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Sample records for renal reducing ability

  1. Detecting reduced renal function in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Erlandsen, Erland J

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the ability of renal indicators [serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (SCysC)] and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-models to discriminate normal and reduced renal function. As a single cut-off level will always lead to false classifications, we propose...... function was defined as a GFR ofmodels were compared for their ability to correctly classify renal function as normal or reduced. Cut-off levels were determined so as to give 99 % certainty outside the gray zone...... using two cut-off levels, dividing renal function into normal or reduced, with an intermediate "gray zone" of indeterminable results.Methods Glomerular filtration rate was measured by plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA (13.7–147.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 119 children (age range 2.3–14.9 years).Reduced renal...

  2. Invasion and metastasis ability of renal cancer cell strains 786-0: under the influence of miR-141.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Lv, L N; Guo, Z Y; Zhang, W

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the invasion and metastasis ability of miR-141 in 786-0 renal cancer tissue cells, as well as identify the key function of endogenous miR-141 in adjustment and control of malignant activities of renal cancer. The renal cancer cell strain with overexpression of miR-141 and its control renal cancer cell line were constructed; methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was adopted to measure proliferation of renal cancer cells; Transwell assay was performed to measure the invasion and metastasis ability of cells; MTT assay and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were used for measurement of cell apoptosis and drug susceptibility. Results indicated that the expression of miR-141 in 786-0 cells could be significantly increased 400-fold by slow viruses that contained miR-141; moreover, c omprehensive functions showed that miR-141 inhibited the invasion and metastasis ability of renal cancer cells to a great extent (p less than 0.001), partially inhibited cell growth (p less than 0.05) and also induced cell cycle to be arrested in G0/G1 as well as reducing the number of cells in S phase (DNA replicative phase). Moreover, miR-141 could not induce morphologic changes of renal cancer cells, had no direct stimulating effect on cell apoptosis and could not improve the drug susceptibility of renal cancer cells to drugs such as cis-Dichlorodiamineplatinum (DDP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and tumor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In conclusion, miR-141 can be considered an important cancer suppressor gene of renal cancer by inhibiting proliferation and metastasis of renal cancer cells.

  3. Study on evaluation of cities' ability reducing earthquake disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张风华; 谢礼立; 范立础

    2004-01-01

    Cities′ ability reducing earthquake disasters is a complex system involving numerous factors, moreover the re-search on evaluating cities′ ability reducing earthquake disasters relates to multi-subject, such as earthquake sci-ence, social science, economical science and so on. In this paper, firstly, the conception of cities′ ability reducingearthquake disasters is presented, and the ability could be evaluated with three basic elements - the possible seis-mic casualty and economic loss during the future earthquakes that are likely to occur in the city and its surround-ings and time required for recovery after earthquake; based upon these three basic elements, a framework, whichconsists of six main components, for evaluating city′s ability reducing earthquake disasters is proposed; then thestatistical relations between the index system and the ratio of seismic casualty, the ratio of economic loss and re-covery time are gained utilizing the cities′ prediction results of earthquake disasters which were made during theninth five-year plan; at last, the method defining the comprehensive index of cities′ ability reducing earthquakedisasters is presented. Thus the relatively comprehensive theory frame is set up. The frame can evaluate cities′ability reducing earthquake disasters absolutely and quantitatively and consequently instruct the decision-makingon reducing cities′ earthquake disasters loss.

  4. Galectin-3 Blockade Reduces Renal Fibrosis in Two Normotensive Experimental Models of Renal Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Martinez, Ernesto; Ibarrola, Jaime; Calvier, Laurent; Fernandez-Celis, Amaya; Leroy, Celine; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Rossignol, Patrick; Lopez-Andres, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Background Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin, is increased in kidney injury and its pharmacological blockade reduces renal damage in acute kidney injury, hyperaldosteronism or hypertensive nephropathy. We herein investigated the effects of pharmacological Gal-3 inhibition by modified citrus pectin (MCP) in early renal damage associated with obesity and aortic stenosis (AS). Results Gal-3 was upregulated in kidneys from high fat diet (HFD) rats and in animals with partial occlusion of ascending aorta (AS). Urinary and plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and urinary albumin were enhanced in HFD and AS rats. In kidney from obese rats, fibrotic markers (collagen, TFG-β), epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules (α-smooth muscle actin, E-cadherin), inflammatory mediator (osteopontin) and kidney injury marker (kidney injury molecule-1) were modified. In kidney from AS rats, fibrotic markers (collagen, CTGF), epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, β-catenin, E-cadherin) and kidney injury markers (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1) were altered. Histologic observations of obese and AS rat kidneys revealed tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 with MCP normalized renal Gal-3 levels as well as functional, histological and molecular alterations in obese and AS rats. Conclusions In experimental models of mild kidney damage, the increase in renal Gal-3 expression paralleled with renal fibrosis, inflammation and damage, while these alterations were prevented by Gal-3 blockade. These data suggest that Gal-3 could be a new player in renal molecular, histological and functional alterations at early stages of kidney damage. PMID:27829066

  5. Polyelectrolytes Ability in Reducing Atrazine Concentration in Water: Surface Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Amin, M.F.; Heijman, S.G.J.; Lopes, S.I.C.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the direct ability of two positively charged organic polyelectrolytes (natural-based and synthetic) to reduce the atrazine concentration in water. The adsorption study was set up using multiple glass vessels with different polymer dosing levels followed by ultrafiltration with

  6. Polyelectrolytes Ability in Reducing Atrazine Concentration in Water: Surface Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Amin, M.F.; Heijman, S.G.J.; Lopes, S.I.C.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the direct ability of two positively charged organic polyelectrolytes (natural-based and synthetic) to reduce the atrazine concentration in water. The adsorption study was set up using multiple glass vessels with different polymer dosing levels followed by ultrafiltration with

  7. Immune stimulation reduces sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Eamonn B; Alghamdi, Akram; Holdbrook, Robert T K; Rosato, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology studies the increasing number of connections between neurobiology, immunology and behaviour. We demonstrate the effects of the immune response on two fundamental behaviours: sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster. We used the Geneswitch system to upregulate peptidoglycan receptor protein (PGRP) expression, thereby stimulating the immune system in the absence of infection. Geneswitch was activated by feeding the steroid RU486, to the flies. We used an aversive classical conditioning paradigm to quantify memory and measures of activity to infer sleep. Immune stimulated flies exhibited reduced levels of sleep, which could not be explained by a generalised increase in waking activity. Immune stimulated flies also showed a reduction in memory abilities. These results lend support to Drosophila as a model for immune-neural interactions and provide a possible role for sleep in the interplay between the immune response and memory.

  8. Immune stimulation reduces sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn B. Mallon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychoneuroimmunology studies the increasing number of connections between neurobiology, immunology and behaviour. We demonstrate the effects of the immune response on two fundamental behaviours: sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster. We used the Geneswitch system to upregulate peptidoglycan receptor protein (PGRP expression, thereby stimulating the immune system in the absence of infection. Geneswitch was activated by feeding the steroid RU486, to the flies. We used an aversive classical conditioning paradigm to quantify memory and measures of activity to infer sleep. Immune stimulated flies exhibited reduced levels of sleep, which could not be explained by a generalised increase in waking activity. Immune stimulated flies also showed a reduction in memory abilities. These results lend support to Drosophila as a model for immune–neural interactions and provide a possible role for sleep in the interplay between the immune response and memory.

  9. Can a structured questionnaire identify patients with reduced renal function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, Manal; Rømsing, Janne; Thomsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a structured questionnaire in identifying outpatients with renal dysfunction before MRI or CT in various age groups.......To evaluate a structured questionnaire in identifying outpatients with renal dysfunction before MRI or CT in various age groups....

  10. Relationship between urinary concentrating ability, arginine vasopressin in plasma and blood pressure after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1985-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and serum osmolality (Sosm) were determined in plasma before and after a 24-h period of water deprivation in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), 14 patients with normal blood pressure after renal transplantation (group II), and 16 healthy control subjects (group III). Urine was collected in four periods of 6 h each for measurement of urine volume (V), urine osmolality (Uosm) and tubular capacity for reabsorption of water (Tc water). AVP and Sosm increased significantly in all groups. The AVP levels were the same in groups I and II, but higher in group I than III both before and after water deprivation. In group II, AVP was higher than in group III only after water deprivation; V was significantly reduced in all groups. In groups I and II, V, Tc water and Uosm were the same. In group III, V was significantly lower than in groups I and II in the last three 6-h periods, and in group III, Tc water was higher in the first 6-h period than in groups I and II. There was a significant positive correlation between AVP and Sosm in all groups. In conclusion, renal water excretion cannot be reduced as rapidly and to the same degree in renal transplant recipients as in control subjects because of a decreased renal capacity for reabsorption of water. The higher AVP level in the transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon for the decreased responsiveness of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidneys. The sensitivity of the osmoreceptors to changes in osmotic stimuli was normal.

  11. Eplerenone-Mediated Aldosterone Blockade Prevents Renal Fibrosis by Reducing Renal Inflammation, Interstitial Cell Proliferation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prolonged elevation of serum aldosterone leads to renal fibrosis. Inflammation also plays a role in the pathogenesis of renal disease. We used a rat model of interstitial renal fibrosis to test the hypothesis that eplerenone-mediated aldosterone blockade prevents renal fibrosis due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. Methods: Eplerenone (a selective aldosterone blocker or vehicle (control, was given to male Wistar rats (50 mg/kg, twice daily for 7 days before unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO and for an additional 28 days after surgery. Body weight, blood pressure, renal histo-morphology, immune-staining for macrophages, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, and serum and urine markers of renal function and oxidative stress were determined for both groups on 7, 14, and 28 days after surgery. Results: Epleronone had no effect on body weight or blood pressure. However, eplerenone inhibited the development of renal fibrosis, inflammation (macrophage and monocyte infiltration, interstitial cell proliferation, and activation of interstitial cells (α-SMA expression. Epleronone also reduced oxidative stress. Conclusion: The anti-fibrotic effect of eplerenone appears to be unrelated to its effect on blood pressure. Eplerenone inhibits renal inflammation, interstitial cell proliferation, phenotypic changes of interstitial cells, and reduces oxidative stress.

  12. Postnatal adrenalectomy impairs urinary concentrating ability by increased COX-2 and leads to renal medullary injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubbe, Jane; Madsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Finn T

    2007-01-01

    at postnatal day 10. Adrenalectomized rats were divided into no steroid substitution (ADX), corticosterone replacement (ADX-C), and corticosterone and DOCA substitution (ADX-CD) groups that received subcutaneous pellets with steroids. Without replacement, pups failed to thrive and exhibited impaired urinary...... deprivation, parecoxib attenuated weight loss and the increase in plasma Na+ concentration and osmolality. It is concluded that mineralocorticoid is required for normal postnatal development of the renal medulla. COX-2 contributes to impaired urine-concentrating ability, NaCl loss, and extracellular volume...

  13. Reputation management: evidence for ability but reduced propensity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cage, Eilidh; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has reported that autistic adults do not manage their reputation, purportedly due to problems with theory of mind [Izuma, Matsumoto, Camerer, & Adolphs]. The current study aimed to test alternative explanations for this apparent lack of reputation management. Twenty typical and 19 autistic adults donated to charity and to a person, both when alone and when observed. In an additional manipulation, for half of the participants, the observer was also the recipient of their donations, and participants were told that this observer would subsequently have the opportunity to donate to them (motivation condition). This manipulation was designed to encourage an expectation of a reciprocal "tit-for-tat" strategy in the participant, which may motivate participants to change their behavior to receive more donations. The remaining participants were told that the person watching was just observing the procedure (no motivation condition). Our results replicated Izuma et al.'s finding that autistic adults did not donate more to charity when observed. Yet, in the motivation condition, both typical and autistic adults donated significantly more to the observer when watched, although this effect was significantly attenuated in autistic individuals. Results indicate that, while individuals with autism may have the ability to think about reputation, a reduced expectation of reciprocal behavior from others may reduce the degree to which they engage in reputation management.

  14. Losartan reduces oxidative damage to renal DNA and conserves plasma antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Serio, Claudia; Raimondi, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels produced by hyperglycemia and angiotensin-II (AT-II) are considered among the pathogenic factors in the malignant transformation of diabetic renal cells. We aimed to investigate the potential role of AT-II in the increased cancer risk seen in diabetes; measuring oxidative damage to renal DNA and protective antioxidant defenses, including adiponectin (Adp) and plasma antioxidant capacity by the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) method. In the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (55 mg/kg) diabetic rats either treated or not treated for 3 weeks with losartan, an AT-II type 1 receptor antagonist (20 mg/kg/day); we measured 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels, as an index of oxidative DNA damage, circulating Adp and FRAP. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher 8-oxodGuo levels in renal DNA (8.48 ± 0.98 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM n = 11) than normoglycemic ones (1.18 ± 0.04 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM, n=7) and lower plasma Adp and FRAP levels in comparison to normoglycemics. The treatment of diabetic rats with losartan significantly (P Losartan treatment preserves FRAP levels, reduces DNA oxidative injury and thus the carcinogenesis risk. Furthermore, our results indicate that Adp plasma levels are a further marker of oxidative injury to the kidney and confirm that it is an important part of the plasma antioxidant defense.

  15. Endoluminal isoproterenol reduces renal pelvic pressure during semirigid ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørn S; Jung, Helene U; Gramsbergen, Jan B

    2009-01-01

    catheter was placed in the renal pelvis for pressure measurements, and a semirigid ureteroscope (7.8 F) was inserted retrogradely in the renal pelvis, through which the pelvis was perfused. The blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. The increase in renal pelvic pressure was examined with increasing....... The pressure-flow relation was linear; the maximum relaxation (27%) was obtained at 4 mL/min, from 52 to 38 mmHg during saline alone and ISO 0.1 microg/mL perfusion, respectively. The mean blood pressure did not change significantly (P = 0.330). The mean (sd) heart rate in the saline and ISO group were 109 (4...... ureterorenoscopy in this porcine model. ISO might be a potential additive to the irrigation fluid during upper urinary tract endoscopic procedures, minimizing pressure increases due to irrigation and manipulation....

  16. Effect of reduced renal mass on renal ammonia transporter family, Rh C glycoprotein and Rh B glycoprotein, expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Baylis, Chris; Verlander, Jill W; Han, Ki-Hwan; Reungjui, Sirirat; Handlogten, Mary E; Weiner, I David

    2007-10-01

    Kidneys can maintain acid-base homeostasis, despite reduced renal mass, through adaptive changes in net acid excretion, of which ammonia excretion is the predominant component. The present study examines whether these adaptations are associated with changes in the ammonia transporter family members, Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg). We used normal Sprague-Dawley rats and a 5/6 ablation-infarction model of reduced renal mass; control rats underwent sham operation. After 1 wk, glomerular filtration rate, assessed as creatinine clearance, was decreased, serum bicarbonate was slightly increased, and Na(+) and K(+) were unchanged. Total urinary ammonia excretion was unchanged, but urinary ammonia adjusted for creatinine clearance, an index of per nephron ammonia metabolism, increased significantly. Although reduced renal mass did not alter total Rhcg protein expression, both light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with quantitative morphometric analysis demonstrated hypertrophy of both intercalated cells and principal cells in the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct that was associated with increased apical and basolateral Rhcg polarization. Rhbg expression, analyzed using immunoblot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and measurement of cell-specific expression, was unchanged. We conclude that altered subcellular localization of Rhcg contributes to adaptive changes in single-nephron ammonia metabolism and maintenance of acid-base homeostasis in response to reduced renal mass.

  17. Reduced expression of Slit2 in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Dan; Dong, Dong; Tian, Xiao-Jun; Wen, Jie-Xi; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Slit2, initially identified as an important axon guidance molecule in the nervous system, was suggested to be involved in multiple cellular processes. Recently, Slit2 was reported to function as a potential tumor suppressor in diverse tumors. In this study, we systematically analyzed the expression level of Slit2 in renal cell carcinoma. Compared to paired adjacent non-malignant tissues, both Slit2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methylation-specific PCR showed that Slit2 promoter was methylated in two renal carcinoma cell lines. Pharmacologic demethylation dramatically induced Slit2 expression in cancer cell lines with weak expression of Slit2. Besides, bisulfite genomic sequencing confirmed that dense methylation existed in Slit2 promoter. Furthermore, in paired RCC samples, Slit2 methylation was observed in 8 out of 38 patients (21.1 %), which was well correlated with the down-regulation of Slit2 in RCC. Therefore, Slit2 may also be a potential tumor suppressor in RCC, which is down-regulated in RCC partially due to promoter methylation.

  18. Impaired empathic abilities and reduced white matter integrity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Junya; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Miyata, Jun; Sugihara, Genichi; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Empathic abilities are impaired in schizophrenia. Although the pathology of schizophrenia is thought to involve disrupted white matter integrity, the relationship between empathic disabilities and altered white matter in the disorder remains unclear. The present study tested associations between empathic disabilities and white matter integrity in order to investigate the neural basis of impaired empathy in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 69 age-, gender-, handedness-, education- and IQ level-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Empathic abilities were assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), the associations between empathic abilities and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, were examined in the patient group within brain areas that showed a significant FA reduction compared with the controls. The patients with schizophrenia reported lower perspective taking and higher personal distress according to the IRI. The patients showed a significant FA reduction in bilateral deep white matter in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, a large portion of the corpus callosum, and the corona radiata. In schizophrenia patients, fantasy subscales positively correlated with FA in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi and anterior thalamic radiation, and personal distress subscales negatively correlated with FA in the splenium of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that disrupted white matter integrity in these regions constitutes a pathology underpinning specific components of empathic disabilities in schizophrenia, highlighting that different aspects of empathic impairments in the disorder would have, at least partially, distinct neuropathological bases.

  19. RECK overexpression reduces invasive ability in ameloblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qi-xiang; Liang, Yan-can; Xu, Zhi-ying; Chen, Wei-liang; Xie, Hong-liang; Zhang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Ameloblastoma is a frequent odontogenic neoplasm characterized by local invasiveness and high risk of recurrence. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a tumor suppressor that inhibits metastasis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of RECK overexpression on invasive potential in ameloblastoma cells. Lentiviral vectors containing human RECK gene were created and subsequently stably transfected into immortalized ameloblastoma cell line hTERT(+) -AM. Functional characteristics of hTERT(+) -AM cells with stable RECK overexpression included proliferation, migration, invasion, and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9 measured by zymography or commercially available assays. The stable and higher expression of RECK mRNA and protein (P 0.05). Overexpression of RECK gene significantly inhibited cell invasive ability of hTERT(+) -AM cells, suggesting RECK may be a new target for ameloblastoma treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Induction of Hemeoxygenase-1 Reduces Renal Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elmarakby

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The renoprotective mechanisms of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 in diabetic nephropathy remain to be investigated. We hypothesize that HO-1 protects the kidney from diabetic insult via lowering renal oxidative stress and inflammation. We used control and diabetic SHR with or without HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP treatment for 6 weeks. Urinary albumin excretion levels were significantly elevated in diabetic SHR compared to control and CoPP significantly attenuated albumin excretion. Immuno-histochemical analysis revealed an elevation in TGF-β staining together with increased urinary collagen excretion in diabetic versus control SHR, both of which were reduced with CoPP treatment. Renal oxidative stress markers were greater in diabetic SHR and reduced with CoPP treatment. The increase in renal oxidative stress was associated with an elevation in renal inflammation in diabetic SHR. CoPP treatment also significantly attenuated the markers of renal inflammation in diabetic SHR. In vitro inhibition of HO with stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP increased glomerular NADPH oxidase activity and inflammation and blocked the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CoPP. These data suggest that the reduction of renal injury in diabetic SHR upon induction of HO-1 are associated with decreased renal oxidative stress and inflammation, implicating the role of HO-1 induction as a future treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  2. Reducing Renal Uptake of {sup 177}Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soyoung; Lim, Jaecheong; Joh, Eunha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects.

  3. Keishibukuryogan Reduces Renal Injury in the Early Stage of Renal Failure in the Remnant Kidney Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Nakagawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of keishibukuryogan on the early stage of progressive renal failure were examined in rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. Keishibukuryogan, one of the traditional herbal formulations, was given orally at a dose of 1% (w/w and 3% (w/w in chow. Administration of keishibukuryogan was started at 1 week after 5/6 nephrectomy and was continued for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, Azan staining did not reveal any severe histological changes in the kidneys of the nephrectomized rats. On the other hand, significant increases in mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 and fibronectin related to tissue fibrosis, as examined by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, were observed in nephrectomized rats, and they were significantly suppressed by 3% keishibukuryogan treatment. Against gene expressions related to macrophage infiltration, 3% keishibukuryogan treatment significantly suppressed osteopontin mRNA levels, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA levels showed a tendency to decrease, but without statistical significance. It was also observed that 3% keishibukuryogan attenuated serum urea nitrogen and urinary protein excretion levels. From these results, it was suggested that keishibukuryogan exerts beneficial effects that result in slowing the progression of chronic renal failure.

  4. Intensified Multifactorial Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria Reduces End Stage Renal Disease and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oellgaard, Jens; Gæde, Peter; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Center for Basic Metabolic research. Background: Despite declining rates of late diabetic complications in other organ systems, renal complication rates do not decline to the same extent according to epidemiological studies. The objective was to describe renal outcomes over 21.2 years in patients...... with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria and the influence of an intensified, multifactorial treatment regimen. Methods: 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria assigned to conventional or intensified multifactorial intervention targeting multiple risk factors in a prospective, open...... treatment for 8 years in type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria slows long-term progression in nephropathy and loss of renal function and reduces the risk of end stage renal disease and the mortality rate....

  5. Dietary supplements of vitamins E and C and beta-carotene reduce oxidative stress in cats with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Paetau-Robinson, I

    2006-05-01

    Oxidative stress may contribute to the progression of chronic renal failure. In this study, cats with spontaneous renal insufficiency were fed a dry cat food supplemented with the antioxidants vitamins E and C, and beta-carotene for 4 weeks. When compared with healthy cats, cats with renal insufficiency had a tendency to oxidative stress. The antioxidant supplements significantly reduced DNA damage in cats with renal insufficiency as evidenced by reduced serum 8-OHdG and comet assay parameters. Therefore, supplements of vitamins E and C and beta-carotene as antioxidants may be beneficial to cats with renal disease.

  6. Global Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Reduced GFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bernadette; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Ärnlöv, Johan; Asayama, Kei; Atkins, Robert; Badawi, Alaa; Ballew, Shoshana H; Banerjee, Amitava; Barregård, Lars; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Basu, Sanjay; Bello, Aminu K; Bensenor, Isabela; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Bikbov, Boris; Blosser, Christopher; Brenner, Hermann; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Chadban, Steve; Cirillo, Massimo; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Estep, Kara; Fernandes, João; Fischer, Florian; Fox, Caroline; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gona, Philimon N; Gutierrez, Orlando M; Hamidi, Samer; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jha, Vivekanand; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jonas, Jost B; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Yun Jin; Klein, Barbara; Klein, Ronald; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Lee, Kristine; Levey, Andrew S; Li, Yongmei; Lotufo, Paulo; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Mendoza, Walter; Metoki, Hirohito; Mok, Yejin; Muraki, Isao; Muntner, Paul M; Noda, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ortiz, Alberto; Perico, Norberto; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Al-Radaddi, Rajaa; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Roth, Gregory; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Satoh, Michihiro; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Sawhney, Monika; Schöttker, Ben; Shankar, Anoop; Shlipak, Michael; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Vollset, Stein Emil; Warnock, David G; Werdecker, Andrea; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Murray, Christopher J L; Coresh, Josef; Vos, Theo

    2017-07-01

    The burden of premature death and health loss from ESRD is well described. Less is known regarding the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to reduced GFR. We estimated the prevalence of reduced GFR categories 3, 4, and 5 (not on RRT) for 188 countries at six time points from 1990 to 2013. Relative risks of cardiovascular outcomes by three categories of reduced GFR were calculated by pooled random effects meta-analysis. Results are presented as deaths for outcomes of cardiovascular disease and ESRD and as disability-adjusted life years for outcomes of cardiovascular disease, GFR categories 3, 4, and 5, and ESRD. In 2013, reduced GFR was associated with 4% of deaths worldwide, or 2.2 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI], 2.0 to 2.4 million). More than half of these attributable deaths were cardiovascular deaths (1.2 million; 95% UI, 1.1 to 1.4 million), whereas 0.96 million (95% UI, 0.81 to 1.0 million) were ESRD-related deaths. Compared with metabolic risk factors, reduced GFR ranked below high systolic BP, high body mass index, and high fasting plasma glucose, and similarly with high total cholesterol as a risk factor for disability-adjusted life years in both developed and developing world regions. In conclusion, by 2013, cardiovascular deaths attributed to reduced GFR outnumbered ESRD deaths throughout the world. Studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of early detection of CKD and treatment to decrease these deaths. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Programmatic Considerations to Reduce the Risk of Adverse Renal Stone Events in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity exposure may alter the likelihood that astronauts will experience renal stones. The potential risk includes both acute and chronic health issues, with the potential for significant impact on mission objectives. Methods: To understand the role of the NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) research agenda in both preventing and addressing renal stones in spaceflight, current astronaut epidemiologic data and a summary of programmatic considerations are reviewed. Results: Although there has never been a symptomatic renal stone event in a U.S. crewmember during spaceflight, urine chemistry has been altered - likely due to induced changes in renal physiology as a result of exposure to microgravity. This may predispose astronauts to stone formation, leading the HRP to conduct and sponsor research to: 1) understand the risk of stone formation in space; 2) prevent stones from forming; and 3) address stones that may form by providing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Discussion: The development of a renal stone during spaceflight is a significant medical concern that requires the HRP to minimize this risk by providing the ability to prevent, diagnose, monitor and treat the condition during spaceflight. A discussion of the risk as NASA understands it is followed by an overview of the multiple mitigations currently under study, including novel ultrasound techniques for stone detection and manipulation, and how they may function as part of a larger exploration medical system.

  8. Reduced kidney lipoprotein lipase and renal tubule triglyceride accumulation in cisplatin-mediated acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shenyang; Nagothu, K.; Ranganathan, G.; Ali, S.M.; Shank, B.; Gokden, N.; Ayyadevara, S.; Megysi, J.; Olivecrona, G.; Chugh, S.S.; Kersten, A.H.; Portilla, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a (PPARa) activation attenuates cisplatin (CP)-mediated acute kidney injury by increasing fatty acid oxidation, but mechanisms leading to reduced renal triglyceride (TG) accumulation could also contribute. Here, we investigated the effects of PPARa and CP

  9. Effects of lithium on water intake and renal concentrating ability in rats with vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, S

    1983-02-01

    Male and female Long Evan rats and Brattleboro rats with ADH-deficient diabetes insipidus were treated with lithium administered in the diet for 12 weeks. The plasma lithium level was about 1 mmol/l in all groups. Lithium caused polydipsia and polyuria and lowering of renal concentrating ability in normal rats. In rats with ADH deficiency lithium tended to increase water intake, but did not influence spontaneous urine osmolality or maximal urine osmolality during water deprivation. The results indicate that the renal concentrating defect caused by lithium in rats can be explained by ADH-blockade as the only mechanism. However, there is circumstantial evidence that lithium in addition may stimulate thirst mechanisms by an ADH-independent action.

  10. HSP DNAJB8 Controls Tumor-Initiating Ability in Renal Cancer Stem-like Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishizawa, Satoshi; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Akari; Tamura, Yasuaki; Mori, Takashi; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Kamiguchi, Kenjiro; Asanuma, Hiroko; Morita, Rena; Sokolovskaya, Alice; Matsuzaki, Junichi; Yamada, Ren; Fujii, Reona; Kampinga, Harm H.; Kondo, Toru; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Hara, Isao; Sato, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are a small population of cancer cells with superior tumor initiating, self-renewal, and differentiation properties. In this study, we show that the cancer-testis antigen and HSP40 family member DNAJB8 contributes to the CSC phenotype in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). DNAJB

  11. Demeclocycline Attenuates Hyponatremia by Reducing Aquaporin-2 Expression in the Renal Inner Medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L. A.; Sinke, Anne P.; Hadrup, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Binding of vasopressin to its type-2 receptor in renal collecting ducts induces cAMP signaling, transcription and translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels to the plasma membrane and water reabsorption from the pro-urine. Demeclocycline is currently used to treat hyponatremia in patients...... urine volume, decreased urine osmolality and reverted hyponatremia in an SIADH rat model. AQP2 and adenylate cyclase 5/6 abundances were reduced in the inner medulla, but increased in the cortex and outer medulla, in the absence of any sign of toxicity. In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data...... indicate that demeclocycline mainly attenuates hyponatremia in SIADH by reducing adenylate cyclase 5/6 expression, and consequently cAMP generation, AQP2 gene transcription and AQP2 abundance in the renal inner medulla, coinciding with a reduced vasopressin-escape response in the other collecting duct...

  12. Heterozygous disruption of renal outer medullary potassium channel in rats is associated with reduced blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zuo; Shin, Myung Kyun; Horwitz, Sarah Beth; Levorse, John M; Zhu, Lei; Sharif-Rodriguez, Wanda; Streltsov, Denis Y; Dajee, Maya; Hernandez, Melba; Pan, Yi; Urosevic-Price, Olga; Wang, Li; Forrest, Gail; Szeto, Daphne; Zhu, Yonghua; Cui, Yan; Michael, Bindhu; Balogh, Leslie Ann; Welling, Paul A; Wade, James B; Roy, Sophie; Sullivan, Kathleen A

    2013-08-01

    The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK, KCNJ1) mediates potassium recycling and facilitates sodium reabsorption through the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter in the loop of Henle and potassium secretion at the cortical collecting duct. Human genetic studies indicate that ROMK homozygous loss-of-function mutations cause type II Bartter syndrome, featuring polyuria, renal salt wasting, and hypotension; humans heterozygous for ROMK mutations identified in the Framingham Heart Study have reduced blood pressure. ROMK null mice recapitulate many of the features of type II Bartter syndrome. We have generated an ROMK knockout rat model in Dahl salt-sensitive background by using zinc finger nuclease technology and investigated the effects of knocking out ROMK on systemic and renal hemodynamics and kidney histology in the Dahl salt-sensitive rats. The ROMK(-/-) pups recapitulated features identified in the ROMK null mice. The ROMK(+/-) rats, when challenged with a 4% salt diet, exhibited a reduced blood pressure compared with their ROMK(+/+) littermates. More importantly, when challenged with an 8% salt diet, the Dahl salt-sensitive rats with 50% less ROMK expression showed increased protection from salt-induced blood pressure elevation and signs of protection from renal injury. Our findings in ROMK knockout Dahl salt-sensitive rats, together with the previous reports in humans and mice, underscore a critical role of ROMK in blood pressure regulation.

  13. Salidroside reduces renal cell carcinoma proliferation by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cai; Huang, Yuan; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Yu, Dan; Bai, Zhi-Ming

    2016-06-07

    Salidroside has been reported to exhibit anticancer properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of salidroside on renal cell carcinoma growth. Cell viability and proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays in A498 and 786-0 cells. The effects of salidroside on in vivo tumor growth were also assessed in a mouse xenograft model of renal cell carcinoma. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis and protein levels were determined by western blotting. Salidroside reduced cell viability and colony formation in both cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Tumor growth was also suppressed in the mouse model. Furthermore, salidroside induced significant G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in both A498 and 786-0 cells. Higher concentrations of salidroside reduced the levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). These results suggested that salidroside produced potent anticancer properties in renal cell carcinoma by modulating JAK2/STAT3 signaling. Administration of salidroside to patients with renal cell carcinoma might provide a promising therapeutic strategy for this malignancy.

  14. Reduced ability to detect surface-related biofilm bacteria after antibiotic exposure under in vitro conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Christen; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Bétrisey, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    -dependent drugs (i.e. daptomycin and ciprofloxacin) had a strong suppressive effect on bacterial growth and reduced the ability to detect planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Exposure to rifampin rapidly caused emergence of resistance. Our findings indicate that preoperative administration of antibiotics may have......Background and purpose - Antibiotic treatment of patients before specimen collection reduces the ability to detect organisms by culture. We investigated the suppressive effect of antibiotics on the growth of non-adherent, planktonic, and surface-related biofilm bacteria in vitro by using sonication...... heterogeneous effects on the ability to detect biofilm bacteria....

  15. Calcium antagonists and converting enzyme inhibitors reduce renal injury by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, L D; Benstein, J A; Parker, M; Tolbert, E; Feiner, H D

    1993-04-01

    Both glomerular hypertension and hypertrophy have been associated with the development of glomerular injury in models of hypertension and reduced renal mass. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of antihypertensive therapy on these parameters in the remnant kidney model of progressive glomerular sclerosis. Rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy and were randomly assigned to receive either no therapy, the calcium entry blocker (CEB), nifedipine, or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI), enalapril. Administration of either drug was associated with a reduction in systemic blood pressure and in the severity of glomerular injury assessed eight weeks after renal ablation. Micropuncture studies four weeks after ablation revealed that systemic and glomerular capillary pressure were high in untreated remnant kidney rats and reduced by enalapril. Administration of nifedipine was associated with a decline in systemic pressure, however, plasma renin levels increased, causing efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction and persistence of glomerular hypertension. Morphometric analysis showed that kidney weight, glomerular volume and glomerular capillary radius were lower in nifedipine treated rats than in the other two groups, indicating that the CEB, but not enalapril, inhibited the hypertrophic response to ablation of renal mass. Therefore, both CEIs and CEBs reduce glomerular injury in rats with remnant kidneys but they may act by different mechanisms. CEI reduce glomerular capillary pressure while CEBs inhibit compensatory kidney growth.

  16. Reducing Effort to Protect Perceived Ability: "They'd Do It but I Wouldn't."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    1990-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 123, 70, and 60 college students indicated that others might reduce effort in a situation where they expect failure as a strategy to protect their perceptions of ability, but that they themselves would not. Reduced effort when threatened by failure may not be intentional. (SLD)

  17. Lithium-induced NDI: Acetazolamide reduces polyuria, but does not improve urine concentrating ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Theun; Doornebal, Joan; Christensen, Birgitte M

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is the mainstay treatment for patients with bipolar disorder, but generally causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which the renal urine concentrating ability has become vasopressin-insensitive. Li-NDI is caused by lithium uptake by collecting duct principal cells...... and downregulation of AQP2 water channels, which are essential for water uptake from pro-urine. Recently, we found that the prophylactic administration of acetazolamide to mice effectively attenuated Li-NDI. To evaluate whether acetazolamide might benefit lithium-treated patients, we administered acetazolamide...... to mice with established Li-NDI and six patients with a lithium-induced urinary concentrating defect. In mice, acetazolamide partially reversed lithium-induced polyuria and increased urine osmolality, which, however, did not coincide with increased AQP2 abundances. In patients, acetazolamide led...

  18. Ultrasound Guidance for Renal Tract Access and Dilation Reduces Radiation Exposure during Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purposes. To present our series of 38 prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures performed with renal access and tract dilation purely under ultrasound guidance and describe the benefits and challenges accompanying this approach. Methods. Thirty-eight consecutive patients presenting for percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stone removal were included in this prospective cohort study. Ultrasonographic imaging in the prone position was used to obtain percutaneous renal access and guide tract dilation. Fluoroscopic screening was used only for nephrostomy tube placement. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative procedural and patient data were collected for analysis. Results. Mean age of patients was 52.7±17.2 years. Forty-five percent of patients were male with mean BMI of 26.1±7.3 and mean stone size of 27.2±17.6 millimeters. Renal puncture was performed successfully with ultrasonographic guidance in all cases with mean puncture time of 135.4±132.5 seconds. Mean dilation time was 11.5±3.8 min and mean stone fragmentation time was 37.5±29.0 min. Mean total operative time was 129.3±41.1. No patients experienced any significant immediate postoperative complication. All patients were rendered stone-free and no additional secondary procedures were required. Conclusions. Ultrasound guidance for renal access and tract dilation in prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a feasible and effective technique. It can be performed safely with significantly reduced fluoroscopic radiation exposure to the patient, surgeon, and intraoperative personnel.

  19. MAG3 renal scintigraphy: improved ability to make anatomical diagnoses in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossleigg, M.A.; Kainer, G.; Rosenberg, A.R. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW (Australia); Farnaworth, R.H. [Prince Henry Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Urology

    1995-02-01

    Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) is the most recently introduced renal radiopharmaceutical in Australia and is established as the agent of choice for use in diuresis renography, particularly in neonates and infants. It provides superior anatomical information compared to previously used agents. Three cases are reported in which MAG3 diuresis renography was performed in neonates, who were found to have hydronephrosis detected antenatally. In two neonates, a previously unrecognized horseshoe kidney was demonstrated and in case 3 there were scan features characteristic of a ureterocele. It is highly unlikely that these abnormalities would have been delineated with {sup 99m}Tc dimethyltriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) study, as confirmed in case 1, because of the relatively poor uptake of DTPA when compared to MAG3. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Anticancer Drug 2-Methoxyestradiol Protects against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Reducing Inflammatory Cytokines Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2014-01-01

    -A-treated RMC and NRK52E cells. Conclusions. 2ME2 reduces renal I/R injury in mice because it inhibits the expression of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines and induces antiapoptotic proteins.

  1. Blockade of CCR2 reduces macrophage influx and development of chronic renal damage in murine renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sonu; Warner, Gina M; Hartono, Stella P; Boyilla, Rajendra; Knudsen, Bruce E; Zubair, Adeel S; Lien, Karen; Nath, Karl A; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O; Grande, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a common cause of both cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. In renal artery stenosis (RAS), atrophy in the stenotic kidney is associated with an influx of macrophages and other mononuclear cells. We tested the hypothesis that chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) inhibition would reduce chronic renal injury by reducing macrophage influx in the stenotic kidney of mice with RAS. We employed a well-established murine model of RVH to define the relationship between macrophage infiltration and development of renal atrophy in the stenotic kidney. To determine the role of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/CCR2 signaling in the development of renal atrophy, mice were treated with the CCR2 inhibitor RS-102895 at the time of RAS surgery and followed for 4 wk. Renal tubular epithelial cells expressed CCL2 by 3 days following surgery, a time at which no significant light microscopic alterations, including interstitial inflammation, were identified. Macrophage influx increased with time following surgery. At 4 wk, the development of severe renal atrophy was accompanied by an influx of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)+ and CD206+ macrophages that coexpressed F4/80, with a modest increase in macrophages coexpressing arginase 1 and F4/80. The CCR2 inhibitor RS-102895 attenuated renal atrophy and significantly reduced the number of dual-stained F4/80+ iNOS+ and F4/80+ CD206+ but not F4/80+ arginase 1+ macrophages. CCR2 inhibition reduces iNOS+ and CD206+ macrophage accumulation that coexpress F4/80 and renal atrophy in experimental renal artery stenosis. CCR2 blockade may provide a novel therapeutic approach to humans with RVH.

  2. Specific Antivenom Ability in Neutralizing Hepatic and Renal Changes 24 Hours after Latrodectus dahli Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Valikhanfard-Zanjani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Latrodectism, a syndrome caused by Latrodectus genus, is one of the clinical problems that occur predominantly in north east of Iran. Nowadays antivenom therapy has become the most useful treatment for animal bites; however there is still a controversy about route and time of antivenom administration in spider bite. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of specific antivenom in neutralizing hepatic and renal symptoms 24 h after Latrodectus dahli envenomation.Methods: We selected a group of male New Zealand white rabbits, weighing 2±0.3 kg. The L. dahli venom (0.5 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously. Specific antivenom (2.5 ml, I.V was injected 24 h following venom injection. Blood sampling was performed before and 24 h after venom injection, as well within 24, 48 and 72 h after antivenom administration. Serum levels of (aspartate amino transferase (AST alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, urea, bilirubin, creatinine and albumin were determined in all the sam.Results: Latrodectus dahli venom caused significant increase (P< 0.05 in all foresaid serum parameters. Antivenom reversed the AST, ALP, creatinine, urea and bilirubin to normal levels, but failed about ALT level, also non-significant decrease was observed in albumin levels.Conclusion: Antivenom administration 24 h after venom injection can greatly reverse symptoms caused by venom. Future studies in human beings should be conducted to assess the protection against the specific-Latrodectus antivenom.

  3. Fibrocyte-like cells from intrauterine growth restriction placentas have a reduced ability to stimulate angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Meghan R; Winkler-Lowen, Bonnie; Jiang, Yanyan; Guilbert, Larry J; Davidge, Sandra T

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common complication of pregnancy whereby the fetus fails to achieve its genetic growth potential. Malformation of the placental vasculature is observed in IUGR and may be due to the development of the placenta in a chronically hypoxic environment. Recently, we identified that the predominant stromal cells in the angiogenic zones of the placenta are fibrocyte-like cells. The conditioned medium from fibrocyte-like cells (FcCM) has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that FcCM from IUGR cells would have a reduced ability to stimulate angiogenesis and that chronic hypoxia would decrease the ability of both normal and IUGR fibrocyte-like cells to stimulate angiogenesis. IUGR FcCM had a reduced ability to stimulate endothelial tubule-like structure formation and an increased ability to stimulate endothelial migration compared with normal FcCM. However, normal and IUGR FcCM produced in chronic hypoxia did not alter endothelial proliferation, migration, or tubule-like structure formation. IUGR FcCM was found to have reduced levels of the pro-angiogenic cytokine IL-8 and increased levels of the anti-angiogenic factors activin-A and pigment epithelium-derived growth factor. Thus, alterations in the ability of IUGR fibrocyte-like cells to stimulate angiogenesis may contribute to the development of vascular malformation in IUGR, but in vitro these changes cannot be attributed to a chronically hypoxic environment.

  4. Reduced effect of percutaneous renal denervation on blood pressure in patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Sebastian; Ukena, Christian; Linz, Dominik; Kindermann, Ingrid; Cremers, Bodo; Laufs, Ulrich; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmieder, Roland E; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Renal denervation can reduce blood pressure in certain patients with resistant hypertension. The effect in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, ≥140/hypertension (CH, ≥140/≥90 mm Hg) defined as baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive agents. Renal denervation significantly reduced office SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 3, 6, and 12 months by 17/18/17 and 5/4/4 mm Hg in ISH and by 28/27/30 and 13/16/18 mm Hg in CH, respectively. The reduction in SBP and DBP in ISH was lower compared with patients with CH at all observed time points (P<0.05 for SBP/DBP intergroup comparison). The nonresponder rate (change in office SBP <10 mm Hg) after 6 months was 37% in ISH and 21% in CH (P<0.001). Mean 24-hour ambulatory SBP and DBP after 3, 6, and 12 months were significantly reduced by 10/13/15 and 6/6/9 mm Hg in CH, respectively. In patients with ISH the reduction in systolic ambulatory blood pressure was 4/8/7 mm Hg (P=0.032/P<0.001/P=0.009) and 3/4/2 mm Hg (P=0.08/P<0.001/P=0.130) in diastolic ambulatory blood pressure after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The ambulatory blood pressure reduction was significantly lower after 3 and 12 months in SBP and after 12 months in ambulatory DBP, respectively. In conclusion, renal denervation reduces office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with ISH. However, this reduction is less pronounced compared with patients with CH.

  5. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline attenuates renal injury and dysfunction in hypertensive rats with reduced renal mass: council for high blood pressure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tang-Dong; Yang, Xiao-Ping; D'Ambrosio, Martin; Zhang, Yanlu; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; Carretero, Oscar A

    2010-02-01

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a naturally occurring peptide of which the plasma concentration is increased 4- to 5-fold by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. We reported previously that, in models of both hypertension and postmyocardial infarction, Ac-SDKP reduces cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. However, it is unknown whether Ac-SDKP can prevent or reverse renal injury and dysfunction in hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that, in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx)-induced hypertension, Ac-SDKP reduces renal damage, albuminuria, and dysfunction by decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration and renal fibrosis and by increasing nephrin protein. Ac-SDKP (800 microg/kg per day, SC via osmotic minipump) or vehicle was either started 7 days before 5/6Nx (prevention) and continued for 3 weeks or started 3 weeks after 5/6Nx (reversal) and continued for another 3 weeks. Rats with 5/6Nx developed high blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, albuminuria, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and increased macrophage infiltration (inflammation) and renal collagen content (fibrosis). Ac-SDKP did not affect blood pressure or left ventricular hypertrophy in either group; however, it significantly reduced albuminuria, renal inflammation, and fibrosis and improved glomerular filtration rate in both prevention and reversal groups. Moreover, slit diaphragm nephrin protein expression in the glomerular filtration barrier was significantly decreased in hypertensive rats. This effect was partially prevented or reversed by Ac-SDKP. We concluded that Ac-SDKP greatly attenuates albuminuria and renal fibrosis and improves renal function in rats with 5/6Nx. These effects may be related to decreased inflammation (macrophages) and increased nephrin protein.

