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Sample records for renal sodium chloride

  1. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-08-01

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  3. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  5. Renal and cardiovascular effects of dopamine and 7.5% sodium chloride infusion: experimental study in dogs with water restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Verderese, Marisa Aparecida Lima [UNESP; Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvão [UNESP; Ganem, Eliana Marisa [UNESP; Vane, Luiz Antonio [UNESP

    2003-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: É controvertido o uso da infusão de dopamina na proteção renal. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o efeito da dopamina, da solução hipertônica e da associação de ambas em cães com restrição hídrica, simulando o jejum pré-operatório. MÉTODO: Foram estudados, em 32 cães anestesiados com tiopental sódico e fentanil, os seguintes parâmetros da função renal: fluxo plasmático efetivo renal (depuração de para-aminohipurato de sódio), ritmo de filtração glomerular (depu...

  6. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  7. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  8. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  9. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  10. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  11. NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride for oral solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M L

    1992-02-01

    NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution), a product from Braintree Laboratories, Inc. is a modification of GoLYTELY (PEG 3350 and Electrolytes for Oral Solution) that has been found to have the same therapeutic advantages in terms of safety, efficacy, speed and patient acceptance. This product was developed to improve upon the taste of GoLYTELY. NuLYTELY represents an effective alternative for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy that may be more acceptable to some patients.

  12. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  14. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  15. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  16. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B

    2012-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antib......The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho......-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and m...

  17. Flame generation of sodium chloride aerosol for filter testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.; Kinnear, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    A generator for sodium chloride aerosol is described, which when used in conjunction with a sensitive portable sodium flame detector unit, will permit the in-place testing of large filter installations having air throughputs up to about 80,000 m 3 /h, at penetrations down to at least 0.005 percent. (U.S.)

  18. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  19. Thallium-201 chloride dynamic analysis using thallium-201 chloride and sodium iodide-131 thyroid subtraction scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Setsuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Togami, Izumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-10-01

    The mechanism of /sup 201/Tl chloride accumulation is unclear in thyroid gland and thyroid tumor. This report examines 108 patients that received thyroid scintigraphy examinations with both /sup 201/Tl chloride and sodium /sup 131/I. The patients were diagnosed clinically and histologically whenever possible. The ROI were obtained by subtraction imaging with both isotopes and by subtraction positive and negative areas of imaging. Dynamic curves were obtained for /sup 201/Tl chloride per square unit of each ROI. The dynamic curve in the radioiodide-accumulated area was examined. The data indicate that the clearance rate of /sup 201/Tl chloride (T/sub 15/) was correlated with the sodium /sup 131/I uptake rate at 24 h (r=0.70).

  20. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  1. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  2. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  3. [Influence of non-sodium restricted diet with diuretics on plasma rennin, renal blood flow and in patients with cirrhotic ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin-fang; Gu, Xi-bing; Zhu, Hong-ying; Yang, Xiao-juan; Wang, Dong; Yu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    To explore influence of sodium restricted diet and non-sodium restricted diet on plasma rennin (PRA), angiotensin II (All), ALD, renal blood flow (RBF) and subside of ascites in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Eighty cases of hepatitis B with cirrhotic ascites were randomly divided into sodium restricted diet group and non-sodium restricted diet group. 39 cases were in non-sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 6500-8000 mg daily; 41 cases were in sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 5000 mg daily. Both groups received diuretics furosemide and spironolactone. Blood sodium, urine sodium, PRA, AII, ALD, RBF ascites subsiding were compared after treatment. In non-sodium restricted diet group, blood sodium and urine sodium increased 10 days after treatment compared with those before treatment, and compared with those of sodium restricted diet group 10 days after treatment, P Renal damage induced by low blood sodium after treatment was less in non-sodium restricted diet group than that in sodium restricted diet group, P blood sodium, thus increasing excretion of urine sodium and diuretic effect. It can also decrease levels of PRA, AII and ALD, increase renal blood flow and prevent renal damage induced by low blood sodium and facilitate subsiding of ascites.

  4. Amendment trials for bioremediation of sodium and chloride contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Western Alfalfa Milling Co. Ltd., Norquay, SK (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Details of a soil amendment experiment was presented. Soil samples from sodium and chloride contaminated soil were taken from a site located in southeastern Alberta. Soil amendments included high protein dehydrated alfalfa pellets, 2 types of Zeolite, and used coconut coir. The aim of the study was to find an effective in-situ method of remediating the soil while establishing the highest possible plant biomass. Preliminary trial data indicated a strong trend for high plant protein pellets to increase plant productivity on sodium and chloride contaminated soil. The addition of alfalfa increased plant height and stem diameter, as well as leaf width, which increased incrementally with higher volumes of alfalfa. Equivalent rates of .5 MT to 4 MT per acre application rates were used in the trial. Coconut coir was used at a rate of 30 per cent of the volume of the growing medium and also showed increased growth. An experiment was conducted using harvested plant matter from the samples to determine the effect of the 3 amendments on sodium uptake by the plants. Results showed that the sodium uptake significantly increased with the application of soil amendments, particularly when alfalfa pellets were applied, with percentages of sodium found in the plant tissue almost twice as high as percentages found in the control sample. Sodium levels also increased in the plant tissues where coconut coir was used, although to a lesser degree than levels found in plants grown with the alfalfa amended soils. Zeolite did not perform as well on its own. However, it was noted that previous trials have shown good performance when Zeolite was mixed into sodium/chloride contaminated soils and combined with water filtration. It was concluded that the soil amendments improved plant growth, and increased the sodium uptake by plants. The consortium is pursuing industry support to plan larger field studies in the 2006 season. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel' man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    The efficiency of corrosion protection of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in chloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylanthranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys.

  6. Impact of sodium chloride on breakfast cereal products

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Lydie

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the amount of sodium chloride in breakfast cereals without changing their properties, it is necessary to understand the role of this salt. Hence, a model system was developed. This model, composed of native waxy maize starch, glucose and a mixture of amino-acids generated similar colour and residual volatiles after heating compared to commercial breakfast cereals. Systematically designed experiments used this model to study the influence of NaCl concentration (0 % to 5.44 %) on colo...

  7. Sodium Bicarbonate Versus Sodium Chloride for Preventing Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien

    2017-04-01

    To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.

  8. Progress and recent developments in sodium, metal chloride batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Attia, A.I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    A new class of rechargeable sodium batteries emerged in the last decade mainly due to the efforts in South Africa and the United Kingdom. These systems include solid transition metal chlorides in sodium tetrachloroaluminates as cathodes. Significant developments have been made on two systems, i.e., Na/NiCl 2 and Na/FeCl 2 ; high energy densities of the order of 130 Wh/Kg have been demonstrated at the cell level both with FeCl 2 and NiCl 2 cathodes. Long cycle life of over 2000 cycles was demonstrated with NiCl 2 , especially with a sulfur additive to the electrolyte to retain the sintered structure of the NiCl 2 electrode. Various environmental and safety tests have been successfully performed on the cells. Scale up efforts resulted in cells of 40 - 100 Ah, which were evaluated in an electric vehicle application. Additionally, it appears from a recent evaluation study carried out by European Space Agency on Na/NiCl 2 for GEO and LEO applications that energy densities of the order of 120 Wh/Kg and 100 Wh/Kg respectively at the cell level are feasible and long cycle lives (beyond 2800 cycles are possible). Several fundamental and developmental studies have been carried out at other laboratories aimed at understanding the reaction mechanisms, determining the kinetics and identifying various rate governing processes, and screening various other metal chlorides. Finally, the specific energies and especially the power densities projected for Na/FeCl 2 and Na/NiCl 2 systems based on alternate designs for beta alumina solid electrolyte, i.e., multiple tubes and flat plates are very attractive for electric vehicle and space applications. In this paper, the authors propose to present a detailed account of the developments made hither to as well as the key research issues being addressed in the sodium - metal chloride battery technology

  9. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  10. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions

  11. Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Stakišaitis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-dependent Cl−/HCO3- exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl− efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl− efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+ by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG. For Na+ and Cl− substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7–9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl− was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl−-free buffer (Cl− substituted with isethionate acid and in Na+ and Cl−-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl− efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl− efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl− efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl− efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl− efflux via Cl−/HCO3- exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger.

  12. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  13. Thiazolidinediones and Edema: Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Thiazolidinediones-Induced Renal Sodium Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Horita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are one of the major classes of antidiabetic drugs that are used widely. TZDs improve insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and ameliorate diabetic and other nephropathies, at least, in experimental animals. However, TZDs have side effects, such as edema, congestive heart failure, and bone fracture, and may increase bladder cancer risk. Edema and heart failure, which both probably originate from renal sodium retention, are of great importance because these side effects make it difficult to continue the use of TZDs. However, the pathogenesis of edema remains a matter of controversy. Initially, upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC in the collecting ducts by TZDs was thought to be the primary cause of edema. However, the results of other studies do not support this view. Recent data suggest the involvement of transporters in the proximal tubule, such as sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and sodium-proton exchanger. Other studies have suggested that sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of Henle and aquaporins are also possible targets for TZDs. This paper will discuss the recent advances in the pathogenesis of TZD-induced sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and edema.

  14. Thiazolidinediones and Edema: Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Thiazolidinediones-Induced Renal Sodium Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Shoko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Seki, George

    2015-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are one of the major classes of antidiabetic drugs that are used widely. TZDs improve insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and ameliorate diabetic and other nephropathies, at least, in experimental animals. However, TZDs have side effects, such as edema, congestive heart failure, and bone fracture, and may increase bladder cancer risk. Edema and heart failure, which both probably originate from renal sodium retention, are of great importance because these side effects make it difficult to continue the use of TZDs. However, the pathogenesis of edema remains a matter of controversy. Initially, upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the collecting ducts by TZDs was thought to be the primary cause of edema. However, the results of other studies do not support this view. Recent data suggest the involvement of transporters in the proximal tubule, such as sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and sodium-proton exchanger. Other studies have suggested that sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of Henle and aquaporins are also possible targets for TZDs. This paper will discuss the recent advances in the pathogenesis of TZD-induced sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and edema.

  15. Benzalkonium chloride neutralizes the irritant effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, J P; Holloway, D B; Whittle, E G; Basketter, D A

    2000-11-01

    When benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a cationic surfactant, is added to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, and used in patch testing, on the basis of their known physicochemical interaction, it is possible to predict that there will be a tendency towards a reduction in the expected irritant response when compared to SDS alone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BKC could reduce the irritant response to SDS when applied after the SDS exposure. 54 non-atopic adult volunteers were recruited for the study. 20% SDS was applied for 2 h under occlusion. 1% BKC was then applied to the same site. Various controls, including SDS application followed by water for 2 h, were included. The irritant reaction was assessed at 24 h and 48 h. 40 of the 54 subjects had some reaction when SDS was applied for 2 h followed by either benzalkonium chloride or water control under occlusion. In comparison to water control, where BKC was applied after SDS, 20 of the 40 responders had a weaker reaction but only 4 had a stronger response. This study shows that BKC applied to skin exposed to SDS attenuates the resulting irritant reaction.

  16. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo van Buren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  17. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: Evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  18. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, Vassilis

    1977-01-01

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 T melting ). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ d k with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author) [fr

  19. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  20. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  1. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM MEAT-CURING BRINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDMAN, M; DEIBEL, R H; NIVEN, C F

    1963-05-01

    Goldman, Manuel (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), R. H. Deibel, and C. F. Niven, Jr. Interrelationship between temperature and sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat-curing brines. J. Bacteriol. 85:1017-1021. 1963.-An elevation of the temperature limit for growth of some Pediococcus homari (Gaffkya homari) and motile Lactobacillus strains could be effected by the addition of sodium chloride to the growth medium. At the optimal temperature for growth, sodium chloride was stimulatory, and as the temperature of incubation was increased a mandatory requirement for sodium chloride was manifested. At the optimal temperature for growth (30 C), the highest sodium chloride concentrations were tolerated; as the temperature was increased, this tolerance decreased, although the optimal sodium chloride concentration increased. No other substances were found that would replace the sodium chloride requirement at higher temperatures of incubation.

  2. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  3. Determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium by ion chromatography and its application to PFBR sodium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical method using ion chromatography was developed for the determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium. In this method, sodium was dissolved in water and various sulphur species present in the sample was oxidized to sulphate using hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide gas was passed through the solution to convert sodium hydroxide to carbonate solution. The resulting sample solution was analysed using suppressed Ion chromatography employing carbonate eluent. This method was applied to the analysis of sodium samples procured for prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  4. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na(+)) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K(+)) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis...

  6. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  7. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Bayandina, Yu.E.; Toptygina, G.M.; Shepot'ko, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In 2 S 3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  8. Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P.C.S.; Grundy, B.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding) maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82 0 C and with chloride content up to 500 ppM. In contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304 stainless steel failed in the high chloride solution (500 ppM) within ten days at the same temperature. The failure was initiated by pitting and subsequently accelerated by intergranular attack. The results also show that high pH tends to reduce the susceptibility to failure while procedures commonly used for sodium removal have no significant effect on the water corrosion behavior of the test material. Based on the current results, it is concluded that water shortage is feasible for spent fuels in a LMFBR reprocessing plant

  9. Effects of sodium chloride on radiation protection and modification of gamma-ray treated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Zhao Kongnan; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Chen Qiufang

    1992-11-01

    The radiation protection effect of sodium chloride on dormant and germinating rice seeds treated with gamma-rays, and modification effect of sodium chloride on mutation were studied. Results show that the radiation-damage effect on seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility in M 1 generation is significantly enhanced with the increasing of dose. However, the seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility can be improved if the irradiated seeds are pre-treated with sodium chloride solution having concentrations of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mol/L. The difference between treated group and control group is very significant. Results also show that pre-treatment and post-treatment by sodium chloride can raise the mutation frequencies of chlorophyll deficient seedlings, especially, the mutation frequency of early heading date and height is more considerably. The conclusion is that the sodium chloride, as a radiation protection agent, combined with gamma-ray treatment could reduce the effect of radiation-damage on M 1 generation and raise the mutation frequency in M 2 generation, and this result will be helpful in rice breeding

  10. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel; Reza, Joel; Trejo, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg -1 = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10 -8 to 143 . 10 -8 ) mol . kg -1 . Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol -1 . The standard molar Gibbs free energies, Δ tr G o , enthalpies, Δ tr H o , and entropies, Δ tr S o , for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated Δ tr G o values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol -1 ]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  11. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  12. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-04-15

    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  13. The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after Cardiothoracic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Regina Turner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI is reported to be between 3-30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate during cardiac surgery will attenuate the postoperative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury when compared to a perioperative infusion with normal saline. An interim analysis was performed after data was available on the first 120 participants. A similar number of patients in the two treatment groups developed acute kidney injury (AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine the first 48 hours after surgery of 0.3 mg/dl or more. Specifically 14 patients (24% who received sodium chloride (SC and 17 patients (27% who received sodium bicarbonate (SB were observed to develop AKI post surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.1, chi-square p-value=0.68 for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC . The data safety monitoring board for the trial recommended closing the study early as there was only a 12% probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected. We therefore concluded that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate failed to attenuate the risk of CSA-AKI.

  14. Zinc sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperatures in sodium chloride and tap water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Othman Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    Zinc sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tested in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified for this study. This was partly due to the high resistivity of the medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in water tap medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. In tap water environment the anode weight loss was negligible. The zinc anode suffered intergranular corrosion in sodium chloride environment and this was noticed starting at 40 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the zinc anode demonstrated interesting behavior beyond 60 degree centigrade, that could be attributed to the phenomenon of reversal of potential at elevated temperatures. It also showed shallow pitting spots in tap water environment without any sign of intergranular corrosion. Zinc anodes would suffer intergranular corrosion at high temperatures. (author)

  15. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Wang Lili; Zhu Lanying; Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei

    2010-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h xy , h xxy , and h xyy ) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h xy between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  16. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  18. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  19. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  20. Effects of renal denervation on tubular sodium handling in rats with CBL-induced liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, T.E.; Brond, L.; Torp, M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of bilateral renal denervation (DNX) on thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) function in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by common bile duct ligation (CBL). The CBL rats had, as previously shown, sodium retention associated with hypertrophy...... renal sympathetic nerve activity known to be present in CBL rats plays a significant role in the formation of sodium retention by stimulating sodium reabsorption in the TAL via increased renal abundance of NKCC2....

  1. Renal handling of sodium and water in the hypothyroid rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Ulrich F.; Barenberg, Robert L.; Chavez, Rafaelita; Vaamonde, Carlos A.; Papper, Solomon

    1972-01-01

    Hypothyroid rats were examined with conventional renal clearance and micropuncture techniques to elicit the mechanism and site within the nephron responsible for the increased salt and water excretion observed in these animals. When compared with age-matched control rats, a decrease in inulin clearance of 30% (P < 0.001) and in Hippuran clearance of 32% (P < 0.005) was observed in the hypothyroid rats. Absolute excretion of sodium and water was increased 3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2-fold (P < 0.025), respectively, while fractional excretion of sodium and water was increased 4.3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2.9-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, in the hypothyroid animals. Fractional proximal reabsorption of sodium as assessed from proximal tubular fluid to plasma ratios of inulin ([TF/P]IN) was found to be decreased by 28% (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. Superficial single nephron filtration rate was reduced proportionately to the decrease in total filtration rate in the hypothyroid rats. These data indicate that the proximal tubule is one of the sites of diminished sodium and water reabsorption in the hypothyroid rat. The data also suggest that the observed decrease in glomerular filtration rate in the hypothyroid animals is not caused by a decrease in the number of functioning nephrons and that the observed increase in sodium and water excretion is not caused by a redistribution of filtrate from juxtamedullary to superficial nephrons. Although the exact mechanisms of the observed changes in proximal tubular function remain unknown, the data suggest that they are probably related to the lack of thyroid hormone. Whatever their mechanism, it appears that the enhanced sodium and water excretion observed in the hypothyroid animals must be determined by further reduction in tubular sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:5024038

  2. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Trickett

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  3. V color centers in electrolytically colored hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Han Li

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using pointed anode and flat cathode at various temperatures and under various electric field strengths. V 2 and V 3 color centers were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V 2 and V 3 color center migration was determined. Production of the V 2 and V 3 color centers and formation of current zones for the electrolytic colorations of the hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals are explained

  4. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J J; McOrist, G D; Farrar, Y J; Bowles, C J [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  5. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on glucose and sodium chloride solutions for injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakoza, G.N.; Grigor'eva, O.L.; Mart'yanova, B.M.; Vorob'eva, E.N.; Kuznetsova, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of 40% glucose solution with 0.5-4.0 Mrads di not affect the detoxicating properties of glucose or its ability to raise blood sugar levels. Such doses had no effect on the toxicological properties of 40% glucose solution and on 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The biological and physicochemical properties of 40% solution and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions irradiated with sterilizing doses showed no significant alterations during storage for one and three years, respectively. It is concluded that the solutions studied may be sterilized by radiation. (auth.)

  7. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  8. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  9. 33 Effects of Sodium Chloride Solutions on Compressive Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    strength increase at 3 and 7 days over control cubes; at 28 days concrete cubes containing 5%. RHA cured in NaCl solutions recorded higher strength loss compared to control cubes. Keywords: ... chloride in mixing water reported it to cause.

  10. on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-04

    Dec 4, 2006 ... coordination or complex formation between the metal cations and pH dependent oxygen and nitrogen anionic sites of the ... iron hydroxide, iron chloride, soda ash and synthetic polymers .... o u n d. Zn adsorption by. MSC-SC. Zn adsorption by. MOC-SC .... Okuda T, Baes AU, Nishijima W, Okada M (2001).

  11. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  12. Effect of radioactive chromate on the corrosion and polarisation of mild steel in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanyan, N.; Ramakrishnaiah, K.; Iyer, S.V.; Kapali, V.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion tests of mild steel in 0.01% sodium chloride containing radioactive chromate and non-radioactive chromate have been carried out. It has been observed that the labelled sodium chromate has a deleterious effect on the inhibitive action of non-radioactive chromate. The effect of radioactive chromate on the potentiostatic polarization of m.s. in sodium chloride solution containing non-radioactive sodium chromate has also been studied. It is observed that both the cathodic and the anodic polarisation of the metal is diminished in the presence of radioactive chromate. The behaviour of the system in the presence of radioactive chromate is attributed both to the action of depolarisers produced by radiolysis of water and to the effect of gamma radiation on the metal. (author)

  13. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  14. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel'man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of corrosion protoction of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in clloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylantiranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys

  15. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac tromethamine and benzalkonium chloride on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Araújo Cantarella

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015 with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013, increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001, most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.

  16. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  17. Selective sodium removal from lithium chloride brine with novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natrium superionic conductor (NASICON) ceramics present interesting sensitive and selective properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. The powder of Li1.4La0.4Zr1.6(PO4)3 has been synthesized by a solid phase reaction. The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests involving different ...

  18. Crystal structures of superconducting sodium intercalates of hafnium nitride chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oro-Sole, J.; Frontera, C.; Beltran-Porter, D.; Lebedev, O.I.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Fuertes, A.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium intercalation compounds of HfNCl have been prepared at room temperature in naphtyl sodium solutions in tetrahydrofuran and their crystal structure has been investigated by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data and high-resolution electron microscopy. The structure of two intercalates with space group R3-bar m and lattice parameters a=3.58131(6)A, c=57.752(6)A, and a=3.58791(8)A, c=29.6785(17)A is reported, corresponding to the stages 2 and 1, respectively, of Na x HfNCl. For the stage 2 phase an ordered model is presented, showing two crystallographically independent [HfNCl] units with an alternation of the Hf-Hf interlayer distance along the c-axis, according with the occupation by sodium atoms of one out of two van der Waals gaps. Both stages 1 and 2 phases are superconducting with critical temperatures between 20 and 24K, they coexist in different samples with proportions depending on the synthesis conditions, and show a variation in c spacing that can be correlated with the sodium stoichiometry. High-resolution electron microscopy images of the host and intercalated samples show bending of the HfNCl bilayers as well as stacking faults in some regions, which coexist in the same crystal with ordered domains

  19. Influence of sodium chloride on aflatoxin production by irradiated and non-irradiated spores of aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid medium consisting of 2% yeast extract, 4% sucrose and 0-10% sodium chloride was inoculated with aspergillus flavus and incubated at 22.30 and 37 degree C for 8 days. Aflatoxin was determined in the medium by thin layer chromatography. Aflatoxin production was enhanced by 2 and 4% sodium chloride at 22 and 30 degree C and by 2-6% sodium chloride at 37 degree C. Aflatoxin was decreased by 8 and 10% sodium chloride at the three temperatures. Exposure of Asp. flavus spores to gamma radiation enhanced aflatoxin at 1 kGy and inhibited it at 2 kGy, with the different concentrations of sodium chloride.2 tab

  20. Hazard identification for human and ecological effects of sodium chloride road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (DES) requested an evaluation of : the human and ecological risks associated with the application of sodium chloride (NaCl) road : salt to roadways. NaCl is the major de-icing agent used in NH to...

  1. Reduction of potassium permanganate solution by γ-irradiated sodium chloride [Paper No. RD-21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phansalkar, V.K.; Ravishankar, D.

    1982-01-01

    The dissolution of γ-irradiated sodium chloride in potassium permanganate solution results in the reduction of MnO 4 - ions. This has been inferred from spectrophotometric studies. This has been explained on the basis of interaction of colour centres with MnO 4 - ions. The extent to which MnO 4 - ions are reduced are found to vary with

  2. Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl), juveniles and adult Metynnis orinocensis were exposed for 96 h to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 40 g L-1 of salt. Food intake, behaviour, opercular frequency (OF), mortality, body weight and gill microscopic alterations were evaluated. Behavioural changes...

  3. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Jiang, L.M.; de Soet, J.J.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  4. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  5. Foliar application of ascorbic acid mitigates sodium chloride induced stress in eggplant (solanum melongena l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S.; Hamayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current work was designed to test the effect of sodium chloride on germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth, yield, chemical contents and ionic composition of eggplant. The consequences of foliar application of ascorbic acid (AA) on mitigation of adverse effects of sodium chloride were also tested. The seeds of Solanum melongena were germinated using NaCl (60 mM, 100 mM) and ascorbic acid (100 and 200 mM). High levels of salinity significantly affected the seed germination and seedling fresh and dry weights. Plants grown under salinity stress with foliar application of ascorbic acid showed significant increase in germination percentage and seedlings growth as compare to control plants. Sodium chloride stress showed adverse effects on plant height, root length, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass, total chlorophyll, carbohydrates and proteins as compared to untreated plants. The relative water content, electrolyte leakage were increased and Na+ and K+ ions balance was disturbed in different plant parts. Ascorbic acid (100 and 200ppm) enhanced all the growth parameters affected adversely by sodium chloride stress. (author)

  6. Roentgen-phase analysis of sodium chloride of Khodja-Mumindeposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, K.M.; Pulatov, M.S.; Isupov, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of determination of mineral composition of sodium chloride by authors was carried out the roentgen-phase analysis till its purification, after filtration and after purification from Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 4 2 + i ons by barium-carbonate and hydrochloride-acid methods

  7. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 8 (2016), s. 1454-1460 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * neutron scattering * agueous sodium chloride Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  8. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not

  9. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl−) and sodium (Na...

  10. The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hao; Liu, Min; Qu, Wen; Johnson, James; Brunson, Ed; Almoazen, Hassan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium iodide, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals by wet ball milling. Sulfamerazine was milled using zirconium oxide beads in a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a sodium salt (iodide, chloride or sulfate). Particle size distributions were evaluated by light diffraction before and after milling. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine the amount of PVP adsorbed onto sulfamerazine surface. Lyophilized nanocrystals were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution testing. Sulfate ion had more profound effect on reducing particle size via milling than iodide or chloride. We linked our findings to Hofmeister ion series, which indicates that sulfate ions tends to break the water structure, increases the surface tension and lowers the solubility of hydrocarbons in water. We hypothesized that the addition of sulfate ions dehydrated the PVP molecules and enhanced its adsorption onto the sulfamerazine particle surfaces. Consequently, the adsorbed PVP helped to stabilize of the nanosuspension. The nanocrystals that were obtained from the lyophilized milled suspensions exhibited a notable increase in dissolution rate. The addition of sodium sulfate enhanced the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

  11. Direct effect of methylprednisolone on renal sodium and water transport via the principal cells in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Thomas G; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids influence renal concentrating and diluting ability. We tested the hypothesis that methylprednisolone treatment increased renal water and sodium absorption by increased absorption via the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels and the epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) respectively....

  12. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron's principal cells. In a dose-response study, we measured the effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium....... CONCLUSIONS: During baseline, fractional excretion of sodium was unchanged. During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, renal water excretion was reduced dose dependently, and renal sodium excretion was reduced unrelated to the dose, partly via an AVP dependent mechanism. Thus, tolvaptan antagonized the reduction...... in renal water and sodium excretion during NO-inhibition. Most likely, the lack of decrease in AQP2 excretion by tolvaptan could be attributed to a counteracting effect of the high level of p-AVP....

  13. Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Prokudina, A.F.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

  14. Anodic solution of alkali earth alloys in potassium chloride-sodium chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Generalized results of studying the process of anodic dissolution of alkaline-earth metal alloys with zinc, aluminium and copper in the melts of KCl-NaCl equimolar mixture containing alkaline-earth metal chlorides, are presented. It is shown that during dissolution of both pure liquid metals and their alloys there is no electrode polarization in the range of the current densities lower or comparable in their values to corrosion current

  15. Salt, sodium chloride or sodium? Content and relationship with chemical, instrumental and sensory attributes in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameník, Josef; Saláková, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Pechová, Alena; Haruštiaková, Danka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt content in selected cooked meat products by the methods of determining the sodium content and the content of chlorides. The resulting data was compared with other chemical, instrumental and sensory parameters of the analysed samples. A total of 133 samples of 5 meat products were tested. The sodium content ranged from 558.0 to 1308.0mgNa/100g. Salt level determined by the two methods strongly correlated and did not differ in any meat product. Intensity of salty taste of the product was independent on its salt content. The salt (sodium) content may be reduced without a negative impact on sensory or instrumental properties of meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  17. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove.

  18. Extended stability of intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution after prolonged heating or cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertos, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and sterility of an intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution that had been cooled or heated for an extended period of time. Fifteen sterile 1 L bags of 0.9% sodium chloride solution were randomly selected for this experiment. Five bags were refrigerated at an average temperature of 5.2°C, 5 bags were heated at an average temperature of 39.2°C, and 5 bags were stored at an average room temperature of 21.8°C to serve as controls. All samples were protected from light and stored for a period of 199 days prior to being assayed and analyzed for microbial and fungal growth. There was no clinically significant difference in the mean sodium values between the refrigerated samples, the heated samples, and the control group. There were no signs of microbial or fungal growth for the duration of the study. A sterile intravenous solution of 0.9% sodium chloride that was heated or cooled remained stable and showed no signs of microbial or fungal growth for a period of 199 days. This finding will allow hospitals and emergency medical technicians to significantly extend the expiration date assigned to these fluids and therefore obviate the need to change out these fluids every 28 days as recommended by the manufacturer.

  19. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  20. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  1. Bioaccumulation of sodium alkyl sulfate zinc chloride and their mixture in young goby proterorhinus marmoratus pall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Birol, E. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1982-12-01

    The bioaccumulation of labelled surfactant, 35S-labelled sodium lauryl sulfate and 65Zn-labelled zinc chloride, was investigated both as a mixture and alone by themselves in young goby. The concentration factor of 7.15 was calculated for the surfactant in the whole-body fish and there was no effect of zinc chloride on this bioaccumulation process. Biological half-life of the surfactant was around 35 hours. The effects of surfactants on the zinc accumulation were also followed under the same conditions. The results indicated that the sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on the accumulation of zinc, however, the other surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caused a significant increase in the zinc accumulation in comparison with the control group, during the uptake period.

  2. Bioaccumulation of sodium alkyl sulfate zinc chloride and their mixture in young goby proterorhinus marmoratus pall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Birol, E.

    1982-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of labelled surfactant, 35S-labelled sodium lauryl sulfate and 65Zn-labelled zinc chloride, was investigated both as a mixture and alone by themselves in young goby. The concentration factor of 7.15 was calculated for the surfactant in the whole-body fish and there was no effect of zinc chloride on this bioaccumulation process. Biological half-life of the surfactant was around 35 hours. The effects of surfactants on the zinc accumulation were also followed under the same conditions. The results indicated that the sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on the accumulation of zinc, however, the other surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caused a significant increase in the zinc accumulation in comparison with the control group, during the uptake period. (author)

  3. Use of Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution at Surgery under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the data available in the references on different aspects of using hypertonic sodium chloride solution during surgery under extracorporeal circulation in cardiosurgical care. The hypertonic solution is shown to lower positive fluid balance in the perioperative period, to increase cardiac output with simultaneously decreased vascular resistance, to improve lung oxygenating function, and to normalize tissue blood circulation and neurological status in patients exposed to artificial perfusion. There is evidence for its effect on the immune system and capillary endothelium. It is suggested that it is necessary to study the effect of the hypertonic solution on the incidence of complications and death rates during surgery under extracorporeal circulation and it is proposed to use the solution under long-term extracorporeal circulation. Key words: hypertonic saline, sodium chloride, extracorporeal circulation.

  4. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna; Staub, Olivier; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na + ) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K + ) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Here, we developed the use of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) mammalian epithelial cell lines with tetracycline-inducible human NCC expression to study NCC activity and membrane abundance in the same system. In radiotracer assays, induced cells grown on filters had robust thiazide-sensitive and chloride dependent sodium-22 ( 22 Na) uptake from the apical side. To minimize cost and maximize throughput, assays were modified to use cells grown on plastic. On plastic, cells had similar thiazide-sensitive 22 Na uptakes that increased following preincubation of cells in chloride-free solutions. NCC was detected in the plasma membrane, and both membrane abundance and phosphorylation of NCC were increased by incubation in chloride-free solutions. Furthermore, in cells exposed for 15 min to low or high extracellular K + , the levels of phosphorylated NCC increased and decreased, respectively. To demonstrate that the system allows rapid and systematic assessment of mutated NCC, three phosphorylation sites in NCC were mutated, and NCC activity was examined. 22 Na fluxes in phosphorylation-deficient mutants were reduced to baseline levels, whereas phosphorylation-mimicking mutants were constitutively active, even without chloride-free stimulation. In conclusion, this system allows the activity, cellular localization, and abundance of wild-type or mutant NCC to be examined in the same polarized mammalian expression system in a rapid, easy, and low-cost fashion. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation in sterilization of dry dextran as plasma substitute and sodium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatkiewicz, A; Kusewicz, D [Politechnika Lodzka (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The exposure of dry dextran, sodium chloride and polyethylene packing to 0,3-2 Mrad of gamma irradiation decreased their contamination by 60 to 96%. The sterilization effect of irradiation increased with gamma-ray dose. Spores of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were shown to be the most resistant to gamma-ray treatment. In some samples the resistant Micrococcus was also detected.

  6. Eliminating radium from uranium mill acid effluent with barium chloride-sodium carbonate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiayuan

    1998-01-01

    The eliminating radium procedure, barium chloride-sodium carbonate-sand filtering, being used, radium can be eliminated to 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L order of magnitude from uranium mill acid effluents which contain 3.7 Bq/L Ra and pH 6∼9 when Ba 2+ is added by 3∼5 mg per litre, Na 2 CO 3 5mg. The radium elimination rate is more than 90%

  7. The role of chloride in deoxycorticosterone hypertension: selective sodium loading by diet or drinking fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef; Jelínek, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2004), s. 149-154 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/0769; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : sodium * chloride * DOCA-salt hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  8. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia O Amaral

    Full Text Available Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT, but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1, i.v.. A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP and renal blood flow (RBF. Renal vascular conductance (RVC was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6, OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1, i.v. induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1 b.wt., i.v. was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6, hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1 • h(-1, i.v.; n = 7 and renal denervation (RX reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7 completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively, whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  9. Studies of the effect of ethanol and sodium chloride on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate by gel filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.

    1976-06-01

    The effects of the addition of ethanol and sodium chloride to aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied by the gel-filtration method. With an increase in the concentration of ethanol, the CMC decreased and then increased after passing a minimum, while the micellar weight increased and then decreased, showing a corresponding maximum. Above about 40 vol percent ethanol, no micelle formation was observed. The micellar weight and aggregation number in the presence of ethanol were measured in the SDS concentration range of a constant elution rate of micelles. A decrease in the CMC and an increase in the micellar weight of SDS were observed with an increase in the concentration of NaCl from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The gel-filtration study enabled us to make a direct experimental confirmation of the effects of ethanol and NaCl on the micelle formation of SDS.

  10. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  11. Determination of lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.J.; Ramirez G, J.J.; Rojas H, A.

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to complete information about the lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants here is used the potentiometric method to determine those in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K. (Author)

  12. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2) a...... effect. Changes in renal prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the decrease in renal blood flow. The lithium clearance data suggest that an increased proximal tubular reabsorption rate may contribute to the decreased sodium clearance during recombinant interleukin-2 treatment....

  13. Influence of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in Minas fresh cheese of sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalana Cecília Hanauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sheep’s milk has high contents of fat, protein and minerals in relation to the cow’s milk and is suitable for the production of cheeses, as the Minas fresh. The production of this cheese includes the salting, by offering important functions for this product. The salting is performed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl, however in excess this salt may be harmful to consumer health. Then, it was evaluated the development of tree formulations of Minas fresh cheese sheep’s milk (100% NaCl – QA; 75% NaCl and 25% potassium chloride (KCl – QB; 50% NaCl and 50% KCl – QC and they were evaluated by physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyzes. A partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not influence the moisture, protein and ash contents, pH and water activity of the cheeses. Furthermore, a 50% substitution of NaCl by KCl enabled to obtain a cheese with reduced sodium content in relation to the standard with 100% NaCl. The sensorial analysis showed that the substitution of 50% (QC and 25% (QB of NaCl by KCl did not show significant for the overall acceptance index, however, the use of KCl was perceived by the evaluators, since the formulations QB and QC differed significantly from the standard (QA. However, in the multiple comparison test there was no significant difference between the samples. Thus, the results indicated that a partial replacement of NaCl by KCl can be performed at Minas fresh cheese from sheep’smilk.

  14. Tributyltin chloride induces renal dysfunction by inflammation and oxidative stress in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, João V S; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C; Freitas, Frederico F C T; Freitas, Flávia P S; Podratz, Priscila L; Magnago, Rafaella P L; Porto, Marcella L; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Vasquez, Elisardo C; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Paiva-Melo, Francisca D; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Gava, Agata L; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-10-17

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an organometallic pollutant that is used as a biocide in antifouling paints. TBT induces several toxic and endocrine-disrupting effects. However, studies evaluating the effects of TBT on renal function are rare. This study demonstrates that TBT exposure is responsible for improper renal function as well as the development of abnormal morphophysiology in mammalian kidneys. Female rats were treated with TBT, and their renal morphophysiology was assessed. Morphophysiological abnormalities such as decreased glomerular filtration rate and increased proteinuria levels were observed in TBT rats. In addition, increases in inflammation, collagen deposition and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein expression were observed in TBT kidneys. A disrupted cellular redox balance and apoptosis in kidney tissue were also observed in TBT rats. TBT rats demonstrated reduced serum estrogen levels and estrogen receptor-α (ERα) protein expression in renal cortex. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that TBT is toxic to normal renal function and that these effects may be associated with renal histopathology complications, such as inflammation and fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between continuous peripheral i.v. infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection and phlebitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lina; Nguyen, Cherwyn M; Patel, Samit; Mlynash, Michael; Caulfield, Anna Finley

    2018-03-01

    One institution's experience with use of peripheral i.v. (PIV) catheters for prolonged infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection at rates up to 100 mL/hr is described. A prospective, observational, 13-month quality assurance project was conducted at an academic medical center to evaluate frequencies of patient and catheter phlebitis among adult inpatients who received both an infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection for a period of ≥4 hours through a dedicated PIV catheter and infusions of routine-care solutions (RCSs) through separate PIV catheters during the same hospital stay. Sixty patients received PIV infusions through a total of 291 catheters during the study period. The majority of patients (78%) received infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection for intracranial hypertension, with 30% receiving such infusions in the intensive care unit. Phlebitis occurred in 28 patients (47%) during infusions of 3% sodium chloride and 26 patients (43%) during RCS infusions ( p = 0.19). Catheter phlebitis occurred in 73 catheters (25%), with no significant difference in the frequencies of catheter phlebitis with infusion of 3% sodium chloride versus RCSs (30% [32 of 106 catheters]) versus 22% [41 of 185 catheters]), p = 0.16). Patient and catheter phlebitis rates were not significantly different with infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection versus RCSs, suggesting that an osmolarity cutoff value of 900 mOsm/L for peripheral infusions of hypertonic saline solutions may not be warranted. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, C J

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  17. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  18. Safety evaluation of a trial of lipocalin-directed sodium bicarbonate infusion for renal protection in at-risk critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Antoine G; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Reade, Michael; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Eastwood, Glenn M; Garcia, Mercedes; Moore, Elizabeth; Harley, Nerina

    2013-06-01

    Urine alkalinisation with sodium bicarbonate decreases renal oxidative stress and might attenuate sepsisassociated acute kidney injury (s-AKI). The safety and feasibility of urine alkalinisation in patients at risk of s-AKI has never been tested. We randomly assigned patients at risk of s-AKI (those with systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS], oliguria and elevated [≥150 µg/L] serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [sNGAL] concentration) to receive sodium bicarbonate (treatment group) or sodium chloride (placebo group) in a 0.5 mmol/kg bolus followed by an infusion of 0.2 mmol/kg/hour. Among 50 patients with SIRS and oliguria, 25 (50%) had an elevated sNGAL concentration. Of these, 13 were randomised to receive sodium bicarbonate and 12 to receive sodium chloride infusion. Study drugs were infused for a mean period of 25.9 hours (SD, 10 hours). Severe electrolyte abnormalities occurred in seven patients (28%) (four [30.8%] in the treatment group and three [25%] in the placebo group). These abnormalities resulted in early protocol cessation in six patients (24%) and study drug suspension in one patient (4%). This adverse event rate was judged to be unacceptable and the study was terminated early. There was no difference between the two groups in sNGAL or urinary NGAL concentrations over time, occurrence of acute kidney injury, requirement for renal replacement therapy, hospital length-of-stay or mortality. Administration of sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride solutions to patients at risk of s-AKI was associated with frequent major electrolyte abnormalities and early protocol cessation. The tested protocol does not appear safe or feasible.

