rump cut muscle, stored in the atmosphere with unlimited access of oxygen, were characterised by slightly, but statistically significantly higher peroxide values in comparison to the other tested samples. The highest increase in the TBARS test value was observed in samples stored under aerobic conditions and coming from the heel of round muscle, irrespective of the type of applied brine. Conducted analyses showed that vacuum packaging of meat, in comparison to the storage of samples at unlimited access of oxygen, effectively slowed down the increase in the content of secondary oxidation products determined by the TBARS test. The greatest effect of vacuum packaging was observed for the heel of round in brine A. Conclusions. Vacuum packaging, in

  8. Sodium depletion enhances renal expression of (pro)renin receptor via cyclic GMP-protein kinase G signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiqian; Siragy, Helmy M

    2012-02-01

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is expressed in renal vasculature, glomeruli, and tubules. The physiological regulation of this receptor is not well established. We hypothesized that sodium depletion increases PRR expression through cGMP- protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway. Renal PRR expressions were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats on normal sodium or low-sodium diet (LS) and in cultured rat proximal tubular cells and mouse renal inner medullary collecting duct cells exposed to LS concentration. LS augmented PRR expression in renal glomeruli, proximal tubules, distal tubules, and collecting ducts. LS also increased cGMP production and PKG activity. In cells exposed to normal sodium, cGMP analog increased PKG activity and upregulated PRR expression. In cells exposed to LS, blockade of guanylyl cyclase with 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one decreased PKG activity and downregulated PRR expression. PKG inhibition decreased phosphatase protein phosphatase 2A activity; suppressed LS-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and nuclear factor-κB p65; and attenuated LS-mediated PRR upregulation. LS also enhanced DNA binding of cAMP response element binding protein 1 to cAMP response elements, nuclear factor-κB p65 to nuclear factor-κB elements, and c-Jun to activator protein 1 elements in PRR promoter in proximal tubular cells. We conclude that sodium depletion upregulates renal PRR expression via the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway by enhancing binding of cAMP response element binding protein 1, nuclear factor-κB p65, and c-Jun to PRR promotor.

  9. Renal intercalated cells are rather energized by a proton than a sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambrey, Régine; Kurth, Ingo; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Houillier, Pascal; Purkerson, Jeffrey M; Leviel, Françoise; Hentschke, Moritz; Zdebik, Anselm A; Schwartz, George J; Hübner, Christian A; Eladari, Dominique

    2013-05-07

    The Na(+) concentration of the intracellular milieu is very low compared with the extracellular medium. Transport of Na(+) along this gradient is used to fuel secondary transport of many solutes, and thus plays a major role for most cell functions including the control of cell volume and resting membrane potential. Because of a continuous leak, Na(+) has to be permanently removed from the intracellular milieu, a process that is thought to be exclusively mediated by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in animal cells. Here, we show that intercalated cells of the mouse kidney are an exception to this general rule. By an approach combining two-photon imaging of isolated renal tubules, physiological studies, and genetically engineered animals, we demonstrate that inhibition of the H(+) vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase) caused drastic cell swelling and depolarization, and also inhibited the NaCl absorption pathway that we recently discovered in intercalated cells. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase had no effects. Basolateral NaCl exit from β-intercalated cells was independent of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase but critically relied on the presence of the basolateral ion transporter anion exchanger 4. We conclude that not all animal cells critically rely on the sodium pump as the unique bioenergizer, but can be replaced by the H(+) V-ATPase in renal intercalated cells. This concept is likely to apply to other animal cell types characterized by plasma membrane expression of the H(+) V-ATPase.

  10. Renal glucose handling in diabetes and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham Raj Poudel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a major role in glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption via sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs. The defective renal glucose handling from upregulation of SGLTs, mainly the SGLT2, plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genetic mutations in a SGLT2 isoform that results in benign renal glycosuria, as well as clinical studies with SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes support the potential of this approach. These studies indicate that inducing glycosuria by suppressing SGLT2 can reduce plasma glucose and A1c levels, as well as decrease weight, resulting in improved β-cell function and enhanced insulin sensitivity in liver and muscle. Because the mechanism of SGLT2 inhibition is independent of insulin secretion and sensitivity, these agents can be combined with other antidiabetic agents, including exogenous insulin. This class represents a novel therapeutic approach with potential for the treatment of both type 2 and type 1 diabetes.

  11. Dietary potassium: a key mediator of the cardiovascular response to dietary sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have shown that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke, and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but might be curbed by increasing dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence suggests that a diet rich in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, particularly in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension.

  12. A study of sodium alginate and calcium chloride interaction through films for intervertebral disc regeneration uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laia, Andreia Grossi Santos de; Costa Junior, Ezequiel de Souza; Costa, Hermes de Souza, E-mail: andreiagrossi@yahoo.com.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The injured intervertebral disc (IVD) requires some measures in order to promote its regeneration. The sodium alginate in conjunction with CaCl{sub 2} forms a net, potentiating its mechanical properties so it may be an alternative for IVD treatment. In this work, the viability of films of sodium alginate crosslinked with CaCl{sub 2} and submitted to variations in their solutions' preparations is verified, comparing the effects of the addition of CaCl{sub 2} through their immersions, before and after drying the films. The films had their physicochemical properties analyzed by FTIR, DSC and XRD. The results indicated that films with a greater proportion of CaCl{sub 2} were more stable in the DSC analysis when compared to films with smaller proportions of CaCl{sub 2}. These results indicate alginate's modulation capacity which may be useful for IVD regeneration. (author)

  13. Effect of felodipine on renal haemodynamics and tubular sodium handling after single-dose cyclosporin infusion in renal transplant recipients treated with azathioprine and prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J K; Kornerup, H J; Pedersen, E B

    1995-11-01

    A total of 25 renal transplant recipients, treated solely with prednisolone and azathioprine, were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The effect of a single oral dose of felodipine 5 mg or placebo on: glomerular filtration rate (GFR); renal plasma flow (RPF); renal vascular resistance (RVR); renal tubular sodium and water handling, measured by the lithium clearance technique; plasma levels of angiotensin II (AngII), aldosterone (Aldo), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP); blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) was studied before, during, and after an intravenous infusion of cyclosporin (CyA). Three consecutive clearance periods were performed, each lasting 1 h. During the second period, CyA (0.75 mg kg-1 body weight) was infused. Before infusion of CyA, felodipine caused a significant rise (6.7%) in RPF and lowered RVR, but did not change GFR significantly. The rise in RPF was abolished by infusion of CyA. After infusion, both GFR (7.8%) and RPF (9.4%) were significantly higher and RVR lower after felodipine than after placebo. Proximal tubular output and total sodium excretion were higher on the felodipine day before and after, but not during CyA infusion. In all three periods felodipine reduced both systolic and diastolic BP. In conclusion, a single dose of felodipine increases RPF and decreases blood pressure in renal transplant recipients not treated with CyA. Although some of these changes are abolished by an acute intravenous infusion of CyA, the effects of felodipine are present again also during the 1st hour after the infusion and thereby indicate at least in part some renal protective effect of felodipine. It is suggested that a higher dose of felodipine might also have been preventive against CyA renal side-effects during the acute infusion.

  14. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Koeypudsa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day and long-term (30 days exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C.Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs, high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s, low temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (LtWs, and low temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride (LtW/s.Blood was taken from caudal vessel of anaesthetized fish to investigate blood clotting time, cortisol, glucose, osmolarity,Na+, K+ and Cl-. Ratios of Na+/K+, Na+/Cl- and Na+ + K+ / Cl- were also analyzed. In the short-term (1 day experiment, values ofall catfish blood parameters varied. These imply that catfish attempt to maintain internal balance, homeostasis. Osmolarityexhibited complete homeostasis in 2 h. From long-term (30 days exposure, non-significant means of Na+/Cl- ratio (HtWsand decreasing trend lines direction of blood clotting time (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs indicated that 0.1% sodium chloride and/orLt helped stress reduction in catfish. Sum of Na+ and K+ to Cl- ratio among 4 groups (HtW/s, HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs revealedthat catfish spent 10 days for adjustment themselves under stress circumstance (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs to natural situation(HtW/s. This information could be useful to improve the survival rate and health condition during rearing, handling andtransporting aquatic animals.

  15. Cobalt Chloride Induces Expression and Function of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Line HK-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihashi, Katsuki; Kawashima, Kei; Nomura, Takami; Urakami-Takebayashi, Yumiko; Miyazaki, Makoto; Takano, Mikihisa; Nagai, Junya

    2017-01-01

    The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, is a drug transporter restricting absorption and enhancing excretion of many compounds including anticancer drugs. The cis-regulatory elements in the BCRP promoter include a hypoxia response element, i.e., the DNA binding site for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). In this study, we investigated the effect of cobalt chloride, a chemical inducer of HIF-1α, on the expression and function of BCRP in human renal proximal tubular cell line HK-2. Cobalt chloride treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of not only glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), a typical HIF-1 target gene mRNA, but also ABCG2 mRNA in HK-2 cells. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143-sensitive accumulation of BCRP substrates such as Hoechst33342 and mitoxantrone was significantly enhanced by cobalt chloride treatment. In addition, treatment with cobalt chloride significantly increased the Ko143-sensitive accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled methotrexate in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, cobalt chloride treatment attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by mitoxantrone and methotrexate, which might be, at least in part, due to the increase in BCRP-mediated transport activity via HIF-1 activation. These findings indicate that HIF-1 activation protects renal proximal tubular cells against BCRP substrate-induced cytotoxicity by enhancing the expression and function of BCRP in renal proximal tubular cells.

  16. Postmortem vitreous chemistry--an evaluation of sodium, potassium and chloride levels in estimation of time since death (during the first 36 h after death).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Balaraj, B M; Virupaksha, H S; Chandrashekar, T N

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of time since death is a paramount medico-legal issue in any postmortem examination. The present study is intended to study the correlation between postmortem interval and vitreous humor chemistry for sodium, potassium, and chlorides. The study is aimed to find male-female differences and differences between right and left eyes in vitreous chemistry. The vitreous humor samples were collected in 114 autopsies conducted in the study center and analyzed biochemically. All the cases where exact time of death was known and where the time since death ranged between 0 and 36 h were included in the study. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using spss version 11.0. The present research did not find a significant correlation between vitreous chemistry and postmortem interval. The differences in vitreous sodium, potassium, chloride levels and the sodium potassium ratio among males and females and between right and left eyes were not found to be statistically significant.

  17. Effect of algogenic organic matter (AOM) and sodium chloride on Nannochloropsis salina flocculation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon-Sanabria, Andrea J; Ramirez-Caballero, Silvia S; Moss, Francesca E P; Nikolov, Zivko L

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of polymer molecular weight and charge density, algogenic organic matter (AOM), and salt concentration on harvesting efficiency of marine microalgae. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), chitosan, and five synthetic cationic polymers of different molecular weights and charge density levels were used as flocculation agents. Polymer flocculation of marine microalgae was most efficient when using the highest charge density polymer (FO4990). The flocculant dosage irrespectively of the agent chemistry and charge density was affected by the amount of AOM secreted into the culture media. The presence of AOM increased the amount of required flocculant 7-fold when using synthetic cationic polymers; 10-fold with chitosan; and ~3-fold with AlCl3. Salt concentration of 5 or 35 g/L NaCl alone did not significantly affect removal efficiency, indicating that AOM were the main cause for the increased flocculant dosage requirement. The synthetic cationic polymer (FO4990) was the least expensive flocculation agent.

  18. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Modeled ions, described by nonpolarizable force fields, can suffer from unphysical ion pairing and clustering in aqueous solutions well below their solubility limit. The electronic continuum correction takes electronic polarization effects of the solvent into account in an effective way by scaling the charges on the ions, resulting in a much better description of the ionic behavior. Here, we present parameters for the sodium ion consistent with this effective polarizability approach and in agreement with experimental data from neutron scattering, which could be used for simulations of complex aqueous systems where polarization effects are important.

  19. Renal sodium retention in cirrhotic rats depends on glucocorticoid-mediated activation of mineralocorticoid receptor due to decreased renal 11beta-HSD-2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiesson, Helle; Jensen, Boye L; Bistrup, Claus;

    2007-01-01

    rats with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites 7 wk after bile duct ligation (BDL). Renal 11beta-HSD-2 mRNA, protein, and activity were significantly decreased in decompensated rats. The urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio was reduced by 40%. Renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNA and immunostaining......, and reduced ascites formation to the same degree as direct inhibition of MR with K-canrenoate. Total potassium balance was negative in the BDL rats, whereas renal potassium excretion was unchanged. In the distal colon, expression of ENaC was increased in BDL rats. Fecal potassium excretion was increased...... by endogenous glucocorticoids. In addition, the overall potassium loss in the BDL model is due to increased fecal potassium excretion, which is associated with upregulation of ENaC in distal colon....

  20. Recovery from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with altered renal hemodynamics, blunted pressure natriuresis, and sodium-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechman, Kimberly R; De Miguel, Carmen; Lund, Hayley; Leonard, Ellen C; Basile, David P; Mattson, David L

    2009-11-01

    The present studies evaluated intrarenal hemodynamics, pressure natriuresis, and arterial blood pressure in rats following recovery from renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Acute I/R injury, induced by 40 min of bilateral renal arterial occlusion, resulted in an increase in plasma creatinine that resolved within a week. Following 5 wk of recovery on a 0.4% NaCl diet, the pressure-natriuresis response was assessed in anesthetized rats in which the kidney was denervated and extrarenal hormones were administered intravenously. Increasing renal perfusion pressure (RPP) from 107 to 141 mmHg resulted in a fourfold increase in urine flow and sodium excretion in sham control rats. In comparison, pressure diuresis and natriuresis were significantly attenuated in post-I/R rats. In sham rats, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) averaged 1.6 +/- 0.2 mlxmin(-1)xg kidney weight(-1) and renal blood flow (RBF) averaged 7.8 +/- 0.7 mlxmin(-1)xg kidney weight(-1) at RPP of 129 mmHg. Renal cortical blood flow, measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry, was well autoregulated whereas medullary blood flow and renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure increased directly with elevated RPP in sham rats. In contrast, GFR and RBF were significantly reduced whereas medullary perfusion and interstitial pressure demonstrated an attenuated response to RPP in post-I/R rats. Further experiments demonstrated that conscious I/R rats develop hypertension when sodium intake is increased. The present data indicate that the pressure-natriuretic-diuretic response in I/R rats is blunted because of a decrease in GFR and RBF and the depressed pressure-dependent increase in medullary blood flow and interstitial pressure.

  1. Renal Development and Blood Pressure in Offspring from Dams Submitted to High-Sodium Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezila M. Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to an adverse environment in utero appears to programme physiology and metabolism permanently, with long-term consequences for health of the fetus or offspring. It was observed that the offspring from dams submitted to high-sodium intake during pregnancy present disturbances in renal development and in blood pressure. These alterations were associated with lower plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII and changes in renal AII receptor I (AT1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK expressions during post natal kidney development. Clinical and experimental evidence show that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS participates in renal development. Many effects of AII are mediated through MAPK pathways. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs play a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, high-sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation can provoke disturbances in renal development in offspring leading to functional and structural alterations that persist in adult life. These changes can be related at least in part with the decrease in RAS activity considering that this system has an important role in renal development.

  2. Renal Development and Blood Pressure in Offspring from Dams Submitted to High-Sodium Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Terezila M; Francescato, Heloísa D C; Balbi, Ana Paula C; Marin, Evelyn C S; Costa, Roberto S

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to an adverse environment in utero appears to programme physiology and metabolism permanently, with long-term consequences for health of the fetus or offspring. It was observed that the offspring from dams submitted to high-sodium intake during pregnancy present disturbances in renal development and in blood pressure. These alterations were associated with lower plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII) and changes in renal AII receptor I (AT(1)) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expressions during post natal kidney development. Clinical and experimental evidence show that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) participates in renal development. Many effects of AII are mediated through MAPK pathways. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) play a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, high-sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation can provoke disturbances in renal development in offspring leading to functional and structural alterations that persist in adult life. These changes can be related at least in part with the decrease in RAS activity considering that this system has an important role in renal development.

  3. Effect of sodium chloride, chlorite, and perchlorate on the hypochlorite-induced peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenko, O M; Arnhold, J; Sergienko, V I

    1997-01-01

    The abilities of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chlorite (NaClO2), chlorate (NaClO3), and perchlorate (NaClO4) to initiate lipid peroxidation (LP) in liposomes formed from unsaturated phosphatidylcholine were compared. It was shown that only NaClO induced an intensive accumulation of LP products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and diene conjugates) in the liposomes as a result of their co-incubation. The other oxochlorates produced no similar effects and did not affect the hypochlorite-induced LP. This indicates that the observed hypochlorite-induced LP does not result from the presence of chlorite, chlorate, or perchlorate anion admixtures in the medium.

  4. Microstructure design of metal composite for active material in sodium nickel-iron chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Mangi; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Hong, Inchul; Kim, Woosung; Moon, Goyoung; Lee, Heesoo; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    In this manuscript, it is reported how the microstructure of metal composites can be designed to obtain excellent cycle performance in Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 battery. The microstructure consists of an active material and a conducting material. The conducting material is an active material as well as a conducting chain (an electron path). In Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cells, it is preferable that Ni is selected as the conducting material, since the nickel chloride is not formed on the surface of Ni particles during the electrochemical reaction of Fe particles. In addition, the particle size of Ni should be smaller than that of Fe, in order to ensure that the conducting chain is well-connected. Through this design, the cycle performance of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was significantly improved, compared to that of a Na-NiCl2 cell. At the 100th cycle, the charge/discharge capacity of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was much higher than that of a Na-NiCl2 cell, approximately 42%.

  5. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  6. The normal increase in insulin after a meal may be required to prevent postprandial renal sodium and volume losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsik, Debra L; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L; Staruschenko, Alexander; Brands, Michael W

    2017-06-01

    Despite the effects of insulinopenia in type 1 diabetes and evidence that insulin stimulates multiple renal sodium transporters, it is not known whether normal variation in plasma insulin regulates sodium homeostasis physiologically. This study tested whether the normal postprandial increase in plasma insulin significantly attenuates renal sodium and volume losses. Rats were instrumented with chronic artery and vein catheters, housed in metabolic cages, and connected to hydraulic swivels. Measurements of urine volume and sodium excretion (UNaV) over 24 h and the 4-h postprandial period were made in control (C) rats and insulin-clamped (IC) rats in which the postprandial increase in insulin was prevented. Twenty-four-hour urine volume (36 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2 ml/day) and UNaV (3.0 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 mmol/day) were greater in the IC compared with C rats, respectively. Four hours after rats were given a gel meal, blood glucose and urine volume were greater in IC rats, but UNaV decreased. To simulate a meal while controlling blood glucose, C and IC rats received a glucose bolus that yielded peak increases in blood glucose that were not different between groups. Urine volume (9.7 ± 0.7 vs. 6.0 ± 0.8 ml/4 h) and UNaV (0.50 ± 0.08 vs. 0.20 ± 0.06 mmol/4 h) were greater in the IC vs. C rats, respectively, over the 4-h test. These data demonstrate that the normal increase in circulating insulin in response to hyperglycemia may be required to prevent excessive renal sodium and volume losses and suggest that insulin may be a physiological regulator of sodium balance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  8. Dynamic absorption efficiency of sodium chloride in microwave drying%氯化钠在微波干燥中的动态吸波效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚小标; 陈君若; 张伟峰; 彭金辉; 陈华; 郭胜惠; 陈菓

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reflection loss was introduced to study the dynamic absorption efficiency of materials.The microwave reflection loss (RL)of sodium chloride was calculated in the moisture content ranged from 1%to 5%at 20 ℃ and sodium chloride (moisture content 4%)at 20-100 ℃ and 2.45 GHz.The calculated reflection losses show that the maximum microwave absorption with RL of -68 dB can be obtained for sodium chloride (moisture content 4%)with a thickness of 0.014 m at 60 ℃.With increasing thickness,the RL of sodium chloride appears microwave absorption peak following the order of the moisture content from high to low in turn.The results demonstrate that higher microwave absorption throughout the heating process can only be achieved in sodium chloride with a small thickness in which a slight absorption peak shift (less than one-eighth wavelength in sodium chloride)occurs.%为了研究物料在微波干燥过程中的动态吸波效率,文中将反射损耗理论引入其中,计算了2.45 GHz微波频率下,20℃时含水率为1%-5%以及含水率为4%的氯化钠在20-100℃的反射损耗系数。计算结果显示,厚度为0.014 m含水率4%的氯化钠在60℃取得最大的微波吸收效率,达到-68 dB;不同含水率的氯化钠反射损耗系数随着厚度的增加,会按照含水率由高到低的顺序依次出现吸波峰。研究结果表明,只有在对应小于1/8波长的吸收峰偏移的较小厚度下,氯化钠才能在整个微波干燥过程中一直取得较高的吸波效率。

  9. The preventive effect of sodium pentosan polysulfate against renal stone formation in hyperoxaluric rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keiichi; Yoneda, Yukio; Kamikawa, Sadanori; Kanazawa, Toshinao; Sugimoto, Toshikado; Osswald, Hartmut

    2002-10-01

    Sodium pentosan polysulfate (SPP), a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan, was administered to rats with hyperoxaluria, induced by a vitamin B6 deficient diet, as a model of calcium oxalate stone formation. We studied the preventive effects of SPP on stone formation as well as its inhibitory effects on stone growth by autoradiography and radioluminography after intravenous injection of (14)C-oxalate. The rats were divided into non-treated and SPP-treated groups. The non-treated rats were divided into three groups: one group was fed a regular diet, while the other two groups were fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The SPP-treated rats were divided into two groups: one group was intravenously injected with SPP from the start of the vitamin B6 deficient diet for a total of 4 weeks and the other group was injected with the same amount of SPP after 2 weeks of the diet for 2 weeks. (14)C-oxalate renal macroautoradiograms were prepared, and calcium oxalate deposits in the renal tissues were compared between the non-treated and SPP-treated groups. The preventive effects on calcium oxalate stone formation were clearly observed in the group injected with SPP for 4 weeks. Even in the other SPP-treated group, in which the administration of SPP was started at 2 weeks after the start of the diet when calcium oxalate stone formation was already observed, the size of the calcium oxalate deposits observed after 4 weeks was smaller than that in the non-treated group fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet for 4 weeks. In conclusion, our results show that SPP has not only preventive effects on calcium oxalate stone formation but also growth inhibitory effects on stones in hyperoxaluric rats.