  6. Gene knockdown of CENPA reduces sphere forming ability and stemness of glioblastoma initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinan Behnan

    2016-09-01

    Knockdown of CENPA reduced sphere forming ability, proliferation and cell viability of GICs. We also detected significant reduction in the expression of stemness marker SOX2 and the proliferation marker Ki67. These results indicate that CENPA might represent a promising therapeutic target for GBM treatment.

  7. Renal dysfunction and anemia in patients with heart failure with reduced versus normal ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta, Humberto; Saenz-Tello, Bolivar F; Santos, Eduarda Barcellos dos; Steffen, Ricardo; Wiefels, Christiane; Lima, Luiz Costa; Sales, Ana Luíza F; Soares, Pedro; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2010-03-01

    The presence of anemia and renal dysfunction grants a bad prognosis for patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). The impact on patients with heart failure and normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is not widely studied. To study the prevalence and the prognosis of anemia and renal dysfunction (RD) in patients with heart failure according to the type of ventricular dysfunction. A total of 209 patients with chronic and stable heart failure were prospectively studied. Individuals with ejection fraction Anemia was defined, based on WHO criteria, as hemoglobin Renal function was calculated by means of the Simplified Modified Diet Renal Disease (sMDRD) formula. Hospitalizations, emergency admittances and obit by cardiac causes were considered as cardiac events. Ninety patients had HFREF and 119 had HFNEF. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was smaller in HFREF group (57.6 +/- 66.2 versus 94.8 +/- 36.6 ml/min/1.73m(2); p=0.01). There was no difference in the prevalence of anemia between groups (23.3% versus 18.5%; p=0.34). Moderate to severe RD prevalence was higher in HFREF group (32.2% versus 16.8%; p=0.01). RD was the only factor associated with anemia that was independently associated with cardiac events (HR 2.52; 95%CI=1.27-5.2; p=0.01). RD was less prevalent in HFNEF, while the prevalence of anemia did not differ between groups. RD was predictor of cardiac events independently on ejection fraction.

  8. Polyethylene glycol reduces early and long-term cold ischemia-reperfusion and renal medulla injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jean Pierre; Hauet, Thierry; Han, Zeqiu; Goujon, Jean Michel; Petit, Isabelle; Mauco, Gerard; Eugene, Michel; Carretier, Michel; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2002-09-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after transplantation is a major cause of delayed graft function, which has a negative impact on early and late graft function and improve acute rejection. We have previously shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG) and particularly PEG 20M has a protective effect against cold ischemia and reperfusion injury in an isolated perfused pig and rat kidney model. We extended those observations to investigate the role of PEG using different doses (30g or 50g/l) added (ICPEG30 or ICPEG50) or not (IC) to a simplified preservation solution to reduce IRI after prolonged cold storage (48-h) of pig kidneys when compared with Euro-Collins and University of Wisconsin solutions. The study of renal function and medulla injury was performed with biochemical methods and proton NMR spectroscopy. Histological and inflammatory cell studies were performed after reperfusion (30-40 min) and on days 7 and 14 and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a mitochondrial protein involved in cholesterol homeostasis, was also studied. The results demonstrated that ICPEG30 improved renal function and reduced medulla injury. ICPEG30 also improved tubular function and strongly protect mitochondrial integrity. Post-IRI inflammation was strongly reduced in this group, particularly lymphocytes TCD4(+), PBR expression was influenced by IRI in the early period and during the development of chronic dysfunction. This study clearly shows that PEG has a beneficial effect in renal preservation and suggests a role of PBR as a marker IRI and repair processes.

  9. Reduced ability to detect surface-related biofilm bacteria after antibiotic exposure under in vitro conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Christen; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Bétrisey, Bertrand;

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Antibiotic treatment of patients before specimen collection reduces the ability to detect organisms by culture. We investigated the suppressive effect of antibiotics on the growth of non-adherent, planktonic, and surface-related biofilm bacteria in vitro by using sonication......-dependent drugs (i.e. daptomycin and ciprofloxacin) had a strong suppressive effect on bacterial growth and reduced the ability to detect planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Exposure to rifampin rapidly caused emergence of resistance. Our findings indicate that preoperative administration of antibiotics may have...... and microcalorimetry methods. Patients and methods - Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Propionibacterium acnes were formed on porous glass beads and exposed for 24 h to antibiotic concentrations from 1 to 1,024 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin...

  10. Ability and utility of diffusion-weighted MRI with different b values in the evaluation of benign and malignant renal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doganay, S., E-mail: selimdoganay@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey); Kocakoc, E. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul (Turkey); Cicekci, M.; Aglamis, S. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Akpolat, N. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Orhan, I. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Aim: To evaluate the ability and the utility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high and low b values to visualize benign and malignant renal lesions, and to determine which b value (b = 100, 600, or 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) was most useful in differentiating benign from malignant renal lesions. Materials and methods: Fifty-eight patients with 67 renal lesions and 50 normal contralateral kidneys (as control) were enrolled in the study. DW imaging was performed with b values of 100, 600, and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. Results of the histopathological evaluation were compared with the DW MRI results. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating malignant renal lesions from benign renal lesions were calculated for each b value. Results: The mean ADC values of normal renal parenchyma with b = 100, 600, and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} values were (3.14 {+-} 0.54) x 10{sup -3}, (2.52 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -3}, and (2.16 {+-} 0.43) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The mean ADC values of benign renal lesions (n = 35) with b = 100, 600, and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} values were (2.88 {+-} 0.88) x 10{sup -3}, (2.58 {+-} 0.91) x 10{sup -3}, and (2.10 {+-} 0.93) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The mean ADC values of malignant renal lesions (n = 32) with b = 100, 600, and 1000 values were (2.74 {+-} 0.58) x 10{sup -3}, (2.09 {+-} 0.63) x 10{sup -3}, and (1.66 {+-} 0.51) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. Using DW imaging malignant renal lesions could be differentiated from benign renal lesions, and also angiomyolipomas and oncocytomas could be differentiated from renal cell carcinoma. Conclusions: DW MRI with quantitative ADC measurements can be useful in the differentiation of benign and malignant renal lesions. High b values (b = 600 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) had the best specificity and sensitivity.

  11. Comparison of intranasal ketamine versus IV morphine in reducing pain in patients with renal colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Mohammad Reza; Jalali, Alireza; Vahidi, Elnaz; Momeni, Mehdi; Seyedhosseini, Javad; Saeedi, Morteza

    2017-03-01

    Various drugs have been used to relieve abdominal pain in patients with renal colic. Ketamine is a popular choice as an analgesic. To compare the effectiveness of intranasal (IN) ketamine versus intravenous (IV) morphine in reducing pain in patients with renal colic. A randomized double-blind controlled trial was performed in 53 patients with renal colic recruited from the emergency department (ED) in 2015. Finally, 40 patients were enrolled in this study. Patients in the ketamine group received IN ketamine 1 mg/kg and IV placebo while patients in the control group received IV morphine 0.1mg/kg and IN placebo. Our goal was to assess visual analogue scale (VAS) changes between the 2 groups. Patients' VAS scores were reported before and 5, 15, 30min after drug injection. Before drug administration, the mean±SD VAS score was 7.40±1.18 in the morphine group (group A) and 8.35±1.30 in the ketamine group (group B) (P-value=0.021). After adjustment by the appropriate analysis, the mean±SD VAS score in group (A) and (B) at 5min were (6.07±0.47 vs 6.87±0.47; mean difference -0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.48 to -1.04) (P-value=0.025), at 15 and 30min, the mean±SD VAS score in group (A) and (B) were (5.24±0.49 vs 5.60±0.49; mean difference -0.36, 95% CI -1.08 to 0.34) and (4.02±0.59 vs 4.17±0.59; mean difference -0.15, 95% CI -1.02 to 0.71) (P-value=0.304 and 0.719) respectively. IN ketamine may be effective in decreasing pain in renal colic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Superiority of salt restriction over diuretics in reducing renal hypertrophy and injury in uninephrectomized SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstein, J A; Feiner, H D; Parker, M; Dworkin, L D

    1990-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were uninephrectomized (UNX) at 6 wk of age and given either standard chow (CON), low-sodium chow (LSC), or standard chow and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) added to the drinking water. Severe hypertension developed in all three groups. Forty-two weeks after UNX, proteinuria and glomerular sclerosis were significantly lower in LSC than in CON or HCTZ. The protective effect of salt restriction did not depend upon alterations in plasma renin concentration or glomerular hemodynamics. Micropuncture revealed that glomerular pressure was high in all three groups. Renal hypertrophy assessed by kidney weight, kidney-to-body weight ratio, glomerular volume, and glomerular capillary radius were reduced by salt restriction. These findings suggest that, in the setting of glomerular hypertension, hypertrophy promotes sclerosis. Salt restriction inhibits compensatory kidney growth and protects the kidney.

  13. So near and yet so far: harmonic radar reveals reduced homing ability of Nosema infected honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Wolf

    Full Text Available Pathogens may gain a fitness advantage through manipulation of the behaviour of their hosts. Likewise, host behavioural changes can be a defence mechanism, counteracting the impact of pathogens on host fitness. We apply harmonic radar technology to characterize the impact of an emerging pathogen--Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia--on honeybee (Apis mellifera flight and orientation performance in the field. Honeybees are the most important commercial pollinators. Emerging diseases have been proposed to play a prominent role in colony decline, partly through sub-lethal behavioural manipulation of their hosts. We found that homing success was significantly reduced in diseased (65.8% versus healthy foragers (92.5%. Although lost bees had significantly reduced continuous flight times and prolonged resting times, other flight characteristics and navigational abilities showed no significant difference between infected and non-infected bees. Our results suggest that infected bees express normal flight characteristics but are constrained in their homing ability, potentially compromising the colony by reducing its resource inputs, but also counteracting the intra-colony spread of infection. We provide the first high-resolution analysis of sub-lethal effects of an emerging disease on insect flight behaviour. The potential causes and the implications for both host and parasite are discussed.

  14. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  15. Interferon-γ Reduces the Proliferation of Primed Human Renal Tubular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar García-Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a progressive deterioration of the kidney function, which may eventually lead to renal failure and the need for dialysis or kidney transplant. Whether initiated in the glomeruli or the tubuli, CKD is characterized by progressive nephron loss, for which the process of tubular deletion is of key importance. Tubular deletion results from tubular epithelial cell death and defective repair, leading to scarring of the renal parenchyma. Several cytokines and signaling pathways, including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and the Fas pathway, have been shown to participate in vivo in tubular cell death. However, there is some controversy about their mode of action, since a direct effect on normal tubular cells has not been demonstrated. We hypothesized that epithelial cells would require specific priming to become sensitive to TGF-β or Fas stimulation and that this priming would be brought about by specific mediators found in the pathological scenario. Methods: Herein we studied whether the combined effect of several stimuli known to take part in CKD progression, namely TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and Fas stimulation, on primed resistant human tubular cells caused cell death or reduced proliferation. Results: We demonstrate that these cytokines have no synergistic effect on the proliferation or viability of human kidney (HK2 cells. We also demonstrate that IFN-γ, but not the other stimuli, reduces the proliferation of cycloheximide-primed HK2 cells without affecting their viability. Conclusion: Our results point at a potentially important role of IFN-γ in defective repair, leading to nephron loss during CKD.

  16. Renal Function and NODM in De Novo Renal Transplant Recipients Treated with Standard and Reduced Levels of Tacrolimus in Combination with EC-MPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Information is lacking concerning concomitant administration of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium with tacrolimus (EC-MPS+Tac in renal transplant recipients (RTxR. In this 6-month, prospective, open-label, multicenter study, de novo RTxR were randomized (1 : 1 to low-dose (LD or standard-dose (SD Tac with basiliximab, EC-MPS 720 mg bid, and steroids. Primary objective was to compare renal function at 6-month posttransplantation. Secondary objectives were to compare the incidences of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR, graft loss and death, and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM. 292 patients (LD n=151, SD n=141 were included. Mean Tac levels were at the low end of the target range in standard-exposure patients (SD, n=141 and exceeded target range in low-exposure patients (LD = 151 throughout the study. There was no significant difference in mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR between treatments (ITT-population: 63.6 versus 61.0 mL/min. Incidence of BPAR was similar (10.6% versus 9.9%. NODM was significantly less frequent in LD Tac (17% versus 31%; P=0.02; other adverse effects (AEs were comparable. EC-MPS+Tac (LD/SD was efficacious and well tolerated with well-preserved renal function. No renal function benefits were demonstrated, possibly related to poor adherence to reduced Tac exposure.

  17. Reduced E-cadherin facilitates renal cell carcinoma progression by WNT/β-catenin signaling activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinqi; Yang, Mingxi; Shi, Hua; Hu, Jianxin; Wang, Yuanlin; Sun, Zhaolin; Xu, Shuxiong

    2017-02-15

    Reduced expression of E-cadherin was observed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, its potential clinical value and correlation with WNT/β-catenin signaling in RCC progression was still unclear. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in RCC tissue microarray to examine the expression status and prognosis value of E-cadherin and β-catenin. The potential role of E-cadherin in β-catenin translocation was analyzed with immunobloting assays. A significant negative correlation was observed between E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in RCC tissues. E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin translocation from membrane to cytoplasm in RCC tissues, which was an important step for WNT/β-catenin signaling. Reduced E-cadherin expression was associated with poor prognosis. More importantly, E-cadherin-/β-catenin+ was an independent detrimental factor for survival estimation of RCC patients. Reduced E-cadherin expression in RCC promoted cancer progression via WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway activation. E-cadherin/β-catenin provides a valuable prognosis marker for RCC, which may be an effective target for RCC therapy.

  18. Brown Norway chromosome 1 congenic reduces symptoms of renal disease in fatty Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Craig H; Slupsky, Carolyn; Griffey, Stephen M; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Min, Esther; Le, Anh; Fisler, Janis S; Hansen, Susan; Haj, Fawaz; Stern, Judith S

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a congenic rat with Brown Norway (BN) alleles on chromosome 1 reduces renal disease of 15-week old fatty Zucker rats (ZUC). Development of renal disease in fatty BN congenic and fatty ZUC rats from 9 through 28 weeks is now examined. Analysis of urine metabolites by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed a significantly increased urinary loss of glucose, myo-inositol, urea, creatine, and valine in ZUC. Food intake was lower in the BN congenic rats at weeks 9-24, but they weighed significantly more at 28 weeks compared with the ZUC group. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in ZUC than congenic and adiponectin levels were significantly lower in ZUC, but there was no significant genotype effect on Insulin levels. Glucose tolerance tests exhibited no significant differences between ZUC and congenic when values were normalized to basal glucose levels. Quantitative PCR on livers revealed evidence for higher gluconeogenesis in congenics than ZUC at 9 weeks. Plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine were more than 2-fold higher in 28-week ZUC. Twelve urine protein markers of glomerular, proximal and distal tubule disease were assayed at three ages. Several proteins that indicate glomerular and proximal tubular disease increased with age in both congenic and ZUC. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) level, a marker whose levels decrease with distal tubule disease, was significantly higher in congenics. Quantitative histology of 28 week old animals revealed the most significant genotype effect was for tubular dilation and intratubular protein. The congenic donor region is protective of kidney disease, and effects on Type 2 diabetes are likely limited to fasting glucose and adiponectin. The loss of urea together with a small increase of food intake in ZUC support the hypothesis that nitrogen balance is altered in ZUC from an early age.

  19. Reduced cortical renal GLUT1 expression induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Souza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes in spontaneously hypertensive rats is associated with cortical renal GLUT1 and GLUT2 overexpression. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme blockade on cortical renal GLUT1 and GLUT2 expression, urinary albumin and urinary TGF-β1. Streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg, or citrate buffer (N = 16 was administered as a single injection into the tail vein in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (~260 g. Thirty days later, these diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats received ramipril by gavage: 0.01 mg·kg-1·day-1 (D0.01, N = 14, 1 mg·kg-1·day-1 (D1, N = 9 or water (D, N = 11 for 15 days. Albumin and TGF-β1 (24-h urine, direct arterial pressure, renal tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (fluorometric assay, and GLUT1 and GLUT2 protein levels (Western blot, renal cortex were determined. Glycemia and glycosuria were higher (P < 0.05 in the diabetic rats compared with controls, but similar between the diabetic groups. Diabetes in spontaneously hypertensive rats lowered renal tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (40%, which was reduced further when higher ramipril doses were used. Diabetes associated with hypertension raised GLUT1 by 28% (P < 0.0001 and GLUT2 by 76% (P = 0.01, and both doses of ramipril equally reduced cortical GLUT1 (D vs D1 and vs D0.01, P ≤ 0.001. GLUT2 levels were reduced in D0.01 (P < 0.05 vs D. Diabetes increased urinary albumin and TGF-β1 urinary excretion, but the 15-day ramipril treatment (with either dose did not reduce them. In conclusion, ramipril is effective in lowering renal tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, as well as blocking cortical GLUT1 overexpression, which may be beneficial in arresting the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  20. A high plant density reduces the ability of maize to use soil nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Pan, Junxiao; Zhang, Wenjie; Shi, Junfang; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the physiological changes associated with high grain yield and high N use efficiency (NUE) is important when increasing the plant density and N rate to develop optimal agronomic management. We tested the hypothesis that high plant densities resulting in crowding stress reduce the ability of plants to use the N supply post-silking, thus decreasing the grain yield and NUE. In 2013 and 2014, a field experiment, with five N-application rates and three plant densities (6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 plants m-2), was conducted in the North China Plain (NCP). The calculated maximum grain yield and agronomic use efficiency (AEN) at a density of 7.5 plants m-2 were 12.4 Mg ha-1 and 39.3 kg kg-1, respectively, which were significantly higher than the values obtained at densities of 6.0 (11.3 Mg ha-1 and 30.2 kg kg-1) and 9.0 plant m-2 (11.7 Mg ha-1 and 27.8 kg kg-1). A high plant density of 9.0 plants m-2 decreased the post-silking N accumulation, leaf N concentration and net photosynthesis, which reduced the post-silking dry matter production, resulting in a low yield and NUE. Although a relatively low grain yield was observed at a density of 9.0 plants m-2, the optimal N rate increased from 150 to 186 kg N ha-1 at a density of 7.5 plants m-2. These results indicate that high plant densities with crowding stress reduce the ability of plants to use soil N during the post-silking period, and high rate of N fertilizer was needed to increase grain yield. We conclude that selecting the appropriate plant density combined with optimal N management could increase grain yields and the NUE in the NCP.

  1. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Merajuddin; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Adil, Syed F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.

  2. Nutritional Intervention as part of Functional Rehabilitation in Older People with reduced functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Dent, Elsa; Baldwin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    body weight, hand-grip strength or muscle strength. There was no difference between groups in the critical outcomes; balance, cognition, activities of daily living and mortality at long-term follow-up. Nutritional intervention given with functional rehabilitation was associated with an increased......Background Nutritional intervention is increasingly recognised as having an important role in functional rehabilitation for older people. Nonetheless, a greater understanding of the functional benefit of nutritional interventions is needed. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis examined...... randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2007 and 2014 with the aim of determining whether nutritional intervention combined with rehabilitation benefited older people with reduced functional ability. Six electronic databases were searched. RCTs including people aged 65 years and older...

  3. Reduced cilia frequencies in human renal cell carcinomas versus neighboring parenchymal tissue

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    Basten Sander G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cilia are essential organelles in multiple organ systems, including the kidney where they serve as important regulators of renal homeostasis. Renal nephron cilia emanate from the apical membrane of epithelia, extending into the lumen where they function in flow-sensing and ligand-dependent signaling cascades. Ciliary dysfunction underlies renal cyst formation that is in part caused by deregulation of planar cell polarity and canonical Wnt signaling. Renal cancer pathologies occur sporadically or in heritable syndromes caused by germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes including VHL. Importantly, Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL patients frequently develop complex renal cysts that can be considered a premalignant stage. One of the well-characterized molecular functions of VHL is its requirement for the maintenance of cilia. In this study, tissue from 110 renal cancer patients who underwent nephrectomy was analyzed to determine if lower ciliary frequency is a common hallmark of renal tumorigenesis by comparing cilia frequencies in both tumor and adjacent parenchymal tissue biopsies from the same kidney. Methods We stained sections of human renal material using markers for cilia. Preliminary staining was performed using an immunofluorescent approach and a combination of acetylated-α-tubulin and pericentrin antibodies and DAPI. After validation of an alternative, higher throughput approach using acetylated-α-tubulin immunohistochemistry, we continued to manually quantify cilia in all tissues. Nuclei were separately counted in an automated fashion in order to determine ciliary frequencies. Similar staining and scoring for Ki67 positive cells was performed to exclude that proliferation obscures cilia formation potential. Results Samples from renal cell carcinoma patients deposited in our hospital tissue bank were previously used to compose a tissue microarray containing three cores of both tumor and parenchymal tissue per patient

  4. Fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine of patients with normal or reduced renal function and hepatic coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Dalhoff, K; Joffe, P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m) as a differential diagnostic indicator between hepatic nephropathy (HN) and acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy (ATIN) in patients with reduced renal function and hepatic coma, and to determine whether beta 2m...... excretion could be used as a marker of renal impairment before increased serum creatinine (S-Cr) concentration or decreased creatinine clearance (Cr-Cl). Finally, the use of beta 2m as a prognostic indicator was investigated. Eighteen patients in hepatic coma grade III-IV were entered in the study and were...

  5. A Modified method for reducing renal injury in zoledronic acid treatment of hypercalcemia and adverse skeletal events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this paper, we have reported a previously undescribed risk factor of deterioration of renal function in zoledronic acid treatment of skeletal metastasis - high serum calcium level. Based on this consideration, a modified method of treatment of hypercalcemia (HCM with zoledronic acid is suggested in this paper. Material and Methods: Bone scan findings of 1090 cancer patients were analyzed, of which 26 had intense renal parenchymal uptake as a result of HCM or bone metastases. Subsequently, a total of 56 bone metastases patients with zoledronic acid treatment were divided into three groups: HCM group who were pre-treated to normal serum calcium level (13 patients, HCM group (19 patients, and normal serum calcium group (24 patients. Results: More patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were hyperglycemic, statistically significantly (18/26 versus 19/1064, P = 2.1, E-78. No more patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were associated with bone metastases (14/26 versus 438/1064, P = 0.20. Subsequently, more HCM patients receiving zoledronic acid treatment showed renal injury compared to patients with normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 2/24, P < 0.05 and HCM patients with pre-treatment to normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 1/17, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Intense renal parenchymal uptake of bisphosphonates is closely related to HCM rather than to bone metastases in cancer patients. The serum calcium should be measured and reduced to normal level before zoledronic acid is used in managements of adverse skeletal events in order to decrease the risk of renal injury.

  6. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Merajuddin Khan,1 Mujeeb Khan,1 Abdulhadi H Al-Marri,1 Abdulrahman Al-Warthan,1 Hamad Z Alkhathlan,1 Mohammed Rafiq H Siddiqui,1 Vadithe Lakshma Nayak,2 Ahmed Kamal,2 Syed F Adil1 1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano­composites (PGE-HRG-Ag were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. Keywords: plant extract, graphene/silver nanocomposites, anticancer, apoptosis

  7. Octreotide reduces hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Peces, Carlos; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Vega-Cabrera, Cristina; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) received octreotide for 12 months, and this was associated with a 6.3% reduction in liver volume, an 8% reduction in total kidney volume and stabilization of renal function. There was also a reduction of cyst size in fibrocystic disease of breast. These data suggest that the cyst fluid accumulation in different organs from patients with ADPKD is a dynamic process which can be reversed by octreotide. This is the first report of a case of simultaneous reduction in hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume with preservation of renal function in a patient with ADPKD receiving octreotide.

  8. Mechanism of alcohol-induced impairment in renal development: Could it be reduced by retinoic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen P; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Bertram, John F; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-09-01

    1. Prenatal alcohol exposure impairs kidney development, resulting in a reduced nephron number. However, the mechanism through which alcohol acts to disrupt renal development is largely unknown. Retinoic acid (RA) is critically involved in kidney development and it has been proposed that a diminished concentration of RA is a contributing factor to fetal alcohol syndrome. 2. In the present study we proposed that the ethanol-induced inhibition of ureteric branching morphogenesis and glomerular development in the cultured rat kidney would be ameliorated by coculture with exogenous RA and that examining the expression profile of key genes involved in the development of the kidney would provide insights into the potential molecular pathways involved. 3. Whole rat metanephroi cultured in the presence of exogenous RA (10-20 nmol/L) without ethanol appeared larger and had significantly more ureteric branch points, tips and glomeruli than metanephroi cultured in control media. Those cultured in the presence of ethanol alone (0.2%) had 20% fewer ureteric branch points, tips and glomeruli, which was ameliorated by coculture with retinoic acid. 4. Gene expression analysis identified changes in the expression of enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol in conjunction with changes in key regulators of kidney development, including cRET. 5. These results demonstrate that the teratogenic effects of alcohol in vitro on kidney development resulting in reduced ureteric branching morphogenesis and glomerular development can be ameliorated through coculture with RA. These results provide the foundation for future research into the mechanism through which alcohol acts to disrupt kidney development.

  9. CD11c+ CD8+ T Cells Reduce Renal Fibrosis Following Ureteric Obstruction by Inducing Fibroblast Apoptosis

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    Haidong Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common consequence of various kidney diseases that lead to end-stage renal failure, and lymphocyte infiltration plays an important role in renal fibrosis. We previously found that depletion of cluster of differentiation 8+ (CD8+ T cells increases renal fibrosis following ureteric obstruction, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ-expressing CD8+ T cells contribute to this process. CD8+ T cells are cytotoxic T cells; however, whether their cytotoxic effect reduces fibrosis remains unknown. This study showed that CD8+ T cells isolated from obstructed kidney showed mRNA expression of the cytotoxicity-related genes perforin 1, granzyme A, granzyme B, and FAS ligand; additionally, CD8 knockout significantly reduced the expression levels of these genes in obstructed kidney. Infiltrated CD8+ T cells were distributed around fibroblasts, and they are associated with fibroblast apoptosis in obstructed kidney. Moreover, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed higher levels of the cytotoxicity-related genes than CD11c− CD8+ T cells, and infiltrated CD11c+ CD8+ T cells in obstructed kidney could induce fibroblast death in vitro. Results indicated that induction of fibroblast apoptosis partly contributed to the effect of CD8+ T cells on reduction of renal fibrosis. Given that inflammatory cells are involved in fibrosis, our results suggest that kidney fibrosis is a multifactorial process involving different arms of the immune system.

  10. Reduced plasma total homocysteine concentrations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus is determined by increased renal clearance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, B.A.J.; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Blom, H.J.; Smits, P.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elevated plasma levels of total homocysteine are related to the development of vascular complications. Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly at risk for the development of these complications. Several factors determine plasma total homocysteine including renal function.

  11. Reduced cyclooxygenase involvement in vascular endothelial function in rat renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit-Van Oosten, Annemieke; Boonstra, Arnold H.; Navis, Gerjan; Van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death following renal transplantation. Mechanisms leading to vascular dysfunction outside the transplanted organ involve common risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, proteinuria, but immune-mediated factors may also be involve

  12. Reduced cyclooxygenase involvement in vascular endothelial function in rat renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit-Van Oosten, Annemieke; Boonstra, Arnold H.; Navis, Gerjan; Van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death following renal transplantation. Mechanisms leading to vascular dysfunction outside the transplanted organ involve common risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, proteinuria, but immune-mediated factors may also be involve

  13. Partial deletion of the ROCK2 protein fails to reduce renal fibrosis in a unilateral ureteral obstruction model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Itsuko; Egi, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is a well‑known cause for the progression of chronic kidney disease. Rho/Rho‑associated coiled‑coil kinase (ROCK) signaling is involved in renal fibrotic processes. Non‑selective ROCK1/2 inhibitors have been reported to reduce renal interstitial fibrosis in a rodent unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. To clarify the role and contribution of ROCK2 in renal fibrosis, the present study used ROCK2 heterozygous knockout (HKO) mice to assess collagen deposition and fibrosis‑associated gene expression in the kidney of the UUO model. In the ROCK2 HKO mice, the expression level of ROCK2 in the normal kidney was half of that in the kidney of wild‑type (WT) mice. The expression levels of ROCK1 in the ROCK2 HKO mice and WT mice were equivalent. Furthermore, in the ROCK2 HKO and the WT mice, the hydroxyproline content and the gene expression levels of collagen I and transforming growth factor‑β1 in the obstructed kidneys were augmented following UUO. By contrast, the mRNA expression of α‑smooth muscle actin decreased in the ROCK2 HKO mice, compared with that in the WT mice. The activity of ROCK in the obstructed kidneys, indicated by the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit‑1, which is a non‑selective substrate of ROCK1 and ROCK2, was equivalent among the ROCK2 HKO and WT mice. In conclusion, no differences in renal interstitial fibrosis or UUO‑induced ROCK activity were identified between the ROCK2 HKO and WT mice, indicating that the genetic partial disruption of ROCK2 is insufficient for protecting against renal fibrosis.

  14. Renal Transplantation Dramatically Reduces IgA Anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I Antibodies in Patients with Endstage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Serrano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgA anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I (aB2GPI antibodies have been related to vascular pathology in the general population and mainly in hemodialyzed patients (prevalence 33% in whom an elevated incidence of thrombosis and mortality is found. In this paper we have studied the presence of IgA aB2GPI antibodies at pretransplant and their evolution after transplantation with a cross-sectional-based follow-up study of a cohort of 288 endstage renal disease (ESRD patients treated with kidney transplantation. Pretransplant IgA aB2GPI levels were elevated 31.7±4.2 U/mL without differences in age or type of dialysis. Patients with different etiologies of ESRD showed higher levels of IgA aB2GPI than blood donors, except the groups of non-IgA glomerular disease and systemic erythematosus lupus, whose nonsignificant differences were observed. IgA aB2GPI antibodies dropped immediately after transplantation (10.7±1.0 U/mL, P<0.0001, coinciding with a high degree of immunosuppression, and remained significantly lower than that observed in pretransplant status. Prevalence of patients with elevated antibodies was also less in transplanted patients (8.9% versus 30.4%, P<0.0001. Among, positivity for IgA aB2GPI was higher than in patients who had received their first transplant that those were retransplanted. This finding could have important clinical implications and can suggest new therapeutic strategies in patients with IgA aB2GPI antibodies.

  15. Component analysis and heavy metal adsorption ability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zheng-Bo; Li, Qing; Li, Chuan-chuan; Chen, Tian-hu; Wang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play an important role in the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this paper, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used as the test strain to explore the effect of heavy metals on the components and adsorption ability of EPS. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis results showed that heavy metals did not influence the type of functional groups of EPS. Potentiometric titration results indicated that the acidic constants (pKa) of the EPS fell into three ranges of 3.5-4.0, 5.9-6.7, and 8.9-9.8. The adsorption site concentrations of the surface functional groups also increased. Adsorption results suggested that EPS had a specific binding affinity for the dosed heavy metal, and that EPS extracted from the Zn(2+)-dosed system had a higher binding affinity for all heavy metals. Additionally, Zn(2+) decreased the inhibitory effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on the SRB.

  16. The ability of renal ultrasound and ureteral jet evaluation to predict 30-day outcomes in patients with suspected nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, J Matthew; Fischer, Jonathan I; Anderson, Kenton L; Mangili, Alessandro; Panebianco, Nova L; Dean, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    We sought to identify findings on bedside renal ultrasound that predicted need for hospitalization in patients with suspected nephrolithiasis. A convenience sample of patients with suspected nephrolithiasis was prospectively enrolled and underwent bedside ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder to determine the presence and degree of hydronephrosis and ureteral jets. Sonologists were blinded to any other laboratory and imaging data. Patients were followed up at 30 days by phone call and review of medical records. Seventy-seven patients with suspected renal colic were included in the analysis. Thirteen patients were admitted. Reasons for admission included intractable pain, infection, or emergent urologic intervention. All 13 patients requiring admission had hydronephrosis present on initial bedside ultrasound. Patients with moderate hydronephrosis had a higher admission rate (36%) than those with mild hydronephrosis (24%), P<.01. Of patients without hydronephrosis, none required admission within 30 days. The sensitivity and specificity of hydronephrosis for predicting subsequent hospitalization were 100% and 44%, respectively. Loss of the ipsilateral ureteral jet was not significantly associated with subsequent hospital admission and did not improve the predictive value when used in combination with the degree of hydronephrosis. No patients with suspected renal colic and absence of hydronephrosis on bedside ultrasound required admission within 30 days. Ureteral jet evaluation did not help in prediction of 30-day outcomes and may not be useful in the emergency department management of renal colic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for shared genetic risk between ADHD symptoms and reduced mathematics ability: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Data came from more than 6,000 twelve-year-old twin pairs from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents rated each twin's behaviour using a DSM-IV-based 18-item questionnaire of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. Mathematics tests based on the UK National Curriculum were completed by each twin. The twins also completed standardised tests of reading and general cognitive ability. Multivariate twin model fitting was applied. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were highly heritable (67% and 73% respectively). Mathematics ability was moderately heritable (46%). Mathematics ability and inattentiveness showed a significantly greater phenotypic correlation (r(p) = -.26) and genetic correlation (r(A) = -.41) than mathematics ability and hyperactivity-impulsivity (r(p) = -.18; r(A) = -.22). The genetic correlation between inattentiveness and mathematics ability was largely independent from hyperactivity-impulsivity, and was only partially accounted for by genetic influences related to reading and general cognitive ability. Results revealed the novel finding that mathematics ability shows significantly stronger phenotypic and genetic associations with inattentiveness than with hyperactivity-impulsivity. Genetic associations between inattentiveness and mathematics ability could only partially be accounted for by hyperactivity-impulsivity, reading and general cognitive ability. Results suggest that mathematics ability is associated with ADHD symptoms largely because it shares genetic risk factors with inattentiveness, and provide further evidence for considering inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity separately. DNA markers for ADHD symptoms (especially inattentiveness) may also be candidate risk factors for

  18. N-acetylcysteine infusion reduces the resistance index of renal artery in the early stage of systemic sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edoardo ROSATO; Rosario CIANCI; Biagio BARBANO; Ginevra MENGHI; Antonietta GIGANTE; Carmelina ROSSI; Enrico M ZARDI; Antonio AMOROSO; Simonetta PISARRI; Felice SALSANO

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate resistance index (RI) changes in renal artery after N-acetylcysteine infusion in patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods: In an open-label study 40 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) iv infusion over 5 consecutive hours, at a dose of 0.015g·kg~(-1)·h~(-1).Renal haemodynamic effects were evaluated by color Doppler examination before and after NAC infusion. Results: NAC infusion significantly reduced RI in a group of sclerodermic patients with early/active capillaroscopic pattern, modified Rodnan Total Skin Score (mRTSS)14 and severe-end stage score to the vascular domain of DSS. In patients with reduction of RI after NAC infusion, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide mean value was significantly higher than in those patients with an increase of RI. No significant differences in renal blood flow were found between patients with different subsets of SSc. Conclusion: In patients with low disease severity NAC ameliorates vascular renal function.

  19. The effects of continuous and intermittent reduced speed modes on renal and intestinal perfusion in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzun, Egemen; Chorpenning, Katherine; Liu, Maxine Qun; Bonugli, Katherine; Tamez, Dan; Lenox, Mark; Miller, Matthew W; Fossum, Theresa W

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the continuous-flow output on renal and intestinal microcirculation have not been extensively studied. To address this, the Heartware HVAD pump loaded with continuous and intermittent reduced speed (IRS) modes was implanted in four sheep and then operated at low and high speeds to mimic partial and complete unloading of the left ventricle. Then microsphere and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies were used to assess renal and intestinal tissue perfusion at various pump speeds and flow modes as compared with baseline (pump off). Arterial and venous oxygen (T02) and carbon dioxide (TCO2) contents were measured to assess changes in intestinal metabolism. Renal and intestinal regional blood flows did not produce any significant changes compared with baseline values in either continuous or IRS modes and speeds. The venous TO2 and TCO2 significantly increased in continuous and IRS modes and speeds compared with baseline. Our data suggested that renal and intestinal tissue perfusions were not adversely affected by continuous and IRS modes either in partial or complete unloading. Intestinal venous hyperoxia and increased TCO2 may be the evidence of intestinal arteriovenous shunting along with increased intestinal tissue metabolism. Longer-term studies are warranted in chronic heart failure models.

  20. Moxonidine into the lateral parabrachial nucleus reduces renal and hormonal responses to cell dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C A F; Margatho, L O; Andrade-Franzé, G M F; De Luca, L A; Antunes-Rodrigues, J; Menani, J V

    2012-04-19

    The deactivation of the inhibitory mechanisms with injections of moxonidine (α2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline receptor agonist) into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) increases hypertonic NaCl intake by intra- or extracellular dehydrated rats. In the present study, we investigated the changes in the urinary sodium and volume, sodium balance, and plasma vasopressin and oxytocin in rats treated with intragastric (i.g.) 2 M NaCl load (2 ml/rat) combined with injections of moxonidine into the LPBN. Male Holtzman rats (n=5-12/group) with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally into LPBN were used. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (0.5 nmol/0.2 μl) into the LPBN decreased i.g. 2 M NaCl-induced diuresis (4.6±0.7 vs. vehicle: 7.4±0.6 ml/120 min) and natriuresis (1.65±0.29 vs. vehicle: 2.53±0.17 mEq/120 min), whereas the previous injection of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX 821002 (10 nmol/0.2 μl) into the LPBN abolished the effects of moxonidine. Moxonidine injected into the LPBN reduced i.g. 2 M NaCl-induced increase in plasma oxytocin and vasopressin (14.6±2.8 and 2.2±0.3 vs. vehicle: 25.7±7 and 4.3±0.7 pg/ml, respectively). Moxonidine injected into the LPBN combined with i.g. 2 M NaCl also increased 0.3 M NaCl intake (7.5±1.7 vs. vehicle: 0.5±0.2 mEq/2 h) and produced positive sodium balance (2.3±1.4 vs. vehicle: -1.2±0.4 mEq/2 h) in rats that had access to water and NaCl. The present results show that LPBN α2-adrenoceptor activation reduces renal and hormonal responses to intracellular dehydration and increases sodium and water intake, which facilitates sodium retention and body fluid volume expansion.

  1. Renovascular hypertension. Ability to renal vein ratio to predict the blood pressure level 18-24 months after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Fjeldborg, O; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, B

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen patients with severe hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated surgically. One patient died 4 days after surgery due to a cerebral thrombosis. The other 13 patients were followed for 18-24 months. Five were considered cured since the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was less than or equal to 90 mm Hg without therapy. Five were improved since DBP was less than or equal to 100 mm Hg during treatment with only one or two antihypertensive agents. There were unchanged. Renal vein renin ratio (RVRR) was greater than or equal to 1.5 either before or after furosemide in all patients who were cured or improved and less than or equal to 1.5 in 2 of 3 who were unchanged. It can be concluded that surgical treatment cured or improved 77% of the patients, and that a RVRR greater than or equal to 1.5 is a good predictor of the blood pressure lowering effect of surgery.

  2. Renal dysfunction in patients with heart failure with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlister, Finlay A; Ezekowitz, Justin; Tarantini, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies in heart failure (HF) have used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration Group (CKD-EPI) equation provides a more-accurate eGFR than the MDRD when compare...

  3. Reduced aminolevulinate dehydrase activity in rats with functional renal failure induced by cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanellas, A; Herrero, J A; Enríquez de Salamanca, R

    1997-01-01

    Patients with chronic failure evidence various abnormalities in heme metabolism, primarily erythrocyte aminolevulinate dehydrase hypoactivity and increased plasma and erythrocyte porphyrin levels. Such abnormalities have also been observed in animals with both acute and chronic experimental renal failure. The aim of this work was to study these parameters of porphyrin metabolism in an experimental model of functional renal failure. A group of 11 male Wistar rats received 13 doses (25 mg/kg body weight/day) of cyclosporin A. Serum creatinine did not vary, but the blood urea nitrogen levels increased and a significant decrease in the creatinine clearance was observed. The drug also caused a marked decrease in the erythrocyte aminolevulinate dehydrase activity, a slight reduction of the hematocrit value, and increased levels of blood porphyrins. The plasma of treated rats showed capacity to inhibit aminolevulinate dehydrase activity when incubated in vitro with erythrocytes from control rats. Porphyrin metabolism remained unchanged in the liver. The daily diuresis was significantly decreased in the cyclosporin as compared to the control group; however, the porphyrinuria showed no changes. The derangements in the erythrocyte heme biosynthesis pathway observed in patients with chronic renal failure are reproducible in an experimental model of cyclosporin A-induced functional renal failure.

  4. Trauma renal Renal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    1999-02-01

    after trauma is safe and in a high percentage of cases reconstruction will be successful. Isolation of the renal vasculature before exploration of the renal trauma is believed to reduce blood loss, allow for more careful and confident renal inspection and reconstruction, and reduce the probability of nephrectomy.

  5. Combined magnetic resonance urography and targeted helical CT in patients with renal colic: a new approach to reduce delivered dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Alfredo; Minutoli, Fabio; Scribano, Emanuele; Vinci, Sergio; Magno, Carlo; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Settineri, Nicola; Pandolfo, Ignazio; Gaeta, Michele

    2004-08-01

    To determine whether magnetic resonance urography (MRU), obtained before helical computed tomography (CT) in patients with acute renal colic, can help delimit the obstructed area to be subsequently examined by a targeted CT scan, thus reducing the dose of radiation. Patients (51) with symptoms of acute renal colic underwent MRU and a total urinary tract helical CT. CT images from the 5 cm below the level of ureteral obstruction as demonstrated by MRU were selected out. Combined interpretation of MRU and selected CT images constituted protocol A. Protocol B consisted of the entire unenhanced helical CT of the urinary tract. The two protocols were compared regarding the following points: 1) sensitivity in diagnosing the presence of obstructing urinary stones, and 2) the delivered radiation dose. Protocol A and protocol B had, respectively, 98% and 100% sensitivity in demonstrating ureteral stone as a cause of renal colic. Estimated average dose calculated from phantom study was 0.52 mSv for protocol A and 2.83 mSv for protocol B. Therefore, the effective radiation dose was 5.4 times lower in protocol A compared to protocol B. Combined MRU and short helical CT has a high sensitivity in detecting ureteral calculi with a reduced radiation dose. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Eligibility for Statin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Reduced Renal Function: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sub Moon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between statin eligibility and the degree of renal dysfunction using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III and the American College of Cardiology (ACC/American Heart Association (AHA guidelines in Korean adults.MethodsRenal function was assessed in 18,746 participants of the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study from January 2011 to December 2012. Subjects were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: stage 1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stages 3 to 5, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Statin eligibility in these groups was determined using the ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, and the risk for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS and Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE.ResultsThere were 3,546 (18.9% and 4,048 (21.5% statin-eligible subjects according to ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. The proportion of statin-eligible subjects increased as renal function deteriorated. Statin eligibility by the ACC/AHA guidelines showed better agreement with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO recommendations compared to the ATP III guidelines in subjects with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD (κ value, 0.689 vs. 0.531. When the 10-year ASCVD risk was assessed using the FRS and PCE, the mean risk calculated by both equations significantly increased as renal function declined.ConclusionsThe proportion of statin-eligible subjects significantly increased according to worsening renal function in this Korean cohort. ACC/AHA guideline showed better agreement for statin eligibility with that recommended by KDIGO guideline compared to ATP III in subjects with CKD.

  7. Reduced ability to work both before and after infectious spondylodiscitis in working-age patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Hallas, Jesper; Bælum, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    to work (RTW). METHODS: We identified all patients aged 20-57 years treated for infectious spondylodiscitis January 1994-May 2009 at hospitals in Funen County, Denmark. The work status of each week from 2 years before until 2 years after index date was compared with that of a reference population. Time......BACKGROUND: As little is known about the ability to work in patients with infectious spondylodiscitis, we compared the relation between the workforce before infection with that of a reference population and described the patients' ability to work after infection including predictors of return...