  19. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

    2013-03-01

    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  20. Compatibility of butorphanol and droperidol in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2013-03-15

    The compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate and droperidol in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and glass bottles stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 15 days were studied. Admixtures were assessed initially and for 15 days after preparation in PVC bags and glass bottles using 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent and stored at 4°C and 25°C. The initial drug concentrations were 0.08 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate and 0.05 mg/mL for droperidol. Samples were withdrawn from each container immediately after preparation and at predetermined intervals (2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, 240, and 360 hours after preparation). The solutions were visually inspected for precipitation, cloudiness, and discoloration at each sampling interval. Drug concentrations were determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. After 15 days of storage, all formulations tested retained >98% of the initial concentrations of both drugs. The drug mixtures were clear in appearance, and no color change or precipitation was observed. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and droperidol 0.05 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for at least 360 hours when stored in PVC bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light.

  1. Mitochondrial bioenergetics during the initiation of mercuric chloride-induced renal injury. I. Direct effects of in vitro mercuric chloride on renal cortical mitochondrial function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, J.M. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI); Harding, P.G.; Humes, H.D.

    1982-01-01

    Increasing data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may be an important early component of nephrotoxin-induced changes in renal cell function and viability. This study was designed to obtain more detailed information about the effects on several basic bioenergetic parameters of the direct interaction of Hg/sup 2 +/ with renal cortical mitochondria in vitro as a necessary prelude to studies of mitochondrial functional changes after treatment with mercuric chloride in vivo. Beginning at a threshhold level of 2 nmol of Hg/sup 2 +//mg of mitochondrial protein Hg/sup 2 +/ induced marked stimulation of State 4 respiration, mild inhibition of State 3 respiration, and 2,4-dinitrophenol uncoupled respiration, a striking increase in atractyloside-insensitive ADP uptake and stimulation of both basal- and Mg/sup 2 +/-activated oligomycin-sensitive mitochondrial ATPase activity. These effects of Hg/sup 2 +/ could be prevented and reversed by the sulfhydryl reagent dithioerythritol and by albumin but were not affected by Mg/sup 2 +/. Detailed studies on the addition of HgCl/sub 2/ to the preparation at different stages of the mitochondrial isolation procedure demonstrated that the presence of other proteins decreased mitochondrial Hg/sup 2 +/ binding, that the Hg/sup 2 +/ was not readily washed off the mitochondria by nonprotein-containing solutions, and that prolonged exposure of mitochondria to Hg/sup 2 +/ during the isolation procedure did not markedly alter its functional effects on their reversibility as assessed on the final mitochondrial preparation. These data provide an important basis for critically assessing the changes in function of mitochondria isolated after in vivo treatment with mercuric chloride.

  2. Stability of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Lorazepam, and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Collin R; Halford, Zachery; MacKay, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is problematic for many patients undergoing chemotherapy. Multiple-drug treatments have been developed to mitigate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. A patient-controlled infusion of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lorazepam, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been studied in patients who are refractory to first-line therapy. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical compatibility of this three-drug combination is not available in the published literature. Chemical compatibility was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Visual observation was employed to detect change in color, clarity, or gas evolution. Turbidity and pH measurements were performed in conjunction with visual observation at hours 0, 24, and 48. Results showed that diphenhydramine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.27 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polypropylene syringes were compatible, and components retained greater than 95% of their original concentration over 48 hours when stored at room temperature.

  3. Internal structure, hydroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, Y.; Minofar, Babak; Desyaterik, Y.; Dames, E.; Zhu, Z.; Cain, J. P.; Hopkins, R. J.; Gilles, M. K.; Wang, H.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Laskin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 25 (2011), s. 11846-11857 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME09062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : sodium methanesulfonate particles * air/water interface * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  4. Renal effects of in utero exposure to mercuric chloride in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, A.M.; Collette, C.; Lauwerys, R. (Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine Unit, Brussels (Belgium))

    1992-08-01

    The transplacental nephrotoxicity of mercuric chloride has been studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Mercuric chloride was injected s.c. to rats at the dose of 1 mg/kg during the last 8 gestational days or the whole pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns developed a transient renal dysfunction resulting in an increased urinary excretion of beta[sub 2]-microglobulin and albumin. In mothers and their female offspring, these effects were completely reversible and did not influence the subsequent evolution of the renal function. In the male offspring, however, transitory changes in protein excretion were again observed a few months later, concomitantly with an enhanced accumulation of alpha[sub 2u]-globulin in the kidney. The transfer of mercury from maternal to fetal tissues was very small. The kidney concentrations of mercury in newborns were more than 300 times lower than in mothers. The barrier role of the placenta is not sufficient to prevent the occurrence of renal effects in the offspring of rats treated with inorganic mercury during pregnancy. (orig.).

  5. Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data of Sodium Bicarbonate and Sodium Chloride for All-Cause Mortality After Coronary Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Robert James (Jim); Pearlman, D. M.; Marshall, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to examine the relation between sodium bicarbonate prophylaxis for contrast associated nephropathy (CAN) and mortality. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis from multiple randomized controlled trials. We obtained individual patient data sets for 7 of 10 eligible trials (2......,292 of 2,764 participants). For the remaining 3 trials, time-to-event data were imputed based on follow-up periods described in their original reports. We included all trials that compared periprocedural intravenous sodium bicarbonate to periprocedural intravenous sodium chloride in patients undergoing...... bicarbonate was associated with lower mortality hazard than sodium chloride at 1 year (hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41 to 0.89, p = 0.011). Although periprocedural sodium bicarbonate was associated with a reduction in the incidence of CAN (relative risk 0.75, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.91, p = 0...

  6. Mitochondrial bioenergetics during the initiation of mercuric chloride-induced renal activity. II. Functional alterations of renal cortical mitochondria isolated after mercuric chloride treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, J.M. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI); Harding, P.G.; Humes, H.D.

    1982-01-01

    The mitochondrial functional defects occurring in the early stages of nephrotoxic renal injury secondary to mercuric chloride have been characterized. No loss of cellular integrity or major mitochondrial structural alterations occurred within the first 3 hr after a subcutaneous injection of 5 mg/kg of HgCl/sub 2/. At 3 h, levels of Hg/sup 2 +/ in renal cortex and isolated renal cortical mitochondria were 1.87 and 0.72 nmol/mg of protein, respectively. Much evidence suggested that this Hg/sup 2 +/ had reached the mitochondria in situ and not during the isolation process. Mitochondria isolated beginning 1 h after treatment with HgCl/sub 2/ showed depressed ADP uptake. At 2 h, inhibitions of State 3 and 2,4-dinitrophenol uncoupled respiration were detected. Inhibition of 2,4-dinitrophenol-activated mitochondrial ATPase activity was present when measured on mitochondria isolated at 3 h. These effects were not reversed by 2 mM dithioerythritol, 50 mg/ml of albumin or 5 mM MgCl/sub 2/. Analysis of the data in the context of information available on the in vitro effects of HgCl/sub 2/ (Weinberg, J.M., Harding, P.G., and Humes, H.D. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 60-67) indicated that the mitochondrial functional effects could not be attributed to interaction of the mitochondria with Hg/sup 2 +/ during their isolation. These studies implicate compromised mitochondrial bioenergetic function as one of the earliest intracellular effects of Hg/sup 2 +/ in the production of nephrotoxicity but suggest that the intracellular process involves events in addition to those seen with direct exposure of mitochondria to Hg/sup 2 +/ in vitro.

  7. Corrosion of nickel in potassium and sodium chloride melts containing vanadium trichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochergin, V.P.; Ponomarev, Yu.S.; Bezvoritnij, V.A.; Bajbakov, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    Corrosion of nickel has been studied by the method of the rotating disc in melts of potassium and sodium chlorides containing vanadium trichloride in the concentration 0-20.0 wt.% in the temperature range 1103-1328 K. Corrosion proceeds in the diffusion region, the corrosion rate being controlled by diffusion of either V 3+ or V 2+ depending on the concentration of VCl 3 in the melts. The apparent activation energy of nickel corrosion is 43,110-74660 joule/mol

  8. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P renal hemodynamics, urine flow, sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly...

  9. Effect of renal venous pressure elevation on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Amtorp, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    of [51Cr]EDTA was used as a measure of the rate of glomerular filtration (GFR). GFR, urinary excretion rates of sodium and water, and lithium clearance were used for assessing the absolute and fractional reabsorption rates of sodium and water in the proximal as well as in more distal segments......This study was performed in order to quantify the effects of renal venous pressure (RVP) elevation on absolute and fractional reabsorption rates of sodium and water in proximal and distal segments of the nephron in dog kidneys. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured electromagnetically. Clearance...

  10. EFFECTS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF PURPLETOP VERVAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising demand for salt-tolerant species for landscaping. Purpletop vervain is an excellent landscape plant for gardens and parks, with fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers. However, little is known concerning the effect of sodium chloride on morphological characteristics, flowering and mineral uptake of purpletop vervain. In this study, carried out in 2013–2014, the plants of purpletop vervain were grown in pots in an unheated plastic tunnel. The plants were watered with 200 mM NaCl solution four times, every seven days. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by slightly reduced plant height, weight of the aboveground part and visual score. Salt stress caused also an increase in leaf content sodium, chlorine and manganese. Salinity had no effect on earliness of flowering and content in leaves of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Purpletop vervain seems to be plant species able to tolerate salt stress under controlled conditions.

  11. Low sodium intake does not impair renal compensation of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Claudia; Boemke, Willehad; Schleyer, Nora; Francis, Roland C; Krebs, Martin O; Kaczmarczyk, Gabriele

    2002-05-01

    Acute hypoxia causes hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis, often combined with increased diuresis and sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate excretion. With a low sodium intake, the excretion of the anion bicarbonate may be limited by the lower excretion rate of the cation sodium through activated sodium-retaining mechanisms. This study investigates whether the short-term renal compensation of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis is impaired by a low sodium intake. Nine conscious, tracheotomized dogs were studied twice either on a low-sodium (LS = 0.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) or high-sodium (HS = 7.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) diet. The dogs breathed spontaneously via a ventilator circuit during the experiments: first hour, normoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.21); second to fourth hour, hypoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.1). During hypoxia (arterial PO2 34.4 +/- 2.1 Torr), plasma pH increased from 7.37 +/- 0.01 to 7.48 +/- 0.01 (P respiratory alkalosis was not impaired by a low sodium intake. The increased sodium excretion during hypoxia seems to be combined with a decrease in plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II in LS as well as in HS dogs. Other factors, e.g., increased mean arterial blood pressure, minute ventilation, and renal blood flow, may have contributed.

  12. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

    2008-01-15

    Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup.

  13. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  14. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  15. Successful pregnancy in a female patient with congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) and renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshio; Kamoda, Tomohiro; Nagata, Michio; Yoh, Keigyo; Hashimoto, Yuko; Matsui, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Koyama, Akio

    2009-01-01

    We report a successful case of pregnancy in a female patient with congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) and reduced renal function due to interruption of treatment. CLD is an autosomal recessive disorder of intestinal electrolyte absorption caused by mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3) gene, and continuous production of watery diarrhea induces dehydration, metabolic alkalosis and many kinds of electrolyte disturbances in CLD patients. The patient in our case was a 24-year-old female CLD patient with moderate renal impairment; a renal biopsy specimen showed minimal glomerular changes, but tubulointerstitial damage by crystal formation, consistent with renal function data. One year after our initial examination and reinstitution of therapy, the patient got married and soon conceived. There were no major problems during the course of pregnancy, and the patient successfully delivered a healthy full-term infant vaginally. The symptoms and clinical course of the patient were particularly mild, and we discuss possible reasons for these observations from a perspective of genotype, phenotype and environmental conditions.

  16. Properties of diclofenac sodium sorption onto natural zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajišnik, Danina; Daković, Aleksandra; Milojević, Maja; Malenović, Anđelija; Kragović, Milan; Bogdanović, Danica Bajuk; Dondur, Vera; Milić, Jela

    2011-03-01

    In this study an investigation of a model drug sorption onto cationic surfactant-modified natural zeolites as a drug formulation excipient was performed. Natural zeolite was modified with cetylpyridinium chloride in amounts equivalent to 100, 200 and 300% of its external cation-exchange capacity. The starting material and obtained organozeolites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis. In vitro sorption of diclofenac sodium as a model drug was studied for all surfactant/zeolite composites by means of sorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions (pH 7.4). The modified zeolites with three levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis showed that when the surfactant loading level was equal to external cation-exchange value, almost monolayer of organic phase were present at the zeolitic surface while higher amounts of surfactant produced less extended bilayers, ordered bilayers or admicelles at the zeolitic surface. Modified zeolites, obtained in this manner, were effective in diclofenac sodium sorption and the organic phase derived from adsorbed cetylpyridinium chloride was the primary sorption phase for the model drug. The Langmuir isotherm was found to describe the equilibrium sorption data well over the entire concentration range. The separate contributions of the adsorption and partition to the total sorption of DS were analyzed mathematically. Results revealed that that adsorption and partitioning of the model drug take place simultaneously. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide).

  18. Dual energy CT monitoring of the renal corticomedullary sodium gradient in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rahi; Wang, Zhen J.; Forsythe, Carlos; Fu Yanjun; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) for monitoring dynamic changes in the renal corticomedullary sodium gradient in swine. Material and methods: This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Four water-restricted pigs were CT-scanned at 80 and 140 kVp at baseline and at 5 min intervals for 30 min during saline or furosemide diuresis. The renal cortical and medullary CT numbers were recorded. A DECT basis material decomposition method was used to quantify renal cortical and medullary sodium concentrations and medulla-to-cortex sodium ratios at each time point based on the measured CT numbers. The sodium concentrations and medulla-to-cortex sodium ratios were compared between baseline and at 30 min diuresis using paired Student t-tests. The medulla-to-cortex sodium ratios were considered to reflect the corticomedullary sodium gradient. Results: At baseline prior to saline diuresis, the mean medullary and cortical sodium concentrations were 103.8 ± 8.7 and 65.3 ± 1.7 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.59. At 30 min of saline diuresis, the medullary and cortical sodium concentrations decreased to 72.3 ± 1.0 and 56.0 ± 1.4 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a significantly reduced medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.29 (P < 0.05). At baseline prior to furosemide diuresis, the mean medullary and cortical sodium concentrations were 110.5 ± 3.6 and 66.7 ± 4.1 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.66. At 30 min of furosemide diuresis, the medullary and cortical sodium concentrations decreased to 68.5 ± 0.3 and 58.9 ± 4.0 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to a significantly reduced medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio of 1.16 (P < 0.05). One of the 4 pigs developed acute tubular necrosis likely related to prolonged hypoxia during intubation prior to the furosemide diuresis experiment. The medulla-to-cortex sodium ratio for this

  19. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  20. Corrosion of Dental Au-Ag-Cu-Pd Alloys in 0.9 % Sodium Chloride Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Atsushi; Kusayanagi, Yukiharu

    2005-01-01

    Two Au-Ag-Cu-Pd dental casting alloys (Au:12% and 20%) used. The test solutions used 0.9 % NaCl solution (isotonic sodium chloride solution), 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid, and 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid and 0.1 mol dm -3 Na 2 S. The surface of two samples in three sample solutions was not natural discoloration during one year. The alloy containing 12 % gold was easily alloyed and the composition was uniform comparing with the alloy containing 20 % gold. The rest potentials have not a little effect after three months. The kinds of metals could not definitely from the oxidation and reduction waves of metal on the cyclic voltammograms. The dissolutions of gold and palladium were 12 % Au sample in the 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid and 0.1 mol dm -3 Na 2 S. The pH of solution had an affect on dissolution of copper, and sulfur ion had an affect on dissolution of silver. The copper dissolved amount from 20 % gold sample was about 26 times comparing with that of 12 % gold sample in the 0.9 % solution containing 1 % lactic acid. Corrosion products were silver chloride and copper chloride in NaCl solution, and silver sulfide and copper sulfide in NaCl solution containing Na 2 S

  1. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium

  2. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in the formulation of French bread: effect on the physical, physicochemical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Abrantes Souza GUSMÃO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to the replacement of sodium chloride (0.4 to 1.6% by potassium chloride (0.2 to 0.8% in French bread formulation and evaluate its effect on physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. For the preparation of bread was used a factorial design 22 with 4 factorial points and 3 central points, totaling 7 experiments. The physical and physicochemical parameters analyzed were: specific volume, moisture, color of the peel and crumb, pH, acidity and texture profile, sodium and potassium. The sensory evaluation of bread was performed using quantitative descriptive analysis, with 12 sensory terminologies. Response variables of salty taste and sensory chewiness generated statistically significant models. The results indicated optimal ranges of 0.2 to 0.5% of potassium chloride, and 1.0 to 1.6% for sodium chloride, and proved the technical feasibility of producing French bread with 50% salt reduction (174.09 mg.50 g–1, compared to a standard formulation of 1.88% (306.5 mg.50g-1 salt, corresponding to the prognosis recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency.

  3. Renal sodium retention in cirrhotic rats depends on glucocorticoid-mediated activation of mineralocorticoid receptor due to decreased renal 11beta-HSD-2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiesson, Helle; Jensen, Boye L; Bistrup, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Downregulation of the renal glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD-2) during liver cirrhosis may allow activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by glucocorticoids and contribute to sodium retention. We tested this hypothesis in male Wistar...... rats with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites 7 wk after bile duct ligation (BDL). Renal 11beta-HSD-2 mRNA, protein, and activity were significantly decreased in decompensated rats. The urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio was reduced by 40%. Renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNA and immunostaining...... were only slightly affected. Complete metabolic studies, including fecal excretion, showed that the BDL rats had avid renal sodium retention. Treatment of the BDL rats with dexamethasone suppressed endogenous glucocorticoid production, normalized total sodium balance and renal sodium excretion...

  4. Stability of diclofenac sodium oral suspensions packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23°C) or under refrigeration (5°C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to

  5. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2 and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion. Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF

  6. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist, streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist, stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments, Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.  Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when

  7. Increases in wintertime PM2.5 sodium and chloride linked to snowfall and road salt application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Mattson, Claire N.; Peterson, Peter K.; May, Nathaniel W.; Prendergast, Rashad K.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of salts and salty brines to roads is common practice during the winter in many urban environments. Road salts can become aerosolized, thereby injecting sodium and chloride particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere. Here, data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Chemical Speciation Monitoring Network were used to assess temporal trends of sodium and chloride PM2.5 (PM road salt aerosols. Sodium and chloride PM2.5 concentrations were an average of three times higher in the winter, as compared to the summer, for locations with greater than 25 cm of average annual snowfall. Winter urban chloride PM2.5 concentrations attributed to road salt can even sometimes rival those of coastal sea spray aerosol-influenced sites. In most snow-influenced cities, chloride and sodium PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with snowfall; however, this relationship is complicated by differences in state and local winter maintenance practices. This study highlights the ubiquity of road salt aerosols in the United States and their potential impact on wintertime urban air quality, particularly due to the potential for multiphase reactions to liberate chlorine from the particle-phase. Since road salt application is a common practice in wintertime urban environments across the world, it is imperative that road salt application emissions, currently not included in inventories, and its impacts be investigated through measurements and modeling.

  8. Could vitamin C and zinc chloride protect the germ cells against sodium arsenite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoé, L S; Reis, I B; Gomes, Mlm; Dolder, H; Pirovani, Jc Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with natural and human processes such as volcanic emissions, mining and herbicides production, being an important pollutant. Several studies have associated As intake with male fertility reduction, thus the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether vitamin C and/or zinc would counteract As side effects within the testicles. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/day), vitamin C (100 mg/kg/day), zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ; 20 mg/kg/day), sodium arsenite + vitamin C and sodium arsenite + ZnCl 2 . Testicles and epididymis were harvested and either frozen or routinely processed to be embedded in glycol methacrylate resin. As reduced the seminiferous epithelium and tubules diameter due to germ cell loss. In addition, both the round spermatids population and the daily sperm production were reduced. However, ZnCl 2 and vitamin C showed to be effective against such side effects, mainly regarding to sperm morphology. Long-term As intake increased the proportions of abnormal sperm, whereas the concomitant intake of As with zinc or vitamin C enhanced the proportions of normal sperm, showing that such compounds could be used to protect this cell type against morphological defects.

  9. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

  10. Renal function, sodium and water homeostasis in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At baseline there were no differences in inulin clearance, PAH clearance, fractional excretion of sodium and free water excretion. During and after the saline infusion both groups showed a significant increase in sodium excretion with a reduction in water excretion, while the PAH and inulin clearances remained unchanged.

  11. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.J.; Jensen, T.U.; Bestle, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered by a nasogas......-angiotensin system....

  12. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO 3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO 3 solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO 3 solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO 3 solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO 3 , which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The

  13. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist. streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Kirchner, J. W.

    Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist), stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments), Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils. Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is high. This

  14. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  15. A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

  16. Relations of enzymes inAspergillus repens grown under sodium chloride stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Aspergillus repens, a salt-pan isolate, was halotolerant. When grown for 72 h (log phase) and 144 h (beginning of stationary phase) in a medium containing 2M sodium chloride, the activities of invertase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were found to have increased. Control cultures grown in a medium devoid of 2M NaCl failed to show such changes. The activities of MDH, G6PDH, and GDH increased with rising concentrations of Na(+) (as NaCl) when added up to 100MM in vitro. At higher concentrations they decreased. Changes in kinetic constants, Km and Vmax of these enzymes, as well as their de novo synthesis, were found to be some of the responses to NaCl stress-mediated changes.

  17. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation in Portulaca oleracea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.V.; Karadge, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of NaCl on ion uptake, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic products in a C 4 non-CAM succulent, P. oleracea has been investigated. NaCl causes accumulation of Na as well as Cl ions with decrease in K and Ca contents. Chlorophylls and photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation rates are adversely affected due to sodium chloride salinity. Plants grown in the presence of NaCl show increase in C 4 acid percentage with increase in labelling of organic acids in light. Labelling of amino acids (particularly alanine) and sugars (sucrose) is affected by NaCl. Enzyme studies reveal that PEP-carboxylase is stimulated at all concentrations of NaCl but higher concentrations affected the activity of RuBP-Carboxylase. (author)

  18. Antifungal activity of essential oils when associated with sodium chloride or fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantatoui-Elaraki, Abdelthafour

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mycelium growth in a Zygorhynchus sp. and an Aspergillus niger isolates was studied. The inhibition rates (IR caused by 4 essential oils (EO, 5 fatty acids and sodium chloride at various concentrations were determined in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
    A synergy of action was observed between sodium chloride at 7.5% and the EO of thyme (0.04%, camomile (0.4% and mugwort (0.2 and 0.1% on A. niger and between sodium chloride (5% and the EO of camomile (0.1% and mugwort (0.1 and 0.01% and sodium chloride (7.5% and eucalyptus EO (0.4 and 0.2% on Zygorhynchus sp.
    Camomile EO (0.13% associated with propionic acid (0.075%, lauric acid (0.05% or oleic acid (0.15% led to synergetic effect on Zygorhynchus sp. as well as thyme EO (0.04 and 0.05%, respectively with propionic acid (0.1% and linolenic acid (0.075% on A. niger. Other combinations exerted no higher effects than each of the substances used alone.
    Practical applications of the results observed were discussed

    Se ha estudiado la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar en un aislamiento de Zygorhynchus sp. y otro de Aspergillus niger. Se determinaron las tasas (o índices de inhibición (IR en Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa provocados por varias concentraciones de 4 aceites esenciales (EG, 5 ácidos grasos y cloruro sódico.
    Se observó un efecto sinérgico entre cloruro sódico al 7.5% y los aceites esenciales de tomillo (0.04%, manzanilla (0.4% y artemisa (0.2 y 0.1% sobre A. niger, y entre cloruro sódico (5% y los aceites esenciales de manzanilla (0.1% y de artemisa (0.1 y 0.01%, así como cloruro sódico (7.5% y aceite esencial de eucalipto (0.4 y 0.2%, sobre Zygorhynchus sp.
    El aceite esencial de manzanilla (0.13% en asociación con ácido propiónico (0.075%, ácido láurico (0.05% o ácido oleico (0.15% provocó un efecto sinérgico sobre Zygorhynchus sp., de la misma forma

  19. Corrosion behaviour of 2124 aluminium alloy-silicon carbide metal matrix composites in sodium chloride environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nirbhay; Vadera, K.K.; Ramesh Kumar, A.V.; Singh, R.S.; Monga, S.S.; Mathur, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    Aluminium alloy based particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) are being considered for a range of applications. Their mechanical properties have been investigated in detail, but more information about their corrosion resistance is needed. In this investigation, the corrosion behaviour of silicon carbide particulates (SiC p )-2124 aluminium metal matrix composites was studied in 3 wt% sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical technique and optical microscope. The effects of weight percentages and particle size of silicon carbide particulates on corrosion behaviour of the composite were studied in NaCl and it was observed that corrosion rate increases linearly with the increasing weight percentage of SiC p . The corrosion rate of the MMC increases by increasing the size of SiC particles. Anodization improved corrosion resistance of the composites. (author)

  20. Corrosion performance of SiCsubp/6061 Al metal matrix composites in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohmad Soib bin Selamat

    1995-01-01

    The corrosion performance of silicon carbide particle/aluminium metal matrix composites (SiCsubp/Al) were studied in sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical, microscopic, gravimetric and analytical techniques. The materials under investigation were compocasting processed 6061 Al reinforced with increasing amounts of SiC particles. Potentiostatic polarization tests were done in 0.1M NaCl solutions that were aerated or deaerated to observe overall corrosion behaviour. It was seen that the corrosion potentials did not vary greatly in relation to the amounts of SiCsubp reinforcement. Corrosion tests showed that the degree of corrosion increased with increasing SiCsubp content. SEM analysis technique was used to study the corroded samples and the pitting morphology. By TEM, no intermetallic layer was found at SiC/Al interface. A model for pitting process was proposed

  1. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid......Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  2. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  3. The influence of sodium chlorides fog on corrosion resistance of heat exchangers used in automotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the most important factors which influence on the exploitative durability of heat exchangers are classified. Particular attention was paid to the compounds of sodium chloride used in the winter season for road maintenance. In order to determine their impact on automotive heat exchanger corrosion resistance, a test of heaters in a salt chamber which imitates the conditions of their work was realized. It also allows to verify the durability of these products. To evaluate the corrosion changes, observation with the use of light microscopy and scanning microscopy SEM were made supplemented with microanalysis of chemical composition by EDS spectroscopy method. Critical areas in the heat exchangers which are mostly exposed to damage including the formation of local corrosion pits were located and analyzed.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (−) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

  5. Extraction of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash using hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Kulik, Dmitrii A; Hummel, Wolfgang; Schlumberger, Stefan; Klink, Waldemar; Fisch, Martin; Mäder, Urs K

    2018-03-17

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration contains a large potential for recyclable metals such as Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd. The Swiss Waste Ordinance prescribes the treatment of fly ash and recovery of metals to be implemented by 2021. More than 60% of the fly ash in Switzerland is acid leached according to the FLUWA process, which provides the basis for metal recovery. The investigation and optimization of the FLUWA process is of increasing interest and an industrial solution for direct metal recovery within Switzerland is in development. With this work, a detailed laboratory study on different filter cakes from fly ash leaching using HCl 5% (represents the FLUWA process) and concentrated sodium chloride solution (300 g/L) is described. This two-step leaching of fly ash is an efficient combination for the mobilization of a high percentage of heavy metals from fly ash (Pb, Cd ≥ 90% and Cu, Zn 70-80%). The depletion of these metals is mainly due to a combination of redox reaction and metal-chloride-complex formation. The results indicate a way forward for an improved metal depletion and recovery from fly ash that has potential for application at industrial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium Chloride Crystal-Induced SERS Platform for Controlled Highly Sensitive Detection of Illicit Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Borong; Li, Pan; Zhou, Binbin; Tang, Xianghu; Li, Shaofei; Yang, Liangbao

    2018-04-03

    A sodium chloride crystal-driven spontaneous 'hot spot' structure was demonstrated as a SERS-active platform, to get reproducible SERS signals, and eliminate the need for mapping large areas, in comparison with solution phase testing. During the process of solvent evaporation, the crystals produced induced silver aggregates to assemble around themselves. The micro-scale crystals can also act as a template to obtain an optical position, such that the assembled hot area is conveniently located during SERS measurements. More importantly, the chloride ions added in colloids can also replace the citrate and on the surface of the silver sol, and further decrease the background interference. High quality SERS spectra from heroin, methamphetamine (MAMP), and cocaine have been obtained on the crystal-driven hot spot structure with high sensitivity and credible reproducibility. This approach can not only bring the nanoparticles to form plasmonic hot spots in a controlled way, and thus provide high sensitivity, but also potentially be explored as an active substrate for label-free detection of other illicit drugs or additives. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS, on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (− charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45 is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete.

  8. Stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in single-dose plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, D D; Crews, J C; Grummich, K W; Stirm, E J; Sue, C A

    1991-03-01

    The stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in flexible polyvinyl chloride containers was studied. Commercially available methadone hydrochloride 20 mg/mL and 25-mL single-dose bags of 0.9% sodium chloride injection were used. Six samples each were prepared at methadone hydrochloride concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL. The solutions were stored at room temperature and were not protected from light. Immediately after preparation and after two, three, and four weeks of storage, each of the 18 samples was divided into three aliquots, each of which was analyzed in duplicate for methadone hydrochloride concentration by gas chromatography. There was less than 10% change in methadone hydrochloride concentration in any sample throughout the four-week study period. Methadone hydrochloride at concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL prepared in commercially available flexible polyvinyl chloride containers of 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at room temperature without deliberate protection from light is stable for at least four weeks.

  9. The renal handling of sodium and water is not affected by the standard-dose cisplatin treatment for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Renal clearances of 51Cr-EDTA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured before and after each of four consecutive treatment series with cisplatin in 15 men with testicular cancer. Since lithium is reabsorbed like sodium and water in the proximal tubules, but not reabsorbed to any measurable...... and all other parameters of glomerular filtration and renal sodium handling remained normal throughout the study (with the exception of a fall in fractional sodium excretion after the first treatment series). Plasma magnesium declined during all four treatment periods, signifying renal magnesium wasting....

  10. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on

  11. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  12. Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zayat, M.M.; Farahat, A.A.; Saad, N.H.; Shaarawy, N.S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

  13. The study of interaction of lanthanum-, cerium- and neodymium chlorides with sodium borohydride in pyridine- and tetrahydrofuran medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Rotenberg, T.G.; Dymova, T.N.

    1976-01-01

    Bis-tetrahydrofurans of lanthanum and neodymium borohydrides and bis-pyridinates of lanthanum, cerium and neodymium borohydrides were obtained by interacting sodium borohydride with lanthanum-, cerium and neodymium chlorides in pyridine and tetrahydrofuran media. All operations involving reagent combination, sampling and phase separation are performed in inert atmosphere using argonvacuum equipment. The reaction in pyridine was virtually instantaneous and accompanied by flocculanet precipitation. The interaction of lanthanum chloride and neodymium chloride with sodium borohydride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) was a slow (23-30 hr) heterophase process. The interaction rate was affected by size reduction of the intial substances, temperature, reagent proportion and mixing rate. The reaction time was twice reduced with boiling tetrahydrofuran

  14. Dietary sodium modulation of aldosterone activation and renal function during the progression of experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Borgeson, Daniel D; Grantham, J Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M; Burnett, John C

    2015-02-01

    Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium–fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: (i) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 g) per day, n =6]; (ii) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 g) per day, n =6]; and (iii) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 g) per day, n =6]. During the 38-day study, haemodynamics, renal function, plasma renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in haemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups; however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression.

  15. Stability of i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, Polly E; Zhao, Ting; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin

    2014-12-01

    The chemical stability of a sterile admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was evaluated. Triplicate samples were prepared and stored at room temperature without light protection for a total of 48 hours. Aliquots from each sample were tested for chemical stability immediately after preparation and at 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate were selectively monitored using multiple-reaction monitoring. Samples were diluted differently for quantitation using three individual LC-MS/MS methods. To determine the drug concentration of the three compounds in the samples, three calibration curves were constructed by plotting the peak area or the peak area ratio versus the concentration of the calibration standards of each tested compound. Apixaban was used as an internal standard. Linearity of the calibration curve was evaluated by the correlation coefficient r(2). Constituents of the admixture of metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection retained more than 90% of their initial concentrations over 48 hours of storage at room temperature without protection from light. The observed variability in concentrations of these three compounds was within the limits of assay variability. An i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was chemically stable for 48 hours when stored at room temperature without light protection. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  17. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of...

  18. Fetal development and renal function in adult rats prenatally subjected to sodium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D; Cabral, Edjair V; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate two factors that affect fetal development--placental oxidative stress (Ox) and plasma volume (PV)--in dams with sodium overload and (2) to correlate possible alterations in these factors with subsequent modifications in the renal function of adult offspring. Wistar dams were maintained on 0.17 M NaCl instead of water from 20 days before mating until either the twentieth pregnancy day/parturition or weaning. Colorimetric methods were used to measure Ox in maternal and offspring tissues, PV, 24-h urinary protein (U(Prot24 h)) and serum triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (Chol). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated in the offspring at 90 days of age using a blood pressure transducer, a flow probe and inulin clearance to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively. The number of nephrons (NN) was counted in kidney suspensions. Dams showed unchanged PV, placental Ox and fetal weight but increased U(Prot24 h) (150%, P sodium-overloaded pups showed increased U(Prot24 h) (45%, P sodium-overloaded rats showed increased U(Prot24 h) (27%, P sodium-overloaded group. We conclude that salt overload from the prenatal stage until weaning leads to alterations in lipid metabolism and in the renal function of the pups, which are additional to those alterations seen in rats only overloaded prenatally.

  19. Oxygen, water, and sodium chloride transport in soft contact lenses materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavara, Rafael; Compañ, Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Oxygen permeability, diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions and water flux and permeability in different conventional hydrogel (Hy) and silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lenses have been measured experimentally. The results showed that oxygen permeability and transmissibility requirements of the lens have been addressed through the use of siloxane containing hydrogels. In general, oxygen and sodium chloride permeability values increased with the water content of the lens but there was a percolation phenomenon from a given value of water uptake mainly in the Si-Hy lenses which appeared to be related with the differences between free water and bound water contents. The increase of ion permeability with water content did not follow a unique trend indicating a possible dependence of the chemical structure of the polymer and character ionic and non-ionic of the lens. Indeed, the salt permeability values for silicone hydrogel contact lenses were one order of magnitude below those of conventional hydrogel contact lenses, which can be explained by a diffusion of sodium ions occurring only through the hydrophilic channels. The increase of the ionic permeability in Si-Hy materials may be due to the confinement of ions in nanoscale water channels involving possible decreased degrees of freedom for diffusion of both water and ions. In general, ionic lenses presented values of ionic permeability and diffusivity higher than most non-ionic lenses. The tortuosity of the ionic lenses is lower than the non-ionic Si-Hy lenses. Frequency 55 and PureVision exhibited the highest water permeability and flux values and, these parameters were greater for ionic Si-Hy lenses than for ionic conventional hydrogel lenses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2218-2231, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sodium intake, RAAS-blockade and progressive renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H; Navis, Gerjan

    Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is the current standard treatment to prevent progressive renal function loss in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet in many patients the

  1. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these

  2. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  3. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Zeyner

    Full Text Available The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0, 50 (NaCl-50 or 100 (NaCl-100 g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50 at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05. This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  4. Benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium intake by replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in industrial food products in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Frølich, Wenche; Dahl, Knut Helkås; Iversen, Per Ole; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand; Alexander, Jan

    2018-01-01

    High sodium chloride (NaCl) intake is associated with health risks. NaCl may be replaced by potassium chloride (KCl) to decrease sodium intake. However, increased potassium may also have negative health effects. We conducted a benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium by ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 (weight % K + : weight % Na + ) in children, adolescents and adults in Norway, using intake data from national food consumption surveys and available literature on potassium health effects. An intake of at least 3.5 g/day of potassium decreases risk of stroke and hypertension, and this level was used in the benefit assessment of the healthy population. Three g/day of potassium added to mean food intake is assumed safe, and these levels were used in the risk assessment. Not all persons reached the protective level of potassium, and increasing numbers exceeded the safe levels, in these scenarios. In addition, elderly above 85 years and infants below one year of age, as well as several patient groups and medication users, are particularly vulnerable to hyperkalemia. In conclusion, the number of Norwegians facing increased risk is far greater than the number likely to benefit from this replacement of sodium with potassium in industrially produced food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  6. Lack of the sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE impairs visual function in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Hilgen

    Full Text Available Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10, a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pH(i and chloride concentration ([Cl(-](i in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABA(A receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pH(i regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function.

  7. Effects of sodium nitrite on renal function and blood pressure in hypertensive vs. healthy study participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbæk, Jeppe B; Hornstrup, Bodil G; Jørgensen, Andreas N

    2018-01-01

    to determine the effects of NaNO2 on blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium and water regulation in patients with EHT compared with healthy control study participants (CON). METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused 240 μg NaNO2/kg/h or isotonic saline for 2 h in 14 EHT and 14 CON. During...... infusion, we measured changes in brachial and central BP, free water clearance, fractional sodium excretion, and urinary excretion rate of γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (U-ENaCγ), and aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2). RESULTS: Placebo-adjusted brachial SBP decreased 18 mmHg (P ... infusion in EHT and 12 mmHg (P fractional sodium excretion, free water clearance, and U...

  8. WATER AND SODIUM CHLORIDE EFFECTS ON Mimosa Tenuiflora (WILLD. POIRET SEED GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Alves Bakke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and saline soils of the Brazilian semi-arid northeastern region are limiting factors to the development of many plants. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret is a small, multiple use tree that abundantly colonizes unfavorable sites, including environments with severe water stress. This work had the objective of investigating the tolerance of jurema preta seeds to water and salt stresses during germination. Seeds germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions was analyzed under five different osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa, in order to simulate water and salt stress, respectively, in four 100-seed replications for each treatment. Seeds were placed into 10cmx10cmx4cm boxes, and germination accomplished in BOD germinator adjusted to 30oC. The number of germinated seeds was monitored every 24 hours, and percentage and speed of seed germination were generated from these data. Mean percentage germination in the control treatment was ~95%, reducing to 63-53% at -0.9 to -1.2-MPa PEG solutions, and to 27- 9.5% at NaCl solutions at equivalent osmotic potentials. Velocity of germination index was more affected, and decreased up to 1/8 of the control, at -0.6 MPa. Jurema preta seeds showed lower tolerance to NaCl than to water stress, and this species can be classified as a glycophyte.