  10. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Meal Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast ...

  11. Effect of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Curtin, Christopher R; Marbury, Thomas C; Smith, William; Vaccaro, Nicole; Wexler, David; Vandebosch, An; Rusch, Sarah; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because T2DM is often associated with renal or hepatic impairment, understanding the effects of these comorbid conditions on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin, and further assessing its safety, in these special populations is essential. Two open-label studies evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (renal study only), and safety of canagliflozin in participants with hepatic or renal impairment. Participants in the hepatic study (8 in each group) were categorized based on their Child-Pugh score (normal hepatic function, mild impairment [Child-Pugh score of 5 or 6], and moderate impairment [Child-Pugh score of 7-9]) and received a single oral dose of canagliflozin 300 mg. Participants in the renal study (8 in each group) were categorized based on their creatinine clearance (CLCR) (normal renal function [CLCR ≥80 mL/min]; mild [CLCR 50 to canagliflozin 200 mg; the exception was those with ESRD, who received 1 dose postdialysis and 1 dose predialysis (10 days later). Canagliflozin's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (urinary glucose excretion [UGE] and renal threshold for glucose excretion [RTG]) were assessed at predetermined time points. Mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinite (AUC)0-∞ values differed by Canagliflozin's pharmacokinetics were not affected by mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Systemic exposure to canagliflozin increased in the renal impairment groups relative to participants with normal renal function. Pharmacodynamic response to canagliflozin, measured by using UGE and RTG, declined with increasing severity of renal impairment. A single oral dose of canagliflozin was well tolerated by participants in both studies. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01186588 and NCT01759576. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights

  12. Effect of renal venous pressure elevation on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Amtorp, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1988-01-01

    unaffected by acute surgical denervation of the kidneys. In contrast, chronic renal denervation or infusion of phentolamine (5 micrograms kg-1 min-1) into the renal artery eliminated the increase in APR and FPR during RVP elevation to 20 mmHg. Chronic, but not acute renal denervation depleted renal tissue...

  13. Synthesis of calcium silicates by Pechini method and exchanging ions of sodium alginate-calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Garay, K.A.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Cruz-Ortiz, B.R.; Garcia-Cerda, L.A.; Lopez-Badillo, C.M.

    2016-07-01

    Calcium silicates samples were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and by Pechini methodology assisted with ion-exchange of sodium alginate, followed by a heat treatment of 800°C by two hours. A, B and C samples were obtained using 1.7×10−3M, 3.4×10−3M and 5.1×10−3M of TEOS, respectively, and without heat treatment; these samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Furthermore, samples A800, B800 and C800 obtained using a heat treatment of 800° by two hours were characterized by FTIR-ATR, absorption technique (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy. The XRD patterns indicate that sample A800 contains olivine (Ca2SiO4) in orthorhombic phase and wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3); sample B800 showed the earlier phases and quartz (SiO2), whereas sample C800 contains wollastonite phases and larnite-2M (Ca2SiO4). (Author)

  14. Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hee Jung; Lu, Xiaochuan; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Son, Sori; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Jung, Keeyoung; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Guosheng

    2017-04-01

    Developing advanced and reliable electrical energy storage systems is critical to fulfill global energy demands and stimulate the growth of renewable energy resources. Sodium metal halide batteries have been under serious consideration as a low cost alternative energy storage device for stationary energy storage systems. Yet, there are number of challenges to overcome for the successful market penetration, such as high operating temperature and hermetic sealing of batteries that trigger an expensive manufacturing process. Here we demonstrate simple, economical and practical sealing technologies for Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C. Conventional polymers are implemented in planar Na-NiCl2 batteries after a prescreening test, and their excellent compatibilities and durability are demonstrated by a stable performance of Na-NiCl2 battery for more than 300 cycles. The sealing methods developed in this work will be highly beneficial and feasible for prolonging battery cycle life and reducing manufacturing cost for Na-based batteries at elevated temperatures (<200 °C).

  15. 不同钠水摄入对大鼠血压的影响%Effects of different intakes of sodium chloride and water on rat blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国东; 全洪兵; 周路; 胡建锋; 梁劲生

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds Long-term high intake of sodium chloride would result in high blood pressure, however the mechanism is uncertain. It is not conclusive whether there exists a retention of sodium and water, and it is still unclear regarding the interactions between sympathetic-adrenal system (SAS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS).Objective To analyze the effects of different sodium chloride amounts of intake and water on the blood pressure of Wistar rats. Methods Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups according to daily different intakes of sodium chloride and water with 5 rats in each group: low intake of sodium chloride with unlimited water supply,low intake of sodium chloride with physiologically-indispensable water (40 mL/d), high intake of sodium chloride with unlimited water supply, and high intake of sodium chloride with physiologically-indispensable water (40 mL/d).The intakes of water were measured daily, and urine samples were collected in the metabolic cages in each group.The difference values ( D-value) were calculated between the intake of water and the volume of urine daily.Weight and rat tail systolic arterial pressures were measured weekly for a total of 8 weeks. Blood noradrenalin (NE) and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ ) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) 8 weeks later. Results The blood pressures in high sodium chloride intake groups with a slow increase of body weight were significantly higher than those of low intake of sodium chloride(P<0. 01 ) ;the D-value between the intake of water and the volume of urine, and Ang Ⅱ were significantly lower while blood NEs were higher. Furthermore, there exist significant differences in the blood pressures [(166.7±2.2)and (156.2±2.3)mm Hg], NEs [(3.5±0. 6) and (2.2 ± 0. 5 )μg/L] and Ang Ⅱ [(203. 5 ± 98.0 ) and(233.4 ± 101.7) ng/L] between high intake of sodium chloride group with physiologically-indispensable water and high intake of sodium chloride group with

  16. Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (conservative tracer additions in large rivers. Differences in RWT behavior at various flow conditions indicate limitations for its use as a conservative tracer at lower discharges on a given reach. At higher discharges, RWT provides the benefit of a broader data set without considerable effects from sorption-desorption processes. Figure 1: NaCl and RWT BTC tails (tpk - t99) under two contrasting discharge conditions. A more defined difference in tail shape is present at 500 l/s compared to 1400 l/s. Also, the window of detection is longer for RWT compared to NaCl under both flow conditions.

  17. The Synergistic Effect of Iodide and Sodium Nitrite on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Bicarbonate–Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaius Debi Eyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potassium iodide (KI and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO2− concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The latter shows that the addition of I− to NO2 facilitates the formation of a passivating oxide (γ-Fe2O3 as compared to NO2− alone, decreasing the rate of metal dissolution observed in electrochemical testing. The synergistic effect of KI/NO2− inhibition was enhanced under the dynamic conditions associated with testing in a rotating disc electrode.

  18. Effects of acidified sodium chlorite, cetylpyridinium chloride and hot water on populations of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus on beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, H; Koluman, A; Yildirim, Y

    2006-08-01

    The present study was designed to determine the individual and combined effects of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 0.1%, 24 +/- 1 degrees C), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC, 0.5%, 24 +/- 1 degrees C) and hot water (HW, 93 +/- 1 degrees C) treatments on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Beef samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were treated with nine different applications singly or in combination. Treatment groups comprised (i) untreated control; (ii) sterile tap water; (iii) 0.1% ASC; (iv) 0.5% CPC; (v) HW; (vi) HW followed by 0.1% ASC; (vii) HW followed by 0.5% CPC; (viii) 0.1% ASC followed by HW; (ix) 0.5% CPC followed by HW. Compared with the untreated control group, the reductions in L. monocytogenes populations were 1.14-2.31 log CFU g(-1), while the reductions in S. aureus populations were 0.83-2.74 log CFU g(-1) on day 0. The reduction effect that occurred after combined treatment with ASC followed by HW, HW followed by ASC, CPC followed by HW and HW followed by CPC was found to be significantly greater (P < 0.05) than after treatment with ASC and CPC alone on days 0, 2 and 4 of storage. ASC, CPC and HW treatments can be used to reduce L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, which would provide an additional measure of safety on the production line.

  19. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  20. Mixed micellar properties of sodium n-octanoate(SOC) with n-octylammonium chloride(OAC) in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hwan [Korea University of Technology, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    The critical concentration(CMC) and the counterion binding constant(B) for the mixed micellization of sodium n-octanoate(SOC) with n-octylammonium chloride(OAC) were determined as a function of the overall mole fraction of SOC({alpha}{sub 1}). Various thermodynamic parameters(X{sub i}, {gamma}{sub i}, C{sub i}, a{sub i}{sup M}, and {delta}H{sub mix}) for the mixed micellization of the SOC/OAC systems have been calculated and analyzed by means of the equations derived from the nonideal mixed micellar model. The results show that there are great deviations from the ideal behavior for the mixed micellization of these systems. And other thermodynamic parameters({delta}G{sub m}{sup o}, {delta}H{sub m}{sup o}, and {delta}S{sub m}{sup o}) associated with the micellization of SOC, OAC, and their mixture({alpha}{sub 1}=0.5) have been also estimated from the temperature dependence of CMC and B values, and the significance of these parameters and their relation to the theory of the micelle formation have been considered and analyzed by comparing each other.

  1. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

    2014-06-20

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  2. Dietary salt regulates the phosphorylation of OSR1/SPAK kinases and the sodium chloride cotransporter through aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiga, Motoko; Rai, Tatemitsu; Yang, Sung-Sen; Ohta, Akihito; Takizawa, Toichiro; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2008-12-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is caused by mutations in the WNK1 and WNK4 genes (WNK with-no-lysine kinase). In a mouse model of this disease where a mutant of Wnk4 D561A was knocked in, increased phosphorylation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) was found and the transporter was concentrated on the apical membrane of the distal tubules. In addition, we recently found that other kinases, such as the oxidative stress response kinase-1/STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine-rich kinase (OSR1/SPAK), also showed increased phosphorylation in these mice. Here we determined whether this kinase cascade is regulated by dietary salt intake. We found that the phosphorylation states of NCC and OSR1/SPAK were increased by low-salt diets and decreased by high-salt diets; a regulation completely lost in the knock-in mice. Increased phosphorylation was reversed by spironolactone and this decreased phosphorylation was reversed by administration of exogenous aldosterone. These studies suggest that that the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade may be a novel effector system of aldosterone action in the kidney.

  3. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: an alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahel, Farzaneh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Montazerozohori, Morteza; Davoodi, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    A simple and relatively fast approach for developing a solid phase extraction has been described and used for determination of trace quantities of some heavy and transition metal ions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated poly vinyl chloride (PVC) modified with bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1,4-butanediimine (BHABDI) ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 10 mL of 3M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed for metals content (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors such as pH, amount of ligand and PVC, amount and type of surfactant, and condition of eluting solutions on the sorption recovery of metal ions have been investigated in detail. The relative standard deviation was found in the range of 1.0-3.2% for 0.2 microg mL(-1)of metals ions. After optimization of the extraction condition and the instrumental parameters, a detection limit was found to be in the range of 1.2-3.1 microg L(-1), with enrichment factor of 50 was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these metals contents in real samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Sodium chloride increases the ciliary transportability of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis sputum on the mucus-depleted bovine trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, P J; Hall, R L; Chan, W; Cole, P J

    1997-01-01

    Mucus retention in the lungs is an important feature of several respiratory diseases (Regnis, J.A., M. Robinson, D.L. Bailey, P. Cook, P. Hooper, H.K. Chan, I. Gonda, G. Bautovich, and P.T.P. Bye. 1994. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150:66-71 and Currie, D.C., D. Pavia, J.E. Agnew, M.T. Lopez-Vidriero, P.D. Diamond, P.J. Cole, and S.W. Clarke. 1987. Thorax. 42:126-130). On the mucus-depleted bovine trachea, the ciliary transport rate of sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis of other causes was slow, but the rate was doubled by increasing the sodium chloride content by 90 mM. Increasing the sputum osmolality by inspissation or by the addition of nonelectrolytes had a similar effect. The viscoelasticity of sputum, but not the bovine ciliary beat frequency, was markedly saline dependent over the pathophysiological range. This suggests that low mucus salinity, not (as is generally assumed) its under-hydration, contributes to its retention in bronchiectasis due to cystic fibrosis and other causes, probably by affecting its rheology. It also indicates how the genetic defect in cystic fibrosis might lead to impaired mucus clearance. Therapies that increase the osmolality of lung mucus might benefit patients with mucus retention.

  5. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  6. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Jessica B.; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface ...

  7. Enhanced responses of blood pressure, renal function, and aldosterone to angiotensin I in the DD genotype are blunted by low sodium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kleij, FGH; De Jong, PE; Henning, RH; De Zeeuw, D; Navis, G

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is increased in the DD genotype, but the functional significance for renal function is unknown. Blunted responses of BP and proteinuria to ACE inhibition among DD renal patients during periods of high sodium intake were reported. It was therefore

  8. Effects of chloride channel blockers on rat renal vascular responses to angiotensin II and norepinephrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steendahl, Joen; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Salomonsson, Max;

    2003-01-01

    preglomerular vessels caused a prompt increase in [Ca2+]i. Renal preinfusion of DIDS (0.6 and 1.25 micromol/min) attenuated the ANG II-induced vasoconstriction to approximately 35% of the control response, whereas the effects of NE were unaltered. Niflumic acid (0.14 and 0.28 micromol/min) and 2......-[(2-cyclopentenyl-6,7-dichloro-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1-oxo-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]acetic acid (IAA-94; 0.045 and 0.09 micromol/min) did not affect the vasoconstrictive responses of these compounds. Pretreatment with niflumic acid (50 microM) or IAA-94 (30 microM) for 2 min decreased baseline [Ca2+]i but did not change...

  9. Influence of urinary sodium excretion on the clinical assessment of renal tubular calcium reabsorption in hypercalcaemic man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S H; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T

    1986-06-01

    The relation between urinary sodium excretion (NaE) and renal tubular calcium reabsorption (TmCa/GFR) was assessed in patients with hypercalcaemia associated with malignancy and primary hyperparathyroidism. On acute saline loading of seven normally hydrated patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and five patients with malignancy, raised values of TmCa/GFR were reduced to normal in most cases, in association with increases in NaE. The reduction in TmCa/GFR, which occurred, may have been due to a reduction in proximal tubular calcium reabsorption associated with sodium: this would have obscured the effect of humorally mediated increases in distal tubular calcium reabsorption, which are stimulated either by parathyroid hormone or by a putative humoral mediator in hypercalcaemia of malignancy. In patients who were normally hydrated NaE and TmCa/GFR were not significantly correlated. When data were included from patients who were dehydrated and from those undergoing acute saline loading, significant inverse correlations between NaE and TmCa/GFR were observed both in primary hyperparathyroidism (r = -0.49; p less than 0.02) and malignancy (r = -0.60; p less than 0.001). In clinical practice changes in TmCa/GFR associated with sodium seem to be of minor importance under normal circumstances, but they become evident at the upper and lower extremes of urinary sodium excretion. In clinical studies of renal calcium handling urinary sodium excretion must also be assessed, as interpreting TmCa/GFR data is difficult in states of excessive sodium loading or depletion.

  10. Effects of Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Chloride on Ca2+ , Mg2+ Removal from Glauber Type Brine by Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate%芒硝型卤水中盐硝组分对碱法脱除钙镁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董泽亮; 张琦; 王俐聪; 蔡荣华; 马来波; 黄西平

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ 、Mg2+ removal from Glauber type brine by sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate has been studied.The effects of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride on removal efficiency of Ca2+,Mg2+ at room temperature were investigated in detail when addition amount of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was theoretical value,reaction time was 30 min,aging time was 60 min.The experimental results show that the presence of sodium sulfate has large effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+.The removal rate of Ca2+ is more than 90% when the concentration of sodium sulfate is below 30 g/L.The presence of sodium sulfate has good but little effect on removal efficiency of Mg2+.The presence of sodium chloride has small effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+.When the concentration of sodium chloride increases,the removal rate of Ca2+ increases significantly,but the removal rate of Mg2+ declines slightly.%采用“烧碱-纯碱”法,对芒硝型卤水中Ca2+和Mg2+的脱除进行了研究,在常温、两碱用量为理论用量、反应时间为30 min和陈化时间为60 min的条件下详细考察了卤水中氯化钠和硫酸钠含量的变化对Ca2+和Mg2脱除效果的影响.结果表明,硫酸钠组分对Ca2+的脱除效果影响较大,当硫酸钠含量在30 g/L以下时,Ca2+脱除率在90%以上,硫酸钠浓度增加有利于Mg2+的脱除,但影响不大.氯化钠组分对Ca2、Mg2+脱除效果的影响相对较小,氯化钠含量增加,Ca2+脱除率明显增加,而Mg2+脱除率略有下降.

  11. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance.

  12. The use of chloride-sodium ratio in the evaluation of metabolic acidosis in critically ill neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Abdullah; Ecevit, Ayşe; Ozkiraz, Servet; Ince, Deniz Anuk; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Tarcan, Aylin

    2012-06-01

    Acid-base disturbances have been usually evaluated with the traditional Henderson-Hasselbach method and Stewart's physiochemical approach by quantifying anions of tissue acids (TA). It is hypothesized that an increase in tissue acids during metabolic acidosis would cause a compensatory decrease in the plasma chloride (Cl) relative to sodium (Cl-Na ratio) in order to preserve electroneutral balance. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the use of Cl-Na ratio as a bedside tool to evaluate the identifying raised TA in neonates as an alternative to complex calculations of Stewart's physiochemical approach. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. Infants were included in the study when blood gas analysis reveals a metabolic acidosis; pH anion gap (AG), albumin-corrected AG (AG(corr)), strong ion difference (SID), unmeasured anions (UMA), and TA were calculated at each episode of metabolic acidosis. A total of 105 metabolic acidosis episodes occurred in 59 infants during follow-up. Hypochloremic metabolic acidosis occurred in 17 (16%) of samples, and all had increased TA. The dominant component of TA was UMA rather than lactate. There was a negative correlation between the Cl-Na ratio and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Also, there was a positive correlation between Diff(NaCl) and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Base deficit and actual bicarbonate performed poorly in identifying the TA. In conclusion, our study suggested that Diff(NaCl) and Cl-Na ratio are simple and fast, and may be an alternative method to complex Stewart's physiochemical approach in identifying raised UMA and TA in critically ill neonates.