  8. Unenhanced computed tomography in acute renal colic reduces cost outside radiology department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, J.; Andersen, J.R.; Nordling, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unenhanced multidetector computed tomography (UMDCT) is well established as the procedure of choice for radiologic evaluation of patients with renal colic. The procedure has both clinical and financial consequences for departments of surgery and radiology. However, the financial effect...... outside the radiology department is poorly elucidated. PURPOSE: To evaluate the financial consequences outside of the radiology department, a retrospective study comparing the ward occupation of patients examined with UMDCT to that of intravenous urography (IVU) was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS......) saved the hospital USD 265,000 every 6 months compared to the use of IVU. CONCLUSION: Use of UMDCT compared to IVU in patients with renal colic leads to cost savings outside the radiology department Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  9. Kefir administration reduced progression of renal injury in STZ-diabetic rats by lowering oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punaro, Giovana R; Maciel, Fabiane R; Rodrigues, Adelson M; Rogero, Marcelo M; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Oliveira, Marice N; Ihara, Silvia S M; Araujo, Sergio R R; Sanches, Talita R C; Andrade, Lucia C; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of Kefir, a probiotic fermented milk, on oxidative stress in diabetic animals. The induction of diabetes was achieved in adult male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were distributed into four groups as follows: control (CTL); control Kefir (CTLK); diabetic (DM) and diabetic Kefir (DMK). Starting on the 5th day of diabetes, Kefir was administered by daily gavage at a dose of 1.8 mL/day for 8 weeks. Before and after Kefir treatment, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages to obtain blood and urine samples to evaluate urea, creatinine, proteinuria, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). After sacrificing the animals, the renal cortex was removed for histology, oxidative stress and NOS evaluation. When compared to CTL rats, DM rats showed increased levels of glycemia, plasmatic urea, proteinuria, renal NO, superoxide anion, TBARS, and plasmatic CRP; also demonstrated a reduction in urinary urea, creatinine, and NO. However, DMK rats showed a significant improvement in most of these parameters. Despite the lack of differences observed in the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly lower in the DMK group when compared to DM rats, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the DMK group presented a significant reduction of glycogen accumulation within the renal tubules when compared to the DM group. These results indicate that Kefir treatment may contribute to better control of glycemia and oxidative stress, which is associated with the amelioration of renal function, suggesting its use as a non-pharmacological adjuvant to delay the progression of diabetic complications.

  10. Evidence for Shared Genetic Risk between ADHD Symptoms and Reduced Mathematics Ability: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U.; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Methods: Data came from more than 6,000 twelve-year-old twin pairs from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents…

  11. Locomotor Adaptation Improves Balance Control, Multitasking Ability and Reduces the Metabolic Cost of Postural Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Miller, C. A.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Guined, J. R.; Buxton, R. E.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    During exploration-class missions, sensorimotor disturbances may lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial introduction to a novel gravitational environment following a landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of our current project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability training program to facilitate rapid adaptation to these environments. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene. It provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Greater metabolic cost incurred during balance instability means more physical work is required during adaptation to new environments possibly affecting crewmembers? ability to perform mission critical tasks during early surface operations on planetary expeditions. The goal of this study was to characterize adaptation to a discordant sensory challenge across a number of performance modalities including locomotor stability, multi-tasking ability and metabolic cost. METHODS: Subjects (n=15) walked (4.0 km/h) on a treadmill for an 8 -minute baseline walking period followed by 20-minutes of walking (4.0 km/h) with support surface motion (0.3 Hz, sinusoidal lateral motion, peak amplitude 25.4 cm) provided by the treadmill/motion-base system. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of locomotor stability and multi-tasking ability, respectively. Metabolic data (VO2) were collected via a portable metabolic gas analysis system. RESULTS: At the onset of lateral support surface motion, subj ects walking on our treadmill showed an increase in stride frequency and auditory reaction time indicating initial balance and multi-tasking disturbances. During the 20-minute adaptation period, balance control and multi-tasking performance improved. Similarly, throughout the 20-minute adaptation period, VO2 gradually

  12. Reduced NOV/CCN3 Expression Limits Inflammation and Interstitial Renal Fibrosis after Obstructive Nephropathy in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Olivier Marchal

    Full Text Available The main hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD is excessive inflammation leading to interstitial tissue fibrosis. It has been recently reported that NOV/CCN3 could be involved in kidney damage but its role in the progression of nephropathies is poorly known. NOV/CCN3 is a secreted multifunctional protein belonging to the CCN family involved in different physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, inflammation and cancers. The purpose of our study was to determine the role of NOV/CCN3 in renal inflammation and fibrosis related to primitive tubulointerstitial injury. After unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO, renal histology and real-time PCR were performed in NOV/CCN3-/- and wild type mice. NOV/CCN3 mRNA expression was increased in the obstructed kidneys in the early stages of the obstructive nephropathy. Interestingly, plasmatic levels of NOV/CCN3 were strongly induced after 7 days of UUO and the injection of recombinant NOV/CCN3 protein in healthy mice significantly increased CCL2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, after 7 days of UUO NOV/CCN3-/- mice displayed reduced proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion markers expression leading to restricted accumulation of interstitial monocytes, in comparison with their wild type littermates. Consequently, in NOV/CCN3-/- mice interstitial renal fibrosis was blunted after 15 days of UUO. In agreement with our experimental data, NOV/CCN3 expression was highly increased in biopsies of patients with tubulointerstitial nephritis. Thus, the inhibition of NOV/CCN3 may represent a novel target for the progression of renal diseases.

  13. Ability of moisturizers to reduce dry skin and irritation and to prevent their return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, F Anthony; Abrutyn, Eric S; Draelos, Zoe D

    2005-01-01

    Assays of moisturizer efficacy have traditionally focused on a moisturizer's ability to alleviate dry skin. More recently, a moisturizer's ability to prevent primary irritation has been recognized. To assess and compare the ability of moisturizers to alleviate skin dryness and primary irritation, as well as prevent their return, four controlled-application clinical (in vivo) studies were carried out: hand-wash test, regression test, reduction in pre-existing irritation study, and prevention-of-irritation studies. Overall conclusions were confirmed in a home-use clinical (validation) study of people suffering from mild eczema. The controlled in vivo studies demonstrate that: (a) a moisturizer can alleviate skin dryness and irritation, and prevent their return; and (b) the efficacy of different moisturizers can be differentiated, based on their composition. The home-use study results demonstrated that the most effective moisturizer identified by the controlled-application studies was highly effective against the signs of eczema. In vivo modeling of moisturizer efficacy enables assessment and optimization of different benefits separately, while predicting the quantitative and perceived (observed) relevance of the benefits the moisturizer delivers to consumers.

  14. Strophanthus hispidus attenuates the Ischemia-Reperfusion induced myocardial Infarction and reduces mean arterial pressure in renal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Gundamaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The myocardium is generally injured in the case of reperfusion injury and arterial damage is caused by hypertension. In reference to these statements, the present study was focused. Cardiac glycosides were said to have protective effects against myocardial infarction and hypertension. Strophanthus hispidus was thus incorporated in the study. Objective: The prime objective of the study was to investigate the protective effects of Strophanthus hispidus against ischemia-reperfusion myocardial Infarction and renal artery occluded hypertension in rats. Materials and Methods: The animal model adopted was surgically-induced myocardial ischemia, performed by means of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion (LAD for 30 min followed by reperfusion for another 4 h. Infarct size was assessed by using the staining agent TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Hypertension was induced by clamping the renal artery with renal bulldog clamp for 4 h. Results: The study was fruitful by the effect of Strophanthus hispidus on infarction size, which got reduced to 27.2 ± 0.5and 20.0 ± 0.2 by 500 mg/Kg and 1000 mg/Kg ethanolic extracts which was remarkably significant when compared with that of the control group 52.8 ± 4.6. The plant extract did reduce heart rate at various time intervals. There was also a protective effect in the case of mean arterial blood pressure were the 500 mg/Kg and 1000 mg/Kg of the plant extract did reduce the hypertension after 60 minutes was 60.0 ± 4.80 and 50.50 ± 6.80. Conclusion: The results suggest that 500 mg/Kg and 100 mg/Kg ethanolic extract of Strophanthus hispidus was found to possess significant cardiac protective and anti-hypertensive activity.

  15. Reduced renal clearance of cefotaxime in asians with a low-frequency polymorphism of OAT3 (SLC22A8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Sook Wah; Nguyen, Anh Nguyet; Brown, Chaline; Savic, Radojka M; Zhang, Youcai; Castro, Richard A; Cropp, Cheryl D; Choi, Ji Ha; Singh, Diment; Tahara, Harunobu; Stocker, Sophie L; Huang, Yong; Brett, Claire M; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2013-09-01

    Organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3, SLC22A8), a transporter expressed on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule, plays a critical role in the renal excretion of organic anions including many therapeutic drugs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of the OAT3-Ile305Phe variant (rs11568482), present at 3.5% allele frequency in Asians, on drug disposition with a focus on cefotaxime, a cephalosporin antibiotic. In HEK293-Flp-In cells, the OAT3-Ile305Phe variant had a lower maximum cefotaxime transport activity, Vmax , [159 ± 3 nmol*(mg protein)(-1) /min (mean ± SD)] compared with the reference OAT3 [305 ± 28 nmol*(mg protein)(-1) /min, (mean ± SD), p cefotaxime renal clearance (CLR ; mean ± SD: 84.8 ± 32.1 mL/min, n = 5) compared with volunteers that were homozygous for the reference allele (158 ± 44.1 mL/min, n = 10; p = 0.006). Furthermore, the net secretory component of cefotaxime renal clearance (CLsec ) was reduced in volunteers heterozygous for the variant allele [33.3 ± 31.8 mL/min (mean ± SD)] compared with volunteers homozygous for the OAT3 reference allele [97.0 ± 42.2 mL/min (mean ± SD), p = 0.01]. In summary, our study suggests that a low-frequency reduced-function polymorphism of OAT3 associates with reduced cefotaxime CLR and CL(sec) .

  16. En bloc ligation of renal vessels is safe and reduces duration of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn Htum; Hult, Mariam Annalisa Skibsted; Dahl, Claus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Conventionally, individual ligation of the renal vessels with clips is performed during laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN). Concomitant ligation of the vessels is not a standard procedure due to an expected risk of stapler dysfunction and the development of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF...... in the en bloc group compared to 109 minutes in the conventional group (p = 0.0001). The difference remained significant with multivariate analysis. In the LNU group, seven patients underwent en bloc ligation. There was no significant difference between conventional ligation and en bloc ligation...

  17. Epoetin Delta Reduces Oxidative Stress in Primary Human Renal Tubular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies De Beuf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO exerts (renal tissue protective effects. Since it is unclear whether this is a direct effect of EPO on the kidney or not, we investigated whether EPO is able to protect human renal tubular epithelial cells (hTECs from oxidative stress and if so which pathways are involved. EPO (epoetin delta could protect hTECs against oxidative stress by a dose-dependent inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation. This protective effect is possibly related to the membranous expression of the EPO receptor (EPOR since our data point to the membranous EPOR expression as a prerequisite for this protective effect. Oxidative stress reduction went along with the upregulation of renoprotective genes. Whilst three of these, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, aquaporin-1 (AQP-1, and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 have already been associated with EPO-induced renoprotection, this study for the first time suggests carboxypeptidase M (CPM, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV, and cytoglobin (Cygb to play a role in this process.

  18. Ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne enteritis worldwide and is primarily caused by consumption/mishandling of contaminated poultry. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing many enteric pathogens, but has not demonstrated consistent reduction against Campylobac...

  19. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  20. Effect of conventional physical therapy and Pilates in functionality, respiratory muscle strength and ability to exercise in hospitalized chronic renal patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Lais A; Pinto, Juliana Sst; da Silva, Ana Pp; Cabral, Cristina Mn; Chiavegato, Luciana D

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effect of conventional physical therapy and Pilates on function, restoration, and exercise ability in hospitalized chronic renal patients. A total of 56 inpatients were randomized into two groups: Conventional physical therapy and Pilates. The primary outcomes were functionality (Barthel Index), respiratory muscle strength (manovacuometry), and ability to exercise (step test) evaluated in the following periods: preintervention, after the 5th session, and after the 10th session or at discharge. Three months after randomization, the Barthel Index was applied over the phone. At the end of the 10 sessions or at discharge, the length of hospital stay was calculated and the level of satisfaction with physical therapy care was assessed (MedRisk). Linear mixed models were used for the primary outcomes and the Student's t-test was used for length of stay and satisfaction. There was no significant between-group difference in functionality (MD -1.3; 95% CI -2.8 to 5.4), inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength (MD -1.3; 95% CI -7.3 to 4.5/MD -4.5; 95% CI -0.7 to 9.7, respectively), performance in the step test (MD -3.3; 95% CI -6.2 to 12.8), patient satisfaction with physical therapy care (MD -2.0; 95% CI -5.1 to 9.1), and length of stay (MD 4.5; 95% CI -15.9 to 6.8). Both interventions, conventional physical therapy and Pilates, showed improvements and there is no difference between them. Therefore both can be used in chronic renal patients.

  1. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone reduces renal interstitial fibrosis after long-term cyclosporine treatment in rat: antagonizing cyclosporine nephrotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cyclosporine-(CsA)-mediated loss of kidney function is a major clinical problem in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone (EPL) prevents chronic CsA-induced renal interstitial volume increase, tubule loss, and functional impairment in a rat model. Methods Sprague–Dawley rats received CsA alone (15 mg/kg/d p.o.), CsA and EPL (approximately 100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or vehicle (control) for 12 weeks. At 11 weeks, chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters were implanted for continuous measurements of arterial blood pressure (BP) and GFR (inulin clearance) in conscious, freely moving animals. Plasma was sampled for analysis and kidney tissue was fixed for quantitative stereological analyses. Results Compared to controls, CsA-treatment reduced relative tubular volume (0.73±0.03 vs. 0.85±0.01, pcyclosporine rat nephropathy model, EPL reduces renal tissue injury, hypofiltration, hypertension, and growth impairment. MR antagonists should be tested for their renoprotective potential in patients treated with calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:23425330

  2. Postconditioning with cyclosporine a reduces early renal dysfunction by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Sandrine; Pillot, Bruno; Rognant, Nicolas; Augeul, Lionel; Rayberin, Maud; Varennes, Annie; Laville, Maurice; Ovize, Michel; Juillard, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury leads to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, which contributes to cell death. The aim of this study is to determine whether ischemic or pharmacological postconditioning with cyclosporine A (CsA) might protect the kidney from lethal reperfusion injury. Male mice underwent a unilateral (right) nephrectomy followed by 30 minutes of contralateral (left) clamping of the renal artery. We studied 4 groups at 20 minutes and 24 hours of reperfusion: a sham group (n = 4), an ischemic group (n = 6), CsA-postconditioned group (postcond-CsA, injection of 3 mg/kg of CsA 5 minutes before the end of ischemia, (n = 6), and an ischemic postconditioning (IPC) group (n = 6), consisting of 3 cycles of 30 seconds of renal ischemia with 30 seconds intervening reperfusion. After 24 hours of reperfusion, we measured plasma creatinine, urea, and histological kidney injury. The kidney mitochondria were isolated to assess the mitochondria calcium retention capacity and oxidative phosphorylation. At 24 hours after reperfusion, serum creatinine decreased in postcond-CsA and IPC compared to ischemic group. The histological score was also significantly improved with postcond-CsA and IPC. At 20 minutes and 24 hours of reperfusion, calcium retention capacity was decreased significantly in the ischemic group. The mitochondrial respiration stay decreased in the ischemic group at 24 hours of reperfusion, whereas the respiration was improved significantly in the postcond-CsA and IPC group. Bax and cleaved caspase 3 decreased in PostCsA and IPC group. Our results suggest that IPC and CsA, administered immediately before reperfusion, protect the kidney from lethal injury.

  3. Reduced work ability in middle-aged men with asthma from youth--a 20-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Irmeli; Pallasaho, Paula; Luukkonen, Ritva; Suojalehto, Hille; Karjalainen, Jouko; Lauerma, Antti; Karjalainen, Antti

    2011-06-01

    We studied, whether asthma diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood affects work ability 20 years later. We used Finnish Defence Force registers, 1986-1990, to select: (1) conscripts with asthma to represent a mild/moderate asthma group (n=485), (2) asthmatics who were exempted from military service to represent a relatively severe asthma group (n=393) and (3) a control group (n 1500) without asthma. A questionnaire consisting of validated questions on asthma and work ability was sent out in 2009. A total of 54% of the men in the first study group, 44% of those in the second study group and 44% of the controls answered. The mean age of the participants was 41 (range 37-51). Self-assessed current work ability compared with lifetime best had decreased in 28.9% of the first asthma group, in 31.1% of the second asthma group, and in 19.7% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Current smoking (OR 2.5), only basic education (OR 2.6), being a manual worker (OR 2.7) and current severe asthma (OR 3.8) associated most strongly with decreased work ability among the asthmatics. Both mild and more severe asthma at the age of around 20 seems to be associated with reduced work ability in 40-year-old males.

  4. Reducing formation damage with microbubble based drilling fluid : understanding the blocking ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorndalen, N.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering; Jossy, E.; Alvarez, J.M. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Micro-bubble based drilling fluids use gas bubbles to bridge pores in porous media. The microbubbles can be removed during the initial stages of production to reduce costs associated with stimulation processes. This paper provided details of experiments conducted to investigate pore blocking mechanisms. Micromodel cells were used with different pressure rates and fluid compositions. A xanthan gum-water mixture was used as a base drilling fluid. An anionic surfactant was added to the base fluid for aphronization. The resulting stable foam was injected into the micromodel, where it blocked porous media. The analysis demonstrated that an aphron of 60 {mu}m bubble will invade porous media with a pore diameter of 50 {mu} at approximately 10 kPa. The foam was effectively removed by water injection, which indicated that the effects of the foam were irreversible. Less fluid and surfactant was needed to achieve desired flow rates when the foam was used. It was concluded that drilling with aphronized fluid will reduce formation damage. Further research is required to determine maximum flow pressure of the aphronized fluid in porous media. 24 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  5. Reduced plumage and flight ability of a new Jurassic paravian theropod from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Demuynck, Helena; Dyke, Gareth; Hu, Dongyu; Escuillié, François; Claeys, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Feathered theropods were diverse in the Early Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning Province, China. Recently, anatomically distinct feathered taxa have been discovered in the older Middle-Late Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation in the same region. Phylogenetic hypotheses including these specimens have challenged the pivotal position of Archaeopteryx in bird phylogeny. Here we report a basal troodontid from the Tiaojishan Formation that resembles Anchiornis, also from Jianchang County (regarded as sister-taxa). The feathers of Eosinopteryx are less extensive on the limbs and tail than Anchiornis and other deinonychosaurians. With reduced plumage and short uncurved pedal claws, Eosinopteryx would have been able to run unimpeded (with large foot remiges cursorial locomotion was likely problematic for Anchiornis). Eosinopteryx increases the known diversity of small-bodied dinosaurs in the Jurassic, shows that taxa with similar body plans could occupy different niches in the same ecosystem and suggests a more complex picture for the origin of flight.

  6. Angiotensin-(1-7 relieved renal injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lu

    Full Text Available We aimed to study the renal injury and hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH and the protective effects mediated by angiotensin 1-7 [Ang(1-7]. We randomly assigned 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 180-200 g to normoxia control, CIH, Ang(1-7-treated normoxia, and Ang(1-7-treated CIH groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was monitored at the start and end of each week. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA was recorded. CTGF and TGF-β were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Tissue parameters of oxidative stress were also determined. In addition, renal levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitrotyrosine, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were determined by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and ELISA. TUNEL assay results and cleaved caspase 3 and 12 were also determined. Ang(1-7 induced a reduction in SBP together with a restoration of RSNA in the rat model of CIH. Ang(1-7 treatment also suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced renal tissue inflammation, ameliorated mesangial expansion, and decreased renal fibrosis. Thus, Ang(1-7 treatment exerted renoprotective effects on CIH-induced renal injury and was associated with a reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Ang(1-7 might therefore represent a promising therapy for obstructive sleep apnea-related hypertension and renal injury.

  7. Aging in mice reduces the ability to sustain sleep/wake states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu E Wimmer

    Full Text Available One of the most significant problems facing older individuals is difficulty staying asleep at night and awake during the day. Understanding the mechanisms by which the regulation of sleep/wake goes awry with age is a critical step in identifying novel therapeutic strategies to improve quality of life for the elderly. We measured wake, non-rapid eye movement (NREM and rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in young (2-4 months-old and aged (22-24 months-old C57BL6/NIA mice. We used both conventional measures (i.e., bout number and bout duration and an innovative spike-and-slab statistical approach to characterize age-related fragmentation of sleep/wake. The short (spike and long (slab components of the spike-and-slab mixture model capture the distribution of bouts for each behavioral state in mice. Using this novel analytical approach, we found that aged animals are less able to sustain long episodes of wakefulness or NREM sleep. Additionally, spectral analysis of EEG recordings revealed that aging slows theta peak frequency, a correlate of arousal. These combined analyses provide a window into the mechanisms underlying the destabilization of long periods of sleep and wake and reduced vigilance that develop with aging.

  8. Plasma HDL reduces nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides originating from oxidized LDL: a mechanism for its antioxidant ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotosai, Mari; Shimada, Sachiko; Kanda, Mai; Matsuda, Namiko; Sekido, Keiko; Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Tokumura, Akira; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji

    2013-06-01

    The antioxidant property of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be involved in potential anti-atherogenic effects but the exact mechanism is not known. We aimed to reveal the contribution of HDL on the elimination of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) derived from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidized LDL prepared by copper ion-induced oxidation contained nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides (FFA-OOH) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho), in addition to cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PtdCho-OOH). A platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitor suppressed formation of FFA-OOH and lysoPtdCho in oxidized LDL. Among LOOH species, FFA-OOH was preferentially reduced by incubating oxidized LDL with HDL. HDL exhibited selective FFA-OOH reducing ability if it was mixed with a liposomal solution containing FFA-OOH, CE-OOH and PtdCho-OOH. Two-electron reduction of the hydroperoxy group to the hydroxy group was confirmed by the formation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid in HPLC analyses. This reducing effect was also found in apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). FFA-OOH released from PtdCho-OOH due to PAF-AH activity in oxidized LDL undergo two-electron reduction by the reducing ability of apoA1 in HDL. This preferential reduction of FFA-OOH may participate in the mechanism of the antioxidant property of HDL.

  9. Renal computed tomography with 3-dimensional angiography and simultaneous measurement of plasma contrast clearance reduce the invasiveness and cost of evaluating living renal donor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, B W; Demos, T; Marsan, R; Posniak, H; Kostro, B; Calvert, D; Hatch, D; Flanigan, R; Steinmuller, D; Lewis, R

    1996-01-27

    Renal computed tomography (CT), 3-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA), and simultaneous measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by x-ray fluorescence determination of plasma contrast clearance (PCC) are alternatives to intravenous urography (IVU), renal arteriography (RA), and 24-hr urine creatinine clearance (CrCl) for evaluation of renal structure and function in living renal donor (LRD) candidates. To determine if CT, 3D-CTA, and PCC provide data comparable to IVU, RA, and CrCl, both methods were used to evaluate 23 LRD candidates. Costs were also compared. Conventional RA identified 19 accessory arteries and one case of medial fibroplasia. Each of these anomalous vessels was recognized on 3D-CTA. Venous anatomy was more clearly delineated on 3D-CTA than the venous phase of conventional RA. CT demonstrated 3 benign cysts and a single, small intraparenchymal calcification in 3 renal units. GFRs measured by PCC and CrCl were 91 +/- 4 and 132 +/- 7 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively (r = 0.64, P < 0.05). Total cost for CT/3D-CTA/PCC was 46% less than that of IVU/RA/CrCl and 40% less than RA/CrCl. CT/3D-CTA/PCC provided reliable structural and functional data at substantially less cost, discomfort, and inconvenience to the living renal donor candidate. As such, CT/3D-CTA/PCC is superior to conventional methods for evaluation of the living renal donor candidate.

  10. Excessive zinc intake increases systemic blood pressure and reduces renal blood flow via kidney angiotensin II in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Miyoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of excess zinc intake on the mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow (RBF), inulin clearance (IC), serum zinc level, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and kidney angiotensin II (AT II) levels in rats. Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained for 4 weeks on a diet containing either 5 mg/100 g (control group), 50 mg/100 g (Zn50 group), or 200 mg/100 g (Zn200 group) zinc carbonate. Serum zinc levels significantly increased to 126.5 % in the Zn50 group and 198.1 % in the Zn200 group compared with controls. MAP significantly increased to 107.8 % in the Zn50 group and 114.5 % in the Zn200 group again compared with controls. Although the difference in serum ACE activity was independent of the serum zinc levels, the kidney AT II levels increased significantly to 137.2 % in the Zn50 group and 174.4 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. RBF was decreased significantly to 74.4 % in the Zn50 group and 69.7 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. IC values were significantly decreased to 69.6 % in the Zn50 group and 52.7 % in the Zn200 group as compared with control levels. Combined together, these results show that excessive Zn intake reduced IC and RBF and increased MAP and kidney AT II levels, suggesting that excessive Zn intake reduces renal function.

  11. Everolimus With Reduced Tacrolimus Improves Renal Function in De Novo Liver Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, P; Nevens, F; De Carlis, L; Metselaar, H J; Beckebaum, S; Saliba, F; Jonas, S; Sudan, D; Fung, J; Fischer, L; Duvoux, C; Chavin, K D; Koneru, B; Huang, M A; Chapman, W C; Foltys, D; Witte, S; Jiang, H; Hexham, J M; Junge, G

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective, multicenter, open-label study, de novo liver transplant patients were randomized at day 30±5 to (i) everolimus initiation with tacrolimus elimination (TAC Elimination) (ii) everolimus initiation with reduced-exposure tacrolimus (EVR+Reduced TAC) or (iii) standard-exposure tacrolimus (TAC Control). Randomization to TAC Elimination was terminated prematurely due to a higher rate of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (tBPAR). EVR+Reduced TAC was noninferior to TAC Control for the primary efficacy endpoint (tBPAR, graft loss or death at 12 months posttransplantation): 6.7% versus 9.7% (−3.0%; 95% CI −8.7, 2.6%; p<0.001 for noninferiority [12% margin]). tBPAR occurred in 2.9% of EVR+Reduced TAC patients versus 7.0% of TAC Controls (p = 0.035). The change in adjusted estimated GFR from randomization to month 12 was superior with EVR+Reduced TAC versus TAC Control (difference 8.50 mL/min/1.73 m2, 97.5% CI 3.74, 13.27 mL/min/1.73 m2, p<0.001 for superiority). Drug discontinuation for adverse events occurred in 25.7% of EVR+Reduced TAC and 14.1% of TAC Controls (relative risk 1.82, 95% CI 1.25, 2.66). Relative risk of serious infections between the EVR+Reduced TAC group versus TAC Controls was 1.76 (95% CI 1.03, 3.00). Everolimus facilitates early tacrolimus minimization with comparable efficacy and superior renal function, compared to a standard tacrolimus exposure regimen 12 months after liver transplantation. PMID:22882750

  12. Acute leptin exposure reduces megalin expression and upregulates TGFβ1 in cultured renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffa, Jessica F; Grinfeld, Esther; Mathai, Michael L; Poronnik, Phillip; McAinch, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2015-02-05

    Increased leptin concentrations observed in obesity can lead to proteinuria, suggesting that leptin may play a role in obesity-related kidney disease. Obesity reduces activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increases transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression in the kidney, leading to albuminuria. Thus we investigated if elevated leptin altered AMPK and TGF-β1 signaling in proximal tubule cells (PTCs). In opossum kidney (OK) PTCs Western blot analysis demonstrated that leptin upregulates TGF-β1 secretion (0.50 µg/ml) and phosphorylated AMPKα (at 0.25, and 0.50 µg/ml), and downregulates megalin expression at all concentrations (0.05-0.50 µg/ml). Using the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, leptin exposure regulated TGF-β1 expression and secretion in PTCs via an AMPK mediated pathway. In addition, elevated leptin exposure (0.50 µg/ml) reduced albumin handling in OK cells independently of megalin expression. This study demonstrates that leptin upregulates TGF-β1, reduces megalin, and reduces albumin handling in PTCs by an AMPK mediated pathway.

  13. Double knockout of Bax and Bak from kidney proximal tubules reduces unilateral urethral obstruction associated apoptosis and renal interstitial fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shuqin; Li, Lin; Wei, Qingqing; Hao, Jielu; Su, Yunchao; Mei, Changlin; Dong, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis, a common pathological feature of chronic kidney diseases, is often associated with apoptosis in renal tissues. To determine the associated apoptotic pathway and its role in renal interstitial fibrosis, we established a mouse model in which Bax and Bak, two critical genes in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, were deleted specifically from kidney proximal tubules and used this model to examine renal apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis following unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO). It was shown that double knockout of Bax and Bak from proximal tubules attenuated renal tubular cell apoptosis and suppressed renal interstitial fibrosis in UUO. The results indicate that the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis contributes significantly to the tubular apoptosis and renal interstitial fibrosis in kidney diseases. PMID:28317867

  14. Proximal tubule epithelial cell specific ablation of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase gene reduces the severity of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Zahedi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression and activity of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT increases in kidneys subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, while its ablation reduces the severity of such injuries. These results suggest that increased SSAT levels contribute to organ injury; however, the role of SSAT specifically expressed in proximal tubule epithelial cells, which are the primary targets of I/R injury, in the mediation of renal damage remains unresolved. METHODS: Severity of I/R injury in wt and renal proximal tubule specific SSAT-ko mice (PT-SSAT-Cko subjected to bilateral renal I/R injury was assessed using cellular and molecular biological approaches. RESULTS: Severity of the loss of kidney function and tubular damage are reduced in PT-SSAT-Cko- compared to wt-mice after I/R injury. In addition, animals treated with MDL72527, an inhibitor of polyamine oxidases, had less severe renal damage than their vehicle treated counter-parts. The renal expression of HMGB 1 and Toll like receptors (TLR 2 and 4 were also reduced in PT-SSAT-Cko- compared to wt mice after I/R injury. Furthermore, infiltration of neutrophils, as well as expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6 transcripts were lower in the kidneys of PT-SSAT-Cko compared to wt mice after I/R injury. Finally, the activation of caspase3 was more pronounced in the wt compared to PT-SSAT-Cko animals. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced SSAT expression by proximal tubule epithelial cells leads to tubular damage, and its deficiency reduces the severity of renal I/R injury through reduction of cellular damage and modulation of the innate immune response.

  15. 2-Methoxyestradiol Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Renal Dysfunction in Ovariectomized Female and Intact Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingili, Ajeeth K; Davidge, Karen N; Thirunavukkarasu, Shyamala; Khan, Nayaab S; Katsurada, Akemi; Majid, Dewan S A; Gonzalez, Frank J; Navar, L Gabriel; Malik, Kafait U

    2017-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular changes in female mice, most likely via production of 2-methoxyestradiol. This study was conducted to determine whether 2-methoxyestradiol ameliorates Ang II-induced hypertension, renal dysfunction, and end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1(-/-), ovariectomized female, and Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice. Ang II or vehicle was infused for 2 weeks and administered concurrently with 2-methoxyestradiol. Mice were placed in metabolic cages on day 12 of Ang II infusion for urine collection for 24 hours. 2-Methoxyestradiol reduced Ang II-induced increases in systolic blood pressure, water consumption, urine output, and proteinuria in intact female Cyp1b1(-/-) and ovariectomized mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol also reduced Ang II-induced increase in blood pressure, water intake, urine output, and proteinuria in Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice. Treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol attenuated Ang II-induced end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1(-/-) and ovariectomized Cyp1b1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(-/-) female mice and Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol mitigated Ang II-induced increase in urinary excretion of angiotensinogen in intact Cyp1b1(-/-) and ovariectomized Cyp1b1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(-/-) female mice but not in Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 antagonist G-15 failed to alter Ang II-induced increases in blood pressure and renal function in Cyp1b1(+/+) female mice. These data suggest that 2-methoxyestradiol reduces Ang II-induced hypertension and associated end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1(-/-), ovariectomized Cyp1b1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(-/-) female mice, and Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice independent of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1. Therefore, 2-methoxyestradiol could serve as a therapeutic agent for treating hypertension and associated pathogenesis in postmenopausal females, and in males. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Reduced interleukin-2 responsiveness impairs the ability of Treg cells to compete for IL-2 in nonobese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Cini R; Buckle, Irina; Muscate, Franziska; Otsuka, Masayuki; Nakao, Mari; Oon, Jack Sh; Steptoe, Raymond J; Thomas, Ranjeny; Hamilton-Williams, Emma E

    2016-05-01

    Enhancement of regulatory T cell (Treg cell) frequency and function is the goal of many therapeutic strategies aimed at treating type 1 diabetes (T1D). The interleukin-2 (IL-2) pathway, which has been strongly implicated in T1D susceptibility in both humans and mice, is a master regulator of Treg cell homeostasis and function. We investigated how IL-2 pathway defects impact Treg cells in T1D-susceptible nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in comparison with protected C57BL/6 and NOD congenic mice. NOD Treg cells were reduced in frequency specifically in the lymph nodes and expressed lower levels of CD25 and CD39/CD73 immunosuppressive molecules. In the spleen and blood, Treg cell frequency was preserved through expansion of CD25(low), effector phenotype Treg cells. Reduced CD25 expression led to decreased IL-2 signaling in NOD Treg cells. In vivo, treatment with IL-2-anti-IL-2 antibody complexes led to effective upregulation of suppressive molecules on NOD Treg cells in the spleen and blood, but had reduced efficacy on lymph node Treg cells. In contrast, NOD CD8(+) and CD4(+) effector T cells were not impaired in their response to IL-2 therapy. We conclude that NOD Treg cells have an impaired responsiveness to IL-2 that reduces their ability to compete for a limited supply of IL-2.

  17. Associations of Anemia and Renal Dysfunction with Outcomes among Patients Hospitalized for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure with Preserved or Reduced Ejection Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoki; Keida, Takehiko; Sakata, Yasushi; Takano, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives The relationship among anemia, renal dysfunction, left ventricular ejection fraction, and outcomes of patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cardiorenal anemia syndrome and postdischarge outcomes in patients hospitalized for heart failure with a preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Of 4842 patients enrolled in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Syndromes Registry between April 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011, 4393 patients were evaluated to investigate the association among anemia, renal dysfunction, preserved or reduced ejection fraction, and the primary end point (mortality and readmission for heart failure since discharge). The patients were divided into four groups on the basis of eGFR and hemoglobin at discharge. The median follow-up period after discharge was 432 (range=253–659) days. Results The primary end point was reached in 37.6% and 34.8% of the preserved and reduced ejection fraction groups, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comorbidities, there was no significant association of either renal dysfunction or anemia alone with the primary end point in patients with preserved ejection fraction, but the combination of renal dysfunction and anemia was associated with a significantly higher risk than that without either condition (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.12; P<0.01). In patients with reduced ejection fraction, adjusted analysis showed that a significantly higher risk of the primary end point was associated with renal dysfunction alone (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.25; P=0.002) and also, renal dysfunction plus anemia relative to the risk without either condition (hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 2.96; P<0.001). Conclusions The findings show that renal dysfunction combined with anemia is associated with an

  18. Phosphate binding reduces aortic angiotensin-converting enzyme and enhances nitric oxide bioactivity in experimental renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eräranta, Arttu; Törmänen, Suvi; Kööbi, Peeter; Vehmas, Tuija I; Lakkisto, Päivi; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Moilanen, Eeva; Niemelä, Onni; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Disturbed calcium-phosphorus metabolism is associated with increased kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in experimental chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). However, information about the effects of phosphate binding and loading on vascular ACE is lacking. Fifteen weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy (NX), rats were placed on a phosphate-binding (NX+Ca, 3.0% Ca), phosphate-loading (NX+Pi, 1.5% Pi), or control diet for 12 weeks (NX and sham). Aortic ACE, blood pressure, plasma phosphate, and parathyroid hormone were increased in the NX and NX+Pi groups, but were reduced with phosphate binding. Endothelium-mediated relaxations of isolated mesenteric conduit artery rings to acetylcholine were impaired in the NX and NX+Pi groups, but did not differ from sham in NX+Ca rats. Experiments with nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition in vitro suggested that the NO-mediated component of acetylcholine response was lower in the NX and NX+Pi groups, but did not differ from sham in NX+Ca rats. In all NX groups, aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was reduced, while plasma and urine concentrations of NO metabolites were increased. Aortic nitrated proteins and calcification were increased in the NX and NX+Pi groups when compared with the NX+Ca and sham groups. Hypertension in the NX model of CRI was associated with reduced vasorelaxation, decreased eNOS, and increased ACE and nitrated proteins in the aorta. Phosphate binding with calcium carbonate enhanced vasorelaxation via endogenous NO and suppressed elevation of ACE and nitrated proteins, suggesting reduced vascular oxidative stress. Our findings support the view that correction of the calcium-phosphorus balance prevents CRI-induced vascular pathophysiology.

  19. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim;

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  20. The antioxidant acetylcysteine reduces cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal failure: a randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; van der Giet, Markus; Statz, Mario;

    2003-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal failure have increased oxidative stress and show elevated cardiovascular mortality. Whether increased cardiovascular events can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants is unknown.......Patients with end-stage renal failure have increased oxidative stress and show elevated cardiovascular mortality. Whether increased cardiovascular events can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants is unknown....

  1. [Presurgical treatment of axitinib reduced operation risk by downsizing the vena cava tumor thrombus in advanced renal cell carcinomas: two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Akihiro; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Terada, Naoki; Sugino, Yoshio; Matsui, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Yoshimura, Koji; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    In cases of advanced renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus, surgical resection of both tumor and thrombus contributes to the improvement of patient's prognosis, but the risk of perioperative complication is still high. We experienced two cases of advanced renal tumors with IVC tumor thrombus down-sized by presurgical treatment of axitinib. Axitinib treatment showed a marked tumor reduction effect without any severe adverse event. We could remove both tumor and thrombus without perioperative complications. In these two cases, downsizing of IVC thrombus enabled us to reduce the extent of the surgery.

  2. Reduced hypertension-induced end-organ damage in mice lacking cardiac and renal angiotensinogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ningling; Walther, Thomas; Tian, Xiao-Li; Bohlender, Jürgen; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Ganten, Detlev; Bader, Michael

    2002-06-01

    Hypertension-induced damage of kidney and heart is of major clinical relevance, but its pathophysiology is only partially understood. As there is considerable evidence for involvement of angiotensin II, we generated a new mouse model by breeding angiotensinogen (AOGEN) deficient mice with transgenic animals expressing the rat AOGEN gene only in brain and liver. This genetic manipulation overcame the hypotension of AOGEN-deficient mice and even caused hypertension indistinguishable in its extent from the parent transgenic mice with an intact endogenous AOGEN gene. In contrast to normal mice, however, crossbred animals lacked detectable expression of AOGEN in kidney and heart. As a consequence they showed markedly reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Furthermore, hypertension-induced alterations in kidney histology and function were less pronounced in crossbred mice than in equally hypertensive animals expressing AOGEN locally. The dysmorphogenesis observed in kidneys from AOGEN-deficient mice was absent in mice expressing this gene only in liver and brain. Our results support an important role of local AOGEN expression in hypertension-induced end-organ damage but not in the development of the kidney.

  3. Phlorizin pretreatment reduces acute renal toxicity in a mouse model for diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Bas; Pruniau, Vincent P E G; Cauwelier, Elisa J G; Schuit, Frans; Lerut, Evelyne; Ectors, Nadine; Declercq, Jeroen; Creemers, John W M

    2013-09-20

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is widely used as diabetogenic agent in animal models for diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is also directly cytotoxic to kidneys, making it difficult to distinguish between DN-related and STZ-induced nephropathy. Therefore, an improved protocol to generate mice for DN studies, with a quick and robust achievement of the diabetic state, without direct kidney toxicity is required. To investigate the mechanism leading to STZ-induced nephropathy, kidney damage was induced with a high dose of STZ. This resulted in delayed gastric emptying, at least partially caused by impaired desacyl ghrelin clearance. STZ uptake in the kidneys is to a large extent mediated by the sodium/glucose cotransporters (Sglts) because the Sglt inhibitor phlorizin could reduce STZ uptake in the kidneys. Consequently, the direct toxic effects in the kidney and the gastric dilatation were resolved without interfering with the β-cell toxicity. Furthermore, pancreatic STZ uptake was increased, hereby decreasing the threshold for β-cell toxicity, allowing for single low non-nephrotoxic STZ doses (70 mg/kg). In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into the mechanism of STZ toxicity in kidneys and suggests a more efficient regime to induce DN with little or no toxic side effects.

  4. High phosphate reduces host ability to develop arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis without affecting root calcium spiking responses to the fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coline eBalzergue

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis associates soil fungi with the roots of the majority of plants species and represents a major source of soil phosphorus acquisition. Mycorrhizal interactions begin with an exchange of molecular signals between the two partners. A root signaling pathway is recruited, for which the perception of fungal signals triggers oscillations of intracellular calcium concentration. High phosphate availability is known to inhibit the establishment and/or persistence of this symbiosis, thereby favoring the direct, non symbiotic uptake of phosphorus by the root system. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were used to investigate the effects of phosphate supply on the early stages of the interaction. When plants were supplied with high phosphate fungal attachment to the roots was drastically reduced. An experimental system was designed to individually study the effects of phosphate supply on the fungus, on the roots and on root exudates. These experiments revealed that the most important effects of high phosphate supply were on the roots themselves, which became unable to host mycorrhizal fungi even when these had been appropriately stimulated. The ability of the roots to perceive their fungal partner was then investigated by monitoring nuclear calcium spiking in response to fungal signals. This response did not appear to be affected by high phosphate supply. In conclusion, high levels of phosphate predominantly impact the plant host, but apparently not in its ability to perceive the fungal partner.

  5. Delayed mTOR inhibition with low dose of everolimus reduces TGFβ expression, attenuates proteinuria and renal damage in the renal mass reduction model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Kurdián

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors are widely used in solid organ transplantation, but their effect on kidney disease progression is controversial. mTOR has emerged as one of the main pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed inhibition of mTOR pathway with low dose of everolimus on progression of renal disease and TGFβ expression in the 5/6 nephrectomy model in Wistar rats. METHODS: This study evaluated the effects of everolimus (0.3 mg/k/day introduced 15 days after surgical procedure on renal function, proteinuria, renal histology and mechanisms of fibrosis and proliferation. RESULTS: Everolimus treated group (EveG showed significantly less proteinuria and albuminuria, less glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis, fibroblast activation cell proliferation, when compared with control group (CG, even though the EveG remained with high blood pressure. Treatment with everolimus also diminished glomerular hypertrophy. Everolimus effectively inhibited the increase of mTOR developed in 5/6 nephrectomy animals, without changes in AKT mRNA or protein abundance, but with an increase in the pAKT/AKT ratio. Associated with this inhibition, everolimus blunted the increased expression of TGFβ observed in the remnant kidney model. CONCLUSION: Delayed mTOR inhibition with low dose of everolimus significantly prevented progressive renal damage and protected the remnant kidney. mTOR and TGFβ mRNA reduction can partially explain this anti fibrotic effect. mTOR can be a new target to attenuate the progression of chronic kidney disease even in those nephropathies of non-immunologic origin.

  6. Expression of TLR4 protein is reduced in chronic renal failure: evidence from an experimental model of nephron reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacsó, Ina Maria; Borza, Gabriel Mircea; Ciuce, Cătălin C; Bîrsan, Andrei; Apostu, Raluca Cristina; Dindelegan, George Călin; Bondor, Cosmina Ioana; Potra, Alina Ramona; Netea, Mihai G; Cătoi, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is involved in various acute and chronic renal lesions and contributes to inflammation and fibrosis in several organs; the latter are important determinants to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to assess TLR4 expression in progressive CKD and relate it to severity of kidney damage, using an experimental nephron reduction model. Male Wistar rats were subjected to subtotal nephrectomy using the ligation technique, after 12 weeks of observation, serum creatinine and proteinuria were determined, animals were sacrificed, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial scarring were quantified histologically, and TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Sham-operated rats served as controls. Case animals had significantly higher creatinine, proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial involvement. TLR4 expression was prominent in proximal tubes, less staining was observed on infiltrating inflammatory cells. Percentage of TLR4-positive tubes was reduced in the subtotal nephrectomy animals, when compared to controls (0.67±0.09 versus 0.79±0.07, p=0.003). Percentage of TLR4-positive tubes correlated inversely to markers of kidney damage: to proteinuria (r=-0.55, p=0.02), serum creatinine (r=-0.53, p=0.01); percentage of glomeruli with glomerulosclerosis (r=-0.54, p=0.01) and tubulointerstitial score (r=-0.36, p=0.01). As TLR4 staining appears in tubular casts only in nephrectomy animals, shedding from damaged tubular cells is a very likely explanation for the reduced TLR4 expression in the kidneys of subjects with experimental nephron reduction.