  9. Sodium chloride crystallization from thin liquid sheets, thick layers, and sessile drops in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Pietro; Pettit, Donald; Cristoforetti, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization from aqueous sodium chloride solutions as thin liquid sheets, 0.2-0.7 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by a wire frame, thick liquid layers, 4-6 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by metal frame, and hemispherical sessile drops, 20-32 mm diameter, supported by a flat polycarbonate surface or an initially flat gelatin film, were carried out under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). Different crystal morphologies resulted based on the fluid geometry: tabular hoppers, hopper cubes, circular [111]-oriented crystals, and dendrites. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) inhibited the hopper growth resulting in flat-faced surfaces. In sessile drops, 1-4 mm tabular hopper crystals formed on the free surface and moved to the fixed contact line at the support (polycarbonate or gelatin) self-assembling into a shell. Ring formation created by sessile drop evaporation to dryness was observed but with crystals 100 times larger than particles in terrestrially formed coffee rings. No hopper pyramids formed. By choosing solution geometries offered by microgravity, we found it was possible to selectively grow crystals of preferred morphologies.

  10. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose. All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  11. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  12. Coulometric sodium chloride removal system with Nafion membrane for seawater sample treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygolowicz-Pawlak, Ewa; Sohail, Manzar; Pawlak, Marcin; Neel, Bastien; Shvarev, Alexey; de Marco, Roland; Bakker, Eric

    2012-07-17

    Seawater analysis is one of the most challenging in the field of environmental monitoring, mainly due to disparate concentration levels between the analyte and the salt matrix causing interferences in a variety of analytical techniques. We propose here a miniature electrochemical sample pretreatment system for a rapid removal of NaCl utilizing the coaxial arrangement of an electrode and a tubular Nafion membrane. Upon electrolysis, chloride is deposited at the Ag electrode as AgCl and the sodium counterions are transported across the membrane. This cell was found to work efficiently at potentials higher than 400 mV in both stationary and flow injection mode. Substantial residual currents observed during electrolysis were found to be a result of NaCl back diffusion from the outer side of the membrane due to insufficient permselectivity of the Nafion membrane. It was demonstrated that the residual current can be significantly reduced by adjusting the concentration of the outer solution. On the basis of ion chromatography results, it was found that the designed cell used in flow injection electrolysis mode reduced the NaCl concentration from 0.6 M to 3 mM. This attempt is very important in view of nutrient analysis in seawater where NaCl is a major interfering agent. We demonstrate that the pretreatment of artificial seawater samples does not reduce the content of nitrite or nitrate ions upon electrolysis. A simple diffusion/extraction steady state model is proposed for the optimization of the electrolysis cell characteristics.

  13. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2009-07-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl-) and sodium (Na+) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our objectives were to identify potential levels of uptake as the trees developed and stages of plantation development that are conducive to variable application rates of high-salinity irrigation. The projected cumulative uptake of Cl- and Na+ during mid-rotation plantation development was stable 2 to 3 years after planting but increased steadily from year 3 to 6. Year six cumulative uptake ranged from 22 to 175 kg Cl- ha(-1) and 8 to 74 kg Na+ ha(-1), while annual uptake ranged from 8 to 54 kg Cl- ha(-1) yr(-1) and 3 to 23 kg Na+ ha(-1) yr(-1). Full-rotation uptake was greatest from 4 to 9 years (Cl-) and 4 to 8 years (Na+), with maximum levels of Cl- (32 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and Na+ (13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) occurring in year six. The relative uptake potential of Cl- and Na+ at peak accumulation (year six) was 2.7 times greater than at the end of the rotation.

  14. An eco-friendly approach for sodium chloride free cotton dyeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Present study was conducted with an aim to develop an environmental friendly method of dyeing cotton as an alternative to standard reactive dyeing process that requires high level of salt. When dyeing was carried out in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), an extremely lighter depth of shade was experienced, and hence this particular research was focused on the reduction of the total colour difference (AE) to a minimum level. Instead of adding any other chemical or any additional process like cationization, salt-free reactive dyeing was carried out by varying three common process parameters (dyes, alkali, and process time) to achieve required depth of shade. The results obtained were compared with those of conventionally dyed fabrics in terms of depth of shade (AL), total colour difference (AE), washing fastness, and rubbing fastness. The results were found to be promising and comparable to those dyed with using NaCl. Moreover, the investigated method showed a significant reduction of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) in the wastewater, and thus proved to be an environment friendly process. (author)

  15. Impact of stirring speed, glycerin and sodium chloride concentrations on photoprotective nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Granemann e Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New technologies that improve the physical as the sensory properties of sunscreens can help to increase its continued use and impact on health. The use of nanoemulsions in the development of photoprotective vehicles is an advantage, since nanostructured components may have superior properties regarding their performance when compared to conventional products. The advantages of using nanobiotechnology in manufacture of cosmetic and dermatological formulations arise from the protection of compounds from chemical or enzymatic degradation, from the control of their release, and also to the prolonged retention time of cosmetic ingredients in the stratum corneum. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of stirring speed and of glycerin and sodium chloride concentrations in the development and effectiveness of a nanoemulsion containing ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and benzophenone-3. The results of statistical analyses regarding the impact of the variables in the process of nanoemulsion development showed that these parameters affect the phase inversion temperature (PIT. However, this did not affect the particle size and the photoprotective efficacy in vitro.

  16. Chemical castration in cattle with intratesticular injection of sodium chloride: Effects on stress and inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando C; Ferreira, Carlos E R; Haas, Cristina S; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Mondadori, Rafael G; Schneider, Augusto; Rovani, Monique T; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Vieira, Arnaldo D; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Lucia, Thomaz

    2017-03-01

    Intratesticular injection (ITI) of sodium chloride (NaCl) is efficient for chemical castration of young calves, but its effects on calves welfare are unknown. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ITI of 20% NaCl on stress and inflammatory markers in calves less than 20 days old and to assess the efficiency of ITI of 30% NaCl in 5 months old calves. In Experiment 1, control calves were only restrained and compared to calves submitted to castration through surgery (SC) and ITI with 20% NaCl (n = 9/group). No differences were observed for the eye corner temperature measured by thermography from 60 s before to 60 s after the procedures (P > 0.05). In the SC group, acute serum cortisol levels increased at 30 and 60 min after the procedure, but increased levels in the ITI group occurred only at 30 min (P  0.05). Scrotal temperature was higher at D1 in the SC group than for the other groups, but lowest at D4 compared to the control (both P castration through ITI of 20% NaCl in young calves was followed by slight stress and inflammatory responses compared to surgical castration. However, ITI of 30% NaCl was ineffective for chemical castration of 5 months old calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical and Chemical Stability of Urapidil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Elastomeric Infusion Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Cristina; Leggieri, Anna; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Baietto, Lorena; Fulcheri, Chiara; De Nicolò, Amedeo; De Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Urapidil is an antihypertensive agent, usually administered through intravenous bolus injection, slow-intravenous infusion, or continuous-drug infusion by perfusor. Since to date no evidences are available on drug stability in elastomeric pumps, patients have to be hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method to evaluate urapidil stability in an elastomeric infusion pump, in order to allow continuous infusion as home-care treatment. Analyses were conducted by diluting urapidil in an elastomeric pump. Two concentrations were evaluated: 1.6 mg/mL and 3.3 mg/mL. For the analyses, a reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic- photodiode array detection instrument was used. Stressed degradation, pH changes, and visual clarity were used as stability indicators up to 10 days after urapidil solution preparation. The drug showed no more than 5% degradation during the test period at room temperature. No pH changes and no evidences of incompatibility were observed. Stress tests resulted in appreciable observation of degradation products. Considering the observed mean values, urapidil hydrochloride in sodium chloride 0.9% in elastomeric infusion pumps is stable for at least 10 days. These results indicate that this treatment could be administered at home for a prolonged duration (at least 7 days) with a satisfactory response. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  19. Levels of ammonium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, and sodium in snow and ice from southern Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busenberg, E.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analysis of surface snows and dated ice core samples from Dye 3, Greenland, suggests that the ammonium cation is a major constituent in all samples and that the annual ammonium levels present in the south Greenland samples have varied from 3.3 to 26.3 μg/kg between the seventeenth century and the present time. The annual range of 1974--1975 surface samples was between 3.8 and 8.8 μg/kg, while the mean was 5.7 +- 1.8 μ/kg. The recent large-scale uses of fixed nitrogen fertilizers and industrial pollution have apparently not affected the levels of ammonia reaching southern Greenland. The sodium and chloride present are predominantly derived from ocean spray, while more than 90% of the calcium is of continental origin. The levels of these three elements have not apparently been affected by human activity since the industrial revolution. Sulfate levels have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution, suggesting that sulfate of anthropogenic origin is the most important source of sulfate in modern snows from southern Greenland. The amount of the sulfuric acid neutralized by the ammonium cations was approximately 100% in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dropping to approximately 20% in the 1974--1975 samples. These figures imply that there has been in increase in the acidity of precipitation in southern Greenland since the end of the eighteenth ce

  20. effect of ascorbic acid and/or sodium chloride on irradiated mungbean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, O.S.

    2010-01-01

    dry seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (0, 50, 100, 250 Gy) dose rate was 1.33 Gy/sec and germinated under laboratory conditions (28 degree C±2 degree C) in 100 mM of sodium chloride or 10 mM ascorbic acid or mixture of both in equal amounts . a group of irradiated and unirradiated seeds were moistened with tap water and considered as control. the growth parameters of two weeks old seedling were recorded. photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, crud protein and amino acids contents were also determined. gamma radiation (50-100 Gy)increased total chlorophylls and carotenoid pigments while the highest dose of irradiation (250 Gy) reduced these contents. saline condition decreased total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of seedlings resulted from irradiated seeds than control. adding of ascorbic acid to irradiated mungbean seeds in presence of NaCl overcame partially the inhibitory effect of NaCl on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of seedlings. the pattern of changes in amino acids content was more or less similar to that of photosynthetic pigments.

  1. Stability study of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection with limit tests for impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Klaus; Bogedal Jorgensen, Lene; Lindegaard Berg, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Results of an evaluation of the stability of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection are presented. Methods. Methotrexate concentrated solution (100 mg/mL) was diluted to nominal concentrations of 0.2 and 20 mg/mL in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium...... chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The filled bags were stored for 28 days at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity and protected from light. Samples were withdrawn for analysis on the day of preparation and after 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The test program included visual inspections, measurements...... in amounts of known and unknown degradation products were detected. In 5% dextrose injection, methotrexate at the higher concentration was stable for 28 days, with minor formation of degradation products; in the 0.2-mg/mL solution, however, methotrexate was stable for only 3 days. At later time points...

  2. Model investigations for trace analysis of iodine, uranium, and technetium in saturated sodium chloride leaching solutions of stored radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegle, U.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a time and cost saving chromatographic technique, which allows the matrix to be separated and the most important species to be analyzed in a leaching solution of vitrified radioactive waste. Uranium, iodine, and technetium were chosen for the model technique to be elaborated. In a first step, iodide and pertechnetate were separated from the matrix by the strongly basic AG 1X 8 anion exchange resin and then separated from each other by selective elution. The uranyl ions eluted with the sodium chloride matrix were separated from the excess of sodium chloride in a second step, again by adsorption to the strongly basic resin. The ion-selective electrode was found to be a suitable tool for iodide analysis. Pertechnetate was analysed by means of liquid scintillation. Uranium was determined by ICP-AES. (orig./RB) [de

  3. Reaction of Hydrogen Chloride Gas with Sodium Carbonate and Its Deep Removal in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Chen, Po-Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 49 (2014), s. 19145-19158 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:NSC(TW) 102WBS0300011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hot fuel gas purification * hydrogen chloride gas * active sodium carbonate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2014

  4. Comparison of heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride for maintaining peripheral intravenous catheter patency in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yu; Odunayo, Adesola; Mann, F A

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether heparinized saline would be more effective in maintaining the patency of peripheral IV catheters in dogs compared to 0.9% sodium chloride. Prospective blinded randomized study. University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Thirty healthy purpose bred dogs, intended for use in the junior surgery laboratory, were utilized. The dogs were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, 2 treatment groups and a control group. An 18-Ga cephalic catheter was placed in the cephalic vein of each dog. Each dog in the treatment group had their catheter flushed with either 10 IU/mL heparinized saline or 0.9% sodium chloride every 6 hours for 42 hours. The dogs in the control group did not have their catheters flushed until the end of the study period. Immediately prior to flushing catheters, each catheter was evaluated for patency by aspiration of blood and the catheter site was evaluated for phlebitis. All dogs in the heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride group had catheters that flushed easily at each evaluation point. More dogs in the saline group had catheters from which blood could not be aspirated, but there was no significant difference between these groups. All dogs in the control group had catheters that flushed easily at the end of the assigned 6 hour interval except in 1 dog. Phlebitis was not detected in any dog. Flushes of 0.9% sodium chloride were found to be as effective as 10 IU/mL heparinized saline flushes in maintaining patency of 18-Ga peripheral venous catheters in dogs for up to 42 hours. For peripheral catheters placed with the intention of performing serial blood draws, heparinized flushes may be warranted. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  5. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, J; Storteboom, T T R; Mulder, A M; de Jong, W H A; Rottier, B L; Kema, I P

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in small volumes of sweat. Precision, linearity and limit of detection of an in-house developed IC/HPLC method were established. Method comparison between the newly developed IC/HPLC method and the traditional Chlorocounter was performed, and trueness was determined using Passing Bablok method comparison with external quality assurance material (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia). Precision and linearity fulfill criteria as established by UK guidelines are comparable with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods. Passing Bablok analysis demonstrated excellent correlation between IC/HPLC measurements and external quality assessment target values, for both chloride and sodium. With a limit of quantitation of 0.95 mmol/L, our method is suitable for the analysis of small amounts of sweat and can thus be used in combination with the Macroduct collection system. Although a chromatographic application results in a somewhat more expensive test compared to a Chlorocounter test, more accurate measurements are achieved. In addition, simultaneous measurements of sodium concentrations will result in better detection of false positives, less test repeating and thus faster and more accurate and effective diagnosis. The described IC/HPLC method, therefore, provides a precise, relatively cheap and easy-to-handle application for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in sweat. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vespúcio BIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  7. A novel and efficient method for the immobilization of thermolysin using sodium chloride salting-in and consecutive microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Fangkai; Du, Fangchuan; Wang, Anming; Gao, Weifang; Wang, Qiuyan; Yin, Xiaopu; Xie, Tian

    2012-07-01

    Sodium chloride salting-in and microwave irradiation were combined to drive thermolysin molecules into mesoporous support to obtain efficiently immobilized enzyme. When the concentration of sodium chloride was 3 M and microwave power was 40 W, 93.2% of the enzyme was coupled to the support by 3 min, and the maximum specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was 17,925.1 U mg(-1). This was a 4.5-fold increase in activity versus enzyme immobilized using conventional techniques, and a 1.6-fold increase versus free enzyme. Additionally, the thermal stability of the immobilized thermolysin was significantly improved. When incubated at 70°C, there was no reduction in activity by 3.5h, whereas free thermolysin lost most of its activity by 3h. Immobilization also protected the thermolysin against organic solvent denaturation. The microwave-assisted immobilization technique, combined with sodium chloride salting-in, could be applied to other sparsely soluble enzymes immobilization because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute toxicity of sodium chloride, pentachlorophenol, Guthion, and hexavalent chromium to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.; Siesennop, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    The 96-h LC50's for sodium chloride were 7650 and 7341 mg/liter, for pentachlorophenol 0.21 and 0.22 mg/liter, for Guthion 1.9 and 2.4 mg/liter, and for hexavalent chromium 48 and 120 mg/liter, for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), respectively. Threshold LC50's were reached in 6 days for sodium chloride (7650 and 7322 mg/liter for fathead minnows and goldfish, respectively), and pentachlorophenol (0.21 and 0.21 mg/liter), but were not attained in 11 days (termination of testing) with Guthion (0.76 and 0.80 mg/liter) and hexavalent chromium (18 and 33 mg/liter). With pentachlorophenol and Guthion goldfish were initially more resistant, but by termination there was no significant difference in LC50's between the two species. With hexavalent chromium the goldfish were more resistant throughout the 11-day test, and with sodium chloride goldfish were initially more resistant but at attainment of a threshold LC50 were less resistant. Use of toxicity curves for assessment of acute mortality permits interpretation not possible in 96-h tests where LC50's are computed at 24-h intervals.

  9. Kidney injury after sodium phosphate solution beyond the acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Juárez, Gema; Parejo, Leticia; Villacorta, Javier; Tato, Ana; Cazar, Ramiro; Guerrero, Carmen; Marin, Isabel Martinez; Ocaña, Javier; Mendez-Abreu, Angel; López, Katia; Gruss, Enrique; Gallego, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Screening colonoscopy with polipectomy reduces colonorectal cancer incidence and mortality. An adequate bowel cleansing is one of the keys to achieving best results with this technique. Oral sodium phosphate solution (OSP) had a widespread use in the 90s decade. Its efficacy was similar to polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, but with less cost and convenient administration. Series of patients with acute renal failure due to OSP use have been reported. However, large cohorts of patients found no difference in the incidence of renal damage between these two solutions. From 2006 to 2009 we identified twelve cases of phosphate nephropathy after colonoscopy prepared with OSP. All patients were followed up to six months. All patients had received just a single dose. We analyzed 12 cases with phosphate nephropathy; three patients debuted with AKI and nine patients had chronic renal injury. Four cases were confirmed with renal biopsy. One patient with AKI needed hemodialysis at diagnosis without subsequent recovery. Two patients (both with chronic damage) fully recovered their previous renal function. The remaining patients (nine) had an average loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate of 24ml/min/1.73m(2). The use of OSP can lead to both acute and chronic renal damage. However, chronic injury was the most common pattern. Both forms of presentation imply a significant and irreversible loss of renal function. Further studies analyzing renal damage secondary to bowel cleaning should consider these two different patterns of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Patricia L., E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R-4A6 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L{sup -1} (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L{sup -1}) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L{sup -1}). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L{sup -1}). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: > Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. > Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. > Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  11. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L -1 (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L -1 ) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L -1 ). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L -1 ). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: → Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. → Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. → Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  12. Effect of a Benzalkonium Chloride Surfactant-Sodium Hypochlorite Combination on Elimination of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Aleksandr; Lindsey, Kimberly; Sidow, Stephanie J; Dickinson, Douglas; Chuang, Augustine; McPherson, James C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of a sodium hypochlorite-surfactant combination on the removal of Enterococcus faecalis from infected teeth. Sixty-four extracted human single canal anterior teeth were prepared with rotary instrumentation and sterilized. Teeth were divided into 4 groups, N = 16. Three experimental groups were inoculated with E. faecalis and cultured for 21 days before use: positive control group, no irrigation; NaOCl group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl; and NaOCl/BAK group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl/0.008% benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The negative control group received medium only and no inoculate. Paper point sampling of the canals was obtained before irrigation (S1) for all 4 groups and for 2 groups after irrigation (S2) to determine remaining colony-forming units. After sampling, all teeth were split in half and evaluated for bacterial viability colony-forming units and penetration of dentinal tubules by using fluorescent vital dye staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Comparison of pre-irrigation and post-irrigation paper point samples from the 2 irrigated groups showed a significant reduction in bacterial canal load (P < .001, Kruskal-Wallis), with a significantly lower load in the NaOCl/BAK group than in the NaOCl group (P = .001, Mann-Whitney U test); 68.8% of the NaOCl/BAK samples gave no recoverable counts. In contrast, no significant difference between these groups was found for counts recovered from dentin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed no differences in tubule penetration. The addition of BAK to NaOCl significantly reduced the number of remaining bacteria within the canal after irrigation compared with NaOCl alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  14. High Concentrations of Sodium Chloride Improve Microbicidal Activity of Ibuprofen against Common Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián J. Muñoz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen (IBU-H, a widely used anti-inflammatory, also shows a marked antimicrobial effect against several bacterial species, including those involved in cystic fibrosis such as Pseudomona aeruginosa, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Additionally, our results show significant synergy between water soluble Na-ibuprofen (IBU-Na and ionic strength. Salt concentrations above 0.5 M modify the zeta potential promoting the action of Na-IBU; thus, with 1 M sodium chloride, IBU-Na is ten times more efficient than in the absence of ionic strength, and the minimum effective contact time is reduced from hours to minutes. In short time periods, where neither IBU-Na nor controls with 1 M NaCl show activity, the combination of both leads to a reduction in the bacterial load. We also analyzed whether the changes caused by salt on the bacterial membrane also promoted the activity of other microbicide compounds used in cystic fibrosis like gentamicin, tobramycin and phosphomycin. The results show that the presence of ionic strength only enhanced the bactericidal activity of the amphipathic molecule of IBU-Na. In this respect, the effect of saline concentration was also reflected in the surface properties of IBU-Na, where, in addition to the clear differences observed between 145 mM and 1 M, singular behaviors were also found, different in each condition. The combination of anti-inflammatory activity and this improved bactericidal effect of Na-IBU in hypertonic solution provides a new alternative for the treatment of respiratory infections of fibrotic patients based on known and widely used compounds.

  15. The "chloride theory", a unifying hypothesis for renal handling and body fluid distribution in heart failure pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    Body fluid volume regulation is a complex process involving the interaction of various afferent (sensory) and neurohumoral efferent (effector) mechanisms. Historically, most studies focused on the body fluid dynamics in heart failure (HF) status through control of the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the body, and maintaining arterial circulatory integrity is central to a unifying hypothesis of body fluid regulation in HF pathophysiology. The pathophysiologic background of the biochemical determinants of vascular volume in HF status, however, has not been known. I recently demonstrated that changes in vascular and red blood cell volumes are independently associated with the serum chloride concentration, but not the serum sodium concentration, during worsening HF and its recovery. Based on these observations and the established central role of chloride in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, I propose a unifying hypothesis of the "chloride theory" for HF pathophysiology, which states that changes in the serum chloride concentration are the primary determinant of changes in plasma volume and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system under worsening HF and therapeutic resolution of worsening HF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of the transport characteristics of uranyl chloride in a highly concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murso, H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the study of the transport processes of uranyl chloride at various temperatures, in order to be able to estimate the danger potential of the intrusion of water during storage in salt form. For this the concentration dependency of the approximated principal diffusion coefficients of uranyl chloride in a table salt solution, which with a c(NaCl) = 5.2 mol/l is almost at the saturation point, was studied at 25, 40 and 50degC. The measurements were successful in the ternarian system UO 2 Cl 2 -NaCl-H 2 O with absorption optics. An unexpected temperature dependency of the diffusion coefficients was found, which reached its minimum at 40degC with UO 2 Cl 2 concentrations of less than 2x10 -2 mol/l. For comparison the diffusion coefficients were measured in the binary system UO 2 Cl 2 -H 2 O and compared with theoretical calculations. The cause for the poor correlation found here is thought to be the hydrolysis products, whose formation is strongly influenced by the foreign-electrolyte concentration (NaCl). For clarification, viscosity measurements and molar mass determinations (ultracentrifuge) will be done. Some pH-dependent hydrolysis equilibriums are being postulated and the equilibrium constants of uranyl hydroxo complexes are being determined by sedimentation analysis. (orig./RB) [de

  17. Localized corrosion of alloys C-276 and 625 in aerated sodium chloride solutions at 25 to 200 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postlethwaite, J.

    1991-12-01

    Two molybdenum-bearing nickel alloys, Alloy C-276 and Alloy 625, were previously identified for consideration as candidate container materials for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Because of the paucity of data for the localized corrosion behaviour of these passive alloys under conditions that may be experienced in a disposal vault, this project was undertaken to study the crevice and pitting corrosion of Alloys C-276 and 625 in chloride solutions at elevated temperatures. Electrochemical and immersion tests have been conducted in neutral sodium chloride solutions (0.1 wt% to saturated) at 25 to 200 degrees C, in an attempt to identify the conditions under which localized corrosion occurs and to relate the actual corrosion behaviour to that expected on the basis of electrochemical studies. Cyclic polarization studies showed that the passivation breakdown potentials move rapidly to more active values with increasing temperatures. Above 100 degrees C the resistance to localized corrosion is greatly reduced. The results of the immersion tests are presented in the form of T versus (C1-) diagrams. These susceptibility diagrams suggest that there is a limiting crevice-corrosion temperature for each alloy in aerated, neutral sodium chloride solutions. Below this temperature corrosion does not occur, regardless of the chloride concentration. The values of the limiting crevice-corrosion temperatures were in the range 100 to 125 degrees C for Alloy C-276 and 100 to 115 degrees C for Alloy 625. Such values suggest that saturation of the chloride solutions by surface boiling could occur without the initiation of localized corrosion. These electrochemical results indicate that a large safety margin for susceptibility to localized corrosion might be found below 100 degrees C

  18. Does the renin-angiotensin system determine the renal and systemic hemodynamic response to sodium in patients with essential hypertension?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanPaassen, P; deZeeuw, D; Navis, G; deJong, PE

    Many patients with essential hypertension respond to a high dietary sodium intake with a rise in blood pressure. Experimental evidence suggests that the renal hemodynamic response to sodium determines, at least partially, this rise in blood pressure. Our aim was to clarify the role of the

  19. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities.

  20. [Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

    1997-05-01

    Bactericidal effects of various kinds of AWASEZU (processed vinegar, 2.5% acidity) on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria were examined. the order of bactericidal activities was NIHAIZU (3.5% NaCl was added) > SANBA-IZU (3.5% NaCl and 10% sucrose were added) > plain vinegar (spirit vinegar) > AMAZU (10% sucrose was added). This indicates that their activities were enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride and suppressed by the addition of sugar. On the other hand, when soy sauce was used instead of sodium chloride, the order of bactericidal activities was plain vinegar > AMAZU > NIHAIZU > SANBAIZU. This is mainly because their activities were suppressed by the increase in the pH value. The effect of sodium chloride (0.01-15%) and temperature (10-50 degrees C) on bactericidal activities against E. coli O157:H7 in spirit vinegar (0.5-2.5% acidity) was further examined. When vinegar was used in combination with sodium chloride, predominant synergism on the bactericidal activity was observed. Their activities were markedly enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride in proportion to the concentration. In addition to this, at higher temperatures spirit vinegar killed bacteria much more rapidly. It should be noted that the bactericidal activity of spirit vinegar was extremely enhanced by the combined use of the addition of sodium chloride and the rise of temperature. For example, in 2.5% acidity vinegar, the time required for 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers at 20 degrees C was shortened to 1/140-fold by the addition of 5% sodium chloride, shortened to 1/51-fold by the rise of the reaction temperature at 40 degrees C, and shortened to 1/830-fold; 0.89 minutes by both the addition of 5% sodium chloride and the rise of temperature at 40 degrees C. In order to propose the methods to prevent food poisoning by bacterial infection, bactericidal activities of vinegar solution containing sodium chloride on cooking tools and

  1. Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene variants increase sodium and bicarbonate transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Kemp, Brandon A; Carlson, Julia M; Tran, Hanh T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Langouët-Astrié, Christophe J; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2018-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure affects >30% of the hypertensive and >15% of the normotensive population. Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene, SLC4A5, are associated with increased blood pressure in several ethnic groups. SLC4A5 variants are also highly associated with salt sensitivity, independent of hypertension. However, little is known about how NBCe2 contributes to salt sensitivity, although NBCe2 regulates renal tubular sodium bicarbonate transport. We hypothesized that SLC4A5 rs10177833 and rs7571842 increase NBCe2 expression and human renal proximal tubule cell (hRPTC) sodium transport and may be a cause of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. To characterize the hRPTC ion transport of wild-type (WT) and homozygous variants (HV) of SLC4A5. The expressions of NBCe2 mRNA and protein were not different between hRPTCs carrying WT or HV SLC4A5 before or after dopaminergic or angiotensin (II and III) stimulation. However, luminal to basolateral sodium transport, NHE3 protein, and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity in hRPTCs were higher in HV than WT SLC4A5. Increasing intracellular sodium enhanced the apical location of NBCe2 in HV hRPTCs (4.24±0.35% to 11.06±1.72% (P<0.05, N = 3, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)) as determined by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM). In hRPTCs isolated from kidney tissue, increasing intracellular sodium enhanced bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate and increased NBCe2 mRNA and protein expressions to a greater extent in HV than WT SLC4A5 (+38.00±6.23% vs HV normal salt (P<0.01, N = 4, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)). In hRPTCs isolated from freshly voided urine, bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery was also faster in those from salt-sensitive and carriers of HV SLC4A5 than from salt-resistant and carriers of WT SLC4A5. The faster NBCe2-specific bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate in HV SCL4A5 was normalized by SLC4A5- but not SLC4A4-shRNA. The binding of purified hepatocyte

  2. Peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis: a proposal for the initiation of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrier, R W; Arroyo, V; Bernardi, M

    1988-01-01

    Renal sodium and water retention and plasma volume expansion have been shown to precede ascites formation in experimental cirrhosis. The classical "underfilling" theory, in which ascites formation causes hypovolemia and initiates secondary renal sodium and water retention, thus seems unlikely...... with cirrhosis. Arterial vasodilators and arteriovenous fistula are other examples in which renal sodium and water retention occur secondary to a decreased filling of the arterial vascular tree. An increase in cardiac output and hormonal stimulation are common features of cirrhosis, arteriovenous fistula...... and drug-induced peripheral arterial vasodilation. However, a predilection for the retained sodium and water to transudate into the abdominal cavity occurs with cirrhosis because of the presence of portal hypertension. The Peripheral Arterial Vasodilation Hypothesis also explains the continuum from...

  3. Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesny, Jill A.; Zalesny, Ronald S.; Wiese, Adam H.; Sexton, Bart; Hall, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl - ) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA (45.6 deg. N, 89.4 deg. W). During August 2006, we tested for differences in total Na + and Cl - concentration in preplanting and harvest soils, and in leaf, woody (stems + branches), and root tissue. The leachate-irrigated soils at harvest had the greatest Na + and Cl - levels. Genotypes exhibited elevated total tree Cl - concentration and increased biomass (clones NC14104, NM2, NM6), elevated Cl - and decreased biomass (NC14018, NC14106, DM115), or mid levels of Cl - and biomass (NC13460, DN5). Leachate tissue concentrations were 17 (Na + ) and four (Cl - ) times greater than water. Sodium and Cl - levels were greatest in roots and leaves, respectively. - Sodium and chloride supplied via landfill leachate irrigation is accumulated at high concentrations in tissues of Populus

  4. Altered regulation of renal sodium transporters in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats induced by uninephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Yong; Lee, Jay Wook; Kim, Sejoong; Jung, Eun Sook; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2009-12-01

    Uninephrectomy (uNx) in young rats causes salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH). Alterations of sodium handling in residual nephrons may play a role in the pathogenesis. Therefore, we evaluated the adaptive alterations of renal sodium transporters according to salt intake in uNx-SSH rats. uNx or sham operations were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and normal-salt diet was fed for 4 weeks. Four experimental groups were used: sham-operated rats raised on a high-salt diet for 2 weeks (CHH) or on a low-salt diet for 1 week after 1 week's high-salt diet (CHL) and uNx rats fed on the same diet (NHH, NHL) as the sham-operated rats were fed. Expression of major renal sodium transporters were determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Systolic blood pressure was increased in NHH and NHL groups, compared with CHH and CHL, respectively. Protein abundances of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the CHH group were lower than the CHL group. Expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-γ increased in the CHH group. In contrast, expressions of NKCC2 and NCC in the NHH group didn't show any significant alterations, compared to the NHL group. Expressions of ENaC-α and ENaC-β in the NHH group were higher than the CHH group. Adaptive alterations of NKCC2 and NCC to changes of salt intake were different in the uNx group, and changes in ENaC-α and ENaC-β were also different. These altered regulations of sodium transporters may be involved in the pathogenesis of SSH in the uNx rat model.

  5. Effect of perioperative sodium bicarbonate administration on renal function following cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Sun; Soh, Sarah; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, Sanghwa; Choi, Haegi; Kwak, Young-Lan

    2017-01-05

    Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) have an elevated risk of renal dysfunction because of extensive systemic inflammation and use of nephrotoxic antibiotics. In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated whether perioperative sodium bicarbonate administration could attenuate postoperative renal dysfunction in patients with IE undergoing cardiac surgery. Seventy patients randomly received sodium chloride (n = 35) or sodium bicarbonate (n = 35). Sodium bicarbonate was administered as a 0.5 mmol/kg loading dose for 1 h commencing with anesthetic induction, followed by a 0.15 mmol/kg/h infusion for 23 h. The primary outcome was peak serum creatinine (SCr) level during the first 48 h postoperatively. The incidence of acute kidney injury, SCr level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and major morbidity endpoints were assessed postoperatively. The peak SCr during the first 48 h postoperatively (bicarbonate vs. 1.01 (0.74, 1.37) mg/dl vs. 0.88 (0.76, 1.27) mg/dl, P = 0.474) and the incidence of acute kidney injury (bicarbonate vs. 29% vs. 23%, P = 0.584) were similar in both groups. The postoperative increase in SCr above baseline was greater in the bicarbonate group than in the control group on postoperative day 2 (0.21 (0.07, 0.33) mg/dl vs. 0.06 (0.00, 0.23) mg/dl, P = 0.028) and postoperative day 5 (0.23 (0.08, 0.36) mg/dl vs. 0.06 (0.00, 0.23) mg/dl, P = 0.017). Perioperative sodium bicarbonate administration had no favorable impact on postoperative renal function and outcomes in patients with IE undergoing cardiac surgery. Instead, it was associated with possibly harmful renal effects, illustrated by a greater increase in SCr postoperatively, compared to control. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01920126 . Registered on 31 July 2013.

  6. Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, Sadia; Ali, Vazid; Zulfequar, M.; Mazharul Haq, M.; Husain, M.

    2008-01-01

    Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300-400 K. Mott's parameters are used to explain the conduction mechanism. Different parameters such as pre-exponential factor (σ 0 ), activation energy (ΔE) and T 0 have also been calculated to see the effect of chemical doping. The crystallinity of the blends is explained on the basis of T 0 . The calculated values of T 0 show that crystallinity increases with an increase of doped PANI in PANI-PVC blends. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is done to explore the nature and interaction of dopant into the polymeric chain

  7. Dietary Sodium Modulation of Aldosterone Activation and Renal Function During the Progression of Experimental Heart Failure Miller: Dietary Sodium and Early Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L.; Borgeson, Daniel D.; Grantham, J. Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium-fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Methods and Results Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: 1) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 grams) per day, n=6]; 2) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 grams) per day, n=6]; and 3) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 grams) per day, n=6]. During the 38 day study hemodynamics, renal function, renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in hemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups, however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Conclusions Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression. PMID:25823360

  8. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  10. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  11. Measurement of the body content of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phophorus and nitrogen with reference to spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.

    1978-01-01

    The total body content of sodium, chloride, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus can be measured simultaneously by in vivo activation analysis and at the same time total body potassium can be determined directly by whole body counting. These procedures have been described and compared with methods using isotope dilution. The complementary nature of the techniques, when properly applied, as well as reported disparities have been illustrated by a number of clinical investigations generally involving aldosterone antagonists. The methods should provide a better insight to the complex changes in body conposition and metabolism accociated with hypertension (and other diseases) and their treatment. (Auth.)

  12. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  13. Electrochemical reduction of lanthanum trichloride in a molten equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glagolevskaya, A.L.; Kuznetsov, S.A.; Polyakov, E.G.; Stangrit, P.T.

    1987-09-20

    The authors used linear voltamperometry for the investigation of the mechanism for the cathodic reduction of lanthanum. The mechanism for the cathodic reduction of lanthanum chloride in molten equimolar NaCl-KCl may be seen as consisting of a slow irreversible electrode reaction with a subsequent rapid irreversible chemical reaction. Lanthanum ions in a lower oxidation state were not found upon the prolonged maintenance of metallic lanthanum in molten NaCl-KCl-LaCl/sub 3/. Only an increase in the concentration of lanthanum(III) chloride in the melt was noted. The appearance of oxygen anions in the melt does not lead to a change in the mechanism of the cathodic reduction of lanthanum chloride but reduces the concentration of this chloride due to the formation of lanthanum oxochloride which is insoluble in the melt.

  14. Lactated Ringer's solution or 0.9% sodium chloride as fluid therapy in pigeons (Columba livia submitted to humerus osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.

  15. Inhibitive effect of N,N'-Dimethylaminoethanol on carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution, at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassoune Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution by N,N'- Dimethylaminoethanol (DMEA, at different temperatures, was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The results obtained confirm that DMEA is a good organic corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 0.5M of NaCl (concentration encountered in the Mediterranean seawater, over the whole range of temperatures studied. The inhibition efficiency (IE% increases with increasing DMEA concentration; it reaches highest value for a concentration around 0.125 mol.L-1. Potentiodynamic polarization data show that, the compound studied in this research predominantly act as anodic-type inhibitor. The EIS study reveals that the addition of DMEA decreases the corrosion rate of carbon steel in neutral sodium chloride solution, due to the fact that the inhibitor molecules are strongly adsorbed on the active sites following Langmuir isotherm, thus leading to the formation of a stable protective film on the steel surface which is able to keep the metal/solution interface in a passive state. Furthermore, the values of the activation parameters, i.e. ΔHa and Ea obtained in this study indicate that the adsorption process of DMEA is endothermic and could be mainly attributed to chemisorption, respectively.

  16. Increased renal sodium absorption by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis during fasting in healthy man. A possible role of the epithelial sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graffe Carolina C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment with prostaglandin inhibitors can reduce renal function and impair renal water and sodium excretion. We tested the hypotheses that a reduction in prostaglandin synthesis by ibuprofen treatment during fasting decreased renal water and sodium excretion by increased absorption of water and sodium via the aquaporin2 water channels and the epithelial sodium channels. Methods The effect of ibuprofen, 600 mg thrice daily, was measured during fasting in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study of 17 healthy humans. The subjects received a standardized diet on day 1, fasted at day 2, and received an IV infusion of 3% NaCl on day 3. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2, the beta-fraction of the epithelial sodium channel (u-ENaCbeta, cyclic-AMP (u-cAMP, prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2. Free water clearance (CH2O, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa, and plasma concentrations of vasopressin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial-, and brain natriuretic peptide. Results Ibuprofen decreased u-AQP2, u-PGE2, and FENa at all parts of the study. During the same time, ibuprofen significantly increased u-ENaCbeta. Ibuprofen did not change the response in p-AVP, u-c-AMP, urinary output, and free water clearance during any of these periods. Atrial-and brain natriuretic peptide were higher. Conclusion During inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, urinary sodium excretion decreased in parallel with an increase in sodium absorption and increase in u-ENaCbeta. U-AQP2 decreased indicating that water transport via AQP2 fell. The vasopressin-c-AMP-axis did not mediate this effect, but it may be a consequence of the changes in the natriuretic peptide system and/or the angiotensin-aldosterone system Trial Registration Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00281762

  17. High maternal sodium intake alters sex-specific renal renin-angiotensin system components in newborn Wistar offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, D R R; Lopes, K L; Heimann, J C; Furukawa, L N S

    2016-01-28

    This study aimed to evaluate the systemic and renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) at birth in male and female offspring and in mothers fed a high sodium diet (HSD) before and during gestation. Female Wistar rats were fed a HSD (8.0% NaCl) or a normal sodium diet (1.3% NaCl) from 8 weeks of age until delivery of their first litter. Maternal body weight, tail blood pressure, and food and water intake were evaluated. The litter sizes were assessed, and the body and kidney weights of the offspring were measured. Both mothers and offspring were euthanized immediately following the birth of the pups to evaluate plasma renin activity (PRA), renal renin content (RRC), renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, renal angiotensin (Ang) II content, serum aldosterone (ALDO) levels, and renal cortical and medullary renin messenger RNA expression. In mothers in the HSD group, water intake and kidney mass were higher, whereas renal ACE activity, Ang II, PRA, ALDO and RRC were decreased. In the offspring of HSD-fed dams, the body and kidney mass were lower in both genders, renal ACE activity was lower in females and renal Ang II was lower in males. PRA, RRC, renin gene expression and ALDO levels did not differ between the groups of offspring. The data presented herein showed that a maternal HSD during pregnancy induces low birth weight and a sex-specific response in the RAAS in offspring.