  13. Multistate outbreak of Serratia marcescens bloodstream infections caused by contamination of prefilled heparin and isotonic sodium chloride solution syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossom, David; Noble-Wang, Judith; Su, John; Pur, Stacy; Chemaly, Roy; Shams, Alicia; Jensen, Bette; Pascoe, Neil; Gullion, Jessica; Casey, Eric; Hayden, Mary; Arduino, Matthew; Budnitz, Daniel S; Raad, Isaam; Trenholme, Gordon; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2009-10-12

    To investigate clusters of Serratia marcescens (SM) bloodstream infections (BSIs) at health care facilities in several states and determine whether contaminated prefilled heparin and isotonic sodium chloride solution (hereinafter, saline) syringes from a single manufacturer (company X) were the likely cause, we performed an outbreak investigation of inpatient and outpatient health care facilities from October 2007 through February 2008. Active case finding for clusters of SM BSIs. Information on SM BSIs was obtained, and SM blood isolates were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Culture specimens were taken from various lots of prefilled heparin and saline syringes by health care facilities and the CDC to test for the presence of SM. The SM isolates from syringes and blood were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 162 SM BSIs in 9 states were reported among patients at facilities using prefilled heparin and/or saline syringes made by company X. Cultures of unopened prefilled heparin and saline syringes manufactured by company X grew SM. Of 83 SM blood isolates submitted to the CDC from 7 states, 70 (84%) were genetically related to the SM strain isolated from prefilled syringes. A US Food and Drug Administration inspection revealed that company X was not in compliance with quality system regulations. A multistate outbreak of SM BSIs was associated with intrinsic contamination of prefilled syringes. Our investigation highlights important issues in medication safety, including (1) the importance of pursuing possible product-associated outbreaks suggested by strong epidemiologic data even when initial cultures of the suspected product show no contamination and (2) the challenges of medical product recalls when production has been outsourced from one company to another.

  14. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  15. Curcumin attenuates gastric cancer induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and saturated sodium chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintara, Kawiya; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Klaikeaw, Naruemon

    2012-01-01

    To determine effects of curcumin on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and saturated sodium chloride (s-NaCl)-induced gastric cancer in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), control supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin (CC), MNU + s-NaCl, MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin daily for the first 3 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C3W), and MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with curcumin for 20 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C20W). To induce stomach cancer, rats except for CO and CC were orally treated with 100 mg/kg MNU on day 0 and 14, and s-NaCl twice-a-week for the first 3 weeks. The experiment was finished and rats were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Cancers were found in forestomachs of all rats in MNU + s-NaCl. The expressions of phosphorylated inhibitor kappaB alpha (phospho-IκBα), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cyclin D1 significantly increased in MNU + s-NaCl compared with CO. Curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  16. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  17. Curcumin Attenuates Gastric Cancer Induced by N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea and Saturated Sodium Chloride in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawiya Sintara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine effects of curcumin on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU and saturated sodium chloride (s-NaCl-induced gastric cancer in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CO, control supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin (CC, MNU + s-NaCl, MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin daily for the first 3 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C3W, and MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with curcumin for 20 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C20W. To induce stomach cancer, rats except for CO and CC were orally treated with 100 mg/kg MNU on day 0 and 14, and s-NaCl twice-a-week for the first 3 weeks. The experiment was finished and rats were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Cancers were found in forestomachs of all rats in MNU + s-NaCl. The expressions of phosphorylated inhibitor kappaB alpha (phospho-IκBα, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, and cyclin D1 significantly increased in MNU + s-NaCl compared with CO. Curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  18. Effect of Sodium Chloride and Cadmium on the Growth, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunsheng; XU Ying; JIANG Wei; LV Xin; DONG Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly under-stood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6%NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory ef-fect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  19. Use of sodium-chloride difference and corrected anion gap as surrogates of Stewart variables in critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad Mallat

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether the difference between sodium and chloride ([Na(+] - [Cl(-] and anion gap corrected for albumin and lactate (AG(corr could be used as apparent strong ion difference (SID(app and strong ion gap (SIG surrogates (respectively in critically ill patients. METHODS: A total of 341 patients were prospectively observed; 161 were allocated to the modeling group, and 180 to the validation group. Simple regression analysis was used to construct a mathematical model between SID(app and [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and between SIG and AG(corr in the modeling group. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was also measured. The mathematical models were tested in the validation group. RESULTS: in the modeling group, SID(app and SIG were well predicted by [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and AG(corr (R(2 = 0.973 and 0.96, respectively. Accuracy values of [Na(+] - [Cl(-] for the identification of SID(app acidosis (47.5 mEq/L were 0.992 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.963-1 and 0.998 (95%CI, 0.972-1, respectively. The accuracy of AG(corr in revealing SIG acidosis (>8 mEq/L was 0.974 (95%CI: 0.936-0.993. These results were validated by showing excellent correlations and good agreements between predicted and measured SID(app and between predicted and measured SIG in the validation group (R(2 = 0.977; bias = 0±1.5 mEq/L and R(2 = 0.96; bias = -0.2±1.8 mEq/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SID(app and SIG can be substituted by [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and by AG(corr respectively in the diagnosis and management of acid-base disorders in critically ill patients.

  20. Influence of renal denervation on blood pressure, sodium and water excretion in acute total obstructive apnea in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V.M. Franquini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive apnea (OA can exert significant effects on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and hemodynamic parameters. The present study focuses on the modulatory actions of RSNA on OA-induced sodium and water retention. The experiments were performed in renal-denervated rats (D; N = 9, which were compared to sham (S; N = 9 rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were assessed via an intrafemoral catheter. A catheter was inserted into the bladder for urinary measurements. OA episodes were induced via occlusion of the catheter inserted into the trachea. After an equilibration period, OA was induced for 20 s every 2 min and the changes in urine, MAP, HR and RSNA were recorded. Renal denervation did not alter resting MAP (S: 113 ± 4 vs D: 115 ± 4 mmHg or HR (S: 340 ± 12 vs D: 368 ± 11 bpm. An OA episode resulted in decreased HR and MAP in both groups, but D rats showed exacerbated hypotension and attenuated bradycardia (S: -12 ± 1 mmHg and -16 ± 2 bpm vs D: -16 ± 1 mmHg and 9 ± 2 bpm; P < 0.01. The basal urinary parameters did not change during or after OA in S rats. However, D rats showed significant increases both during and after OA. Renal sympathetic nerve activity in S rats increased (34 ± 9% during apnea episodes. These results indicate that renal denervation induces elevations of sodium content and urine volume and alters bradycardia and hypotension patterns during total OA in unconscious rats.

  1. The Synergistic Roles of Cholecystokinin B and Dopamine D5 Receptors on the Regulation of Renal Sodium Excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Jiang

    Full Text Available Renal dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R and the gastrin receptor (CCKBR are involved in the maintenance of sodium homeostasis. The D1R has been found to interact synergistically with CCKBR in renal proximal tubule (RPT cells to promote natriuresis and diuresis. D5R, which has a higher affinity for dopamine than D1R, has some constitutive activity. Hence, we sought to investigate the interaction between D5R and CCKBR in the regulation of renal sodium excretion. In present study, we found D5R and CCKBR increase each other's expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the HK-2 cell, the specificity of which was verified in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing both human D5R and CCKBR and in RPT cells from a male normotensive human. The specificity of D5R in the D5R and CCKBR interaction was verified further using a selective D5R antagonist, LE-PM436. Also, D5R and CCKBR colocalize and co-immunoprecipitate in BALB/c mouse RPTs and human RPT cells. CCKBR protein expression in plasma membrane-enriched fractions of renal cortex (PMFs is greater in D5R-/- mice than D5R+/+ littermates and D5R protein expression in PMFs is also greater in CCKBR-/- mice than CCKBR+/+ littermates. High salt diet, relative to normal salt diet, increased the expression of CCKBR and D5R proteins in PMFs. Disruption of CCKBR in mice caused hypertension and decreased sodium excretion. The natriuresis in salt-loaded BALB/c mice was decreased by YF476, a CCKBR antagonist and Sch23390, a D1R/D5R antagonist. Furthermore, the natriuresis caused by gastrin was blocked by Sch23390 while the natriuresis caused by fenoldopam, a D1R/D5R agonist, was blocked by YF476. Taken together, our findings indicate that CCKBR and D5R synergistically interact in the kidney, which may contribute to the maintenance of normal sodium balance following an increase in sodium intake.

  2. The Synergistic Roles of Cholecystokinin B and Dopamine D5 Receptors on the Regulation of Renal Sodium Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xing; Wang, Zihao; Liu, Yunpeng; Felder, Robin A; Gildea, John J; Jose, Pedro A; Qin, Chuan; Yang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Renal dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R) and the gastrin receptor (CCKBR) are involved in the maintenance of sodium homeostasis. The D1R has been found to interact synergistically with CCKBR in renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells to promote natriuresis and diuresis. D5R, which has a higher affinity for dopamine than D1R, has some constitutive activity. Hence, we sought to investigate the interaction between D5R and CCKBR in the regulation of renal sodium excretion. In present study, we found D5R and CCKBR increase each other's expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the HK-2 cell, the specificity of which was verified in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing both human D5R and CCKBR and in RPT cells from a male normotensive human. The specificity of D5R in the D5R and CCKBR interaction was verified further using a selective D5R antagonist, LE-PM436. Also, D5R and CCKBR colocalize and co-immunoprecipitate in BALB/c mouse RPTs and human RPT cells. CCKBR protein expression in plasma membrane-enriched fractions of renal cortex (PMFs) is greater in D5R-/- mice than D5R+/+ littermates and D5R protein expression in PMFs is also greater in CCKBR-/- mice than CCKBR+/+ littermates. High salt diet, relative to normal salt diet, increased the expression of CCKBR and D5R proteins in PMFs. Disruption of CCKBR in mice caused hypertension and decreased sodium excretion. The natriuresis in salt-loaded BALB/c mice was decreased by YF476, a CCKBR antagonist and Sch23390, a D1R/D5R antagonist. Furthermore, the natriuresis caused by gastrin was blocked by Sch23390 while the natriuresis caused by fenoldopam, a D1R/D5R agonist, was blocked by YF476. Taken together, our findings indicate that CCKBR and D5R synergistically interact in the kidney, which may contribute to the maintenance of normal sodium balance following an increase in sodium intake.

  3. Changes in Renal Function Following Administration of Oral Sodium Phosphate or Polyethylene Glycol for Colon Cleansing before Colonoscopy

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    Ramy Abaskharoun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in renal function were compared in patients receiving oral sodium phosphate (NaP for colon cleansing and those receiving large-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG solution to determine whether oral NaP resulted in frequent renal damage that had gone clinically undetected. From 1995 to 2004, a cohort of consecutive patients who had serum creatinine (Cr drawn immediately before colonoscopy and again after subsequent procedures three months to nine years later (almost 80% of patients between the first and fifth year were identified. Chronic renal failure (CRF was defined as an abnormal Cr at repeat measurement or an abnormal Cr clearance as estimated by the Cockroft-Gault equation at the time of repeat Cr measurement. Medications and medical comorbid conditions were recorded. Seven hundred sixty-seven patients (51% female and 49% male; 81% oral NaP and 19% PEG with normal baseline Cr levels were identified through the endoscopy unit database at the Hotel Dieu Hospital, Queen’s University (Kingston, Ontario. Of these, 55 (7% developed CRF. Forty-two (6.8% patients receiving oral NaP developed renal failure compared with 13 patients (8.7% receiving PEG (Fisher’s exact test; P=0.382, but the magnitude of CRF was small in each group (Cr level lower than 160 μmol/L. Using logistic regression analysis with the choice of preparation, medications and medical comorbid conditions as independent variables, only age and blood pressure were predictive of the development of renal failure (P=0.014 and P=0.001, respectively. Baseline Cr clearance was similiar in both the NaP and PEG groups and the absolute difference after colonoscopy did not differ. The present study concluded that the ingestion of oral NaP for colon cleansing before colonoscopy did not result in frequent renal damage that went clinically undetected.

  4. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性%InjectedwithSodiumAmoxicillinClavulanicAcidPotassiumandSodiumChlorideInjectionCompatibilityStability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability was analyzed to explore, to provide a reference basis for the rational use of drugs in the future. Methods Select A batch of injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection for compatibility, and 3 hours after compatibility respectively under different temperature to observation of the appearance of the liquid, pH value, at the same time the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amoxicillin clavulanic acid and sodium potassium content determination, determine the stability of compatibility of liquid. Results In the study found that sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability is affected by the factors such as temperature and sunlight. Conclusion Poor compatibility stability of liquid, should avoid direct sunlight or at high temperatures is not easy to for a long time.%  目的对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性进行分析探讨,为今后的合理用药提供参考依据。方法选取一批注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和氯化钠注射液进行配伍,并在配伍后的3h内分别在不同温度下对药液的外观、pH值进行观察,同时采取高效液相色谱法对阿莫西林钠与克拉维酸钾含量进行测定,判断配伍液的稳定性。结果研究中发现阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性受到温度、日光等因素的影响。结论配伍液稳定性不佳,应避免阳光直射或者是在高温条件下不易久置。

  5. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Acute Renal Injury in Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Inhibiting ROS and NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H2, a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce •OH and ONOO− selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group or normal saline (SO and SAP group through tail intravenously (6 mL/kg and compensated subcutaneously (20 mL/kg after successful modeling. Results showed that hydrogen-rich saline attenuated the following: (1 serum Cr and BUN, (2 pancreatic and renal pathological injuries, (3 renal MDA, (4 renal MPO, (5 serum IL-1β, IL-6, and renal TNF-α, HMGB1, and (6 tyrosine nitration, IκB degradation, and NF-κB activation in renal tissues. In addition, it increased the level of IL-10 and SOD activity in renal tissues. These results proved that hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis, presumably because of its detoxification activity against excessive ROS, and inhibits the activation of NF-κB by affecting IκB nitration and degradation. Our findings highlight the potential value of hydrogen-rich saline as a new therapeutic method on acute renal injury in severe acute pancreatitis clinically.

  6. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis by inhibiting ROS and NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiao; Liao, Kang-Shu; Zhao, Kai-Liang; Wang, Wei-Xing; Zuo, Teng; Deng, Wen-Hong; Chen, Chen; Yu, Jia; Guo, Wen-Yi; He, Xiao-Bo; Abliz, Ablikim; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2), a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce (•)OH and ONOO(-) selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group) or normal saline (SO and SAP group) through tail intravenously (6 mL/kg) and compensated subcutaneously (20 mL/kg) after successful modeling. Results showed that hydrogen-rich saline attenuated the following: (1) serum Cr and BUN, (2) pancreatic and renal pathological injuries, (3) renal MDA, (4) renal MPO, (5) serum IL-1β, IL-6, and renal TNF-α, HMGB1, and (6) tyrosine nitration, IκB degradation, and NF-κB activation in renal tissues. In addition, it increased the level of IL-10 and SOD activity in renal tissues. These results proved that hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis, presumably because of its detoxification activity against excessive ROS, and inhibits the activation of NF-κB by affecting IκB nitration and degradation. Our findings highlight the potential value of hydrogen-rich saline as a new therapeutic method on acute renal injury in severe acute pancreatitis clinically.

  7. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor cobalt chloride prevents inhibition of renal Na,K-ATPase and redistribution of apical NHE-3 during acute hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y B; Magyar, C E; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    Acute systolic arterial hypertension provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption and diuresis associated with inhibition of renal cortex Na,K-ATPase activity and redistribution of apical membrane Na/H exchanger (NHE-3) to heavier density membranes containing markers of interm......Acute systolic arterial hypertension provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption and diuresis associated with inhibition of renal cortex Na,K-ATPase activity and redistribution of apical membrane Na/H exchanger (NHE-3) to heavier density membranes containing markers...... reabsorption and diuresis and abolishes Na,K-ATPase inhibition and NHE-3 redistribution during acute hypertension, evidence that these responses may be mediated by cytochrome P-450 arachidonate metabolites....

  8. Effect of sodium fluoride and stannous chloride associated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the progression of enamel erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    João-Souza, Samira Helena; Bezerra, Sávio José Cardoso; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Aranha, Ana Cecília; Scaramucci, Tais

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the progression of enamel erosion after treatment with gels containing sodium fluoride (NaF; 9047 ppm F) and stannous chloride (SnCl2; 3000 ppm Sn), associated or not with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Sixty enamel specimens were prepared from bovine incisors and protected by a tape, leaving an exposed surface area of 4 × 1 mm. The specimens were immersed in 1 % citric acid (pH = 2.3) for 10 min to create an initial erosion lesion. After, they were randomly divided into six groups: (C) control: gel without active ingredient; (F): NaF gel; (F + Sn): NaF + SnCl2 gel; (laser): Nd:YAG laser irradiation (0.5 W; 50 mJ; ∼41.66 J/cm(2); 10 Hz; 40 s); (F + laser): NaF gel + Nd:YAG; (F + Sn + laser): NaF + SnCl2 gel + Nd:YAG. All gels had pH = 4.5 and were applied for 1 min. Laser irradiation was performed after gel application. The specimens were then submitted to a 5-day erosion-remineralization cycling model using 1 % citric acid (pH = 2.3), six times per day. Enamel surface loss (SL) was analyzed by optical profilometry in the end of the cycling (in μm). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak tests (alpha = 0.05). The control and the laser groups presented the highest enamel loss (means ± SD = 53.52 ± 3.65 and 53.30 ± 2.73, respectively), followed by F + Sn (44.76 ± 2.83). The groups F (36.76 ± 2.28), F + laser (36.25 ± 3.59), and F + Sn + laser (39.83 ± 4.62) showed the lowest enamel loss, with no significant difference among them (p > 0.05). In conclusion, NaF by itself or associated with SnCl2 and Nd:YAG laser was able to reduce enamel erosion progression. Nd:YAG laser alone did not show a protective effect.

  9. Parathyroid hormone-related protein stimulates plasma renin activity via its anorexic effects on sodium chloride intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Douglas K; Westrick, Elizabeth; Szandzik, David L; Gordish, Kevin L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2012-08-15

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) increases renin release from isolated perfused kidneys and may act as an autacoid regulator of renin secretion, but its effects on renin in vivo are unknown. In vivo, PTHrP causes hypercalcemia and anorexia, which may affect renin. We hypothesized that chronically elevated PTHrP would increase plasma renin activity (PRA) indirectly via its anorexic effects, reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) intake and causing NaCl restriction. We infused male Sprague-Dawley rats with the vehicle (control) or 125 μg PTHrP/day (PTHrP) via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps for 5 days. To replenish NaCl consumption, a third group of PTHrP-infused rats received 0.3% NaCl (PTHrP + NaCl) in their drinking water. PTHrP increased PRA from a median control value of 3.68 to 18.4 ng Ang I·ml(-1)·h(-1) (P PTHrP + NaCl PRA value was normal (7.82 ng Ang I·ml(-1)·h(-1), P PTHrP). Plasma Ca(2+) (median control: 10.2 mg/dl; PTHrP: 13.7 mg/dl; PTHrP + NaCl: 14.1 mg/dl; P PTHrP (median control: 0.03 ng/ml; PTHrP: 0.12 ng/ml; PTHrP + NaCl: 0.15 ng/ml; P PTHrP- and PTHrP + NaCl-treated rats. Body weights and caloric consumption were lower in PTHrP- and PTHrP + NaCl-treated rats. NaCl consumption was lower in PTHrP-treated rats (mean Na(+): 28.5 ± 4.1 mg/day; mean Cl(-): 47.8 mg/day) compared with controls (Na(+): 67.3 ± 2.7 mg/day; Cl(-): 112.8 ± 4.6 mg/day; P PTHrP + NaCl group; 0.3% NaCl in the drinking water had no effect on PRA in normal rats. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that PTHrP increases PRA via its anorexic effects, reducing NaCl intake and causing NaCl restriction.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Damage Induced by Benzalkonium Chloride Preserved Anti-glaucoma Medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Liu; Fen-Fen Yu; Yi-Min Zhong; Xin-Xing Guo; Zhen Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Long-term use of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved drugs is often associated with ocular surface toxicity.Ocular surface symptoms had a substantial impact on the glaucoma patients' quality of life and compliance.This study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (SH) on ocular surface toxicity induced by BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.Methods:Fifty-eight patients (101 eyes),who received topical BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment and met the severe dry eye criteria,were included in the analysis.All patients were maintained the original topical anti-glaucoma treatment.In the SH-treated group (56 eyes),unpreserved 0.3% SH eye drops were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days.In the control group (55 eyes),phosphate-buffered saline were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days.Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire,break-up time (BUT) test,corneal fluorescein staining,corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining,Schirmer test,and conjunctiva impression cytology were performed sequentially on days 0 and 91.Results:Compared with the control group,SH-treated group showed decrease in OSDI scores (Kruskal-Wallis test:H =38.668,P < 0.001),fluorescein and rose Bengal scores (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test:z =-3.843,P< 0.001,and z =-3.508,P < 0.001,respectively),increase in tear film BUT (t-test:t =-10.994,P < 0.001) and aqueous tear production (t-test:t =-10.328,P < 0.001) on day 91.The goblet cell density was increased (t-test:t =-9.981,P < 0.001),and the morphology of the conjunctival epithelium were also improved after SH treatment.Conclusions:SH significantly improved both symptoms and signs of ocular surface damage in patients with BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.SH could be proposed as a new attempt to reduce ocular surface toxicity,and alleviate symptoms of ocular surface damage in BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.