  7. Transient voltage-dependent potassium currents are reduced in NTS neurons isolated from renal wrap hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belugin, Sergei; Mifflin, Steve

    2005-12-01

    Whole cell patch-clamp measurements were made in neurons enzymatically dispersed from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) to determine if alterations occur in voltage-dependent potassium channels from rats made hypertensive (HT) by unilateral nephrectomy/renal wrap for 4 wk. Some rats had the fluorescent tracer DiA applied to the aortic nerve before the experiment to identify NTS neurons receiving monosynaptic baroreceptor afferent inputs. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was greater in 4-wk HT (165 +/- 5 mmHg, n = 26, P NTS neurons from NT and HT rats. At activation voltages from -10 to +10 mV, TOCs were significantly less in HT neurons compared with those observed in NT neurons (P NTS neurons from NT and HT rats and was not different comparing neurons from NT and HT rats. However, examination of the subset of NTS neurons exhibiting somatic DiA fluorescence revealed that DiA-labeled neurons from HT rats had a significantly shorter duration delayed excitation (n = 8 cells, P = 0.022) than DiA-labeled neurons from NT rats (n = 7 cells). Neurons with delayed excitation from HT rats had a significantly broader first action potential (AP) and a slower maximal downstroke velocity of repolarization compared with NT neurons with delayed excitation (P = 0.016 and P = 0.014, respectively). The number of APs in the first 200 ms of a sustained depolarization was greater in HT than NT neurons (P = 0.012). These results suggest that HT of 4-wk duration reduces TOCs in NTS neurons, and this contributes to reduced delayed excitation and increased AP responses to depolarizing inputs. Such changes could alter baroreflex function in hypertension.

  8. Mice with targeted disruption of the acyl-CoA binding protein display attenuated urine concentrating ability and diminished renal aquaporin-3 abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langaa, Stine; Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe

    2012-01-01

    Cl balance as well as urine concentrating ability in metabolic cages. Food intake and urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+) did not differ between ACBP(-/-) and (+/+) mice. Water intake and diuresis were significantly higher at baseline in ACBP(-/-) mice compared to that of (+/+) mice. Subsequent to 20h water...... deprivation, ACBP(-/-) mice exhibited increased diuresis, reduced urine osmolality, elevated hematocrit and higher relative weight loss compared to (+/+) mice. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of renin, corticosterone and aldosterone between mice of the two genotypes. At baseline...

  9. Reduced clearance of rocuronium and sugammadex in patients with severe to end-stage renal failure: a pharmacokinetic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, L.M.; Snoeck, M.M.J.; Driessen, J.J.; Hamersvelt, H.W. van; Flockton, E.A.; Heuvel, M.W. van den; Hunter, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is a selective relaxant binding agent designed to encapsulate the neuromuscular blocking agent, rocuronium. The sugammadex-rocuronium complex is eliminated by the kidneys. This trial investigated the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of sugammadex and rocuronium in patients with renal

  10. Delivery of interleukin-10 via injectable hydrogels improves renal outcomes and reduces systemic inflammation following ischemic acute kidney injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Danielle E; Rodell, Christopher B; Altmann, Christopher; Duplantis, Jane; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Burdick, Jason A; Faubel, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Injectable hydrogels can be used to deliver drugs in situ over a sustained period of time. We hypothesized that sustained delivery of interleukin-10 (IL-10) following acute kidney injury (AKI) would mitigate the local and systemic proinflammatory cascade induced by AKI and reduce subsequent fibrosis. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice underwent ischemia-reperfusion AKI with avertin anesthesia. Three days later, mice were treated with either hyaluronic acid injectable hydrogel with or without IL-10, or IL-10 suspended in saline, injected under the capsule of the left kidney, or hydrogel with IL-10 injected subcutaneously. Untreated AKI served as controls. Serial in vivo optical imaging tracked the location and degradation of the hydrogel over time. Kidney function was assessed serially. Animals were killed 28 days following AKI and the following were evaluated: serum IL-6, lung inflammation, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and renal histology for fibroblast activity, collagen type III deposition and fibrosis via Picrosirius Red staining and second harmonic imaging. Our model shows persistent systemic inflammation, and renal inflammation and fibrosis 28 days following AKI. The hydrogels are biocompatible and reduced serum IL-6 and renal collagen type III 28 days following AKI even when delivered without IL-10. Treatment with IL-10 reduced renal and systemic inflammation, regardless of whether the IL-10 was delivered in a sustained manner via the injectable hydrogel under the left kidney capsule, as a bolus injection via saline under the left kidney capsule, or via the injectable hydrogel subcutaneously. Injectable hydrogels are suitable for local drug delivery following renal injury, are biocompatible, and help mitigate local and systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Perinatal exogenous nitric oxide in fawn-hooded hypertensive rats reduces renal ribosomal biogenesis in early life

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    Sebastiaan eWesseling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is known to depress ribosome biogenesis in vitro. In this study we analyzed the influence of exogenous NO on ribosome biogenesis in vivo using a proven antihypertensive model of perinatal NO administration in genetically hypertensive rats. Fawn-hooded hypertensive rat (FHH dams were supplied with the NO donor molsidomine in drinking water from two weeks before to four weeks after birth, and the kidneys were subsequently collected from 2 day, 2 week and 9-10 month old adult offspring. Although the NO donor increased maternal NO metabolite excretion, the NO status of juvenile renal (and liver tissue was unchanged as assayed by EPR spectroscopy of NO trapped with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes. Nevertheless, microarray analysis revealed marked differential up-regulation of renal ribosomal protein genes at 2 days and down-regulation at 2 weeks and in adult males. Such differential regulation of renal ribosomal protein genes was not observed in females. These changes were confirmed in males at 2 weeks by expression analysis of renal ribosomal protein L36a and by polysome profiling, which also revealed a down-regulation of ribosomes in females at that age. However, renal polysome profiles returned to normal in adults after early exposure to molsidomine. No direct effects of molsidomine were observed on cellular proliferation in kidneys at any age, and the changes induced by molsidomine in renal polysome profiles at 2 weeks were absent in the livers of the same rats.Our results suggest that the previously found prolonged antihypertensive effects of perinatal NO administration may be due to epigenetically programmed alterations in renal ribosome biogenesis during a critical fetal period of renal development, and provide a salient example of a drug-induced reduction of ribosome biogenesis that is accompanied by a beneficial long-term health effect in both males and females.

  12. Dynamics of falling droplet and elongational properties of dilute nonionic surfactant solutions with drag-reducing ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Shinji; Ohashi, Yota; Morinishi, Yohei

    2017-05-01

    The dynamics of the falling droplet through a nozzle for dilute nonionic surfactant (oleyl-dimethylamine oxide, ODMAO) aqueous solutions with viscoelastic and drag-reducing properties were investigated at different concentrations of ODMAO solutions Cs = 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm by weight. The effects of the flow rate and tube outer diameter on the length of the filament, which was the distance between the tube exit and the lower end of a droplet at the instant when the droplet almost detached from the tube, were clarified by flow visualization measurements by a high-speed video camera. Two types of breaking-off processes near the base of the droplet and within the filament were classified by the Ohnesorge number Oh and the Weber number We. In the regime of the higher Oh and We, the length of the filament became drastically larger at Cs = 1000 and 1500 ppm, whose high spinnability represented the strong viscoelasticity of ODMAO solutions. In the case where the filament was broken up near the lower end of the neck and thinning in time, the thinning of the diameter of the filament was measured by a light-emitting diode micrometer. As for the elasto-capillary thinning of dilute nonionic surfactant solutions, the initial necking process was similar to that of Newtonian fluids and then followed the exponential thinning like polymer solutions. The apparent elongational viscosity of the dilute nonionic surfactant solution was evaluated in the elasto-capillary thinning regime, in which the elongation rate was almost constant. At Cs = 1000 and 1500 ppm, the Trouton ratio, which was the ratio of the apparent elongational viscosity to the shear viscosity, was found to be several orders of magnitude larger than that of Newtonian fluids, while the shear viscosity measured by the capillary viscometer was almost the same order of the Newtonian fluids. The higher elongational property would be closely related to the higher drag-reducing ability of dilute nonionic surfactant

  13. Evaluation of antioxidative effects of sesamin on the in vivo hepatic reducing abilities by a radiofrequency ESR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mika; Ono, Yoshiko; Nakai, Masaaki; Harada, Masami; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Ogata, Tateaki

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidative effects of sesamin (a mixture of sesamin and episesamin) were evaluated in the liver, kidney and inferior vena cava of living rats using a radiofrequency ESR method. TEMPOL, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl, was used as an in vivo redox probe, the half-life of which is believed to be correlated with the antioxidant status. The oral administration of sesamin (250 mg/kg rat weight) 3 h before ESR measurements shortened the half-life of TEMPOL in the liver by 10 - 15% as compared with the controls, but did not affect the other organs. This effect was maintained for at least 3 h after the administration, and then disappeared at 24 h, corresponding to the results of our preliminary pharmacokinetic studies. Changes in the reducing ability were observed only in the hepatic sites of the sesamin-treated rats. These findings suggest that sesamin exhibits effective antioxidant activity in the liver via modulation of the intracellular redox status related to TEMPOL reduction.

  14. Dopamine-mediated inhibition of renal Na+/K+-ATPase in HK-2 cells is reduced by ouabain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Rong; Yuan, Zu-Yi

    2010-05-01

    1. Abnormal renal sodium handling is considered a major contributing factor in hypertension associated with chronic ouabain treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in abnormal renal sodium handling have not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated whether chronic ouabain treatment perturbs dopamine D(1) receptor function. 2. The expression and phosphorylation levels of the D(1) receptor in cells of the human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2) were determined using western blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The activity of the renal sodium/potassium pump (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) was measured using a colourimetric assay, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation was determined by performing a radioimmunoassay. 3. We showed that chronic ouabain treatment decreased the protein and mRNA expression levels of the D(1) receptor and increased the basal phosphorylation of the D(1) receptor in HK-2 cells. We also showed that in the presence of ouabain, HK-2 cells did not reveal the cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition induced by the D(1) receptor agonist fenoldopam. 4. We hypothesize that the ouabain-induced decrease in renal D(1) receptor function is responsible for the increase in renal sodium reabsorption, which eventually leads to ouabain-induced hypertension.

  15. Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukema, Harold M; Lu, Jing; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-07-14

    We have previously shown nutritional intervention with fish oil (n-3 PUFA) to reduce numerous complications associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the JCR:LA-corpulent (cp) rat. In the present study, we sought to explore the potential role of fish oil to prevent glomerulosclerosis in JCR:LA-cp rats via renal eicosanoid metabolism and lipidomic analysis. Male lean and MetS JCR:LA-cp rats were fed a lipid-balanced diet supplemented with fish oil (5 or 10 % of total fat). After 16 weeks of feeding, albuminuria was significantly reduced in MetS rats supplemented with 5 or 10 % fish oil ( - 53 and - 70 %, respectively, compared with the untreated MetS rats). The 5 % fish oil diet resulted in markedly lower glomerulosclerosis ( - 43 %) in MetS rats and to a lesser extent in those supplemented with 10 % fish oil. Interestingly, untreated MetS rats had higher levels of 11- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) v. lean rats. Dietary fish oil reduced these levels, as well as other (5-, 9- and 15-) HETE. Whilst genotype did not alter prostanoid levels, fish oil reduced endogenous renal levels of 6-keto PGF1α (PGI2 metabolite), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), PGF2α and PGD2 by approximately 60 % in rats fed 10 % fish oil, and TxB2 ( - 50 %) and PGF2α ( - 41 %) in rats fed 5 % fish oil. In conclusion, dietary fish oil prevented glomerular damage in MetS rats and mitigated the elevation in renal HETE levels. These results suggest a potential role for dietary fish oil to improve dysfunctional renal eicosanoid metabolism associated with kidney damage during conditions of the MetS.

  16. Low-flow CO2 removal integrated into a renal-replacement circuit can reduce acidosis and decrease vasopressor requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Lung-protective ventilation in patients with ARDS and multiorgan failure, including renal failure, is often paralleled with a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis. We assessed the effectiveness of a hollow-fiber gas exchanger integrated into a conventional renal-replacement circuit on CO2 removal, acidosis, and hemodynamics. Methods In ten ventilated critically ill patients with ARDS and AKI undergoing renal- and respiratory-replacement therapy, effects of low-flow CO2 removal on respiratory acidosis compensation were tested by using a hollow-fiber gas exchanger added to the renal-replacement circuit. This was an observational study on safety, CO2-removal capacity, effects on pH, ventilator settings, and hemodynamics. Results CO2 elimination in the low-flow circuit was safe and was well tolerated by all patients. After 4 hours of treatment, a mean reduction of 17.3 mm Hg (−28.1%) pCO2 was observed, in line with an increase in pH. In hemodynamically instable patients, low-flow CO2 elimination was paralleled by hemodynamic improvement, with an average reduction of vasopressors of 65% in five of six catecholamine-dependent patients during the first 24 hours. Conclusions Because no further catheters are needed, besides those for renal replacement, the implementation of a hollow-fiber gas exchanger in a renal circuit could be an attractive therapeutic tool with only a little additional trauma for patients with mild to moderate ARDS undergoing invasive ventilation with concomitant respiratory acidosis, as long as no severe oxygenation defects indicate ECMO therapy. PMID:23883472

  17. Bivalirudin dosing adjustments for reduced renal function with or without hemodialysis in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, Laura V; Dager, William E

    2011-10-01

    While not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), except in patients undergoing percutaneous interventions, the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin is a treatment option that is gaining use. An initial dose of bivalirudin 0.15-0.2 mg/kg/h, adjusted to an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of 1.5-2.5 times the baseline value, has been suggested. Initial dosing in patients with renal dysfunction, including those on hemodialysis, is unclear. To evaluate initial bivalirudin dosing requirements in patients with and without renal dysfunction, including patients on different forms of dialysis. A retrospective analysis of 135 patients treated with bivalirudin for HIT between June 2004 and October 2009 was conducted at a tertiary care medical center. The patients were divided into groups, based on renal function. Patients receiving dialysis were divided into 3 subgroups based on the mode of hemodialysis: intermittent hemodialysis (IHD, n = 24), sustained low-efficiency daily diafiltration (SLEDD, n = 12), or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT, n = 5). Patients not receiving dialysis were separated into 3 subgroups based on calculated creatinine clearance (CrCl): CrCl >60 mL/min (n = 52), CrCl 30-60 mL/min (n = 26), and CrCl 60 mL/min), patients with differing degrees of renal dysfunction (CrCl 30-60 and doses of bivalirudin to achieve aPTT goal (0.13 vs 0.08 vs 0.05 mg/kg/h, respectively; p CRRT) also required dose reductions (0.07, 0.09, and 0.07 mg/kg/h) compared with patients with normal renal function, but higher dosing requirements than patients not receiving dialysis with CrCl dose of bivalirudin to reach a therapeutic aPTT goal. Slightly higher doses may be observed in patients receiving hemodialysis.

  18. Targeting of captopril to the kidney reduces renal angiotensin-converting enzyme activity without affecting systemic blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, RJ; Haverdings, Rene; Grijpstra, F; Koiter, J.; Moolenaar, F; De Zeeuw, D; Meijer, DKF

    We have synthesized a prodrug of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril by coupling this drug covalently to the low molecular weight protein (LMWP) lysozyme. Such drug-LMWP conjugates can be used for renal drug delivery, since LMWPs accumulate specifically in the proximal

  19. Renal reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:cytochrome c reductase-mediated metabolism of the carcinogen N-(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)acetamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattammal, M.B.; Zenser, T.V.; Palmier, M.O.; Davis, B.B.

    1985-01-01

    N-(4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)acetamide (NFTA) metabolism was examined in vitro using microsomes prepared from rat liver and renal cortex and from rabbit liver and renal cortex and outer and inner medulla. NFTA nitroreduction was observed with each tissue. Three mol of NADPH were used per mol of NFTA reduced. Substrate and inhibitor specificity suggested that the microsomal nitroreduction was due to NADPH:cytochrome c reductase. Metabolite(s) formed bound to protein, RNA, DNA, and synthetic polyribonucleotides. Maximum covalent binding was seen with polyguanylic acid. A guanosine-NFTA adduct was isolated. Binding was inhibited by sulfhydryl compounds and vitamin E. The (/sup 14/C)NFTA:glutathione or (/sup 3/H)glutathione:NFTA conjugates obtained from microsomal incubations showed identical chromatographic properties as the product obtained by the reaction of synthetic N-hydroxy-NFTA with (/sup 3/H)glutathione. Structures of synthetic N-hydroxy-NFTA and the microsomal reduction product 1-(4-(2-acetylaminothiazolyl))-3-cyano-1-propanone were established by mass spectrometry. The latter reduction product did not bind macromolecules. These results suggest that renal NADPH:cytochrome c reductase reduces NFTA to an N-hydroxy-NFTA intermediate that binds nucleophilic sites on macromolecules.

  20. Novel protective mechanism of reducing renal cell damage in diabetes: Activation AMPK by AICAR increased NRF2/OGG1 proteins and reduced oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Samy L; Yadav, Anamika; Kidane, Dawit; Weiss, Robert H; Liang, Sitai

    2016-11-16

    Exposure of renal cells to high glucose (HG) during diabetes has been recently proposed to be involved in renal injury. In the present study, we investigated a potential mechanism by which AICAR treatment regulates the DNA repair enzyme, 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in renal proximal tubular mouse cells exposed to HG and in kidney of db/db mice. Cells treated with HG for 2 days show inhibition in OGG1 promoter activity as well as OGG1 and Nrf2 protein expression. In addition, activation of AMPK by AICAR resulted in an increase raptor phosphorylation at Ser(792) and leads to increase the promoter activity of OGG1 through upregulation of Nrf2. Downregulation of AMPK by DN-AMPK and raptor and Nrf2 by siRNA resulted in significant decease in promoter activity and protein expression of OGG1. On the other hand, downregulation of Akt by DN-Akt and rictor by siRNA resulted in significant increase in promoter activity and protein expression of Nrf2 and OGG1. Moreover, gel shift analysis shows reduction of Nrf2 binding to OGG1 promoter in cells treated with HG while cells treated with AICAR reversed the effect of HG. Furthermore, db/db mice treated with AICAR show significant increased in AMPK and raptor phosphroylation as well as OGG1 and Nrf2 protein expression that associated with significant decrease in oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG) compared to non-treated mice. In summary, our data provide a novel protective mechanism by which AICAR prevents renal cell damage in diabetes and the consequence complications of hyperglycemia with a specific focus on nephropathy.

  1. Efficiencies of metal separation and recovery in ash-melting of municipal solid waste under non-oxidative atmospheres with different reducing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2016-01-15

    Ash-melting of municipal solid waste produces molten metal that contains Fe and Cu, and melting furnace fly ash (MFA) that contains Pb and Zn. To recover the metal from the fly ash, Pb and Zn are extracted from the ash by water or enriched in the ash by washing out salts; this separation depends on their leachability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the reducing ability of the atmosphere on the efficiencies of metal separation during melting and metal recovery in water treatment. Different feedstocks (incineration residues) were melted under N2 or CO + N2 atmospheres. In some of the feedstock materials, volatilization of metallic Cu into MFA was promoted under the atmosphere with greater reducing ability (CO + N2). This increased volatilization inhibited the metal separation in the ash-melting process. Moreover, the higher reducing ability inhibited the formation of water-soluble lead chlorides and decreased the efficiency of metal recovery from the MFA because of the water leaching of the lead compounds. The reducing ability of the atmosphere is difficult to control uniformly in actual ash-melting plants, and we investigated appropriate melting conditions under which the effect of the reducing ability was minimized to promote metal separation and recovery. This minimization was achieved by melting incineration fly ash without additives with Cl gas treatment at 1400 °C.

  2. A Randomized 2x2 Factorial Clinical Trial of Renal Transplantation: Steroid-Free Maintenance Immunosuppression with Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal after Six Months Associates with Improved Renal Function and Reduced Chronic Histopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Brian Stevens

    Full Text Available The two most significant impediments to renal allograft survival are rejection and the direct nephrotoxicity of the immunosuppressant drugs required to prevent it. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI, a mainstay of most immunosuppression regimens, are particularly nephrotoxic. Until less toxic antirejection agents become available, the only option is to optimize our use of those at hand.To determine whether intensive rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG induction followed by CNI withdrawal would individually or combined improve graft function and reduce graft chronic histopathology-surrogates for graft and, therefore, patient survival. As previously reported, a single large rATG dose over 24 hours was well-tolerated and associated with better renal function, fewer infections, and improved patient survival. Here we report testing whether complete CNI discontinuation would improve renal function and decrease graft pathology.Between April 20, 2004 and 4-14-2009 we conducted a prospective, randomized, non-blinded renal transplantation trial of two rATG dosing protocols (single dose, 6 mg/kg vs. divided doses, 1.5 mg/kg every other day x 4; target enrollment = 180. Subsequent maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, a CNI, and sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. We report here the outcome of converting patients after six months either to minimized tacrolimus/sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil/sirolimus. Primary endpoints were graft function and chronic histopathology from protocol kidney biopsies at 12 and 24 months.CNI withdrawal (on-treatment analysis associated with better graft function (p <0.001 and lower chronic histopathology composite scores in protocol biopsies at 12 (p = 0.003 and 24 (p = 0.013 months, without affecting patient (p = 0.81 or graft (p = 0.93 survival, or rejection rate (p = 0.17.CNI (tacrolimus withdrawal at six months may provide a strategy for decreased nephrotoxicity and improved long-term function

  3. Indomethacin reduces glomerular and tubular damage markers but not renal inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients: a post-hoc analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H de Borst

    Full Text Available Under specific conditions non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may be used to lower therapy-resistant proteinuria. The potentially beneficial anti-proteinuric, tubulo-protective, and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs may be offset by an increased risk of (renal side effects. We investigated the effect of indomethacin on urinary markers of glomerular and tubular damage and renal inflammation. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective open-label crossover study in chronic kidney disease patients (n = 12 with mild renal function impairment and stable residual proteinuria of 4.7±4.1 g/d. After a wash-out period of six wks without any RAAS blocking agents or other therapy to lower proteinuria (untreated proteinuria (UP, patients subsequently received indomethacin 75 mg BID for 4 wks (NSAID. Healthy subjects (n = 10 screened for kidney donation served as controls. Urine and plasma levels of total IgG, IgG4, KIM-1, beta-2-microglobulin, H-FABP, MCP-1 and NGAL were determined using ELISA. Following NSAID treatment, 24 h -urinary excretion of glomerular and proximal tubular damage markers was reduced in comparison with the period without anti-proteinuric treatment (total IgG: UP 131[38-513] vs NSAID 38[17-218] mg/24 h, p<0.01; IgG4: 50[16-68] vs 10[1-38] mg/24 h, p<0.001; beta-2-microglobulin: 200[55-404] vs 50[28-110] ug/24 h, p = 0.03; KIM-1: 9[5]-[14] vs 5[2]-[9] ug/24 h, p = 0.01. Fractional excretions of these damage markers were also reduced by NSAID. The distal tubular marker H-FABP showed a trend to reduction following NSAID treatment. Surprisingly, NSAID treatment did not reduce urinary excretion of the inflammation markers MCP-1 and NGAL, but did reduce plasma MCP-1 levels, resulting in an increased fractional MCP-1 excretion. In conclusion, the anti-proteinuric effect of indomethacin is associated with reduced urinary excretion of glomerular and tubular damage markers, but not with reduced excretion of renal

  4. [Diagnostic ability of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-4 equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate in with multimorbidity patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo-García, José Luis; Díez-Manglano, Jesús; García-Arilla, Ernesto; Revillo-Pinilla, Paz; Ramón-Puertas, José; Sebastián-Royo, Mariano

    2015-01-06

    The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation is recommended by most scientific societies to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Recently the group Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKP-EPI) has published a new, more precise and accurate equation. We have analyzed its behavior in a group of polypathological patients (PP) and compared it with the classic MDRD-4.version Multicenter, observational, descriptive and transversal study. We calculated GFR by MDRD-4 and CKD-EPI in 425 PP. Each stage was assigned according to the GFR: 1:>90; 2: 60-89; 3: 30-59; 4: 15-29; and 5 renal insufficiency, especially in older women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Astragalus membranaceus reduces free radical-mediated injury to renal tubules in rabbits receiving high-energy shock waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Bin-wu; CHEN Xing-fa; ZHAO Jun; HE Da-lin; NAN Xun-yi

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed the important role of free radicals in renal damage induced by high-energy shock waves (HESW). This study aimed at investigating the effects of Astragalus membranaceus, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, on free radical-mediated HESW-induced damage to renal tubules in a live rabbit model.Methods Forty-five healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: control group (n=15), sham group (n=15), and herb-treated group (n=15). Three days prior to HESW application, the controls received verapamil (0.4 mg/kg), the shams received physiological saline (20 ml), and the herb-treated animals received Astragalus membranaceus (2.4 g/kg) intravenously. HESW (1500 shocks, 18kV) was applied to the right kidneys of all anesthetized rabbits. We measured superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels before and after shock treatment in blood and kidney homogenates. Histopathological changes were also observed.Results MDA levels increased and SOD activity decreased significantly in the sham group (P0.05). SOD values were significantly higher in the controls than in the shams (P<0.05). By contrast, SOD levels recovered rapidly in the rabbits receiving Astragalus membranaceus, reaching a nadir within 24 hours, and returning to baseline more quickly than in control and sham rabbits (P<0.05). Histopathological examinations showed that renal tubular damage in the controls was less severe than in the shams, while damage in the Astragalus membranaceus group was even more mild, with rapid recovery in comparison with the controls.Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence indicating that Astragalus membranaceus has strong protective effects on free radical-mediated renal tubular damage induced by HESW and that these effects are superior to the effects of verapamil.

  6. Indomethacin reduces glomerular and tubular damage markers but not renal inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients: a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, Martin H; Nauta, Ferdau L; Vogt, Liffert; Laverman, Gozewijn D; Gansevoort, Ron T; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    Under specific conditions non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be used to lower therapy-resistant proteinuria. The potentially beneficial anti-proteinuric, tubulo-protective, and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs may be offset by an increased risk of (renal) side effects. We investigated the effect of indomethacin on urinary markers of glomerular and tubular damage and renal inflammation. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective open-label crossover study in chronic kidney disease patients (n = 12) with mild renal function impairment and stable residual proteinuria of 4.7±4.1 g/d. After a wash-out period of six wks without any RAAS blocking agents or other therapy to lower proteinuria (untreated proteinuria (UP)), patients subsequently received indomethacin 75 mg BID for 4 wks (NSAID). Healthy subjects (n = 10) screened for kidney donation served as controls. Urine and plasma levels of total IgG, IgG4, KIM-1, beta-2-microglobulin, H-FABP, MCP-1 and NGAL were determined using ELISA. Following NSAID treatment, 24 h -urinary excretion of glomerular and proximal tubular damage markers was reduced in comparison with the period without anti-proteinuric treatment (total IgG: UP 131[38-513] vs NSAID 38[17-218] mg/24 h, pglomerulo- and tubulo-protective effects as observed outweigh the possible side-effects of NSAID treatment on the long term.

  7. Reduced KCNQ4-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channel activity underlies impaired β-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of renal arteries in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Preet S; Zunke, Friederike; Zhu, Hai-Lei; Davis, Alison J; Jepps, Thomas A; Olesen, Søren P; Cole, William C; Moffatt, James D; Greenwood, Iain A

    2012-04-01

    KCNQ4-encoded voltage-dependent potassium (Kv7.4) channels are important regulators of vascular tone that are severely compromised in models of hypertension. However, there is no information as to the role of these channels in responses to endogenous vasodilators. We used a molecular knockdown strategy, as well as pharmacological tools, to examine the hypothesis that Kv7.4 channels contribute to β-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation in the renal vasculature and underlie the vascular deficit in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed gene and protein expression of KCNQ1, KCNQ3, KCNQ4, KCNQ5, and Kv7.1, Kv7.4, and Kv7.5 in rat renal artery. Isoproterenol produced concentration-dependent relaxation of precontracted renal arteries and increased Kv7 channel currents in isolated smooth muscle cells. Application of the Kv7 blocker linopirdine attenuated isoproterenol-induced relaxation and current. Isoproterenol-induced relaxations were also reduced in arteries incubated with small interference RNAs targeted to KCNQ4 that produced a ≈60% decrease in Kv7.4 protein level. Relaxation to isoproterenol and the Kv7 activator S-1 were abolished in arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats, which was associated with ≈60% decrease in Kv7.4 abundance. This study provides the first evidence that Kv7 channels contribute to β-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation in the renal vasculature and that abrogation of Kv7.4 channels is strongly implicated in the impaired β-adrenoceptor pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These findings may provide a novel pathogenic link between arterial dysfunction and hypertension.

  8. Remote ischemic preconditioning reduces perioperative cardiac and renal events in patients undergoing elective coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjun Pei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results from randomized controlled trials (RCT concerning cardiac and renal effect of remote ischemic preconditioning(RIPC in patients with stable coronary artery disease(CAD are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore whether RIPC reduce cardiac and renal events after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: RCTs with data on cardiac or renal effect of RIPC in PCI were searched from Pubmed, EMBase, and Cochrane library (up to July 2014. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis were performed to identify the potential sources of significant heterogeneity(I(2 ≥ 40%. Eleven RCTs enrolling a total of 1713 study subjects with stable CAD were selected. Compared with controls, RIPC significantly reduced perioperative incidence of myocardial infarction (MI [odds ratio(OR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.91; P = 0.01; I(2 = 41.0%] and contrast-induced acute kidney injury(AKI (OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.98; P = 0.04; I(2 = 39.0%. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses confirmed that the major source of heterogeneity for the incidence of MI was male proportion (coefficient  = -0.049; P = 0.047; adjusted R(2 = 0.988; P = 0.02 for subgroup difference. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis of RCTs suggests that RIPC may offer cardiorenal protection by reducing the incidence of MI and AKI in patients undergoing elective PCI. Moreover, this effect on MI is more pronounced in male subjects. Future high-quality, large-scale clinical trials should focus on the long-term clinical effect of RIPC.

  9. Renal function and peak exercise oxygen consumption in chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Gesualdo, Loreto; Corrà, Ugo; Mezzani, Alessandro; Piepoli, Massimo; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Iorio, Annamaria; Passino, Claudio; Magrì, Damiano; Masarone, Daniele; Battaia, Elisa; Girola, Davide; Re, Federica; Cattadori, Gaia; Parati, Gianfranco; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Villani, Giovanni Quinto; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Pacileo, Giuseppe; Guazzi, Marco; Metra, Marco; Frigerio, Maria; Cicoira, Mariantonietta; Minà, Chiara; Malfatto, Gabriella; Caravita, Sergio; Bussotti, Maurizio; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Veglia, Fabrizio; Correale, Michele; Scardovi, Angela B; Emdin, Michele; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Gargiulo, Paola; Giovannardi, Marta; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Raimondo, Rosa; Ricci, Roberto; Paolillo, Stefania; Farina, Stefania; Belardinelli, Romualdo; Passantino, Andrea; La Gioia, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with sympathetic activation and muscle abnormalities, which may contribute to decreased exercise capacity. We investigated the correlation of renal function with peak exercise oxygen consumption (V̇O2) in heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 2,938 systolic HF patients who underwent clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The patients were stratified according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Mean follow-up was 3.7 years. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death and urgent heart transplantation at 3 years. On multivariable regression, eGFR was predictor of peakV̇O2(Pheart rate, B-type natriuretic peptide, hemoglobin, and treatment. After adjusting for significant covariates, the hazard ratio for primary outcome associated with peakV̇O2<12 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)was 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.91; P=0.0292) in patients with eGFR ≥60, 1.77 (0.87-3.61; P=0.1141) in those with eGFR of 45-59, and 2.72 (1.01-7.37; P=0.0489) in those with eGFR <45 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for peakV̇O2<12 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54-0.71), 0.67 (0.56-0.78), and 0.57 (0.47-0.69), respectively. Testing for interaction was not significant. Renal dysfunction is correlated with peakV̇O2. A peakV̇O2cutoff of 12 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)offers limited prognostic information in HF patients with more severely impaired renal function.

  10. The ability of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce the transmission of infective Ostertagia ostertagi larvae from faeces to herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, A.S.; Larsen, M.; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of two isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce the numbers of gastrointestinal nematode larvae on herbage was tested in three plot studies. Artificially prepared cow pats containing Ostertagia ostertagi eggs, with and without fungal spores, were...

  11. Reduced renal function is associated with progression to AIDS but not with overall mortality in HIV-infected kenyan adults not initially requiring combination antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Samir K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO has recently recommended that antiretrovirals be initiated in all individuals with CD4 counts of less than 350 cells/mm3. For countries with resources too limited to expand care to all such patients, it would be of value to able to identify and target populations at highest risk of HIV progression. Renal disease has been identified as a risk factor for disease progression or death in some populations. Methods Times to meeting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART initiation criteria (developing either a CD4 count 3 or WHO stage 3 or 4 disease and overall mortality were evaluated in cART-naïve, HIV-infected Kenyan adults with CD4 cell counts ≥200/mm3 and with WHO stage 1 or 2 disease. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to evaluate the associations between renal function and these endpoints. Results We analyzed data of 7383 subjects with a median follow-up time of 59 (interquartile range, 27-97 weeks. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, WHO disease stage, CD4 cell count and haemoglobin, estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl 2 was associated with shorter times to meeting cART initiation criteria (HR 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22-1.58, but not with overall mortality. CrCl and eGFR remained associated with shorter times to cART initiation criteria, but neither was associated with mortality, in weight-adjusted analyses. Conclusions In this large natural history study, reduced renal function was strongly associated with faster HIV disease progression in adult Kenyans not initially meeting cART initiation criteria. As such, renal function measurement in resource-limited settings may be an inexpensive method to identify those most in need of cART to prevent progression to AIDS. The initial association between reduced CrCl, but not reduced eGFR, and greater mortality was explained by the low weights in this population.

  12. The addition of renal sympathetic denervation to pulmonary vein isolation reduces recurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Márcio Galindo; Chen, Shaojie; E Silva, Gustavo Ramalho; Rodrigues Paz, Luis Marcelo; Kiuchi, Tetsuaki; de Paula Filho, Ary Getulio; Lima Souto, Gladyston Luiz

    2017-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD). AF treatment is challenging and requires complete pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Recently, renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) has been reported to reduce AF recurrence when performed alongside PVI. A prospective therapeutic study of patients with controlled hypertension and paroxysmal AF was undertaken. Renal function was evaluated using estimated glomerular filtration rate. Outcomes for patients with normal renal function who underwent PVI (n = 101) were compared with those for CKD patients who underwent either PVI alone (n = 96) or PVI + RSD (n = 39). The primary endpoint was recurrence of AF recorded by 24-h Holter monitoring. During the 22.4 ± 12.1 months following intervention, the incidence of AF recurrence was higher in CKD patients treated with PVI alone (61.5 %) than in CKD patients treated with PVI + RSD (38.5 %; HR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.14-3.03, P = 0.0251) or patients without CKD subjected to PVI (35.6 %; hazard ratio (HR) 2.27, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.51-3.42, P PVI significantly reduced AF recurrence in CKD stage 4, but not stage 2 or 3, patients. Ambulatory blood pressure and mean heart rate were not different between groups or time points. No complications of either procedure were observed. PVI + RSD is a safe treatment that is superior to PVI alone for treatment of paroxysmal AF in CKD patients.

  13. Detection of Campylobacter or Salmonella in turkey semen and the ability of poultry semen extenders to reduce their concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, A M; Blore, P J; Cole, K; Loskutoff, N M; Donoghue, D J

    2004-10-01

    Campylobacter and Salmonella are the most commonly reported pathogens causing foodborne illness in the United States. In turkeys, the potential that semen used for artificial insemination is contaminated with these foodborne pathogens has not been investigated. Because semen on turkey farms is pooled and then used to inseminate multiple hens, contaminated semen could easily spread these bacteria throughout entire flocks via artificial insemination. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine if semen from commercial turkey farms contained these foodborne pathogens and 2) if present, evaluate the efficacy of semen extenders to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter and Salmonella from semen. Semen was collected from randomized pools of ejaculates from 10 to 30 toms per farm from 6 flocks over a 7-wk period and, on occasion, was found to contain Campylobacter, Salmonella, or both. To evaluate the efficacy of semen extenders to reduce or eliminate pathogens, pooled ejaculates were challenged with Campylobacter or Salmonella and treated with commercial poultry extenders containing various concentrations of antibiotics or an antibiotic combination previously demonstrated to remove Campylobacter from mammalian semen. Results demonstrate that commercial turkey semen may contain Campylobacter or Salmonella, and the semen extenders tested either did not reduce the bacteria or reduced but did not eliminate these bacteria from semen. We concluded that semen may be a potential vehicle for Campylobacter transfer to hens, and, if this is true, development of a method for eliminating pathogens in semen before insemination could reduce the risk of colonization.

  14. The CYP3A4*22 C>T single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced midazolam and tacrolimus clearance in stable renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, H; Elens, L; de Loor, H; van Schaik, R H; Kuypers, D R J

    2015-04-01

    Tacrolimus, a dual substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 has a narrow therapeutic index and is characterized by high between-subject variability in oral bioavailability. This study investigated the effects of the recently described CYP3A4*22 intron 6 C>T single nucleotide polymorphism on in vivo CYP3A4 activity as measured by midazolam (MDZ) clearance and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in two cohorts of renal allograft recipients, taking into account the CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype and other determinants of drug disposition. In CYP3A5 non-expressers, the presence of one CYP3A4*22T-allele was associated with a 31.7-33.6% reduction in MDZ apparent oral clearance, reflecting reduced in vivo CYP3A4 activity. In addition, at ⩾12 months after transplantation, steady-state clearance of tacrolimus was 36.8% decreased compared with homozygous CYP3A4*22CC-wild type patients, leading to 50% lower dose requirements. Both concurrent observations in stable renal allograft recipients are consistent with a reduced in vivo CYP3A4 activity for the CYP3A4*22T-allele.

  15. The ability of cover crops to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus losses from arable land in southern Scandinavia and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, H.; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge from the literature and experimental studies on the role of cover crops (CCs) in reducing nitrogen (N) leaching and phosphorus (P) losses to waters under the marine and humid continental climate conditions of southern Scandinavia and Finland. Field leaching...

  16. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHuart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease. Currently, inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system (RAS remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors.

  17. Downregulation of discoidin domain receptor 2 in A375 human melanoma cells reduces its experimental liver metastasis ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, Iker; Villacé, Patricia; Basaldua, Iratxe; Olaso, Elvira

    2011-10-01

    Discoidin domain receptors (DDR1 and DDR2) are tyrosine kinase receptors for fibrillar collagen implicated in postnatal development, tissue repair, and primary and metastatic cancer progression. While DDR1 has been described in tumor cells, DDR2 has been localized in the tumor stroma, but its presence in the tumor cells remains unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of DDR2 signaling in tumor cells during hepatic metastasis progression. DDR2 expression and phosphorylation in cultured human A375 melanoma cells was documented by Western blot analysis. A375 cells were stably transfected with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against DDR2 and two clones were selected: A375R2-70 and A375R2-40, with 70 and 40% of the DDR2 protein expression respectively, compared to mock-transfected cells (A375R2-100). Development of experimental liver metastasis by intrasplenic inoculation of A375R2-70 and A37R2-40 clones was reduced by 60 and 75%, respectively, measured as tumor volume, compared to livers injected with A375R2-100 cells. Accordingly, A375R2-70 and A37R2-40 clones showed reduced in vitro gelatinase activity and JNK phosphorylation, compared to mock transfected cells, with maximal inhibition in A375R2-40. Additionally, A375 melanoma, SK-HEP hepatoma and HT-29 colon carcinoma human cell lines transiently transfected with siRNA against DDR2 also showed reduced proliferation and migration rates compared to mock-transfected ones. In conclusion, DDR2 promotes A375 melanoma metastasis to the liver and the underlying mechanism implicates regulation of metalloproteinase release, cell growth and chemotactic invasion of the host tissue.

  18. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Meryem El Jemli; Rabie Kamal; Ilias Marmouzi; Asmae Zerrouki; Yahia Cherrah; Katim Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic ...

  19. Diverse ability of maternal immune stimulation to reduce birth defects in mice exposed to teratogens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubec, T C; Prater, M R; Mallela, M K; Gogal, R M; Guo, T L; Holladay, S D

    2012-06-01

    Stimulating the maternal immune system before or during pregnancy can dramatically improve morphologic outcome in mice that have been exposed to teratogens. For example, maternal immune stimulation in mice reduced craniofacial and palate defects, heart defects, digit and limb defects, tail malformations and neural tube defects caused by diverse teratogens that included chemical agents, hyperthermia, X-rays and diabetes mellitus. Several different procedures of immune stimulation were effective and included footpad injection with Freund's Complete Adjuvant, intraperitoneal (IP) injection with inert particles or attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, intrauterine injection with allogenic or xenogenic lymphocytes, or intravascular, intrauterine or IP injection with immunomodulatory cytokines. Limited information is available regarding mechanisms by which such immune stimulation reduces fetal dysmorphogenesis; however, cytokines of maternal origin have been suggested as effector molecules that act on the placenta or fetus to improve development. These collective data raise novel questions about the possibility of unrecognized maternal immune system regulatory activity in normal fetal development. This manuscript reviews the literature showing maternal immune protection against morphologic birth defects. Potential operating mechanisms are discussed, and the possibility is considered that a suppressed maternal immune system may negatively impact fetal development.

  20. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.

  1. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read More Acute arterial occlusion - kidney Acute kidney failure Aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Blood clots Renal cell carcinoma Renal venogram X-ray Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Jason Levy, ...

  2. The Long-Term Effects of Reduced Competitive Ability on Foraging Success of an Invasive Pest Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian Ludwig; Bell, Vaughn Antony; Suckling, David Maxwell; Lester, Philip John

    2016-08-01

    Ant species like Pheidole megacephala (F.), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), and the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), have repeatedly been reported to be strongly associated with honeydew-producing arthropods like aphids, scale insects, and mealybugs, effectively protecting them from biological control agents like parasitoids. Here we report the results of a successful trial using pheromone dispensers to suppress Argentine ant activity over large sections in a commercial vineyard over a period of two months and preventing ant access into and foraging within the vine canopy. We found Argentine ant activity to be significantly reduced in pheromone-treated plots for the duration of the trial period compared with control plots. Our results showed a significant reduction in the numbers of Argentine ant workers recruited to randomly placed food resources within treated plots compared with untreated plots. Furthermore, spatial distribution of Argentine ants alongside transects in untreated plots remained relatively continuous, while increasing sharply beyond the borders of treated plots. Lastly, we measured the body fat content of workers and found a significant reduction in fat among workers from treated plots compared with untreated plots, suggesting an adverse effects on nest fitness. Additionally, we provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of the presented approach. Our results showed that it is possible to control Argentine ant, preventing them access to and foraging within the vine canopy, thereby reducing Argentine ants' access to honeydew. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of Lowering Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA on Vascular Pathology in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice with Reduced Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the impact of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and its degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH1, on atherosclerosis in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX ApoE-deficient mice. Male DDAH1 transgenic mice (TG, n = 39 and C57Bl/6J wild-type littermates (WT, n = 27 with or without the deletion of the ApoE gene underwent SNX at the age of eight weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 12 months of age, and blood chemistry, as well as the extent of atherosclerosis within the entire aorta were analyzed. Sham treated (no renal mass reduction ApoE-competent DDAH1 transgenic and wild-type littermates (n = 11 served as a control group. Overexpression of DDAH1 was associated with significantly lower ADMA levels in all treatment groups. Surprisingly, SNX mice did not exhibit higher ADMA levels compared to sham treated control mice. Furthermore, the degree of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice with SNX was similar in mice with or without overexpression of DDAH1. Overexpression of the ADMA degrading enzyme, DDAH1, did not ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient SNX mice. Furthermore, SNX in mice had no impact on ADMA levels, suggesting a minor role of this molecule in chronic kidney disease (CKD in this mouse model.

  4. Fenofibrate reduces cisplatin-induced apoptosis of renal proximal tubular cells via inhibition of JNK and p38 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongnuanjan, Penjai; Soodvilai, Sirima; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is widely used as a standard chemotherapy for solid tumors. The major adverse effect of cisplatin is nephrotoxicity in proximal tubular cells, via oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell apoptosis, and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effect and mechanism of fibrate drugs on cisplatin-induced renal proximal tubular cell death. Cisplatin decreased cell viability of LLC-PK1 and HK-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis was attenuated by co-treatment with fenofibrate while less so with clofibrate and bezafibrate. Fenofibrate's protective effect was not complimented by co-treatment with GW6471, a PPARα antagonist, indicating the protective effect occurred via a PPARα-independent mechanism. Treating cells with cisplatin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase (p38), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Fenofibrate reversed cisplatin-induced JNK and p38 activation, but had no effect on ROS production. The findings suggest fenofibrate's protective effect on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by inhibition of JNK and p38. Moreover, fenofibrate did not alter cisplatin's antitumor effect on cancer cell lines including T84, SW-480, HepG2, and SK-LU-1 cells. Therefore, fenofibrate may be a candidate agent for further development as an adjuvant to cisplatin treatment.