  18. Thermodynamics of aqueous carbonate solutions including mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Recently the authors examined electrochemical-cell data leading to values of the activity coefficient for aqueous sodium bicarbonate. Since that preliminary analysis, new experimental measurements have been published which contribute significantly to the overall thermodynamic understanding of (sodium carbonate + sodium bicarbonate + carbonic acid). In this more extensive examination we consider a wide variety of measurements leading to activity coefficients of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ from 273 to 323 K and to relative molar enthalpies and heat capacities at 298.15 K. Tables of thermodynamic quantities at selected temperatures are included. 47 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation of Na/K-ATPase Regulates Fibrosis and Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Na/K-ATPase is the primary force regulating renal sodium handling and plays a key role in both ion homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Recently, cardiotonic steroids (CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling has been shown to regulate fibrosis, renal proximal tubule (RPT sodium reabsorption, and experimental Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension in response to a high-salt diet. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are an important modulator of nephron ion transport. As there is limited knowledge regarding the role of ROS-mediated fibrosis and RPT sodium reabsorption through the Na/K-ATPase, the focus of this review is to examine the possible role of ROS in the regulation of Na/K-ATPase activity, its signaling, fibrosis, and RPT sodium reabsorption.

  20. Effects of Sodium Selenite on Formaldehyde Induced Renal Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Mohammadi 1,2 * , Maryam Moghimian 3, Hanieh Torabzadeh 4, Mahla Langari 4, Roghayeh Nazeri 4, Zahra Karimi 4, Elham Sangari 4, Najmeh Jagarmi 5, Alireza Mohammad Zadeh 3, Mehdi Karimi 7, Kamyar Tavakkoli 8, Ali Delshad 9, Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh 3, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan 10

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Formaldehyde is widely used for industrial applications. Renal injury is an adverse effect associated with formaldehyde. Few studies have explored the potential benefits of protective factors on formaldehyde induced renal toxicity. This study evaluated the dose dependent effects of sodium selenite on the biochemical and histopathological effects of formaldehyde on murine kidney. Methods: Forty eight adult Balb/c male mice were randomized into six groups: a control group, a formaldehyde group and experimental III-VI groups. Formaldehyde group was injected with 10 mg/kg formaldehyde and groups III-VI received intraperitoneally doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/kg selenium. After two weeks, a stereological study was done in accordance with the principle of Cavalieri and serum concentrations of urea and creatinine were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and SPSS software. Results: Glomerosclerosis, necrosis and vacuolization were observed in the convoluted tubules of animals treated with formaldehyde. The biochemical markers, volume and count of glomeruli in the group treated with formaldehyde was significantly difference compared to the control group (P<0.05. The volume of the glomeruli in the group treated with 0.2 and 0.4 mg selenium and urea level in the group treated with 0.4 and 0.1 mg/kg selenium was significantly difference compared to the control group (P <0.05. The count of glomeruli and creatinine level in the selenium group was significantly difference compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusions: A dose of 0.2 mg/kg of sodium selenite caused partial protective effect on the renal tissue and function in exposed to formaldehyde.

  1. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  2. Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentrations and Its Foliar Application Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pomegranate Fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rouhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. belong to Punicaceae family is native to Iran and grown extensively in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Pomegranate is also important in human medicine and its components have a wide range of clinical applications. Cracking causes a major fruit loss, which is a serious commercial loss to farmers. Fruit cracking, seems to be a problem that lessens the marketability to a great extent. Fruit cracking is one of the physiological disorders wherever pomegranate trees are grown. It may be due to moisture imbalances as this fruit is very sensitive to variation in soil moisture prolonged drought causes hardening of skin and if this is followed by heavy irrigation the pulp grows then skin grows and cracks. Many factors i.e., climate, soil and irrigation, varieties, pruning, insects and nutrition statues influence the growth and production of fruit trees. Deficiencies of various nutrients are related to soil types, plants and even to various cultivars. Most nutrients are readily fixed in soil having different PH. Plant roots are unable to absorb these nutrients adequately from the dry topsoil. Foliar fertilization is particularly useful under conditions where the absorption of nutrients through the soil and this difficult situation to be present in the nutrients such as calcium. Since the calcium element is needed, so spraying them at the right time is correct way to save the plant requirements. Therefore, a research conducted on effect of sodium chloride concentrations and its foliar application time on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”. Materials and Methods: An experiment conducted at Jarghoyeh, Esfahan, Iran in 2012. The factors were Sodium chloride (0, 5 and 10 g/L and times of spray (15, 45 and 75 days before harvest. The study was factorial experiment in the base of randomized complete blocks design with three replications

  3. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  4. Sodium Chloride Supplementation Is Not Routinely Performed in the Majority of German and Austrian Infants with Classic Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Has No Effect on Linear Growth and Hydrocortisone or Fludrocortisone Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfig, Walter; Roehl, Friedhelm; Riedl, Stefan; Brämswig, Jürgen; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Fricke-Otto, Susanne; Hübner, Angela; Bettendorf, Markus; Schönau, Eckhard; Dörr, Helmut; Holl, Reinhard W; Mohnike, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Sodium chloride supplementation in salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is generally recommended in infants, but its implementation in routine care is very heterogeneous. To evaluate oral sodium chloride supplementation, growth, and hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose in infants with salt-wasting CAH due to 21-hydroxylase in 311 infants from the AQUAPE CAH database. Of 358 patients with classic CAH born between 1999 and 2015, 311 patients had salt-wasting CAH (133 females, 178 males). Of these, 86 patients (27.7%) received oral sodium chloride supplementation in a mean dose of 0.9 ± 1.4 mmol/kg/day (excluding nutritional sodium content) during the first year of life. 225 patients (72.3%) were not treated with sodium chloride. The percentage of sodium chloride-supplemented patients rose from 15.2% in children born 1999-2004 to 37.5% in children born 2011-2015. Sodium chloride-supplemented and -unsupplemented infants did not significantly differ in hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose, target height-corrected height-SDS, and BMI-SDS during the first 2 years of life. In the AQUAPE CAH database, approximately one-third of infants with salt-wasting CAH receive sodium chloride supplementation. Sodium chloride supplementation is performed more frequently in recent years. However, salt supplementation had no influence on growth, daily fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone dose, and frequency of adrenal crisis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  6. Electrolysis of acidic sodium chloride solution with a graphite anode. I. Graphite electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.; Hoogland, J.G.

    1969-01-01

    A graphite anode evolving Cl from a chloride soln. is slowly oxidized to CO and CO2. This oxidn. causes a change in the characteristics of the electrode in aging, comprising a change of the nature of the graphite surface and an increase of the surface area. It appears that a new graphite electrode

  7. Measurement of renal blood flow by 131I-labelled sodium iodohippurate imaging in a rat model of herpes encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleator, G.M.; Klapper, P.E.; Lewis, A.G.; Sharma, H.L.; Smith, A.M.; Manchester Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Renal blood flow was assessed qualitatively over a 30 min period in a rat model of herpes encephalitis by extra-renal scintigraphic imaging following the injection of 131 I-labelled sodium iodohippurate. No significant differences were observed for renal blood flow in either kidney between (or within) infected and control groups. Our data suggest that kidney function is not compromised in this animal model of encephalitis. The results are discussed in the context of the development of a non-invasive protocol for the in vivo diagnosis of herpes encephalitis. (orig.)

  8. Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q.Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.c [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: DDTC is of low toxicity. DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

  9. Vasopressin induces phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Hofmeister, Marlene Vind; Rosenbaek, Lena L

    2010-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) is important for renal electrolyte balance and its phosphorylation causes an increase in its transport activity and cellular localization. Here, we generated phospho-specific antibodies against two conserved N-terminal phosphorylation sites...

  10. Modeling the Combined Effects of Temperature, pH, and Sodium Chloride and Sodium Lactate Concentrations on the Growth Rate of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Dalcanton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, microorganisms with probiotic or antimicrobial properties are receiving major attention as alternative resources for food preservation. Lactic acid bacteria are able to synthetize compounds with antimicrobial activity against pathogenic and spoilage flora. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 has exhibited this capacity, and further studies reveal that the microorganism is able to produce bacteriocins. An assessment of the growth of L. plantarum ATCC 8014 at different conditions becomes crucial to predict its development in foods. A response surface model of the growth rate of L. plantarum was built in this study as a function of temperature (4, 7, 10, 13, and 16°C, pH (5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5, and sodium chloride (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0% and sodium lactate (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% concentrations. All the factors were statistically significant at a confidence level of 90%  (p<0.10. When temperature and pH increased, there was a corresponding increase in the growth rate, while a negative relationship was observed between NaCl and Na-lactate concentrations and the growth parameter. A mathematical validation was carried out with additional conditions, demonstrating an excellent performance of the model. The developed model could be useful for designing foods with L. plantarum ATCC 8014 added as a probiotic.

  11. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  12. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1989-01-01

    glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence...... or absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently...... of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin release...

  13. The second sodium site in the dopamine transporter controls cation permeability and is regulated by chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Lars; Andreassen, Thorvald F; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted mutagene......The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted...

  14. Paleohydrology on Mars constrained by mass balance and mineralogy of pre-Amazonian sodium chloride lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Kite, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    Chloride-bearing deposits on Mars record high-elevation lakes during the waning stages of Mars' wet era (mid-Noachian to late Hesperian). The water source pathways, seasonality, salinity, depth, lifetime, and paleoclimatic drivers of these widespread lakes are all unknown. Here we combine reaction-transport modeling, orbital spectroscopy, and new volume estimates from high-resolution digital terrain models, in order to constrain the hydrologic boundary conditions for forming the chlorides. Considering a T = 0°C system, we find that (1) individual lakes were >100 m deep and lasted decades or longer; (2) if volcanic degassing was the source of chlorine, then the water-to-rock ratio or the total water volume were probably low, consistent with brief excursions above the melting point and/or arid climate; (3) if the chlorine source was igneous chlorapatite, then Cl-leaching events would require a (cumulative) time of >10 years at the melting point; and (4) Cl masses, divided by catchment area, give column densities 0.1-50 kg Cl/m2, and these column densities bracket the expected chlorapatite-Cl content for a seasonally warm active layer. Deep groundwater was not required. Taken together, our results are consistent with Mars having a usually cold, horizontally segregated hydrosphere by the time chlorides formed.

  15. Accumulation of dissolved gases at hydrophobic surfaces in water and sodium chloride solutions: Implications for coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, M.A.; Nguyen, A.V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

    2009-08-15

    Dissolved gases can preferentially accumulate at the hydrophobic solid-water interface as revealed by neutron reflectivity measurements. In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine accumulation of dissolved gases at a hydrophobic surface in water and sodium chloride solutions. The solvent-exchange method was used to artificially form gaseous domains accumulated at the interface suitable for AFM imaging. Smooth graphite surfaces were used as model surfaces to minimize the secondary effect of surface roughness on the imaging. The concentration of NaCl up to 1 M was found to have a negligible influence on the geometry and population of pre-existing nanobubbles, nanopancakes and nanobubble-nanopancake composites. The implications of the findings on coal flotation in saline water are discussed in terms of attraction between hydrophobic surfaces in water, bubble-particle attachment and hydrophobic coagulation between particles.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on pitting corrosion of austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steels in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefec, R.; Franz, F.; Holecek, A.

    1979-01-01

    The pitting corrosion resistance of Cr17Ni12Mo2,5 type steel under potentiostatic polarization in a sodium chloride solution is adversely affected by previous annealing. The data obtained were systematically dependent on annealing temperature, time and surface roughness. The corrosion current, the number of pits or the mean area of pit opening and the corrosion rate within the pits were increased by previous annealing at 550 to 750 0 C for 1-100 hrs. The highest corrosion rate estimated corresponded to heat treatments provoking severe sensitization to intergranular corrosion. The paercentage area of corrosion pit openings and the estimated pit penetration rates were several times higher for as-machined than for polished surfaces. It can be assumed that pitting corrosion is little affected by the carbon content and that molybdenum depletion of grain-boundary zones is responsible for the reduced pitting resistance of annealed steels. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Changes of free, soluble conjugated and bound polyamine titers of jojoba explants under sodium chloride salinity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Peter A; Pontikis, Constantine A

    2007-07-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) single node explants were cultured in a basal medium supplemented with 17.8 microM 6-benzyladenine and four levels of sodium chloride concentration (0, 56.41, 112.82 and 169.23 mM). The free, the soluble conjugated and the insoluble bound forms of polyamines (PAs) (putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) were determined monthly during a 3-month proliferation stage. Free Put and Spd were found in higher levels in the control treatment, while Spm content was higher in the salt treatments. All soluble conjugated PAs were found to be in lower concentrations in explants growing on medium supplemented with salt, while the opposite was true for the insoluble bound PAs. It appeared that certain PAs and PAs forms could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanism of jojoba under saline conditions.

  18. Catalytic conversion of corncob and corncob pretreatment hydrolysate to furfural in a biphasic system with addition of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; Wan, Yilun; Xu, Youqing; Ji, Huilong; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic conversion of corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob into furfural in a modified biphasic system by SO 4 2- /SnO 2 - MMT solid catalyst has been developed. The influence of the organic solvent type, organic to water phase ratio, sodium chloride concentration, reaction temperature and time on the furfural production were comparatively evaluated. The results showed that furfural yields of 81.7% and 66.1% were achieved at 190°C for 15mins and 190°C for 20mins, respectively, for corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob by this solid catalyst. The solid catalyst used in this study exhibited good stability and high efficiency applied in the modified biphasic system in addition to excellent recyclability. The proposed catalytic system displayed high performance for catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into important platform chemicals and has great potential in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of sodium hypophosphite in the presence of copper (II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that in soft conditions (50-70oC, PO2 = 1 atm sodium hypophosphite effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water solutions of copper(II chloride  to give mainly a phosphorous acid. Humic (fulvo- acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, the intermediate and final products, optimal conditions of new catalytic reaction of NaH2PO2 oxidation by oxygen in water solution were defined by kinetics, volumometry, redox-potentiometry and a titration.

  20. AFM study of the early corrosion of a high strength steel in a diluted sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Javier; Fullea, Jose; Andrade, Carmen; Gaitero, Juan J.; Porro, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The high strength steels employed as reinforcement in pre-stressed concrete structures are drawn wire steels of eutectoid composition with a pearlitic microstructure. This work is focused on the study, by atomic force microscopy, of the early stages of the corrosion of such steels as a consequence of their exposition to a sodium chloride solution. The obtained images show the pearlitic microstructure of the steel, with a preferential attack of the ferrite phase and the cementite acting as a cathode. The corrosion rate was determined by calculating the amount of material lost from a roughness analysis. The obtained results are in good agreement with the predictions of Galvelel's theory, according to which the corrosion rate slows down as the pit depth increases

  1. Effect of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the physicochemical properties of soft wheat flour doughs and gluten polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Ehmke, Laura; Miller, Rebecca; Faa, Pierre; Smith, Gordon; Li, Yonghui

    2018-06-07

    Soft wheat flour doughs were prepared with different levels of salt (NaCl) and/or baking soda (NaHCO3). Oscillation rheology, elongational viscosity, and extensibility of doughs were tested to evaluate the effect of salt and/or baking soda on the physical properties of doughs. Furthermore, a series of physical-biochemical analytical techniques were used to investigate gluten polymerization in doughs, including Zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), spectrophotometer, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Addition of high levels of NaHCO3 (1.0 % fwb), either by itself or in combination with NaCl, increased dough strength, elongational viscosity, and viscoelasticity. RP-HPLC results demonstrated macromolecular aggregation of gluten proteins in the presence of NaCl and/or NaHCO3. Addition of NaHCO3 or NaCl also decreased both free sulfhydryl content and random coil structure of gluten isolated from the doughs. Overall, NaCl and/or NaHCO3 induced the changes of molecular conformation of gluten, which impacted the physicochemical qualities of soft wheat flour dough. Our study provides a better understanding of salt and baking soda functionality in the formation of soft flour dough, which will support the searching of feasible sodium reduction strategies in soft flour bakery products.

  2. Compatibility of butorphanol with granisetron in 0.9% sodium chloride injection packaged in glass bottles or polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Xiong, Hui; Liu, Hui-Min; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng

    2015-08-15

    The stability of admixtures containing butorphanol and granisetron in polyolefin bags and glass bottles stored at 4 and 25 °C was studied. Commercial solutions of butorphanol tartrate and granisetron hydrochloride were combined and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection to final concentrations of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and granisetron 0.03 or 0.06 mg/mL; the resulting mixtures were packaged in polyolefin bags and glass bottles. The admixtures were assessed for periods of up to 48 hours after storage at 25 °C without protection from room light and up to 14 days at 4 °C with protection from room light. The chemical stability of the admixtures was evaluated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and by measurement of pH values. Solution appearance and color were assessed by observing the samples against room light and dark backgrounds. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the percentages of the initial concentrations of butorphanol and granisetron in the various solutions remained above 97% during the testing period. No changes in color or turbidity were observed in any of the prepared solutions. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and granisetron 0.03 or 0.06 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags or glass bottles remained stable for 48 hours when stored at 25 °C exposed to room light and for 14 days when stored at 4 °C protected from room light. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stability of tacrolimus injection diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in Excel bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yanping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Shank, Brandon R; Deaver, Melissa A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-12-15

    The chemical stability and physical compatibility of tacrolimus i.v. infusion solutions prepared in Excel bags and stored at 23 or 4 °C for up to nine days were studied. Tacrolimus admixtures (2, 4, and 8 μg/mL) were prepared in Excel bags using 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 23 °C without protection from light or at 4 °C in the dark. Test samples were withdrawn from triplicate bag solutions immediately after preparation and at predetermined time intervals (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). Chemical stability was assessed by measuring tacrolimus concentrations using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The physical stability of the admixtures was assessed by visual examination and by measuring turbidity, particle size, and drug content. All test solutions stored at 23 or 4 °C had a no greater than 6% loss of the initial tacrolimus concentration throughout the nine-day study period. All test samples of tacrolimus admixtures, under both storage conditions, were without precipitation and remained clear initially and throughout the nine-day observation period. Changes in turbidities were minor; measured particulates remained few in number in all samples throughout the study. Extemporaneously prepared infusion solutions of tacrolimus 2, 4, and 8 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in Excel bags were chemically and physically stable for at least nine days when stored at room temperature (23 °C) without protection from light and when stored in a refrigerator (4 °C) in the dark. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Could Sodium Chloride be an Environmental Trigger for Immune-Mediated Diseases? An Overview of the Experimental and Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Eric; Béreau, Matthieu; Vauchy, Charline; Saas, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases (IMDs) are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4 + T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th) cells (Th17 cells), by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1) that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R). The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation. Experimental data in murine models of arthritis, colitis and encephalomyelitis corroborate these findings. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the effects of sodium chloride on innate and adaptive immunity. We also performed a systematic literature review for clinical studies examining the relationships between salt consumption and the development or the activity/severity of the most common IMDs mediated by the IL-23/Th17 pathway, i.e., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Crohn's disease (CD). Nine studies were found, 4 in RA, 4 in MS and 1 in CD. An association was found between developments of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA in smokers and salt intake, but these results were not confirmed in another study. For MS, no association was observed in pediatric subjects while in adult patients, a link was found between salt intake and disease activity. However, this result was not confirmed in another study. These conflicting results highlight the fact that further evaluation in human IMDs is required. Moreover, physicians need to develop clinical trials with diet interventions to evaluate the impact of low salt intake on disease activity/severity of IMDs.

  5. Could Sodium Chloride be an Environmental Trigger for Immune-Mediated Diseases? An Overview of the Experimental and Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Toussirot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated diseases (IMDs are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th cells (Th17 cells, by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1 that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R. The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation. Experimental data in murine models of arthritis, colitis and encephalomyelitis corroborate these findings. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the effects of sodium chloride on innate and adaptive immunity. We also performed a systematic literature review for clinical studies examining the relationships between salt consumption and the development or the activity/severity of the most common IMDs mediated by the IL-23/Th17 pathway, i.e., rheumatoid arthritis (RA, multiple sclerosis (MS, and Crohn's disease (CD. Nine studies were found, 4 in RA, 4 in MS and 1 in CD. An association was found between developments of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA positive RA in smokers and salt intake, but these results were not confirmed in another study. For MS, no association was observed in pediatric subjects while in adult patients, a link was found between salt intake and disease activity. However, this result was not confirmed in another study. These conflicting results highlight the fact that further evaluation in human IMDs is required. Moreover, physicians need to develop clinical trials with diet interventions to evaluate the impact of low salt intake on disease activity/severity of IMDs.

  6. RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional change in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata after environmentally relevant sodium chloride exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura S; Galbraith, Heather S; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Cornman, R Scott

    2017-09-01

    To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled sodium chloride (NaCl) exposures. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for 7 d, of which 290 had nonoverlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism. The rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of taurine, an amino acid frequently linked to osmotic stress in aquatic species, was upregulated, as was the transmembrane ion pump sodium/potassium adenosine 5'-triphosphatase. These patterns confirm a primary transcriptional response to the experimental dose, albeit likely overlapping with nonspecific secondary stress responses. Substantial involvement of the heat shock protein 70 chaperone family and the water-transporting aquaporin family was not detected, however, in contrast to some studies in other bivalves. A subset of the most significantly regulated genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent sample. Cluster analysis showed separation of mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl from control mussels in multivariate space, but mussels exposed to 1 ppt NaCl were largely indistinguishable from controls. Transcriptome-scale analysis of salt exposure under laboratory conditions efficiently identified candidate biomarkers for further functional analysis and field validation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2352-2366. © Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

  8. Microbial Growth in the Magnesium- Chloride - Sodium- Sulphate Ion System: Implications for Habitability in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, C. M.; Aka, S.; Cockell, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Icy moons in the outer solar system are key targets in the search for extra-terrestrial life as there is evidence that they harbour subsurface oceans. Observational evidence of icy moons such as Europa suggest that these likely brine oceans should be composed of chloride and sulphate salts. The effects of the ions that compose these salts on biology and how the interactions between them can create geochemical and geophysical barriers to life are poorly understood. Here we present an in depth study of four microorganisms grown in solutions with varying combinations of the magnesium- chloride- sodium- sulphate ions. We find that the ion composition of the brine solution can have a large effect on growth. Whilst the water activity must be permissible for growth we found that this alone could not predict the effects of the ions on growth, chaotropic effects and ion specific effects influenced by the specific physiology of organisms are also evident. For this reason we conclude that simply knowing which salts are present on icy moons is not sufficient information to determine their potential habitibility. A full sample of any brine ocean would need to be studied to fully determine the potential for biology on these outer solar system satellites.

  9. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  10. Effect of temperature on the partial molar volume, isentropic compressibility and viscosity of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Carmen M.; Rodríguez, Diana M.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Apparent volumes, apparent compressibilities, viscosities of DL-2-aminobutyric acid. • Effect of temperature on the values for these properties. • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions and the effect of sodium chloride. - Abstract: Density, sound velocity and viscosity of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions have been measured at temperatures of (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K. The experimental results were used to determine the apparent molar volume and the apparent molar compressibility as a function of composition at these temperatures. The limiting values of both the partial molar volume and the partial molar adiabatic compressibility at infinite dilution of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions were determined at each temperature. The experimental viscosity values were adjusted by a least-squares method to a second order equation as proposed by Tsangaris-Martin to obtain the viscosity B coefficient which depends on the size, shape and charge of the solute molecule. The influence of the temperature on the behaviour of the selected properties is discussed in terms of both the solute hydration and the balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the acids and water, and the effect of the sodium chloride concentration.

  11. Renal glucose handling in diabetes and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham Raj Poudel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a major role in glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption via sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs. The defective renal glucose handling from upregulation of SGLTs, mainly the SGLT2, plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genetic mutations in a SGLT2 isoform that results in benign renal glycosuria, as well as clinical studies with SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes support the potential of this approach. These studies indicate that inducing glycosuria by suppressing SGLT2 can reduce plasma glucose and A1c levels, as well as decrease weight, resulting in improved β-cell function and enhanced insulin sensitivity in liver and muscle. Because the mechanism of SGLT2 inhibition is independent of insulin secretion and sensitivity, these agents can be combined with other antidiabetic agents, including exogenous insulin. This class represents a novel therapeutic approach with potential for the treatment of both type 2 and type 1 diabetes.

  12. Stability of Dexmedetomidine in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Two Types of Intravenous Infusion Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Kathleen; Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Szumita, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a frequently used sedative in the critical care setting. It is commercially available as a 4-mg/mL premixed compound or as 200-mcg/2-mL vials that must be further diluted prior to administration. However, limited data exist regarding the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures compounded from the 200-mcg/2-mL vials, particularly for durations greater than 48 hours. Therefore, we performed stability testing on compounded dexmedetomidine prepared in two types of intravenous infusion bags for 14 days. Dexmedetomidine is available as 200-mcg/2-mL vials for dilution, 80-mcg/20-mL single-dose vials, and as 200-mcg/50-mL and 400-mcg/100-mL glass bottles. The stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures has previously been tested for 48 hours. The purpose of this analysis was to test the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures for 14 days. Six dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were compounded in polyvinyl chloride and non-polyvinyl chloride bags, three of which were stored under refrigeration and three of which were kept at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography testing was performed to determine the concentration at Days 1 through 14. Stability was determined by taking the mean concentration of samples taken from each bag. All samples were tested in duplicate. A sample was considered stable if the concentration was greater than 90% of the original concentration. All samples retained over 90% of the drug under their respective storage conditions for the duration of the study. At time 0, the concentration of dexmedetomidine was between 3.99 mcg/mL and 4.01 mcg/mL. On Day 14, the mean concentration was between 95.8% and 98.9%, depending on the bag type and storage condition. The pH remained between 4.7 and 5.8 during the study period as has previously been reported in the literature. Dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were stable in both polyvinyl chloride bags and non-polyvinyl chloride bags for 14 days under refrigeration

  13. High-temperature corrosion of lanthanum in equimole mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochergin, V.P.; Obozhina, R.N.; Dragoshanskaya, T.I.; Startsev, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of investigation into the process of lanthanum corrosion in the molted equimole NaCl-KCl mixture after the change of test time, temperature and lanthanum trichloride were summarized. It was shown that polarization of lanthanum anode in equimole NaCl-KCl melt is controlled by La 3+ diffusion from near-electrode layer to electrolyte depth, which results in decrease of corrosion rate in time. The established electrochemical properties of metallic lanthanum in equimole NaCl-KCl mixture must be considered when improving the technology of electrochemical production of lanthanum or its alloys of molten chlorides of lanthanum and alkaline metals

  14. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The crystal structure of the regulatory domain of the human sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvadia, Carolina M; Sommer, Theis; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Montrasio, Michele; Aalkjaer, Christian; Morth, J Preben

    2017-09-21

    The sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE) is essential for maintaining homeostatic pH in neurons. The crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution of the regulatory N-terminal domain of human NDCBE represents the first crystal structure of an electroneutral sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter. The crystal structure forms an equivalent dimeric interface as observed for the cytoplasmic domain of Band 3, and thus establishes that the consensus motif VTVLP is the key minimal dimerization motif. The VTVLP motif is highly conserved and likely to be the physiologically relevant interface for all other members of the SLC4 family. A novel conserved Zn 2+ -binding motif present in the N-terminal domain of NDCBE is identified and characterized in vitro. Cellular studies confirm the Zn 2+ dependent transport of two electroneutral bicarbonate transporters, NCBE and NBCn1. The Zn 2+ site is mapped to a cluster of histidines close to the conserved ETARWLKFEE motif and likely plays a role in the regulation of this important motif. The combined structural and bioinformatics analysis provides a model that predicts with additional confidence the physiologically relevant interface between the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane domain.

  16. A study of sodium alginate and calcium chloride interaction through films for intervertebral disc regeneration uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laia, Andreia Grossi Santos de; Costa Junior, Ezequiel de Souza; Costa, Hermes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The injured intervertebral disc (IVD) requires some measures in order to promote its regeneration. The sodium alginate in conjunction with CaCl_2 forms a net, potentiating its mechanical properties so it may be an alternative for IVD treatment. In this work, the viability of films of sodium alginate crosslinked with CaCl_2 and submitted to variations in their solutions' preparations is verified, comparing the effects of the addition of CaCl_2 through their immersions, before and after drying the films. The films had their physicochemical properties analyzed by FTIR, DSC and XRD. The results indicated that films with a greater proportion of CaCl_2 were more stable in the DSC analysis when compared to films with smaller proportions of CaCl_2. These results indicate alginate's modulation capacity which may be useful for IVD regeneration. (author)

  17. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  18. Stability of polymyxin B sulfate diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 4 or 25 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Figueroa, Deborah A; Lim, Tze-Peng; Chow, Diana S; Tam, Vincent H

    2010-07-15

    The stability of polymyxin B sulfate in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection stored at 4 and 25 degrees C was studied. Seven manufacturing batches of polymyxin B from different sources were tested. The products were reconstituted in sterile water for injection, diluted in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) or under refrigeration (4 degrees C). Samples were withdrawn at the same time on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7. A modified microbiological assay was used to determine the concentrations, as indicated by zones of inhibition, of polymyxin B. Bordetella bronchiseptica served as the reference organism. Stability was defined as retention of >90% of the initial concentration. The decomposition kinetics of polymyxin B in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were evaluated by plotting the polymyxin B concentration remaining versus time. On average, the samples retained over 90% of their initial concentration for up to two days at both storage temperatures. All samples retained over 90% of their initial concentration at 24 hours. The decomposition kinetics of polymyxin B in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection exhibited pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rate constants of 0.024-0.075 day(-1) at 25 degrees C and 0.022-0.043 day(-1) at 4 degrees C (p > 0.05). Polymyxin B was stable for at least one day when stored at 4 or 25 degrees C in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Stability did not differ significantly between the two storage temperatures.

  19. Insights into metabolism and sodium chloride adaptability of carbaryl degrading halotolerant Pseudomonas sp. strain C7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Vikas D; Bharadwaj, Anahita; Varunjikar, Madhushri S; Singha, Arminder K; Upadhyay, Priya; Gautam, Kamini; Phale, Prashant S

    2017-08-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C7 isolated from sediment of Thane creek near Mumbai, India, showed the ability to grow on glucose and carbaryl in the presence of 7.5 and 3.5% of NaCl, respectively. It also showed good growth in the absence of NaCl indicating the strain to be halotolerant. Increasing salt concentration impacted the growth on carbaryl; however, the specific activity of various enzymes involved in the metabolism remained unaffected. Among various enzymes, 1-naphthol 2-hydroxylase was found to be sensitive to chloride as compared to carbaryl hydrolase and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The intracellular concentration of Cl - ions remained constant (6-8 mM) for cells grown on carbaryl either in the presence or absence of NaCl. Thus the ability to adapt to the increasing concentration of NaCl is probably by employing chloride efflux pump and/or increase in the concentration of osmolytes as mechanism for halotolerance. The halotolerant nature of the strain will be beneficial to remediate carbaryl from saline agriculture fields, ecosystems and wastewaters.

  20. Effects of dietary glucose and sodium chloride on intestinal glucose absorption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing

    2018-01-08

    The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  2. Renal Development and Blood Pressure in Offspring from Dams Submitted to High-Sodium Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezila M. Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to an adverse environment in utero appears to programme physiology and metabolism permanently, with long-term consequences for health of the fetus or offspring. It was observed that the offspring from dams submitted to high-sodium intake during pregnancy present disturbances in renal development and in blood pressure. These alterations were associated with lower plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII and changes in renal AII receptor I (AT1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK expressions during post natal kidney development. Clinical and experimental evidence show that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS participates in renal development. Many effects of AII are mediated through MAPK pathways. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs play a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, high-sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation can provoke disturbances in renal development in offspring leading to functional and structural alterations that persist in adult life. These changes can be related at least in part with the decrease in RAS activity considering that this system has an important role in renal development.

  3. Green synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride nanodots using sodium chloride template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Bo [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science (China); Zou, Xianshuai; Yan, Tingnan; Fei, Junjie [Xiangtan University, College of Chemistry (China); Chu, Zengyong, E-mail: chuzy@nudt.edu.cn [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) nanodots are simply prepared by a thermal treatment of dicyandiamide (DCDA) confined within NaCl templates. Cyano groups are introduced to the nanodots due to the catalytic effect of NaCl. NaCl could facilitate the polymerization of DCDA at lower temperatures, but will promote the decomposition when the temperature is above 550 °C. Thermal treatment at 600 °C for 30 min is the optimal condition for the scalable synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanodots with an average diameter of ~9 nm. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanodots have a higher band gap of 3.1 eV, which can emit bright blue light due to the decreased diameter, the introduction of cyano groups, and the incorporation of some sodium ions. The residue sodium ions and the cyano groups might lead to the local distortion of the graphitic crystals, or act as recombination centers for the enhanced photoluminescence.Graphical Abstract.

  4. Effects of de-icing chemicals sodium chloride and potassium formate on cadmium solubility in a coarse mineral soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasa, Kimmo [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: kimmo.rasa@helsinki.fi; Peltovuori, Tommi [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hartikainen, Helinae [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-01

    Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg{sup -1}. After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments.

  5. Reduction of mercury from mackerel fillet using combined solution of cysteine, EDTA, and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2012-06-13

    An acidic solution containing mercury chelating agents to eliminate mercury in raw fish (mackerel) fillet was developed. The solution contained hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, cysteine, EDTA, and NaCl. The optimum conditions for mercury reduction were achieved using response surface methodology (RSM) at cysteine concentration of 1.25%, EDTA of 275 mg/L, NaCl of 0.5%, pH of 3.75, and exposure time of 18 min. The optimized conditions produced a solution which can remove up to 91% mercury from raw fish fillet. Cysteine and EDTA were identified as potential chelating agents with the greatest potential for use. The solution can be employed in fish industries to reduce mercury in highly contaminated fish.

  6. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  7. Fatigue behavior of alloy 600 in sodium chloride solution at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J.-T.; Yu, G.-P.

    2004-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of mill annealed Alloy 600 in NaCI solution were studied by a fracture mechanics test method. Compact tension (CT) specimens were tested under load control with a sinusoidal wave form, in accordance with ASTM specification E647-83, to investigate the effects of environment, load frequency (f), load ratio (R=Pmin/Pmax). The FCG rates of Alloy 600, R=0.1, f=1Hz, were quite similar in air, distilled water, and NaCI (0.6 M, 0.1 M, and 0.001 M) solution at room temperature. Environmental enhancement effect on the FCG rate of Alloy 600 was not significant in NaCI solution. Variations of the load frequency (0.03Hz-3Hz) did not influence the FCG rates of Alloy 600 significantly in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution. The FCG rates of Alloy 600 in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution increased with increasing the load ratio. Compared with the corrosion effects, test results showed that the mechanical effects dominated on the FCG rates of Alloy 600 in chloride solution at room temperature. The SEM fractographs showed that significant striations and transgranular fracture modes were observed on tested specimens. (author)

  8. Salting out of methane by sodium chloride: A scaled particle theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2008-08-28

    The salting out of methane by adding NaCl to water at 25 degrees C and 1 atm is investigated by calculating the work of cavity creation by means of scaled particle theory and the methane-solvent energy of attraction. The latter quantity changes to little extent on passing from pure water to an aqueous 4M NaCl solution, whereas the magnitude of the work of cavity creation increases significantly, accounting for the salting out effect. There is quantitative agreement between the experimental values of the hydration Gibbs energy and the calculated ones. The behavior of the work of cavity creation is due to the increase in the volume packing density of NaCl solutions, since the average effective molecular diameter does not change, being always 2.80 A. The same approach allows the rationalization of the difference in methane salting out along the alkali chloride series. These results indicate that, fixed the aqueous solution density, the solubility of nonpolar species is mainly determined by the effective diameter of solvent molecules and the corresponding volume packing density. There is no need to take into account the H-bond rearrangement because it is characterized by an almost complete enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  9. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  10. Increased renal alpha-epithelial sodium channel (ENAC) protein and increased ENAC activity in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Crystal; Zhang, Zheng; Ecker, Geoffrey; Masilamani, Shyama M E

    2010-11-01

    Pregnancy-mediated sodium (Na) retention is required to provide an increase in plasma volume for the growing fetus. The mechanisms responsible for this Na retention are not clear. We first used a targeted proteomics approach and found that there were no changes in the protein abundance compared with virgin rats of the β or γ ENaC, type 3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), bumetanide-sensitive cotransporter (NKCC2), or NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in mid- or late pregnancy. In contrast, we observed marked increases in the abundance of the α-ENaC subunit. The plasma volume increased progressively during pregnancy with the greatest plasma volume being evident in late pregnancy. ENaC inhibition abolished the difference in plasma volume status between virgin and pregnant rats. To determine the in vivo activity of ENaC, we conducted in vivo studies of rats in late pregnancy (days 18-20) and virgin rats to measure the natriuretic response to ENaC blockade (with benzamil). The in vivo activity of ENaC (U(Na)V postbenzamil-U(Na)V postvehicle) was markedly increased in late pregnancy, and this difference was abolished by pretreatment with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone. These findings demonstrate that the increased α-ENaC subunit of pregnancy is associated with an mineralocorticoid-dependent increase in ENaC activity. Further, we show that ENaC activity is a major contributor of plasma volume status in late pregnancy. These changes are likely to contribute to the renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion required for an optimal pregnancy.

  11. Potassium Supplementation Prevents Sodium Chloride Cotransporter Stimulation During Angiotensin II Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiras, Luciana C; Han, Jiyang; Ralph, Donna L; McDonough, Alicia A

    2016-10-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension increases distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) abundance and phosphorylation (NCCp), as well as epithelial Na(+) channel abundance and activating cleavage. Acutely raising plasma [K(+)] by infusion or ingestion provokes a rapid decrease in NCCp that drives a compensatory kaliuresis. The first aim tested whether acutely raising plasma [K(+)] with a single 3-hour 2% potassium meal would lower NCCp in Sprague-Dawley rats after 14 days of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute). The potassium-rich meal neither decreased NCCp nor increased K(+) excretion. AngII-infused rats exhibited lower plasma [K(+)] versus controls (3.6±0.2 versus 4.5±0.1 mmol/L; Pblood pressure did not significantly decrease. Epithelial Na(+) channel subunit abundance and cleavage increased 1.5- to 3-fold in both A1K and A2K; ROMK (renal outer medulla K(+) channel abundance) abundance was unaffected by AngII or dietary K(+) In summary, the accumulation and phosphorylation of NCC seen during chronic AngII infusion hypertension is likely secondary to potassium deficiency driven by epithelial Na(+) channel stimulation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  13. The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutonico, L.J.

    1982-09-01

    A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Synthesis of calcium silicates by Pechini method and exchanging ions of sodium alginate-calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Garay, K.A.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Cruz-Ortiz, B.R.; Garcia-Cerda, L.A.; Lopez-Badillo, C.M.