  11. A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M

    2014-07-09

    In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions.

  12. 双氯芬酸钠滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的测定%Determination of benzalkonium chloride in diclofenac sodium eye drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a method to determine benzalkonium chloride in diclofenac sodium eye drops. Methods Separation was performed on a CNW column (150 mmX4.6 mm, 5 urn). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: 5 mmol · L-1 ammonium acetate-1% triethylamine (adjusting pH to 5.0 ± 0.5 by acetic acid) = 65 : 35 (v/v). The UV detection was 214 nm. Results Benzalkonium chloride had a good linearity at 12.50 - 125.00 μg · mL-1, the average recovery of benzalkonium chloride was 99.0% and the RSD was 1.3%. Conclusion The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and it could be applied to determine benzalkonium chloride in diclofenac sodium eye drops.%目的 采用HPLC双氯芬酸钠滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的含量.方法 乙腈-5mmol·L-1醋酸铵溶液(含1%三乙胺,用冰醋酸调节pH值至5.0±0.5)(65:35)为流动相,CNW色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),检测波长为214 nm.结果 苯扎氯铵的测定在12.50~125.00 μg·mL-1与峰面积线性关系良好,苯扎氯铵的平均回收率为99.0%,RSD为1.3%.结论 方法简单、灵敏度高,可用于双氯芬酸钠滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的测定.

  13. A Case of Sodium Chlorite Toxicity Managed with Concurrent Renal Replacement Therapy and Red Cell Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Romanovsky, Adam; Djogovic, Dennis; Chin, Dat

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sodium chlorite is a powerful oxidizing agent with multiple commercial applications. We report the presentation and management of a single case of human toxicity of sodium chlorite. Case report A 65-year-old man presented to hospital after accidentally ingesting a small amount of a sodium chlorite solution. His principal manifestations were mild methemoglobinemia, severe oxidative hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and anuric acute kidney injury. He was managed wi...

  14. The Relationship between Amount of Vegetables and Energy,Percentage Energy from Fat,and Sodium Chloride Equivalent in the Boxed Meals Soled in the Convenience Stores

    OpenAIRE

    難波, 友美; 串田, 修; 村山, 伸子; Namba, Tomomi; Kushida, Osamu; Murayama, Nobuko

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess weights of food staffs of the boxed meals soled in the convenience stores, and to analyze the relationships between amount of vegetables and energy, percentage energy from fat, and sodium chloride equivalent in the boxed meals. We bought 31 boxed meals “Makunouchi ” with rice and main dish from 11:30 to 12:30 at 4 convenience stores with different company in North ward, Niigata city, Japan, and weighed each food staffs and analyzed 30 of them. Mean ...

  15. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M.; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L.; Kravetz, María C.; Lee, Brenda M.; Carranza, Andrea; Del Mauro, Julieta S.; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Toblli, Jorge E.; Fernández, Belisario E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on organic cation transporters (OCTs) expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T), ANP, dopamine (DA), D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects. PMID:27392042

  16. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás M Kouyoumdzian

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP on organic cation transporters (OCTs expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T, ANP, dopamine (DA, D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  17. Servo-control of water and sodium homeostasis during renal clearance measurements in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Klaus; Shirley, David G

    2007-01-01

    Servo-controlled fluid and sodium replacement during clearance studies is used in order to prevent loss of body fluid and sodium following diuretic/natriuretic procedures. However, even under control conditions, the use of this technique is sometimes associated with increases in proximal tubular...

  18. The epithelial sodium channel γ-subunit gene and blood pressure: family based association, renal gene expression, and physiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsst, Cara J; Bloomer, Lisa D S; Scurrah, Katrina J; Ellis, Justine A; Barnes, Timothy A; Charchar, Fadi J; Braund, Peter; Hopkins, Paul N; Samani, Nilesh J; Hunt, Steven C; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Harrap, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Variants in the gene encoding the γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (SCNN1G) are associated with both Mendelian and quantitative effects on blood pressure. Here, in 4 cohorts of 1611 white European families composed of a total of 8199 individuals, we undertook staged testing of candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms for SCNN1G (supplemented with imputation based on data from the 1000 Genomes Project) followed by a meta-analysis in all of the families of the strongest candidate. We also examined relationships between the genotypes and relevant intermediate renal phenotypes, as well as expression of SCNN1G in human kidneys. We found that an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism of SCNN1G (rs13331086) was significantly associated with age-, sex-, and body mass index-adjusted blood pressure in each of the 4 populations (Ppressure and 0.52-mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure (SE=0.33, P=0.002 for systolic blood pressure; SE=0.21, P=0.011 for diastolic blood pressure). The same allele was also associated with higher 12-hour overnight urinary potassium excretion (P=0.04), consistent with increased epithelial sodium channel activity. Renal samples from hypertensive subjects showed a nonsignificant (P=0.07) 1.7-fold higher expression of SCNN1G compared with normotensive controls. These data provide genetic and phenotypic evidence in support of a role for a common genetic variant of SCNN1G in blood pressure determination.

  19. Effects of a long-acting formulation of octreotide on renal function and renal sodium handling in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, LH; Aagaard, N K; Kiszka-Kanowitz, M;

    2001-01-01

    . The patients were in sodium steady state at the time of study. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured by a constant infusion clearance technique. Renal sodium handling was determined by lithium and sodium clearance measurements. Therapeutic serum levels...... during octreotide treatment were not significantly different from those of placebo. In addition, no changes in free water clearance, urinary flow rate, or 24-hour Na excretion were demonstrated. A significant increase of mean arterial pressure (+5 mm Hg; P ... of octreotide along with a reduction of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (P filtration fraction (GFR/ERPF). Changes in clearance and extraction fraction of sodium and lithium...

  20. Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizerski Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1, and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2 - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the administration of dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes, is associated with the reduction of HbA1c concentration by 0.45-1.11%. Additional benefits from the treatment with dapagliflozin are the reduction of arterial blood pressure and a permanent reduction of body weight. This outcome is related to the effect of osmotic diuresis and to the considerable loss of the glucose load by way of urine excretion. Dapagliflozin may be successfully applied in type 2 diabetes monotherapy, as well as in combined therapy (including insulin, where it is equally effective as other oral anti-diabetic drugs. Of note: serious adverse effects of dapagliflozin administration are rarely observed. What is more, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia related with the treatment occur only sporadically, most often in the course of diabetes polytherapy. The most frequent effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors are inseparably associated with the mechanism of their action (the glucuretic effect, and cover urogenital infections with a mild clinical course. At present, clinical trials are being continued of the administration of several subsequent drugs from this group, the most advanced of these being the use of canagliflozin and empagliflozin.

  1. Effect of renal nerve activity on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in dog kidneys as determined by the lithium clearance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of the lithium clearance method in studies of the effect of renal nerve activity upon tubular sodium and water handling in the dog kidney was investigated. Following unilateral acute surgical denervation of the kidney a significant increase in urinary flow rate (40 +/- 7%), sodium...... reabsorption of sodium and water increased significantly by 9 +/- 2% and 8 +/- 2%. Low-frequency electrical stimulation of the distal nerve bundle of the denervated kidney caused a significant decrease in urine flow rate (37 +/- 6%), sodium clearance (31 +/- 4%), lithium clearance (17 +/- 5%) and in fractional...... lithium clearance (18 +/- 5%). Calculated absolute proximal reabsorption rate increased significantly by 17 +/- 3%, while calculated absolute rates of distal sodium and water reabsorption decreased significantly by 16 +/- 5% and 16 +/- 5%. These changes in tubular sodium and water reabsorption during...

  2. Renal tubular epithelial cell prorenin receptor regulates blood pressure and sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Nirupama; Stuart, Deborah; Mironova, Elena; Bugay, Vladislav; Wang, Shuping; Abraham, Nikita; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Stockand, James D; Kohan, Donald E

    2016-07-01

    The physiological significance of the renal tubular prorenin receptor (PRR) has been difficult to elucidate due to developmental abnormalities associated with global or renal-specific PRR knockout (KO). We recently developed an inducible renal tubule-wide PRR KO using the Pax8/LC1 transgenes and demonstrated that disruption of renal tubular PRR at 1 mo of age caused no renal histological abnormalities. Here, we examined the role of renal tubular PRR in blood pressure (BP) regulation and Na(+) excretion and investigated the signaling mechanisms by which PRR regulates Na(+) balance. No detectable differences in BP were observed between control and PRR KO mice fed normal- or low-Na(+) diets. However, compared with controls, PRR KO mice had elevated plasma renin concentration and lower cumulative Na(+) balance with normal- and low-Na(+) intake. PRR KO mice had an attenuated hypertensive response and reduced Na(+) retention following angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion. Furthermore, PRR KO mice had significantly lower epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC-α) expression. Treatment with mouse prorenin increased, while PRR antagonism decreased, ENaC activity in isolated split-open collecting ducts (CD). The prorenin effect was prevented by protein kinase A and Akt inhibition, but unaffected by blockade of AT1, ERK1/2, or p38 MAPK pathways. Taken together, these data indicate that renal tubular PRR, likely via direct prorenin/renin stimulation of PKA/Akt-dependent pathways, stimulates CD ENaC activity. Absence of renal tubular PRR promotes Na(+) wasting and reduces the hypertensive response to ANG II.

  3. Renal Safety of Canagliflozin, a Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor, in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mehul; Yavin, Yshai; Balis, Dainius; Sun, Don; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Rosenthal, Norm

    2017-01-12

    The incidence of renal-related adverse events (AEs) with canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from a pooled population of patients in 7 active- and placebo-controlled trials (N = 5,598) and in a 104-week study versus glimepiride (N = 1,450) was low and similar in canagliflozin and non-canagliflozin groups. In the study versus glimepiride, canagliflozin was associated with an initial acute decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) that attenuated over time, while eGFR declined progressively over 104 weeks with glimepiride; the incidence of renal-related AEs with canagliflozin was generally stable over time, while the incidence with glimepiride increased over 104 weeks. In the analysis reported in this manuscript based on postmarketing reports from the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, a potential signal was identified for acute kidney injury with all approved sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (ie, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin). The early onset of acute kidney injury events with SGLT2 inhibitors in postmarketing reports likely reflects the acute changes in eGFR due to the known renal haemodynamic effects of SGLT2 inhibition.

  4. Sodium Chloride-Sodium Hypochlorite Method for Gold Recovery from Cyanide Residue%氯化钠—次氯酸钠法从氰化渣中回收金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史娟华; 于先进; 张亚莉

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ratio of solid to liquid, leaching temperature and time on the gold leaching rate were studied by adding a proper amount of sodium hypochlorite with sodium chloride as solvent. The results show that the gold leaching rate is above 41% under the optimum conditions including leaching temperature of 50 ℃ , leaching time of 3 h and ratio of solid to liquid of 4.%以氯化钠为溶剂,加入适量次氯酸钠,考察了液固比、浸出温度和时间对氰化渣中金浸出率的影响.结果表明,在下述最优试验条件下,金浸出率可以达到41%以上:浸出温度50℃、浸出时间3h、液固比4.

  5. Determination of Calcium Chloride in Compound Sodium Chloride Injection by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钙含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童永鑫; 何宇新

    2014-01-01

    A method was established to determine the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection .By atom-ic absorption spectrometry , the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection was determined under the condition as follows:detection wavelength was 422.7 nm,the flame tape was air/acetylene(13.5∶2.0),the lamp current was 10 mA,slit width was 0.5 nm.Good linear relationship of concentration and absorption of Ca 2+was within the range of 1μg/mL-9μg/mL, the recovery rate range from 98.42%to 100.93%, detectability was 0.008206μg/mL,the RSD between results obtained from official method and ones obtained from comparative method is 1.21%.This method has good specificity, stability, reproducibility, and is accurate for de-tecting the content of Ca 2+,and can be supplementary method to official one .The concentration of calcium chloride in compound sodi-um chloride injection is between 0.0329296%g/mL and 0.0340398%g/mL, which meets the required quality standards .%目的:建立原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙含量的方法。方法:采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙的含量,检测波长为422.7 nm;燃气类型为空气-乙炔,燃气比为空气体积︰乙炔体积=13.5∶2;灯电流:10 mA;狭缝宽度:0.5 nm。结果:Ca2+浓度在1~9μg/mL之间,与对应吸光度值呈良好的线性关系,回收率在98.42%~100.93%,检测限为0.008206μg/mL,与药典方法含量检测结果之间的RSD值为1.21%。结论:该方法进行复方氯化钠注射液Ca2+含量的测定专属性好,精密度高,稳定性强,重复性好,可作为药典补充方法。复方氯化钠注射液CaCl2·2H2 O质量浓度测定结果为0.0329296%~0.0340398% g/mL,符合质量标准要求。

  6. Effects of potassium on expression of renal sodium transporters in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats induced by uninephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Yong; Kim, Sejoong; Lee, Jay Wook; Jung, Eun Sook; Heo, Nam Ju; Son, Min-Jeong; Oh, Yun Kyu; Na, Ki Young; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2011-06-01

    Dietary potassium is an important modulator of systemic blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary potassium is associated with an altered abundance of major renal sodium transporters that may contribute to the modulation of systemic BP. A unilateral nephrectomy (uNx) was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the rats were fed a normal-salt diet (0.3% NaCl) for 4 wk. Thereafter, the rats were fed a high-salt (HS) diet (3% NaCl) for the entire experimental period. The potassium-repleted (HS+KCl) group was given a mixed solution of 1% KCl as a substitute for drinking water. We examined the changes in the abundance of major renal sodium transporters and the expression of mRNA of With-No-Lysine (WNK) kinases sequentially at 1 and 3 wk. The systolic BP of the HS+KCl group was decreased compared with the HS group (140.3 ± 2.97 vs. 150.9 ± 4.04 mmHg at 1 wk; 180.3 ± 1.76 vs. 207.7 ± 6.21 mmHg at 3 wk). The protein abundances of type 3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the HS+KCl group were significantly decreased (53 and 45% of the HS group at 1 wk, respectively; 19 and 8% of HS group at 3 wk). WNK4 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the HS+KCl group (1.4-fold of control at 1 wk and 1.9-fold of control at 3 wk). The downregulation of NHE3 and NCC may contribute to the BP-attenuating effect of dietary potassium associated with increased urinary sodium excretion.

  7. Influence of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection on cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Wen-Yun Xu; Juan Pu; Qing-Qing Zhang; Mou-Li Tian

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence degree of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection (HSH 40) for the cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer.Methods:A total of 60 patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 were divided into the control group and the observation group, and 30 cases in each group according to the method of random number table. The control group was treated with conventional treatment, and the observation group was treated with HSH 40 on the treatment of the control group. The cardiac and pulmonary function indexes of two groups before and after the treatment at different time after the treatment were compared.Results:The hemodynamic indexes, pulmonary circulation indexes, right heart function indexes and oxygenation indexes of the two groups before the treatment had no significant differences (allP>0.05), while the hemodynamic indexes, pulmonary circulation indexes, right heart function indexes and oxygenation indexes of the observation group at different time after treatment were all significantly better than those of the control group(allP>0.05).Conclusions:The influence of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection for the cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer is better, and the application effect for the surgical patients is better.

  8. Synergism between sodium chloride, sucrose and tricalcium phosphate in the osmotic dehydration of oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arroyo Portal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergistic effect of three solutes (sodium chloride, sucrose, tricalcium phosphate in different combinations of concentration, on the moisture, solid gain and calcium gain in oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan (CR and SR. In both cases applied the Simplex with Extended Centroid mixture design. Were used cylinders of oca of 0.9 cm of diameter and 3.4 cm of length. The kinetics of moisture, solid gain and calcium gain for 48 hours was evaluated. The effective diffusivity of water, solids and calcium was determined. We found that in samples CR is greater loss of water and less solid gain compared with SR samples mainly as sodium chloride or sucrose participate independently, while for the gain of calcium, in all cases, the CR samples gain more of calcium than SR samples. The effective diffusivities found are: water, 1.19E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.34E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; for solid, 3.67E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 5.43E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; and, for calcium 3.32E-11 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.57E-09 m2 /s in SR samples.

  9. Inadvertent injection of potassium chloride instead of sodium chloride during treatment of chronic low back ache with epidural injection leading to paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural injection of steroid is given for back pain resistant to other conservative management. Normal saline (NS is used as diluent in 80 mg methylprednisolone and a local anesthetic. Due to a similar looking ampoule of NS and potassium chloride (KCl, there is a probability of accidental use of KCl instead of NS. We present a case of a 50 year old male patient having low back ache refractory to other conservative treatments. Epidural injection of steroid was given, but accidently KCl was mixed with methylprednisolone instead of NS. He developed severe cramps in the lower limbs, pruritus, and sweating, and finally paraplegia. Electrocardiography and blood showed features suggestive of hyperkalemia. He was given calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent along with supportive measures. The patient recovered within 8 h. It is concluded that calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent can be used if accidentally KCl is injected in epidural space.

  10. Potential role of serine proteases in modulating renal sodium transport in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquillet, G; Rubera, I; Unwin, R J

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of sodium (Na+) homeostasis is an essential function of the kidney. It is achieved by a variety of transport processes localized all along the highly specialised segments of the nephron. Impairment of these transport mechanisms, and thereby Na+ handling, is associated with disturbed Na+ and water balance, leading to hypertension and oedema. This review focuses on the novel regulation of sodium reabsorption by serine proteases acting along the entire nephron.

  11. Angiotensin-(1-7)-induced renal vasodilation in hypertensive humans is attenuated by low sodium intake and angiotensin II co-infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Twist, Daan J L; Houben, Alfons J H M; de Haan, Michiel W; Mostard, Guy J M; Kroon, Abraham A; de Leeuw, Peter W

    2013-10-01

    Current evidence suggests that angiotensin-(1-7) plays an important role in the regulation of tissue blood flow. This evidence, however, is restricted to studies in animals and human forearm. Therefore, we studied the effects of intrarenal angiotensin-(1-7) infusion on renal blood flow in hypertensive humans. To assess the influence of renin-angiotensin system activity, sodium intake was varied and co-infusion with angiotensin II was performed in a subgroup. In 57 hypertensive patients who were scheduled for renal angiography, renal blood flow was measured ((133)Xenon washout method) before and during intrarenal infusion of angiotensin-(1-7) (3 incremental doses: 0.27, 0.9, and 2.7 ng/kg per minute). Patients were randomized into low or high sodium intake. These 2 groups of patients received angiotensin-(1-7), with or without intrarenal co-infusion of angiotensin II (0.3 ng/kg per minute). Angiotensin-(1-7) infusion resulted in intrarenal vasodilation in patients adhering to a sodium-rich diet. This vasodilatory effect of angiotensin-(1-7) was clearly attenuated by low sodium intake, angiotensin II co-infusion, or both. Regression analyses showed that the prevailing renin concentration was the only independent predictor of angiotensin-(1-7)-induced renal vasodilation. In conclusion, angiotensin-(1-7) induces renal vasodilation in hypertensive humans, but the effect of angiotensin-(1-7) is clearly attenuated by low sodium intake and co-infusion of angiotensin II. This supports the hypothesis that angiotensin-(1-7) induced renal vasodilation depends on the degree of renin-angiotensin-system activation.