  5. Ability of TiO2(110) Surface to Be Fully Hydroxylated and Fully Reduced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhitao; Garcia, Juan C.; Deskins, N. A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2015-08-06

    Many TiO2 applications (e.g., in heterogeneous catalysis) involve contact with ambient atmosphere and/or water. The resulting hydroxylation can significantly alter its surface properties. While behavior of single, isolated OH species on the model metal oxide surface of rutile TiO2(110) is relatively well understood, much less is known regarding highly-hydroxylated surfaces and/or whether TiO2(110) could be fully-hydroxylated under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Here we report in situ formation of a well-ordered, fully-hydroxylated TiO2(110)-(1 x 1) surface using an enhanced photochemical approach, key parts of which are pre-dosing of water and multi-step dissociative adsorption and subsequent photolysis of the carboxylic (trimethyl acetic) acid. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy, ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory results, we show that the attained “super OH” surface is also fully-reduced, as a result of the photochemical trapping of electrons at the OH groups.

  6. A High Density Storm Surge Monitoring Network: Evaluating the Ability of Wetland Vegetation to Reduce Storm Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, S.; Denton, M.; Ferreira, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent tropical storm activity in the Chesapeake Bay and a potential increase in the predicted frequency and magnitude of weather systems have drawn increased attention to the need for improved tools for monitoring, modeling and predicting the magnitude of storm surge, coastal flooding and the respective damage to infrastructure and wetland ecosystems. Among other forms of flood protection, it is believed that coastal wetlands and vegetation can act as a natural barrier that slows hurricane flooding, helping to reduce the impact of storm surge. However, quantifying the relationship between the physical process of storm surge and its attenuation by wetland vegetation is an active area of research and the deployment of in-situ measuring devices is crucial to data collection efforts in this field. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) mobile storm-surge network has already successfully provided a framework for evaluating hurricane induced storm surge water levels on a regional scale through the use of in-situ devices installed in areas affected by storm surge during extreme events. Based on the success of the USGS efforts, in this study we adapted the monitoring network to cover relatively small areas of wetlands and coastal vegetation with an increased density of sensors. Groups of 6 to 10 water level sensors were installed in sites strategically selected in three locations on the Virginia coast of the lower Chesapeake Bay area to monitor different types of vegetation and the resulting hydrodynamic patterns (open coast and inland waters). Each group of sensors recorded time series data of water levels for both astronomical tide circulation and meteorological induced surge. Field campaigns were carried out to survey characteristics of vegetation contributing to flow resistance (i.e. height, diameter and stem density) and mapped using high precision GPS. A geodatabase containing data from field campaigns will support the development and calibration of

  7. Management of chronic renal failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, D.; Apperloo, AJ; de Jong, P.

    1992-01-01

    There is growing evidence that treatment of patients with renal function impairment will undergo a major shift within the next few years. Along with more or less successful attempts to alleviate the signs and symptoms of reduced renal function, new insights into renal pathophysiology as well as new

  8. Renal functional reserve and renal recovery after acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aashish; Mucino, Marìa Jimena; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Renal functional reserve (RFR) represents the capacity of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to certain physiological or pathological stimuli or conditions. Once baseline GFR is determined, RFR can be assessed clinically after an oral protein load or intravenous amino acid infusion. In clinical practice, baseline GFR displays variable levels due to diet or other factors. RFR is the difference between peak 'stress' GFR induced by the test (p.o. or i.v.) and the baseline GFR. In clinical scenarios where hyperfiltration is present (high baseline GFR due to pregnancy, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, in solitary kidney or kidney donors), RFR may be fully or partially used to achieve normal or supranormal renal function. Since commonly used renal function markers, such as GFR, may remain within normal ranges until 50% of nephrons are lost or in patients with a single remnant kidney, the RFR test may represent a sensitive and early way to assess the functional decline in the kidney. RFR assessment may become an important tool to evaluate the ability of the kidney to recover completely or partially after a kidney attack. In case of healing with a defect and progressive fibrosis, recovery may appear complete clinically, but a reduced RFR may be a sign of a maladaptive repair or subclinical loss of renal mass. Thus, a reduction in RFR may represent the equivalent of renal frailty or susceptibility to insults. The main aim of this article is to review the concept of RFR, its utility in different clinical scenarios, and future perspective for its use.

  9. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone reduces renal interstitial fibrosis after long-term cyclosporine treatment in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Thomsen; Jensen, Boye L.; Hansen, Pernille B. L.

    2013-01-01

    blood pressure (BP) and GFR (inulin clearance) in conscious, freely moving animals. Plasma was sampled for analysis and kidney tissue was fixed for quantitative stereological analyses. RESULTS: Compared to controls, CsA-treatment reduced relative tubular volume (0.73+/-0.03 vs. 0.85+/-0.01, p...

  10. Relationship between miR-21 and renal cancer metastasis and in-fluence of miR-21 on the invasion ability of renal cancer cell%miR-21与肾癌转移的相关性及其对肾癌细胞侵袭能力的影响*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 郭艳; 尚超; 宋永胜

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨miR-21与肾癌转移的相关性,及miR-21对肾癌Caki-1细胞侵袭能力的影响。方法:实时PCR检测原发未转移肾癌和原发伴转移肾癌组织中miR-21的表达。将miR-21的前体pre-miR-21和抑制物anti-miR-21分别转染肾癌Caki-1细胞,实时PCR验证转染效果,然后检测转染后细胞的侵袭能力。结果:与原发未转移肾癌相比,原发伴转移肾癌组织中miR-21的表达显著上调;pre-miR-21和anti-miR-21转染后能够显著升高和降低Caki-1细胞miR-21的表达量;pre-miR-21组穿透滤膜的细胞数明显增加,而anti-miR-21组穿透滤膜的细胞数明显减少。结论:miR-21与肾癌的侵袭转移相关,miR-21能够促进肾癌细胞侵袭,在肾癌中具有促进转移的作用。%  Objective: The present study aims to investigate the relationship between miR-21 and renal cancer metastasis as well as the influence of miR-21 on the invasiveness ability of renal cancer Caki-1 cells. Methods: Real-time PCR was performed to detect miR-21 in primary renal cancer without and with metastasis. Pre-miR-21 and anti-miR-21 were transfected to Caki-1 cells, respectively, and real-time PCR was used to detect transfection effects. Finally, invasiveness changes in Caki-1 cells were detected after transfection. Results: miR-21 expression in primary renal cancer with metastasis was much higher than that in primary renal cancer without metasta-sis. After transfection, pre-miR-21 and anti-miR-21 significantly increased and decreased the miR-21 expression in Caki-1 cells, respec-tively. The transmembrane cells of the pre-miR-21 group increased significantly, whereas those of the anti-miR-21 group decreased sig-nificantly. Conclusion: miR-21 and renal cancer metastasis are related. miR-21 advances renal cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

  11. Aminoglycosides block the Kv3.1 potassium channel and reduce the ability of inferior colliculus neurons to fire at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Qiong J; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2005-03-01

    The Kv3.1 potassium channel is expressed at high levels in auditory nuclei and contributes to the ability of auditory neurons to fire at high frequencies. We have tested the effects of streptomycin, an agent that produces progressive hearing loss, on the firing properties of inferior colliculus neurons and on Kv3.1 currents in transfected cells. We found that in inferior colliculus neurons, intracellular streptomycin decreased the current density of a high threshold, noninactivating outward current and reduced the rate of repolarization of action potentials and the ability of these neurons to fire at high frequencies. Furthermore, potassium current in CHO cells transfected with the Kv3.1 gene was reduced by 50% when cells were cultured in the presence of streptomycin or when streptomycin was introduced intracellularly in the pipette solution. In the presence of intracellular streptomycin, the activation rate of Kv3.1 current increased and inhibition by extracellular TEA become voltage-dependent. The data indicate that streptomycin inhibits Kv3.1 currents by inducing a conformational change in the Kv3.1 channel. The hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics may be partially mediated by their inhibition of Kv3.1 current in auditory neurons.

  12. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD) Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The "Nutritional Light Signal" of the Renal Acid Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Di Micco, Lucia; Marzocco, Stefania; De Simone, Emanuele; De Blasio, Antonietta; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Nardone, Luca; On Behalf Of Ubi Study Group

    2017-01-17

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD) and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2). We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP), inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T-test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP (p acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and drinks-the "acid load dietary traffic light".

  13. Worsening renal function and outcome in heart failure patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction and the impact of angiotensin receptor blocker treatment : data from the CHARM-study programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Kevin; Solomon, Scott D.; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Swedberg, Karl; Yusuf, Salim; Young, James B.; Rouleau, Jean L.; Granger, Christopher B.; McMurray, John J. V.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We investigated the association between worsening renal function (WRF) that occurs during renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition initation and outcome in heart failure (HF) patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and compared this with HF patients with reduced ejection fracti

  14. Renal concentration defect following nonoliguric acute renal failure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R J; Gordon, J A; Kim, J; Peterson, L M; Gross, P A

    1982-04-01

    The mechanism of impaired renal concentrating ability following nonoliguric ischemic acute renal failure was studied in the rat. Fifty min of complete occlusion of the renal artery and vein with contralateral nephrectomy resulted in reversible, nonoliguric acute renal failure. Eight days following induction of acute renal failure, a defect in 30 hr dehydration urine osmolality was present when experimental animals were compared with uninephrectomized controls (1,425 +/- 166 versus 2,267 +/- 127 mOsm/kg water respectively, P less than 0.001). Comparable postdehydration plasma vasopressin levels in experimental and control animals and an impaired hydro-osmotic response to exogenous vasopressin in experimental animals documented a nephrogenic origin of the defect in urine concentration. Lower urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 in experimental animals and a failure of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition with 10 mg/kg of indomethacin to improve dehydration urine osmolality suggested that prostaglandin E2 antagonism of vasopressin action did not contribute to the concentration defect. Postdehydration inner medullary (papillary) interstitial tonicity was significantly reduced in experimental animals versus controls (870 +/- 85 versus 1,499 +/- 87 mOsm/kg water respectively, P less than 0.001). To determine if this decreased interstitial tonicity was due to vascular mechanisms, papillary plasma flow was measured and found to be equivalent in experimental and control animals. To examine a role for biochemical factors in the renal concentration defect, cyclic nucleotide levels were measured in cytosol and membrane fragments. A decrease in vasopressin and sodium fluoride-stimulated adenylate cyclase was found in outer medullary tissue of experimental animals. In contrast, vasopressin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was comparable in the inner medullary tissue of control and experimental animals. Our study suggests a defect in generation of renal inner medullary interstitial

  15. Clozapine Reconstructed: Haloperidol’s Ability To Reduce Alcohol Intake In The Syrian Golden Hamster Can Be Enhanced Through Noradrenergic Modulation By Desipramine And Idazoxan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Jibran Y.; Chau, David T.; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia. Most antipsychotic drugs do not lessen alcohol use; although the atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been shown to reduce alcohol use in patients with schizophrenia, its toxicity severely limits its use in patients. With an eye toward creation of a safer clozapine-like drug, we have investigated the pharmacological basis of the clozapine’s effects on alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster. In this animal, as in patients with schizophrenia, clozapine reduces alcohol drinking while the typical antipsychotic haloperidol does not. We have suggested that clozapine decreases alcohol drinking due to its weak dopamine D2 receptor blockade, its potent norepinephrine α-2 receptor antagonism, as well as its ability to elevate plasma norepinephrine. Methods We recreated a clozapine-like drug to reduce alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster by combining low dose haloperidol with a norepinephrine α-2 receptor antagonist, idazoxan, and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) and were treated daily with each drug or with the three-drug combination for 23 days. Results The drug combination reduced alcohol drinking and preference significantly as compared to vehicle or to haloperidol, idazoxan or desipramine, while not altering food-intake or bodyweight. Conclusion These findings suggest that that haloperidol, which does not reduce alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia or the hamster, if combined with idazoxan and desipramine (producing a drug combination that mimics aspects of clozapine’s pharmacology) is able to reduce alcohol drinking in the hamster. PMID:25979645

  16. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  17. Targeting HO-1 by Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Contrast-Induced Renal Injury via Anti-Oxidative Stress and Anti-Inflammation Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Gao

    Full Text Available Both oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a purified catechin from green tea, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is unknown whether or not EGCG is effective in treating CIN. Our present study found that intravenous administration of EGCG, either before or just after the establishment of CIN, had a protective effect, determined by normalization of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, improvement in renal histopathological scoring and alleviation of apoptosis, accompanied by decreased oxidative stress and inflammation. Because EGCG is a potent inducer of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, we studied HO-1 signaling in CIN. HO-1 levels were increased in CIN; treatment with EGCG further increased HO-1 levels, accompanied by an increase in Nrf2, a regulator of antioxidant proteins. Interestingly, blockade of HO-1 with protoporphyrin IX zinc(II (ZnPP prevented the protective effect of EGCG on CIN. ZnPP also blocked the ability of EGCG to increase the activity of an antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, and decrease markers of oxidative stress (myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde and inflammation (myeloperoxidase and IL-1β, indicating that HO-1 is the upstream molecule that regulates the EGCG-mediated protection. To determine further the role of HO-1 on the EGCG-mediated inhibition of inflammation, we studied the effect of EGCG on the NLRP3 inflammasome, an upstream signaling of IL-1β. EGCG down-regulated NLRP3 expression, which was blocked by ZnPP, indicating that HO-1 links EGCG with NLRP3. Therefore, EGCG, via up-regulation of HO-1, protects against CIN by amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  18. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  19. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L., J. oxycedrus (L., J. phoenicea (L. and Tetraclinis articulata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, quercetin, and Trolox. The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91±0.37 μg/mL, 19.80±0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23±0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  20. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability. PMID:27293428

  1. PEGylation of the peptide Bac7(1-35) reduces renal clearance while retaining antibacterial activity and bacterial cell penetration capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Monica; Zahariev, Sotir; Pelillo, Chiara; Milan, Annalisa; Gennaro, Renato; Scocchi, Marco

    2015-05-05

    The proline-rich antibacterial peptide Bac7(1-35) protects mice against Salmonella typhimurium infection, despite its rapid clearance. To overcome this problem the peptide was linked to a polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecule either via a cleavable ester bond or via a non-hydrolysable amide bond. Both the PEGylated conjugates retained most of the in vitro activity against S. typhimurium. In addition, the ester bond was cleaved in human serum or plasma, releasing a carboxymethyl derivative of Bac7(1-35) which accounts for a higher activity of this peptide with relative to the other, non-hydrolysable form. Both PEGylated peptides maintained the capacity of the unconjugated form to kill bacteria without permeabilizing the bacterial membranes, by penetrating into cells. They exploited the same transporter as unmodified Bac7(1-35), suggesting it has the capacity to internalize quite sizeable cargo if this is linked to Bac7 fragment. PEGylation allows the peptide to have a wide distribution in mice, and a slow renal clearance, indicating that this strategy would improve the bioavailability of Bac7, and in principle of other antimicrobial peptides. This can be an equally important issue to reducing cytotoxicity for therapeutic use of these antibacterials.

  2. Can You Ride a Bicycle? The Ability to Ride a Bicycle Prevents Reduced Social Function in Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Sakura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health benefits of bicycling in older adults with mobility limitation (ML are unclear. We investigated ML and functional capacity of older cyclists by evaluating their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, intellectual activity, and social function. Methods: On the basis of interviews, 614 community-dwelling older adults (after excluding 63 participants who never cycled were classified as cyclists with ML, cyclists without ML, non-cyclists with ML (who ceased bicycling due to physical difficulties, or non-cyclists without ML (who ceased bicycling for other reasons. A cyclist was defined as a person who cycled at least a few times per month, and ML was defined as difficulty walking 1 km or climbing stairs without using a handrail. Functional capacity and physical ability were evaluated by standardized tests. Results: Regular cycling was documented in 399 participants, and 74 of them (18.5% had ML; among non-cyclists, 49 had ML, and 166 did not. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating the relationship between bicycling and functional capacity revealed that non-cyclists with ML were more likely to have reduced IADL and social function compared to cyclists with ML. However, logistic regression analysis also revealed that the risk of bicycle-related falls was significantly associated with ML among older cyclists. Conclusions: The ability and opportunity to bicycle may prevent reduced IADL and social function in older adults with ML, although older adults with ML have a higher risk of falls during bicycling. It is important to develop a safe environment for bicycling for older adults.

  3. [Renal calculus microflora in urolithiasis and search for agents of control of biofilms formed by uropathogenic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolordava, E R; Tiganova, I G; Alekseeva, N V; Stepanova, T V; Terekhov, A A; Egamberdiev, D K; Mulabaev, N S; Shevliagina, N V; Didenko, L V; Romanova, Iu M

    2012-01-01

    Study bacterial biofilms in native material (renal calculus) by electron microscopy method and developmeit of biofilm model by isolates in vitro on sterile calculi of various chemical composition. Bacterial spectra of microflora of renal calculus lavages were studied, isolated pure cultures were identified up to species. Comparisons of urine microflora obtained before operation in patients with urolithiasis with microflora of removed renal calculi were carried out. Urease activity and genes coding pathogenicity factors were detected, and the ability to form biofilms by isolates was studied. Model of formation of biofilms in vitro on sterile renal calculi was developed and candidate agents reducing the biofilm forming ability were tested. Uropathogenic microorganisms infecting renal calculi and forming biofilms on them not only support chronic infection by increased resistance to therapy but also facilitate novel lithogenesis.

  4. Residual Renal Function in Children Treated with Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roszkowska-Blaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual renal function (RRF in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD receiving renal replacement therapy is defined as the ability of native kidneys to eliminate water and uremic toxins. Preserved RRF improves survival and quality of life in adult ESRD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. In children, RRF was shown not only to help preserve adequacy of renal replacement therapy but also to accelerate growth rate, improve nutrition and blood pressure control, reduce the risk of adverse myocardial changes, facilitate treatment of anemia and calcium-phosphorus balance abnormalities, and result in reduced serum and dialysate fluid levels of advanced glycation end-products. Factors contributing to RRF loss in children treated with peritoneal dialysis include the underlying renal disease such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome and hereditary nephropathy, small urine volume, severe proteinuria at the initiation of renal replacement therapy, and hypertension. Several approaches can be suggested to decrease the rate of RRF loss in pediatric patients treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis: potentially nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, episodes of hypotension, and uncontrolled hypertension should be avoided, urinary tract infections should be treated promptly, and loop diuretics may be used to increase salt and water excretion.

  5. Renal vein stenting via the right internal jugular approach with a provocative Valsalva maneuver to reduce the risk of stent migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mubin I; Yu, Benjamin; Akhter, Talal; Shaikh, Azim

    2011-12-01

    An adult male with nutcracker syndrome was treated successfully by placement of a self-expanding stent in the left renal vein via a right internal jugular vein approach with a provocative Valsalva maneuver. Previous case reports have described renal vein stenting for this condition via common femoral vein approach. However, this study proposes the right internal jugular vein approach as a safer method for the treatment of nutcracker syndrome since the stent can be easily captured along the guidewire if undersized. This technique is based on the realization that the left renal vein diameter may increase by 50% to 58% during the Valsalva maneuver.

  6. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P hands (P soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P hand washing with soap at reducing indicator organisms on farmworker hands. Based on these results, ABHS is an efficacious hand hygiene solution for produce handlers, even on soiled hands.

  7. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  8. Synthesis of butterfly-like ZnO nanostructures and study of their self-reducing ability toward Au(3+) ions for enhanced photocatalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueling; Liu, Yumeng; Zheng, Yan; Ding, Kun; Nie, Shijie; Yang, Ping

    2016-02-14

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures with diverse morphologies were successfully fabricated via a simple one-step hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent calcination. The formation of butterfly-like ZnO was mainly ascribed to a typical nucleation-growth-assembly process as a result of electrostatic interactions between the nanoparticles and the reconstructed sheets. Au nanoparticles (NPs) created from Au(3+) ions were deposited on the butterfly-like ZnO without the use of any reducing agents by simply stirring the solution at room temperature. Tartaric acid was present in the ZnO calcined at a low temperature (300 °C), which resulted in the self-reducing ability of ZnO toward the Au(3+) ions. The Au NPs were closely connected with the ZnO matrix. This close connection resulted in hierarchical ZnO-Au composites with efficient photocatalytic activity for use in environmental remediation. Compared with the pure ZnO sample calcined at 300 °C, the hierarchical ZnO-Au composites showed an enhanced photocatalytic performance toward rhodamine B. The results of photodegradation indicated that the incorporation of the Au NPs drastically increased the photocatalytic efficiency by promoting the separation of the electron-hole pairs created by the absorption of photons.

  9. Reduced ability of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) to activate natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Andrea R.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Earhart, Cathleen A.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Potter, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates endochondrial ossification by activating the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase, natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B). Recently, a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation that causes severe dwarfism in mice was identified. The mutant, called long bone abnormality (lbab), contains a single point mutation that converts an arginine to a glycine in a conserved coding region of the CNP gene, but how this mutation affects CNP activity has not been reported. Here, we determined that thirty to greater than one hundred-fold more CNPlbab was required to activate NPR-B as compared to wild-type CNP in whole cell cGMP elevation and membrane guanylyl cyclase assays. The reduced ability of CNPlbab to activate NPR-B was explained, at least in part, by decreased binding since ten-fold more CNPlbab than wild-type CNP was required to compete with [125I][Tyr0]CNP for receptor binding. Molecular modeling suggested that the conserved arginine is critical for binding to an equally conserved acidic pocket in NPR-B. These results indicate that reduced binding to and activation of NPR-B causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice. PMID:18554750

  10. Rapamycin reduces kidney volume and delays the loss of renal function in a patient with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Peces, Carlos; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Azorín, Sebastián; Selgas, Rafael

    2009-04-01

    This is the first report of a case of a reduction in kidney volume and preservation of renal function in a patient with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) receiving rapamycin. A 42-year-old man with ADPKD and a severe persistent bleeding from his solitary left kidney was successfully treated with tranexamic acid (TXA). He also received low-dose rapamycin for 8 months, and this was associated with a 23.5% reduction in kidney volume, improvement and stabilization of renal function, and normalization of haemoglobin levels. When treatment with rapamycin was interrupted, renal function deteriorated within an 8-month period and haemodialysis (HD) became necessary. Kidney volume increased at once, and life-threatening bleeding prompted a nephrectomy 4 months after the onset of HD. These data suggest that the reduction in kidney volume and preservation of renal function with rapamycin could be the result of the antiangiogenic, antiproliferative effects of rapamycin.

  11. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD) Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The “Nutritional Light Signal” of the Renal Acid Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Di Micco, Lucia; Marzocco, Stefania; De Simone, Emanuele; De Blasio, Antonietta; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Nardone, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD) and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2). We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP), inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T-test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP (p < 0.0001), DBP (p < 0.001), plasma urea (p < 0.0001) protein intake (p < 0.0001), calcemia (p < 0.0001), phosphatemia (p < 0.0001), phosphate intake (p < 0.0001), urinary sodium (p < 0.0001), urinary potassium (p < 0.002), and urinary phosphate (p < 0.0001). NEAP and PRAL were significantly reduced in VLPD during follow-up. Conclusion: VLPD reduces intake of acids; nutritional therapy of CKD, that has always taken into consideration a lower protein, salt, and phosphate intake, should be adopted to correct metabolic acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and drinks

  12. Renal subcapsular haematoma: an unusual complication of renal artery stenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Dan; CHEN Shan-wen; ZHANG Hong-kun; WANG Shuo

    2011-01-01

    After successful renal artery angioplasty and stent placement, a patient in a fully anticoagulated state developed hypotension and flank pain. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed a large renal subcapsular haematoma which was successfully managed conservatively without embolotherapy and surgical intervention. To prevent hemorrhage after renal artery stenting, it is necessary to underscore the importance of reducing the contrast volume and pressure of angiography, controlling systemic blood pressure, and monitoring guide wire position at all times.

  13. Metformin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced renal tubular cell injury by suppressing reactive oxygen species generation via reducing receptor for AGEs (RAGE) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Takeuchi, M; Yamagishi, S

    2012-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play a role in tubulointerstitial damage in diabetic nephropathy. Recently, metformin has been shown to ameliorate tubular injury both in cell culture and diabetic animal model. However, effects of metformin on AGEs-induced tubular cell apoptosis and damage remain unknown. We examined here whether and how metformin could block the AGEs-RAGE-elicited tubular cell injury in vitro. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with dihydroethidium staining. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation and annexin V expression level. AGEs upregulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently increased ROS generation and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β gene expression in human renal proximal tubular cells, all of which were significantly blocked by the treatment of 0.01 and 0.1 mM metformin. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase significantly blocked the effects of metformin on RAGE gene expression and ROS generation in AGEs-exposed tubular cells. Furthermore, metformin dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced apoptotic cell death of tubular cells; 1 mM metformin completely suppressed the pro-apoptotic effects of AGEs in 2 different assay systems. Our present study suggests that metformin could inhibit the AGEs-induced apoptosis and inflammatory and fibrotic reactions in tubular cells probably by reducing ROS generation via suppression of RAGE expression through AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Metformin may protect against tubular cell injury in diabetic nephropathy by blocking the AGEs-RAGE-ROS axis.

  14. Chronic Renal Failure, Cachexia, and Ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Laviano, A.; Krznaric, Z.; Sanchez-Lara, K.; Preziosa, I.; Cascino, A; Rossi Fanelli, F.

    2010-01-01

    Protein energy wasting is frequently observed in patients with advanced chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Anorexia and reduced food intake are critical contributing factors and negatively impact on patients' survival. Ghrelin is a prophagic peptide produced by the stomach and acting at the hypothalamic level to increase the activity of orexigenic neurons. In patients with chronic renal disease, plasma levels are increased as a likely effect of reduced renal clearance. Neverth...

  15. May common model biases reduce CMIP5's ability to simulate the recent Pacific La Niña-like cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyong; Dodson, John; Yan, Hong; Wang, Weiming; Innes, James B.; Zong, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xu, Qinghai; Ni, Jian; Lu, Fengyan

    2017-04-01

    Over the recent three decades sea surface temperate (SST) in the eastern equatorial Pacific has decreased, which helps reduce the rate of global warming. However, most CMIP5 model simulations with historical radiative forcing do not reproduce this Pacific La Niña-like cooling. Based on the assumption of "perfect" models, previous studies have suggested that errors in simulated internal climate variations and/or external radiative forcing may cause the discrepancy between the multi-model simulations and the observation. But the exact causes remain unclear. Recent studies have suggested that observed SST warming in the other two ocean basins in past decades and the thermostat mechanism in the Pacific in response to increased radiative forcing may also play an important role in driving this La Niña-like cooling. Here, we investigate an alternative hypothesis that common biases of current state-of-the-art climate models may deteriorate the models' ability and can also contribute to this multi-model simulations-observation discrepancy. Our results suggest that underestimated inter-basin warming contrast across the three tropical oceans, overestimated surface net heat flux and underestimated local SST-cloud negative feedback in the equatorial Pacific may favor an El Niño-like warming bias in the models. Effects of the three common model biases do not cancel one another and jointly explain 50% of the total variance of the discrepancies between the observation and individual models' ensemble mean simulations of the Pacific SST trend. Further efforts on reducing common model biases could help improve simulations of the externally forced climate trends and the multi-decadal climate fluctuations.

  16. Low-dose rapamycin reduces kidney volume angiomyolipomas and prevents the loss of renal function in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Peces, Carlos; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Vega-Cabrera, Cristina; Azorín, Sebastián; Selgas, Rafael

    2010-11-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by constitutively activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) resulting in non-malignant tumours of several organs including renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs). AMLs may originate renal failure, hypertension and spontaneous life-threatening bleeding. Recent reports suggest a possible beneficial role of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin for TSC. However, safety and efficiency of rapamycin in TSC patients as an anti-proliferative agent are still undefined. A 40-year-old man with sporadic TSC and a history of spontaneous bleeding from his left kidney AMLs received low-dose rapamycin for 12 months, and this was associated with a reduction in bilateral kidney AML volume, stabilization and even improvement of renal function. There was also a reduction of facial angiofibromas, improvement of blood pressure control and absence of AML bleeding over this time period. Brain lesion images remained stable, and no significant rapamycin-associated side effects were noted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of reduction in renal AML volume together with preservation of renal function in a patient with TSC receiving low-dose rapamycin. These data suggest that it could be the result of the anti-angiogenic, anti-fibrotic and anti-proliferative effects of rapamycin.

  17. Phytotoxicity analysis of extracts from compost and their ability to inhibit soil-borne pathogenic fungi and reduce root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dabing; Raza, Waseem; Yu, Guanghui; Zhao, Qingyun; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2012-03-01

    Compost extracts are novel organic amendments, typically applied to suppress soil-borne diseases. This research evaluated the phytotoxicity of compost extracts and analyzed their ability to inhibit pathogenic fungal growth and reduce root-knot nematodes. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of extracts from a pig manure and straw compost were analyzed. Three types of extracts were tested: direct extracts of compost (DEC), aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC). All compost extracts showed low phytotoxicity against lettuce and cress, but AFEC and NAFEC were more phytotoxic than DEC. All compost extracts significantly inhibited pathogenic fungal growth except for the fungus Rhizoctonia solania AG4. For two seasons, tomato root biomass of three compost extracts was 1.25-5.67 times greater than CK (water control), and AFEC and NAFEC showed the best tomato root growth promotion. The reduction ratio of root egg mass and density of soil nematodes were 34.51-87.77% and 30.92-51.37%, when applied with three compost extracts. The microbial population in compost extracts was considered to be the most significant factor of inhibition pathogenic fungal growth. No markedly correlations among bacterial community diversity, the inhibition of pathogenic fungal growth and the reduction of root-knot nematodes were observed. This information adds to the understanding of the growth-promoting and suppression effects of compost extracts and will help to enhance crop production.

  18. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  19. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    lesion. Three cases of renal angiomyolipoma, 2 of which underwent perfusion-fixation, were studied by electron microscopy to clarify the cellular composition of this lesion. In the smooth muscle cells abundant accumulation of glycogen was found, whereas the lipocytes disclosed normal ultrastructural......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  20. Internal radiotherapy with copper-64-diacetyl-bis (N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazone) reduces CD133{sup +} highly tumorigenic cells and metastatic ability of mouse colon carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Yukie [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Furukawa, Takako [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kiyono, Yasushi [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Watanabe, Ryo [Faculty of Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Mori, Tetsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yoshii, Hiroshi [Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Asai, Tatsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Welch, Michael J. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa, E-mail: yfuji@nirs.go.j [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: {sup 64}Cu-diacetyl-bis (N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazone) ({sup 64}Cu-ATSM) is an imaging agent for positron emission tomography (PET) that targets hypoxic tumors. {sup 64}Cu-ATSM is also reported to be a potential agent for internal radiotherapy. In a mouse colon carcinoma (Colon-26) model, we have shown that {sup 64}Cu-ATSM preferentially localizes in intratumoral regions with a high density of CD133{sup +} cells, which show characteristics of cancer stem cells or cancer stem cell-like cells (collectively referred here as CSCs). In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of {sup 64}Cu-ATSM in relation to CD133 expression using this model. Methods: Systemic administration of 37 MBq {sup 64}Cu-ATSM or saline was conducted twice within a 1-week interval to mice bearing 1-week-old Colon-26 tumors (days 0-7). At day 19, tumor size measurement, flow cytometry analysis and experimental lung metastatic assay were performed. The therapeutic effect of {sup 64}Cu-ATSM on sorted CD133{sup +} and CD133{sup -} Colon-26 cells was also examined in vitro. Results: In vivo studies showed that {sup 64}Cu-ATSM treatment inhibited tumor growth. The percentage of CD133{sup +} cells and metastatic ability in {sup 64}Cu-ATSM treated tumors was decreased compared with that in control animals. In vitro studies demonstrated that {sup 64}Cu-ATSM accumulated in cells under hypoxic conditions and incorporation of {sup 64}Cu-ATSM under hypoxia caused cell death in both CD133{sup +} and CD133{sup -} cells in a similar extent. Conclusions: {sup 64}Cu-ATSM administration reduced tumor volume as well as the percentage of CD133{sup +} cells and the metastatic ability of Colon-26 tumors. Together with our data, it is suggested that {sup 64}Cu-ATSM accumulates in regions high in CD133{sup +} highly tumorigenic cells and kills such regions by radiation, resulting in a decrease of the percentage of CD133{sup +} cells.

  1. Renal blood flow in experimental septic acute renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, C.; Wan, L.; Egi, M.; May, C. N.; Bellomo, R.

    2006-01-01

    Reduced renal blood flow (RBF) is considered central to the pathogenesis of septic acute renal failure (ARF). However, no controlled experimental studies have continuously assessed RBF during the development of severe septic ARF. We conducted a sequential animal study in seven female Merino sheep. F

  2. Acute renal dysfunction in liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in liver diseases, either as part of multiorgan involvement in acute illness or secondary to advanced liver disease. The presence of renal impairment in both groups is a poor prognostic indicator. Renal failure is often multifactorial and can present as pre-renal or intrinsic renal dysfunction. Obstructive or post renal dysfunction only rarely complicates liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome (MRS) is a unique form of renal failure associated with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, and is characterized by functional renal impairment without significant changes in renal histology. Irrespective of the type of renal failure, renal hypoperfusion is the central pathogenetic mechanism, due either to reduced perfusion pressure or increased renal vascular resistance. Volume expansion, avoidance of precipitating factors and treatment of underlying liver disease constitute the mainstay of therapy to prevent and reverse renal impairment. Splanchnic vasoconstrictor agents, such as terlipressin, along with volume expansion, and early placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be effective in improving renal function in HRS. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS) in selected patients may be life saving while awaiting liver transplantation.

  3. Enriched housing enhances recovery of limb placement ability and reduces aggrecan-containing perineuronal nets in the rat somatosensory cortex after experimental stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Madinier

    Full Text Available Stroke causes life long disabilities where few therapeutic options are available. Using electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain and physical rehabilitation, recovery of brain function can be enhanced even late after stroke. Animal models support this notion, and housing rodents in an enriched environment (EE several days after experimental stroke stimulates lost brain function by multisensory mechanisms. We studied the dynamics of functional recovery of rats with a lesion to the fore and hind limb motor areas induced by photothrombosis (PT, and with subsequent housing in either standard (STD or EE. In this model, skilled motor function is not significantly enhanced by enriched housing, while the speed of recovery of sensori-motor function substantially improves over the 9-week study period. In particular, this stroke lesion completely obliterates the fore and hind limb placing ability when visual and whisker guidance is prevented, a deficit that persists for up to 9 weeks of recovery, but that is markedly restored within 2 weeks by enriched housing. Enriched housing after stroke also leads to a significant loss of perineuronal net (PNN immunoreactivity; detection of aggrecan protein backbone with AB1031 antibody was decreased by 13-22%, and labelling of a glycan moiety of aggrecan with Cat-315 antibody was reduced by 25-30% in the peri-infarct area and in the somatosensory cortex, respectively. The majority of these cells are parvalbumin/GABA inhibitory interneurons that are important in sensori-information processing. We conclude that damage to the fore and hind limb motor areas provides a model of loss of limb placing response without visual guidance, a deficit also seen in more than 50% of stroke patients. This loss is amenable to recovery induced by multiple sensory stimulation and correlates with a decrease in aggrecan-containing PNNs around inhibitory interneurons. Modulating the PNN structure after ischemic damage may provide new

  4. Enriched housing enhances recovery of limb placement ability and reduces aggrecan-containing perineuronal nets in the rat somatosensory cortex after experimental stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinier, Alexandre; Quattromani, Miriana Jlenia; Sjölund, Carin; Ruscher, Karsten; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Stroke causes life long disabilities where few therapeutic options are available. Using electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain and physical rehabilitation, recovery of brain function can be enhanced even late after stroke. Animal models support this notion, and housing rodents in an enriched environment (EE) several days after experimental stroke stimulates lost brain function by multisensory mechanisms. We studied the dynamics of functional recovery of rats with a lesion to the fore and hind limb motor areas induced by photothrombosis (PT), and with subsequent housing in either standard (STD) or EE. In this model, skilled motor function is not significantly enhanced by enriched housing, while the speed of recovery of sensori-motor function substantially improves over the 9-week study period. In particular, this stroke lesion completely obliterates the fore and hind limb placing ability when visual and whisker guidance is prevented, a deficit that persists for up to 9 weeks of recovery, but that is markedly restored within 2 weeks by enriched housing. Enriched housing after stroke also leads to a significant loss of perineuronal net (PNN) immunoreactivity; detection of aggrecan protein backbone with AB1031 antibody was decreased by 13-22%, and labelling of a glycan moiety of aggrecan with Cat-315 antibody was reduced by 25-30% in the peri-infarct area and in the somatosensory cortex, respectively. The majority of these cells are parvalbumin/GABA inhibitory interneurons that are important in sensori-information processing. We conclude that damage to the fore and hind limb motor areas provides a model of loss of limb placing response without visual guidance, a deficit also seen in more than 50% of stroke patients. This loss is amenable to recovery induced by multiple sensory stimulation and correlates with a decrease in aggrecan-containing PNNs around inhibitory interneurons. Modulating the PNN structure after ischemic damage may provide new therapies

  5. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all acknowle

  6. Renal fallure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920705 Endothelin and acute renal failure:study on their relationship and possiblemechanisms. LIN Shanyan(林善锬), et al.Renal Res Lab, Huashan Hosp, Shanghai MedUniv, Shanghai, 200040. Natl Med J China 1992;72(4): 201-205. In order to investigate the role of endothelin

  7. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  8. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  9. Neonatal renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Leonardo R; Simpson, Ewurabena A; Lau, Keith K

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (RVT) continues to pose significant challenges for pediatric hematologists and nephrologists. The precise mechanism for the onset and propagation of renal thrombosis within the neonatal population is unclear, but there is suggestion that acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia traits may increase the risk for renal thromboembolic disease during the newborn period. This review summarizes the most recent studies of neonatal RVT, examining its most common features, the prevalence of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors among these patients, and evaluates their short and long term renal and thrombotic outcomes as they may relate to these risk factors. Although there is some consensus regarding the management of neonatal RVT, the most recent antithrombotic therapy guidelines for the management of childhood thrombosis do not provide a risk-based algorithm for the acute management of RVT among newborns with hereditary prothrombotic disorders. Whereas neonatal RVT is not a condition associated with a high mortality rate, it is associated with significant morbidity due to renal impairment. Recent evidence to evaluate the effects of heparin-based anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy on the long term renal function of these patients has yielded conflicting results. Long term cohort studies and randomized trials may be helpful to clarify the impact of acute versus prolonged antithrombotic therapy for reducing the morbidity that is associated with neonatal RVT.

  10. Preoperative Proteinuria and Reduced Glomerular Filtration Rate Predicts Renal Replacement Therapy in Patients Supported With Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkara, Veli K; Coromilas, Ellie J; Garan, Arthur Reshad; Li, Randall C; Castagna, Francesco; Jennings, Douglas L; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Sladen, Robert N; Mancini, Donna M; Naka, Yoshifumi; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Colombo, Paolo C

    2016-12-01

    Renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) has detrimental effects on quality of life and survival of patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). Current guidelines do not offer a decision-making algorithm for CF-LVAD candidates with poor baseline renal function. Objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with RRT after CF-LVAD implantation. Three hundred and eighty-nine consecutive patients underwent contemporary CF-LVAD implantation at the Columbia University Medical Center between January 2004 and August 2015. Baseline demographics, comorbid conditions, clinical risk scores, and renal function were analyzed in patients with or without RRT after CF-LVAD implantation. Time-dependent receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to define optimal cutoffs for continuous risk factors. Forty-four patients (11.6%) required RRT during a median follow-up of 9.9 months. Patients requiring RRT had significantly worse renal function, lower hemoglobin, and increased proteinuria at baseline. Low estimated glomerular filtration rate (proteinuria (urine protein to creatinine ratio ≥0.55 mg/mg) were significant predictors of RRT after CF-LVAD support. Dipstick proteinuria was also a significant predictor of RRT after CF-LVAD implantation. Patients with both low estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria had highest risk of RRT (63.6%) compared with those with either low estimated glomerular filtration rate or proteinuria (18.7%) and those with neither of these risk factors (2.7%) at 1-year follow-up (log-rank Pproteinuria are predictors RRT after CF-LVAD implantation and should be routinely assessed in CF-LVAD candidates to guide decision making. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Homocysteine, fibrinogen, and lipoprotein(a) levels are simultaneously reduced in patients with chronic renal failure treated with folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruszewicz, M; Klinke, M; Dziewanowski, K; Staniewicz, A; Bukowska, H

    2001-02-01

    Ischemic heart disease and other complications of atherosclerosis are the usual cause of death in patients with chronic renal failure. Important factors associated with early onset of atherosclerosis in these patients are hyperhomocysteinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). Folic acid (15 mg/d), pyridoxine (150 mg/d), and cyanocobalamin (1 mg/wk) were administered for 4 weeks in 21 patients receiving dialysis, and a simultaneous, statistically significant reduction in the concentration of homocysteine, fibrinogen, and Lp(a) was found. A positive correlation between decreasing homocysteine and fibrinogen levels was also noted. The parameters studied approached presupplementation values 6 months after vitamins were discontinued. The results suggest that vitamin supplementation has a favorable effect on risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with renal failure and that interactions may exist between homocysteine, fibrinogen, and Lp(a).

  12. Reduced KCNQ4-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channel activity underlies impaired ß-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of renal arteries in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadha, Preet S; Zunke, Friederike; Zhu, Hai-Lei;

    2012-01-01

    KCNQ4-encoded voltage-dependent potassium (Kv7.4) channels are important regulators of vascular tone that are severely compromised in models of hypertension. However, there is no information as to the role of these channels in responses to endogenous vasodilators. We used a molecular knockdown...... strategy, as well as pharmacological tools, to examine the hypothesis that Kv7.4 channels contribute to ß-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation in the renal vasculature and underlie the vascular deficit in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed gene and protein...... spontaneously hypertensive rats, which was associated with ˜60% decrease in Kv7.4 abundance. This study provides the first evidence that Kv7 channels contribute to ß-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation in the renal vasculature and that abrogation of Kv7.4 channels is strongly implicated in the impaired ß...

  13. Renal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas M; Jones, Deborah P; Cooper, William O

    2014-09-01

    In utero exposure to certain drugs early in pregnancy may adversely affect nephrogenesis. Exposure to drugs later in pregnancy may affect the renin-angiotensin system, which could have an impact on fetal or neonatal renal function. Reduction in nephron number and renal function could have adverse consequences for the child several years later. Data are limited on the information needed to guide decisions for patients and providers regarding the use of certain drugs in pregnancy. The study of drug nephroteratogenicity has not been systematized, a large, standardized, global approach is needed to evaluate the renal risks of in utero drug exposures.

  14. Association of high HLA-E expression during acute cellular rejection and numbers of HLA class I leader peptide mismatches with reduced renal allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberina, Hana; Rebmann, Vera; Wagner, Bettina; da Silva Nardi, Fabiola; Dziallas, Phillip; Dolff, Sebastian; Bienholz, Anja; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Heinemann, Falko M; Witzke, Oliver; Zoet, Yvonne M; Claas, Frans H J; Horn, Peter A; Kribben, Andreas; Doxiadis, Ilias I N

    2017-03-01

    Non-classical Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E preferentially presents leader peptides derived from classical HLA-class I molecules. HLA-E can trigger opposed immune responses by interacting with inhibitory NKG2A or by activating NKG2C receptors on NK and T-cells. We studied the impact of HLA-E on renal allograft survival during acute cellular rejection. HLA-E expression was up-regulated in acute cellular rejection (ACR) biopsies (n=12) compared to biopsies from 13 renal allografts with no rejection-signs. HLA-E up-regulation was correlated with numbers of HLA-class I leader peptide mismatches (p=0.04). CD8+ and CD56+ infiltrating cells correlated with HLA-E expression (pE-mediated immune activation. Moreover, HLA-E expression correlated with deterioration in renal allograft function (pE along with high numbers of mismatched HLA-class I leader peptides might represent additional targets for immune-activating responses.

  15. Sarcoidose renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AQUINO MARIA ENEDINA CLAUDINO DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia transbrônquica. A paciente foi tratada com metilprednisolona, com discreta melhora pulmonar, o que não ocorreu com a função renal. O diagnóstico final foi de sarcoidose com envolvimento pulmonar, ganglionar torácico e renal.