    2016-07-01

    Calcium silicates samples were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and by Pechini methodology assisted with ion-exchange of sodium alginate, followed by a heat treatment of 800°C by two hours. A, B and C samples were obtained using 1.7×10−3M, 3.4×10−3M and 5.1×10−3M of TEOS, respectively, and without heat treatment; these samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Furthermore, samples A800, B800 and C800 obtained using a heat treatment of 800° by two hours were characterized by FTIR-ATR, absorption technique (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy. The XRD patterns indicate that sample A800 contains olivine (Ca2SiO4) in orthorhombic phase and wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3); sample B800 showed the earlier phases and quartz (SiO2), whereas sample C800 contains wollastonite phases and larnite-2M (Ca2SiO4). (Author)

  15. Lowering Plasma Glucose Concentration by Inhibiting Renal Sodium-Glucose Co-Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining normoglycaemia not only reduces the risk of diabetic microvascular complications but also corrects the metabolic abnormalities that contribute to the development and progression of hyperglycaemia (i.e. insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction). Progressive beta-cell failure, in addition to the multiple side effects associated with many current antihyperglycaemic agents (e.g., hypoglycaemia and weight gain) presents major obstacle to the achievement of the recommended goal of glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, novel effective therapies are needed for optimal glucose control in subjects with DM. Recently, specific inhibitors of renal sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) have been developed to produce glucosuria and lower the plasma glucose concentration. Because of their unique mechanism of action (which is independent of the secretion and action of insulin), these agents are effective in lowering the plasma glucose concentration in all stages of DM and can be combined with all other antidiabetic agents. In this review, we summarize the available data concerning the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of this novel class of antidiabetic agent. PMID:24690096

  16. Renal sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibition in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A.; Norton, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is the primary factor responsible for the microvascular, and to a lesser extent macrovascular, complications of diabetes. Despite this well-established relationship, approximately half of all type 2 diabetic patients in the US have a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥7.0%. This is associated in part with the side effects, i.e., weight gain and hypoglycemia, of currently available antidiabetic agents and in part with the failure to utilize medications that reverse the basic pathophysiological defects present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The kidney has been shown to play a central role in the development of hyperglycemia by excessive production of glucose throughout the sleeping hours and enhanced reabsorption of filtered glucose by the renal tubules secondary to an increase in the threshold at which glucose spills into the urine. Recently, a new class of antidiabetic agents, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, has been developed and approved for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we examine their mechanism of action, efficacy, safety, and place in the therapeutic armamentarium. Since the SGLT2 inhibitors have a unique mode of action that differs from all other oral and injectable antidiabetic agents, they can be used at all stages of the disease and in combination with all other antidiabetic medications. PMID:26354881

  17. The Synergistic Effect of Iodide and Sodium Nitrite on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Bicarbonate–Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaius Debi Eyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potassium iodide (KI and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO2− concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The latter shows that the addition of I− to NO2 facilitates the formation of a passivating oxide (γ-Fe2O3 as compared to NO2− alone, decreasing the rate of metal dissolution observed in electrochemical testing. The synergistic effect of KI/NO2− inhibition was enhanced under the dynamic conditions associated with testing in a rotating disc electrode.

  18. Thermo-sensitive and swelling properties of cellouronic acid sodium/poly (acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) semi-IPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Gao, Xin; Chen, Keli; Li, Hui; Peng, Lincai

    2018-02-01

    In current study, cellouronic acid sodium (CAS), obtained from bagasse pith, has been introduced into poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (poly(AM-co-DAC)) network to form novel thermo-sensitive semi-IPNs. The structure and morphology of the hydrogels were proved by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of CAS content, initiator charge, cross-linker dosage and swelling-medium property on the thermo-responsive water absorptivity were investigated in detail. The results elucidated that the prepared gels exhibited a thermo-sensibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) and a high water-absorbency. And the values of UCST and equilibrium swelling ratio largely depended on the inner structure of the semi-IPNs and the external solvent property. It was also revealed that the swelling process conformed to the Schott's pseudo second order model and diffusion type was non-Fickian diffusion. The value of activation energy for this polyelectrolyte was found to be 8.74kJ/mol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  20. Sodium chloride as a reference substance for the three growth endpoints used in the Lemna minor L. (1753 test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Andrade Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemna sp. growth inhibition test standardized protocols suggest the use of compounds such as 3,5-dichlorophenol as reference substances for checking the test organism’s sensitivity routinely. However, this and other recommended chemicals present risks to human health and to the environment. Sodium chloride (NaCl appears as a less toxic alternative reference substance which has been successfully used in routine ecotoxicological tests. However, the evaluation of this compound in multiple growth endpoints used in the L. minor test, which is required for recommending it as a reference substance for this test organism, has not yet been reported. In the present study, NaCl was tested with L. minor for the growth endpoints frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. Results showed acceptable sensitivity and reproducibility (coefficient of variance < 15.0% for all three of the measured endpoints. Statistically significant differences were observed between the EC50 values calculated based on the three endpoints (p < 0.05. Total frond area was the most sensitive one, with average EC50 value of 2742.80 ± 245.7 mg L-1. It was anticipated that NaCl can be a suitable alternative reference substance and that total frond area should be the endpoint of choice for sensitivity toxicity tests using NaCl.

  1. Salt taste adaptation: the psychophysical effects of adapting solutions and residual stimuli from prior tastings on the taste of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews how adaptation to sodium chloride, changing in concentration as a result of various experimental procedures, affects measurements of the sensitivity, intensity, and quality of the salt taste. The development of and evidence for the current model that the salt taste depends on an adaptation level (taste zero) determined by the sodium cation concentration is examined and found to be generally supported, despite great methodological complications. It would seem that lower adaptation levels elicit lower thresholds, higher intensity estimates, and altered quality descriptions with predictable effects on psychophysical measures.

  2. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Anna; Jorg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N.; Linker, Ralf A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intak...

  3. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  4. Effect of sodium nitrite on renal function, sodium and water excretion and brachial and central blood pressure in healthy subjects. A dose-response study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, Jeppe Bakkestroem; Therwani, Safa Al; Jensen, Janni Majgaard

    2017-01-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo and has vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. Our aim was to examine the effects of NaNO2 on hemodynamics, sodium excretion and GFR. In a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we infused placebo (0.9% NaCl) or 0.58, ....... The lack of increase in cGMP accompanying the increase in NO2(-), suggests a direct effect of nitrite or nitrate on the renal tubules and vascular bed with little or no systemic conversion to NO.......Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo and has vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. Our aim was to examine the effects of NaNO2 on hemodynamics, sodium excretion and GFR. In a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we infused placebo (0.9% NaCl) or 0.58, 1.......74, or 3.48 μmol NaNO2/kg/hour for two hours in twelve healthy subjects, after four days standard diet. Subjects were supine and water-loaded. We measured brachial and central blood pressure (BP), plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (P-AVP), and plasma nitrite...

  5. Concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in clays at thermodynamic conditions of hydraulic fracturing: Insight from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin

    2018-06-01

    To address a high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and study the thermodynamics, structure, and diffusion of concentrated aqueous salt solution in clay nanopores. The concentrated solution results from the dissolution of a cubic NaCl nanocrystal, immersed in an aqueous NaCl solution of varying salt concentration and confined in clay pores of a width comparable to the crystal size. The size of the nanocrystal equals to about 18 Å which is above a critical nucleus size. We consider a typical shale gas reservoir condition of 365 K and 275 bar, and we represent the clay pores as pyrophyllite and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) slits. We employ the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) model for water, Joung-Cheatham model for ions, and CLAYFF for the slit walls. We impose the pressure in the normal direction and the resulting slit width varies from about 20 to 25 Å when the salt concentration in the surrounding solution increased from zero to an oversaturated value. By varying the salt concentration, we observe two scenarios. First, the crystal dissolves and its dissolution time increases with increasing salt concentration. We describe the dissolution process in terms of the number of ions in the crystal, and the crystal size and shape. Second, when the salt concentration reaches a system solubility limit, the crystal grows and attains a new equilibrium size; the crystal comes into equilibrium with the surrounding saturated solution. After crystal dissolution, we carry out canonical MD simulations for the concentrated solution. We evaluate the hydration energy, density profiles, orientation distributions, hydrogen-bond network, radial distribution functions, and in-plane diffusion of water and ions to provide insight into the microscopic behaviour of the concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in interlayer galleries of the slightly hydrophobic pyrophyllite and hydrophilic Na-MMT pores.

  6. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Impact of Sodium Chloride and Heat on Survival Time of Linguatula Serrata Nymphs in vitro: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hajimohammadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite, belonging to the class Pentastomida. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sodium chloride (NaCl and heat on survival time of Linguatula serrata nymphs. Materials & Methods: Thirty nymphs (10 in triplicate were separately transferred to plastic tubes, containing different concentrations of NaCl solution (2%, 5% and 10%. Meanwhile, 30 nymphs in tubes containing Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS were separately treated by +50°C, +60°C and +72°C. As control group, thirty nymphs were stored in PBS at +4°C. The effects of different conditions on survival time of the nymphs were evaluated by observing their motility in different periods of time. Results: The survival time of the nymphs stored in 10% NaCl solution was too short and all of them were dead after 3 hours. But the other ones maintained in 2% NaCl solution were significantly more resistant (p<0.05 and were survived for 2 days. All the nymphs pertaining to each +60°C and +72°C treatments were found dead after first 5-minute storage interval; the nymphs stored at +50°C died totally after 20 minutes. The nymphs maintained in PBS at +4°C (control group showed the longest survival time (p<0.05; all of them were alive until day 4 and the last ones died on day 34. Conclusion: It is concluded that salting and heating have significant parasiticidal effects on L. serrata nymphs and could be used as disinfecting methods in processing of meat products especially liver. However, refrigeration at +4°C increases the resistance of the nymphs in meat products and therefore might endanger the food safety.

  8. Compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Charlotte; Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lauder, Gillian; Carr, Roxane R

    2013-05-01

    Naloxone may be administered in conjunction with morphine to reduce the risk of opioid-induced pruritis. Combining these drugs for coadministration may be beneficial, but little is known about their physical compatibility and stability in combined solutions. To describe the physical compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride (at various concentrations) in IV admixtures. The physical compatibility and stability of admixtures of morphine 1000 μg/mL and naloxone 4 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL, and 25 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride were studied. For each concentration of naloxone, one bag was stored at room temperature (22°C) for 72 h and one bag was stored under refrigeration (4°C) for 30 days. For all preparations, physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and formation of precipitate, were evaluated. The samples were also analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. No notable changes in pH or colour and no macroprecipitation were observed in any of the preparations after storage at 22°C for up to 72 h or at 4°C for up to 30 days. All preparations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentrations of morphine and naloxone at the end of the respective study periods. The calculated lower limit of the 95% confidence interval also indicated that 90% or more of the initial concentration remained at the end of each study period. Admixtures of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride were stable for 72 h at room temperature and for 30 days with refrigeration.

  9. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  10. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  11. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  12. Renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water during infusion of low-dose dopamine in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hansen, J M; Ladefoged, S D

    1990-01-01

    of sodium and water during dopamine infusion (3 micrograms min-1 kg-1) were estimated in 12 normal volunteers. 2. CNa increased by 128% (P less than 0.001). Effective renal plasma flow and GFR increased by 43% (P less than 0.001) and 9% (P less than 0.01), respectively. CLi increased in all subjects by......, on average, 44% (P less than 0.001). Fractional proximal reabsorption [1-(CLi/GFR)] decreased by 13% after dopamine infusion (P less than 0.001), and estimated absolute proximal reabsorption rate (GFR-CLi) decreased by 8% (P less than 0.01). Absolute distal sodium reabsorption rate [(CLi-CNa) x PNa, where...... PNa is plasma sodium concentration] increased (P less than 0.001), and fractional distal sodium reabsorption [(CLi-CNa)/CLi] decreased (P less than 0.001). 3. It is concluded that natriuresis during low-dose dopamine infusion is caused by an increased outflow of sodium from the proximal tubules...

  13. The Synergistic Roles of Cholecystokinin B and Dopamine D5 Receptors on the Regulation of Renal Sodium Excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Jiang

    Full Text Available Renal dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R and the gastrin receptor (CCKBR are involved in the maintenance of sodium homeostasis. The D1R has been found to interact synergistically with CCKBR in renal proximal tubule (RPT cells to promote natriuresis and diuresis. D5R, which has a higher affinity for dopamine than D1R, has some constitutive activity. Hence, we sought to investigate the interaction between D5R and CCKBR in the regulation of renal sodium excretion. In present study, we found D5R and CCKBR increase each other's expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the HK-2 cell, the specificity of which was verified in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing both human D5R and CCKBR and in RPT cells from a male normotensive human. The specificity of D5R in the D5R and CCKBR interaction was verified further using a selective D5R antagonist, LE-PM436. Also, D5R and CCKBR colocalize and co-immunoprecipitate in BALB/c mouse RPTs and human RPT cells. CCKBR protein expression in plasma membrane-enriched fractions of renal cortex (PMFs is greater in D5R-/- mice than D5R+/+ littermates and D5R protein expression in PMFs is also greater in CCKBR-/- mice than CCKBR+/+ littermates. High salt diet, relative to normal salt diet, increased the expression of CCKBR and D5R proteins in PMFs. Disruption of CCKBR in mice caused hypertension and decreased sodium excretion. The natriuresis in salt-loaded BALB/c mice was decreased by YF476, a CCKBR antagonist and Sch23390, a D1R/D5R antagonist. Furthermore, the natriuresis caused by gastrin was blocked by Sch23390 while the natriuresis caused by fenoldopam, a D1R/D5R agonist, was blocked by YF476. Taken together, our findings indicate that CCKBR and D5R synergistically interact in the kidney, which may contribute to the maintenance of normal sodium balance following an increase in sodium intake.

  14. Saline-induced natriuresis and renal blood flow in conscious dogs: effects of sodium infusion rate and concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study focused on static and dynamic changes in total renal blood flow (RBF) during volume expansion and tested whether a change in RBF characteristics is a necessary effector mechanism in saline-induced natriuresis. METHODS: The aortic flow subtraction technique was used to measure RBF...... continuously. Identical amounts of NaCl (2.4 mmol kg(-1)) were given as slow isotonic (Iso, 120 min), slow hypertonic (Hyper, 120 min), and rapid isotonic loads (IsoRapid, 30 min). RESULTS: During Iso and IsoRapid, arterial blood pressure increased slightly (6-7 mmHg), and during Hyper it remained unchanged...... saline loading simulating daily sodium intake, the rate of sodium excretion may increase 10-20-fold without any change in mean arterial blood pressure or in RBF. Regulatory responses to changes in total body NaCl levels appears, therefore, to be mediated primarily by neurohumoral mechanisms and may occur...

  15. Lithium clearance and renal tubular sodium handling during acute and long-term nifedipine treatment in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, N E; Ibsen, H; Skøtt, P

    1988-01-01

    1. In two separate studies the lithium clearance method was used to evaluate the influence of acute and long-term nifedipine treatment on renal tubular sodium reabsorption. 2. In the acute study, after a 4 week placebo period two doses of 20 mg of nifedipine decreased supine blood pressure from 155...... were also unchanged, as were potassium clearance, urine flow and body weight. 3. In the long-term study, lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate, sodium clearance, potassium clearance, urine flow and body fluid volumes were measured after a 4 weeks placebo period and after 6 and 12 weeks....../101 (20.6/13.5) +/- 11/4 (1.5/0.5) to 139/88 (18.5/11.7) +/- 16/9 (2.1/1.2) mmHg (kPa) (means +/- SD; P less than 0.01). Lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate and sodium clearance did not change. Therefore the calculated values of absolute proximal and absolute distal sodium reabsorption rates...

  16. An alternative hypothesis to the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Schmidlin, O.; Tanaka, M.; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2016), s. 965-973 ISSN 0085-2538 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * hypertension * kidney * salt * salt-resistance * salt-sensitivity * sodium * sodium chloride Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 8.395, year: 2016

  17. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Simecek, Nicole; Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny; Toms, Nick; Gibson, G. Gordon; Lyon, Jon; Plant, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism

  18. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M.; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L.; Kravetz, María C.; Lee, Brenda M.; Carranza, Andrea; Del Mauro, Julieta S.; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Toblli, Jorge E.; Fernández, Belisario E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on organic cation transporters (OCTs) expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T), ANP, dopamine (DA), D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects. PMID:27392042

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the complexation product of sodium tartrate and iron(III) chloride as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The complexation product of sodium tartrates and iron(III) chloride (Fe mTA) is proposed for use as an anti-caking agent, only in salt or its substitutes, with a maximum use level of 106 mg Fe mTA/kg salt. Fe mTA can be expected to dissociate into its constituent iron(III) and tartrate components upon ingestion. Studies in rats demonstrated that up to 90 % of ingested DL-tartrate or tartaric acid were absorbed, studies in humans suggested that only 20 % of an ingested dose of tartaric acid we...

  20. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor cobalt chloride prevents inhibition of renal Na,K-ATPase and redistribution of apical NHE-3 during acute hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y B; Magyar, C E; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    by cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Four groups of rats (n = 4 to 5) were studied: (1) sham-operated; (2) 50 mg of CoCl2/kg subcutaneously for 2 d; (3) acute hypertension by constricting arteries for 5 min; and (4) acute hypertension after CoCl2 treatment as in group 3. Renal cortex was analyzed after sorbitol...... reabsorption and diuresis and abolishes Na,K-ATPase inhibition and NHE-3 redistribution during acute hypertension, evidence that these responses may be mediated by cytochrome P-450 arachidonate metabolites....

  1. Paracervical block as pain treatment during second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy: an RCT with bupivacaine versus sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, I-M; Benson, L; Christensson, K; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

    2016-01-01

    Can paracervical block (PCB) administered before the onset of pain decrease women's pain experience during second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MToP)? There were no clinically significant differences between groups receiving PCB with bupivacaine or saline with regard to the highest and lowest pain intensity, morphine consumption or induction-to abortion interval. The most common side effect of misoprostol is pain; nevertheless, there are sparse studies in pain and pain treatment during MToP, especially in second-trimester abortion. Pain reported in second-trimester medical abortion is often intense, and peaks when the fetal expulsion occurs. A double-blinded RCT was carried out from May 2012 until April 2015. A power calculation was based on a previous pilot study showing that the proportion of women with severe pain [visual analogue scale (VAS) ≥7] was 63%. A clinically significant reduction was considered to yield 35% with severe pain, and with a power of 80% and significance level of 5% (two-sided) 112 women were needed. Accounting for a 20% drop-out rate, a total of 140 women were needed. The primary outcome, pain intensity measured as any VAS ≥7, was analysed using a generalized estimating equations model. The level of significance was set to P sodium chloride 1 h after the first dose of misoprostol. The full analysis set (FAS) population was defined as all randomized women that had at least one value for any of the outcomes (n = 102). The per-protocol (PP) population was defined as a subset of the FAS excluding patients with major protocol deviations or without a value for the primary outcome (n = 99). Pain was measured by VAS at misoprostol initiation (baseline) and repeated every 30 min until fetal expulsion. The primary outcome was the highest VAS pain intensity at any time point. The highest pain intensity, did not show any differences at a cut-off of VAS ≥7 [risk ratio (RR): 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-1.5; P = 0.0.292]. In

  2. Effects of dopamine on renal haemodynamics tubular function and sodium excretion in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    The renal functional changes following infusion of dopamine are well documented. The most pronounced effect is the increase in renal blood flow and a marked natriuretic response. Due to its specific renal effects, dopamine has become one of the most frequently used drugs in the treatment...... of critically ill patients with low cardiac output states and/or acute oliguric renal failure. Pharmacological effects of dopamine are dose dependent. Low doses of dopamine predominantly stimulate dopaminergic receptors, but with increasing doses actions secondary to stimulation of adrenergic beta(1) and alpha...... indirectly may dilate the vessels by inhibition of norepinephrine release. Consistent with previous results in animals, the present haemodynamic studies revealed that dopamine in normal subjects elicits a dose dependent biphasic effect on the mean arterial blood pressure. With 1 and 2 micrograms...

  3. Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizerski Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1, and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2 - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the administration of dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes, is associated with the reduction of HbA1c concentration by 0.45-1.11%. Additional benefits from the treatment with dapagliflozin are the reduction of arterial blood pressure and a permanent reduction of body weight. This outcome is related to the effect of osmotic diuresis and to the considerable loss of the glucose load by way of urine excretion. Dapagliflozin may be successfully applied in type 2 diabetes monotherapy, as well as in combined therapy (including insulin, where it is equally effective as other oral anti-diabetic drugs. Of note: serious adverse effects of dapagliflozin administration are rarely observed. What is more, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia related with the treatment occur only sporadically, most often in the course of diabetes polytherapy. The most frequent effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors are inseparably associated with the mechanism of their action (the glucuretic effect, and cover urogenital infections with a mild clinical course. At present, clinical trials are being continued of the administration of several subsequent drugs from this group, the most advanced of these being the use of canagliflozin and empagliflozin.

  4. Renal blood flow, fractional excretion of sodium and acute kidney injury: time for a new paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowle, John; Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-12-01

    Global renal blood flow is considered pivotal to renal function. Decreased global renal blood flow (decreased perfusion) is further considered the major mechanism of reduced glomerular filtration rate responsible for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. Additionally, urinary biochemical tests are widely taught to allow the differential diagnosis of prerenal (functional) AKI and intrinsic [structural AKI (so-called acute tubular necrosis)]. In this review we will examine recent evidence regarding these two key clinical paradigms. Recent animal experiments and clinical studies in humans using cine-phase contrast magnetic resonance technology are not consistent with the decreased perfusion paradigm. They suggest instead that changes in the intra-renal circulation including modification in efferent arteriolar function and intra-renal shunting are much more likely to be responsible for AKI, especially in sepsis. Similarly, recent human studies indicate the urinary biochemistry has limited diagnostic or prognostic ability and is dissociated form biomarker and microscopic evidence of tubular injury. Intra-renal microcirculatory changes are likely more important than changes in global blood flow in the development of AKI. Urinary biochemistry is not a clinically useful diagnostic or prognostic tool in critically ill patients at risk of or with AKI.

  5. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium abs...

  6. Synergism between sodium chloride, sucrose and tricalcium phosphate in the osmotic dehydration of oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arroyo Portal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergistic effect of three solutes (sodium chloride, sucrose, tricalcium phosphate in different combinations of concentration, on the moisture, solid gain and calcium gain in oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan (CR and SR. In both cases applied the Simplex with Extended Centroid mixture design. Were used cylinders of oca of 0.9 cm of diameter and 3.4 cm of length. The kinetics of moisture, solid gain and calcium gain for 48 hours was evaluated. The effective diffusivity of water, solids and calcium was determined. We found that in samples CR is greater loss of water and less solid gain compared with SR samples mainly as sodium chloride or sucrose participate independently, while for the gain of calcium, in all cases, the CR samples gain more of calcium than SR samples. The effective diffusivities found are: water, 1.19E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.34E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; for solid, 3.67E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 5.43E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; and, for calcium 3.32E-11 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.57E-09 m2 /s in SR samples.

  7. Renal aquaporins and sodium transporters with special focus on urinary tract obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Li, Chunling; Shi, Yimin

    2003-01-01

    seven aquaporins are expressed at distinct sites in the kidney and 4 members of this family (AQP1-4) have been demonstrated to play pivotal roles in the physiology and pathophysiology for renal regulation of body water balance. Osmotic equilibration via renal aquaporins is maintained by active transport......The discovery of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) by Agre and colleagues explained the long-standing biophysical question of how water specifically crosses biological membranes. These studies led to the discovery and identification of a whole new family of membrane proteins, the aquaporins. At present, at least...

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells......BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...

  9. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  10. Friedel's salt profiles from thermogravimetric analysis and thermodynamic modelling of Portland cement-based mortars exposed to sodium chloride solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Zhenguo; Geiker, Mette Rica; Lothenbach, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermodynamic modelling have been used to obtain Friedel's salt profiles for saturated mortar cylinders exposed to a 2.8 M NaCl solution. Comparison of the measured Friedel's salt profiles with the total chloride profiles...

  11. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Servo-control of water and sodium homeostasis during renal clearance measurements in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Klaus; Shirley, David G

    2007-01-01

    Servo-controlled fluid and sodium replacement during clearance studies is used in order to prevent loss of body fluid and sodium following diuretic/natriuretic procedures. However, even under control conditions, the use of this technique is sometimes associated with increases in proximal tubular...... fluid output (assessed by lithium clearance) and excretion rates. The present study examined the reason for these increases. The first series of experiments showed that one cause is volume overloading. This can occur if the servo system is activated from the start, i.e., during the establishment...... not seen when blood samples are replaced with the animal's own red blood cells resuspended in isotonic saline. When these pitfalls are avoided, servo-controlled sodium and fluid replacement is a reliable technique that makes it possible to study the effects of natriuretic and/or diuretic stimuli without...

  13. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  14. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  15. Vascular Type 1A Angiotensin II Receptors Control BP by Regulating Renal Blood Flow and Urinary Sodium Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Matthew A; Stegbauer, Johannes; Chen, Daian; Gomez, Jose A; Griffiths, Robert C; Azad, Hooman A; Herrera, Marcela; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Inappropriate activation of the type 1A angiotensin (AT1A) receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and its associated complications. To define the role for actions of vascular AT1A receptors in BP regulation and hypertension pathogenesis, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMKO mice) using Loxp technology and Cre transgenes with robust expression in both conductance and resistance arteries. We found that elimination of AT1A receptors from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) caused a modest (approximately 7 mmHg) yet significant reduction in baseline BP and exaggerated sodium sensitivity in mice. Additionally, the severity of angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension was dramatically attenuated in SMKO mice, and this protection against hypertension was associated with enhanced urinary excretion of sodium. Despite the lower BP, acute vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II in the systemic vasculature were largely preserved (approximately 80% of control levels) in SMKO mice because of exaggerated activity of the sympathetic nervous system rather than residual actions of AT1B receptors. In contrast, Ang II-dependent responses in the renal circulation were almost completely eliminated in SMKO mice (approximately 5%-10% of control levels). These findings suggest that direct actions of AT1A receptors in VSMCs are essential for regulation of renal blood flow by Ang II and highlight the capacity of Ang II-dependent vascular responses in the kidney to effect natriuresis and BP control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Thiazolidinediones enhance sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules via PPARγ-dependent nongenomic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoko; Suzuki, Masashi; Yamada, Hideomi; Horita, Shoko; Kunimi, Motoei; Yamazaki, Osamu; Shirai, Ayumi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Iso-O, Naoyuki; Li, Yuehong; Hara, Masumi; Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa; Moriyama, Nobuo; Kudo, Akihiko; Kawakami, Hayato; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kume, Haruki; Enomoto, Yutaka; Homma, Yukio; Seki, George; Fujita, Toshiro

    2011-05-04

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve insulin resistance by activating a nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). However, the use of TZDs is associated with plasma volume expansion through a mechanism that remains to be clarified. Here we showed that TZDs rapidly stimulate sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from the renal proximal tubule in vitro and in vivo. TZD-induced transport stimulation is dependent on PPARγ-Src-EGFR-ERK and observed in rat, rabbit and human, but not in mouse proximal tubules where Src-EGFR is constitutively activated. The existence of PPARγ-Src-dependent nongenomic signaling, which requires the ligand-binding ability, but not the transcriptional activity of PPARγ, is confirmed in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The enhancement of the association between PPARγ and Src by TZDs supports an indispensable role of Src in this signaling. These results suggest that the PPARγ-dependent nongenomic stimulation of renal proximal transport is also involved in TZD-induced volume expansion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Construction of bioartificial renal tubule assist device in vitro and its function of transporting sodium and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinggang; Chen, Jianghua; He, Qiang; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Wei

    2009-08-01

    To explore a new way of constructing bioartificial renal tubule assist device (RAD) in vitro and its function of transporting sodium (Na(+)) and glucose and to evaluate the application of atomic force microscope in the RAD construction, rat renal tubular epithelial cell line NRK-52E was cultured in vitro, seeded onto the outer surfaces of hollow fibers in a bioreactor, and then cultured for two weeks to construct RAD. Bioreactor hollow fibers without NRK-52E cells were used as control. The morphologies of attached cells were observed with scanning electron microscope, and the junctions of cells and polysulfone membrane were observed with atomic force microscope. Transportation of Na(+) and glucose was measured. Oubaine and phlorizin were used to inhibit the transporting property. The results showed that NRK-52E cells and polysulfone membrane were closely linked, as observed under atomic force microscope. After exposure to oubaine and phlorizin, transporting rates of Na(+) and glucose were decreased significantly in the RAD group as compared with that in the control group (Pconstructed successfully in vitro, and it is able to selectively transport Na(+) and glucose.

  18. Servo-control of water and sodium homeostasis during renal clearance measurements in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Klaus; Shirley, David G

    2007-01-01

    Servo-controlled fluid and sodium replacement during clearance studies is used in order to prevent loss of body fluid and sodium following diuretic/natriuretic procedures. However, even under control conditions, the use of this technique is sometimes associated with increases in proximal tubular fluid output (assessed by lithium clearance) and excretion rates. The present study examined the reason for these increases. The first series of experiments showed that one cause is volume overloading. This can occur if the servo system is activated from the start, i.e., during the establishment of a suitably high urine flow rate by constant infusion of hypotonic glucose solution. The second series of experiments showed that replacement of blood samples with donor blood can also lead to increases in fractional lithium excretion and accompanying increases in water and sodium excretion, a problem not seen when blood samples are replaced with the animal's own red blood cells resuspended in isotonic saline. When these pitfalls are avoided, servo-controlled sodium and fluid replacement is a reliable technique that makes it possible to study the effects of natriuretic and/or diuretic stimuli without interference from unwanted changes in extracellular volume. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Mechanism of norepinephrine release elicited by renal nerve stimulation, veratridine and potassium chloride in the isolated rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    el-Din, M.M.; Malik, K.U.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism by which renal nerve stimulation (RNS), veratridine (Vt) and KCl promote release of norepinephrine in the isolated rat kidney perfused with Tyrode's solution and prelabeled with [ 3 H]norepinephrine by examining the overflow of tritium elicited by these stimuli during 1) extracellular Ca++ depletion, 2) alterations in extracellular Na+ concentration and 3) administration of tetrodotoxin, amiloride, LiCl and calcium channel blockers. RNS (1-4 Hz), Vt (15-90 nmol) and KCl (150-500 mumol) produced renal vasoconstriction and enhanced the tritium overflow in a frequency- and concentration-dependent manner, respectively. Omission of Ca++ (1.8 mM) from the perfusion fluid abolished the renal vasoconstriction and the increase in tritium overflow elicited by RNA and KCl and substantially reduced that caused by Vt. Lowering the Na+ concentration in the perfusion medium (from 150 to 25 mM) reduced the overflow of tritium and the renal vasoconstriction caused by RNS (2 Hz) or Vt (45 nmol); the increase in tritium overflow in response to these stimuli was positively correlated with extracellular Na+ (25-150 mM). In contrast, KCl-induced tritium overflow was negatively correlated with extracellular Na+ concentration. Tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) abolished the effect of RNS and Vt, but not that of KCl, to increase overflow of tritium and to produce renal vasoconstriction. Administration of amiloride (180 microM) enhanced the overflow of tritium but attenuated the associated renal vasoconstriction produced by RNS, Vt and KCl. Replacement of NaCl (75 mM) with equimolar concentration of LiCl enhanced the overflow of tritium elicited by RNS, Vt and KCl; the associated renal vasoconstriction remained unaltered

  20. Maintenance fluid therapy and fluid creep impose more significant fluid, sodium, and chloride burdens than resuscitation fluids in critically ill patients: a retrospective study in a tertiary mixed ICU population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Regenmortel, Niels; Verbrugghe, Walter; Roelant, Ella; Van den Wyngaert, Tim; Jorens, Philippe G

    2018-04-01

    Research on intravenous fluid therapy and its side effects, volume, sodium, and chloride overload, has focused almost exclusively on the resuscitation setting. We aimed to quantify all fluid sources in the ICU and assess fluid creep, the hidden and unintentional volume administered as a vehicle for medication or electrolytes. We precisely recorded the volume, sodium, and chloride burdens imposed by every fluid source administered to 14,654 patients during the cumulative 103,098 days they resided in our 45-bed tertiary ICU and simulated the impact of important strategic fluid choices on patients' chloride burdens. In septic patients, we assessed the impact of the different fluid sources on cumulative fluid balance, an established marker of morbidity. Maintenance and replacement fluids accounted for 24.7% of the mean daily total fluid volume, thereby far exceeding resuscitation fluids (6.5%) and were the most important sources of sodium and chloride. Fluid creep represented a striking 32.6% of the mean daily total fluid volume [median 645 mL (IQR 308-1039 mL)]. Chloride levels can be more effectively reduced by adopting a hypotonic maintenance strategy [a daily difference in chloride burden of 30.8 mmol (95% CI 30.5-31.1)] than a balanced resuscitation strategy [daily difference 3.0 mmol (95% CI 2.9-3.1)]. In septic patients, non-resuscitation fluids had a larger absolute impact on cumulative fluid balance than did resuscitation fluids. Inadvertent daily volume, sodium, and chloride loading should be avoided when prescribing maintenance fluids in view of the vast amounts of fluid creep. This is especially important when adopting an isotonic maintenance strategy.

  1. Correlations between ANP concentrations in atria, plasma and cerebral structures and sodium chloride preference in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined whether ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, measured by radioimmunoassay, in the ANPergic cerebral regions involved in regulation of sodium intake and excretion and pituitary gland correlated with differences in sodium preference among 40 Wistar male rats (180-220 g. Sodium preference was measured as mean spontaneous ingestion of 1.5% NaCl solution during a test period of 12 days. The relevant tissues included the olfactory bulb (OB, the posterior and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland (PP and AP, respectively, the median eminence (ME, the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH, and the region anteroventral to the third ventricle (AV3V. We also measured ANP content in the right (RA and left atrium (LA and plasma. The concentrations of ANP in the OB and the AP were correlated with sodium ingestion during the preceding 24 h, since an increase of ANP in these structures was associated with a reduced ingestion and vice-versa (OB: r = -0.3649, P<0.05; AP: r = -0.3291, P<0.05. Moreover, the AP exhibited a correlation between ANP concentration and mean NaCl intake (r = -0.4165, P<0.05, but this was not the case for the OB (r = 0.2422. This suggests that differences in sodium preference among individual male rats can be related to variations of AP ANP level. Earlier studies indicated that the OB is involved in the control of NaCl ingestion. Our data suggest that the OB ANP level may play a role mainly in day-to-day variations of sodium ingestion in the individual rat

  2. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  3. Cerium concentrate and mixed rare earth chloride by the oxidative decomposition of bastnaesite in molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toshio; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kuno, Toyohiko; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Umetsu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Taijiro

    1993-01-01

    Bastnaesite was treated in molten NaOH at 623-777 K for 10-60 min under atmosphere. Cerium-(III) in the ore was easily oxidized 95% or more within 30 min to give an oxidation product composed of solid solutions of CeO 2 -rich and CeO 2 -lean phases and Ce-free rare earth oxide phase. Simultaneously fluoride ion was removed 97% or more. Cerium concentrate was prepared from the oxidation product by leaching with 0.1-3 M HCl solution. The yield of cerium concentrate and the CeO 2 content reached 55-57% and 70-72%, respectively. Mixed rare earth chloride is composed of about 90% rare earth chloride and 10% alkaline earth chloride, and the contents of CeCl 3 , LaCl 3 , NdCl 3 , and PrCl 3 are 11.5, 58.5, 14.4, and 5.4%, respectively. The particle size of resulting cerium concentrate was fairly uniform and about 0.1 μm

  4. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, A K [Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca (Bangladesh); Ando, Y; Karashimada, T; Kameyama, K

    1979-09-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 4//g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ..gamma..-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/ and 5/sup 0/C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay.

  5. Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753 with respect to frond number and chlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland’s nutrient medium at concentrations of 0, 8, 16, 22, 28 and 32mg.L–1. Lemna minor is used as a tool in evaluating chemical test products for toxic effects. The sensitivity of Lemna to sodium chloride, the reference substance, at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 g.L–1, was determined for comparison and resulted in an IC50 of 6.87g.L–1. Methyl parathion in L. minor showed an IC50 of 49.48mg.L–1.

  6. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.K.; Ando, Y.; Karashimada, T.; Kameyama, K.

    1979-01-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10 2 and 10 4 /g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ν-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30 0 , 10 0 and 5 0 C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay. (author)

  7. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Effect of malva nut gum (purified and crude), sodium chloride and phosphate on cooking, texture, colour, rheology and microstructure of different chicken meat batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Somboonpanyakul, P; Quinton, M; Smith, A

    2009-01-01

    1. In the first experiment, the effect of adding purified malva nut gum (PMG) to comminuted poultry breast meat batters formulated with different contents of sodium chloride (NaCl; 10 to 30 g/kg) and tripolyphosphate (TPP; 0 and 5 g/kg) was studied. 2. Increasing salt (sodium chloride) content, along with the addition of 1 g/kg PMG, was beneficial in reducing cooking loss. At all salt contents, batters with PMG showed lower springiness than batters without PMG. Adding PMG to the batter with 20 g/kg salt and TPP decreased fracture force, springiness and chewiness. 3. In a second experiment, the effects of PMG (0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg), crude malva nut gum (CMG; 3.0 g/kg) and TPP (0.0 and 4.0 g/kg) on cooking loss, fat loss, colour, texture, rheology and microstructure of emulsified chicken meat batters were studied. 4. Increasing PMG reduced cooking and fat losses. Adding TPP increased hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness. The 1.0 g/kg PMG and TPP provided the greatest hardness. The batter with 3.0 g/kg PMG resulted in the lowest lightness (L*) and highest redness (a*). Adding PMG and TPP resulted in stable batters, as was evident by light microscopy results. The rheological evaluation showed the highest G' in the batter with 4.0 g/kg TPP followed in decreasing order by the batters containing TPP plus 3.0 g/kg PMG, TPP plus 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg PMG, 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg CMG and the control. 5. Overall, the results are important for developing new applications where malva nut gum can be used to improve yield and stability of meat products.