  12. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells...

  13. Effects of rphedrine on cardiovascular and renal function of dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Beatriz Amorim; José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz; Yara Marcondes Machado Castiglia; Pedro Thadeu Galvão Vianna; Norma Sueli Pinheiro Módolo

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Com a perspectiva criada por algumas pesquisas de ações diferenciadas da efedrina sobre a função renal, dependendo da dose utilizada, e considerando-se as controvérsias ainda existentes a respeito dos seus efeitos sobre a função renal, esta pesquisa experimental tem como objetivo verificar se doses diferentes de efedrina determinam efeitos hemodinâmicos e renais diferenciados. MÉTODO: Em 32 cães anestesiados com pentobarbital sódico (PS), submetidos a preparação cir...

  14. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  15. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia.

  16. Long-term dietary sodium, potassium and fluid intake; Exploring potential novel risk factors for renal cell cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, I.A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Engeland, M. van; Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Baldewijns, M.M.L.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background:As sodium, potassium and fluid intake are related to hypertension, an established risk factor for renal cell cancer (RCC), they may be independent risk factors for RCC.Methods:The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) with case-cohort design included 120 852 participants aged 55-69 years. At ba

  17. Dosing-Time Dependent Effects of Sodium Nitroprusside on Cerebral, Renal, and Hepatic Catalase Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamane Sani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the time dependence of sodium nitroprusside- (NPS- induced oxidative effects, the authors study the variation of the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity in various tissues after the administration of a single 2.5 mg/kg dose of SNP or sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%. For each of the two dosing times (1 and 13 hours after light onset, HALO, which correspond to the beginning of diurnal rest span and of nocturnal activity span of mice, resp., brain, kidney, and liver tissues were excised from animals at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 h following the drug administration and CAT activity was assayed. The results suggest that SNP-induced stimulation of CAT activity is greater in all three tissues when the drug is administered at 1 HALO than at 13 HALO. Two-way ANOVA revealed that CAT activity significantly (P<0.004 varied as a function of the sampling time but not of the treatment in all three tissues. Moreover, a statistically significant (P<0.004 interaction between the organ sampling-time and the SNP treatment was revealed in kidney regardless of the dosing time, whereas a highly significant (P<0.0002 interaction was validated in liver only in animals injected at 13 HALO.

  18. Effect of hypoxaemia on water and sodium homeostatic hormones and renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1995-01-01

    Changes in body fluid homeostasis during acute hypoxaemia suggest a crucial role of renal function in acclimatization processes. Hypoxaemia stimulates sympathetic nervous activity, and also the cardiovascular system is affected with increases in heart rate and cardiac output. In most subjects...

  19. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  20. Comparative effects of chelating agents on distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of gold sodium thiomalate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Funakoshi, T; Shimada, H; Kojima, S

    1994-05-31

    The effects of various chelating agents, such as (2S)-1-(3-mercaptopropionyl)-L-proline (captopril), N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (tiopronin), L-cysteine (L-Cys), D-cysteine (D-Cys), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (L-NAC), N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (BGD), and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), on the distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of gold sodium thiomalate (AuTM) in rats were investigated. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with the chelating agents (1.2 mmol/kg each) immediately after intravenous injection of AuTM (0.026 mmol/kg). Treatment with captopril or tiopronin significantly prevented increases in the urinary excretion of protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glucose and the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level after AuTM injection. L-NAC and D-Cys significantly prevented increases in the urinary excretion of protein, AST, and glucose after AuTM injection, but did not reduce to control levels. Treatment with BGD, EDTA, or L-Cys did not prevent AuTM-induced increases in the urinary excretion of protein, AST, and glucose and BUN level. Tiopronin significantly increased the urinary excretion of gold. Captopril slightly promoted both the urinary and fecal excretion of gold, resulting in the significant increase in the total excretion of the metal. Tiopronin and captopril significantly decreased the gold concentration in the kidney and liver. L-Cys, D-Cys, L-NAC, BGD, and EDTA had no significant effect on the excretion or distribution of gold at 7 days after AuTM injection. These results indicate that tiopronin and captopril can ameliorate the renal toxicity induced by AuTM. In addition, the comparative effects of 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate (DMPS), N-(2-mercapto-2-methylpropanoyl)-L-cysteine (bucillamine), captopril, and tiopronin at various dose levels (1.2, 0.4 or 0.2 mmol/kg) on the distribution and renal toxicity of gold were studied. DMPS was effective in removing gold from the kidney and in protecting against the renal toxicity

  1. [Sodium and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wardener, H E

    1996-09-01

    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a

  2. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium...... absorption was measured by the voltage-clamp technique and cellular potential was measured using microelectrodes. The endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (0.4 microM) increased [Ca2+]i from 66 +/- 9 to 137 +/- 19 nM (n = 13, P = 0.002). Thapsigargin caused the amiloride-sensitive...

  3. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  4. Biochemical, Histological And Histochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Barbital On The Renal Tissue Of Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia M. Sakr*, Shadia Ali Radwan*, Aziza M. El Wessemy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Anaesthetic drugs are nowadays used on a large scale in surgical operations as well as in other various medical purposes. Sodium barbital is a derivative of barbituric acid and is widely used on short surgical operations and other various medication. However, such anaesthetic drug has been reported to evoke many serious alterations as a result of its application. Materials and Methods:The experimental animals (30 mice-weighing 25-30 g were divided into 3 groups (10/group, the first group served as a control group (i.e. injection with saline, while the other two groups were treated daily with the therapeutic dose of 60 mg/kg.b.wt sodium barbital (i.p. for 7 days (short-term group and 21 days (long-term group as repeated daily doses. Blood sera and kidney samples were collected for physiological, histological and histochemical studies. Results:The results obtained showed a significant increase in urea, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine levels in all treated groups. On the other hand serum total protein and albumin levels showed a significant decrease in both treated groups, while the globulin showed a significant decrease only in the long term group. The applied dose of sodium barbital caused histophathological alterations in the renal tissue mainly in the cortex such as damage and shrinkage of the Malpighian corpuscles, cloudy swelling and necrosis of the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. Also, distal convoluted tubules exhibited degenerated features. In the histochemical studies, polysaccharides were progressively reduced in both short and long-term groups, while the total proteins showed a reduction in the short term group and considerably increase in the long term group. Conclusion: So these results came to conclusion that barbiturates should be prohibited and carefully used specially when prescribed as tranquilizer

  5. 3D solid supported inter-polyelectrolyte complexes obtained by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Guzmán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the formation and the internal morphology of polyelectrolyte layers obtained by the layer-by-layer method. A multimodal characterization showed the absence of stratification of the films formed by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate. Indeed the final organization might be regarded as three-dimensional solid-supported inter-polyelectrolyte films. The growth mechanism of the multilayers, followed using a quartz crystal microbalance, evidences two different growth trends, which show a dependency on the ionic strength due to its influence onto the polymer conformation. The hydration state does not modify the multilayer growth, but it contributes to the total adsorbed mass of the film. The water associated with the polyelectrolyte films leads to their swelling and plastification. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has allowed for deeper insights on the internal structure and composition of the polyelectrolyte multilayers.

  6. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, A.K. (Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca (Bangladesh)); Ando, Y.; Karashimada, T.; Kameyama, K.

    1979-09-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 4//g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ..gamma..-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/ and 5/sup 0/C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay.

  7. Identification of co-existing cationic surfactants with preliminary separation on silica HPTLC plates using mixed aqueous sodium chloride-ethanol as eluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new high-performance thin-layer chromatographic system comprising of silica gel 60 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and ethanol-5% aqueous sodium chloride (8:2 as mobile phase has been identified as most suitable for separation of quaternary mixture of cationic surfactants. Separation efficacy of developed method has been established by obtaining well-resolved densitogram of separated spots. To check the versatility, effects of presence of metal cations, inorganic anions, amino acids, vitamins and non-ionic surfactants as impurities were also examined. The chromatographic parameters like ΔRF, separation factor (α, resolution (RS and limit of detection were also calculated. The proposed method is applicable for the identification of surfactants in eye drops and Colgate Plax mouthwash.

  8. Determination of sodium chloride in ion - exchange membrane caustic soda%离子膜碱中氯化钠的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昕; 孙士娟; 邱雪松

    2000-01-01

    The determination of sodium chloride in ion- exchange membrane caustic soda by potentiometry and by spectrophotometry are introduced, and the results obtained by the above two methods are compared. It is concluded that potentiometry is suitable to macro analysis with characteristics of simple operation, rapid analysis and accurate measurement.%介绍了用电位滴定法和分光光度法测定离子膜碱中氯化钠含量的方法,并对这2种方法的测试结果进行了比较。电位滴定法适用于常量分析,具有操作简便、分析速度快、测量结果准确等特点。

  9. Characterization of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides of a sodium chloride solution/water system by computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Junya; Asanuma, Soto; Murata, Hiroyasu; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Hotta, Hiroki; Sato, Kiichi; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi

    2013-12-01

    A stable liquid/liquid optical waveguide (LLW) was formed using a sheath flow, where a 15% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution functioned as the core solution and water functioned as the cladding solution (15% NaCl/water LLW). The LLW was at least 200 mm in length. The concentration distributions of the liquid core and liquid cladding solutions in the LLW system were predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to validate the characteristics of the waveguide. The broadening of the region of the fluorescence of Rhodamine B excited by the guided light and the increase in the critical angle of the guided light with the increase in the contact time of the core and the cladding solutions were well explained by CFD calculations. However, no substantial leakage of the guided light was observed despite the considerably large change in the refractive index profile of the LLW; thus, a narrower and longer waveguide was realized.

  10. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium...... reduction was investigated.Methods and Results: The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0-1.2%) and MSG (0-1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups...... that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups.Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition...

  11. Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for Tramadol HCl Impurities in the Tramadol Injection after Dilution by Infusion Fluids (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnor, Anil K; Mukkanti, Khagga; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V; Roy, Sunilendu B

    2013-01-01

    A novel, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the determination of tramadol HCl impurities in the tramadol HCl injection after reconstitution by infusion fluids (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride). The tramadol HCl injection is for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe pain. The stability of the reconstituted solution is critical before intravenous injection. The literature search resulted in few published articles on assays of tramadol in infusion fluids by conventional HPLC. No attempts have yet been made to determine the impurities in infusion fluids, as the concentration of tramadol after reconstitution is extremely low (0.4 mg/mL) and that of impurities is even lower. The proposed method is novel as it allows the quantitation of the impurities of tramadol HCl and is based on modern chromatographic techniques like UPLC. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient mixture of solvent A (trifluroacetic acid buffer) and solvent B (methanol: acetonitrile). The model stability study was designed by diluting the tramadol HCl injection in the 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Each mixture was kept under storage at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) for testing at initial, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 & 24 hours. The validation study illustrates that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of tramadol and its impurities. The proposed method makes use of the LC-MS-compatible mobile phase. It can be useful for the determination of tramadol HCl and its impurities in plasma samples and other pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  12. Defective renal dopamine function and sodium-sensitive hypertension in adult ovariectomized Wistar rats: role of the cytochrome P-450 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciano, Luis A; Azurmendi, Pablo J; Colombero, Cecilia; Levin, Gloria; Oddo, Elisabet M; Arrizurieta, Elvira E; Nowicki, Susana; Ibarra, Fernando R

    2015-06-15

    We have previously shown that ovariectomy in adult Wistar rats under normal sodium (NS) intake results in an overexpression of the total Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) α1-subunit (Di Ciano LA, Azurmendi PJ, Toledo JE, Oddo EM, Zotta E, Ochoa F, Arrizurieta EE, Ibarra FR. Clin Exp Hypertens 35: 475-483, 2013). Upon high sodium (HS) intake, ovariectomized (oVx) rats developed defective NKA phosphorylation, a decrease in sodium excretion, and an increment in mean blood pressure (MBP). Since NKA phosphorylation is modulated by dopamine (DA), the aim of this study was to compare the intracellular response of the renal DA system leading to NKA phosphorylation upon sodium challenge in intact female (IF) and oVx rats. In IF rats, HS caused an increase in urinary DA and sodium, in NKA phosphorylation state, in cytochrome P-4504A (CYP4A) expression, and in 20-HETE production, while MBP kept normal. Blockade of the D1 receptor (D1R) with the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 in IFHS rats shifted NKA into a more dephosphorylated state, decreased sodium excretion by 50%, and increased MBP. In oVxNS rats, D1R expression was reduced and D3R expression was increased, and under HS intake sodium excretion was lower and MBP higher than in IFHS rats (both P < 0.05), NKA was more dephosphorylated than in IFHS, and CYP4A expression or 20-HETE production did not change. Blockade of D1R in oVxHS rats changed neither NKA phosphorylation state nor sodium excretion or MBP. D2R and PKCα expression did not vary among groups. The alteration of the renal DA system produced by ovariectomy could account for the defective NKA phosphorylation, the inefficient excretion of sodium load, and the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Microscale chemistry-based design of eco-friendly, reagent-saving and efficient pharmaceutical analysis: a miniaturized Volhard's titration for the assay of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sumran, Krissadecha; Nateetaweewat, Paksupang; Winotapun, Weerapath; Sukpisit, Sirarat; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2011-09-15

    This work demonstrates the extended application of microscale chemistry which has been used in the educational discipline to the real analytical purposes. Using Volhard's titration for the determination of sodium chloride as a paradigm, the reaction was downscaled to less than 2 mL conducted in commercially available microcentrifuge tubes and using micropipettes for the measurement and transfer of reagents. The equivalence point was determined spectrophotometrically on the microplates which quickened the multi-sample measurements. After the validation and evaluation with bulk and dosage forms, the downsized method showed good accuracy comparable to the British Pharmacopeial macroscale method and gave satisfactory precision (intra-day, inter-day, inter-analyst and inter-equipment) with the relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. Interestingly, the amount of nitric acid, silver nitrate, ferric alum and ammonium thiocyanate consumed in the miniaturized titration was reduced by the factors of 25, 50, 50 and 215 times, respectively. The use of environmentally dangerous dibutyl phthalate was absolutely eliminated in the proposed method. Furthermore, the release of solid waste silver chloride was drastically reduced by about 25 folds. Therefore, microscale chemistry is an attractive, facile and powerful green strategy for the development of eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective analytical methods suitable for a sustainable environment.

  14. Microwave Assisted Cross-Coupling Reaction of Sodium Tetraphenylborate with Aroyl Chlorides on Palladium-Doped KF/Al2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; JinXian

    2001-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of organoborate compounds with organic electrophiles is very attractive method for organic synthesis. These coupling reactions offer a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. 1 In the past few years a number of methods have been devoloped which permit the use of organoboron compounds that are thermally stable and inert to water and oxygen. Further these coupling reactions have been used successfully for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutical intermediates, and combinatiorial libraries of organic compounds. Sodium tetraphenylborate is a stable, non-toxic and has been used as a phenylating agent affording σ-phenyl complexes of various transition metals by the transfer of a phenyl group from boron to metals. Phenyl transfer from this reagent to some organopalladium complexes making a new carbon-carbon bond has also been noted. Uemura and Huang reported respectively that Pd(0) or Si-P-Pd(0)-catalyzed reaction of acyl chlorides and NaBPh4 proceeded in THF to give the corresponding phenyl ketones. However, only one phenyl group out of four in the borate was available for transfer. Recently, Bumagin reported that the cross-coupling reaction of NaBPh4 with acyl chlorides in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 and Na2CO3 in dry or aqueous acetone to give high yields of unsymmetric ketones. However, the reaction time is long(1-6 h).  ……

  15. Microwave Assisted Cross-Coupling Reaction of Sodium Tetraphenylborate with Aroyl Chlorides on Palladium-Doped KF/Al2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of organoborate compounds with organic electrophiles is very attractive method for organic synthesis. These coupling reactions offer a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. 1 In the past few years a number of methods have been devoloped which permit the use of organoboron compounds that are thermally stable and inert to water and oxygen. Further these coupling reactions have been used successfully for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutical intermediates, and combinatiorial libraries of organic compounds. Sodium tetraphenylborate is a stable, non-toxic and has been used as a phenylating agent affording σ-phenyl complexes of various transition metals by the transfer of a phenyl group from boron to metals. Phenyl transfer from this reagent to some organopalladium complexes making a new carbon-carbon bond has also been noted. Uemura and Huang reported respectively that Pd(0) or Si-P-Pd(0)-catalyzed reaction of acyl chlorides and NaBPh4 proceeded in THF to give the corresponding phenyl ketones. However, only one phenyl group out of four in the borate was available for transfer. Recently, Bumagin reported that the cross-coupling reaction of NaBPh4 with acyl chlorides in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 and Na2CO3 in dry or aqueous acetone to give high yields of unsymmetric ketones. However, the reaction time is long(1-6 h).

  16. Plasma renin, plasma aldosterone and exchangeable sodium in normotensive and hypertensive kidney transplant recipients with and without transplant renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, H J; Pedersen, E B

    1977-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP), plasma renin concentration (PRC), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and exchangeable sodium (ES) were studied in 19 kidney recipients on different fixed levels of sodium intake after successful kidney transplantation. The following groups of kidney recipients were investigated: group 1: 7 normotensives, group 2:7 hypertensives without transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS), group 3:5 hypertensives with angiographically verified TRAS. Hypertension in the recipients without TRAS (group 2) was characterized by a positive correlation between BP and ES and a normal response of PRC and PAC to a fixed low (10 mEQ/day) and high (150 mEq/day) sodium intake. In contrast, hypertension in the recipients with TRAS (group 3) was characterized by a normal or varyingly increased PRC on a liberal sodium intake and a reduced response of PRC to sodium restriction, whereas PAC did not differ from the other groups of recipients. In one recipient in group 3 who underwent surgical correction for TRAS, PRC and PAC decreased before operation during sodium restriction, but BP remained high until after operation, when it normalized simultaneously with a decrease in ES. The results indicate that sodium retention is involved in the pathogenesis of posttransplant hypertension and suggest that an increased activity of the renin--angiotensin system is counterbalanced by an accumulation of sodium in TRAS.

  17. Effects of dopamine on renal haemodynamics tubular function and sodium excretion in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    remained unchanged by pretreatment with metoprolol, and a comparison of dopamine and dobutamine in doses producing similar increases in cardiac output demonstrated that only dopamine increased ERPF. These findings indicate that indirect haemodynamic effects secondary to increases in cardiac contractility...... at these high doses. Although not affecting the percentage increase in CNa, metoprolol suppressed the absolute, maximal response to non-pressor doses of dopamine, suggesting that a reduced adrenergic beta(1) receptor activity may indirectly affect the natriuretic response, probably by decreasing renal perfusion...

  18. Vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons by surfactant micelles. Final report, April 1, 1984-December 31, 1984. [Solubilization data for system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/ and 45/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.

    1985-04-01

    This final report describes vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives by aqueous micellar solutions. An automated vapor pressure apparatus and a manual apparatus incorporating a mercury-covered sintered-glass disk inlet valve were used to obtain highly precise data for the solubilization of hydrocarbons and aliphatic alcohols into aqueous solutions of the ionic surfactants sodium octylsulfate and n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride (cetylpyridinium chloride). A mass-action model based on a modification of the Poisson distribution equations has been developed and applied to data for the system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/, and 45/sup 0/C. An excellent goodness of fit is achieved with the model. Tabulated experimental results (485 sets of activity and concentration data) are included in this report. 12 references, 2 figures.