  16. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930150 Epidermal growth factor and its recep-tor in the renal tissue of patients with acute re-nal failure and normal persons.LIU Zhihong(刘志红),et al.Jinling Hosp,Nanjing,210002.Natl Med J China 1992;72(10):593-595.Epidermal growth factor(EGF)and its receptor(EGF-R)were identified by immunohis-tochemical method(4 layer PAP)in the renaltissue specimens obtained from 11 normal kid-neys and 17 cases of acute renal failure(ARF).The quantitative EGF and EGF-R in the tissuewere expressed as positive tubules per mm~2.The amount of EGF and EGF-R in renal tissue

  17. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005234 Association between serum fetuin-A and clinical outcome in end-stage renal disease patients. WANG Kai(王开), Dept Renal Dis, Renji Hosp Shanghai, 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Nephrol, 2005;21(2):72-75. Objective: To investigate the change of serum fetuin-A level before and after dialysis, and the association of serum fetuin-A level with clinical parameters

  18. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950351 Serum erythropoietin levels in chronic renalinsufficiency.ZHAI Depei(翟德佩),et al.DeptNephrol.General Hosp,Tianjin Med Univ,Tianjin,300000.Tianjin Med J 1995;23(1):19-21.Patients with chronic renal insufficiency(CRI) areoften associated with anemia.The deficiency of EPOproduction in the kidney is thought to be a key factorin the pathogenesis of renal anemia.Serum erythropoi-

  19. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008463 Protective effect of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration on kidney in acute renal failure rats. TANG Xiaopeng(唐晓鹏), et al. Dept Nephrol, 2nd Affili Hosp Chongqing Med Univ, Chongqing 400010.Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(6):417-421. Objective To investigate the protective effects of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration (rrALR) on tubular cell injury and renal dysfunction

  20. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  1. Disfunção renal e anemia em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida versus normal Renal dysfunction and anemia in patients with heart failure with reduced versus normal ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Villacorta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A presença de anemia e de disfunção renal confere mau prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC e fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFER. O impacto em pacientes com IC e fração de ejeção normal (ICFEN é pouco estudado. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a prevalência e o prognóstico da anemia e da disfunção renal (DR em pacientes com IC de acordo com o tipo de disfunção ventricular. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prospectivamente 209 pacientes com IC crônica estável. Pacientes com fração de ejeção BACKGROUND: The presence of anemia and renal dysfunction grants a bad prognosis for patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFREF. The impact on patients with heart failure and normal ejection fraction (HFNEF is not widely studied. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and the prognosis of anemia and renal dysfunction (RD in patients with heart failure according to the type of ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 209 patients with chronic and stable heart failure were prospectively studied. Individuals with ejection fraction <50% were considered as HFREF patients. Anemia was defined, based on WHO criteria, as hemoglobin <13 g/dl for men and <12 g/dl for women. Renal function was calculated by means of the Simplified Modified Diet Renal Disease (sMDRD formula. Hospitalizations, emergency admittances and obit by cardiac causes were considered as cardiac events. RESULTS: Ninety patients had HFREF and 119 had HFNEF. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was smaller in HFREF group (57.6 ± 66.2 versus 94.8 ± 36.6 ml/min/1.73m²; p=0.01. There was no difference in the prevalence of anemia between groups (23.3% versus 18.5%; p=0.34. Moderate to severe RD prevalence was higher in HFREF group (32.2% versus 16.8%; p=0.01. RD was the only factor associated with anemia that was independently associated with cardiac events (HR 2.52; 95%CI=1.27-5.2; p=0.01. CONCLUSION: RD was less prevalent in HFNEF, while the

  2. Percutaneous renal tumour biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Srigley, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Brunelli, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    The use of percutaneous renal tumour biopsy (RTB) as a diagnostic tool for the histological characterization of renal masses has increased dramatically within the last 30 years. This increased utilization has paralleled advances in imaging techniques and an evolving knowledge of the clinical value of nephron sparing surgery. Improved biopsy techniques using image guidance, coupled with the use of smaller gauge needles has led to a decrease in complication rates. Reports from series containing a large number of cases have shown the non-diagnostic rate of RTB to range from 4% to 21%. Re-biopsy has been shown to reduce this rate, while the use of molecular markers further improves diagnostic sensitivity. In parallel with refinements of the biopsy procedure, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of renal cell neoplasia. The 2013 Vancouver Classification is the current classification for renal tumours, and contains five additional entities recognized as novel forms of renal malignancy. The diagnosis of tumour morphotype on RTB is usually achievable on routine histology; however, immunohistochemical studies may be of assistance in difficult cases. The morphology of the main tumour subtypes, based upon the Vancouver Classification, is described and differentiating features are discussed.

  3. PF-03882845, a non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, prevents renal injury with reduced risk of hyperkalemia in an animal model of nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eOrena

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR antagonists PF 03882845 and eplerenone were evaluated for renal protection against aldosterone mediated renal disease in uninephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD rats maintained on a high salt diet and receiving aldosterone by osmotic mini pump for 27 days. Serum K+ and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR were assessed following 14 and 27 days of treatment. Aldosterone induced renal fibrosis as evidenced by increases in UACR, collagen IV staining in kidney cortex, and expression of pro fibrotic genes relative to sham operated controls not receiving aldosterone. While both PF 03882845 and eplerenone elevated serum K+ levels with similar potencies, PF 03882845 was more potent than eplerenone in suppressing the rise in UACR. PF 03882845 prevented the increase in collagen IV staining at 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg BID while eplerenone was effective only at the highest dose tested (450 mg/kg BID. All doses of PF 03882845 suppressed aldosterone induced increases in collagen IV, transforming growth factor 1 (Tgf 1, interleukin 6 (Il-6, intermolecular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam-1 and osteopontin gene expression in kidney while eplerenone was only effective at the highest dose. The therapeutic index (TI, calculated as the ratio of the EC50 for increasing serum K+ to the EC50 for UACR lowering, was 83.8 for PF 03882845 and 1.47 for eplerenone. Thus the TI of PF 03882845 against hyperkalemia was 57 fold superior to that of eplerenone indicating that PF 03882845 may present significantly less risk for hyperkalemia compared to eplerenone.

  4. Reduced vision in older adults with age related macular degeneration interferes with ability to care for self and impairs role as carer

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Michael; Hart, P M; Montgomery, A.M.; McCulloch, D W; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To study the relation between visual impairment and ability to care for oneself or a dependant in older people with age related macular degeneration (AMD). Method: Cross sectional study of older people with visual impairment due to AMD in a specialised retinal service clinic. 199 subjects who underwent visual function assessment (fully corrected distance and near acuity and contrast sensitivity in both eyes), followed by completion of a package of questionnaires dealing with general heal...

  5. Icodextrin-based continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy effectively reduces left ventricular mass index and protects cardiac function in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Ikuko; Shinozaki, Michiya; Harada, Kenji; Mori, Takefumi; Kanai, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) is commonly observed in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). The present study aimed to determine the effect of icodextrin (Ico) on LVMI in PD patients with maintained residual renal function (RRF). This retrospective study included 18 patients (12 men, 6 women; average age: 62 +/- 10 years) diagnosed with indications for PD therapy and divided into two groups: those treated with Ico (Ico group) and without Ico (non-Ico group). Echocardiography was performed at the beginning of continuous ambulatory PD and after 6 and 12 months. A significant reduction in LVMI (p Ico group after 12 months (p Ico group. Blood pressure, cardiothoracic ratio, urine volume, and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide were unaffected by PD treatment up to 12 months. The year-averaged ultrafiltration and the reduction in LVMI were significantly correlated (p Ico effectively improved LVMI and maintained ejection fraction in end-stage renal disease patients within 1 year from PD initiation. Notably, treatment with Ico resulted in a reduction of LVMI (associated with increased ultrafiltration), with no significant reduction in RRF.

  6. 延续性护理对慢性肾衰竭血液透析患者自我管理能力及生活质量的影响%Influence of Continuity Nursing on Self Management Ability and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨薇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of continuity nursing on self management ability and quality of life in patients with chronic renal failure hemodialysis.Methods 100 patients with chronic renal failure hemodialysis were treated in our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups by random number table method,compared the effect of routine nursing (control group,n=50)and continuity nursing(observation group,n=50). Results After intervention,the self management ability and quality of life score in the observation group were better than those in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Continuity nursing can improve self management ability and quality of life in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis.%目的:探讨慢性肾衰竭血液透析患者应用延续性护理模式对自我管理能力及生活质量的影响。方法选取慢性肾衰竭血液透析患者100例,采用随机数字表法分组,就常规护理(对照组,n=50)与延续性护理(观察组,n=50)效果展开对比。结果观察组自我管理能力、生活质量评分在干预后均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论对慢性肾衰竭血液透析患者行延续性护理可提高患者自我管理能力及生活质量。

  7. Pregnancy in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Karin M; Wu, Danny; Ebcioglu, Zeynep

    2007-12-01

    Women with renal disease face increasing infertility and high-risk pregnancy as they approach end-stage renal disease due to uremia. Renal transplantation has provided these patients the ability to return to a better quality of life, and for a number of women who are of child bearing age with renal disease, it has restored their fertility and provided the opportunity to have children. But, although fertility is restored, pregnancy in these women still harbors risk to the mother, graft, and fetus. Selected patients who have stable graft function can have successful pregnancies under the supervision of a multidisciplinary team involving maternal fetal medicine specialists and transplant nephrologists. Careful observation and management are required to optimize outcome for mother and fetus.

  8. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  9. EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING IN ADJUNCT TO CONVENTIONAL THERAPY IN REDUCING PAIN AND IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN INDIVIDUALS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Tulasi Ratna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders of foot. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition has a dramatic impact on physical mobility and function. Treatment of this condition is usually conservative; however, review of literature revealed no clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy of any targeted treatment for this condition. Methods: This was a prospective study which included 60 subjects with plantar fasciitis, who were randomly divided into two groups. Subjects in group I received ultrasound and exercise therapy while subjects in group II received kinesio tape in addition to ultrasound and exercise therapy. Patients were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at the end of three weeks using VAS (visual analogue scale for pain intensity, PFPS (plantar fasciitis pain / disability scale for functional ability and ultra sonography for any change in the caliber of plantar fascia. Results: A statistically significant difference in improvement was noted within the groups and between the groups in terms of visual analogue scale and plantar fasciitis pain /disability scale score (p0.05. Conclusion: Kinesio taping can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy in clinical application for greater improvement in pain levels and functional ability in patients with plantar fasciitis.

  10. Hypogonadism and renal failure: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Thirumavalavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.

  11. Hypogonadism and renal failure: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumavalavan, Nannan; Wilken, Nathan A; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.

  12. Alpha8 Integrin (Itga8 Signalling Attenuates Chronic Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Reducing Fibroblast Activation, Not by Interfering with Regulation of Cell Turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Marek

    Full Text Available The α8 integrin (Itga8 chain contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in renal glomerular cells. In unilateral ureteral obstruction Itga8 is de novo expressed in the tubulointerstitium and a deficiency of Itga8 results in more severe renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. We hypothesized that the increased tubulointerstitial damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction observed in mice deficient for Itga8 is associated with altered tubulointerstitial cell turnover and apoptotic mechanisms resulting from the lack of Itga8 in cells of the tubulointerstitium. Induction of unilateral ureteral obstruction was achieved by ligation of the right ureter in mice lacking Itga8. Unilateral ureteral obstruction increased proliferation and apoptosis rates of tubuloepithelial and interstitial cells, however, no differences were observed in the tubulointerstitium of mice lacking Itga8 and wild type controls regarding fibroblast or proliferating cell numbers as well as markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. In contrast, unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice lacking Itga8 led to more pronounced tubulointerstitial cell activation i.e. to the appearance of more phospho-SMAD2/3-positive cells and more α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the tubulointerstitium. Furthermore, a more severe macrophage and T-cell infiltration was observed in these animals compared to controls. Thus, Itga8 seems to attenuate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction not via regulation of cell turnover, but via regulation of TGF-β signalling, fibroblast activation and/or immune cell infiltration.

  13. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, reduces post-meal glucose excursion in patients with type 2 diabetes by a non-renal mechanism: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter; Berg, Jolene K; Morrow, Linda; Polidori, David; Artis, Eunice; Rusch, Sarah; Vaccaro, Nicole; Devineni, Damayanthi

    2014-10-01

    Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor approved for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. This study evaluated renal and non-renal effects of canagliflozin on postprandial plasma glucose (PG) excursion in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. Patients (N=37) were randomized to a four-period crossover study with 3-day inpatient stays in each period and 2-week wash-outs between periods. Patients received Treatments (A) placebo/placebo, (B) canagliflozin 300 mg/placebo, (C) canagliflozin 300 mg/canagliflozin 300 mg, or (D) canagliflozin 300 mg/canagliflozin 150 mg on Day 2/Day 3 in one of four treatment sequences (similar urinary glucose excretion [UGE] expected for Treatments B-D). A mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) was given 20 minutes post-dose on Day 3 of each period. A single dose of canagliflozin 300 mg reduced both fasting and postprandial PG compared with placebo, with generally similar effects on fasting PG and UGE observed for Treatments B-D. An additional dose of canagliflozin 300 mg (Treatment C), but not 150 mg (Treatment D), prior to the MMTT on Day 3 provided greater postprandial PG reduction versus placebo (difference in incremental glucose AUC0-2h, -7.5% for B vs A; -18.5% for C vs A; -12.0% [P = 0.012] for C vs B), leading to modestly greater reductions in total glucose AUC0-2h with Treatment C versus Treatment B or D. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated. These findings suggest that a non-renal mechanism (ie, beyond UGE) contributes to glucose lowering for canagliflozin 300 mg, but not 150 mg. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Ability of Tourist Natural Trails to Resist Tourism Load and Possibilities for Reducing the Environmental Impacts : Case Study of the Slovak Paradise National Park (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janočková Jana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The strictly protected natural area of Sucha Bela Gorge, located in the Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia, is exposed to environmental degradation by heavy tourist loads. Although educational and technical measures have been put in place, there is ongoing debate whether and how to limit the intensity of tourist visits. This study evaluates the ability of the trail leading through the gorge to resist trampling disturbance and to minimise the environmental impacts in the wider area of Sucha Bela by keeping tourists from moving off the designated areas. Aspects of trail layout, geological and geomorphological structures, terrain altering during the summer season, and acceptable tourist flow were investigated.The results show the current development would be acceptable in the case of limited off-trail movement. It therefore seems appropriate to review the trail allocation and marking, and to focus on environmental education rather than on limiting tourist visits.

  15. Self-reported exhaustion: a possible indicator of reduced work ability and increased risk of sickness absence among human service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glise, K; Hadzibajramovic, E; Jonsdottir, I H; Ahlborg, G

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the construct and predictive validity of a new instrument for self-rating of stress-related Exhaustion Disorder (s-ED). Public healthcare workers and social insurance officers, 85% females, were included (N = 2,683) in a longitudinal study. The s-ED instrument, based on clinical criteria for Exhaustion Disorder, was used at baseline to classify participants into three categories: non-s-ED, light/moderate s-ED and pronounced s-ED. Other assessments include burnout, anxiety, depression and work ability. Sick leave at follow-up after 2 years was defined as 14 days of ongoing sick leave (SA14) or a period of 60 days of sick leave during the last 12 months (SA60). Associations at baseline were expressed as prevalence ratios, and adjusted relative risks (RR) were calculated using Cox regression. At baseline, 16% reported s-ED. Scores of depression, anxiety and burnout and the rate of poor work ability increased with increasing severity of s-ED. Self-reported exhaustion at baseline increased the risk of reporting sickness absence at follow-up; pronounced s-ED RR 2.7; CI 1.8-4.0 for SA14 and RR 3.4; CI 2.3-5.2 for SA60. Self-rated ED corresponded well to established scales for mental health, indicating sufficient construct validity. Individuals reporting s-ED at baseline were more likely to report sickness absence at follow-up, confirming its predictive properties. The s-ED instrument may be a useful tool for occupational health services in identifying human service workers at risk of having or developing a potentially disabling stress-related mental illness.

  16. Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  17. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970363 Effect on serum PTH and 1, 25(OH)2 D3levels of rapid correction of metabolic acidosis in CRFpatients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. YUANQunsheng(袁群生), et al. Renal Div, PUMC Hosp,Beijing, 100730. Chin J Nephrol 1996; 12(6): 328-331.

  18. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or post-renal toxicity. Pre-renal ... incidence of drug dose adjustment in renal impairment in the SAMJ. ... Fever, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal impairment and.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of canagliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and moderate renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Nobuya; Kondo, Kazuoki; Yoshinari, Toru; Ishii, Manabu; Sakai, Masaki; Kuki, Hideki; Furihata, Kenichi

    2014-10-01

    impairment reduced the ability of canagliflozin to promote urinary glucose excretion.

  20. Potential molecular therapy for acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, H D

    1993-01-01

    Ischemic and toxic acute renal failure is reversible, due to the ability of renal tubule cells to regenerate and differentiate into a fully functional lining epithelium. Recent data support the thesis that recruitment or activation of macrophages to the area of injury results in local release of growth factors to promote regenerative repair. Because of intrinsic delay in the recruitment of inflammatory cells, the exogenous administration of growth promoters early in the repair phase of acute renal failure enhances renal tubule cell regeneration and accelerates renal functional recovery in animal models of acute renal failure. Molecular therapy for the acceleration of tissue repair in this disease process may be developed in the near future.

  1. Rupture of Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L. LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

  2. (67/68)Ga-labeling agent that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-methionine by lysosomal proteolysis of parental low molecular weight polypeptides to reduce renal radioactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Kinoshita, Mai; Nemoto, Souki; Fransisco Lazaro, Guerra Gomez; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Arano, Yasushi

    2014-11-19

    The renal localization of gallium-67 or gallium-68 ((67/68)Ga)-labeled low molecular weight (LMW) probes such as peptides and antibody fragments constitutes a problem in targeted imaging. Wu et al. previously showed that (67)Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bz-NOTA)-conjugated methionine ((67)Ga-NOTA-Met) was rapidly excreted from the kidney in urine following lysosomal proteolysis of the parental (67)Ga-NOTA-Bz-SCN-disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (Bioconjugate Chem., (1997) 8, 365-369). In the present study, a new (67/68)Ga-labeling reagent for LMW probes that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-Met was designed, synthesized, and evaluated using longer-lived (67)Ga in order to reduce renal radioactivity levels. We employed a methionine-isoleucine (MI) dipeptide bond as the cleavable linkage. The amine residue of MI was coupled with SCN-Bz-NOTA for (67)Ga-labeling, while the carboxylic acid residue of MI was derivatized to maleimide for antibody conjugation in order to synthesize NOTA-MI-Mal. A Fab fragment of the anti-Her2 antibody was thiolated with iminothiolane, and NOTA-MI-Mal was conjugated with the antibody fragment by maleimide-thiol chemistry. The Fab fragment was also conjugated with SCN-Bz-NOTA (NOTA-Fab) for comparison. (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab was obtained at radiochemical yields of over 95% and was stable in murine serum for 24 h. In the biodistribution study using normal mice, (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab registered significantly lower renal radioactivity levels from 1 to 6 h postinjection than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. An analysis of urine samples obtained 6 h after the injection of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab showed that the majority of radioactivity was excreted as (67)Ga-NOTA-Met. In the biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice, the tumor to kidney ratios of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab were 4 times higher (6 h postinjection) than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. Although further studies including the structure of radiometabolites and

  3. Telmisartan, a possible PPAR-δ agonist, reduces TNF-α-stimulated VEGF-C production by inhibiting the p38MAPK/HSP27 pathway in human proximal renal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hideki; Mikami, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Kazuko; Sugimoto, Hidehiro; Kasuno, Kenji; Takahashi, Naoki; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Iwano, Masayuki

    2014-11-14

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a main inducer of inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis in various inflammatory disorders including chronic progressive kidney diseases, for which angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs) are widely used as the main treatment. Although proximal renal tubular cells may affect the formation of lymphatic vessels in the interstitial area by producing VEGF-C, the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-C production and its manipulation by ARB have not yet been examined in human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs). In the present study, TNF-α dose-dependently induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs. The TNF-α-induced production of VEGF-C was mediated by the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27, but not by that of ERK or NFkB. Telmisartan, an ARB that can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), served as a PPAR-δ activator and reduced the TNF-α-stimulated production of VEGF-C. This reduction was partially attributed to a PPAR-δ-dependent decrease in p38MAPK phosphorylation. Our results indicate that TNF-α induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs by activating p38MAPK/HSP27, and this was partially inhibited by telmisartan in a PPAR-δ dependent manner. These results provide a novel insight into inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis.

  4. Ability of Curcuminoid from Curcuma domestica Val. in Reducing the Secretion of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates by Synovial Fluid Monocytes in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Kertia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIncreasing the secretion of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI by monocytes in the synovial fluid is anindicator to determine the severity of joint inflammation. Previous studies have shown that curcumin inhibitthe osteoarthritis progression with its ability to inhibite the activity of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzymefrom macrophages. In this prospective randomized open end blinded evaluations = PROBE study, 80 patientswith knee osteoarthritis were eligable. The subject were devided in to two group: group who received 3 x 30mg of curcuminoid from Curcuma domestica Val. extract (curcuminoid group and group who received 3 x 25mg of diclofenac sodium (diclofenac group as comparison. The treatment was for 4 weeks time. The secretionof ROI by sinovial fluid monocytes was calculated by scoring the amount of formazan formation after neutralred staining in nitrobleu tetrazolium reduction assay. The result of this study showed that the secretion of ROIby synovial fluid monocytes was significantly decreased in both groups (p <0.001 respectively. There wasno significant difference in decreasing of ROI secretion of synovial fluid monocytes between both treatmentgroups (p = 0.92.Keywords : curcuminoid, diclofenac sodium, reactive oxygen intermediates, monocyte, osteoarthritis

  5. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  6. Research of the load distribution in the wave kinematic reducer with a modified tooth profile and dependence of the load abilities in proportion to its gear ratio and overall dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, D. L.; Nikulin, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of reducers based on work of gear trains, which transfer torque. The most popular reducers are with such type of gearing as an involute gear, a worm drive and an eccentrically cycloid gear. A new type of the reducer will be represented in this work. It is a wave reducer with the modified profile of the tooth close to the profile of the tooth of Novikov gearing. So such reducers can be widely used in drives of difficult technical mechanisms, for example, in mechatronics, robotics and in drives of exact positioning. In addition, the distribution of loading in gearing of teeth of a reducer was analyzed in this paper. It proves that the modified profile of the tooth allows distributing loading to several teeth in gearing. As a result, an admissible loading ability of a reducer becomes higher. The aim of the research is to define a possibility to reduce overall dimensions of a reducer without changing the gear ratio or to increase the gear ratio without changing overall dimensions. So, the result of this work will be used in further research.

  7. Renal blood flow and metabolism after cold ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Petersen, H K

    1984-01-01

    Peroperative measurements of renal blood flow (RBF), renal O2-uptake, and renal venous lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio were performed before and after a period of 30-71 min of hypothermic (10-15 degrees C) renal ischaemia in nine patients, undergoing surgery for renal calculi. Before ischaemia, RBF.......01) immediately after re-established perfusion and 36% (P less than 0.02) 30 min later. In one additional patient, who had a short warm ischaemia (8 min), the flow pattern was the same. As arterial pressure remained constant, the reduced RBF signifies an increased renal vascular resistance. Renal O2-uptake...... and renal venous L/P ratio were almost constant, indicating no significant anaerobic processes being involved in the flow response. None of the patients showed any signs of reactive hyperaemia. It is concluded that hypothermic renal ischaemia may be followed by an increased renal vascular resistance even...

  8. Music does not reduce alfentanil requirement during patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M S; Diaz, J E; Hernandez, V; Daza, E; Carr, D B

    1998-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of music on opioid requirements and pain levels during renal lithotripsy using alfentanil patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), we conducted a prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial. Patients undergoing lithotripsy were instructed in PCA use and asked to rate their anxiety and select their preferred type of music. They were then premedicated with morphine and ketorolac and randomly allocated into two groups. Group 1 (n = 97) had music started 10 min before the procedure and maintained until 10 min after its conclusion. Group 2 (n = 96) had music begun at the conclusion of lithotripsy and continued for 10 min. Pain intensity, alfentanil requirement, side effects, quality of analgesia, patient satisfaction, and acceptance of the technique were evaluated. Demographics, alfentanil requirement, pain levels, side effects, quality of analgesia, and patient satisfaction were similar in both groups. The addition of music did not provide any benefit. This result raises the possibility that some nonpharmacologic therapies have minimal impact in settings where the painful stimulus is moderate to severe and adequate pharmacotherapy is available.

  9. Antioxidant Pre-Treatment Reduces the Toxic Effects of Oxalate on Renal Epithelial Cells in a Cell Culture Model of Urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kizivat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is characterized by the formation and retention of solid crystals within the urinary tract. Kidney stones are mostly composed of calcium oxalate, which predominantly generates free radicals that are toxic to renal tubular cells. The aim of the study is to explore possible effects of antioxidant pre-treatment on inhibition of oxidative stress. Three cell lines were used as in vitro model of urolithiasis: MDCK I, MDCK II and LLC-PK1. Oxidative stress was induced by exposure of cells to sodium oxalate in concentration of 8 mM. In order to prevent oxidative stress, cells were pre-treated with three different concentrations of l-arginine and vitamin E. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD, osteopontin (OPN, and by the concentration of glutathione (GSH. In all three cell lines, pre-treatment of antioxidants increased cell survival. Positive correlation of SOD and OPN expression as well as GSH concentration was observed in all groups of cells. Our results indicate that an antioxidant pre-treatment with l-arginine and vitamin E is able to hamper oxalate-induced oxidative stress in kidney epithelial cells and as such could play a role in prevention of urolithiasis.

  10. Investigating the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4 to reduce cadmium stress in Lactuca sativa via an intervention in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Lucas J; Macfie, Sheila M

    2016-12-01

    A typical plant response to any biotic or abiotic stress, including cadmium (Cd), involves increased ethylene synthesis, which causes senescence of the affected plant part. Stressed plants can experience reduced ethylene and improved growth if they are inoculated with bacteria that have the enzyme ACC deaminase, which metabolizes the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate). We investigated whether one such bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4, reduces the production of ethylene and improves the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) sown in Cd-contaminated potting material (PRO-MIX® BX). Plants were inoculated with the wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 or a mutant strain that cannot produce ACC deaminase. Cadmium-treated plants contained up to 50 times more Cd than did control plants. In noninoculated plants, Cd induced a 5-fold increase in ethylene concentration. The wild-type bacterium prevented Cd-induced reductions in root biomass but there was no relationship between Cd treatment and ethylene production in inoculated plants. In contrast, when the concentration of ethylene was plotted against the extent of bacterial colonization of the roots, increased colonization with wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 was associated with 20% less ethylene production. Ours is the first study to show that the protective effect of this bacterium is proportional to the quantity of bacteria on the root surface.

  11. Deletion of Ptp4a3 reduces clonogenicity and tumor-initiation ability of colitis-associated cancer cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Julie M; Zimmerman, Mark W; Thompson, Tim; Homanics, Gregg E; Lazo, John S; Lagasse, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The PTP4A3 gene is highly expressed in human colon cancer and often associates with enhanced metastatic potential. Genetic disruption of the mouse Ptp4a3 gene reduces the frequency of colon tumor formation in mice treated in a colitis-associated cancer model. In the current study, we have examined the role of Ptp4a3 in the tumor-initiating cell population of mouse colon tumors using an in vitro culture system. Tumors generated in vivo following AOM/DSS treatment were isolated, dissociated, and expanded on a feeder layer resulting in a CD133(+) cell population, which expressed high levels of Ptp4a3. Tumor cells deficient for Ptp4a3 exhibited reduced clonogenicity and growth potential relative to WT cells as determined by limiting dilution analysis. Importantly, expanded tumor cells from WT mice readily formed secondary tumors when transplanted into nude mice, while tumor cells without Ptp4a3 expression failed to form secondary tumors and thus were not tumorigenic. These results demonstrate that Ptp4a3 contributes to the malignant phenotype of tumor-initiating cells and supports its role as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit tumor self-renewal and metastasis.

  12. Deletion of Ptp4a3 reduces clonogenicity and tumor-initiation ability of colitis-associated cancer cells in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Cramer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The PTP4A3 gene is highly expressed in human colon cancer and often associates with enhanced metastatic potential. Genetic disruption of the mouse Ptp4a3 gene reduces the frequency of colon tumor formation in mice treated in a colitis-associated cancer model. In the current study, we have examined the role of Ptp4a3 in the tumor-initiating cell population of mouse colon tumors using an in vitro culture system. Tumors generated in vivo following AOM/DSS treatment were isolated, dissociated, and expanded on a feeder layer resulting in a CD133+ cell population, which expressed high levels of Ptp4a3. Tumor cells deficient for Ptp4a3 exhibited reduced clonogenicity and growth potential relative to WT cells as determined by limiting dilution analysis. Importantly, expanded tumor cells from WT mice readily formed secondary tumors when transplanted into nude mice, while tumor cells without Ptp4a3 expression failed to form secondary tumors and thus were not tumorigenic. These results demonstrate that Ptp4a3 contributes to the malignant phenotype of tumor-initiating cells and supports its role as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit tumor self-renewal and metastasis.

  13. Knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells reduces migration in vitro and invasion in vivo and impairs their ability to form tumor spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esencay Mine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and malignant primary intracranial human neoplasm. GBMs are characterized by the presence of extensive areas of necrosis and hypoxia. Hypoxia and its master regulator, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 play a key role in glioma invasion. Results To further elucidate the functional role of HIF-1α in glioma cell migration in vitro and in invasion in vivo, we used a shRNA approach to knock down HIF-1α expression complemented with genome-wide expression profiling, performed in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells significantly impairs their migration in vitro as well as their ability to invade into the brain parenchyma in vivo. Next, we assessed the role that HIF-1α plays in maintaining the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs. By using the tumor sphere forming assay, we demonstrate that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs. Finally, expression profiling experiments in glioma cells provided detailed insight into a broad range of specific biological pathways and processes downstream of HIF-1α. We discuss the role of these processes in the migratory and invasive properties, as well as the stem cell biology of glioblastomas Conclusions Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in human and murine glioma cells impairs their migration in vitro and their invasion in vivo. In addition, our data suggest that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs and identify genes that might further elucidate the role of HIF-1α in tumor migration, invasion and stem cell biology.

  14. Reduction of mouse egg surface integrin alpha9 subunit (ITGA9) reduces the egg's ability to support sperm-egg binding and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vjugina, Ulyana; Zhu, Xiaoling; Oh, Eugene; Bracero, Nabal J; Evans, Janice P

    2009-04-01

    The involvement of egg integrins in mammalian sperm-egg interactions has been controversial, with data from integrin inhibitor studies contrasting with evidence from knockouts showing that specific integrin subunits are not essential for fertility. An alpha(4)/alpha(9) (ITGA4/ITGA9) integrin subfamily member has been implicated in fertilization but not extensively examined, so we tested the following three hypotheses: 1) an ITGA4/ITGA9 integrin participates in sperm-egg interactions, 2) short-term acute knockdown by RNA interference of integrin subunits would result in a fertilization phenotype differing from that of chronic depletion via knockout, and 3) detection of a fertilization phenotype is sensitive to in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay conditions. We show that mouse and human eggs express the alpha(9) integrin subunit (ITGA9). RNA interference-mediated knockdown resulted in reduced levels of Itga9 mRNA and surface protein in mouse eggs. RNA interference attempts to knockdown ITGA9's likely beta partner, beta(1) (ITGB1), resulted in reduced Itgb1 mRNA but no reduction in ITGB1 surface protein. Therefore, studies using a function-blocking anti-ITGB1 antibody tested the hypothesis that ITGB1 participates in gamete interactions. Analyses of sperm-egg interactions with Itga9-knockdown eggs and anti-ITGB1 antibody-treated eggs in IVF assays using specific sperm:egg ratios revealed the following: 1) a reduction, but not complete loss, of sperm-egg binding and fusion was observed and 2) the reduction of sperm-egg binding and fusion was not detected in inseminations with high sperm:egg ratios. These data demonstrate that ITGA9 and ITGB1 participate in sperm-egg interactions but clearly are not the only molecules involved. This also shows that careful design of IVF parameters allows detection of deficiencies in gamete interactions.

  15. Renale Osteopathie

    OpenAIRE

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Thera...

  16. Renale Knochenerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Störungen des Mineral- und Knochenstoffwechsels sind bei fast allen Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen anzutreffen. Pathogenetisch spielt eine Neigung zur Phosphatretention bei einer Reduktion der glomerulären Filtrationsrate die zentrale Rolle. Neben typischen, aber sehr variablen Veränderungen der Knochenstruktur (renale Osteopathie besteht auch eine sehr enge Assoziation zwischen diesen Störungen und dem massiv erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko der Patienten.

  17. NMDA Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Diabetic Nephropathy: Increased Renal NMDA Receptor Subunit Expression in Akita Mice and Reduced Nephropathy Following Sustained Treatment With Memantine or MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanravan, Hila; Kim, Eun Young; Dryer, Stuart E

    2016-10-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are expressed throughout the kidney, and the abundance of these receptors and some of their endogenous agonists are increased in diabetes. Moreover, sustained activation of podocyte NMDA receptors induces Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress, loss of slit diaphragm proteins, and apoptosis. We observed that NMDA receptor subunits and their transcripts are increased in podocytes and mesangial cells cultured in elevated glucose compared with controls. A similar increase in NMDA subunits, especially NR1, NR2A, and NR2C, was observed in glomeruli and tubules of Akita mice. Sustained continuous treatment with the strong NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) for 28 days starting at 8 weeks of age reduced 24-h albumin excretion and mesangial matrix expansion and improved glomerular ultrastructure in Akita mice. MK-801 did not alleviate reduced Akita mouse body weight and had no effect on kidney histology or ultrastructure in DBA/2J controls. The structurally dissimilar NMDA antagonist memantine also reduced diabetic nephropathy, although it was less effective than MK-801. Inhibition of NMDA receptors may represent a valid therapeutic approach to reduce renal complications of diabetes, and it is possible to develop well-tolerated agents with minimal central nervous system effects. Two such agents, memantine and dextromethorphan, are already in widespread clinical use.

  18. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  19. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  20. Identification of key metabolic changes in renal interstitial fibrosis rats using metabonomics and pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangcai; Dong, Minjian; Liao, Shixian; Du, Yao; Zhou, Qi; Zheng, Hong; Chen, Minjiang; Ji, Jiansong; Gao, Hongchang

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is one of the important pathways involved in end-stage renal failure. Investigating the metabolic changes in the progression of disease may enhance the understanding of its pathogenesis and therapeutic information. In this study, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was firstly used to screen the metabolic changes in urine and kidney tissues of renal interstitial fibrotic rats induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after operation, respectively. The results revealed that reduced levels of bioenergy synthesis and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), as well as elevated levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS) are involved in metabolic alterations of renal fibrosis rats. Next, by pharmacological treatment we found that reduction of IS levels could prevent the renal fibrotic symptoms. Therefore, we suggested that urinary IS may be used as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of renal fibrosis, and a therapeutic target for drugs. Novel attempt combining metabonomics and pharmacology was established that have ability to provide more systematic diagnostic and therapeutic information of diseases. PMID:27256510

  1. l-Carnitine improves cognitive and renal functions in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ahmad, Nur; Armaly, Zaher; Berman, Sylvia; Jabour, Adel; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Mosenego-Ornan, Efrat; Avital, Avi

    2016-10-01

    Over the past decade, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached epidemic proportions. The search for novel pharmacological treatment for CKD has become an area of intensive clinical research. l-Carnitine, considered as the "gatekeeper" responsible for admitting long chain fatty acids into cell mitochondria. l-Carnitine synthesis and turnover are regulated mainly by the kidney and its levels inversely correlate with serum creatinine of normal subjects and CKD patients. Previous studies showed that l-carnitine administration to elderly people is improving and preserving cognitive function. As yet, there are no clinical intervention studies that investigated the effect of l-carnitine administration on cognitive impairment evidenced in CKD patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of l-carnitine treatment on renal function and on the cognitive performance in a rat model of progressive CKD. To assess the role of l-carnitine on CKD condition, we estimated the renal function and cognitive abilities in a CKD rat model. We found that all CKD animals exhibited renal function deterioration, as indicated by elevated serum creatinine, BUN, and ample histopathological abnormalities. l-Carnitine treatment of CKD rats significantly reduced serum creatinine and BUN, attenuated renal hypertrophy and decreased renal tissue damage. In addition, in the two way shuttle avoidance learning, CKD animals showed cognitive impairment which recovered by the administration of l-carnitine. We conclude that in a rat model of CKD, l-carnitine administration significantly improved cognitive and renal functions.

  2. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the conformational folding process of SS-reduced bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A using a selenoxide reagent with high oxidizing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kenta; Kumakura, Fumio; Iwaoka, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Redox-coupled folding pathways of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) with four intramolecular disulfide (SS) bonds comprise three phases: (I) SS formation to generate partially oxidized intermediate ensembles with no rigid folded structure; (II) SS rearrangement from the three SS intermediate ensemble (3S) to the des intermediates having three native SS linkages; (III) final oxidation of the last native SS linkage to generate native RNase A. We previously demonstrated that DHS(ox), a water-soluble selenoxide reagent for rapid and quantitative SS formation, allows clear separation of the three folding phases. In this study, the main conformational folding phase (phase II) has been extensively analyzed at pH 8.0 under a wide range of temperatures (5-45 °C), and thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for the four des intermediates were determined. The free-energy differences (ΔG) as a function of temperature suggested that the each SS linkage has different thermodynamic and kinetic roles in stability of the native structure. On the other hand, comparison of the rate constants and the activation energies for 3S → des with those reported for the conformational folding of SS-intact RNase A suggested that unfolded des species (desU) having three native SS linkages but not yet being folded are involved in very small amounts (SS-intact RNase A. It was revealed that DHS(ox) is useful for kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the conformational folding process on the oxidative folding pathways of SS-reduced proteins.

  3. Does Obesity Modify the Ability of Prebiopsy Prostate Specific Antigen to Detect Prostate Cancer on Repeat Biopsy? Results from the REDUCE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Higher body mass index is linked to lower prostate specific antigen. This has given rise to concerns that prostate specific antigen may be less reliable for predicting prostate cancer among obese men. We tested the accuracy of prebiopsy prostate specific antigen for predicting prostate cancer across body mass index categories. We used the REDUCE study, which tested dutasteride for prostate cancer risk reduction in men with a prostate specific antigen of 2.5 to 10.0 ng/ml and a negative pre-study biopsy. All men were required to have a biopsy at 2 and 4 years independent of prostate specific antigen. We assessed the performance of prebiopsy prostate specific antigen to predict overall and high grade prostate cancer (Gleason sum 7 or greater) in each body mass index group using AUC. Of 6,103 men who had a 2-year biopsy 1,646 (27%) were normal weight, 3,209 (53%) were overweight and 1,248 (20%) were obese. Mean adjusted prostate specific antigen for normal weight, overweight and obese subjects on placebo was 7.73, 7.17 and 6.79 ng/ml (p-trend=0.192), and on dutasteride 3.16, 2.93 and 2.62 ng/ml (p=0.008). AUC analysis using raw prostate specific antigen data for predicting prostate cancer ranged from 0.60 to 0.64 in the placebo arm and 0.58 to 0.66 in the dutasteride arm with no difference across body mass index categories (p-interactions ≥0.212). Similar results were found for high grade prostate cancer with AUC ranging from 0.69 to 0.70 in the placebo arm and 0.65 to 0.75 in the dutasteride arm but no differences across body mass index categories (p-interactions ≥0.157). Among men with a previous negative biopsy the accuracy of prebiopsy prostate specific antigen to predict overall and high grade prostate cancer was independent of body mass index. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  5. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA ... excreting it into the urine. Distal renal tubular acidosis (Type I RTA) is caused by a defect ...

  6. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  7. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  8. El entrenamiento de fuerza reduce la acidosis metabólica y la hipertrofia hepática y renal consecuentes del consumo de una dieta hiperproteica en ratas Resistance training reduces the metabolic acidosis and hepatic and renal hypertrophy caused by the consumption of a high protein diet in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: El consumo de dietas hiperproteicas (HP) podría tener un efecto adverso sobre la acidosis metabólica y la salud hepática y renal. Sin embargo, existen pocos estudios que analicen los efectos del entrenamiento de fuerza sobre los parámetros sensibles de ser alterados por dichas dietas. Material y métodos: Un total de 32 ratas Wistar adultas fueron distribuidas de forma aleatoria en 4 grupos experimentales (n = 8): dieta normoproteica o HP, con o sin entrenamiento de fuerza. Las d...

  9. Renale Osteopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. Wir beeinflussen dadurch nicht nur die Morbidität und Lebensqualität, sondern auch die Mortalität unserer Patienten.

  10. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  11. Renal denervation in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, Peter J.; Joles, Jaap A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that ablation of renal sympathetic nerves reduces blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and preserved renal function. Hering et al. have now investigated the efficacy and safety of this procedure in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney dise

  12. Renal lymphangioma: A cause of neonatal nephromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, S.; Fletcher, B.D.; Bryan, P.J.; Abramowsky, C.R.

    1984-09-01

    A newborn male presented with bilateral nephromegaly and mild hypertension. Function of the right kidney was reduced on excretory urography. Ultrasound showed bilaterally enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity and poorly defined corticomedullary junctions. Areas of decreased medullary enhancement were seen on CT. Renal biopsy demonstrated lymphangioma, probably arising from the peripelvic renal tissues.

  13. Cell adhesion signalling in acute renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) remains a severe clinical problem with high mortality. Little progress has been made over the past two decades in preventing renal injury or reducing mortality. This thesis describes the research to investigate cell adhesion alterations during the pathopysiology of both isc

  14. Telmisartan, a possible PPAR-δ agonist, reduces TNF-α-stimulated VEGF-C production by inhibiting the p38MAPK/HSP27 pathway in human proximal renal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hideki, E-mail: hkimura@u-fukui.ac.jp [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Mikami, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Kazuko [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sugimoto, Hidehiro [Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Kasuno, Kenji; Takahashi, Naoki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Yoshida, Haruyoshi [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Division of Nephrology, Obama Municipal Hospital, Obama, Fukui (Japan); Iwano, Masayuki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • TNF-α increased VEGF-C expression by enhancing phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan decreased TNF-α-stimulated expression of VEGF-C. • Telmisartan suppressed TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan activated endogenous PPAR-δ protein. • Telmisartan suppressed p38MAPK phosphorylation in a PPAR-δ-dependent manner. - Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a main inducer of inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis in various inflammatory disorders including chronic progressive kidney diseases, for which angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs) are widely used as the main treatment. Although proximal renal tubular cells may affect the formation of lymphatic vessels in the interstitial area by producing VEGF-C, the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-C production and its manipulation by ARB have not yet been examined in human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs). In the present study, TNF-α dose-dependently induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs. The TNF-α-induced production of VEGF-C was mediated by the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27, but not by that of ERK or NFkB. Telmisartan, an ARB that can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), served as a PPAR-δ activator and reduced the TNF-α-stimulated production of VEGF-C. This reduction was partially attributed to a PPAR-δ-dependent decrease in p38MAPK phosphorylation. Our results indicate that TNF-α induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs by activating p38MAPK/HSP27, and this was partially inhibited by telmisartan in a PPAR-δ dependent manner. These results provide a novel insight into inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis.

  15. Renal denervation:history, today and tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Ruo-tai; CHEN Zhong; MA Gen-shan

    2014-01-01

    Renal denervation is a new technique approved effective for resistant-hypertension treatment .The common renal denervation system consists of a generator and a flexible catheter .During this minimally invasive procedure , the interventionalist uses a steerable catheter with a radio frequency ( RF) energy electrode tip .The RF energy is delivered to the renal artery via standard femoral artery access .A series of 2-minute ablation are delivered in each renal artery to distroy the nerves system .The procedure does not involve a permanent device implant .By deactivating the renal nerves , and therefore reducing sympathetic nerve transmission , a significant and reliable reduction in blood pressure could be achieved .In this review, potential complications and future sights of renal denervation are also discussed .