  9. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Hemodynamic and renal implications of sodium-glucose cotransporter- 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor Jorge, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    In DM2, there is increased expression of the proximal glucose transporter SGLT2. The increased glucose reabsorption from the urine to the proximal tubule and subsequently to the bloodstream, has three direct effects on the prognosis of patients with DM2: a) it increases the daily glucose load by raising the renal threshold for glucose, thus augmenting requirements for oral antidiabetics and insulin. This progressive increase occurs throughout the course of the disease and in parallel with the increase in renal mass (renal hypertrophy); b) because of the greater glucose reabsorption, glycosuria is lower than the level corresponding to glycaemia, decreasing the stimulus on the tubuloglomerular feedback system of the distal nephron. As a result, the glomerular vasodilation caused by hyperglycaemia is not arrested, maintaining glomerular hyperfiltration, and c) the excess glucose transported to the proximal tubular cells modifies their redox status, increasing local production of glycosylating products and activating local production of proinflammatory and profibrotic proliferative mediators. These mediators are responsible for the direct free radical damage to proximal tubular cells, for increased SGLT2 expression, increased production of collagen IV and extracellular matrix, and activation of monocyte/macrophages able to cause endothelial injury. The use of SGLT2 inhibitors not only reduces the reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulationthus improving metabolic control in diabetesbut also restores tubuloglomerular feedback by increasing glycosuria and distal urinary flow. However, the most notable effect is due to inhibition of glucose entry to the proximal tubular cells. Glycosuria is toxic to the kidney: it harms glucosetransporting cells, that is, the proximal cells, which contain SGLT2. In animal models, SGLT2 inhibition reduces local production of oxygen-free radicals, the formation of mesangial matrix and collagen IV

  11. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  12. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  13. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H

    2013-10-01

    Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Tsuyoshi; Kamihata, Hiroshi; Seno, Takeshi; Manabe, Kenichi; Moriguchi, Akira; Yurugi, Takatomi; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Motohiro, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a common complication of coronary angiography (CAG) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although a previous study reported pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding and the long-term effects of sodium bicarbonate on CIN have not been studied before. We performed a prospective, single-center, randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided by sodium bicarbonate in patients with chronic renal failure. Eighty patients with chronic renal failure (defined as serum creatinine concentration (SCr), >1.1 mg per deciliter), who were undergoing CAG, were enrolled in this study. We assigned them to either sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (Group B: n=35) or sodium chloride alone (Group C: n=45). In all patients, an infusion of sodium chloride of 1 ml/kg per hour was given between 12 hours before and after the procedure. In Group B, sodium bicarbonate infusion of 1 ml/kg per hour continued from 3 hours before procedure to 6 hours after procedure, changing from sodium chloride at 1 ml/kg per hour. SCr was measured at baseline, day 1, day 2 and 1 month after the procedure. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in SCr from baseline value, or an absolute increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl, which appears within 2 days after CAG. No differences in age, sex and contrast volume were observed between the two groups. SCr at baseline was not significantly different in the two groups (Group B: 1.41±0.32 versus Group C: 1.50±0.38 mg/dl). SCr at day 2 was significantly lower in Group B than Group C (1.44±0.38 versus 1.60±0.5 mg/dl, p<0.05) and 1 month (1.28±0.27 versus 1.49±0.55 mg/dl, p<0.05). CIN occurred in 9 patients (20%) in Group C but in only 2 (6%) in Group B (p=0.03). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can help retain long

  15. [Renal response to intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate in newborn infants of different gestational ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Gutiérrez, L; Araujo, B; Fuse-Moteji, R; del Castillo, E D

    1976-01-01

    The study comprised a series of 16 neonates made up of 5 patients of 33 weeks of gestation, 5 infants of 35 weeks and 6 more of 40 weeks of gestation. Blood pH, PaCO2 and HCO3- were measured together with bicarbonate, ammonium, titrable acidity and hydrogen ions in urine before and after intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate. Before infusion of bicarbonate, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity in urine were higher in accordance with a greater gestational age. As the administration of bicarbonate elapsed, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity dropped with increase in concentration of bicarbonate. A hypothesis is set forth that the differences found in the factors evaluated in urine before administration of bicarbonate depend on the physiologic characteristics set in the newborn by gestational age.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum(VI) with sodium 2-bromo-4, 5-dihydroxyazobenzene-4'-sulfonate in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu

    1977-01-01

    Sodium 2-bromo-4,5-dihydroxyazobenzene-4'-sulfonate (abbreviated as BDAS) reacts with molybdenum(VI) in the presence of excessive cetyltrimethylammonium chloride(CTMAC) to form a water-soluble ternary complex. The combining ratio of molybdenum(VI) and BDAS in the ternary complex was shown to be 1 : 2. The ternary complex having its absorption maximum at 525 nm is quantitatively formed between pH 1.0 and 2.0. A constant absorbance was obtained when the concentrations of BDAS and CTMAC were more than 1.8 x 10 -4 M and (1.2 -- 1.6) x 10 -3 M, respectively. The procedure for the determination of molybdenum(VI) is as follows: Transfer the sample solution containing up to 28 μg of molybdenum(VI) to a 25 ml volumetric flask. Add 3 ml of 2.0 x 10 -3 M BDAS solution and an appropriate amount of a masking agent such as ascorbic acid, EDTA or sodium fluoride. Adjust the pH to about 1.6 with hydrochloric acid and sodium acetate. Add 3.5 ml of 0.01 M CTMAC solution and dilute the solution to the mark with water. Measure the absorbance at 525 nm against the reagent blank. A linear calibration curve was obtained over the concentration range 0 -- 28 μg of molybdenum(VI). The apparent molar absorptivity is 6.1 x 10 4 l cm -1 mol -1 at 525 nm, and the sensitivity of the reaction is 1.5 x 10 -3 μg cm -2 . The interference from metal ions such as iron(III), titanium(IV), zirconium(IV) and vanadium(V) could be eliminated by the addition of ascorbic acid, EDTA, sodium fluoride, or a mixture of these reagents. Tungsten(VI), however, interfered with the determination of molybdenum(VI) even when present at microgram levels. The present method was applied to the determination of molybdenum in three standard steel samples. Analytical results were satisfactory. (auth.)

  17. Electrochemical conversion of solid Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to Nb in sodium chloride melt as proof of oxygen ionisation mechanism of electrodeoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sri Maha Vishnu, D., E-mail: smvd2@cam.ac.uk [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Presently with Materials Chemistry Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Sanil, N.; Mohandas, K.S. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

    2016-08-25

    The direct electrochemical reduction of a solid metal oxide (MO{sub x}) to metal (M) in calcium chloride melt (FFC Cambridge process) has been proposed to take place via. oxygen ionisation mechanism, MO{sub x} + 2xe{sup −} → M + xO{sup 2−}. However, generation of calcium metal and reduction of the oxide with it too becomes possible under the applied potential condition (3.1 V) of an FFC cell. The unique chemistry of calcium chloride melt, upon cathodic polarisation, makes it difficult to distinguish between the reduction by electrons and calcium metal. Hence in order to confirm the oxygen ionisation theory of electro-deoxidation, electrochemical deoxidation experiments were carried out with sintered Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} pellet electrodes in molten sodium chloride at 1173 K. The pellets were found reduced to Nb metal. Sodiothermic reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is thermodynamically not feasible (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} + 10Na → 5Na{sub 2}O + 2Nb, ΔG°{sub 1173K} = 102.1 kJ) and hence the observed reduction of the oxide is attributed to electrons. This study, for the first time, gives reliable experimental evidence to the oxygen ionisation mechanism of electro-reduction of solid oxides in the FFC process. The experimental results also prove that the electro-reduction of oxides can occur in melts, which otherwise were considered unsuitable from thermodynamic considerations. - Highlights: • In NaCl melt: Negligible O{sup 2−} ion solubility & Na reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to Nb – absent. • Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} could be electrochemically reduced to spongy Nb in NaCl melt at 1173 K. • Mechanism: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} → Na−Nb−O compounds + suboxides of Nb → Na{sub x}NbO{sub y} → Nb. • Metallothermic reduction of oxide in melt - not mandatory for electrodeoxidation. • In FFC Cambridge process: Metallothermic reduction is not essential but desirable.

  18. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Response of copper deficient rats to inhibitors of renal sodium reabsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordewier, B.; Saari, J.T. (Northwestern College, Orange City, IA (United States) USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of furosemide (Furo), a Loop diuretic, and amiloride (Am), a potassium (K)-sparing diuretic, on the excretion of sodium (Na) and K in copper-adequate (CuAdeq) and copper-deficient (CuDef) rats. Weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a CuDef or CuAdeq diet ad libitum and given deionized water to drink. After 5 weeks on the diets, rats were assigned to one of four treatment regimens: Furo, Am or Furo + Am. Rats were anesthetized and electrolyte excretion was measured in 2 {times} 15 min control periods followed by 3 {times} 15 min treatment periods. Furo increased Na excretion in a dose dependent manner in both the CuAdeq and the CuDef rats. The response of the CuAdeq rats was slightly greater than that of the CuDef rats in each of the 3 treatment groups in which Furo was given. K excretion following Furo increased to the same extent in the CuAdeq and CuDef rats. The natriuretic response to Am alone was slightly greater in the CuDef than the CuAdeq rats. The antikaliuretic response of the CuDef rats was similar to that of the CuAdeq rats whether Am was given alone or in combination with Furo. These data show that CuDef rats respond to Furo and Am in a manner which is similar to that of CuAdeq rats, this indicates that the sensitivity of the Na reabsorption mechanisms to inhibition by diuretics is not markedly affected by copper deficiency.

  20. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of dietary sodium restriction and diuretics, but not angiotensin receptor blockade, in proteinuric renal patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Waanders, Femke; Vogt, Liffert; Damman, Kevin; Hemmelder, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.

    Background. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade only partly reduces blood pressure, proteinuria and renal and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but often requires sodium targeting [i.e. low sodium diet (LS) and/or diuretics] for optimal efficacy. However, both

  1. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of dietary sodium restriction and diuretics, but not angiotensin receptor blockade, in proteinuric renal patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Waanders, Femke; Vogt, Liffert; Damman, Kevin; Hemmelder, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade only partly reduces blood pressure, proteinuria and renal and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but often requires sodium targeting [i.e. low sodium diet (LS) and/or diuretics] for optimal efficacy. However, both

  2. Differential patterns of injury to the proximal tubule of renal cortical slices following in vitro exposure to mercuric chloride, potassium dichromate, or hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, C E; Gandolfi, A J; Nagle, R B; Brendel, K

    1987-09-15

    The innate susceptibility of renal cell types to these agents was investigated using precision-cut rabbit renal cortical slices made perpendicular to the cortical-papillary axis. Slices were incubated in DME/F12 medium containing 10 microM, 100 microM, or 1 mM concentrations of either metal for 12 hr or in Krebs-Hepes buffer gassed with nitrogen (100%) for 0.75 to 5 hr of hypoxic exposure. To simulate postischemic reperfusion, some slices were transferred to vessels gassed with oxygen after an initial hypoxic period. Mercuric chloride (100 microM) exposure resulted in damage to the straight regions of proximal tubules by 12 hr leaving convoluted regions unaffected. Hypoxia (2.25 hr) and potassium dichromate (100 microM for 12 hr) both caused injury to the convoluted proximal tubules without affecting straight proximal tubular regions. Mercury concentrations of 10 microM and 1 mM had no effect or injured all cell types within the slice, respectively. Similar results were observed for hypoxic periods less than 1.5 hr or greater than 3 hr of exposure. Potassium dichromate had no measurable affect at 10 microM, but at 1 mM focal lesions were observed after 4 hr of exposure, and by 12 hr all cell types within the slice were affected. Intracellular potassium content normalized to DNA correlated well, but always preceded the pathological lesions observed. These results demonstrate that injury to specific regions of the proximal tubule by these agents relates to an innate susceptibility of the intoxicated cell type independent of physiologic feedback or blood delivery patterns proposed as mechanisms of selective injury from in vivo studies.

  3. Acute renal failure with sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 inhibitors: Analysis of the FDA adverse event report system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, A; Heyman, S N; Matok, I; Stokar, J; Muszkat, M; Szalat, A

    2017-12-01

    Sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently been approved for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been proposed that these agents could induce acute renal failure (ARF) under certain conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the association between SGLT2-inhibitors and ARF in the FDA adverse event report system (FAERS) database. We analyzed adverse event cases submitted to FAERS between January 2013 and September 2016. ARF cases were identified using a structured medical query. Medications were identified using both brand and generic names. During the period evaluated, 18,915 reports (out of a total of 3,832,015 registered in FAERS) involved the use of SGLT2-inhibitors. SGLT2-inhibitors were reportedly associated with ARF in 1224 of these cases (6.4%), and were defined as the "primary" or "secondary" cause of the adverse event in 96.8% of these cases. The proportion of reports with ARF among reports with SGLT2 inhibitor was almost three-fold higher compared to reports without these drugs (ROR 2.88, 95% CI 2.71-3.05, p SGLT2-inhibitors was significantly greater than the proportion of ARF among cases with T2DM without SGLT2-inhibitors (ROR 1.68, 95% CI 1.57-1.8, p SGLT2-inhibitors, canagliflozin was associated with a higher proportion of reports of renal failure (7.3%), compared to empagliflozin and dapagliflozin (4.7% and 4.8% respectively, p SGLT2-inhibitors are associated with an increase in the proportion of reports of ARF compared to other medications. SGLT2-inhibitor agents may differ from one another in their respective risk for ARF. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  5. Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk River, New York: the effect of fifty years of road-salt application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, K.S.; Hafner, S.D.; Buff, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Sodium and chloride have increased in the last 50 years in this river ecosystem. - Ecological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of road-salt, primarily NaCl, on water quality, flora, and fauna. In this study, we quantified changes in ionic composition and solute flux of water draining the Mohawk River Basin (9103 km 2 ) in New York State, from 1952 to 1998. Using various statistical, graphical, and modeling techniques, we showed that concentrations of Na + and Cl - have increased by 130 and 243%, respectively, while other constituents have decreased or remained constant. The use of de-icing salt on roads within the watershed, which we estimate at 39 kg km -2 day -1 , appears to be the primary mechanism responsible for reported increases, accounting for the increase in NaCl export from 16 to 46 kg km -2 day -1 over the 47-year period. Moreover, despite population decline within this rural upstate watershed, increased environmental stewardship, and The Clean Water Act, concentrations of Na + and Cl - still increased during the 1990s

  6. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  7. Effects of methionine source, arginine: lysine ratio and sodium chloride level in the diets of grower broilers reared under high-temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Montanhini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methionine sources (DL-methionine 99% powder (DLM or methionine hydroxy analog liquid 88% (HMTBA, arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys ratio and sodium chloride (NaCl content in the diet of broilers on their performance, carcass yield, serum biochemistry, duodenal mucosal morphology, and immune response. Birds were kept under high temperature conditions during the grower phase and were inoculated or not with an antigen. The use of HMTBA promoted better live performance and carcass yield than the use of DLM. Diets with 1.05 Arg:Lys ratio resulted in better live performance, higher carcass and breast meat yields, longer villi, shallower crypts, and stronger immune response when broilers were challenged than the 1.40 ratio. The dietary supplementation of 6.0 g NaCl/kg promoted better growth performance and carcass weight than 2.0 g NaCl/kg. There was no influence of the different methionine sources or NaCl concentrations on any evaluated intestinal morphology parameter or immune response, nor of any interactions between these sources of variation.

  8. Effects of bulk colloidal stability on adsorption layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air-water interface studied by neutron reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard A; Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Angus-Smyth, Anna; Nylander, Tommy; Varga, Imre

    2011-12-29

    We show for the oppositely charged system poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate that the cliff edge peak in its surface tension isotherm results from the comprehensive precipitation of bulk complexes into sediment, leaving a supernatant that is virtually transparent and a depleted adsorption layer at the air/water interface. The aggregation and settling processes take about 3 days to reach completion and occur at bulk compositions around charge neutrality of the complexes which lack long-term colloidal stability. We demonstrate excellent quantitative agreement between the measured surface tension values and a peak calculated from the surface excess of surfactant in the precipitation region measured by neutron reflectometry, using the approximation that there is no polymer left in the liquid phase. The nonequilibrium nature of the system is emphasized by the production of very different interfacial properties from equivalent aged samples that are handled differently. We go on to outline our perspective on the "true equilibrium" state of this intriguing system and conclude with a comment on its practical relevance given that the interfacial properties can be so readily influenced by the handling of kinetically trapped bulk aggregates. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in an alkaline NaCl solution with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and lanthanum chloride inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Biner; Wang, Yishan; Zuo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Inhibition effect of LaCl 3 and SDBS for AA 2024 in NaCl solution (pH 10) was studied. • At the beginning the active polarization behavior of the alloy changed to passivation. • The passive behavior gradually disappeared with time and pitting happened at S-phases. • The compounded inhibitors showed good inhibition but cannot totally inhibit pitting. • The adsorption of SDBS played the key role for inhibition to the corrosion process. - Abstract: The evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in 0.58 g L −1 NaCl solution (pH 10) with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and lanthanum chloride inhibitors was studied with electrochemical and surface analysis methods. With the addition of the compounded LaCl 3 and SDBS inhibitors, in the early stage the polarization behavior of AA 2024-T3 changed from active corrosion to passivation, and both the general corrosion and pitting corrosion were inhibited. However, with the immersion time extended, the passive behavior gradually disappeared and pitting happened at the Cu-rich phases. After 24 h immersion, the compounded inhibitors still showed good inhibition for general corrosion, but the polarization curve again presented the characteristic similar to active polarization. The compounded inhibitors also inhibited the pitting corrosion to some extent. The acting mechanism of the inhibitors SDBS and La 3 Cl on the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in the test solution was discussed.

  10. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbaghzadeh, Behnam; Parvizi, Reza; Davoodi, Ali; Moayed, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The β′ and α phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  11. Effect of Sodium Chloride on α-Dicarbonyl Compound and 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural Formations from Glucose under Caramelization Conditions: A Multiresponse Kinetic Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-08-17

    This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of α-dicarbonyl compound formation in glucose and glucose-sodium chloride mixture during heating under caramelization conditions. Changes in the concentrations of glucose, fructose, glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl were determined. A comprehensive reaction network was built, and the multiresponse model was compared to the experimentally observed data. Interconversion between glucose and fructose became 2.5 times faster in the presence of NaCl at 180 and 200 °C. The effect of NaCl on the rate constants of α-dicarbonyl compound formation varied across the precursor and the compound itself and temperature. A decrease in rate constants of 3-deoxyglucosone and 1-deoxyglucosone formations by the presence of NaCl was observed. HMF formation was revealed to be mainly via isomerization to fructose and dehydration over cyclic intermediates, and the rate constants increase 4-fold in the presence of NaCl.

  12. Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753 with respect to frond number and chlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p27 Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland’s nutrient medium at concentrations of 0, 8, 16, 22, 28 and 32mg.L–1. Lemna minor is used as a tool in evaluating chemical test products for toxic effects. The sensitivity of Lemna to sodium chloride, the reference substance, at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 g.L–1, was determined for comparison and resulted in an IC50 of 6.87g.L–1. Methyl parathion in L. minor showed an IC50 of 49.48mg.L–1.

  13. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Witaschek, Tom; Strobel, Catrin; Brayfield, Candace A; Bornemann, Reinhard; Catapano, Gerardo; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions.

  14. Histopathological changes of renal tissue following sodium fluoride administration in two consecutive generations of mice. Correlation with the urinary elimination of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimcevici Poesina, Nicoleta; Bălălău, Cristian; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Nimigean, Victor; Ion, Ion; Baconi, Daniela; Bârcă, Maria; Băran Poesina, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    of mice. Histopathological observation of the kidney has revealed granular dystrophy of the renal tubules, necrosis of the endothelial cells and of the mesangial cells of renal glomerulus. The study indicates that different sodium fluoride treatments produce some pathological aspects of the kidneys and influence the urinary elimination of fluoride in two consecutive generations of mice. For the higher doses, the pathological changes of the kidney are more important, and the urinary elimination of fluoride is higher, especially for the allopathic doses.

  15. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  16. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  17. Long-term stability of temocillin in dextrose 5% and in sodium chloride 0.9% polyolefin bags at 5 ± 3°C after freeze-thaw treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, C; Hecq, J-D; Tulkens, P; Vanbeckbergen, D; Jamart, J; Galanti, L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of a mixture of temocillin 20mg/ml in 5% dextrose and in 0.9% sodium chloride polyolefin bags after freezing, microwave thawing and long-term storage at 5±3°C. The stability of ten polyolefin bags containing 20mg/ml of temocillin, five bags in 5% dextrose and five bags in 0.9% sodium chloride, prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20°C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5±3°C. Over 30 days, temocillin concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Visual inspections, microscope observation, spectrophotometric measurements and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but minor colour change was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance. Based on a shelf life of 95% residual potency, temocillin infusions were stable at least 11 days in 5% dextrose and 14 days in 0.9% sodium chloride after freezing and microwave thawing (corresponding at the period where 95% lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 95% of the initial concentration). During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, temocillin in 5% dextrose and in 0.9% sodium chloride infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service then thawed before use in clinical units. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of Akt and SGK1 in the Regulation of Renal Tubular Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Satoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine/threonine kinase Akt is a key mediator in various signaling pathways including regulation of renal tubular transport. In proximal tubules, Akt mediates insulin signaling via insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2 and stimulates sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1, resulting in increased sodium reabsorption. In insulin resistance, the IRS2 in kidney cortex is exceptionally preserved and may mediate the stimulatory effect of insulin on NBCe1 to cause hypertension in diabetes via sodium retention. Likewise, in distal convoluted tubules and cortical collecting ducts, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation mediates several hormonal signals to enhance sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activities, resulting in increased sodium reabsorption. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1 mediates aldosterone signaling. Insulin can stimulate SGK1 to exert various effects on renal transporters. In renal cortical collecting ducts, SGK1 regulates the expression level of ENaC through inhibition of its degradation. In addition, SGK1 and Akt cooperatively regulate potassium secretion by renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK. Moreover, sodium-proton exchanger 3 (NHE3 in proximal tubules is possibly activated by SGK1. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding of the roles of Akt and SGK1 in the regulation of renal tubular transport.

  19. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, Dapagliflozin, on Renal Renin-Angiotensin System in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seok Joon; Chung, Sungjin; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Young-Hye; Kim, Ji-Won; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Sung-Dae; Kim, Myung-Jun; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is one of the important pathogenic mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, on renal RAS in an animal model with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin (1.0 mg/kg, OL-DA) or voglibose (0.6 mg/kg, OL-VO, diabetic control) (n = 10 each) was administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for 12 weeks. We used voglibose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, as a comparable counterpart to SGLT2 inhibitor because of its postprandial glucose-lowering effect without proven renoprotective effects. Control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LT) and OLETF (OL-C) rats received saline (n = 10, each). Changes in blood glucose, urine albumin, creatinine clearance, and oxidative stress were measured. Inflammatory cell infiltration, mesangial widening, and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney were evaluated by histological analysis. The effects of dapagliflozin on renal expression of the RAS components were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR in renal tissue. After treatment, hyperglycemia and urine microalbumin levels were attenuated in both OL-DA and OL-VO rather than in the OL-C group (P renal RAS component expression, oxidative stress and interstitial fibrosis in OLETF rats. We suggest that, in addition to control of hyperglycemia, partial suppression of renal RAS with an SGLT2 inhibitor would be a promising strategy for the prevention of treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Stress corrosion crack growth studies on nitrogen added AISI type 316 stainless steel and its weld metal in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution using the fracture mechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, H.; George, G.; Khatak, H.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Div. of Metallurgy; Schneider, F.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe

    2000-10-01

    Compact tension specimens of nitrogen-added AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel and its weld metal were subject to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing in a boiling solution containing 5 M sodium chloride + 0.15 M sodium sulphate + 2.5 ml/l hydrochloric acid solution using the constant extension rate testing (CERT) technique. The extension rate of testing was 10 microns per hour. The threshold values of stress intensify factor (K{sub ISCC}) and J-integral (J{sub ISCC}) were taken as those values of K{sub I} and J{sub I} at which about 25 microns of SCC crack growth was observed. These threshold values were about four times higher and plateau crack growth rates (PCGR) were nearly one order of magnitude lower for the base metal vis-a-vis the weld metal. Fractographic observations indicated failure by transgranular SCC (TGSCC) of austenite in both the base and weld metal. No stress-assisted dissolution of delta-ferrite or its interface with austenite, was observed. (orig.) [German] CT-Proben von Grund- und Schweissnahtwerkstoff des stickstoffhaltigen Stahles AISI 316 LN wurden Spannungsrisskorrosionstests in siedender chloridhaltiger Loesung (5 M Natriumchlorid/0,15 M Natriumsulfat/0,03 M Salzsaeure) unterzogen. Die Tests erfolgten bei konstanter Dehnrate (CERT-Test) von 10 {mu}m/h. Als Schwellwerte der Initiierung von Spannungsrisskorrosion K{sub ISCC} und I{sub ISCC} wurden die Werte des Spannungsintensitaetsfaktors K{sub I} und des J-Integrals J{sub I} ermittelt, bei denen ein Risswachstum von 25 {mu}m auftrat. Dabei wies der Grundwerkstoff 4-fach hoehere Schwellwerte K{sub ISCC} und J{sub ISCC} auf als der Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Auch die Risswachstumsraten im Plateaubereich der Risswachstumsrate-Spannungsintensitaetskruven waren am Grundwerkstoff um eine Groessenordnung geringer als am Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Die fraktorgrahischen Untersuchungen zeigten an beiden Materialien Schaedigung durch transkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion. Eine

  1. Effects of sodium chloride salinity on ecophysiological and biochemical parameters of oak seedlings (Quercus robur L.) from use of de-icing salts for winter road maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffray, Xavier; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Bourioug, Mohamed; Bourgeade, Pascale; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2018-04-04

    Salt is widely used to melt snow on roads especially in mountain regions. Whether as rock salt or aerosols, spread or sprayed over road surfaces, salt may result in increased salt concentrations in soils, which, in turn, affect natural vegetation, especially tree seedlings already subjected to various other types of abiotic stress. The authors investigated the effects of salt treatment-related stress on seedling growth and certain biochemical parameters in Quercus robur to determine ion concentrations in root tips. Seedlings growing in a quartz sand/vermiculite mixture were subjected to NaCl concentrations of 0, 50, or 100 mM for 5 weeks. The results showed that high NaCl concentrations caused a marked reduction in total leaf biomass 55 and 75% for 50 and 100 mM treatments, respectively, in dry weight of stems (84%) and roots (175%) for 100 mM treatment and modified root architecture, whereas no changes appeared in leaf number. A non-significant decrease in relative water content, with changes in ion balance was recorded. Comparison of stressed to control plants show an increase in sodium (3.5-8-fold), potassium (0.6-fold), and chloride (9.5-14-fold) concentrations in the root tips while the K + /Na + ratio decreased. In taproots, no significant biochemical differences were observed between the salt-treated and the control plants for acid invertase activity, reducing sugars, sucrose, or soluble protein contents. The significance of ion and sugar accumulations in relation to osmotic adjustment and the ability of oak seedlings to cope with salt stress are discussed.

  2. The Effects of Stereotactic Cerebroventricular Administration of Albumin, Mannitol, Hypertonic Sodium Chloride, Glycerin and Dextran in Rats with Experimental Brain Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Tuncay; Gezercan, Yurdal; Menekse, Guner; Turkoz, Yusuf; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Akyuva, Yener; Onal, Selami Cagatay

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents on edematous brain tissue in rats with experimental head trauma. The study included 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats with weights ranging between 200 and 250 g. Six experimental groups were examined with each group containing 9 rats. All rats were exposed to head trauma, and treatment groups were administered 2 µl of one of the drugs (albumin, mannitol, hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl), glycerin and dextran) 6, 12 and 24 hours after the trauma via the cerebroventricular route and using a stereotactic device. Rats were sacrificed 48 hours after the trauma, and brain tissues were extracted without damage. Biochemical analyses including reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) were performed on the injured left hemisphere. Compared with the control group, the albumin, mannitol, 3% NaCl and glycerin treatment groups revealed dramatic increases in GSH levels (p < 0.001). Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of brain edema and lipid peroxidation, failed to show a statistically significant decrease, but there was a decreasing trend observed in the inter-group comparisons. NO levels were also decreased in the 3% NaCl treatment group. An analysis of TNF-α and IL-1β, two proinflammatory cytokines associated with the trauma, revealed that IL-1β decreased significantly in all treatment groups (p=0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in TNF-α levels. Cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents provides substantial effects on the treatment of brain edema.

  3. Sodium lactate improves renal microvascular thrombosis compared to sodium bicarbonate and 0.9% NaCl in a porcine model of endotoxic shock: an experimental randomized open label controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duburcq, Thibault; Durand, Arthur; Tournoys, Antoine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Gmyr, Valery; Pattou, François; Jourdain, Mercedes; Tamion, Fabienne; Besnier, Emmanuel; Préau, Sebastien; Parmentier-Decrucq, Erika; Mathieu, Daniel; Poissy, Julien; Favory, Raphaël

    2018-02-14

    Sodium lactate seemed to improve fluid balance and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to determine if these beneficial effects can be at least partly explained by an improvement in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-associated renal microvascular thrombosis. Ancillary work of an interventional randomized open label controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "Large White" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of E. coli endotoxin. Three groups of five animals were randomly assigned to receive different fluids: a treatment group received sodium lactate 11.2% (SL group); an isotonic control group received 0.9% NaCl (NC group); a hypertonic control group, with the same amount of osmoles and sodium than SL group, received sodium bicarbonate 8.4% (SB group). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) markers, coagulation and inflammation parameters were measured over a 5-h period. Immediately after euthanasia, kidneys were withdrawn for histological study. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric tests and the Dunn correction for multiple comparisons. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. The direct immunofluorescence study revealed that the percentage of capillary sections thrombosed in glomerulus were significantly lesser in SL group [5 (0-28) %] compared to NC [64 (43-79) %, p = 0.01] and SB [64 (43-79), p = 0.03] groups. Alterations in platelet count and fibrinogen level occurred earlier and were significantly more pronounced in both control groups compared to SL group (p < 0.05 at 210 and 300 min). The increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes was significantly higher in NC [754 (367-945) μg/mL; p = 0.03] and SB [463 (249-592) μg/mL; p = 0.03] groups than in SL group [176 (37-265) μg/mL]. At the end of the experiment, creatinine clearance was significantly higher in SL group [55.46 (30.07-67.85) mL/min] compared to NC group [1.52 (0.17-27.67) mL/min, p = 0.03]. In this study, we

  4. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  5. Sodium butyrate suppresses angiotensin II-induced hypertension by inhibition of renal (pro)renin receptor and intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Qing; Lu, Aihua; Liu, Xiaofen; Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Chuanming; Liu, Xiyang; Li, Haobo; Yang, Tianxin

    2017-09-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is the end product of the fermentation of complex carbohydrates by the gut microbiota. Recently, sodium butyrate (NaBu) has been found to play a protective role in a number of chronic diseases. However, it is still unclear whether NaBu has a therapeutic potential in hypertension. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of NaBu in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and to further explore the underlying mechanism. Ang II was infused into uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats with or without intramedullary infusion of NaBu for 14 days. Mean arterial blood pressure was recorded by the telemetry system. Renal tissues, serum samples, and 24-h urine samples were collected to examine renal injury and the regulation of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) and renin. Intramedullary infusion of NaBu in Sprague-Dawley rats lowered the Ang II-induced mean arterial pressure from 129 ± 6 mmHg to 108 ± 4 mmHg (P renal injury, including urinary albumin, glomerulosclerosis, and renal fibrosis, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6. The renal expression of PRR, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I-converting enzyme and the urinary excretion of soluble PRR, renin, and angiotensinogen were all increased by Ang II infusion but decreased by NaBu treatment. In cultured innermedullary collecting duct cells, NaBu treatment attenuated Ang II-induced expression of PRR and renin. These results demonstrate that NaBu exerts an antihypertensive action, likely by suppressing the PRR-mediated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

  6. Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on cardio-renal protection in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    The specific sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) inhibit glucose reabsorption in proximal renal tubular cells, and both fasting and postprandial glucose significantly decrease because of urinary glucose loss. As a result, pancreatic β-cell function and peripheral insulin action significantly improve with relief from glucose toxicity. Furthermore, whole-body energy metabolism changes to relative glucose deficiency and triggers increased lipolysis in fat cells, and fatty acid oxidation and then ketone body production in the liver during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors have profound hemodynamic effects including diuresis, dehydration, weight loss and lowering blood pressure. The most recent findings on SGLT2 inhibitors come from results of the Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes trial. SGLT2 inhibitors exert extremely unique and cardio-renal protection through metabolic and hemodynamic effects, with long-term durability on the reduction of blood glucose, bodyweight and blood pressure. Although a site of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is highly specific to inhibit renal glucose reabsorption, whole-body energy metabolism, and hemodynamic and renal functions are profoundly modulated during the treatment of SGLT2 inhibitors. Previous studies suggest multifactorial clinical benefits and safety concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors. Although ambivalent clinical results of this drug are still under active discussion, the present review summarizes promising recent evidence on the cardio-renal and metabolic benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Renal excretion of prostaglandin metabolites, arginine vasopressin, and sodium during endotoxin and endogenous pyrogen induced fever in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónasson, H; Basu, S; Andersson, B; Kindahl, H

    1984-04-01

    Responses to intravenous injections of an endotoxin (E. coli-lipopolysaccharide, 1 microgram/kg b.wt.) and endogenous pyrogen were studied in euhydrated and hyperhydrated goats. The biphasic febrile response to the endotoxin was associated with a pronounced increase in the renal excretion of measured prostaglandin (PG) metabolites (11-ketotetranor PGF metabolites). This increase was time-correlated with the elevation of the rectal temperature, and (in hyperhydrated animals) with an inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in renal excretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Other effects of the endotoxin were an immediate depression of renal Na and K excretion followed by the development of pronounced natriuresis, and a reduction of plasma Fe and Zn concentrations. The appearance of the febrile reactions (peripheral vasoconstriction and shivering) was accompanied by miosis. The maximum elevation of the rectal temperature was significantly greater during euhydration than during hyperhydration. Also endogenous pyrogen elicited miosis concomitant with febrile reactions, and an elevation of the renal excretion of PG metabolites which was closely correlated in time with the monophasic febrile response, and (during hyperhydration) with temporary inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in the renal AVP excretion. However, the responses were much weaker than the corresponding endotoxin effects. No appreciable changes in renal excretion of Na and K were observed in response to the endogenous pyrogen. It is concluded that the observed effects on renal cation excretion were manifestations of direct endotoxin influences on kidney function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2015-11-01

    potassium chloride and salty-congruent odor. The result showed that considering consumer acceptability during sodium reduction enabled to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors: blocking renal tubular reabsorption of glucose to improve glycaemic control in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, S A; Goldstein, B J

    2008-08-01

    The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of plasma glucose levels, although until recently this has not been widely appreciated or considered a target for therapeutic intervention. The sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) located in the plasma membrane of cells lining the proximal tubule mediates the majority of renal glucose reabsorption from the tubular fluid, which normally prevents the loss of glucose in the urine. Competitive inhibitors of SGLT2 that provoke the renal excretion of glucose have been discovered, thereby providing a unique mechanism to potentially lower the elevated blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. To explore the physiology of SGLT2 action and discuss several SGLT2 inhibitors that have entered early clinical development. All publicly available data were identified by searching the internet for 'SGLT2' and 'SGLT2 inhibitor' through 1 November 2007. Published articles, press releases and abstracts presented at national and international meetings were considered. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibition is a novel treatment option for diabetes, which has been studied in preclinical models and a few potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitors have been reported and are currently in clinical development. These agents appear to be safe and generally well tolerated, and will potentially be a beneficial addition to the growing battery of oral antihyperglycaemic agents.

  10. Expression of renin-angiotensin system signalling compounds in maternal protein-restricted rats: effect on renal sodium excretion and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávia Fernandes; Gontijo, José Antonio Rocha; Boer, Patrícia Aline

    2010-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction due to low maternal dietary protein during pregnancy is associated with retardation of foetal growth, renal alterations and adult hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a coordinated hormonal cascade in the control of cardiovascular, renal and adrenal function that governs body fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as arterial pressure. In the kidney, all the components of the renin-angiotensin system including angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors are expressed locally during nephrogenesis. Hence, we investigated whether low protein diet intake during pregnancy altered kidney and adrenal expression of AT1(R) and AT2(R) receptors, their pathways and if the modified expression of the RAS compounds occurs associated with changes in urinary sodium and in arterial blood pressure in sixteen-week-old males' offspring of the underfed group. The pregnancy dams were divided in two groups: with normal protein diet (pups named NP) (17% protein) or low protein diet (pups LP) (6% protein) during all pregnancy. The present data confirm a significant enhancement in arterial pressure in the LP group. Furthermore, the study showed a significantly decreased expression of RAS pathway protein and Ang II receptors in the kidney and an increased expression in the adrenal of LP rats. The detailed immunohistochemical analysis of RAS signalling proteins in the kidney confirm the immunoblotting results for both groups. The present investigation also showed a pronounced decrease in fractional urinary sodium excretion in maternal protein-restricted offspring, compared with the NP age-matched group. This occurred despite unchanged creatinine clearance. The current data led us to hypothesize that foetal undernutrition could be associated with decreased kidney expression of AT(R) resulting in the inability of renal tubules to handle the hydro-electrolyte balance, consequently causing arterial hypertension.

  11. Evaluation of the pH- and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Jeng, Hélio Tallon; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Cholewa, Olivia

    The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for injection (WFI) (pH 6.0-7.0) and in 10 mM buffer solutions (acetate, pH 5.0; phosphate, pH 7.0; and Tris-EDTA, pH 8.0) with 0.9-30% NaCl or without and incubated at 80-95°C. The extent of protein denaturation was expressed as a percentage of the calculated decimal reduction time (D-value). In acetate buffer (pH 4.84 ±0.12), the mean D-values for 90% reduction in GFP fluorescence ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 min, independent of NaCl concentration and temperature. GFP thermal stability diluted in WFI (pH 5.94±0.60) was half that observed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.08±0.60); but in both systems, D-values decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration, with D-values (at 80°C) ranging from 3.44, min (WFI) to 6.1 min (phosphate buffer), both with 30% NaCl. However, D-values in Tris-EDTA (pH 7.65±0.17) were directly dependent on the NaCl concentration and 5-10 times higher than D-values for GFP in WFI at 80°C. GFP pH-and thermal stability can be easily monitored by the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity and potentially be used as an indicator to monitor that processing times and temperatures were attained.

  12. Alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and caspase 8 expression in cobalt chloride-induced cardio-renal dysfunction are reversed by Ocimum gratissimum and gallic acid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinde, A S; Oyagbemi, A A; Omobowale, T O; Asenuga, E R; Ajibade, T O

    2016-07-01

    The protective abilities of the chloroform extract of Ocimum gratissimum (COG) and gallic acid against cobalt chloride (CoCl2) - induced cardiac and renal toxicity were evaluated. Rats were exposed to CoCl2 (350ppm) for 7 days, either alone, or in combination with COG (100 and 200mg/kg) or gallic acid (120mg/kg). CoCl2 given alone, caused significant increases (pgallic acid treatment significantly reduced (pgallic acid by modulation of CoCl2-induced alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and pro-apoptotic caspase 8 in Wistar rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Renal structure and function evaluation of rats from dams that received increased sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation submitted or not to 5/6 nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Evelyn Cristina Santana; Balbi, Ana Paula Coelho; Francescato, Heloísa Della Coletta; Alves da Silva, Cleonice Giovanini; Costa, Roberto Silva; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2008-01-01

    Adult rats submitted to perinatal salt overload presented renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functional disturbances. The RAS contributes to the renal development and renal damage in a 5/6 nephrectomy model. The aim of the present study was to analyze the renal structure and function of offspring from dams that received a high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation. We also evaluated the influence of the prenatal high-salt intake on the evolution of 5/6 nephrectomy in adult rats. A total of 111 sixty-day-old rat pups from dams that received saline or water during pregnancy and lactation were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (nephrectomized) or to a sham operation (sham). The animals were killed 120 days after surgery, and the kidneys were removed for immunohistochemical and histological analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were evaluated. Increased SBP, albuminuria, and decreased GFR were observed in the rats from dams submitted to high-sodium intake before surgery. However, there was no difference in these parameters between the groups after the 5/6 nephrectomy. The scores for tubulointerstitial lesions and glomerulosclerosis were higher in the rats from the sham saline group compared to the same age control rats, but there was no difference in the histological findings between the groups of nephrectomized rats. In conclusion, our data showed that the high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation in rats leads to structural changes in the kidney of adult offspring. However, the progression of the renal lesions after 5/6 nephrectomy was similar in both groups.