  19. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  20. Effects of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the cross-linking reaction of cassava starch%氯化钠及硫酸钠对木薯淀粉交联反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小雅; 叶为标; 高群玉

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was designed to determine the relationships between osmotic pressure and degree of substitution,and the viscosity characteristics of the starch samples. Brabender viscometer was used for the determination of cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure. When sodium chloride was used as osmotic pressure enhancer in cross–linking reaction,with the increase of osmotic pressure,the initial gelatinization temperature increased,and the peak viscosity and the final viscosity decreased. As the osmotic pressure reached high,the retrogradation value and the breakdown value both tended to zero. When sodium sulfate was used instead of sodium chloride,as the osmotic pressure increased,the initial gelatinization temperature didn’t change significantly,the peak viscosity leveled off following decrease,the final viscosity increased(not significant)after decrease,the breakdown value was in contrast with the final viscosity,and the retrogradation decreased. The degree of crosslinking increased with the increase of osmotic pressure that produced by sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. In addition,we utilized polarizing microscope and FTIR to analyze the cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure,and measured their transparency,shear resistance and retrogradation resistance,the results showed that the corresponding properties of the cross–linked starch changed.%旨在确定渗透压与交联取代度和所得淀粉糊黏度间的关系。应用Brabender连续黏度计对渗透压处理交联木薯淀粉进行了测定。当氯化钠作为交联反应渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压增大,所得淀粉样品的起始糊化温度增加,峰值黏度和最终黏度减小;高渗透压时,凝沉值和崩解值都趋于0。而硫酸钠作渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压的增大,起始糊化温度变化不明显,峰值黏度先下降后缓慢下降,最终黏度先减后增(增加不显著),崩解值先增

  1. 降低肉制品中氯化钠含量研究进展%Progress towards Sodium Chloride Reduction in Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海舟; 张迎阳; 唐静; 余翔; 黎良浩; 王建; 章建浩

    2014-01-01

    An excessive intake of meat products, particularly dry-cured meat products, is not recommended from a health point of view, at least for some population groups, due to their high levels of sodium. Nevertheless, despite the importance of sodium chloride in producing food, over-consumption of sodium has the propensity to develop hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this paper attempts are made to make a detailed review on the role of NaCl in processed meats, ways of reducing salt and their effect on the quality of meat precuts. It can provide some useful information for reducing salt levels of traditional meat products in our country and make meat products healthier.%从健康的观点来看,过度的摄入肉制品特别是传统的干腌肉制品不被推荐。因为这些肉制品钠含量较高,过度的摄入可能使人们导致高血压等心血管疾病。本文综述了氯化钠在肉产品加过过程中的作用、降低盐含量的方法以及他们对肉制品加工过程中品质的影响。为探索减低我国传统肉质品盐含量提供参考,有效提高肉制品的健康性。

  2. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H

    2013-10-01

    Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Influence of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normal, electrolytes depleted and aldosterone treated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, M; Szczepańska-Sadowska, E; Krzymień, J; Kozłowski, S; Czyzyk, A

    1987-10-01

    Effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium were compared in conscious dogs 1) maintained in water and electrolytes balance (Series 1, 10 dogs), 2) depleted of electrolytes by repeated i.v. loading with 20% mannitol (Series 2, 10 dogs), and 3) aldosterone treated (0.8 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 i.v., Series 3, 10 dogs). In each Series intravenous infusion of insulin at a rate of 0.05 U.kg-1.h-1 elicited transient increase in plasma sodium concentration and prolonged hypokalemia. Repeated loading with mannitol in Series 2 elicited significant elevation of plasma sodium, ADH and aldosterone concentrations, as well as decrease in extracellular fluid volume. Infusion of insulin in this Series elicited smaller decrease in plasma potassium concentration and longer lasting hypernatremia than in dogs in water-electrolytes balance. Aldosterone infusion in Series 3 did not change hypokalemic effect of insulin but attenuated hypernatremia. Infusion of insulin in Series 1 elicited increase of sodium excretion and decrease in potassium excretion. These effects were absent in Series 2 and 3. The results indicate that depletion of electrolytes and blood aldosterone elevation modify the effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium.

  4. Glomerular ultrafiltration of IGF-I may contribute to increased renal sodium retention in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S N; Lapage, J; Hirschberg, R

    1999-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is found in plasma at relatively high levels (approximately 40 nmol/L) but 99% is bound to specific binding proteins to form high-molecular-weight complexes of approximately 50 and approximately 150 kd. We hypothesized that in rats with diabetic nephropathy but not in normal animals, IGF-I-containing binding protein complexes undergo glomerular ultrafiltration, allowing the peptide to interact with IGF-I receptors in apical tubular membranes. By this route, ultrafiltered IGF-I may increase tubular epithelial cell sodium absorption in overt diabetic nephropathy. In serum samples from diabetic rats, IGF-I levels (227 +/- 34 ng/mL) were reduced as compared with control levels (319 +/- 33 ng/mL, P = .05), and IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is increased about 2-fold. In diabetic rats, IGF-I undergoes glomerular ultrafiltration and is present in proximal tubular fluid that was collected by nephron micropuncture at 2.54 +/- 0.54 nmol/L but is below the detection limit in tubular fluid from normal rats. IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-4 are all present in diabetic rat glomerular ultrafiltrate, but IGFBP-2 levels are greater than those of each of the other three IGFBPs. Neither recombinant human IGF-I (1 nmol/L) nor diabetic rat glomerular ultrafiltrate affect sodium transport in cultured mouse proximal tubular cells. In contrast, rhIGF-I and diabetic rat glomerular ultrafiltrate increase the apical-to-basolateral transport of 22Na+ in distal tubule-like A6 cells through mechanisms involving apical IGF-I receptors. In normal rats, luminal infusion with rhIGF-I or with diabetic rat glomerular ultrafiltrate into late proximal tubules increases distal tubular Na+ absorption. These findings indicate that diabetic glomerular sclerosis causes glomerular ultrafiltration of IGF-I, and they suggest that tubular fluid IGF-I may contribute to sodium (and fluid) retention that is commonly observed in patients with severe diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Effect of intraperitoneally administered hydrolyzed whey protein on blood pressure and renal sodium handling in awake spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E L; Almeida, A R; Netto, F M; Gontijo, J A R

    2005-12-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effect of the intraperitoneal (ip) administration of a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) on systolic arterial blood pressure (SBP) and renal sodium handling by conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The ip administration of WPH in a volume of 1 ml dose-dependently lowered the SBP in SHR 2 h after administration at doses of 0.5 g/kg (0.15 M NaCl: 188.5 +/- 9.3 mmHg vs WPH: 176.6 +/- 4.9 mmHg, N = 8, P = 0.001) and 1.0 g/kg (0.15 M NaCl: 188.5 +/- 9.3 mmHg vs WPH: 163.8 +/- 5.9 mmHg, N = 8, P = 0.0018). Creatinine clearance decreased significantly (P = 0.0084) in the WPH-treated group (326 +/- 67 microL min-1 100 g body weight-1) compared to 0.15 M NaCl-treated (890 +/- 26 microL min-1 100 g body weight-1) and captopril-treated (903 +/- 72 microL min-1 100 g body weight-1) rats. The ip administration of 1.0 g WPH/kg also decreased fractional sodium excretion to 0.021 +/- 0.019% compared to 0.126 +/- 0.041 and 0.66 +/- 0.015% in 0.15 M NaCl and captopril-treated rats, respectively (P = 0.033). Similarly, the fractional potassium excretion in WPH-treated rats (0.25 +/- 0.05%) was significantly lower (P = 0.0063) than in control (0.91 +/- 0.15%) and captopril-treated rats (1.24 +/- 0.30%), respectively. The present study shows a decreased SBP in SHR after the administration of WPH associated with a rise in tubule sodium reabsorption despite an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibiting in vitro activity (IC50 = 0.68 mg/mL). The present findings suggest a pathway involving ACE inhibition but measurements of plasma ACE activity and angiotensin II levels are needed to support this suggestion.

  6. Effect of intraperitoneally administered hydrolyzed whey protein on blood pressure and renal sodium handling in awake spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa E.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute effect of the intraperitoneal (ip administration of a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH on systolic arterial blood pressure (SBP and renal sodium handling by conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. The ip administration of WPH in a volume of 1 ml dose-dependently lowered the SBP in SHR 2 h after administration at doses of 0.5 g/kg (0.15 M NaCl: 188.5 ± 9.3 mmHg vs WPH: 176.6 ± 4.9 mmHg, N = 8, P = 0.001 and 1.0 g/kg (0.15 M NaCl: 188.5 ± 9.3 mmHg vs WPH: 163.8 ± 5.9 mmHg, N = 8, P = 0.0018. Creatinine clearance decreased significantly (P = 0.0084 in the WPH-treated group (326 ± 67 µL min-1 100 g body weight-1 compared to 0.15 M NaCl-treated (890 ± 26 µL min-1 100 g body weight-1 and captopril-treated (903 ± 72 µL min-1 100 g body weight-1 rats. The ip administration of 1.0 g WPH/kg also decreased fractional sodium excretion to 0.021 ± 0.019% compared to 0.126 ± 0.041 and 0.66 ± 0.015% in 0.15 M NaCl and captopril-treated rats, respectively (P = 0.033. Similarly, the fractional potassium excretion in WPH-treated rats (0.25 ± 0.05% was significantly lower (P = 0.0063 than in control (0.91 ± 0.15% and captopril-treated rats (1.24 ± 0.30%, respectively. The present study shows a decreased SBP in SHR after the administration of WPH associated with a rise in tubule sodium reabsorption despite an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibiting in vitro activity (IC50 = 0.68 mg/mL. The present findings suggest a pathway involving ACE inhibition but measurements of plasma ACE activity and angiotensin II levels are needed to support this suggestion.

  7. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Acute Renal Injury in Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Inhibiting ROS and NF-κB Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Shi; Kang-Shu Liao; Kai-Liang Zhao; Wei-Xing Wang; Teng Zuo; Wen-Hong Deng; Chen Chen; Jia Yu; Wen-Yi Guo; Xiao-Bo He; Ablikim Abliz; Peng Wang; Liang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2), a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce •OH and ONOO− selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group) or normal saline (SO and SAP group) through tail intravenously (6 mL/k...

  8. (Toxic hepatitis and acute renal failure after inhalation of chloride solvents: report of one case (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixido Planas, J.; Martinez-Castelao, A.; Romero Gonzalez, R.; Grino Boira, J.; Gonzalez Segura, C.; Caralps Riera, A.

    1981-06-25

    Due to a combination of ingested ethanol and inhaled trichloroethylene (Tri) a 28 year old man developed toxic hepatitis and acute oliguric renal failure, both of which had a favorable evolution. Tri has been described as a cause of hepatic disfunction and acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, although some of the cases described are controversial, because Tri was either contaminated by other dissolvents or could not be proven pure, with the exception of one case. In many there was ethanol ingestion. The Tri inhaled by our patient was found to contain less than 1% of carbon tetrachloride (C-Tchl). This would suggest the C-Tchl to be responsible for the clinical picture although the combination Tri/ethanol cannot be discarded as the causal agent, due to the small amount of contaminant present.

  9. Effects of cetylpyridinium chloride, acidified sodium chlorite, and potassium sorbate on populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyungwha; Mustapha, Azlin

    2004-02-01

    The effects of selected food-grade antimicrobial agents at decreasing the number of pathogenic bacteria on fresh beef were determined. Beef cubes inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, or Staphylococcus aureus were sprayed with 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 0.12% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 0.1% potassium sorbate (PS), or an equal mix of any two solutions. The beef samples were placed on absorbent tray pads sprayed with each single or mixed solution, wrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, heat sealed, and stored at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks. Surface sanitization using CPC, ASC, or an equal mix of these two agents effectively reduced microbial numbers on the beef during storage. At day 0, ASC and the CPC-ASC mix reduced the number of E. coli O157:H7 by 2.50 and 1.58 log CFU/cm2, respectively. CPC demonstrated a 3.25-log reduction of L. monocytogenes and a 4.70-log reduction of S. aureus at 14 days. The CPC-PS mix reduced E. coli O157:H7 numbers by 1.46, L. monocytogenes by 2.95, and S. aureus by 4.41 log CFU/cm2 at 14 days. PS alone and the mixed solutions, CPC-ASC, CPC-PS, or ASC-PS, were not as effective as ASC or CPC alone. To effectively reduce E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, or S. aureus numbers, higher (> 0.1%) concentrations of PS were necessary. Loss of redness and light color of beef surfaces consistently coincided with decreases in pH for ASC-treated beef samples.

  10. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Antidiuretic hormone blood test Gastric suction Heart failure - overview Hyperventilation Ions Metabolic acidosis Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Proximal renal tubular acidosis Respiratory acidosis Sodium blood test Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated by: Laura J. ...

  11. Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrini A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min before bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v NaCl, 5.4% (w/v LiCl, 50% (w/v glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg, or 20% (w/v mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg. Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in HV interval: 131.4 ± 16.1% in the non-pretreated group vs 58.2 ± 7.5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in monophasic action potential duration: 22.7 ± 6.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 9.8 ± 6.3% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent decrease in cardiac index: -46 ± 6% in the non-pretreated group vs -28 ± 5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05. The other three hypertonic solutions were ineffective. These findings suggest an involvement of sodium ions in the mechanism of hypertonic protection.

  12. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  13. 烧伤回吸期持续性高钠高氯与侵袭性感染%Persistent High Level of Sodium and Chloride Ions and Invasive Infection in Resorption Phase Postburn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨大面积烧伤患者持续性高钠高氯产生的原因及防治措施;动态监测大面积烧伤后血清Na+,Cl-的临床意义。方法:回顾性分析了7例严重烧伤后持续性高Na+高Cl-和61例严重烧伤后非持续性高Na+,高Cl-患者的临床特点。结果:7例严重烧伤后持续高Na+,高Cl-患者均有严重侵袭性感染;且高Na+出现愈早,上升愈快,则感染愈重,愈后愈差。结论:1.烧伤后持续性高Na+,高Cl-产生的原因是严重侵袭性感染。2.动态监测血清Na+Cl-对感染的评价及抗感染效果有积极意义。3.预防措施包括平稳渡过休克,保护创面,避免长途转运。治疗上一旦出现持续性高钠高氯,除对症治疗外,根本措施是创面处理及抗感染。%Objective: To investigate the cause persistent high level of sodium and chloride ions in serum and methods for its prevention and treatment. The clinical significance of dynamic monitoring of serum sodium and chloride ion levels in severe burn patients. Method: To make a review of 7 cases with persistent high serum sodium and chloride ion levels and 61 cases without. Results: All of the severe cases had invasive infection. The earlier the presence of high serum sodium and chloride ion levels, the more dangerous the case. Conclusion: 1. Persistent high serum sodium and chloride ion levels is caused by invasive infection. 2. Dynamic monitoring of serum sodium and chloride ion levels is of great clinical significance. 3. Prevention measures include: to tide over shock stage, to protect burn wounds, to avoid long distance transfer. 4. Treating measures include careful management of burn wounds, anti-infection and expectant treatment.

  14. Dapagliflozin Binds Specifically to Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 in the Proximal Renal Tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Chiara; Yu, Amy S; Hirayama, Bruce A; Kepe, Vladimir; Liu, Jie; Scafoglio, Claudio; Powell, David R; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R; Wright, Ernest M

    2017-03-01

    Kidneys contribute to glucose homeostasis by reabsorbing filtered glucose in the proximal tubules via sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs). Reabsorption is primarily handled by SGLT2, and SGLT2-specific inhibitors, including dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin, increase glucose excretion and lower blood glucose levels. To resolve unanswered questions about these inhibitors, we developed a novel approach to map the distribution of functional SGLT2 proteins in rodents using positron emission tomography with 4-[(18)F]fluoro-dapagliflozin (F-Dapa). We detected prominent binding of intravenously injected F-Dapa in the kidney cortexes of rats and wild-type and Sglt1-knockout mice but not Sglt2-knockout mice, and injection of SGLT2 inhibitors prevented this binding. Furthermore, imaging revealed only low levels of F-Dapa in the urinary bladder, even after displacement of kidney binding with dapagliflozin. Microscopic ex vitro autoradiography of kidney showed F-Dapa binding to the apical surface of early proximal tubules. Notably, in vivo imaging did not show measureable specific binding of F-Dapa in heart, muscle, salivary glands, liver, or brain. We propose that F-Dapa is freely filtered by the kidney, binds to SGLT2 in the apical membranes of the early proximal tubule, and is subsequently reabsorbed into blood. The high density of functional SGLT2 transporters detected in the apical membrane of the proximal tubule but not detected in other organs likely accounts for the high kidney specificity of SGLT2 inhibitors. Overall, these data are consistent with data from clinical studies on SGLT2 inhibitors and provide a rationale for the mode of action of these drugs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  16. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of dietary sodium restriction and diuretics, but not angiotensin receptor blockade, in proteinuric renal patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Waanders, Femke; Vogt, Liffert; Damman, Kevin; Hemmelder, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade only partly reduces blood pressure, proteinuria and renal and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but often requires sodium targeting [i.e. low sodium diet (LS) and/or diuretics] for optimal efficacy. However, both unde

  17. Application of In-Line Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectroscopy Coupled with Calorimetry for the Determination of the Molar Enthalpy of Reaction between Ammonium Chloride and Sodium Nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartnaller, Vinicius; Mariano, Danielly C O; Cajaiba, João

    2016-03-01

    The reaction between ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite has been known for its application as a source of heat because of its large enthalpy of reaction, for which it has been used by the oil industry. There have been no known calorimetric studies for the experimental determination of its molar enthalpy of reaction, which is necessary in order to predict the limits achieved for up-scale applications. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and reaction calorimetry were used to determine this value by using a simple methodology. Both techniques were used concomitantly as a source of information regarding the time-dependent moles converted (Δn) and the amount of exchanged heat (ΔH). The molar enthalpy of reaction was calculated to be -74 ± 4 kcal mol(-1). The percentage between the confidence interval and the calculated value was 5.4%, which shows that the methodology was precise. After the determination of the molar enthalpy of reaction, it was proved that the ATR FT-IR alone was able to be used as a substitute for the reaction calorimetry technique, in which the IR signal is converted to the heat information, presenting as an easier technique for the monitoring of the heat released by this system for future applications.

  18. Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus on sliced roast beef by cetylpyridinium chloride and acidified sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyungwha; Mustapha, Azlin

    2007-02-01

    The effects of 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 0.12% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and a mix of equal volume of the two (0.25% CPC-0.06% ASC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated on inoculated sliced roast beef. The antimicrobial agents were, respectively, sprayed on the beef surfaces and tray absorbent pads, and samples were stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days (d). At 0 d, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were reduced to undetectable levels in 2 h after spraying with CPC. CPC-ASC treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus by 4.07, 6.37 and 4.32 log cfu/cm2, respectively, at 0 d. ASC treatment reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 by 6.09 log cfu/cm2 at 10 d. CPC treatment caused a slight discoloration and ASC-treated beef surfaces demonstrated the lowest redness and highest lightness. The grey colour and off-odour were significant in the ASC-treated beef samples, while CPC-treated samples demonstrated less off-odor and brown colour from 0 to 4 d. Based on our results, it appears that the application of CPC on sliced roast beef can extend the shelf-life of the product without impairing its quality.

  19. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  20. Corrosion Resistance ofAA6063-TypeAl-Mg-SiAlloy by Silicon Carbide in Sodium Chloride Solution for MarineApplication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ojo Sunday Isaac Fayomi; Malik Abdulwahab; Ferdinand Asuke

    2015-01-01

    The present work focused on corrosion inhibition of AA6063 type Al-Mg-Si alloy in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with a silicon carbide inhibitor, using the potentiodynamic electrochemical method. The aluminium alloy surface morphology was examined, in the as-received and as-corroded in the un-inhibited state, with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results obtained via linear polarization indicated a high corrosion potential for the unprotected as-received alloy. Equally, inhibition efficiency as high as 98.82% at 10.0 g/v silicon carbide addition was obtained with increased polarization resistance (Rp), while the current density reduced significantly for inhibited samples compared to the un-inhibited aluminium alloy. The adsorption mechanism of the inhibitor aluminium alloy follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This shows that the corrosion rate of aluminium alloy with silicon carbide in NaCl environment decreased significantly with addition of the inhibitor.

  1. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-04

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA.

  2. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages.

  3. Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75°C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65°C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70°C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively.

  4. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles.