  16. Mortality risk disparities in children receiving chronic renal replacement therapy for the treatment of end-stage renal disease across Europe: an ESPN-ERA/EDTA registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Schaefer, Franz; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Holman, Rebecca; Baiko, Sergey; Baskın, Esra; Bjerre, Anna; Cloarec, Sylvie; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A M; Espinosa, Laura; Heaf, James; Stone, Rosário; Shtiza, Diamant; Zagozdzon, Ilona; Harambat, Jérôme; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W; van Stralen, Karlijn J

    2017-05-27

    quality of paediatric renal care. Differences between countries in their ability to accept and treat the youngest patients, who are the most complex and costly to treat, form an important source of disparity within this population. Our findings can be used by policy makers and health-care providers to explore potential strategies to help reduce these health disparities. ERA-EDTA and ESPN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  18. 安徽省新农合制度抗疾病风险能力探析%Study on the ability of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme to reduce health risk factors in Anhui province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈骅璋; 储诚志; 徐恒秋; 孔运生

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the degree of poverty caused by diseases among farmers who have joined New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme( NRCMS) in Anhui province, and analyze the ability of NRCMS to reduce health risk factors in Anhui province, in order to provide suggestions for improving the NRCMS strategy. Methods: This paper randomly selects three counties to conduct comparative analysis on the NRCMS strategic changes from the aspects of registration rates, funding levels and compensation ratios between 2013 and 2014, in order to analyze the ability of NRCMS to reduce health risk factors from the aspects of the rate of poverty caused by diseases, the resolving degree of poverty caused by diseases, the alleviation degree of poverty caused by diseases, etc. Results: The ability of NRCMS to reduce health risk factors in Anhui province has improved between 2013 and 2014 , but the improve-ment is limited. Conclusions:In order to reduce the incidence of poverty caused by diseases among the farmers, gov-ernment should reform the payment methods, control the outflow of patients and improve the multi-level security sys-tem, in order to gradually reduce the poverty caused by diseases among farmers.%目的:描述安徽省参合农民因病致贫情况,分析安徽省新农合制度抗疾病风险能力的变化,为完善新农合制度提供建议. 方法:在安徽省随机抽取3个县,结合新农合制度在参合率、筹资水平和补偿比方面的变化,从因病致贫率、因病致贫解决程度、因病致贫缓解程度等方面入手,分析2013—2014年新农合制度的抗疾病风险能力. 结果:2013—2014年安徽省新农合制度抗疾病风险能力有所提高,但提升有限. 结论:应通过改革支付方式、控制病人外流、完善多层次保障体系等手段,逐渐减少农民因病致贫.

  19. Long-term oral calcium supplementation reduces diastolic blood pressure in end stage renal disease. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Rudnicki, M; Højsted, J

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that oral calcium supply reduces blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral calcium supply reduces blood pressure in patients undergoing haemodialysis. The study was randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled. Eleven patients received two grams of calcium per day and 12 patients received placebo. Three patients (one from the calcium group and two from the placebo group) dropped out within the first month. The groups were comparable at inclusion regarding blood pressure, weight, and serum values. Blood pressure measurements were auscultatory with a mercury manometer and diastolic blood pressure was measured as Korotkoff phase V. At inclusion a significant positive correlation between serum phosphate and blood pressure was found. After a study period of six months a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure was found between the two groups (p < 0.05), but no difference was found in systolic blood pressure. The reduction in diastolic blood pressure was 6.9 mmHg of the pretreatment level in the calcium group. In conclusion, the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with oral calcium gives good benefits in the regulation of diastolic blood pressure. A well controlled phosphate homeostasis may also be of importance for the control of blood pressure in haemodialysis patients.

  20. El entrenamiento de fuerza reduce la acidosis metabólica y la hipertrofia hepática y renal consecuentes del consumo de una dieta hiperproteica en ratas Resistance training reduces the metabolic acidosis and hepatic and renal hypertrophy caused by the consumption of a high protein diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aparicio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El consumo de dietas hiperproteicas (HP podría tener un efecto adverso sobre la acidosis metabólica y la salud hepática y renal. Sin embargo, existen pocos estudios que analicen los efectos del entrenamiento de fuerza sobre los parámetros sensibles de ser alterados por dichas dietas. Material y métodos: Un total de 32 ratas Wistar adultas fueron distribuidas de forma aleatoria en 4 grupos experimentales (n = 8: dieta normoproteica o HP, con o sin entrenamiento de fuerza. Las dietas estuvieron basadas en un hidrolizado de proteína de lactosuero (whey. Tras 90 días de diseño experimental los animales fueron sacrificados para los posteriores análisis. Resultados y discusión: El consumo de una dieta HP provocó acidosis metabólica (hipercalcemia e hipocitraturia urinarias, acidificación del pH urinario y niveles elevados de urea plasmática, (P Introduction: High protein (HP diet consumption may adversely affect metabolic acidosis and hepatic and renal health. Despite such potentially adverse effect, there are only few studies analyzing the effects of resistance training on the parameters that could be altered by such diets. Material and methods: A total of 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 4 experimental groups (n = 8: normoprotein or HP diets, with or without resistance training. Diets were based on a whey protein hydrolyzate, and the experimental period lasted for 90 days. Results and discussion: Consumption of HP diets and resistance training significantly affected food intake, body composition and plasmatic levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Consumption of HP diets led to a considerable increase in liver and kidney weight (P < 0.001, urinary volume and acidity, as well as in the urinary excretion of Ca, with a parallel reduction in the urinary excretion of citrate (P < 0.05. The buffering action of resistance training on such diet-induced alterations was especially evident in the

  1. Enhanced propagation of adult human renal epithelial progenitor cells to improve cell sourcing for tissue-engineered therapeutic devices for renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Angela J; Buffington, Deborah A; Humes, H D

    2012-08-01

    Renal cell therapy employing cells derived from adult renal epithelial cell (REC) progenitors promises to reduce the morbidity of patients with renal insufficiency due to acute renal failure and end stage renal disease. To this end, tissue engineered devices addressing the neglected biologic component of renal replacement therapy are being developed. Because human donor tissue is limited, novel enhanced progenitor cell propagation (EP) techniques have been developed and applied to adult human kidney transplant discards from six donors. Changes include more efficient digestion and the amplification of progenitors prior to terminal epithelial differentiation promoted by contact inhibition and the addition of retinoic acid. Differentiated morphology in EP populations was demonstrated by the ability to form polarized epithelium with tight junctions, apical central cilia and expression of brush border membrane enzymes. Evaluation of lipopolysaccharide stimulated interleukin-8 secretion and γ-glutamyl transpeptisade activity in EP derived cells was used to confirm therapeutic equivalence to REC obtained using published techniques, which have previously shown efficacy in large animal models and clinical trials. Yield exceeded 10(16) cells/gram cortex from the only kidney obtained due to an anatomical defect, while the average yield from diseased kidneys ranged from 1.1 × 10(9) to 8.8 × 10(11) cells/gram cortex, representing an increase of more than 10 doublings over standard methods. Application of the EP protocol to REC expansion has solved the problem of cell sourcing as the limiting factor to the manufacture of cell based therapies targeting renal diseases and may provide a method for autologous device fabrication from core kidney biopsies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Renal actinomycosis with concomitant renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Suk; Jang, Won Ik; Jung, Ji Yoon; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Yong-Tai

    2012-02-01

    Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.

  3. Suppression of renal fibrosis by galectin-1 in high glucose-treated renal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kaokano@kc.twmu.ac.jp; Tsuruta, Yuki; Yamashita, Tetsuri; Takano, Mari; Echida, Yoshihisa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2010-11-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the ability of intracellular galectin-1 (Gal-1), a prototype of endogenous lectin, to prevent renal fibrosis by regulating cell signaling under a high glucose (HG) condition. We demonstrated that overexpression of Gal-1 reduces type I collagen (COL1) expression and transcription in human renal epithelial cells under HG conditions and transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) stimulation. Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) is stimulated by Gal-1. HG conditions and TGF-{beta}1 treatment augment expression and nuclear translocation of Gal-1. In contrast, targeted inhibition of Gal-1 expression reduces COL1 expression and increases MMP1 expression. The Smad3 signaling pathway is inhibited, whereas two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), are activated by Gal-1, indicating that Gal-1 regulates these signaling pathways in COL1 production. Using specific inhibitors of Smad3, ERK, and p38 MAPK, we showed that ERK MAPK activated by Gal-1 plays an inhibitory role in COL1 transcription and that activation of the p38 MAPK pathway by Gal-1 plays a negative role in MMP1 production. Taken together, two MAPK pathways are stimulated by increasing levels of Gal-1 in the HG condition, leading to suppression of COL1 expression and increase of MMP1 expression.

  4. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  5. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930564 Dwell times affect the local host de-fence mechanism of peritoneal dialysis patients.WANG Tao(汪涛),et al.Renal Instit,SunYatsen Med Univ,Guangzhou,510080.Chin JNephrol 1993;9(2):75—77.The effect of different intraperitoneal awelltimes on the local host defence in 6 peritonealdialysis patients was studied.A significant de-crease in the number of peritoneal cells,IgG con-centration and the phagoeytosis and bactericidalactivity of macrophages was determined when thedwell time decreased from 12 to 4 hs or form 4 to0.5hs,but the peroxidase activity in macrophagesincreased significantly.All variables,except theperoxidase activity in macrophages,showed nosignificant difference between patients of high or

  6. Traumatismo renal

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Sofia Rosa Moura Gomes da

    2009-01-01

    Introdução: A realização deste trabalho visa a elaboração de uma revisão sistematizada subordinada à temática da traumatologia renal. Objectivos: Os principais objectivos deste trabalho são: apurar a etiologia, definir a classificação, analisar o diagnóstico e expôr o tratamento e as complicações. Desenvolvimento: Os traumatismos são a principal causa de morte antes dos 40 anos. O rim é o órgão do aparelho génito-urinário mais frequentemente atingido. Os traumatismos renais são mais fre...

  7. Unpredicted spontaneous extrusion of a renal calculus in an adult male with spina bifida and paraplegia: report of a misdiagnosis. Measures to be taken to reduce urological errors in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurpreet

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A delay in diagnosis or a misdiagnosis may occur in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI or spinal bifida as typical symptoms of a clinical condition may be absent because of their neurological impairment. Case presentation A 29-year old male, who was born with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, became unwell and developed a swelling and large red mark in his left loin eighteen months ago. Pyonephrosis or perinephric abscess was suspected. X-ray of the abdomen showed left-sided staghorn calculus. Since ultrasound scan showed no features of pyonephrosis or perinephric abscess, he was prescribed a prolonged course of antibiotics for infection presumed to arise from the site of metal implant in spine. He developed a discharging sinus, following which the loin swelling and red mark subsided. About three months ago, he again developed a red mark and minimal swelling in the left loin. Ultrasound scan detected no abnormality in the renal or perinephric region. Therefore, the red mark and swelling were attributed to pressure from the backrest of his chair. Five weeks later, the swelling in the left loin burst open and a large stone was extruded spontaneously. An X-ray of the abdomen showed that he had extruded the central portion of the staghorn calculus from left kidney. With hindsight, the extruded renal calculus could be seen lying in the subcutaneous tissue of left loin lateral to the 10th rib in the X-ray of abdomen, which was taken when he presented with red mark and minimal swelling. Conclusion This case illustrates how mistakes in diagnosis could occur in spinal cord injury patients, and highlights the need for corrective measures to reduce urological errors in these patients. Voluntary reporting of urological errors is recommended to facilitate learning from our mistakes. In the patients who have marked spinal curvature, ultrasonography of kidneys and perinephric region may not be entirely reliable. As clinical symptoms and

  8. Sulfate but not thiosulfate reduces calculated and measured urinary ionized calcium and supersaturation: implications for the treatment of calcium renal stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Rodgers

    Full Text Available Urinary sulfate (SO4(2- and thiosulfate (S2O3(2- can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa and on supersaturation (SS of calcium oxalate (CaOx and calcium phosphate (CaP, and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM of these salts.Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1. A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS (Model 2. The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations.Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect.Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease.

  9. Sulfate but Not Thiosulfate Reduces Calculated and Measured Urinary Ionized Calcium and Supersaturation: Implications for the Treatment of Calcium Renal Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen; Gauvin, Daniel; Edeh, Samuel; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham; Lieske, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary sulfate (SO42−) and thiosulfate (S2O32−) can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa) and on supersaturation (SS) of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP), and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM) of these salts. Methods Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1). A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS) (Model 2). The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS) was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. Results Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect. Conclusion Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease. PMID:25061988

  10. Higher tacrolimus trough levels on days 2-5 post-renal transplant are associated with reduced rates of acute rejection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Seaghdha, C M

    2011-04-06

    We analyzed the association between whole-blood trough tacrolimus (TAC) levels in the first days post-kidney transplant and acute cellular rejection (ACR) rates. Four hundred and sixty-four consecutive, deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were included. All were treated with a combination of TAC, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Patients were analyzed in four groups based on quartiles of the mean TAC on days 2 and 5 post-transplant: Group 1: median TAC 11 ng\\/mL (n = 122, range 2-13.5 ng\\/mL), Group 2: median 17 ng\\/mL (n = 123, range 14-20 ng\\/mL), Group 3: median 24 ng\\/mL (n = 108, range 20.5-27 ng\\/mL) and Group 4: median 33.5 ng\\/mL (n = 116, range 27.5-77.5 ng\\/mL). A graded reduction in the rates of ACR was observed for each incremental days 2-5 TAC. The one-yr ACR rate was 24.03% (95% CI 17.26-32.88), 22.20% (95% CI 15.78-30.70), 13.41% (95% CI 8.15-21.63) and 8.69% (95% CI 4.77-15.55) for Groups 1-4, respectively (p = 0.003). This study suggests that higher early TACs are associated with reduced rates of ACR at one yr.

  11. Interferon-Based Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Reduces All-Cause Mortality in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: An 8-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yueh-Han; Hung, Peir-Haur; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The long-term survival of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who received interferon treatment has not been extensively evaluated.The HCV cohort was the ESRD patients with de novo HCV infection from 2004 to 2011; they were classified into treated and untreated groups according to interferon therapy records. Patients aged interferon treatment. Compared with the uninfected control cohort, the treated group had a lower risk of death (hazard ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.99). The untreated group had a 2.62-fold higher risk (95% CI 1.24-5.55) of death compared with the treated group. For the HCV cohort without cirrhosis or hepatoma, the risk of death in the treated group was further markedly reduced (hazard ratio 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.68) compared with that in the control cohort.For ESRD patients with HCV infection, receiving interferon treatment is associated with a survival advantage. Such an advantage is more prominent in HCV patients without cirrhosis or hepatoma.

  12. Evaluation of reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis and renal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattan-Smith, J.D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Little, Stephen B. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jones, Richard A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    MR urography has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis, vesicoureteric reflux and renal dysplasia. MR urography utilizes multiple parameters to assess both renal anatomy and function and provides a more complete characterization of acquired and congenital disease. Pyelonephritis and renal scarring can be distinguished by assessing the parenchymal contours and signal intensity. Characteristic imaging features of renal dysplasia include small size, subcortical cysts, disorganized architecture, decreased and patchy contrast enhancement as well as a dysmorphic pelvicalyceal system. Because of its ability to subdivide and categorize this heterogeneous group of disorders, it seems inevitable that MR urography will replace DMSA renal scintigraphy as the gold standard for assessment of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. MR urography will contribute to our understanding of renal dysplasia and its relationship to reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  13. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F.M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Marianne; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Leeuw, de Peter W.; Baak, van Marleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were com

  14. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compar

  15. Renal dysfunction after total-body irradiation. Significance of selective renal shielding blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igaki, Hiroshi [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Center; University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Proton Medical Research Center; University of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Center; Sakamaki, Hisashi [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Hematology; Saito, Hiroshi [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Nephrology; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Tanaka, Yoshiaki [Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the outcome of total-body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on leukemia patients. Also studied was the risk of renal dysfunction after TBI/BMT with or without the use of selective renal shielding blocks. Patients and Methods: The cases of 109 leukemia patients who received TBI as a component of the conditioning regimen for their BMT were reviewed. They received 12 Gy of TBI in six fractions over 3 consecutive days. Doses to eyes and lungs were reduced to 7 Gy and 8 Gy, respectively, but customized organ shielding blocks. After March 1999, renal shielding blocks were used to constrain the renal dose to 10 Gy. The patients were followed for a median period of 16.6 months (range: 0.3-180.1 months). Results: The 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 55.4% and 43.2%, respectively. Renal dysfunction-free rates were different between those with and without renal shielding blocks: 100% and 78.5%, respectively, at 2 years. Overall survivals were not significantly different among these patients: 60.4% and 52.9%, respectively, at 2 years in patients with and without renal shielding blocks (p=0.53). Conclusion: The use of selective renal shielding blocks provided evidence for reducing radiation-induced renal toxicities without decreasing the overall survival rate. (orig.)

  16. Sirolimus-associated proteinuria and renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Gopala K

    2006-01-01

    Sirolimus is a novel immunosuppressant with potent antiproliferative actions through its ability to inhibit the raptor-containing mammalian target of rapamycin protein kinase. Sirolimus represents a major therapeutic advance in the prevention of acute renal allograft rejection and chronic allograft nephropathy. Its role in the therapy of glomerulonephritis, autoimmunity, cystic renal diseases and renal cancer is under investigation. Because sirolimus does not share the vasomotor renal adverse effects exhibited by calcineurin inhibitors, it has been designated a 'non-nephrotoxic drug'. However, clinical reports suggest that, under some circumstances, sirolimus is associated with proteinuria and acute renal dysfunction. A common risk factor appears to be presence of pre-existing chronic renal damage. The mechanisms of sirolimus-associated proteinuria are multifactorial and may be due to an increase in glomerular capillary pressure following calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal. It has also been suggested that sirolimus directly causes increased glomerular permeability/injury, but evidence for this mechanism is currently inconclusive. The acute renal dysfunction associated with sirolimus (such as in delayed graft function) may be due to suppression of compensatory renal cell proliferation and survival/repair processes. Although these adverse effects occur in some patients, their occurrence could be minimised by knowledge of the molecular effects of sirolimus on the kidney, the use of sirolimus in appropriate patient populations, close monitoring of proteinuria and renal function, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers if proteinuria occurs and withdrawal if needed. Further long-term analysis of renal allograft studies using sirolimus as de novo immunosuppression along with clinical and laboratory studies will refine these issues in the future.

  17. Simvastatin protects bladder and renal functions following spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuler Thomas C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary bladder and renal dysfunction are secondary events associated with spinal cord injury (SCI in humans. These secondary events not only compromise quality of life but also delay overall recovery from SCI pathophysiology. Furthermore, in experimental models the effects of SCI therapy on bladder and renal functions are generally not evaluated. In this study, we tested whether simvastatin improves bladder and renal functions in a rat model of experimental SCI. Methods SCI was induced by controlled contusion of T9-T10 in adult female rats. Simvastatin (5 mg/Kg body weight was administered at two hours after SCI and repeated every 24 hours until the end point. Simvastatin-treated SCI animals (simvastatin group were compared with vehicle-treated SCI animals (vehicle group in terms of the Basso Beattie Bresnahan score, tissue morphology, cell death, and bladder/renal functions. Results The urinary bladder of vehicle animals showed a 4.3-fold increase in size and a 9-fold increase in wet weight compared to sham animals. Following SCI, the urine to plasma osmolality ratio increased initially but decreased 1 week after SCI. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of bladder tissue showed transitional epithelial hyperplasia, degeneration of lamina propria, and enlargement of tunica adventia in addition to detrusor muscle hypertrophy. Rats treated with simvastatin for 14 days displayed remarkable recovery by showing decreased bladder size and maintenance of a normal urine/plasma osmolality ratio, in addition to improved locomotion. The muscularis layer of the bladder also regained its compact nature in simvastatin animals. Moreover, SCI-induced renal caspase-3 activity was significantly decreased in the simvastatin group indicating the ability of simvastatin to reduce the renal tubular apoptosis. Conclusion Post-injury administration of simvastatin ameliorates bladder and renal dysfunction associated with SCI in rats.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces renal lactate production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlinger, Thomas S; Nielsen, Per Mose; Qi, Haiyun

    2017-01-01

    Intrarenal hypoxia is an acknowledged factor contributing to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is a well-known adjuvant treatment for several medical conditions, such as decompression sickness, infections, and wound healing. The underlying metabolic response...

  19. Inflammation drives renal scarring in experimental pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Birong; Haridas, Babitha; Jackson, Ashley R; Cortado, Hanna; Mayne, Nicholas; Kohnken, Rebecca; Bolon, Brad; McHugh, Kirk M; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Spencer, John David; Ching, Christina B; Hains, David S; Justice, Sheryl S; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Becknell, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Acquired renal scarring occurs in a subset of patients following febrile urinary tract infections and is associated with hypertension, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease. Limited knowledge of histopathology, immune cell recruitment, and gene expression changes during pyelonephritis restricts the development of therapies to limit renal scarring. Here, we address this knowledge gap using immunocompetent mice with vesicoureteral reflux. Transurethral inoculation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in C3H/HeOuJ mice leads to renal mucosal injury, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and cortical fibrosis. The extent of fibrosis correlates most significantly with inflammation at 7 and 28 days postinfection. The recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory macrophages to infected kidneys is proportional to renal bacterial burden. Transcriptome analysis reveals molecular signatures associated with renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, immune cell chemotaxis, and leukocyte activation. This murine model recapitulates the cardinal histopathological features observed in humans with acquired renal scarring following pyelonephritis. The integration of histopathology, quantification of cellular immune influx, and unbiased transcriptional profiling begins to define potential mechanisms of tissue injury during pyelonephritis in the context of an intact immune response. The clear relationship between inflammatory cell recruitment and fibrosis supports the hypothesis that acquired renal scarring arises as a consequence of excessive host inflammation and suggests that immunomodulatory therapies should be investigated to reduce renal scarring in patients with pyelonephritis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  1. Renal arteries (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  2. Direct effect of methylprednisolone on renal sodium and water transport via the principal cells in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Thomas G; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N;

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids influence renal concentrating and diluting ability. We tested the hypothesis that methylprednisolone treatment increased renal water and sodium absorption by increased absorption via the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels and the epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) respectively....

  3. [Renal leiomyoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Guessous, H; Rabii, R; Benjelloun, M; Benlemlih, A; Skali, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a case of renal leiomyoma observed in a 56-year-old man. This cyst presented in the from of loin pain. Computed tomography revealed a homogeneous renal tumor. Treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy. Histological examination of the specimen showed benign renal leiomyoma.

  4. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  5. Automated renal histopathology: digital extraction and quantification of renal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarder, Pinaki; Ginley, Brandon; Tomaszewski, John E.

    2016-03-01

    The branch of pathology concerned with excess blood serum proteins being excreted in the urine pays particular attention to the glomerulus, a small intertwined bunch of capillaries located at the beginning of the nephron. Normal glomeruli allow moderate amount of blood proteins to be filtered; proteinuric glomeruli allow large amount of blood proteins to be filtered. Diagnosis of proteinuric diseases requires time intensive manual examination of the structural compartments of the glomerulus from renal biopsies. Pathological examination includes cellularity of individual compartments, Bowman's and luminal space segmentation, cellular morphology, glomerular volume, capillary morphology, and more. Long examination times may lead to increased diagnosis time and/or lead to reduced precision of the diagnostic process. Automatic quantification holds strong potential to reduce renal diagnostic time. We have developed a computational pipeline capable of automatically segmenting relevant features from renal biopsies. Our method first segments glomerular compartments from renal biopsies by isolating regions with high nuclear density. Gabor texture segmentation is used to accurately define glomerular boundaries. Bowman's and luminal spaces are segmented using morphological operators. Nuclei structures are segmented using color deconvolution, morphological processing, and bottleneck detection. Average computation time of feature extraction for a typical biopsy, comprising of ~12 glomeruli, is ˜69 s using an Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4790 CPU, and is ~65X faster than manual processing. Using images from rat renal tissue samples, automatic glomerular structural feature estimation was reproducibly demonstrated for 15 biopsy images, which contained 148 individual glomeruli images. The proposed method holds immense potential to enhance information available while making clinical diagnoses.

  6. ANCA-Associated Glomerulonephritis: Risk Factors for Renal Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçeroğlu, Arda; Berden, Annelies E.; Fiocco, Marta; Floßmann, Oliver; Westman, Kerstin W.; Ferrario, Franco; Gaskin, Gill; Pusey, Charles D.; Hagen, E. Christiaan; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Rasmussen, Niels; Waldherr, Rüdiger; Walsh, Michael; Bruijn, Jan A.; Jayne, David R. W.; Bajema, Ingeborg M.

    2016-01-01

    Relapse in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) has been studied previously, but there are few studies on renal relapse in particular. Identifying patients at high risk of renal relapse may aid in optimizing clinical management. We investigated which clinical and histological parameters are risk factors for renal relapse in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis (AAGN). Patients (n = 174) were newly diagnosed and had mild–moderate or severe renal involvement. Data were derived from two trials of the European Vasculitis Society: MEPEX and CYCAZAREM. The Cox regression model was used to identify parameters increasing the instantaneous risk (= rate) of renal relapse (useful for instant clinical decisions). For identifying predictors of renal relapse during follow-up, we used Fine & Gray’s regression model. Competing events were end-stage renal failure and death. The cumulative incidence of renal relapse at 5 years was 9.5% (95% CI: 4.8–14.3%). In the Cox model, sclerotic class AAGN increased the instantaneous risk of renal relapse. In Fine & Gray’s model, the absence of interstitial infiltrates at diagnosis was predictive for renal relapse. In this study we used two different models to identify possible relationships between clinical and histopathological parameters at time of diagnosis of AAV with the risk of experiencing renal relapse. Sclerotic class AAGN increased the instantaneous risk of renal relapse. This association is most likely due to the high proportion of sclerosed glomeruli reducing the compensatory capacity. The absence of interstitial infiltrates increased the risk of renal relapse which is a warning sign that patients with a relatively benign onset of disease may also be prone to renal relapse. Renal relapses occurring in patients with sclerotic class AAGN and renal relapses occurring in patients without interstitial infiltrates were mutually exclusive, which may indicate that they are essentially different. PMID:27973575

  7. [Chronic renal failure secondary to uterine prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Canora, J; Venegas, J L

    2005-01-01

    Acute and chronic renal failure secondary to bilateral severe hydroureteronephrosis is a rare sequela of uterine prolapse. We report a case of neglected complete uterine prolapse in a 72-year-old patient resulting in bilateral hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and chronic renal failure. In an attempt to diminish the ureteral obstruction a vaginal pessary was used to reduce the uterine prolapse. Finally, surgical repair of prolapse by means of a vaginal hysterectomy was performed. In conclusion, all patients presenting with complete uterine prolapse should be screened to exclude urinary tract obstruction. If present, obstructive uropathy should be relieved by the reduction or repair of the prolapse before irreversible renal damage occurs.

  8. Renal failure in burn patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, S S; Alzaylai, A A

    2013-03-31

    Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management.

  9. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup;

    2015-01-01

    demonstrated that RDN in patients with resistant hypertension was both feasible and safe and indicated that RDN may lead to impressive reductions in BP. However, recent controlled studies question the BP lowering effect of RDN treatment. Large-scale registry data still supports the favorable BP reducing effect...

  10. Postpartum renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, D; Sterns, R H; Segal, A J

    1985-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis in adults is usually a complication of the nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it has been reported in nonnephrotic women postpartum. The thrombosis may be a complication of the hypercoagulable state associated with both the nephrotic syndrome and pregnancy. Two postpartum patients with renal vein thrombosis and no prior history of renal disease are reported here. Neither patient had heavy proteinuria. In both cases, pyelonephritis was suspected clinically and the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis was first suggested and confirmed by radiologic examination. Renal vein thrombosis should be considered in women presenting postpartum with flank pain.

  11. Renal infarction resulting from traumatic renal artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Kim, Won; Jin, Gong Yong; Na, Ki Ryang; Yun, Il Yong; Park, Sung Kwang

    2008-06-01

    Renal artery dissection may be caused by iatrogenic injury, trauma, underlying arterial diseases such as fibromuscular disease, atherosclerotic disease, or connective tissue disease. Radiological imaging may be helpful in detecting renal artery pathology, such as renal artery dissection. For patients with acute, isolated renal artery dissection, surgical treatment, endovascular management, or medical treatment have been considered effective measures to preserve renal function. We report a case of renal infarction that came about as a consequence of renal artery dissection.

  12. Fibrate therapy and renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Domenic A

    2009-09-01

    Fibrates are a class of lipid-lowering medications primarily used as second-line agents behind statins. The adverse-effect profile of fibrates has been marked by a puzzling yet reversible rise in serum creatinine values with their use. It is not known whether this finding represents a true change in renal function. One proposed explanation for this phenomenon is that fibrates increase the production of creatinine, in which case a rise in serum creatinine values would not represent a true deterioration in renal function. An alternative theory is that fibrates reduce the production of vasodilatory prostaglandins, which would lead to a true change in renal function in patients who experience a rise in serum creatinine values. Routine serum creatinine monitoring is advisable in fibrate-treated patients, particularly in those with preexisting renal disease. A 30% increase in serum creatinine values in the absence of other causes of serum creatinine change warrants discontinuation of fibrate therapy. Serum creatinine values can take several weeks to return to their baseline values following discontinuation of a fibrate.

  13. Renal Dialysis and its Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Marisa; Paul, David P; Skiba, Michaeline

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and its associated comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension continue to increase as the population ages. As most ESRD patients qualify for Medicare coverage, the U.S. government initiated reforms of the payment system for dialysis facilities in an effort to decrease expenditures associated with ESRD reimbursement. The effects of reduced reimbursement rates, bundled payment options, and quality incentives on the current dialysis system, including kidney dialysis units, physicians, and patients, are examined.

  14. Cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction in human renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiberd, B A

    1989-12-01

    Cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients frequently suffer CsA-related nephrotoxicity and hypertension. This study demonstrates that glomerular filtration rate is reduced acutely by 13% (P less than 0.02) and renal vascular resistance increased by 30% (P less than 0.05), immediately after patients take their CsA dose. The reduction in GFR is directly related to their trough CsA level (r = 0.82; P less than 0.01). The lower the trough CsA level the greater the fall in GFR after the CsA dose. Plasma renin activity does not increase after the CsA dose (pre-CsA 0.6 +/- 0.2 ng/L/sec vs. post-CsA 0.4 +/- 0.1 ng/L/sec; P = NS), and therefore cannot be responsible for the reduction in renal function. Short-term nifedipine treatment is effective in preventing the acute reduction in GFR (P less than 0.05). This occurred despite no apparent effect of nifedipine in altering trough or post-dose CsA levels. Furthermore nifedipine was effective in lowering both the mean arterial blood pressure (109 mmHg to 94 mmHg; P less than 0.01) and the elevated renal vascular resistance (25% reduction; P less than 0.02) observed in these patients. These results suggest that nifedipine may be a suitable agent for limiting acute CsA nephrotoxicity and for treating CsA-associated hypertension in renal allograft recipients.

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  17. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha Siddappa; K M Mythri; Kowsalya, R.; Ashish Parekh

    2011-01-01

    Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  18. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Siddappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  19. Chronic bilateral renal denervation attenuates renal injury in a transgenic rat model of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yimin; Fomison-Nurse, Ingrid C; Harrison, Joanne C; Walker, Robert J; Davis, Gerard; Sammut, Ivan A

    2014-08-01

    Bilateral renal denervation (BRD) has been shown to reduce hypertension and improve renal function in both human and experimental studies. We hypothesized that chronic intervention with BRD may also attenuate renal injury and fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. This hypothesis was examined in a female streptozotocin-induced diabetic (mRen-2)27 rat (TGR) shown to capture the cardinal features of human diabetic nephropathy. Following diabetic induction, BRD/sham surgeries were conducted repeatedly (at the week 3, 6, and 9 following induction) in both diabetic and normoglycemic animals. Renal denervation resulted in a progressive decrease in systolic blood pressure from first denervation to termination (at 12 wk post-diabetic induction) in both normoglycemic and diabetic rats. Renal norepinephrine content was significantly raised following diabetic induction and ablated in denervated normoglycemic and diabetic groups. A significant increase in glomerular basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion was seen in the diabetic kidneys; this morphological appearance was markedly reduced by BRD. Immunohistochemistry and protein densitometric analysis of diabetic innervated kidneys confirmed the presence of significantly increased levels of collagens I and IV, α-smooth muscle actin, the ANG II type 1 receptor, and transforming growth factor-β. Renal denervation significantly reduced protein expression of these fibrotic markers. Furthermore, BRD attenuated albuminuria and prevented the loss of glomerular podocin expression in these diabetic animals. In conclusion, BRD decreases systolic blood pressure and reduces the development of renal fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, and albuminuria in this model of diabetic nephropathy. The evidence presented strongly suggests that renal denervation may serve as a therapeutic intervention to attenuate the progression of renal injury in diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Melatonin ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, proteinuria, and progression of renal damage in rats with renal mass reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Yasmir; Ferrebuz, Atilio; Romero, Freddy; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2008-02-01

    The progressive deterioration of renal function and structure resulting from renal mass reduction are mediated by a variety of mechanisms, including oxidative stress and inflammation. Melatonin, the major product of the pineal gland, has potent_antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and its production is impaired in chronic renal failure. We therefore investigated if melatonin treatment would modify the course of chronic renal failure in the remnant kidney model. We studied rats followed 12 wk after renal ablation untreated (Nx group, n = 7) and treated with melatonin administered in the drinking water (10 mg/100 ml) (Nx + MEL group, n = 8). Sham-operated rats (n = 10) were used as controls. Melatonin administration increased 13-15 times the endogenous hormone levels. Rats in the Nx + MEL group had reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde levels in plasma and in the remnant kidney as well as nitrotyrosine renal abundance) and renal inflammation (p65 nuclear factor-kappaB-positive renal interstitial cells and infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages). Collagen, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and transforming growth factor-beta renal abundance were all increased in the remnant kidney of the untreated rats and were reduced significantly by melatonin treatment. Deterioration of renal function (plasma creatinine and proteinuria) and structure (glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage) resulting from renal ablation were ameliorated significantly with melatonin treatment. In conclusion, melatonin administration improves the course of chronic renal failure in rats with renal mass reduction. Further studies are necessary to define the potential usefulness of this treatment in other animal models and in patients with chronic renal disease.

  1. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  2. Melamine Impairs Renal and Vascular Function in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao Yu; Wong, Wing Tak; Lau, Chi Wai; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Cheang, Wai San; Liu, Jian; Lu, Ye; Huang, Huihui; Xia, Yin; Chen, Zhen Yu; Mok, Chuen-Shing; Lau, Chau-Ming; Huang, Yu

    2016-06-21

    Melamine incident, linked to nephrotoxicity and kidney stone in infants previously exposed to melamine-contaminated milk products, was unprecedentedly grave in China in 2008 as little was known about the mechanistic process leading to renal dysfunction in affected children. This study investigates whether neonatal ingestion of melamine leads to renal and vascular dysfunction in adulthood; and whether ingestion of melamine in pregnant rats leads to renal dysfunction in their offspring. A combination of approaches employed includes functional studies in rat renal arteries, renal blood flow measurement by functional magnetic resonance imaging, assay for pro-inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers, immunohistochemistry, and detection of plasma and renal melamine. We provide mechanistic evidence showing for the first time that melamine reduces renal blood flow and impairs renal and vascular function associated with overexpression of inflammatory markers, transforming growth factor-β1, bone morphogenic protein 4 and cyclooxygenase-2 in kidney and renal vasculature. Melamine also induces renal inflammation and fibrosis. More importantly, melamine causes nephropathies in offsprings from pregnant rat exposed to melamine during pregnancy, as well as in neonatal rat exposed to melamine afterbirth, thus supporting the clinical observations of kidney stone and acute renal failure in infants consuming melamine-contaminated milk products.

  3. Analysis of data from the ERA-EDTA Registry indicates that conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease do not reduce the need for renal replacement therapy in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithoven, E.M.; Kramer, A.; Meijer, E.; Orskov, B.; Wanner, C.; Caskey, F.; Collart, F.; Finne, P.; Fogarty, D.G.; Groothoff, J.W.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Nogier, M.B.; Postorino, M.; Ravani, P.; Zurriaga, O.; Jager, K.J.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a major cause of end-stage kidney failure, but is often identified early and therefore amenable to timely treatment. Interventions known to postpone the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in non-ADPKD patients have also been tested in ADP

  4. Analysis of data from the ERA-EDTA Registry indicates that conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease do not reduce the need for renal replacement therapy in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithoven, Edwin M.; Kramer, Anneke; Meijer, Esther; Orskov, Bjarne; Wanner, Christoph; Caskey, Fergus; Collart, Frederic; Finne, Patrik; Fogarty, Damian G.; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Hoitsma, Andries; Nogier, Marie-Beatrice; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Zurriaga, Oscar; Jager, Kitty J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a major cause of end-stage kidney failure, but is often identified early and therefore amenable to timely treatment. Interventions known to postpone the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in non-ADPKD patients have also been tested in ADP

  5. Renal function after renal artery stenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George S. Hanzel; Mark Downes; Peter A. McCullough

    2005-01-01

    @@ Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), a common clinical finding, is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. ARAS is seen in ~ 7% of persons over 65 years of age1 and in ~ 20% of patients at the time of coronary angiography.2 It is an important cause of chronic kidney disease and may result in 11-14% of cases of end stage renal disease.3

  6. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate.

  7. Effect of Shenkang injection combined with hemodialysis treatment on renal function, renal anemia and cytokine levels in patients with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of Shenkang injection combined with hemodialysis treatment on renal function, renal anemia and cytokine levels in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: A total of 68 patients with chronic renal failure who received hemodialysis treatment in our hospital during between October 2013 and February 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, the observation group received Shenkang injection treatment in the process of dialysis, and the control group only received conventional symptomatic and supportive treatment. 8 weeks after treatment, serum was collected to determine the levels of renal function indexes, nutritional status indexes, anemia indexes and cytokines, and urine was collected to determine renal function indexes.Results:β2-MG, UA, Cr, phosphorus, IL-17, IL-23, CTGF, TGF-β1, FGF-2 and FGF-23 levels in serum as well as NGAL, KIM-1 and RBP levels in urine of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, and TP, Alb, PA, calcium, Hb, EPO, Fe, TRF and FER levels in serum were significantly higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Shenkang injection combined with hemodialysis treatment helps to improve renal function, nutritional status and renal anemia, and reduce the synthesis of inflammation and renal interstitial fibrosis-related cytokines in patients with chronic renal failure.

  8. Prospective evaluation of renal allograft dysfunction with 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.D.; Sagalowsky, A.I.; Lewis, S.E.; Gailiunas, P.; Helderman, J.H.; Dawidson, I.; Peters, P.C.

    1984-05-01

    A prospective, single-blinded study was done to determine the ability of serial 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans to diagnose renal allograft rejection. Among 28 transplant recipients 111 renal scans were obtained 1 day postoperatively and every 3 to 4 days thereafter for 3 weeks in all patients retaining an allograft. Computer-generated time-activity blood flow curves were analyzed semiquantitatively for the 1) interval between curve peaks of the allograft and iliac artery, 2) renal transit time and 3) renal washout of radionuclide. Excretory function was assessed by degree and interval to appearance of radionuclide in the calices and bladder. Deterioration of renal blood flow and excretion compared to the initial scan was considered rejection. Of 52 scans performed during clinical rejection 47 (90.4 per cent) were interpreted as showing rejection (sensitivity). Of 53 scans interpreted as showing rejection 47 (88.7 per cent) were positive for clinical rejection. The remaining 6 patients (initial false positive results) suffered clinical rejection within 24 to 72 hours. We conclude that 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scans are useful in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft dysfunction.

  9. Renal sympathetic nervous system and the effects of denervation on renal arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Kannan; Raul; Ivan; Medina; Nagapradeep; Nagajothi; Saravanan; Balamuthusamy

    2014-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is associated with chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in various comorbidities. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is often under estimated due to various reasons. Activation of sympathetic nervous system at the renal-as well as systemic-level contributes to the increased level of catecholamines and resulting increase in the blood pressure. This increased activity was demonstrated by increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and renal and total body noradrenaline spillover. Apart from the hypertension, it is hypothesized to be associated with insulin resistance, congestive heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. Renal denervation is a novel procedure where the sympathetic afferent and efferent activity is reduced by various techniques and has been used successfully to treat drug-resistant hypertension improvement of various metabolic derangements.Renal denervation has the unique advantage of offering the denervation at the renal level, thus mitigating the systemic side effects. Renal denervation can be done by various techniques including radiofrequency ablation, ultrasound guided ablation and chemical ablation. Various trials evaluated the role of renal denervation in the management of resistant hypertension and have found promising results. More studies are underway to evaluate the role of renal denervation in patients presenting with resistant hypertension in different scenarios. Appropriate patient selection might be the key in determining the effectiveness of the procedure.

  10. Renal neurohormonal regulation in heart failure decompensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Sofia; Agic, Mediha Becirovic; Narfström, Fredrik; Melville, Jacqueline M; Hultström, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Decompensation in heart failure occurs when the heart fails to balance venous return with cardiac output, leading to fluid congestion and contributing to mortality. Decompensated heart failure can cause acute kidney injury (AKI), which further increases mortality. Heart failure activates signaling systems that are deleterious to kidneys such as renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and vasopressin secretion. All three reduce renal blood flow (RBF) and increase tubular sodium reabsorption, which may increase renal oxygen consumption causing AKI through renal tissue hypoxia. Vasopressin contributes to venous congestion through aquaporin-mediated water retention. Additional water retention may be mediated through vasopressin-induced medullary urea transport and hyaluronan but needs further study. In addition, there are several systems that could protect the kidneys and reduce fluid retention such as natriuretic peptides, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide. However, the effect of natriuretic peptides and nitric oxide are blunted in decompensation, partly due to oxidative stress. This review considers how neurohormonal signaling in heart failure drives fluid retention by the kidneys and thus exacerbates decompensation. It further identifies areas where there is limited data, such as signaling systems 20-HETE, purines, endothelin, the role of renal water retention mechanisms for congestion, and renal hypoxia in AKI during heart failure.

  11. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  12. Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent is effective for blood pressure control and renal function improvement in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Chuan-jun; YANG Bao-zhong; WANG Zhong-gao

    2012-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent is an effective procedure for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.However,the decision to perform this procedure has recently raised considerable debate.The aim of this study was to assess the effects of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients,especially as it relates to blood pressure control and renal function improvement.Methods A retrospective analysis was made of the clinical data from 125 atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty from July 2004 to June 2008 in the Department of Vascular Surgery of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital.We compared blood pressure,number of oral antihypertensive medications,and renal function changes pre and post-procedure at 24 months follow-up.Results A total of 125 atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients underwent percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty and 143 stents were placed.At 24 months follow-up,both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the number of oral antihypertensive medications were significantly reduced (P <0.05).Overall,the estimated glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly (P >0.05); however,a significant increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate was observed in the subgroup of patients with a lower baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and in the subgroup of patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis (P <0.05).Conclusion Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty is a safe procedure for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients,providing a significant improvement in blood pressure control and reduction in the number of oral antihypertensive medications.

  13. Statins and progressive renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Senatore, Massimino; Corica, Francesco; Aloisi, Carmela; Romeo, Adolfo; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Floccari, Fulvio; Tramontana, Domenico; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to the administration of hypocholesterolemic drugs, important advances have been made in the treatment of patients with progressive renal disease. In vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that statins, the inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, can provide protection against kidney diseases characterized by inflammation and/or enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells occurring in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, or by increased proliferation of mesangial cells occurring in IgA nephropathy. Many of the beneficial effects obtained occur independent of reduced cholesterol levels because statins can directly inhibit the proliferation of different cell types (e.g., mesangial, renal tubular, and vascular smooth muscle cells), and can also modulate the inflammatory response, thus inhibiting macrophage recruitment and activation, as well as fibrosis. The mechanisms underlying the action of statins are not yet well understood, although recent data in the literature indicate that they can directly affect the proliferation/apoptosis balance, the down-regulation of inflammatory chemokines, and the cytogenic messages mediated by the GTPases Ras superfamily. Therefore, as well as reducing serum lipids, statins and other lipid-lowering agents may directly influence intracellular signaling pathways involved in the prenylation of low molecular weight proteins that play a crucial role in cell signal transduction and cell activation. Statins appear to have important potential in the treatment of progressive renal disease, although further studies are required to confirm this in humans.

  14. Influence of dietary protein on renal function in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovée, K C

    1991-11-01

    Two previously published studies in dogs with reduced renal function are reviewed. In the first study, renal function and biochemical responses to dietary changes were studied in four dogs with stable chronic renal failure. The objective was to determine if dogs with moderate stable failure adjust to diets with varied protein and electrolyte content. These dogs were found to have the capacity to adapt to a wide range of dietary protein and electrolyte intake. The only exception was found in dogs fed a reduced-protein diet, which failed to appropriately adjust renal tubular excretion of sodium and phosphate. The only advantage of reduced dietary protein in this study was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Disadvantages of reduced-protein diets were reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow. In the second study, the hypothesis that large amounts of dietary protein sustain renal hyperfunction and produce progressive glomerulosclerosis in dogs as previously reported in rats was tested. Results failed to find a pattern of deterioration of renal function over 4 y. Light microscopic changes and electron microscopy also failed to find glomerular injury similar to that reported in rodents. These results do not support the hypothesis that feeding a high protein diet had a significant adverse effect on renal function or morphology.