  14. Human Sodium Phosphate Transporter 4 (hNPT4/SLC17A3) as a Common Renal Secretory Pathway for Drugs and Urate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutabha, Promsuk; Anzai, Naohiko; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Kaneko, Shuji; Yan, Kunimasa; Yamada, Hideomi; Shimada, Hidetaka; Kimura, Toru; Katada, Tomohisa; Fukutomi, Toshiyuki; Tomita, Kimio; Urano, Wako; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Seki, George; Fujita, Toshiro; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Yamada, Akira; Uchida, Shunya; Wempe, Michael F.; Endou, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary loss of hepatic urate oxidase (uricase) has resulted in humans with elevated serum uric acid (urate). Uricase loss may have been beneficial to early primate survival. However, an elevated serum urate has predisposed man to hyperuricemia, a metabolic disturbance leading to gout, hypertension, and various cardiovascular diseases. Human serum urate levels are largely determined by urate reabsorption and secretion in the kidney. Renal urate reabsorption is controlled via two proximal tubular urate transporters: apical URAT1 (SLC22A12) and basolateral URATv1/GLUT9 (SLC2A9). In contrast, the molecular mechanism(s) for renal urate secretion remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that an orphan transporter hNPT4 (human sodium phosphate transporter 4; SLC17A3) was a multispecific organic anion efflux transporter expressed in the kidneys and liver. hNPT4 was localized at the apical side of renal tubules and functioned as a voltage-driven urate transporter. Furthermore, loop diuretics, such as furosemide and bumetanide, substantially interacted with hNPT4. Thus, this protein is likely to act as a common secretion route for both drugs and may play an important role in diuretics-induced hyperuricemia. The in vivo role of hNPT4 was suggested by two hyperuricemia patients with missense mutations in SLC17A3. These mutated versions of hNPT4 exhibited reduced urate efflux when they were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings will complete a model of urate secretion in the renal tubular cell, where intracellular urate taken up via OAT1 and/or OAT3 from the blood exits from the cell into the lumen via hNPT4. PMID:20810651

  15. Investigations on renal organic and inorganic solutes, in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    A basic question in renal physiology is how do the cells of the renal medulla survive the high concentrations of sodium chloride and urea which occur with antidiuresis. The problem is two-fold: (1) urea, being highly permeable to cell membranes, should enter the cell and adversely affect protein function; and (2) inorganic ions, being in much higher concentration extracellularly than intracellularly should dehydrate the cell. If these organic solutes exist in response to high concentrations of sodium chloride and urea, then their content should vary with diuretic state. Two protocols were developed to test the validity of this hypothesis. The first protocol used 31 P-NMR in vivo to monitor GPC content before, during, and after acute diuresis in an exteriorized rabbit kidney model. Changes in sodium distribution and tissue structure were monitored dynamically with 23 Na- and 1 H-NMR imaging, respectively. The second protocol used HPLC to quantitate each of the four organic solutes in renal inner medullary homogenates. Here, the effect of diuretic state and acute diuresis on organic solute content was assessed

  16. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.

  17. Experimental dissociation of the effects of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, E; Branca, G F; Faedda, R; Olmeo, N A; Satta, A; Soggia, G

    1982-07-01

    1 The relative importance of the effect of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption was assessed in rats. 2 Clearance experiments were performed on 24 anaesthetized rats divided into 3 groups. Each group was infused throughout either with Ringer solution at 9 ml/h (Protocol I), or at 3 ml/h (Protocol II) or with hypotonic fluid at 5 ml/h (Protocol III). Clearance periods were performed before and after intravenous injection of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) and then of aspirin (20 mg/kg). The natriuretic response to different degrees of volume expansion was not modified during the action of the inhibitors. 3 When baseline urine osmolality (Uosm) was high (Protocol II) no further increase occurred in the presence of prostaglandin inhibition. Conversely, Uosm rose from 771 +/- 134 to 1356 +/- 414 and from 575 +/- 245 to 841 +/- 407 mosm/kg (P less than 0.05) in Protocol I and Protocol III respectively, when antidiuretic hormone secretion was inhibited by the higher degree of volume expansion. 4 There was a significant correlation between the change in urine flow rate induced by cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the attendant variations in Na excretion, r = 0.42, n = 41, P less than 0.01. 5 Thus, prostaglandins affect Na loss during saline load as a side effect of their action on water permeability. They could play an important role in volume depletion by counterbalancing the large secretion rate of renal vasoconstrictors.

  18. Experimental dissociation of the effects of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, E.; Branca, G. F.; Faedda, R.; Olmeo, N. A.; Satta, A.; Soggia, G.

    1982-01-01

    1 The relative importance of the effect of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption was assessed in rats. 2 Clearance experiments were performed on 24 anaesthetized rats divided into 3 groups. Each group was infused throughout either with Ringer solution at 9 ml/h (Protocol I), or at 3 ml/h (Protocol II) or with hypotonic fluid at 5 ml/h (Protocol III). Clearance periods were performed before and after intravenous injection of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) and then of aspirin (20 mg/kg). The natriuretic response to different degrees of volume expansion was not modified during the action of the inhibitors. 3 When baseline urine osmolality (Uosm) was high (Protocol II) no further increase occurred in the presence of prostaglandin inhibition. Conversely, Uosm rose from 771 +/- 134 to 1356 +/- 414 and from 575 +/- 245 to 841 +/- 407 mosm/kg (P less than 0.05) in Protocol I and Protocol III respectively, when antidiuretic hormone secretion was inhibited by the higher degree of volume expansion. 4 There was a significant correlation between the change in urine flow rate induced by cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the attendant variations in Na excretion, r = 0.42, n = 41, P less than 0.01. 5 Thus, prostaglandins affect Na loss during saline load as a side effect of their action on water permeability. They could play an important role in volume depletion by counterbalancing the large secretion rate of renal vasoconstrictors. PMID:6809089

  19. MRP-1 expression levels determine strain-specific susceptibility to sodium arsenic-induced renal injury between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiko; Ishida, Yuko; Wada, Takashi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Mukaida, Naofumi; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    To clarify the pathophysiological mechanism underlying acute renal injury caused by acute exposure to arsenic, we subcutaneously injected both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with sodium arsenite (NaAs; 13.5 mg/kg). BALB/c mice exhibited exaggerated elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels, compared with C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, half of BALB/c mice died by 24 h, whereas all C57BL/6 mice survived. Histopathological examination on kidney revealed severe hemorrhages, acute tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, cast formation, and disappearance of PAS-positive brush borders in BALB/c mice, later than 10 h. These pathological changes were remarkably attenuated in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied with lower intrarenal arsenic concentrations, compared with BALB/c mice. Among heavy metal inducible proteins including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-1, multidrug resistance gene (MDR)-1, metallothionein (MT)-1, and arsenite inducible, cysteine- and histidine-rich RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), intrarenal MDR-1, MT-1, and AIRAP gene expression was enhanced to a similar extent in both strains, whereas NaAs challenge augmented intrarenal MRP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. Moreover, the administration of a specific inhibitor of MRP-1, MK-571, significantly exaggerated acute renal injury in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, MRP-1 is crucially involved in arsenic efflux and eventually prevention of acute renal injury upon acute exposure to NaAs

  20. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  2. Effects of intravenous bumetanide administration on renal haemodynamics and proximal and distal tubular sodium reabsorption in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalmi, M.; Petersen, J.S.; Christensen, S. (Department of pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    The renal effects of 0.02-62.5 mg/kg bumetanide given as intravenous bolus injections were studied in water diuretic conscious rats. Clearances of {sup 14}C-tetraethylammonium, {sup 3}H-inulin and lithium were used as markers for renal plasma flow (RPF), glomerular filtion rate (GFR) and proximal tubular output, respectively. Bumetanide caused biphasic, transient and dose-independent changes in the renal haemodynamics without significant alterations of the filtration fraction. At dose-levels above 0.02 mg/kg bumetanide increased urine flow, absolute and fractional Na excretion as well as the indices for fractional output of Na from the proximal tubules (C{sub Li}/C{sub I}n) and the distal nephron segments (C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}). The changes in C{sub Li}/C{sub In} became maximal at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, whereas C{sub Na}/C{sub Li} was increased with the dose up to 12.5 mg/kg. Paradoxically, doses above 12.5 mg/kg were less natriuretic due to a decrease of C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}. It is concluded that in rats bumetanide is an effective although short-acting diuretic when administered intravenously. When comparing peak responses bumetanide is equipotent to furosemide but has a lower maximal efficacy. Judged from the changes in fractional lithium excretion, the natriuretic effect of bumetanide is effected by inhibition of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule in addition to the well-known effect on the distal nephron segment. (author).

  3. Extraction of silver by gels of sodium poly-acrylic-polyacrylate acid. Application: elimination of chloride anions; Extraction de l'argent par des gels d'acide polyacrylique-polyacrylate de sodium. Application a l'elimination des ions chlorures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rifi, E.H. [Universite Ibn-Tofail, Lab. de Synthese Organique et Pocedes d' Extraction, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Lakkis, D.; Leroy, J.F.M. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Minerale, Ecole Europeenne de Chimie, Polymeres et Materiaux, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2005-05-01

    The extraction of silver from diluted aqueous solutions by gels of sodium poly-acrylic-polyacrylate acid was studied. The study of pH variations shows that the extraction is done by cation-cation exchange process. The highest loading of the gel by silver is obtained at R(moles of Ag{sup +} fixed by the gel/moles of -COO(H, Na))=0.75. The silver gel loaded allows the recovery of ions chlorides from the aqueous solutions. (authors)

  4. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris and salt (sodium chloride on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Peredo-Álvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on noneuryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 ± 0.04 g l-1 than B. patulus (2.14 ± 0.09 g l-1 . The maximal population density (mean±standard error for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 X10 6 cells ml-1 (algal level was 80 ±5 ind. ml-1 , which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 ± 7 ind. ml-1 under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 ± 0.5 days for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 ±1 day. The highest rates of population increase (r values for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 ± 0.012 and 0.367 ± 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 X10(6 cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.La salinidad es una variable importante que tiene influencia sobre la densidad y la diversidad de los rotíferos. Los estudios de rotíferos sobre tolerancia a la sal que se tienen hasta ahora se han concentrado en especies eurihalinas, sin embargo, hay muy poca información sobre taxas no eurihalinos. En el presente trabajo, se evaluaron los efectos combinados de las concentraciones de Chlorella vulgaris y cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento

  5. Renal accumulation of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC in rats: influence of inhibitors of the organic ion transport and diuretics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, A.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany); Wagner, B.; Heemann, U.; Lutz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nephrology, Munich (Germany); Poethko, T.; Perutka, M.; Wester, H.J.; Essler, M.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Radiation exposure to the kidney limits therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. This study evaluates the organic anion and cation transport (inhibitors: probenecid and cimetidine/dexamethason) as well as diuresis (furosemide and mannitol) regarding renal uptake of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC. One hundred eight male Fisher rats were injected with [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC via the tail vein. Prior to activity injection a total of 84 rats underwent injection with probenecid vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (48 rats), cimetidine vs. dexamethasone vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats), and furosemide vs. mannitol vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats). Rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points up to 48 h after activity injection. Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, spleen, blood, liver, and muscle were harvested and injected activity per gram tissue was determined. Autoradiographic images of the kidneys were acquired in a total of 24 rats. Probenecid led to a reduction in renal uptake by up to 30% while not significantly changing the activity accumulation in the other organs investigated. This reduction was attributable to the renal cortex (ratio cortex/medulla 1.72 vs. 1.99; p = 0.006). Cimetidine and dexamethasone had no effect in any of the organs. Furosemide led to a 44% increase in renal activity accumulation attributable to enhanced renal medullary uptake (ratio cortex/medulla 1.44 versus 1.69; p = 0.006). Mannitol had no effect on renal activity uptake. Inhibition of the organic anion transport by probenecid may help reduce renal uptake regarding therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. The enhancing effect of furosemide may be unfavourable for therapy. The results must be confirmed by human studies. (orig.)

  6. Approach to corrosion mechanisms for a carbon steel in a solution of sodium chloride at 3 pc and its inhibition by means of organic molecules. Compared benefit of the use of stationary and transient electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Within the context of an increased use of seawater as coolant in various industrial installations, this research thesis had two main objectives: the search for inhibitor organic compounds with optimal efficiency, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of corrosion inhibition by the best compounds within the considered organic compounds. After having reported a bibliographical study on carbon steel corrosion in seawater or in a sodium chloride solution at 3 pc, and on the inhibition of this corrosion, the author presents the experimental conditions (materials and methods). He reports the use of stationary and un-stationary electrochemical methods for the study of the steel-solution interface without inhibitor in order to get a better knowledge of corrosion electrochemical processes and to determine more precisely the corrosion rate. The last part addresses the study of the same interface but in presence of various inhibitors

  7. Renal denervation and hypertension - The need to investigate unintended effects and neural control of the human kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisk, Olaf

    2017-05-01

    Increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is present in human and experimental forms of arterial hypertension. Experimental denervation studies showed that renal nerves contribute to the development of hypertension. Clinical trials provided equivocal results on the antihypertensive efficacy of renal denervation in patients spurring discussions on technical aspects of renal denervation and further research on the role of renal nerves for the regulation of kidney function as well as the pathophysiology of hypertension. This review summarizes recent findings on adrenoceptor expression and function in the human kidney, adrenoceptor-dependent regulation of sodium chloride transport in the distal nephron, experimental data on chronic RSNA and the development of high arterial pressure and consequences of renal denervation that may limit its antihypertensive efficacy. Future research needs to reduce the gap between our knowledge on neural control of renal function in animals vs. humans to facilitate translation of experimental animal data to humans. More experimental studies on the temporal relationship between RSNA and arterial pressure in the chronic setting are needed to better define the pathogenetic role of heightened RSNA in different forms of arterial hypertension in order to improve the rational basis for renal denervation in antihypertensive therapy. Finally, research on unintended consequences of renal denervation including but not limited to reinnervation and denervation supersensitivity needs to be intensified to further assess the potential of renal denervation to slow the progression of renal disease and hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pseudo-Bartter syndrome in an infant with congenital chloride diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igrutinović Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pseudo-Bartter syndrome encompasses a heterogenous group of disorders similar to Bartter syndrome. We are presenting an infant with pseudo-Bartter syndrome caused by congenital chloride diarrhoea. Case Outline. A male newborn born in the 37th gestational week (GW to young healthy and non-consanguineous parents. In the 35th GW a polyhydramnios with bowel dilatation was verified by ultrasonography. After birth he manifested several episodes of hyponatremic dehydration with hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis, so as Bartter syndrome was suspected treatment with indomethacin, spironolactone and additional intake of NaCl was initiated. However, this therapy gave no results, so that at age six months he was rehospitalized under the features of persistent watery diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration and acute renal failure (serum creatinine 123 μmol/L. The laboratory results showed hyponatraemia (123 mmol/L, hypokalaemia (3.1 mmol/L, severe hypochloraemia (43 mmol/L, alcalosis (blood pH 7.64, bicarbonate 50.6 mmol/L, high plasma renin (20.6 ng/ml and aldosterone (232.9 ng/ml, but a low urinary chloride concentration (2.1 mmol/L. Based on these findings, as well as the stool chloride concentration of 110 mmol/L, the patient was diagnosed congenital chloride diarrhoea. In further course, the patient was treated by intensive fluid, sodium and potassium supplementation which resulted in the normalization of serum electrolytes, renal function, as well as his mental and physical development during 10 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Persistent watery diarrhoea with a high concentration of chloride in stool is the key finding in the differentiation of congenital chloride diarrhoea from Bartter syndrome. The treatment of congenital chloride diarrhoea consists primarily of adequate water and electrolytes replacement.

  9. Pseudo-Bartter syndrome in an infant with congenital chloride diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igrutinović, Zoran; Peco-Antić, Amira; Radlović, Nedeljko; Vuletić, Biljana; Marković, Slavica; Vujić, Ana; Rasković, Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Pseudo-Bartter syndrome encompasses a heterogenous group of disorders similar to Bartter syndrome. We are presenting an infant with pseudo-Bartter syndrome caused by congenital chloride diarrhoea. A male newborn born in the 37th gestational week (GW) to young healthy and non-consanguineous parents. In the 35th GW a polyhydramnios with bowel dilatation was verified by ultrasonography. After birth he manifested several episodes of hyponatremic dehydration with hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis, so as Bartter syndrome was suspected treatment with indomethacin, spironolactone and additional intake of NaCl was initiated. However, this therapy gave no results, so that at age six months he was rehospitalized under the features of persistent watery diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration and acute renal failure (serum creatinine 123 micromol/L). The laboratory results showed hyponatraemia (123 mmol/L), hypokalaemia (3.1 mmol/L), severe hypochloraemia (43 mmol/L), alcalosis (blood pH 7.64, bicarbonate 50.6 mmol/L), high plasma renin (20.6 ng/ml) and aldosterone (232.9 ng/ml), but a low urinary chloride concentration (2.1 mmol/L). Based on these findings, as well as the stool chloride concentration of 110 mmol/L, the patient was diagnosed congenital chloride diarrhoea. In further course, the patient was treated by intensive fluid, sodium and potassium supplementation which resulted in the normalization of serum electrolytes, renal function, as well as his mental and physical development during 10 months of follow-up. Persistent watery diarrhoea with a high concentration of chloride in stool is the key finding in the differentiation of congenital chloride diarrhoea from Bartter syndrome. The treatment of congenital chloride diarrhoea consists primarily of adequate water and electrolytes replacement.

  10. Fluid balance and chloride load in the first 24h of ICU admission and its relation with renal replacement therapies through a multicentre, retrospective, case-control study paired by APACHE-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, A; Ortiz-Lasa, M; Leizaola, O; Salgado, E; Irriguible, T; Sánchez-Satorra, M; Lomas-Fernández, C; Barral-Segade, P; Cordero-Vallejo, M; Rodrigo-Calabia, E; Dierssen-Sotos, T

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the association between water balance during the first 24h of admission to ICU and the variables related to chloride levels (chloride loading, type of fluid administered, hyperchloraemia), with the development of acute kidney injury renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT) during patients' admission to ICU. Multicentre case-control study. Hospital-based, national, carried out in 6 ICUs. Cases were patients older than 18 years who developed an AKI-RRT. Controls were patients older than 18 years admitted to the same institutions during the study period, who did not develop AKI-RRT during ICU admission. Pairing was done by APACHE-II. An analysis of unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, APACHE-II and water balance (in evaluating the type of fluid). We analysed the variables of 430 patients: 215 cases and 215 controls. An increase of 10% of the possibility of developing AKI-RRT per 500ml of positive water balance was evident (OR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.14]; P<.001). The study of mean values of chloride load administered did not show differences between the group of cases and controls (299.35±254.91 vs. 301.67±234.63; P=.92). The water balance in the first 24h of ICU admission relates to the development of IRA-TRR, regardless of chloraemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  12. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient......, this has important therapeutic implications. The pathological sequence in renal stone formers with dRTA is discussed....

  13. [Effects of sodium ethamsylate on anticoagulant and anti-aggregation activity of vascular endothelium in hemorrhagic fever patients with renal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, I M; Sirotin, B Z; Parshina, T A

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate effects of sodium ethamsylate (SE) on anticoagulant and antiaggregation activity of vascular endothelium in patients suffering from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). A trial of SE enrolled 70 HFRS patients (58 males, 12 females aged under 30 years) compatible by the disease severity. They were divided into two groups. 42 patients of the control group received standard therapy, 28 patients of the study group received adjuvant 12% solution of SE in daily dose 1500-2000 mg in the course of HFRS oliguria period. Hemostatic parameters were measured before and after the cuff test to investigate the condition of vascular wall with calculation of the athrombogenicity index (the ratio of the relevant indices before and after the cuff test). SE effects on vascular endothelium was assessed by a blind method. In oliguria, both groups had baseline antiaggregation indices significantly higher than in the control. After the cuff test, control patients' indices tended to an increase while in the study group there was a marked decrease. The trend in anticoagulant activity of microvascular endothelium did not differ much with the groups. This picture persisted also in polyuria. In convalescence hemostasis was similar in both groups. SE enhances antiaggregant activity of vascular endothelium in oliguria period of HFRS without affecting its anticoagulant properties. This is explained by a direct effect of SE on vascular endothelium.

  14. Diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio em substituição ao cloreto de sódio na dieta de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020 Diferent levels of sodium formate in replacement of sodium chloride in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Krabbe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do formiato de sódio como fonte desse mineral na dieta de frangos de corte, comparando-o com o cloreto de sódio. Utilizaram-se 690 fêmeas de corte Ross, que receberam água e alimentação à vontade, divididas em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, tendo cada repetição 23 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram: T1 (controle, T2 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia, T3 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ sem cloreto de amônia, T4 (formiato de sódio com 0,16% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia e T5 (formiato de sódio com 0,12% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia. O cloreto de amônia foi adicionado em alguns tratamentos para se equilibrar o balanço eletrolítico das dietas. Os dados foram analisados, utilizando-se Anova 5%, teste de Tukey com comparação de médias duas a duas. Observou-se que os diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio não comprometeram o desempenho das aves nem as variáveis de carcaça, mesmo quando o cloreto de amônia foi incluído. Com isso, conclui-se que o formiato de sódio pode ser utilizado como fonte desse mineral para substituir o cloreto de sódio em dietas de frangos de corte.This study aimed to evaluate the use of sodium formate as a source of sodium in replacement of sodium chloride for broilers. A total of 690 female Ross broiler chickens were divided into five treatments with 6 replicates each. Each replicate had 23 birds. Treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ with ammonium chloride, T3 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ without ammonium chloride, T4 (sodium formate 0.16%Na+ with ammonium chloride and T5 (sodium formate 0.12%Na+ without ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added to some of the treatments to balance the electrolyte balance of the diets. Data were analyzed using ANOVA 5%. Means were separated using Tukey test.The use of sodium formate had no effect on performance and carcass traits of broilers. These results indicate that

  15. Angiotensin 2 directly increases rabbit renal brush-border membrane sodium transport: Presence of local signal transduction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morduchowicz, G.A.; Sheikh-Hamad, D.; Dwyer, B.E.; Stern, N.; Jo, O.D.; Yanagawa, N. (Sepulveda Veterans Administration, CA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    In the present study, the authors have examined the direct actions of angiotensin II (AII) in rabbit renal brush border membrane (BBM) where binding sites for AII exist. Addition of AII (10(-11)-10(-7) M) was found to stimulate 22Na+ uptake by the isolated BBM vesicles directly. All did not affect the Na(+)-dependent BBM glucose uptake, and the effect of AII on BBM 22Na+ uptake was inhibited by amiloride, suggesting the involvement of Na+/H+ exchange mechanism. BBM proton permeability as assessed by acridine orange quenching was not affected by AII, indicating the direct effect of AII on Na+/H+ antiport system. In search of the signal transduction mechanism, it was found that AII activated BBM phospholipase A2 (PLA) and that BBM contains a 42-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G-protein) that underwent pertussis toxin (PTX)-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Addition of GTP potentiated, while GDP-beta S or PTX abolished, the effects of AII on BBM PLA and 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the involvement of G-protein in AII's actions. On the other hand, inhibition of PLA by mepacrine prevented AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake, and activation of PLA by mellitin or addition of arachidonic acid similarly enhanced BBM 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the role of PLA activation in mediating AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake. In summary, results of the present study show a direct stimulatory effect of AII on BBM Na+/H+ antiport system, and suggest the presence of a local signal transduction system involving G-protein mediated PLA activation.

  16. Angiotensin 2 directly increases rabbit renal brush-border membrane sodium transport: Presence of local signal transduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morduchowicz, G.A.; Sheikh-Hamad, D.; Dwyer, B.E.; Stern, N.; Jo, O.D.; Yanagawa, N.

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, the authors have examined the direct actions of angiotensin II (AII) in rabbit renal brush border membrane (BBM) where binding sites for AII exist. Addition of AII (10(-11)-10(-7) M) was found to stimulate 22Na+ uptake by the isolated BBM vesicles directly. All did not affect the Na(+)-dependent BBM glucose uptake, and the effect of AII on BBM 22Na+ uptake was inhibited by amiloride, suggesting the involvement of Na+/H+ exchange mechanism. BBM proton permeability as assessed by acridine orange quenching was not affected by AII, indicating the direct effect of AII on Na+/H+ antiport system. In search of the signal transduction mechanism, it was found that AII activated BBM phospholipase A2 (PLA) and that BBM contains a 42-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G-protein) that underwent pertussis toxin (PTX)-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Addition of GTP potentiated, while GDP-beta S or PTX abolished, the effects of AII on BBM PLA and 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the involvement of G-protein in AII's actions. On the other hand, inhibition of PLA by mepacrine prevented AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake, and activation of PLA by mellitin or addition of arachidonic acid similarly enhanced BBM 22Na+ uptake, suggesting the role of PLA activation in mediating AII's effect on BBM 22Na+ uptake. In summary, results of the present study show a direct stimulatory effect of AII on BBM Na+/H+ antiport system, and suggest the presence of a local signal transduction system involving G-protein mediated PLA activation

  17. Efeitos da efedrina sobre as funções cardiovascular e renal de cães sob anestesia com pentobarbital sódico Efectos de la efedrina sobre las funciones cardiovascular y renal de perros bajo anestesia con pentobarbital sódico Effects of rphedrine on cardiovascular and renal function of dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Beatriz Amorim

    2002-07-01

    verifying whether different ephedrine doses determine differentiated hemodynamic and renal effects. METHODS: Cardiovascular and renal hemodynamics and renal function were evaluated in 32 dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (SP for surgical preparation, catheterization, extracellular fluid volume expansion and mechanical ventilation. Dogs were randomly distributed in four groups: G control (n = 8, in which dogs remained only under the effect of SP; G ephedrine 2 µg (n = 8; G ephedrine 10 µg (n = 8; and G ephedrine 100 µg (n = 8, in which dogs received 2, 10, and 100 µg.kg-1.min-1 ephedrine, respectively. Cardiovascular and renal parameters were studied at control (M1 and M2, during ephedrine infusion (M3 and M4 and after ephedrine infusion withdrawal (M5. RESULTS: There were no significant differences among groups. There has been a significant increase in heart rate, aortic blood flow, urinary output and fractional sodium excretion in G ephedrine 2 µg. There has been a significant increase in heart rate and filtration fraction in G ephedrine 10 µg while in G ephedrine 100 µg there has been a significant increase in heart rate, mean blood pressure, aortic blood flow, central venous pressure, renal vascular resistance and hematocrit, and a significant decrease in renal plasma and blood flow. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that ephedrine has differentiated dose-dependent hemodynamic and renal effects.

  18. Outcomes after Angiography with Sodium Bicarbonate and Acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Gallagher, Martin; Jneid, Hani; Garcia, Santiago; Cass, Alan; Thwin, Soe-Soe; Conner, Todd A; Chertow, Glenn M; Bhatt, Deepak L; Shunk, Kendrick; Parikh, Chirag R; McFalls, Edward O; Brophy, Mary; Ferguson, Ryan; Wu, Hongsheng; Androsenko, Maria; Myles, John; Kaufman, James; Palevsky, Paul M

    2018-02-15

    Intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral acetylcysteine are widely used to prevent acute kidney injury and associated adverse outcomes after angiography without definitive evidence of their efficacy. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 5177 patients at high risk for renal complications who were scheduled for angiography to receive intravenous 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride and 5 days of oral acetylcysteine or oral placebo; of these patients, 4993 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The primary end point was a composite of death, the need for dialysis, or a persistent increase of at least 50% from baseline in the serum creatinine level at 90 days. Contrast-associated acute kidney injury was a secondary end point. The sponsor stopped the trial after a prespecified interim analysis. There was no interaction between sodium bicarbonate and acetylcysteine with respect to the primary end point (P=0.33). The primary end point occurred in 110 of 2511 patients (4.4%) in the sodium bicarbonate group as compared with 116 of 2482 (4.7%) in the sodium chloride group (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.22; P=0.62) and in 114 of 2495 patients (4.6%) in the acetylcysteine group as compared with 112 of 2498 (4.5%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.33; P=0.88). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. Among patients at high risk for renal complications who were undergoing angiography, there was no benefit of intravenous sodium bicarbonate over intravenous sodium chloride or of oral acetylcysteine over placebo for the prevention of death, need for dialysis, or persistent decline in kidney function at 90 days or for the prevention of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. (Funded by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development and the National Health and Medical Research

  19. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  20. Diet, evolution and aging--the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L; Morris, R C; Sellmeyer, D E; Todd, K; Sebastian, A

    2001-10-01

    Theoretically, we humans should be better adapted physiologically to the diet our ancestors were exposed to during millions of years of hominid evolution than to the diet we have been eating since the agricultural revolution a mere 10,000 years ago, and since industrialization only 200 years ago. Among the many health problems resulting from this mismatch between our genetically determined nutritional requirements and our current diet, some might be a consequence in part of the deficiency of potassium alkali salts (K-base), which are amply present in the plant foods that our ancestors ate in abundance, and the exchange of those salts for sodium chloride (NaCl), which has been incorporated copiously into the contemporary diet, which at the same time is meager in K-base-rich plant foods. Deficiency of K-base in the diet increases the net systemic acid load imposed by the diet. We know that clinically-recognized chronic metabolic acidosis has deleterious effects on the body, including growth retardation in children, decreased muscle and bone mass in adults, and kidney stone formation, and that correction of acidosis can ameliorate those conditions. Is it possible that a lifetime of eating diets that deliver evolutionarily superphysiologic loads of acid to the body contribute to the decrease in bone and muscle mass, and growth hormone secretion, which occur normally with age? That is, are contemporary humans suffering from the consequences of chronic, diet-induced low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis? Our group has shown that contemporary net acid-producing diets do indeed characteristically produce a low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis in otherwise healthy adult subjects, and that the degree of acidosis increases with age, in relation to the normally occurring age-related decline in renal functional capacity. We also found that neutralization of the diet net acid load with dietary supplements of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) improved calcium and phosphorus balances

  1. Sodium intake modifies the negative prognostic value of renal damage prior to treatment with ACE inhibitors on proteinuria induced by adriamycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Andrea B.; Bos, Hendrik; van Goor, Harry; Navis, Gerjan J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Antiproteinuric treatment by ACE inhibition (ACEi) provides renoprotection. However, resistance to antiproteinuric intervention occurs frequently, resulting in progressive renal damage. The extent of renal damage prior to treatment with ACEi reversely correlates with the antiproteinuric

  2. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  3. A possible simplification for the estimation of area under the curve (AUC₀₋₁₂) of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in renal transplant patients receiving tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Denise H; Mathew, Binu S; Prasanna, Samuel; Annapandian, Vellaichamy M; John, George T

    2011-04-01

    Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) is widely used in renal transplantation. With a delayed absorption profile, it has not been possible to develop limited sampling strategies to estimate area under the curve (mycophenolic acid [MPA] AUC₀₋₁₂), which have limited time points and are completed in 2 hours. We developed and validated simplified strategies to estimate MPA AUC₀₋₁₂ in an Indian renal transplant population prescribed EC-MPS together with prednisolone and tacrolimus. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling (17 samples each) was performed in 18 patients to measure MPA AUC₀₋₁₂. The profiles at 1 month were used to develop the simplified strategies and those at 5.5 months used for validation. We followed two approaches. In one, the AUC was calculated using the trapezoidal rule with fewer time points followed by an extrapolation. In the second approach, by stepwise multiple regression analysis, models with different time points were identified and linear regression analysis performed. Using the trapezoidal rule, two equations were developed with six time points and sampling to 6 or 8 hours (8hrAUC[₀₋₁₂exp]) after the EC-MPS dose. On validation, the 8hrAUC(₀₋₁₂exp) compared with total measured AUC₀₋₁₂ had a coefficient of correlation (r²) of 0.872 with a bias and precision (95% confidence interval) of 0.54% (-6.07-7.15) and 9.73% (5.37-14.09), respectively. Second, limited sampling strategies were developed with four, five, six, seven, and eight time points and completion within 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, and 8 hours after the EC-MPS dose. On validation, six, seven, and eight time point equations, all with sampling to 8 hours, had an acceptable r with the total measured MPA AUC₀₋₁₂ (0.817-0.927). In the six, seven, and eight time points, the bias (95% confidence interval) was 3.00% (-4.59 to 10.59), 0.29% (-5.4 to 5.97), and -0.72% (-5.34 to 3.89) and the precision (95% confidence interval) was 10

  4. Potassium and ANO1/TMEM16A chloride channel profiles distinguish atypical and typical smooth muscle cells from interstitial cells in the mouse renal pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Tonta, Mary A; Mitsui, Retsu; Li, Qun; Kett, Michelle; Li, Jinhua; Parkington, Helena C; Hashitani, Hikaru; Lang, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although atypical smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the proximal renal pelvis are thought to generate the pacemaker signals that drive pyeloureteric peristalsis, their location and electrical properties remain obscure. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Standard patch clamp, intracellular microelectrode and immunohistochemistry techniques were used. To unequivocally identify SMCs, transgenic mice with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) expressed in cells containing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were sometimes used. KEY RESULTS Atypical SMCs were distinguished from typical SMCs by the absence of both a transient 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K+ current (IKA) and spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) upon the opening of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels. Many typical SMCs displayed a slowly activating, slowly decaying Cl- current blocked by niflumic acid (NFA). Immunostaining for KV4.3 and ANO1/ TMEM16A Cl- channel subunits co-localized with α-SMA immunoreactive product predominately in the distal renal pelvis. Atypical SMCs fired spontaneous inward currents that were either selective for Cl- and blocked by NFA, or cation-selective and blocked by La3+. α-SMA- interstitial cells (ICs) were distinguished by the presence of a Xe991-sensitive KV7 current, BK channel STOCs and Cl- selective, NFA-sensitive spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs). Intense ANO1/ TMEM16A and KV7.5 immunostaining was present in Kit-α-SMA- ICs in the suburothelial and adventitial regions of the renal pelvis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We conclude that KV4.3+α-SMA+ SMCs are typical SMCs that facilitate muscle wall contraction, that ANO1/ TMEM16A and KV7.5 immunoreactivity may be selective markers of Kit- ICs and that atypical SMCs which discharge spontaneous inward currents are the pelviureteric pacemakers. PMID:22014103

  5. Immobilization of CoCl2 (cobalt chloride) on PAN (polyacrylonitrile) composite nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from hydrolysis of NaBH4 (sodium borohydride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang; Arthur, Ernest Evans; La, Dahye; Li, Qiming; Kim, Hern

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofiber sheets containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and cobalt chloride dispersed in PAN (polyacrylonitrile) were produced by an electrospinning technique. The synthesized PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. FT-IR characterization showed that the pretreated CNTs possess different organic functional groups which help improve the compatibility between CNTs and PAN organic polymer. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray technique) were used to characterize the composite nanofiber and it was found that CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. During the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 , this PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity compared to the composite without CNTs doping. Kinetic analysis of NaBH 4 hydrolysis shows that the reaction of NaBH 4 hydrolysis based on this catalyst can be ascribed to the first-order reaction and the activation energy of the catalyst was approximately 52.857 kJ/mol. Meanwhile, the composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability in the recycling experiment. - Highlights: • Composite nanofiber sheets were prepared via electrospinning. • PAN (polyacrylonitrile)/CoCl 2 (cobalt chloride)/CNTs (carbon nanotubes) nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production. • CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. • PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity. • The composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability

  6. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The effect of alternating administration of aluminum chloride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on the concentration of fluoride in serum and its content in bones of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Machoy-Mokrzyniska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fluorine and aluminum remain a very interesting research topic due to equivocal and relatively unknown toxic action, role in the etiology of various diseases, and interactions of both elements. Fluorine and aluminum compounds are absorbed by organisms through the gastric and respiratory systems, although the latter route operates only at very high concentrations in air. Chronic exposure to fluorine and aluminum leads to accumulation of both elements, especially in bones and teeth, but also in lung, brain, kidney, and liver. Organisms excrete these elements with urine, faeces, and to a minor extent with sweat and bile. In the light of reports suggesting that aluminum has protective properties against fluorine toxicity during exposure to both elements, we decided to examine the effect of alternating doses of aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on rats. Four female groups received: I--100 ppm fluorine ions during one month; II--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during one month; III--100 ppm fluoride ions during four months; IV--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during four months. The respective male groups called IA, IIA, IIIA, and IVA were treated identically. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Blood was sampled from the heart and the right femur was removed for fluorine determination. Fluorine content in the femur and serum was determined with an ion-selective electrode (Orion). The results were analyzed statistically (Statistica 6). We observed higher fluoride concentrations in serum as compared with control values in all groups of female and male rats exposed to sodium fluoride only. Longer exposure time (4 months) did not result in further increase in serum fluoride concentration. However, longer exposure increased fluoride accumulation in the femur (p Fluorine content in the femur of rats exposed to NaF and AlCI3 for four months was

  8. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  9. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingham, B. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Ko, M., E-mail: m.ko@questintegrity.com [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand); Laycock, N. [Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Burnell, J. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Kappen, P. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086 (Australia); Kimpton, J.A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Williams, D.E. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated brine at 80 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protective scales were formed in all tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only FeCO{sub 3} formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} detected with presence of MgCl{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MgCl{sub 2} accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) at 80 Degree-Sign C. Siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was also detected when MgCl{sub 2} was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl{sub 2} addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  10. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2012-08-08

    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  11. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO2 corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, B.; Ko, M.; Laycock, N.; Burnell, J.; Kappen, P.; Kimpton, J.A.; Williams, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO 2 saturated brine at 80 °C. ► Protective scales were formed in all tests. ► Only FeCO 3 formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 detected with presence of MgCl 2 . ► MgCl 2 accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO 2 saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) at 80 °C. Siderite (FeCO 3 ) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 was also detected when MgCl 2 was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl 2 addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  12. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, phosphates, and vitamins C, E, or C+E on meat display-color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, E J; Hunt, M C; Dikeman, M E; Addis, P B; Katsanidis, E

    2001-10-01

    Grain-finished, high-percentage Charolais steers (n = 36) were selected for uniformity. Immediately after jugular vein exsanguination, 27 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend plus either 500 ppm vitamin C (MPSC+C; n = 9), 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+E; n = 9), or 500 ppm vitamin C + 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+C+E; n = 9). Uninfused controls (CON) were exsanguinated conventionally. Carcasses were fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus thoracis (LT), psoas major (PM), and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, steaks 2.54 cm thick were sliced from the three muscles, placed on foam trays, and overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film. Ground beef (GB) was formulated from the quadriceps femoris to contain 20% fat, mounded into 0.45-kg portions, placed on styrofoam trays, and wrapped with polyvinyl chloride film. Steaks were visually evaluated for uniformity and initial color on display d 0. Instrumental color measurements of L*, a*, b* and trained sensory panel color evaluations were obtained daily for 4 d (PM and GB) or 5 d (LT and SM) of display. No display time x treatment interaction existed for L*, a*, or b* values. The LT from CON cattle had more uniform color (P cherry red than that from all infused cattle on d 0. Visual scores indicated that GB from MPSC+E cattle was more red (P < 0.05) than that from MPSC+C infused cattle throughout display, and GB from MPSC+E cattle was more red (P < 0.05) than that from CON cattle for the last 3 d of display. The vascular infusion solutions generally did not improve color or display-color stability of steaks, but the infusion solution with vitamin E did improve display-color stability of GB.

  13. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  14. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this analytical technique has been checked against a certified reference material, Merck sodium chloride solution. Confidence levels (CL0.95), of 0.03 and relative standard deviations of 0.2 % for chloride were determined for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) chloride binding ...

  16. Determination of nitrite, nitrate, bromide, and iodide in seawater by ion chromatography with UV detection using dilauryldimethylammonium-coated monolithic ODS columns and sodium chloride as an eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazuaki; Nomura, Ryosuke; Fujii, Takuya; Tanaka, Masahito; Tsumura, Tomoaki; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    A method was developed for determination of inorganic anions, including nitrite (NO(2)(-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), bromide (Br(-)), and iodide (I(-)), in seawater by ion chromatography (IC). The IC system used two dilauryldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)-coated monolithic ODS columns (50 × 4.6 mm i.d. and 100 × 4.6 mm i.d.) connected in series for separation of the ions. Aqueous NaCl (0.5 mol/L; flow rate, 3 mL/min) containing 5 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 5) was used as the eluent, and detection was with a UV detector at 225 nm. The monolithic ODS columns were coated and equilibrated with a 1-mmol/L DDAB solution (in H(2)O/methanol, 90:10 v/v). The hydrophilic ions (NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and Br(-)) were separated within 3 min and the retention time of I(-) was 16 min. No interferences from matrix ions, such as chloride and sulfate ions, were observed in 35 ‰ artificial seawater. The detection limits were 0.6 μg/L for NO(2)(-), 1.1 μg/L for NO(3)(-), 70 μg/L for Br(-), and 1.6 μg/L for I(-) with a 200-μL sample injection. The performance of the coated columns was maintained without addition of DDAB in the eluent. The IC system was successfully applied to real seawater samples with recovery rates of 94-108 % for all ions.