  5. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Witaschek, Tom; Strobel, Catrin; Brayfield, Candace A; Bornemann, Reinhard; Catapano, Gerardo; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions.

  6. Synergistic bactericidal action of phytic acid and sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells protected by a biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-06-16

    The food industry must prevent the build-up of strong Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms in food processing environments. The present study examined the bactericidal action of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran and the hulls/peels of legumes, against E. coli O157:H7 biofilms. The synergistic bactericidal effects of PA plus sodium chloride (NaCl) were also examined. E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were allowed for form on stainless steel coupons by culture in both rich (tryptic soy broth, TSB) and minimal (M9) medium at 22°C for 6days. Bacterial cells within biofilms grown in M9 medium were significantly more resistant to PA than those grown in TSB (pbiofilm effect of PA was significantly increased by addition of NaCl (2-4%) (pbiofilms without recovery (a>6.5logCFU/cm(2) reduction). Neither PA nor NaCl alone were this effective (PA, 1.6-2.7logCFU/cm(2) reduction; NaCl, food safety managers who encounter thick biofilm formation in food processing environments.

  7. The synergistic effect of sodium chlorite and bromochloroacetic acid on BrO3(-)-induced renal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Bull, Richard J; Fisher, Jeffery; Cotruvo, Joseph A; Cummings, Brian S

    2011-11-18

    Bromate (BrO(3)(-)) is a drinking water disinfection by-product (DBP) that induces renal cell death via DNA damage-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Drinking water contains other DBPs in addition to BrO(3)(-). We tested the effect of two of these, sodium chlorite (NaClO(2)) and bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), on BrO(3)(-) cytotoxicity in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. NaClO(2) and BCAA alone induced cytotoxicity at concentrations of over 20ppm, while BrO(3)(-) was only moderately cytotoxic at concentrations of 200ppm. Combining BrO(3)(-) with NaClO(2) or BCAA alone enhanced cytotoxicity 1.5-4 fold. Exposing cells to all three compounds induced synergistic-like increases in cytotoxicity. This effect did not correlate to increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), even though all three compounds induced ROS formation alone. NaClO(2), but not BCAA, increased BrO(3)(-)-mediated DNA damage as measured by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) staining. In addition, NaClO(2), but not BCAA, decreased BrO(3)(-)-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Both compounds increased apoptosis in the presence of BrO(3)(-) as assessed by annexin V, PI, and DAPI staining. This is in contrast to BrO(3)(-) treatment alone, which induced necrosis. Immunoblot analysis showed that both NaClO(2) and BCAA increased p38 activation; however, consistent with 8-OHdG staining, only NaClO(2) increased BrO(3)(-)-induced histone H2AX phosphorylation, a marker of DNA damage. In contrast, BCAA, but not NaClO(2), increased BrO(3)(-)-induced phosphorylation of p53. These data support the novel finding that mixtures of DBPs increase BrO(3)(-)-induced renal cell death by DNA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and could alter how the risk of these DBPs towards humans is assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  9. Histopathological changes of renal tissue following sodium fluoride administration in two consecutive generations of mice. Correlation with the urinary elimination of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimcevici Poesina, Nicoleta; Bălălău, Cristian; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Nimigean, Victor; Ion, Ion; Baconi, Daniela; Bârcă, Maria; Băran Poesina, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    of mice. Histopathological observation of the kidney has revealed granular dystrophy of the renal tubules, necrosis of the endothelial cells and of the mesangial cells of renal glomerulus. The study indicates that different sodium fluoride treatments produce some pathological aspects of the kidneys and influence the urinary elimination of fluoride in two consecutive generations of mice. For the higher doses, the pathological changes of the kidney are more important, and the urinary elimination of fluoride is higher, especially for the allopathic doses.

  10. 肌醇在氯化钠水溶液中的稀释焓和焓对相互作用%Dilution Enthalpy and Pairwise Enthalpic Interaction of Myo-inositol in Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文清; 曲秀葵; 孙德志∗

    2008-01-01

      The dilution enthalpies of myo-inositol in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions had been determined with flow–mix-isothermal microcalorimetry at 298.15 K. The enthalpic interaction coefficients in the different concentrations of sodium chloride had been calculated according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. The results showed that enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients (h2) of myo-inositol are negative in aqueous sodium chloride solutions and values of h2 become more positive with increasing the concentration of sodium chloride. It could be interpreted in terms of interactions of solute with solute and solute with solvent.%  应用微量热法测定了298.15 K时肌醇在纯水和氯化钠水溶液中的稀释焓,根据McMillan-Mayer 理论计算了肌醇在不同浓度的氯化钠溶液中的2到4阶焓相互作用系数.结果表明,肌醇在氯化钠溶液中的焓对相互作用系数h2均为负值,并且随着氯化钠浓度的增大, h2的值呈增大趋势.根据溶质-溶质相互作用和溶质-溶剂相互作用对焓对相互作用系数的变化趋势进行了解释.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  12. Determination of Sodium Chloride Content in Food(Ion chromatography)%食品中氯化钠含量的测定(离子色谱法)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆

    2012-01-01

    Level of sodium chloride content in food was analyzed by using ion chromatography for the determination of anions in liquid sample.3.2mM Na_2CO_3+1.0mM NaHCO_3 were adopted as eluent solution,20~80mmol/L H_2SO_4 were adopted as suppression solution.Results showed that the detection limit of sodium chloride was 0.01%,the recovery was 95%.The method shows convenience,high accuracy,easy pretreatment,and can satisfy the analysis for sodium chloride in food.%利用离子色谱法测定样液中的阴离子含量,以3.2mM Na_2CO_3+1.0mM NaHCO_3为淋洗液,以20~80mmol/LH_2SO_4为抑制液,分析测定了食品中氯化钠的含量。结果表明,食品中氯化钠的检出限为0.01%,回收率达95%。该方法简便、快速、准确度高、前处理简单、能够满足食品中氯化钠的分析要求。

  13. Effect of Potassium Chloride as Partial Sodium Chloride Substitution in Salted Duck Eggs%KCl部分替代NaCl腌制咸蛋效果的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲; 孙静; 乐立强; 马美湖

    2011-01-01

    用KCl 5%、6.5%、8.5%、12.5%不同质量分数的替代量部分替代NaCl进行咸蛋腌制,25%的饱和食盐水浸泡作为腌制对照组,通过这种混合腌制的方法可直接降低食盐的添加量,改善腌制过程中咸蛋白口感偏重的问题,以腌制出品质优良的低盐咸蛋;另外,对咸蛋中NaCl含量、蛋黄出油率、水分的相关理化指标、质地结构、色度及对微观结构影响的测定,并且对咸蛋品质进行综合感官评定。结果表明:用6.5%部分替代NaCl组较好,蛋清NaCl含量从54.4mg/g降到40.1mg/g,降幅为26.29%。感官评定的结果表%Salted eggs are important egg products in our country.Sodium chloride(NaCl) is an essential component in the manufacturing of salted eggs,and can improve the structure and texture of eggs and special flavor formation.In this study,potassium chloride(KCl) was added at ratios of 5%,6.5%,8.5% and 12.5% as a partial substitute for NaCl to process salted duck eggs and 25% saturated NaCl immersion was used as the blank.Using this mixed method,the amount of salt addition was directly reduced,and partial substitution with KCl could improve the salting process.In addition,the oil release rate of egg yolk,the water contents of egg white and yolk,and the NaCl content,texture,structure,color parameters and microstructure of whole salted eggs were determined and the sensory quality of salted eggs was comprehensively evaluated.The results indicated that 6.5% sodium chloride was the best addition.The NaCl content in egg white protein was decreased from 54.4 to 40.1 mg/g with a range of 26.29%.Sensory evaluation revealed that potassium ions at excess concentrations could result in bitter taste.However,partial substitution of NaCl with KCl did not affect egg texture and the oil release rate and loose sand-like mouthfeel of egg yolk.Therefore,this method is feasible for reducing sodium content.

  14. Increased diuresis, renal vascular reactivity, and blood pressure levels in young rats fed high sodium, moderately high fructose, or their association: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Rita de Cássia Vilhena A F; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    Excessive intakes of sodium or fructose have been described as risk factors for hypertension. We hypothesized that even a moderately high fructose diet (6% fructose), either alone or in combination with high sodium (4% NaCl), may impair diuresis and renal and systemic vascular reactivity, contributing to the onset of high blood pressure in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed chow containing 4% NaCl (HS), 6% fructose (MHF), or both 4% NaCl and 6% fructose (HSMHF) for 6 weeks and had their diuresis, plasma creatinine, vascular reactivity of perfused kidneys and systemic arterial pressure evaluated. We found no differences in augmented diuresis among animals given HS, MHF, or HSMHF diets. After 6 weeks both the HS and HSMHF groups had increased weight in their left kidneys, but only the HSMHF group showed augmented plasma creatinine. The effects of phenylephrine on renal vascular perfusion pressure were similarly enhanced in kidneys from the HS, MHF, and HSMHF groups, but not on the systemic arterial pressure. Although when evaluated in anesthetized rats, only the HSMHF group presented augmented blood pressure, evaluation in conscious animals revealed that both the MHF and HSMHF diets, but not the HS alone, were able to induce tachycardia and hypertension. In conclusion, a MHF diet containing 6% fructose was enough to render the renal vascular bed hyperreactive to phenylephrine and to induce both hypertension and tachycardia. The combination of 6% fructose with 4% NaCl led to plasma accumulation of creatinine and accelerated the development of tachycardia.

  15. Determination of lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K; Determinacion de las constantes de hidrolisis del lutecio (III), en medio de fuerza ionica 1M de cloruro de sodio, a 303 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez G, J.J.; Rojas H, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    1997-07-01

    With the purpose to complete information about the lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants here is used the potentiometric method to determine those in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K. (Author)

  16. An alternative hypothesis to the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Schmidlin, Olga; Tanaka, Masae; Morris, R Curtis

    2016-11-01

    It is widely held that in response to high salt diets, normal individuals are acutely and chronically resistant to salt-induced hypertension because they rapidly excrete salt and retain little of it so that their blood volume, and therefore blood pressure, does not increase. Conversely, it is also widely held that salt-sensitive individuals develop salt-induced hypertension because of an impaired renal capacity to excrete salt that causes greater salt retention and blood volume expansion than that which occurs in normal salt-resistant individuals. Here we review results of both acute and chronic salt-loading studies that have compared salt-induced changes in sodium retention and blood volume between normal subjects (salt-resistant normotensive control subjects) and salt-sensitive subjects. The results of properly controlled studies strongly support an alternative view: during acute or chronic increases in salt intake, normal salt-resistant subjects undergo substantial salt retention and do not excrete salt more rapidly, retain less sodium, or undergo lesser blood volume expansion than do salt-sensitive subjects. These observations: (i) directly conflict with the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension, and (ii) have implications for contemporary understanding of how various genetic, immunologic, and other factors determine acute and chronic blood pressure responses to high salt diets.

  17. 氯化钠的吸波特性及微波干燥工艺研究%STUDY ON MICROWAVE ABSORPTION PROPERTY AND MICROWAVE DRYING PROCESS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨辉; 张利波; 彭金辉; 刘秉国; 夏洪应; 黄卡玛; 顾晓春; 史谊峰

    2012-01-01

    The open-ended coaxial sensor reflection method is adopted to measure the coefficient of wet sodium chloride with moisture from 0% to 5% , the influence of microwave frequency, water content and temperature on microwave absorbing ability and microwave drying technology of wet sodium chloride are studied. The results show that: the microwave frequency which is between 2. 3 ~2. 6 GHz almost has no effect on the microwave absorption property, the increase of water content in the sample can dramatically increase in the microwave absorption property, and the microwave absorption property of the sample has a linear relationship with water content, temperature increasing leads to significant increase in microwave absorption property of wet sodium chloride. Microwave drying technolo- gy of sodium chloride is studied thus the optimized microwave drying process parameters for sodium chloride are obtained as follows: drying temperature 60 ~70 ℃ , drying time 70~90 s with sample thickness 35 -45 mm.%采用终端开路同轴探头反射法测量了含水率0%~5%的氯化钠反射系数,研究了微波频率、含水率和温度对氯化钠含水物料吸波性能的影响,并对氯化钠的微波干燥工艺进行分析.结果表明:微波频率在2.3~2.6 GHz对物料的吸波性能影响不大,含水率的增加能显著提高物料的吸波能力和微波能的耗散,氯化钠的吸波性能与含水率之间存在线性关系,温度升高也会引起物料吸波性能显著提升;通过对物料微波干燥工艺研究得到较好的微波干燥工艺条件:干燥温度60~70℃、干燥时间70 ~90s、物料厚度35 ~45 mm.

  18. Roles of Akt and SGK1 in the Regulation of Renal Tubular Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Satoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine/threonine kinase Akt is a key mediator in various signaling pathways including regulation of renal tubular transport. In proximal tubules, Akt mediates insulin signaling via insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2 and stimulates sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1, resulting in increased sodium reabsorption. In insulin resistance, the IRS2 in kidney cortex is exceptionally preserved and may mediate the stimulatory effect of insulin on NBCe1 to cause hypertension in diabetes via sodium retention. Likewise, in distal convoluted tubules and cortical collecting ducts, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation mediates several hormonal signals to enhance sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activities, resulting in increased sodium reabsorption. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1 mediates aldosterone signaling. Insulin can stimulate SGK1 to exert various effects on renal transporters. In renal cortical collecting ducts, SGK1 regulates the expression level of ENaC through inhibition of its degradation. In addition, SGK1 and Akt cooperatively regulate potassium secretion by renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK. Moreover, sodium-proton exchanger 3 (NHE3 in proximal tubules is possibly activated by SGK1. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding of the roles of Akt and SGK1 in the regulation of renal tubular transport.

  19. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 in Sodium Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyun Lou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitously expressed serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1 is tightly regulated by osmotic and hormonal signals, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Recently, SGK1 has been implicated as a signal hub for the regulation of sodium transport. SGK1 modulates the activities of multiple ion channels and carriers, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5, sodium hydrogen exchangers 1 and 3 (NHE1 and NHE3, sodium-chloride symporter (NCC, and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2; as well as the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase and type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A. Accordingly, SGK1 is implicated in the physiology and pathophysiology of Na+ homeostasis. Here, we focus particularly on recent findings of SGK1’s involvement in Na+ transport in renal sodium reabsorption, hormone-stimulated salt appetite and fluid balance and discuss the abnormal SGK1-mediated Na+ reabsorption in hypertension, heart disease, edema with diabetes, and embryo implantation failure.

  20. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-03

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  1. Diagnosis of drowning by summation of sodium, potassium and chloride ion levels in pleural effusion: differentiating between freshwater and seawater drowning and application to bathtub deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Daisuke; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2013-12-10

    Although electrolyte analysis of pleural effusion at autopsy is useful for the diagnosis of water aspiration (i.e., drowning), the method of comparing each level of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) ions does not clearly differentiate between freshwater drowning, seawater drowning, and non-drowning. Therefore, here we introduce the summation of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) levels, that is SUM(Na+K+Cl), as a modified diagnostic indicator. In 21 autopsy cases of freshwater drowning, 32 cases of seawater drowning, and 43 non-drowning controls (with pleural effusion), mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) differed significantly between the groups (188.8±33.2, 403.5±107.9, and 239.3±21.7 mEq/L, respectively). We defined a SUM(Na+K+Cl) cut-off value of 282.7 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of seawater aspiration. When these values were applied to the two drowning groups, 15 cases (71%) of freshwater drowning and 29 cases (91%) of seawater drowning were diagnosed correctly. This new approach may be more valid than previous methods in cases found >2 days after death or those with substantial pleural effusion (>100 mL). For an additional 15 bathtub deaths, mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) was 198.8±40.0 mEq/L, and in 14 of these cases (93%) the relationship between cause of death and SUM(Na+K+Cl) could be explained using this method. Forensic pathologists should not depend exclusively on chemical findings and should consider also typical pathological indicators of drowning. This new method may be useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool when used alongside consideration of the pathological findings.

  2. Impacts of sodium chlorite combined with calcium chloride, and calcium ascorbate on microbial population, browning, and quality of fresh-cut rose apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunthon Mola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial activity and browning were minimized and fresh-cut rose apple quality was maintained using sodium chlorite (SC combined with calcium chloride (CC and calcium ascorbate (CaAs and by investigating the optimal concentration and dipping time of SC for inhibiting microbial activity and browning. Fresh-cut rose apple samples were dipped in SC solution at 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L for 1 min and 3 min, with filtered water and non-dipped samples as controls. All samples were kept at 4 ± 2 °C for 9 d. The results showed that 200 mg/L SC for 3 min was the best treatment to inhibit microbial growth (total bacteria, yeast and molds, Escherichia coli and coliforms, delay browning and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity of fresh-cut rose apples, but could not maintain the fresh firmness. A firmness experiment was conducted by dipping fresh-cut rose apples in 200 mg/L SC and in 200 mg/L SC combined with 20 g/L CC and 20 g/L CaAs (SC + CC + CaAs for 3 min before storage at 4 ± 2 °C for 9 d. Samples immersed in filtered water were used as the control. The combined treatment delayed microbial contamination and browning by reducing the PPO activity and the accumulation of phenolic content, and maintained the fresh firmness of fresh-cut rose apples. Thus, the combination treatment of SC + CC + CaAs solution can protect fresh-cut rose apples against microbial contamination and delay browning and maintain firmness.

  3. Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2010-12-01

    Present work highlights the involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced biochemical regulation of seedling growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Morden). The growth response is dependent on NaCl concentration to which seedlings are exposed, they being tolerant to 40 mM NaCl and showing a reduction in extension growth at 120 mM NaCl. NaCl sensitivity of sunflower seedlings accompanies a fourfold increase in Na(+) /K(+) ratio in roots (as compared to that in cotyledons) and rapid transport of Na(+) to the cotyledons, thereby enhancing Na(+) /K(+) ratio in cotyledons as well. A transient increase in endogenous NO content, primarily contributed by putative NOS activity in roots of 4-day-old seedlings subjected to NaCl stress and the relative reduction in Na(+) /K(+) ratio after 4 days, indicates that NO regulates Na(+) accumulation, probably by affecting the associated transporter proteins. Root tips exhibit an early and transient enhanced expression of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) positive NO signal in the presence of 120 mM NaCl. Oil bodies from 2-day-old seedling cotyledons exhibit enhanced localization of NO signal in response to 120 mM NaCl treatment, coinciding with a greater retention of the principal oil body membrane proteins, i.e. oleosins. Abolition of DAF positive fluorescence by the application of specific NO scavenger [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyllimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)] authenticates the presence of endogenous NO. These novel findings provide evidence for a possible protective role of NO during proteolytic degradation of oleosins prior to/accompanying lipolysis.

  4. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jessica B; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride [NaCl] and spark-generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 10(4) particles/cm(3)). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared with those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm, but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: manufacturer-reported capabilities of instruments used, and information from the SMPS measurements for polydispersed test particles.].

  5. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Blend, Peroxyacetic Acid, and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Salmonella on Inoculated Chicken Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Brad; Belk, Keith E

    2015-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (SSS) in reducing Salmonella on inoculated whole chilled chicken wings and to compare its efficacy to peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Wings were spot inoculated (5 to 6 log CFU/ml of sample rinsate) with a five-strain mixture of novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and then left untreated (control) or treated by immersing individual wings in 350 ml of antimicrobial solution. An initial study evaluated two treatment immersion times, 10 and 20 s, of SSS (pH 1.1) and compared cell recoveries following rinsing of treated samples with buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth. In a second study, inoculated wings were treated with SSS (pH 1.1; 20 s), PAA (700 ppm, 20 s), or CPC (4,000 ppm, 10 s) and analyzed for survivors immediately after treatment (0 h) and after 24 h of aerobic storage at 4°C. Color and pH analyses were also conducted in the latter study. Recovery of Salmonella survivors following treatment with SSS (10 or 20 s) was not (P ≥ 0.05) affected by the type of cell recovery rinse solution (buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth), but there was an effect (P Salmonella at 0 h increased in the order CPC , SSS , PAA; however, after 24 h of aerobic storage, pathogen counts of SSS- and PAA-treated wings did not differ (P ≥ 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that SSS applied at pH 1.1 for 20 s was an effective antimicrobial intervention to reduce Salmonella contamination on chicken wings.

  6. Dietary salt modulates the sodium chloride cotransporter expression likely through an aldosterone-mediated WNK4-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lingyun; Feng, Xiuyan; Liu, Defeng; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yiqian; Niu, Bowen; Gu, Yong; Cai, Hui

    2012-03-01

    WNK is a serine/threonine kinase. Mutation in WNK1 or WNK4 kinase results in pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) featuring hypertension, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is known to be regulated by phosphorylation and trafficking. Dietary salt and hormonal stimulation, such as aldosterone, also affect the regulation of NCC. We have previously reported that WNK4 inhibits NCC protein expression. To determine whether dietary salt affects NCC abundance through WNK4-mediated mechanism, we investigated the effects of dietary salt change with or without aldosterone infusion (1 mg/kg/day) on NCC and WNK4 expression in rats. We found that high-salt (HS, 4% NaCl) diet significantly inhibits NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while enhancing WNK4 mRNA and protein expression, whereas low-salt (LS, 0.07% NaCl) diet increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while reducing WNK4 expression. We also found that aldosterone infusion in HS-fed rats increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance, but decreases WNK4 expression. Administration with spironolactone (0.1 g/kg/day) in LS-fed rats decreases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while increasing WNK4 expression. We further showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in HS-fed rats, but decreased in LS-fed rats. In HEK293 cells, over-expressed WNK4 increases ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of WNK4 expression decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Aldosterone treatment for 3 h decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data suggest that dietary salt change affects NCC protein abundance in an aldosterone-dependent mechanism likely via the WNK4-ERK1/2-mediated pathway.

  7. Influence of sodium chloride on the regulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and enzymes of respiratory chain in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Papiya; Kunda, Pranamita; Biswas, Asok K

    2012-11-01

    The effect of common salt (NaCl) on ion contents, Krebs cycle intermediates and its regulatory enzymes was investigated in growing mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek, B 105) seedlings. Sodium and chloride ion contents increased in both root and shoot whereas potassium ion content decreased in shoot of test seedlings with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Organic acids like pyruvate and citrate levels increased whereas malate level decreased under stress in both roots and shoots. Salt stress also variedly affected the activities of different enzymes of respiratory chain. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.4.1) decreased in 50 mM NaCl but increased in 100 mM and 150 mM concentrations, in both root and shoot samples. Succinate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.3.5.1) activity was reduced in root whereas stimulated in shoot under increasing concentrations of salt. The activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.41) and malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37) decreased in both root and shoot samples under salt stress. On the contrary, pretreatment of mungbean seeds with sublethal dose of NaCl was able to overcome the adverse effects of stress imposed by NaCl to variable extents with significant alterations of all the tested parameters, resulting in better growth and efficient respiration in mungbean seedlings. Thus, plants can acclimate to lethal level of salinity by pretreatment of seeds with sublethal level of NaCl, which serves to improve their health and production under saline condition, but the sublethal concentration of NaCl should be carefully chosen.

  8. The cooperative roles of the dopamine receptors, D1R and D5R, on the regulation of renal sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Shah, Ishan T; Van Sciver, Robert E; Israel, Jonathan A; Enzensperger, Christoph; McGrath, Helen E; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2014-07-01

    Determining the individual roles of the two dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R) on sodium transport in the human renal proximal tubule has been complicated by their structural and functional similarity. Here we used a novel D5R-selective antagonist (LE-PM436) and D1R- or D5R-specific gene silencing to determine second messenger coupling pathways and heterologous receptor interaction between the two receptors. D1R and D5R colocalize in renal proximal tubule cells and physically interact, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescent resonance energy transfer microscopy. Stimulation of renal proximal tubule cells with fenoldopam (D1R/D5R agonist) led to both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C (PLC) activation using real-time fluorescent resonance energy transfer biosensors ICUE3 and CYPHR, respectively. Fenoldopam increased cAMP accumulation and PLC activity and inhibited both NHE3 and NaKATPase activities. LE-PM436 and D5R siRNA blocked the fenoldopam-stimulated PLC pathway but not cAMP accumulation, whereas D1R siRNA blocked both fenoldopam-stimulated cAMP accumulation and PLC signaling. Either D1R or D5R siRNA, or LE-PM436 blocked the fenoldopam-dependent inhibition of sodium transport. Further studies using the cAMP-selective D1R/D5R agonist SKF83822 and PLC-selective D1R/D5R agonist SKF83959 confirmed the cooperative influence of the two pathways on sodium transport. Thus, D1R and D5R interact in the inhibition of NHE3 and NaKATPase activity, the D1R primarily by cAMP, whereas the D1R/D5R heteromer modulates the D1R effect through a PLC pathway.

  9. Deletion of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor–associated protein enhances renal sodium reabsorption and exacerbates angiotensin II–mediated hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ohsawa, Masato; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Maeda, Akinobu; Dejima, Toru; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Azushima, Kengo; Uneda, Kazushi; Tsurumi-Ikeya, Yuko; Kobayashi, Ryu; Matsuda, Miyuki; Uchida, Shinichi; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)–associated protein (ATRAP) promotes AT1R internalization along with suppression of pathological activation of tissue AT1R signaling. However, the functional significance of ATRAP in renal sodium handling and blood pressure regulation under pathological stimuli is not fully resolved. Here we show the blood pressure of mice with a gene-targeted disruption of ATRAP was comparable to that of wild-type mice at baseline. However, in ATRAP-knockout mice, angiote...

  10. Exaggerated natriuretic response to isotonic volume expansion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients: evaluation of proximal and distal tubular reabsorption by simultaneous determination of renal plasma clearance of lithium and 51Cr-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Fjeldborg, P; Madsen, M; Brøchner-Mortensen, J; Kornerup, H J

    1987-02-01

    In fourteen hypertensive and fourteen normotensive renal transplant recipients, and in a group of thirteen healthy controls, changes in natriuresis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and tubular reabsorption of sodium were determined in relation to intravenous infusion of 2 mmol isotonic sodium chloride per kg body weight. An exaggerated natriuresis was demonstrated in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients. This new finding indicates that the augmented natriuresis following plasma volume expansion, which is a characteristic finding in subjects with arterial hypertension, is not mediated by the renal nerves. Investigation of the tubular reabsorption rates of sodium by simultaneous determination of the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and lithium showed that in the hypertensives the changes in tubular handling of sodium were different from those registered in the normotensive subjects. The increased sodium excretion in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients was caused by an increased output of sodium from the proximal tubules which was not fully compensated for by an increased distal reabsorption. Whether this increased delivery of sodium to the distal segments was caused by changes in GFR or in the proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium could not be clarified in the present study and warrants further investigations.

  11. Incretins and selective renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in hypertension and coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramiro; A; Sanchez; Hugo; Sanabria; Cecilia; de; los; Santos; Agustin; J; Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease,and the consequences ofintensive therapy may depend on the mechanism of the anti-diabetic agent(s)used to achieve a tight control.In animal models,stable analogues of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1)were able to reduce body weight and blood pressure and also had favorable effects on ischemia following coronary reperfusion.In a similar way,dipeptidyl peptidase IV(DPPIV)showed to have favorable effects in animal models of ischemia/reperfusion.This could be due to the fact that DPPIV inhibitors were able to prevent the breakdown of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide,but they also decreased the degradation of several vasoactive peptides.Preclinical data for GLP-1,its derivatives and inhibitors of the DPPIV enzyme degradation suggests that these agents may be able to,besides controlling glycaemia,induce cardio-protective and vasodilator effects.Notwithstanding the many favorable cardiovascular effects of GLP-1/incretins reported in different studies,many questions remain unanswered due the limited number of studies in human beings that aim to examine the effects of GLP-1 on cardiovascular endpoints.For this reason,long-term trials searching for positive cardiovascular effects are now in process,such as the CAROLINA and CARMELINA trials,which are supported by small pilot studies performed in humans(and many more animal studies)with incretin-based therapies.On the other hand,selective renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors were also evaluated in the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes.However,it is quite early to draw conclusions,since data on cardiovascular outcomes and cardiovascular death are limited and long-term studies are still ongoing.In this review,we will analyze the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular effects of incretins and,at the same time,we will present a critical position about the real value of these compounds in the

  12. Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2015-11-01

    potassium chloride and salty-congruent odor. The result showed that considering consumer acceptability during sodium reduction enabled to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling to predict concentrations and actions of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin in human intestines and renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazumi; Saito, Ryuta; Nakamaru, Yoshinobu; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Canagliflozin is a recently developed sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor that promotes renal glucose excretion and is considered to inhibit renal SGLT2 from the luminal side of proximal tubules. Canagliflozin reportedly inhibits SGLT1 weakly and suppresses postprandial plasma glucose, suggesting that it also inhibits intestinal SGLT1. However, it is difficult to measure the drug concentrations of these assumed sites of action directly. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships of canagliflozin remain poorly characterized. Therefore, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of canagliflozin was developed based on clinical data from healthy volunteers and it was used to simulate luminal concentrations in intestines and renal tubules. In small intestine simulations, the inhibition ratios for SGLT1 were predicted to be 40%-60% after the oral administration of clinical doses (100-300 mg/day). In contrast, inhibition ratios of canagliflozin for renal SGLT2 and SGLT1 were predicted to be approximately 100% and 0.2%-0.4%, respectively. These analyses suggest that canagliflozin only inhibits SGLT2 in the kidney. Using the simulated proximal tubule luminal concentrations of canagliflozin, the urinary glucose excretion rates in canagliflozin-treated diabetic patients were accurately predicted using the renal glucose reabsorption model as a PD model. Because the simulation of canagliflozin pharmacokinetics was successful, this PBPK methodology was further validated by successfully simulating the pharmacokinetics of dapagliflozin, another SGLT2 inhibitor. The present results suggest the utility of this PBPK/PD model for predicting canagliflozin concentrations at target sites and help to elucidate the pharmacological effects of SGLT1/2 inhibition in humans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  15. The effect of water and sodium chloride intake on blood pressure and the mechanism%不同剂量水钠摄入对血压影响的基础研究及其机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全洪兵; 于国东; 陈伟才; 胡建锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of changes of blood pressure by different sodium chloride and water intake in Wistar rat.Methods Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups equally.Groop A received low - sodium chloride intake, and subdivided into group A1 and A2 equally.Group A1 was fed by dry food with 0.5% sodium chloride without limitation of water intake.Group A2 was fed by dry food with 0.5% sodium chloride and 40ml of water every day according to the physiological need for water.Group B received high - sodium chloride intake, and subdivided into group B1 and B2 equally.Group B1 was fed by dry food with 4% sodium chloride without limitation of water intake.Group B2 was fed by dry food with 4% sodium chloride and 40ml of water every day.The intake of water and the volume of urine, and the body weight and rat tail blood pressure were measured daily and weekly respectively for 8 weeks.Serum noradrenalin ( NE ), angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ )and creatinine (Cr) were analyzed after the 8 - week diet.Results Blood pressure in group B was higher than in group A ( P < 0.01 ), and higher in group B2 than in group B1 ( P < 0.01 ).The difference between the intake of water and the volume of urine volume in group B was less than that in group A ( P <0.01 ), similar between group A1 and group A2 ( P >0.05 ), significantly different between group B2 and group B1 ( P < 0.01 ).The body weight in group B was lower than that in group A ( P < 0.01 ).Ang Ⅱ level in group B was lower than that in group A ( P < 0.05 ), and lower in group B2 than that in group B1 ( P < 0.05 ).NE level in group B was higher than that in group A ( P < 0.05 ), and higher in group B2 than that in group B1 ( P < 0.05 ).However, there was no difference in the level of Cr between all groups ( P > 0.05 ).One rat in group B2 was dead at week 4 after experiment, and the cause was unknown.Conclusion High intake of sodium chloride would increase blood pressure.The increase

  16. Saline-induced natriuresis and renal blood flow in conscious dogs: effects of sodium infusion rate and concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H;

    2005-01-01

    saline loading simulating daily sodium intake, the rate of sodium excretion may increase 10-20-fold without any change in mean arterial blood pressure or in RBF. Regulatory responses to changes in total body NaCl levels appears, therefore, to be mediated primarily by neurohumoral mechanisms and may occur...

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the complexation product of sodium tartrate and iron(III chloride as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexation product of sodium tartrates and iron(III chloride (Fe mTA is proposed for use as an anti-caking agent, only in salt or its substitutes, with a maximum use level of 106 mg Fe mTA/kg salt. Fe mTA can be expected to dissociate into its constituent iron(III and tartrate components upon ingestion. Studies in rats demonstrated that up to 90 % of ingested DL-tartrate or tartaric acid were absorbed, studies in humans suggested that only 20 % of an ingested dose of tartaric acid were absorbed. There are no ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion data for meso-tartrate. From a 90-day rat study, the lowest calculated BMDLs (Benchmark Dose Level for Fe mTA were: 75 mg/kg body weight (bw per day for males (BMDL05 for serum bile acids and 267 mg/kg bw per day for females (BMDL10 for goblet cells hyperplasia. Several in vitro studies showed that there is no safety concern for genotoxicity. No reprotoxicity and developmental toxicity was reported, however no study was specifically designed for teratogenicity. No long-term or carcinogenicity studies were available. The Panel concluded that the toxicity database was insufficient to establish an ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake and calculated MoS (Margin of Safety by comparing the highest intake of Fe mTA of 0.092 mg/kg bw per day for children at the 97.5 percentile with the lowest BMDLs. The resulting MoS were 815 and 2 900 for males and females, respectively. Owing to the conservative assumptions included in the exposure assessment, the Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the single condition of use and use level of Fe mTA proposed. The Panel noted that this evaluation was based on a limited toxicity database, for a single use resulting in a very low exposure, and therefore concluded that any extension of use and/or use level of Fe mTA, would require a new risk assessment.

  18. Solvation of sodium chloride in the 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieffert, Nicolas; Wipff, Georges

    2007-06-28

    We report molecular dynamics studies on the solvation of sodium chloride in the 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid ([BMI][Tf2N] IL). We first consider the potential of mean force for dissociating a single Na+Cl- ion pair, showing that the latter prefers to be undissociated rather than dissociated (by ca. 9 kcal/mol), with a free energy barrier of ca. 5 kcal/mol (at d approximately 5.2 A) for the association process. The preference for Na+Cl- association is also observed from a 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation of a concentrated solution, where the Na+Cl- ions tend to form oligomers and microcrystals in the IL. Conversely, the simulation of Na13Cl14- and Na14Cl13+ cubic microcrystals (with, respectively, Cl- and Na+ at the vertices) does not lead to dissolution in the IL. Among these, Na14Cl13+ is found to be better solvated than Na13Cl14-, mainly due to the stronger Na+...Tf2N- interactions as compared to the Cl-...BMI+ interactions at the vertices of the cube. We finally consider the solid/liquid interface between the 100 face of NaCl and the IL, revealing that, in spite of its polar nature, the crystal surface is solvated by the less polar IL components (CF3(Tf2N) and butyl(BMI) groups) rather than by the polar ones (O(Tf2N) and imidazolium(BMI) ring). Specific ordering at the interface is described for both Tf2N- anions and BMI+ cations. In the first IL layer, the ions are rather parallel to the surface, whereas in the second "layer" they are more perpendicular. A similar IL structure is found at the surface of the all-neutral Na0Cl0 solid analogue, confirming that the solvation of the crystal is rather "apolar", due to the mismatch between the IL and the crystal ions. Several comparisons with water, methanol, or different BMI+-based ILs as solvents are presented, allowing us to better understand the specificity of the ionic liquid-NaCl interactions.

  19. Giant extracellular Glossoscolex paulistus Hemoglobin (HbGp) upon interaction with cethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactants: Dissociation of oligomeric structure and autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Patricia S; Moreira, Leonardo M; de Almeida, Erika V; Tabak, Marcel

    2007-04-01

    The effects of two ionic surfactants on the oligomeric structure of the giant extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) in the oxy - form have been studied through the use of several spectroscopic techniques such as electronic optical absorption, fluorescence emission, light scattering, and circular dichroism. The use of anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cationic cethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) has allowed to differentiate the effects of opposite headgroup charges on the oligomeric structure dissociation and hemoglobin autoxidation. At pH 7.0, both surfactants induce the protein dissociation and a significant oxidation. Spectral changes occur at very low CTAC concentrations suggesting a significant electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interaction. At low protein concentration, 0.08 mg/ml, some light scattering within a narrow CTAC concentration range occurs due to protein-surfactant precipitation. Light scattering experiments showed the dissociation of the oligomeric structure by SDS and CTAC, and the effect of precipitation induced by CTAC. At higher protein concentrations, 3.0 mg/ml, a precipitation was observed due to the intense charge neutralization upon formation of ion pair in the protein-surfactant precipitate. The spectral changes are spread over a much wider SDS concentration range, implying a smaller electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interactions. The observed effects are consistent with the acid isoelectric point (pI) of this class of hemoglobins, which favors the intense interaction of HbGp with the cationic surfactant due to the existence of excess acid anionic residues at the protein surface. Protein secondary structure changes are significant for CTAC at low concentrations while they occur at significantly higher concentrations for SDS. In summary, the cationic surfactant seems to interact more strongly with the protein producing more dramatic spectral changes as compared to the

  20. Low Sodium Chloride and Low Blood the Prognosis of Acute Stroke Correlation%低钠血症与急性脑卒中预后的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申淑侠

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the low sodium chloride and low blood acute brain stroke the correlation of prognosis, and draw the conclusion methods acute stroke patients collection, observation period prognosis and low sodium chloride the correlation between the low disease. Results:In this study in patients with acute stroke outcome 46%developed low sodium chloride low hematic disease, low sodium chloride low blood the prognosis of patients with serious influence. Conclusion:Hyponatremia is acute hemorrhagic stroke more common complications, the serious influence the prognosis of patients. Only in patients with hyponatremia understanding of the pathophysiology of mechanism, can effectively correct hyponatremia, and prevent possible complications. Introduce acute hemorrhagic stroke appear with hyponatremia were the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the pathogenesis and the progress of research.%  目的:研究低钠血症与急性脑卒中预后的相关性,并得出相应的结论。方法:收集急性脑卒中患者,观察期预后与低钠血症之间的相关性。结果:本研究中急性脑卒中预后患者中46%出现了低钠血症,低钠血症严重影响患者的预后。结论:低钠血症是急性出血性脑卒中较为常见的并发症之一,严重影响患者的预后。只有了解患者发生低钠血症的病理生理学机制,才能有效地纠正低钠血症,并防止可能出现的并发症。现介绍急性出血性脑卒中出现低钠血症患者的临床表现、诊断、发生机制及治疗方面的研究进展。

  1. 高渗氯化钠-羟乙基淀粉用于前列腺电切术的可行性%The feasibility of using hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch in resection of prostate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛武德; 兰莲莲

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究前列腺肥大的患者在腰硬联合麻醉下行前列腺电切术时输注高渗氯化钠-羟乙基淀粉(hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch,HSH)预防经尿道电切综合征的作用.方法:随机将60例前列腺肥大患者分为A组(观察组)和B组(对照组)各30例.观察组术前先输注复方氯化钠,手术开始后输注HSH 5ml/kg.对照组仅输注复方氯化钠.抽取静脉血检测手术开始前(T0)、开始后30min(T30)、60min(T60)、90min(T90)各时点的电解质、HCT的变化.结果:观察组血中的电解质、HCT变化不大.对照组同一时点与观察组相比,Na+、HCT明显降低.结论:腰硬联合麻醉行前列腺电切术时输注HSH安全有效,有一定预防经尿道电切综合征的作用.%Objective:To study whether hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch (HSH) can prevent transurethral resection syndrome (TURS) in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for prostatic hypertrophy under combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA). Methods:Sixty patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly divided into two groups:observation group (n= 30 ) and control group (n = 30). In observation group inlravenous compound sodium chloride was administered before operation,aud after the beginning of operation intravenous 5mL/kg HSH was administered in each patient. In control group only intravenous compound sodium chloride was given. Venous samples were taken before operation (T0 ), after 30 minutes (T30) ,60 minutes (T6o) ,90 m