  17. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of dietary sodium restriction and diuretics, but not angiotensin receptor blockade, in proteinuric renal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagman, Maartje C J; Waanders, Femke; Vogt, Liffert; Damman, Kevin; Hemmelder, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D

    2012-03-01

    Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade only partly reduces blood pressure, proteinuria and renal and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but often requires sodium targeting [i.e. low sodium diet (LS) and/or diuretics] for optimal efficacy. However, both under- and overtitration of sodium targeting can easily occur. We evaluated whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker of volume expansion, predicts the benefits of sodium targeting in CKD patients. In a cross-over randomized controlled trial, 33 non-diabetic CKD patients (proteinuria 3.8 ± 0.4 g/24 h, blood pressure 143/86 ± 3/2 mmHg, creatinine clearance 89 ± 5 mL/min) were treated during 6-week periods with placebo, angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB; losartan 100 mg/day) and ARB plus diuretics (losartan 100 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/day), combined with LS (93 ± 52 mmol Na(+)/24 h) and regular sodium diet (RS; 193 ± 62 mmol Na(+)/24 h, P diuretics and was normalized by ARB + diuretic + LS [39 (26-59) pg/mL, P = 0.65 versus controls]. NT-proBNP levels above the upper limit of normal (>125 pg/mL) predicted a larger reduction of blood pressure and proteinuria by LS and diuretics but not by ARB, during all steps of the titration regimen. Elevated NT-proBNP levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of sodium targeting, but not RAAS blockade, in proteinuric CKD patients. Importantly, this applies to the untreated condition, as well as to the subsequent treatment steps, consisting of RAAS blockade and even RAAS blockade combined with diuretics. NT-proBNP can be a useful tool to identify CKD patients in whom sodium targeting can improve blood pressure and proteinuria.

  18. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. VI. Effect of sodium chloride and abscisic acid on amino-acid and protein metabolism in leaves of Phaseolus aconitifolius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Kreutmeier, F.; Sankhla, N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) and abscisic acid (ABA) on protein synthesis, protein hydrolysis, activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase and amino-acid composition was investigated in the leaves of four days old Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings. Both NaCl and ABA inhibited protein synthesis, but promoted the activities of leucine arylamidase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase. The results of the amino-acid analysis indicated following treatment with NaCl the amounts of proline, arginine, serine and glutamic acid increased significantly in the leaves. An increase of the proline concentration could be observed only up to a salt concentration of 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M. Increasing concentrations of ABA also brought a corresponding rise in proline, serine and glutamic acid content. Interestingly the decrease of proline concentration by a salt concentration of more than 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M is correlated with a decrease in endogenous ABA-content. The possible significance of the similarites between the action of abscisic acid and salinity in influencing the amino-acid and protein metabolism in Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings during stress is discussed. 31 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. III. Effect of sodium chloride and gibberellin on the activity of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of Pennisetum typhoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Rustagi, P.N.; Sankhla, N.

    1974-01-01

    Seedlings of Pennisetum typhoides were grown in sodium chloride (NaCl) and gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) separately and in combination, and the effects on the activity of amylase, phosphorylase, aldolase, invertase, hexose-phosphateisomerase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase were studied. Treatment of the seedlings with NaCl caused an inhibition of the activity of amylase and invertase in the leaf homogenate, but enhanced that of phosphorylase, aldolase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase. GA/sub 3/ alone, as observed earlier, promoted the activity of invertase but indicated no significant influence on the other enzymes tested. In combination with salt, however, GA/sub 3/ tended to counteract, partially or wholly, the effect of NaCl on the activity of severe enzymes tested. The possible significance of the similarities between the action of abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity in influencing growth and metabolism of plants during stress is discussed. 34 references, 3 figures.

  20. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro A. Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276 and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600 to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2 and stainless steel 316L.

  1. Sodium and potassium content and their ratio in meatballs in tomato sauce produced with lower amounts of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilić, S.; Nikolić, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Velebit, B.; Lakićević, B.; Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, with the target of achieving less sodium content in meatballs and tomato sauce as well as achieving a better Na:K ratio. The trial consisted of five groups. In the control group of meatballs and sauce, only sodium chloride was added. In group 1, half of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride related to control group while in group 2 one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. In group 3, one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with ammonium chloride, and in group 4, sodium chloride was reduced to half the amount in the control group, and 1 g (0.25%) of ammonium chloride was also added. All products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. The largest reductions of sodium content were 44.64%, achieved in meatballs from group 1 and 50.62% in tomato sauce from group 4 in relation to meatballs and tomato sauce from control group. The highest Na:K ratio was calculated in meatballs and tomato sauce from control group, 2.88 and 4.39, respectively. The best Na:K ratio was in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 1, 0.60 and 0.92, respectively, in which half of sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. However, in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 4, with only half the amount of sodium chloride related to control group, the Na:K ratio was worse because in these products, potassium chloride was not added.

  2. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.

  3. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  4. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DE CLORURO DE SODIO SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DE UNA SALCHICHA TIPO SELECCIONADA EFFECT OF REDUCTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF A SAUSAGE TYPE SELECTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Augusto Pacheco Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Una propuesta para reducir los niveles de sodio en productos cárnicos, y desarrollar productos más saludables, es disminuir la cantidad de cloruro de sodio (NaCl en las formulaciones. En este estudio fue evaluado el efecto de disminuir y sustituir NaCl por KCl modificado, sobre los niveles de sodio y las características sensoriales y microbiológicas en una salchicha tipo Seleccionada. El porcentaje de reducción y sustitución de NaCl por KCl modificado con relación a un control fue de 50 y 75%, respectivamente. La reducción de NaCl en estos niveles, causó efectos significativos (P≤0,05 sobre el contenido de sodio en el producto final en relación al control, lo que implicaría beneficios nutricionales. De otro lado, diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las propiedades de textura, tanto a nivel instrumental como sensorial, fueron detectadas en la formulación con reducción del 75% de NaCl. En cuanto a la estabilidad microbiológica, y demás atributos sensoriales, no se detectaron diferencias entre los tratamientos y el control. Este estudio sugiere que es posible reducir la concentración de NaCl en un 50% en salchichas tipo Seleccionada mediante el uso de KCl modificado, sin cambios desfavorables en las características sensoriales y microbiológicas. Esta reducción permitiría una disminución en los niveles de sodio del 24% en el producto final.Abstract. A proposal to reduce the sodium levels in meat products to develop healthier products is to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl in the formulations. In this study, the effect of reducing NaCl and its substituting by modified KCl on sodium levels, sensory and microbiological characteristics in a selected type sausage was evaluated. The percentage of reduction and substitution of NaCl by modified KCl compared to control was 50 and 75%, respectively. The reduction of NaCl caused significant effects (P≤0.05 on the sodium content in the end product relative to the

  5. Acute renal response to rapid onset respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Stewart, Randolph H; Cudd, Timothy A

    2011-03-01

    Renal strong ion compensation to chronic respiratory acidosis has been established, but the nature of the response to acute respiratory acidosis is not well defined. We hypothesized that the response to acute respiratory acidosis in sheep is a rapid increase in the difference in renal fractional excretions of chloride and sodium (Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na)). Inspired CO(2) concentrations were increased for 1 h to significantly alter P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) from 32 ± 1 mm Hg and 7.52 ± 0.02 to 74 ± 2 mm Hg and 7.22 ± 0.02, respectively. Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) increased significantly from 0.372 ± 0.206 to 1.240 ± 0.217% and returned to baseline at 2 h when P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) were 37 ± 0.6 mm Hg and 7.49 ± 0.01, respectively. Arterial pH and Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) were significantly correlated. We conclude that the kidney responds rapidly to acute respiratory acidosis, within 30 min of onset, by differential reabsorption of sodium and chloride.

  6. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  7. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  8. Efeito do cloreto de sódio na produção de proteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae em fermentação semi-sólida Effect of sodium chloride on protein production (Saccharomyces cerevisae by semi-solid fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria RODRIGUES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre a produção de biomassa e proteínas extracelulares totais, durante o cultivo de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A levedura foi desenvonvida em fermentador de leito fluidizado, com vazão de ar de 70L/min, temperatura de 33° C, e umidade relativa de 99-100%. Foi utilizado substrato semi-sólido de batatas, previamente hidrolizado, acrescido de cloreto de sódio 0,6M. O crescimento celular foi monitorado por densidade óptica à 595 nm. Observou-se, como resultado, que a adição de cloreto de sódio 0,6M induziu um aumento de 36,86% na produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, mas inibiu o crescimento celular em 27,62% quando os meios com e sem cloreto de sódio foram testados. A produção máxima de biomassa, tanto para os experimentos com adição de cloreto de sódio quanto para o sem adição, ocorreu no período de 7 a 9 horas de fermentacão, enquanto que a produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, independentemente da adição do sal, ocorreu durante o período de 9 a 12 horas de fermentação. As velocidades específicas máximas de crescimento foram de 0,350/h para os experimentos com sal, e de 0,339/h para aqueles sem a adição do sal. A combinação de alta vazão de ar e a presença de cloreto de sódio 0,6M na fermentação parece não ter tido efeito sobre a duração da fase lag na curva de crescimento celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The effect of sodium chloride on the cell's growth and total extracellular protein production during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an air-fluidized bed fermentation, with a 70 L/min air flow at 33° C and 99-100% relative unidity was studied. A semi-solid potato substrate (previously hydrolized with 0.6M sodium chloride was used. Cell's growth was monitored by optical density at 595 nm. Results showed that the addition of 0.6M sodium chloride enhanced total extracellular protein level (36.86%. On the other hand, the addition of

  9. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...... than its blood flow. This is probably due to decreased filtration fraction and filtered sodium with subsequent reduction in absolute tubular re-absorption of sodium ions....

  11. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  12. Method of processing radioactive metallic sodium with recycling alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko; Mitsuzuka, Norimasa.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To employ high safety alcohol procession and decrease the amount of wastes in the procession of radioactive metallic sodium discharged from LMFBR type reactors. Method: Radioactive metallic sodium containing long half-decay period nuclides such as cesium, strontium, barium, cerium, lanthanum or zirconium is dissolved in an alcohol at about 70% purity. After extracting the sodium alcoholate thus formed, gaseous hydrochloride is blown-in to separate the sodium alcoholate into alcohol and sodium chloride, and regenerated alcohol is used again for dissolving sodium metal. The sodium chloride thus separated is processed into solid wastes. (Furukawa, Y.)

  13. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    regression coefficient value of above 0.99. ... The powdered pattern of the sample was determined by X-ray ... brines and supplied by the Qinghai Lithium Co. ... Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (GBC-932 AAS, Australia).

  14. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  15. Effects of a long-acting formulation of octreotide on renal function and renal sodium handling in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, L.H.; Aagaard, Niels Kristian; Kiszka-Kanowitz, M.

    2001-01-01

    variable effects. Twenty-five cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension were randomized in a double-blind design to placebo or a single subcutaneous dose of a long-acting formulation of octreotide (octreotide-LAR) (20 mg). Renal function tests were performed before dosing and repeated after 30 days...... with octreotide-LAR. It is concluded that in spite of increased arterial pressure, octreotide-LAR has no significant effect on renal hemodynamics and tubular function in clinically stable cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension....

  16. Mathematical Model of Ammonia Handling in the Rat Renal Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiret, Lorette; Baigent, Stephen; Jalan, Rajiv; Thomas, S. Randall

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is one of the main organs that produces ammonia and release it into the circulation. Under normal conditions, between 30 and 50% of the ammonia produced in the kidney is excreted in the urine, the rest being absorbed into the systemic circulation via the renal vein. In acidosis and in some pathological conditions, the proportion of urinary excretion can increase to 70% of the ammonia produced in the kidney. Mechanisms regulating the balance between urinary excretion and renal vein release are not fully understood. We developed a mathematical model that reflects current thinking about renal ammonia handling in order to investigate the role of each tubular segment and identify some of the components which might control this balance. The model treats the movements of water, sodium chloride, urea, NH3 and NH4+, and non-reabsorbable solute in an idealized renal medulla of the rat at steady state. A parameter study was performed to identify the transport parameters and microenvironmental conditions that most affect the rate of urinary ammonia excretion. Our results suggest that urinary ammonia excretion is mainly determined by those parameters that affect ammonia recycling in the loops of Henle. In particular, our results suggest a critical role for interstitial pH in the outer medulla and for luminal pH along the inner medullary collecting ducts. PMID:26280830

  17. The renal effects and initial characterization of venom from Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinetes Dantas de Aquino Nery

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the snake Philodryas nattereri is a mixture of proteins and toxic peptides with several important local and systemic actions, which are similar to those occurring in Bothrops snake bites. The mechanisms involved in the local and systemic actions of this venom are unknown. The aims of the work were to initial characterization of P. nattereri venom and investigate the effects of the poison in the renal perfusion system and in cultured renal tubular cells of the type MDCK (Madin–Darby canine kidney. The P. nattereri venom is composed majority of proteins (86.3% and this poison promoted changes in all the evaluated renal parameters, mainly decreasing renal perfusion pressure (PP and renal vascular resistance (RVR and increasing urine flow (UF and glomerular filtration rate (GFR. The most relevant result was that this venom was highly detrimental to the renal tubules independent of the PP reduction, which was shown by a decrease in sodium (Na+, potassium (K+ and chloride (Cl− electrolyte transport in the studied concentrations. The glomeruli and tubules contain protein bodies and blood extravasation, which were observed by histological analysis. The venom of P. nattereri reduced viability of the MDCK cells only at high concentrations (50 and 100 μg/mL with an IC50 of 169.5 μg/mL.

  18. Role of additives; sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O nanoparticles and their photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Gajanan, E-mail: pandeygajanan@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Dixit, Supriya; Shrivastava, A.K. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, M.P. (India)

    2014-10-15

    In the present study Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesised in aqueous solution phase at mild reaction temperature 100 °C in moderate alkaline medium (pH = 9.5), and the role of external additives; like sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on the morphology and size of the products has been explored on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses data. ZnO hexagonal nano-plates, core–shell like spherical/ellipsoidal Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O structures and thin sheets, thorn/needle mixed shaped Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O structures have been observed in TEM and SEM images. Zn(OH){sub 2} formed in moderate alkaline medium, converted to Zn(II) hydroxo complex ions on dissolution, which further recrystallizes to produce wurtzite ZnO at 100 °C. From XRD and EDX analysis, successful doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions at the Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO host has been proved. In the photoluminescence spectra, the observed blue shifts in NBE peaks and decrease of emissions intensity on Mn doping have thoroughly been discussed in the present investigation. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs have been prepared in aqueous solution at mild temperature 100 °C. • Shifts in XRD lines and NBE peaks in PL spectra proved doping of Mn{sup 2+} in the ZnO. • ZnO is formed via dissolution–recrystallization of ε-Zn(OH){sub 2}–ZnO. • Additives SDS and MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O play important role on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs. • Mn contents increased extrinsic defects, which decreased intensity of PL spectra.

  19. Integrated combined effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium under low nutrient food-related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Ioannis; Daskalopoulou, Aikaterini; Simões, Manuel; Giaouris, Efstathios

    2018-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major foodborne bacterial pathogen. This forms biofilms on surfaces and persists, depending on the strain and the environment. The integrative interaction of temperature (T; 13-39 °C), pH (5-8) and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (0.5-8.5%) on biofilm formation by two S. enterica strains (ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium) was here evaluated under low nutrient conditions. This was achieved using response surface methodology to model the combined effect of each factor on the response, through mathematical quadratic fitting of the outcomes of a sequence of designed experiments. These last were executed by incubating stainless steel coupons carrying sessile bacteria, for 24 h, in 1:10 diluted tryptone soya broth, under 15 different combinations of three independent factors (T, pH and NaCl). For each strain, a second order polynomial model, describing the relationship between biofilm formation (log CFU/cm 2 ) and the factors (T, pH and NaCl), was developed using least square regression analysis. Both derived models predicted the combined influences of these factors on biofilm formation, with agreement between predictions and experimental observations (R 2  ≥ 0.96, P ≤ 0.0001). For both strains, the increase of NaCl content restricted their sessile growth, while under low salinity conditions (NaCl formation was favored as pH increased, regardless of T. Interestingly, under low salt content, and depending on the strain, biofilm formation was either favored or hindered by increasing T. Thus, 34.5 and 13 °C were the T predicted to maximize biofilm formation by strains Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively, something which was also experimentally verified. To sum, these models can predict the interactive influences of crucial food-related factors on biofilm growth of a significant foodborne pathogen towards the efforts to limit its persistence in food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  1. Níveis de cloreto de sódio para aves de corte da linhagem Colonial criadas em semiconfinamento Sodium chloride levels for Colonial broiler chickens reared in free-range system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Freitas Pinheiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar níveis de inclusão de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em rações para aves machos e fêmeas da linhagem Colonial nas fases inicial (1 a 28 dias, de crescimento (28 a 56 dias e final (56 a 84 dias criadas em semiconfinamento. Em cada ensaio, 480 aves com idade correspondente à fase de criação foram alojadas em 24 unidades experimentais contendo áreas de abrigo e de pastejo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2 (níveis de NaCl e sexos, totalizando oito tratamentos e três repetições de 20 aves. Os níveis de NaCl avaliados foram: 0,20; 0,40; 0,60 e 0,80% na fase inicial; 0,10; 0,30; 0,50 e 0,70% na fase de crescimento e 0,10; 0,25; 0,40 e 0,55% na fase final. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a ingestão de água, a conversão alimentar, o potencial hidrogeniônico, a pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue, a concentração de hematócritos e os teores de sódio e cloro no sangue. Para a fase inicial, o nível recomendado é de 0,53% de NaCl na ração para aves de ambos os sexos. Para a fase de crescimento, os níveis de 0,40 e 0,43% de NaCl, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas e, para a fase final, de 0,25% para aves de ambos os sexos, atendem às exigências nutricionais.The objective of this work was to determine inclusion levels of sodium chloride (NaCl in diets for male and female Colonial strain birds in the starter (from one to 28 days of age, growing (from 28 to 56 days of age and finisher (from 56 to 84 days of age phases reared in free-range system. In each trial, 480 birds at age corresponding to the rearing phase were housed in 24 experimental units containing areas of shelter and pasture. The experimental design used was a completely randomized in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (NaCl levels × sex, totaling eight treatments and three replications of 20 birds. Levels of NaCl evaluated were: 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80% in

  2. Inactivation of Biological Agents Using Neutral Oxone-Chloride Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    ... to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach...

  3. Self diffusion of sodium ion in sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridasan, T.M.; Lawrence, N.

    1985-09-01

    The problem of cation self diffusion in NaCl for a single vacancy mechanism is attempted using a reaction coordinate approach employing the phonons in the system. The vacancy is given an active role by estimating the displacements of its nearest neighbour Cl - ions in the environment of the vacancy through the lattice Green's functions and the t matrix formalism. The jump frequency, the isotope effect and diffusion coefficients estimated by this approach agree well with the experimentally deduced values. These results support the experimental conclusion of about 30% of vacancy pairs in the cation diffusion in NaCl. (author)

  4. Electrolyte composition of renal tubular cells in gentamicin nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, O.; Beck, F.X.; Doerge, A.T.; Thurau, K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of long-term gentamicin administration on sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus concentrations was studied in individual rat renal tubular cells using electron microprobe analysis. Histological damage was apparent only in proximal tubular cells. The extent of damage was only mild after 7 days of gentamicin administration (60 mg/kg body wt/day) but much more pronounced after 10 days. GFR showed a progressive decline during gentamicin treatment. In non-necrotic proximal tubular cells, sodium was increased from 14.6 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) in controls to 20.6 +/- 0.4 after 7 and 22.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/kg wet wt after 10 days of gentamicin administration. Chloride concentration was higher only after 10 days (20.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 17.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/kg wet wt). Both cell potassium and phosphorus concentrations were diminished by 6 and 15, and by 8 and 25 mmol/kg wet wt after 7 and 10 days of treatment, respectively. In contrast, no major alterations in distal tubular cell electrolyte concentrations could be observed after either 7 or 10 days of gentamicin administration. As in proximal tubular cells, distal tubular cell phosphorus concentrations were, however, lowered by gentamicin treatment. These results clearly indicate that gentamicin exerts its main effect on proximal tubular cells. Decreased potassium and increased sodium and chloride concentrations were observed in proximal tubular cells exhibiting only mild histological damage prior to the onset of advanced tissue injury. Necrotic cells, on the other hand, showed widely variable intracellular electrolyte concentration patterns

  5. Interaction of calcium oxide with molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Ermakov, D.S.; Magurina, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium oxide solubility in molten lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium chlorides and their binary mixtures is determined in a temperature range of 973-1173 K by the method of isothermal saturation. Mechanisms of calcium oxide interaction with molten alkali metal chlorides are proposed

  6. Autosomal recessive hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria is not caused by mutations in the type II renal sodium/phosphate cotransporter gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Koul, K. Op de; Knots, E.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present the genetic defect for autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is unknown. Type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NPT2) gene is a serious candidate for being the causative gene in either or both autosomal recessive and

  7. Effects of insulin detemir and NPH insulin on renal handling of sodium, fluid retention and weight in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, K V; Jensen, Tonny Joran; Oturai, P

    2012-01-01

    In type 2 diabetic patients, insulin detemir (B29Lys(ε-tetradecanoyl),desB30 human insulin) induces less weight gain than NPH insulin. Due to the proposed reduction of tubular action by insulin detemir, type 2 diabetic patients should have increased urinary sodium excretion, thereby reducing extr...

  8. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  9. Bilateral renal metastasis of 261-265huerthle cell thyroid cancer with discordant uptake between I-131 sodium iodide and F-18 FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claimon, Apichaya; Suh, Min Seok; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. Edmund [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Renal metastasis of thyroid cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) with lungs, bones, and bilateral kidneys metastases. The renal metastatic lesions were clearly demonstrated by {sup 131}I whole body scan (WBS) with SPECT/CT. However, they exhibited false-negative results in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, kidney ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT scan. The findings imply that tumors have low glucose metabolism and are able to accumulate radioiodine, which is not commonly found in the relatively aggressive nature of HCTC. The patient received two sessions of 200 mCi {sup 131}I therapy within 6 months duration. There was complete treatment response as evaluated by the second post-therapeutic {sup 131}I SPECT/CT and serum thyroglobulin. To our knowledge, renal metastasis from HCTC with positive {sup 131}I but negative {sup 18}F-FDG uptake has not been reported in the literature. This case suggests that {sup 131}I SPECT/CT is useful for lesion localization and prediction of {sup 131}I therapy response.

  10. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  11. Effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium, GFR and central hemodynamics in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during inhibition of the nitric oxide system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa; Malmberg, My Emma Sofie; Rosenbaek, Jeppe Bakkestroem

    2017-01-01

    -dependent mechanism. U-AQP2 was not changed by tolvaptan, presumeably due to a counteracting effect of elevated p-AVP. The reduced GFR during tolvaptan most likely is caused by the reduction in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Trial registration: Clinical Trial no: NCT02527863. Registered 18 February...... received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min. We measured: GFR, urine output (UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium...... (FENa), urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaCγ), plasma concentrations of vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensinII (p-AngII), aldosterone (p-Aldo), and central blood pressure (cBP). Results: During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, a more pronounced...

  12. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care includes careful management of the patient’s fluid (hydration) and electrolyte (e.g., sodium, potassium, chloride) levels, ... TG, Peters CJ. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases 1997;8(Suppl 1):64-73 . ...

  13. Desarrollo tecnológico de una formulación de cloruro de sodio al 5 % para el tratamiento del edema corneal en Cuba Technological development of a 5 % sodium chloride formula for treatment of corneal edema in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karelia Collado Coello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una formulación para uso oftálmico, que contenía cloruro de sodio al 5 %, estable desde el punto de vista físico, químico y microbiológico. Se realizaron los estudios de formulación correspondientes, seleccionándose la composición y procedimiento tecnológico más adecuados. Además, se estudió la efectividad antimicrobiana de los preservativos antimicrobianos empleados según se establece en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30 y se comprobó la seguridad del uso de este medicamento a través de los resultados del ensayo de irritabilidad oftálmica. Se elaboraron 3 lotes del medicamento y se envasaron en frascos plásticos de polietileno de baja densidad con tapa de polipropileno de alta densidad y se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente durante 24 meses; se estudió su estabilidad física y química por el método acelerado y de vida de estante. Se comprobó su estabilidad microbiológica a cada uno de los lotes elaborados, al inicio y final del estudio, según se establece en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios. Todos los resultados cumplieron con los límites de calidad establecidos en la literatura oficial para este tipo de forma farmacéutica, por lo que se concluyó que el medicamento desarrollado está correctamente formulado desde el punto de vista galénico con un tiempo de vida útil de 24 meses almacenado bajo las condiciones estudiadas, demostrado según el otorgamiento del certificado de registro por el organismo regulador (Centro Estatal para el Control de Medicamentos, CECMED. Finalmente el medicamento fue introducido al nivel industrial sin que se presentaran problemas tecnológicos.A formula for ophthalmic use was developed containing 5 % sodium chloride stable from the physical, chemical and microbiological point of view. Studies of corresponding formulae were conducted selecting the more suitable composition and technological procedure. Also, the

  14. Renal Blood Flow, Glomerular Filtration Rate, and Renal Oxygenation in Early Clinical Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte Larsson, Jenny; Krumbholz, Vitus; Enskog, Anders; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2018-06-01

    Data on renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation in early clinical septic shock are lacking. We therefore measured renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and oxygenation in patients with early septic shock. Prospective comparative study. General and cardiothoracic ICUs. Patients with norepinephrine-dependent early septic shock (n = 8) were studied within 24 hours after arrival in the ICU and compared with postcardiac surgery patients without acute kidney injury (comparator group, n = 58). None. Data on systemic hemodynamics and renal variables were obtained during two 30-minute periods. Renal blood flow was measured by the infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid, corrected for renal extraction of para-aminohippuric acid. Renal filtration fraction was measured by renal extraction of chromium-51 labeled EDTA. Renal oxygenation was estimated from renal oxygen extraction. Renal oxygen delivery (-24%; p = 0.037) and the renal blood flow-to-cardiac index ratio (-21%; p = 0.018) were lower, renal vascular resistance was higher (26%; p = 0.027), whereas renal blood flow tended to be lower (-19%; p = 0.068) in the septic group. Glomerular filtration rate (-32%; p = 0.006) and renal sodium reabsorption (-29%; p = 0.014) were both lower in the septic group. Neither renal filtration fraction nor renal oxygen consumption differed significantly between groups. Renal oxygen extraction was significantly higher in the septic group (28%; p = 0.022). In the septic group, markers of tubular injury were elevated. In early clinical septic shock, renal function was lower, which was accompanied by renal vasoconstriction, a lower renal oxygen delivery, impaired renal oxygenation, and tubular sodium reabsorption at a high oxygen cost compared with controls.

  15. The efficacy of hemodialysis in interventional therapy in coronary artery disease patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongxia; Li, Liang; Yin, Yaxin; Zhang, Jinjin; Chen, Haiwei; Liu, Runmei; Xia, Yun-feng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of hemodialysis in interventional therapy for patients with coronary artery disease combined with chronic renal insufficiency. With the aging and social development, the number of coronary artery disease patients with chronic renal insufficiency gradually increased. Total 58 coronary heart disease patients with chronic renal dysfunction were selected. These patients were characterized with typical angina symptoms and typical electrocardiogram (ECG) changes of onset angina. Continuous oral administration of sodium bicarbonate tablets 1 g 3/day × 3 days and slow intravenous input sodium chloride 1000 ∼1500 mL 3-12 h before operation were given. By this way, all patients were treated by hydration and alkalization. After percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treatment, patients were immediately transferred to undergo 4 h of dialysis treatment without removing indwelling of femoral artery puncture sheath tube to protect renal function. Changes in renal function including serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, and urine were observed and recorded. All patients were successfully underwent PCI treatment. Within one month after PCI, there were no obvious complication and no stent thrombosis occurred. Among of 58 patients, 56 cases showed no significant increase in serum creatinine levels compared with those before operation. However, serum creatinine level of one patient increased to 251 umol/L and one patient still required permanent dialysis. Using hemodialysis in interventional therapy in coronary artery disease patients with chronic renal insufficiency could significantly improve the prognosis of the patients.

  16. [Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: from the bark of apple trees and familial renal glycosuria to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Dídac

    2013-09-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus is still inadequate. We are currently witnessing the introduction of a new mode of hypoglycemic treatment through induction of glycosuria to decrease the availability of the metabolic substrate, i.e. glucose. Clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are as efficacious as other oral hypoglycemic drugs. This article discusses the basic features of this new treatment concept and the efficacy and safety of this new drug group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Burgess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephropathy following contrast media (CM exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb. The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

  18. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  19. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread (honey and pollen) in aluminum-induced anemia, elevation of inflammatory makers and hepato-renal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Meryem; Al-Waili, Noori S; El Menyiy, Nawal; Imtara, Hamada; Figuira, Anna Cristina; Al-Waili, Thia; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum toxicity might be related to oxidative stress, and the antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread, which contains pollen, honey and bees' enzymes, on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity was investigated in rats. Chemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of bee bread were conducted. The animal experiment in rats included; group 1: received distilled water (10 ml/kg b.wt), group 2: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt), group 3: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (500 mg/kg b.wt), and group 4: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (750 mg/kg b.wt). Doses were given once daily via a gavage. C-reactive protein, transaminases, urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, sodium and potassium and urine sodium and potassium were determined on day 28 of the experiment. Bee bread contained protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrate, phenol and flavonoids and it exhibited antioxidant activity. Aluminum caused a significant elevation of blood urea, transaminase, C-reactive protein and monocyte count and significantly decreased hemoglobin. These changes were significantly ameliorated by the use of bee bread. Bee bread has an antioxidant property, and exhibited a protective effect on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity and elevation of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, leukocyte and monocyte counts.

  20. [Salt, renal function and high blood pressure--reflections on a current issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Mattias

    2002-11-21

    The role of salt intake for blood pressure control has been discussed for a long time. A brief review is given of some pertinent physiological facts to explain this relationship and evolutionary aspects of renal function are emphasized. Salt intake is very high in the modern society, often as high as 15 g sodium chloride per 24 hours while 3-6 g may be more than enough to maintain an adequate salt balance. If the kidneys cannot cope with this severe sodium overload, blood pressure will rise. Therefore, the kidneys' ability to excrete sodium is a key factor and the salt excretion capacity is the kidneys' major barostatic function. As barostats, the kidneys control the blood pressure by ultimately determining the sodium excretion. Reducing sodium intake is, however, difficult as more than 50% of the intake is contained in the food we buy such as bread, sausages, canned food, chips and fast-food. Food products should therefore be "salt declared", but information on this aspect is generally lacking. If the population's salt intake could be reduced by 50%, the prevalence of hypertension will be much reduced, perhaps also by as much as 50%. The cost to society for treating hypertension would be reduced accordingly. Salt intake is also an important aspect of the overweight problem among today's youth. Salt and overweight impose great health risks later in life. Preventive measures in this area must be given high priority in future health care work.

  1. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  2. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  3. Renal nerves and nNOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Wolff, Helle; Kuczeriszka, Marta

    2008-01-01

    ). This was tested by NaLoad after chronic renal denervation with and without inhibition of nNOS by S-methyl-thiocitrulline (SMTC). In addition, the acute effects of renal denervation on MABP and sodium balance were assessed. Rats were investigated in the conscious, catheterized state, in metabolic cages...... of acutely and chronically denervated rats were less than control (15% and 9%, respectively, P reduced by renal denervation (14.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 19.3 +/- 1.3 mIU/l, P reduced...... PRC (P sodium excretion six-fold, irrespective of renal denervation and SMTC. The metabolic data demonstrated that renal denervation lowered sodium balance during the first days after denervation (P

  4. Sodium bicarbonate infusion in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation: a single center randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Laurence; Broad, Jeremy; Pillai, Param; Chen, Guangjun; Nguyen, Micheline; Eastwood, Glenn M; Scurrah, Nick; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Story, David; McNicol, Larry; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) carries significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that sodium bicarbonate would reduce the incidence and/or severity of liver transplantation-associated AKI. In this double-blinded pilot RCT, adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation were randomized to an infusion of either 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (0.5 mEq/kg/h for the first hour; 0.15 mEq/kg/h until completion of surgery); (n = 30) or 0.9% sodium chloride (n = 30). AKI within the first 48 h post-operatively. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to baseline characteristics, model for end-stage liver disease and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores, and pre-transplantation renal function. Intra-operative factors were similar for duration of surgery, blood product requirements, crystalloid and colloid volumes infused and requirements for vasoactive therapy. Eleven patients (37%) in the bicarbonate group and 10 patients (33%) in the sodium chloride group developed a post-operative AKI (p = 0.79). Bicarbonate infusion attenuated the degree of immediate post-operative metabolic acidosis; however, this effect dissipated by 48 h. There were no significant differences in ventilation hours, ICU or hospital length of stay, or mortality. The intra-operative infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the incidence of AKI in patients following orthotopic liver transplantation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  6. Cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na água de transporte de tilápia-do-nilo Sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in tilapia transport water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a ação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na sobrevivência de alevinos e juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem chitralada, por 5 horas visando ao transporte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 alevinos (9,74 ± 0,04 g e 6,79 ± 0,01 cm e 270 juvenis (29,6 ± 0,06 g e 11,52 ± 0,01. Os peixes foram mantidos em jejum por 24 horas em quatro caixas de amianto (500 L com aeração constante. Em seguida, os peixes foram distribuídos em 54 sacos plásticos, capacidade para 5 L e mantidos em soluções de: cloreto de sódio nas concentrações de (0; 4; ou 8 g/L, benzocaína (0; 20; ou 40 mg/L e óleo de cravo (0; 2; ou 5 mg/L. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em arranjo multifatorial, com três fatores: substâncias, peixes e concentrações de cada substância em estudo. Mensuraram-se, no início, os parâmetros oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade e amônia e, ao final do experimento, a glicose dos peixes. Maiores níveis de glicose foram registrados nos juvenis mantidos na água com óleo de cravo e cloreto de sódio. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência entre os tipos de peixes e as substâncias. Entretanto, as dosagens de cloreto de sódio e benzocaína ocasionaram diferenças significativas na taxa de sobrevivência. A sobrevivência foi baixa nos alevinos com 0 g/L de cloreto de sódio e diferiu das dosagens 4 e 8 g/L. O óleo de cravo promoveu resultados similares, em todas as dosagens e substâncias, de taxas de glicose. Ao final do experimento, a sobrevivência foi satisfatória, com média geral de 97,26%, comprovando que as três substâncias podem ser usadas no transporte de alevinos e juvenis durante 5 horas. Sugere-se o cloreto de sódio por seu melhor custo-benefício.The action of different concentrations of sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in the survival of fingerling and juvenile

  7. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  8. Renal dysfunction and barttin expression in Bartter syndrome Type IV associated with a G47R mutation in BSND in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C W; Lim, J H; Youn, D-Y; Chung, S; Lim, M-H; Kim, Y K; Chang, Y S; Lee, J-H

    2011-02-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) Type IV, associated with a G47R mutation in the BSND gene, is known to result in a mild renal phenotype. However, we report here on three brothers with varying degrees of renal dysfunction from mild to end-stage renal disease associated with renal barttin and ClC-K expression. The brothers had histories of polyhydramnios, prematurity, polyuria, deafness, and small body size. Laboratory findings showed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, normotensive hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism, and an increased urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride, consistent with BS Type IV. Microscopic examination of renal tissue showed hyperplasia of cells at the juxtaglomerular apparatus with dilated atrophic tubules and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. A weak barttin signal related to CIC-K expression in the cytoplasm of tubule cells, but not the basement membrane, was noted. A sequence analysis of the BSND gene showed that the affected males were homozygous for a missense G47R mutation in exon 1 of BSND. These findings suggest that the G47R mutation results in a dramatic decrease in barttin expression, which appears to be related to the location of CIC-K being changed from the basement membrane to the cytoplasm in the tubule and might have varying effects on renal function associated with factors other than this gene.

  9. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  10. Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition on renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubin Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition on renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted systematic searches of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to June 2016 and included randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in adult type 2 diabetic patients reporting estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and/or urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR changes. Data were synthesized using the random-effects model. Results Forty-seven studies with 22,843 participants were included. SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with a significant change in eGFR in general (weighted mean difference (WMD, −0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−0.90 to 0.23] or in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD (WMD −0.78 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−2.52 to 0.97]. SGLT2 inhibition was associated with eGFR reduction in short-term trials (WMD −0.98 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−1.42 to −0.54], and with eGFR preservation in long-term trials (WMD 2.01 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [0.86 to 3.16]. Urine ACR reduction after SGLT2 inhibition was not statistically significant in type 2 diabetic patients in general (WMD −7.24 mg/g, 95% CI [−15.54 to 1.06], but was significant in patients with CKD (WMD −107.35 mg/g, 95% CI [−192.53 to −22.18]. Conclusions SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with significant changes in eGFR in patients with type 2 diabetes, likely resulting from a mixture of an initial reduction of eGFR and long-term renal function preservation. SGLT2 inhibition was associated with statistically significant albuminuria reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD.

  11. A method for the manufacture of nuclear-purity sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Paul; Graff, Willy.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for the manufacture of sodium from the amalgam provided by sodium chloride aqueous electrolysis cells, comprising the steps of treating the sodium amalgam by a sodium polysulfide or a mixture of sodium polysulfide in anhydrous alcohol solution, then causing the thus obtained sodium monosulfide to react with a polysulfide or a mixture of polysulfides so as to obtain a mixture of sodium polysulfides with a higher sodium content, and finally separating sodium through the electrolysis of the sodium-rich polysulfides, the electrolysis being carried out in an electrolytic cell with β-alumina solid electrolyte operating at a temperature between 250 and 300 deg C, in which the polysulfide forms the anode compartment and sodium the cathode compartment [fr

  12. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  13. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environmen...

  14. Renal venogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be black. Other structures will be shades of gray. Veins are not normally seen in an x- ... Venogram - kidney; Renal vein thrombosis - venogram Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal veins References ...

  15. Synthesis and thermolysis of sodium hexachloromolybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushakbaev, A.; Terishkhanova, I.G.; Parpiev, N.A.; Adylova, Sh.N.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of Na 3 MoCl 6 and the process of its thermal decomposition are described. Sodium hexachloromolybdate is synthesized by means of molybdenum chloride compolunds (MoCl 5 ; MoCl 5 +Mo, MoCl 3 ) interaction with sodium chloride at moderate temperatures in nitrogen atmosphere. It is shown, that Na 3 MoCl 6 thermolysis in conventional conditions takes place in two stages: the first one (570-600 K) corresponds to the formation of mixture MoO 2 +NaMoCl 4 +5NaCl, the second one (930 K) - to MoO 3 +3NaCl formation. In an inert atmosphere at 920 K a mixture of metal molybdenum and sodium chloride is observed

  16. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...... rate of the Sn and stability of Sn ions in the solution layer pla