  15. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  16. Insuficiencia renal aguda.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hernán Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a clinic syndrome characterized by decline in renal function occurring over a short time period. Is a relatively common complication in hospitalized critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. ARF has often a multi-factorial etiology syndrome usually approached diagnostically as pre-renal, post-renal, or intrinsic ARF. Most intrinsic ARF is caused by ischemia or nephrotoxins and is classically associated with acute tubular necrosis...

  17. Isolated Renal Hydatidosis Presenting as Renal Mass: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datteswar Hota

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. Isolated renal involvement is extremely rare. There are no specific signs and symptoms of renal hydatidosis. However it may present as palpable mass, flank pain, hematuria, malaise, fever, and hydatiduria or as a complication of it such as infection, abscess, hemorrhage, necrosis and pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal failure etc. Except hydatiduria, none are pathognomonic for renal hydatidosis. There is no literature on renal hydatidosis presenting as renal mass we report 2 cases of isolated renal hydatidosis, which mimicked a renal mass on imaging study.

  18. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  19. Renal denervation for resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Giuseppe; Pisano, Anna; Rivoli, Laura; Bolignano, Davide

    2017-02-21

    Resistant hypertension is highly prevalent among the general hypertensive population and the clinical management of this condition remains problematic. Different approaches, including a more intensified antihypertensive therapy, lifestyle modifications, or both, have largely failed to improve patients' outcomes and to reduce cardiovascular and renal risk. As renal sympathetic hyperactivity is a major driver of resistant hypertension, renal sympathetic ablation (renal denervation) has been recently proposed as a possible therapeutic alternative to treat this condition. We sought to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of renal denervation in individuals with resistant hypertension on clinical end points, including fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, hospital admissions, quality of life, blood pressure control, left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiovascular and metabolic profile, and kidney function, as well as the potential adverse events related to the procedure. We searched the following databases to 17 February 2016 using relevant search terms: the Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and ClinicalTrials.gov SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared renal denervation to standard therapy or sham procedure to treat resistant hypertension, without language restriction. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study risks of bias. We summarised treatment effects on available clinical outcomes and adverse events using random-effects meta-analyses. We assessed heterogeneity in estimated treatment effects using Chi² and I² statistics. We calculated summary treatment estimates as a mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous outcomes, and a risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes, together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 12 eligible studies (1149

  20. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  1. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 can halt and even reverse renal tubule-interstitial fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Correa-Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tubule-interstitial fibrosis is the hallmark of progressive renal disease and is strongly associated with inflammation of this compartment. Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a cytoprotective molecule that has been shown to be beneficial in various models of renal injury. However, the role of HO-1 in reversing an established renal scar has not yet been addressed. AIM: We explored the ability of HO-1 to halt and reverse the establishment of fibrosis in an experimental model of chronic renal disease. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO and divided into two groups: non-treated and Hemin-treated. To study the prevention of fibrosis, animals were pre-treated with Hemin at days -2 and -1 prior to UUO. To investigate whether HO-1 could reverse established fibrosis, Hemin therapy was given at days 6 and 7 post-surgery. After 7 and/or 14 days, animals were sacrificed and blood, urine and kidney tissue samples were collected for analyses. Renal function was determined by assessing the serum creatinine, inulin clearance, proteinuria/creatininuria ratio and extent of albuminuria. Arterial blood pressure was measured and fibrosis was quantified by Picrosirius staining. Gene and protein expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules, as well as HO-1 were performed. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with Hemin upregulated HO-1 expression and significantly reduced proteinuria, albuminuria, inflammation and pro-fibrotic protein and gene expressions in animals subjected to UUO. Interestingly, the delayed treatment with Hemin was also able to reduce renal dysfunction and to decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, all in association with significantly reduced levels of fibrosis-related molecules and collagen deposition. Finally, TGF-β protein production was significantly lower in Hemin-treated animals. CONCLUSION: Treatment with Hemin was able both to prevent the progression of fibrosis and

  2. Primary renal carcinoid tumor: A radiologic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Lamb, MD, Msc, Bsc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumor is the classic famous anonym of neuroendocrine neoplasms. Primary renal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare, first described by Resnick and colleagues in 1966, with fewer than a total of 100 cases reported in the literature. Thus, given the paucity of cases, the clinical and histological behavior is not well understood, impairing the ability to predict prognosis. Computed tomography and (occasionally octreotide studies are used in the diagnosis and followup of these rare entites. A review of 85 cases in the literature shows that no distinctive imaging features differentiate them from other primary renal masses. The lesions tend to demonstrate a hypodense appearance and do not usually enhance in the arterial phases, but can occasionally calcify. Octreotide scans do not seem to help in the diagnosis; however, they are more commonly used in the postoperative followup. In addition, we report a new case of primary renal carcinoid in a horseshoe kidney.

  3. Renal stem cells: fact or science fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCampbell, Kristen K; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2012-06-01

    The kidney is widely regarded as an organ without regenerative abilities. However, in recent years this dogma has been challenged on the basis of observations of kidney recovery following acute injury, and the identification of renal populations that demonstrate stem cell characteristics in various species. It is currently speculated that the human kidney can regenerate in some contexts, but the mechanisms of renal regeneration remain poorly understood. Numerous controversies surround the potency, behaviour and origins of the cell types that are proposed to perform kidney regeneration. The present review explores the current understanding of renal stem cells and kidney regeneration events, and examines the future challenges in using these insights to create new clinical treatments for kidney disease.

  4. Biopsia Renal en receptores de Trasplante Renal: cuidados de enfermería y complicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Sanz Izquierdo

    Full Text Available Introducción: La biopsia renal percutánea es una herramienta fundamental para el manejo del paciente trasplantado renal. La prueba es primordial para detectar y/o prevenir cualquier disfunción en el injerto, siendo un procedimiento tanto diagnóstico como preconizador. Objetivo: Describir los cuidados de enfermería e identificar las complicaciones derivadas de la biopsia renal en los receptores de Trasplante Renal. Material y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal realizado en la Unidad de Trasplante Renal, Servicio de Nefrología, del 2008 al 2014. La población objeto de estudio son los receptores de Trasplante Renal (TR. La muestra está compuesta por 368 biopsias renales de seguimiento que ingresan para someterse a una biopsia renal. Los criterios de inclusión son ser mayores de 18 años, trasplantados y que han firmado el consentimiento informado. Se recogen datos sociodemográficos, clínico-asistenciales y complicaciones post-biopsia renal. Resultados: Desde 1980 hasta el 2014 se han llevado a cabo 1868 TR, de 2008 a 2014 se estudiaron 368 biopsias de seguimiento. Se monitoriza la Tensión Arterial y la coagulación pre biopsia. Tras el procedimiento, se controla la presencia de sangrado por micción y constantes vitales. Inicialmente el reposo absoluto era de 24 h, a partir de 2014 se reduce a 6 horas, recomendando reposo relativo al alta, las complicaciones fueron mínimas. Conclusiones: Los resultados indican que la biopsia renal es un procedimiento eficaz, con escasas complicaciones. Destacar el papel de enfermería en la detección precoz de complicaciones.

  5. Chronic Renal Failure, Cachexia, and Ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laviano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein energy wasting is frequently observed in patients with advanced chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Anorexia and reduced food intake are critical contributing factors and negatively impact on patients' survival. Ghrelin is a prophagic peptide produced by the stomach and acting at the hypothalamic level to increase the activity of orexigenic neurons. In patients with chronic renal disease, plasma levels are increased as a likely effect of reduced renal clearance. Nevertheless, patients' food intake is significantly reduced, suggesting inflammation-mediated resistance of hypothalamic nuclei to peripheral signals. A number of forms of evidence show that ghrelin resistance could be overcome by the administration of exogenous ghrelin. Therefore, ghrelin has been proposed as a potential strategy to improve food intake in chronic renal failure patients with protein energy wasting. Preliminary data are encouraging although larger prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm the results and to identify those patients who are likely to benefit most from the administration of exogenous ghrelin.

  6. Chronic renal failure, cachexia, and ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, A; Krznaric, Z; Sanchez-Lara, K; Preziosa, I; Cascino, A; Rossi Fanelli, F

    2010-01-01

    Protein energy wasting is frequently observed in patients with advanced chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Anorexia and reduced food intake are critical contributing factors and negatively impact on patients' survival. Ghrelin is a prophagic peptide produced by the stomach and acting at the hypothalamic level to increase the activity of orexigenic neurons. In patients with chronic renal disease, plasma levels are increased as a likely effect of reduced renal clearance. Nevertheless, patients' food intake is significantly reduced, suggesting inflammation-mediated resistance of hypothalamic nuclei to peripheral signals. A number of forms of evidence show that ghrelin resistance could be overcome by the administration of exogenous ghrelin. Therefore, ghrelin has been proposed as a potential strategy to improve food intake in chronic renal failure patients with protein energy wasting. Preliminary data are encouraging although larger prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm the results and to identify those patients who are likely to benefit most from the administration of exogenous ghrelin.

  7. Diagnosis of renal artery branch stenosis using captopril intervention scintirenography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, R.; Gupta, S.K. [Batra Hospitan, New Delhi (India). Depts. of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiology

    1996-08-01

    A case of renovascular hypertension in a young male is presented. The patient had a small size right kidney with reduced differential function on the baseline [99mTc]-DTPA renal study. Captopril intervention scintigraphy demonstrated a dramatic reduction in renal perfusion and cortical uptake in the upper and mid-poles of the affected kidney. Time-activity curves of the [99mTc]-DTPA studies using segmental regions of interest corroborated visual findings. The presence of renal artery branch stenosis was confirmed on renal angiography. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Successful angioplasty during pregnancy for renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margueritte, François; Velasco, Stephane; Pourrat, Olivier; Pierre, Fabrice

    2016-03-01

    Renal artery stenosis can be diagnosed during pregnancy and treated at the same time. A 30-year-old woman had a sudden, severe but asymptomatic hypertensive crisis at 21 weeks of gestation. The diagnosis of renal artery stenosis suspected on Doppler ultrasonography was confirmed and treated by renal angioplasty, which reduced her blood pressure. At 27 weeks of gestation, her blood pressure increased again, associated with significant proteinuria, suggesting pre-eclampsia. A cesarean section was performed giving birth to a healthy 940-g child. Renal artery stenosis should be considered when sudden and early-onset hypertension appears during pregnancy.

  9. New α-lipoic acid derivative, DHL-HisZn, ameliorates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hironori; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Kusaka, Jyunya; Goto, Koji; Uchino, Tetyuya; Shingu, Chihiro; Kai, Shinya; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2012-05-15

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs frequently in a variety of clinical settings, such as renal transplantation. In addition, I/R is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). A recent study has reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of AKI, suggesting that reducing ROS generation may prevent renal injury. The present study evaluated the ability of DHL-HisZn, a new α-lipoic acid derivative, to inhibit ROS generation and prevent renal I/R injury in rats. Rats received an intravenous infusion of DHL-HisZn or saline, and then underwent experimentally induced renal I/R injury or sham treatment. Rats were sacrificed after 60 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. To evaluate the renal protective effects of DHL-HisZn, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cre) concentrations were determined, kidneys were histologically assessed, and malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of oxidative stress, was evaluated. In addition, antimycin A (AMA)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with DHL-HisZn to assess its antioxidant effects in vitro. DHL-HisZn treatment attenuated I/R-induced histologic alterations, reduced serum levels of serum BUN and Cre, and decreased MDA levels in the kidneys of rats with renal I/R injury. Furthermore, DHL-HisZn decreased ROS levels in AMA-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Our in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that DHL-HisZn may have therapeutic potential against various human I/R conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Hemorrhagic bilateral renal angiomyolipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saâd; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour, often associated with congenital diseases especially de Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis. Bilateral angiomyolipoma is exceptional. The authors report a case of bilateral renal angiomyolipoma in a 33-year-old patient presenting with haemorrhagic shock. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this disease.

  11. FARMACOFISIOLOGÍA RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso CG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Renal physiology plays a key role in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Knowledge of the particularities of each nephron function (filtration, secretion, reabsorption and excretion and each of renal tubular transport mechanisms (simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, facilitated transport, active transport, endocytosis and pinocytosis is fundamental to achieve better management of drug prescriptions.

  12. Does Renal Artery Supply Indicate Treatment Success of Renal Denervation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Axel, E-mail: axel.schmid@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Ditting, Tilmann, E-mail: tilmann.ditting@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany); Sobotka, Paul A., E-mail: sobotka@alumni.stanford.edu [Ohio State University (United States); Veelken, Roland, E-mail: roland.veelken@uk-erlangen.de; Schmieder, Roland E., E-mail: roland.schmieder@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany); Uder, Michael, E-mail: michael.uder@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Ott, Christian, E-mail: christian.ott@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeRenal denervation (RDN) emerged as an innovative interventional antihypertensive therapy. With the exception of pretreatment blood pressure (BP) level, no other clear predictor for treatment efficacy is yet known. We analyzed whether the presence of multiple renal arteries has an impact on BP reduction after RDN.MethodsFifty-three patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (office BP {>=} 140/90 mmHg and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring ({>=}130/80 mmHg) underwent bilateral catheter-based RDN. Patients were stratified into one-vessel (OV) (both sides) and at least multivessel (MV) supply at one side. Both groups were treated on one vessel at each side; in case of multiple arteries, only the dominant artery was treated on each side.ResultsBaseline clinical characteristics (including BP, age, and estimated glomerular filtration rate) did not differ between patients with OV (n = 32) and MV (n = 21). Office BP was significantly reduced in both groups at 3 months (systolic: OV -15 {+-} 23 vs. MV -16 {+-} 20 mmHg; diastolic: OV -10 {+-} 12 vs. MV -8 {+-} 11 mmHg, both p = NS) as well as 6 months (systolic: OV -18 {+-} 18 vs. MV -17 {+-} 22 mmHg; diastolic: OV -10 {+-} 10 vs. -10 {+-} 12 mmHg, both p = NS) after RDN. There was no difference in responder rate (rate of patients with office systolic BP reduction of at least 10 mmHg after 6 months) between the groups.ConclusionIn patients with multiple renal arteries, RDN of one renal artery-namely, the dominant one-is sufficient to induce BP reduction in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  13. Primary renal hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsy Merla Joel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis or hydatidosis caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, has the highest prevalence in endemic regions and sheep farming areas. The most common organ involved is the liver (50–75% followed by the lungs (15–20% and other organs (10–20%. Primary involvement of the kidney without the involvement of the liver and lungs, i.e., isolated renal hydatid disease is extremely rare even in endemic areas. The incidence of renal echinococcosis is 2–4%. Renal hydatid cysts usually remain asymptomatic for many years and are multiloculated. A 63-year-old male presented with left loin pain. Computed tomography scan abdomen revealed a presumptive diagnosis of renal hydatid disease. The nephrectomy specimen received in histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. We describe a rare case of primary renal hydatidosis.

  14. Conceptions of Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  15. Predictive capacity of pre-donation GFR and renal reserve capacity for donor renal function after living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, M; Hofker, HS; van Son, WJ; van der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Navis, GJ

    2006-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is important to reduce organ shortage. Reliable pre-operative estimation of post-donation renal function is essential. We evaluated the predictive potential of pre-donation glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (iothalamate) and renal reserve capacity for post-do

  16. Pregnancy in End Stage Renal Disease Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohina Swaroop

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in patients suffering from chronic renal failure is still rare due to numerous factors that impairfertility. Even if pregnancy does occur pregnancy outcome with a live birth has a low success rate.Moreover there is a significant risk of worsening of renal disease in the mother.The purpose of hemodialysisis not only to maintain life but also to make the quality of life as normal as possible for the patient.Propogation of life is basic to all life forms and the ability to do so can be considered as a success in apatient of chronic renal failure. As patients of End stage renal disease rarely complain about sexual orgynecological problems ,considering them trivial as compared to their more life threatening renal condition,it is the physicians role to be attentive to these aspects of the disease.We hereby report 2 cases ofsuccessful pregnancy managed on hemodialysis by Northwest Louisiana Nephrology

  17. Renal denervation: a new therapeutic approach for resistant hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Longxing; Fu Qiang; Wang Binghui; Li Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the advances in studies on renal denervation.Data sources References concerning renal denervation and resistant hypertension cited in this review were collected from PubMed published in English and those of renal denervation devices from official websites of device manufacturers up to January 2014.Study selection Articles with keywords "renal denervation" and "resistant hypertension" were selected.Results Renal and systemic sympathetic overactivity plays an important role in pathology of hypertension as well as other diseases characterized by sympathetic overactivity.Renal denervation is a new,catheter based procedure to reduce renal and systemic sympathetic overactivity by disruption of renal sympathetic efferent and afferent nerves through radiofrequency or ultrasound energy delivered to the endoluminal surface of both renal arteries.Although several studies have shown the efficacy and safety of renal denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension and the potential benefit of the procedure in other diseases,Symplicity HTN 3 study,the most rigorous clinical trial of renal denervation to date,failed to meet its primary endpoint.The procedure also has other limitations such as the lack of long term,efficacy and safety data and the lack of the predictors for the blood pressure lowering response and nonresponse to the procedure.An overview of current renal denervation devices holding Conformité Européenne mark is also included in this review.Conclusions Renal denervation is a promising therapeutic approach in the management of resistant hypertension and other diseases characterized by sympathetic overactivity.In its early stage of clinical application,the efficacy of the procedure is still controversial.Large scale,blind,randomized,controlled clinical trials are still necessary to address the limitations of the procedure.

  18. Effects of ulinastatin on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-cong CHEN; Zi-ming LIU; Hui-hua WANG; Wei HE; Yi WANG; Wei-dong WU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and possible mechanism of ulinastatin on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45-min bilateral renal ischemia, treated with intravenously 12 500 U ulinastatin at 30 min prior to ischemia and at the beginning of reperfusion, compared with a nontreated group without ulinastatin and a sham-operation group without bilateral renal ischemia. After 0 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h of reperfusion, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were measured for the assessment of renal function, renal sections were used for histologic grading of renal injury, for immunohistochemical localization of Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70. Renal ultrastructure was observed through a transmission electron microscope.RESULTS: Ulinastatin significantly reduced the increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine produced by renal ischemia-reperfusion, suggesting an improvement in renal function. Ulinastatin reduced the histologic evidence of renal damage associated with ischemia-reperfusion and accompanied with an up-regulation in the expression of Bcl-2 protein, but it had no significent effect on the expression of HSP 70. Ulinastatin also significantly reduced kidney ultrastructure damage caused by renal ischemia-reperfusion. CONCLUSION: The protease inhibitor, ulinastatin,reduced the renal dysfunction and injury associated with ischemia-reperfusion of the kidney. The protective effect of ulinastatin might be associated with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and the effect on membrane fragility.

  19. Renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery; renal function recovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Kandler, Kristian; Agerlin Windeløv, Nis

    2013-01-01

    To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy.......To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy....

  20. Impaired Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Ide

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients requiring liver transplantation (LT frequently experience renal insufficiency (RI, which affects their survival. Although calcineurin inhibitor-sparing immunosuppressive regimens (CSRs are well known to prevent RI, the immune state in recipients receiving CSR remains to be intensively investigated. Among 60 cases of living-donor LT at our institute, 68% of the patients had none to mild RI (non-RI group and 32% of the patients had moderate to severe RI (RI group. The RI group received a CSR comprising reduced dose of tacrolimus, methylprednisolone, and mycophenolate mofetil, while the non-RI group received a regimen comprising conventional dose of tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. One year after LT, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in the RI group had significantly improved, although it was still lower than that of the non-RI group. Serial mixed lymphocyte reaction assays revealed that antidonor T-cell responses were adequately suppressed in both groups. Thus, we provide evidence that CSR leads to improvement of eGFR after LT in patients with RI, while maintaining an appropriate immunosuppressive state.

  1. Renal neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Lane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are uncommon tumors that exhibit a wide range of neuroendocrine differentiation and biological behavior. Primary NETs of the kidney, including carcinoid tumor, small cell carcinoma (SCC, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC are exceedingly rare. Materials and Methods: The clinicopathologic features of renal NETs diagnosed at a single institution were reviewed along with all reported cases in the worldwide literature. Results: Eighty renal NETs have been described, including nine from our institution. Differentiation between renal NETs and the more common renal neoplasms (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma can be difficult since clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features overlap. Immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers, such as synaptophysin and chromogranin, can be particularly helpful in this regard. Renal carcinoids are typically slow-growing, may secrete hormones, and pursue a variable clinical course. In contrast, SCC and LCNEC often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and carry a poor prognosis. Nephrectomy can be curative for clinically localized NETs, but multimodality treatment is indicated for advanced disease. Conclusions: A spectrum of NETs can rarely occur in the kidney. Renal carcinoids have a variable clinical course; SCC and LCNEC are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Diagnosis of NETs, especially LCNEC, requires awareness of their rare occurrence and prudent use of immunohistochemical neuroendocrine markers.

  2. Pregnancy and renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, O; Emiroğlu, R; Seçme, S; Moray, G; Haberal, M

    2004-01-01

    Ovarian dysfunction, anovulatory vaginal bleeding, amenorrhea, high prolactin levels, and loss of libido are the causes of infertility in women with chronic renal failure. After renal transplantation, endocrine function generally improves after recovery of renal function. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the prepregnancy and postdelivery renal function, outcome of gestation, as well as maternal and fetal complications for eight pregnancies in eight renal transplant recipients between November 1975 and March 2003 of 1095 among 1425. Eight planned pregnancies occurred at a mean of 3.6 years posttransplant. Spontaneous abortion occured in the first trimester in one case. One intrauterine growth retardation was observed with a full-term pregnancy; one intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery; one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and urinary tract infection; and one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and oligohydramnios. The mean gestation period was 35.5 +/- 3.0 weeks (31.2 to 38.0). Pregnancy had no negative impact on renal function during a 2-year follow-up. No significant proteinuria or acute rejection episodes were observed. Among the seven deliveries, no congenital anomaly was documented and no postpartum problems for the child and the mother were observed. Our study suggests that successful pregnancy is possible in renal transplant recipients. In cases with good graft function and absence of severe proteinuria or hypertension, pregnancy does not affect graft function or patient survival; however, fetal problems are encountered such as intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preeclampsia.

  3. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  4. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  5. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Ongun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8% with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9% had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 18 patients (78.2% had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5% had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  6. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongun, Sakir; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Cimen, Sertac; Aslan, Guven

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI) that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8%) with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF) as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9%) had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 18 patients (78.2%) had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5%) had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  7. Renal tubular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, M; Obialo, C; Hruska, K A

    1990-12-01

    Renal tubular acidosis refers to a group of disorders that result from pure tubular damage without concomitant glomerular damage. They could be hereditary (primary) or acquired (secondary to various disease states like sickle cell disease, obstructive uropathy, postrenal transplant, autoimmune disease, or drugs). The hallmark of the disorder is the presence of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with, or without, associated defects in potassium homeostasis, a UpH greater than 5.5 in the presence of systemic acidemia, and absence of an easily identifiable cause of the acidemia. There are three physiologic types whose basic defects are impairment of or a decrease in acid excretion, i.e., type 1 (dRTA); a failure in bicarbonate reabsorption, i.e., type 2 (pRTA); and deficiency of buffer or impaired generation of NH4+, i.e., type 4 RTA. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been postulated for these various types. pRTA is the least common of all in the adult population. It rarely occurs as an isolated defect. It is frequently accompanied by diffuse proximal tubule transport defects with aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, and so forth (Fanconi syndrome). dRTA is associated with a high incidence of nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, osteodystrophy, and growth retardation (in children). Osteodystrophy also occurs in pRTA to a lesser degree and is believed to be secondary to hypophosphatemia. Patients with type 4 RTA usually have mild renal insufficiency from either diabetes mellitus or interstitial nephritis. Acute bicarbonate loading will result in a high fractional excretion of bicarbonate greater than 15% (FEHCO3- greater than 15%) in patients with pRTA, but FEHCO3- less than 3% in patients with dRTA. Type I patients will also have a low (U - B) PCO2 with bicarbonate loading. They are also unable to lower their urine pH to less than 5.5 with NH4Cl loading. The treatment of these patients involves avoidance of precipitating factors when possible, treatment

  8. Lactulose and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, B; Frey, F J

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of lactulose as a new therapeutic agent for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy was a major breakthrough in this field. It was hypothesized that lactulose might prevent postoperative renal impairment after biliary surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice. The presumable mechanism purported was the diminished endotoxinemia by lactulose. Unfortunately, such a reno-protective effect has not been shown conclusively until now in clinical studies. In chronic renal failure lactulose is known to promote fecal excretion of water, sodium, potassium, amonium, urea, creatinine and protons. Thus, lactulose could be useful for the treatment of chronic renal failure. However, compliance to the therapy represents a major problem.

  9. Long-Term Health and Work Outcomes of Renal Transplantation and Patterns of Work Status During the End-Stage Renal Disease Trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Kuiper, Daphne; Groothoff, Johan W.; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Son, Willem J.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the health-and work outcomes of renal transplant recipients long-term after transplantation as well as the pattern of work status, work ability and disability benefits during the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) trajectory that precedes transplantation

  10. Renal tubule cell repair following acute renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, H D; Lake, E W; Liu, S

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data suggests the recovery of renal function after ischemic or nephrotoxic acute renal failure is due to a replicative repair process dependent upon predominantly paracrine release of growth factors. These growth factors promote renal proximal tubule cell proliferation and a differentiation phase dependent on the interaction between tubule cells and basement membrane. These insights identify the molecular basis of renal repair and ischemic and nephrotoxic acute renal failure, and may lead to potential therapeutic modalities that accelerate renal repair and lessen the morbidity and mortality associated with these renal disease processes. In this regard, there is a prominent vasoconstrictor response of the renal vasculature during the postischemic period of developing acute renal failure. The intravenous administration of pharmacologic doses of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the postischemic period have proven efficacious by altering renal vascular resistance, so that renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate improve. ANF also appears to protect renal tubular epithelial integrity and holds significant promise as a therapeutic agent in acute renal failure. Of equal or greater promise are the therapeutic interventions targeting the proliferative reparative zone during the postischemic period. The exogenous administration of epidermal growth factor or insulin-like growth factor-1 in the postischemic period have effectively decreased the degree of renal insufficiency as measured by the peak serum creatinine and has hastened renal recovery as measured by the duration of time required to return the baseline serum creatinine values. A similarly efficacious role for hepatocyte growth factor has also been recently demonstrated.

  11. Anemia and Thrombocytopenia in Acute and Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Mahmudi, Mohammad; Tabibian, Shadi; Khatib, Zahra Kashani; Tamaddon, Gholam Hossein; Moghaddam, Esmaeil Sanei; Bamedi, Taregh; Alizadeh, Shaban; Moradi, Eshagh

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute renal failure describes as a syndrome by rapid decline in the ability of the kidney to eliminate waste products, regulate acid–base balance, and manage water homeostasis. When this impairment is prolonged and entered chronic phase, erythropoietin secretion by this organ is decreasing and toxic metabolic accumulates and causes hematological changes include decrease of HCT, MCV and RBC and platelet counts. This study evaluates present of anemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute and chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods This study conducted on 132 patients with renal impairment and also 179 healthy individuals as two separated control groups. Initially patients with renal problem were tested and after confirmation of impairment, patients were divided in two groups, acute with less than 3 months and chronic with more than 3 months renal failure, based on duration of the disease. Then complete blood count performed for each patient and finally obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Comparison between 96 patients with acute and 36 patients with chronic renal failure revealed that severity of anemia (HCT, Hb and MCV) between these two groups were statistically high in comparison with control groups (P > 0.05) but thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic renal failure was statistically different from control and the acute ones (P < 0.001). Conclusion It was recommended that in patients with chronic renal failure, to prevent the risk of bleeding, platelet count should be checked periodically. PMID:24505541

  12. Emerging role of gasotransmitters in renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, P. M.; van den Berg, E.; Whiteman, M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Leuvenink, H. G. D.; van Goor, H.

    2013-01-01

    Once patients with kidney disease progress to end-stage renal failure, transplantation is the preferred option of treatment resulting in improved quality of life and reduced mortality compared to dialysis. Although 1-year survival has improved considerably, graft and patient survival in the long ter

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Renal Ischemic Conditioning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierulf-Lassen, Casper; Nieuwenhuijs-Moeke, Gertrude J.; Krogstrup, Nicoline V.; Oltean, Mihai; Jespersen, Bente; Dor, Frank J. M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the leading cause of acute kidney injury in a variety of clinical settings such as renal transplantation and hypovolemic and/or septic shock. Strategies to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury are obviously clinically relevant. Ischemic conditioning is an inherent part o

  14. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  15. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  16. Renal protection in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the chances of progressive renal disorder and, ultimately, renal failure. Roughly 40% of all diabetics, whether insulin-dependent or not, develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end......-stage renal disease in the Western world and accounts for more than a quarter of all end-stage renal diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Increased arterial blood pressure is an early and common phenomenon in incipient and overt diabetic...... nephropathy. The relationship between arterial blood pressure and diabetic nephropathy is a complex one, with diabetic nephropathy increasing blood pressure and blood pressure accelerating the course of nephropathy. OVERVIEW: Calcium antagonists antagonize preglomerular vasoconstriction. Additional putative...

  17. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  18. Renal vein thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2012:chap 34. Read More Acute kidney failure Arteriogram Blood clots Dehydration Nephrotic syndrome Pulmonary embolus Renal Tumor Review Date 5/19/2015 Updated by: Charles Silberberg, ...

  19. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    -resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according......Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after...... undetected secondary causes of hypertension (11.1%). In conclusion, after careful screening and treatment adjustment at hypertension expert centers, only ≈40% of patients referred for renal denervation, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure. The most frequent cause of ineligibility...

  20. Complete renal recovery from severe acute renal failure after thrombolysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Suresh; Jones, Robert G; Foggensteiner, Lukas; Willis, Andrew P; Duddy, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with acute renal failure due to extensive spontaneous deep vein thrombosis, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and both renal veins. The patient was treated with selectively delivered thrombolytic therapy over a 7-day-period, which resulted in renal vein patency and complete recovery of renal function. A stent was placed over a segment stenosis of the IVC. No thrombophilic factors were identified. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis in young fit individuals is an unusual cause of acute renal failure. Thrombolytic therapy, even with delay, can completely restore renal function.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of reduced renal function among physical examinees in Xuzhou city%徐州市健康体检者肾功能下降状况及危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓朗; 董鑫; 杨科; 宋慧; 丁伟洁; 汪秀英; 陈茂杰

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解江苏省徐州市健康体检者肾功能下降状况及其危险因素,为采取干预措施提供参考依据.方法 收集徐州市中心医院2006-2009年77 355名健康体检者体检资料进行回顾性分析.结果 77355名健康体检者肾功能下降患病率为1.18%,标化患病率为1.30%;其中男性和女性的患病率分别为1.19%和1.18%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);20~、30~、40~、50~、60~、70~和≥80岁年龄组患病率分别为0.10%、0.20%、0.52%、1.20%、3.30%、7.62%和11.58%,不同年龄组差异有统计学意义(x2=2 734.34,P=0.000);男性和女性肾功能下降率均随年龄的增长呈上升趋势(P=0.000),平均每10年分别增长1.85%和2.18%;多因素logistic回归分析结果表明,血浆粘度偏高、蛋白尿、白细胞尿、红细胞尿、低密度脂蛋白偏高、空腹血糖偏高、收缩压偏高、血尿酸偏高是肾功能下降的危险因素.结论 徐州市健康体检者肾功能下降患病率较低,有蛋白尿、白细胞尿、红细胞尿以及血浆粘度、低密度脂蛋白、空腹血糖、收缩压、血尿酸偏高是肾功能下降的危险因素.%Objective To explore the prevalence rate and risk factors of reduced renal function(RRF) by retrospective analysis on data from a physical examination sample in Xuzhou city for the prevention of the disorder. Methods Totally 77 355 physical emaminees were selected to estimate glomerular filtration rate(Egfr) by retrospective analysis from 2006 -2009. Results The prevalence rate of RRF among the participants was 1.18% with a standardized rate of 1. 30% (1. 19% for male and 1. 18% for female) and there was no significant gender difference in the rate( P >0.05). The prevalence rate of RRF for the participants of 20 - ,30 - ,40 - ,50 - ,60 - ,70 - and ≥80 age groups was 0. 10% , 0.20% ,0.52% ,1.20% ,3.30% ,7.62%,and 11.58% , respectively, and there were significant differences among the

  2. Eruca sativa seeds possess antioxidant activity and exert a protective effect on mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar Alam, M; Kaur, Gurpreet; Jabbar, Zoobi; Javed, Kaleem; Athar, Mohammad

    2007-06-01

    Mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) is a well-known nephrotoxic agent. Increasing number of evidences suggest the role of oxidative stress in HgCl(2) induced nephrotoxicity. Eruca sativa is widely used in folklore medicines and has a good reputation as a remedy of renal ailments. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of E. sativa seeds was determined and its protective effect on HgCl(2) induced renal toxicity was investigated. The extract was found to possess a potent antioxidant effect, with a large amount of polyphenols and a high reducing ability. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed glucoerucin and flavonoids to be the major antioxidants present in it. E. sativa extract significantly scavenged several reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Feeding of the extract to rats afforded a significant protection against HgCl(2) induced renal toxicity. Subcutaneous administration of 4 mg/kg body weight HgCl(2) induced renal injury evident as a marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, and histopathological changes such as necrosis, oedema and congestion of stroma and glomeruli. Oxidative modulation of renal tissues following HgCl(2) exposure was evident from a significant elevation in lipid peroxidation and attenuation in glutathione (GSH) contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Oral administration of E. sativa extract to rats at a dose regimen: 50-200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days prior to HgCl(2) treatment significantly and dose dependently protected against alterations in all these diagnostic parameters. The data obtained in the present study suggests E. sativa seeds to possess a potent antioxidant and renal protective activity and preclude oxidative damage inflicted to the kidney.

  3. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  4. High serum enalaprilat in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T; Heisterberg, J; Kamper, A L

    2001-01-01

    in patients with GFR ACE activity below the reference range. The ACE genotype did not influence the results. Additional pharmacokinetic studies were done in nine patients in whom GFR was 23 (10-42)ml/minute/1.73 m2. The median clearance of enalaprilat was 28 (16......BACKGROUND: Most angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and their metabolites are excreted renally and doses should hence be reduced in renal insufficiency. We studied whether the dosage of enalapril in daily clinical practice is associated with drug accumulation of enalaprilat in chronic...

  5. Renal papillary necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1877, Dr. Nikolaus Friedreich (1825-1882; student of Virchow who became Professor of Pathology at Heidelberg and who also described Friedreich’s ataxia first described renal papillary necrosis (RPN in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and secondary hydronephrosis. Thereafter in 1937, Froboese and Günther emphasized the association of this entity with diabetes mellitus. These authors also observed renal papillary necrosis in cases of urinary tract obstruction even in the absence of diabetes mellitus.

  6. [Hyperuricemia and renal risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazzi, Francesca; Bonino, Barbara; Ratto, Elena; Desideri, Giovambattista; Pontremoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an association between elevated levels of uric acid and conditions correlated to chronic kidney diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebral disease, insulin resistance. Several pathogenetic mechanisms at cellular and tissue levels could justify a direct correlation between serum uric acid levels and renal damage. Growing evidence indicating a correlation between urate lowering therapy and renal morbidity could encourage the use of urate lowering therapy in primary or secondary prevention in chronic kidney disease.

  7. Structural renal changes in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Kerstin; Benz, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Overweight, obesity, and associated diseases represent an emerging problem, not only in Western countries but also in the developing world. They are now characterized as epidemic diseases. Obesity is particularly serious because its incidence in children and adolescents increased dramatically: it is estimated that in the United States every eighth adolescent suffers from obesity, which in the long run may reduce life expectancy in the population. Apart from cardiovascular disease (ie, blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease), kidney diseases also have been shown to be associated with obesity. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that obesity can be a risk factor of chronic kidney disease irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes, arterial hypertension, and other comorbidities. More evidence is accumulated on the link between chronic kidney disease in obesity and abnormalities in adipokine secretion (hyperleptinemia, lack of adiponectin), activation of the renin-angiotensin system, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, lipid accumulation, impaired renal hemodynamics, and diminished nephron number related to body mass. In general, obesity is known to aggravate the course of many primary renal diseases such as glomerulonephritides, but also impairs renal function after kidney transplantation. Microalbuminuria, proteinuria, hyperfiltration, and impaired renal function are associated with obesity. Histologically, secondary focal segmental sclerosis has been shown to be caused particularly by obesity. Of practical purpose for clinical nephrology, loss of body weight either by lifestyle modification or bariatric surgery improves albuminuria and hyperfiltration in obese patients, making renal disease in obesity accessible for prevention programs. This review specifically addresses the pathogenesis and morphology of renal functional and particularly structural changes in obesity and associated renal disease such as diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Laparoscopic Renal Cryoablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Marc; Moshfegh, Amiel; Talenfeld, Adam; Del Pizzo, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence linking radical nephrectomy and consequent suboptimal renal function to adverse cardiovascular events and increased mortality, research into nephron-sparing techniques for renal masses widely expanded in the past two decades. The American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines now explicitly list partial nephrectomy as the standard of care for the management of T1a renal tumors. Because of the increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, up to 70% of newly detected renal masses are stage T1a, making them more amenable to minimally invasive nephron-sparing therapies including laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy and ablative therapies. Cryosurgery has emerged as a leading option for renal ablation, and compared with surgical techniques it offers benefits in preserving renal function with fewer complications, shorter hospitalization times, and allows for quicker convalescence. A mature dataset exists at this time, with intermediate and long-term follow-up data available. Cryosurgical recommendations as a first-line therapy are made at this time in limited populations, including elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities, and those with a solitary kidney. As more data emerge on oncologic efficacy, and technical experience and the technology continue to improve, the application of this modality will likely be extended in future treatment guidelines. PMID:24596441

  9. Does renal function influence the prognostic impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Russo

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In patients with CHF and reduced LVEF the prognostic impact of T2DM depends on the degree of renal dysfunction. Its contribution in all-cause mortality risk prediction is limited to mild–moderate renal dysfunction subgroup, while prognostic power is lost in normal renal function and in severe renal dysfunction patients.

  10. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-xiang Yuan; Jingxin Mo; Guixian Zhao; Gang Shu; Hua-lin Fu; Wei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...

  11. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  12. Differentiation between renal allograft rejection and acute tubular necrosis by renal scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmonico, F.L.; McKusick, K.A.; Cosimi, A.B.; Russell, P.S.

    1977-04-01

    The usefulness of the renal scan in diagnosing technical complications in the transplant patient is well established. However, the ability of the renal scan to differentiate between acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis has remained uncertain. We have evaluated the effectiveness of the /sup 99m/Tc DTPA computer-derived time-activity curve of renal cortical perfusion, as well as data obtained from scintillation camera images, in making such diagnoses. Fifteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of either acute rejection or acute tubular necrosis, or both, were studied retrospectively. Technetium scan diagnoses did not agree with the clinical assessment in nine of the patients. Thus selection of a course of treatment should not be based on data obtained from the scan alone.

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN FETAL RENAL VOLUME AND FETAL RENAL DOPPLER IN NORMAL AND GROWTH RESTRICTED FETUSES : AN INITIAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetana R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major factors affecting nephrogenesis in utero is intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Few studies showed reduced weight of the fetal kidney in IUGR fetuses as compared to normally grown fetuses. Reduced blood flow to the kidneys due to fetal hypoxemia in IUGR f o etus leads to increased pulsatility index which is likely to be responsible for impaired nephrogenesis and decreased kidney volume. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE : To estimate if fetal renal artery Doppler could affect fetal renal volume in healthy and growth restricted fetuses after 26 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING : Cross sectional study carried out in the De partment radio diagnosis, Lata M angeshkar hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. MATERIAL AND METHOD S : Total 336 patients, which consisted of 309 norma lly grown fetuses and 27 intrauterine growth restricted fetuses were included in the study. Fetal renal volume of individual kidney, combined renal volume and relative renal volumes were calculated using 2 dimensional ultrasound for normal and IUGR fetuses . Fetal renal artery parameters particularly renal arterial pulsatility index were calculated for both the groups. Correlation of fetal renal Doppler parameters with renal volume was estimated for respective groups. RESULTS: Combined kidney volume was sign ificantly reduced in growth restricted fetuses than normal fetuses i.e. mean combined kidney volume for growth restricted fetuses was 12.6cc and for normal fetuses was 19.29cc. Most of the fetal biometric indices were positively correlated with the combine d kidney volume. Increased pulsatility index was seen in growth restricted fetuses i.e. on right side 1.37+/ - 0.35 and on left 1.40+/ - 0.35 i.e. >1 while for normal fetuses was 0.88 +/ - 0.08 on either side i.e. <1. Considerable negative correlation was found between fetal renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume. CONCLUSION: Increased fetal renal artery pulsatility index in intrauterine growth

  14. Analysis of data from the ERA-EDTA Registry indicates that conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease do not reduce the need for renal replacement therapy in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithoven, Edwin M; Kramer, Anneke; Meijer, Esther; Orskov, Bjarne; Wanner, Christoph; Caskey, Fergus; Collart, Frederic; Finne, Patrik; Fogarty, Damian G; Groothoff, Jaap W; Hoitsma, Andries; Nogier, Marie-Béatrice; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Zurriaga, Oscar; Jager, Kitty J; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2014-12-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a major cause of end-stage kidney failure, but is often identified early and therefore amenable to timely treatment. Interventions known to postpone the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in non-ADPKD patients have also been tested in ADPKD patients, but with inconclusive results. To help resolve this we determined changes in RRT incidence rates as an indicator for increasing effective renoprotection over time in ADPKD. We analyzed data from the European Renal Association-European Dialyses and Transplant Association Registry on 315,444 patients starting RRT in 12 European countries between 1991 and 2010, grouped into four 5-year periods. Of them, 20,596 were due to ADPKD. Between the first and last period the mean age at onset of RRT increased from 56.6 to 58.0 years. The age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of RRT for ADPKD increased slightly over the four periods from 7.6 to 8.3 per million population. No change over time was found in the incidence of RRT for ADPKD up to age 50, whereas in recent time periods the incidence in patients above the age of 70 clearly increased. Among countries there was a significant positive association between RRT take-on rates for non-ADPKD kidney disease and ADPKD. Thus, the increased age at onset of RRT is most likely due to an increased access for elderly ADPKD patients or lower competing risk prior to the start of RRT rather than the consequence of effective emerging renoprotective treatments for ADPKD.

  15. Successful accessory renal artery denervation in a patient with resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Atas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal sympathetic denervation is safe and effective in patients with resistant hypertension. In all of the studies of renal artery denervation, patients with accessory renal arteries are excluded. So there is not any data regarding renal sympathetic denervation applied to the accessory renal arteries. We present a young female patient with resistant hypertension despite use of five different antihypertensive drugs. The patient had a well developed (diameter >4 mm left renal accessory. We believe that if we omitted the well developed accessory renal artery, we would not have maintained adequate blood pressure control. Thus, we applied radiofrequency ablation to both renal arteries and left accessory artery. Immediately after the procedure, the patient′s blood pressure was reduced to 110/60 mmHg and this effect was continued during the first month of follow-up.

  16. The cardio-renal anemia syndrome

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    Dimković Siniša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problem of anemia in congestive heart failure and chronic kidney disease was thought to be insignificant for a long period of time. Recent investigations pointed out that the problem of anemia should be defined in the context of the cardio-renal anemia syndrome. A positive feedback mechanism indicates that cardio-renal anemia syndrome is due to an interaction between congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure and anemia. The aim of the study was to present the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome, epidemiological characteristics and therapeutic results of the former investigations. Results. The results of the retrospective and prospective controlled trails have shown that management of anemia with subcutaneous administration of recombinant human erythropoietin together with intravenous iron infusion for at least 3-6 months lead to: relief of symptoms (improved NYHA functional class; increased left ventricular ejection fraction; reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; reduced number of rehospitalizations; reduced requirements for usual therapeutic agents (especially diuretics; and improved renal function. Conclusion. In patients with heart and kidney disease anemia should be routinely identified and appropriately treated. Subcutaneous recombinant erythropoietin and intravenous iron may significantly improve overall survival and quality of life of these patients. .

  17. The Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor AR9281 Decreases Blood Pressure, Ameliorates Renal Injury and Improves Vascular Function in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Shaw

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs are demonstrating promise as potential pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation, and kidney disease. The present study determined the ability of a first-inclass sEHI, AR9281, to decrease blood pressure, improve vascular function, and decrease renal inflammation and injury in angiotensin hypertension. Rats were infused with angiotensin and AR9281 was given orally during the 14-day infusion period. Systolic blood pressure averaged 180 ± 5 mmHg in vehicle treated and AR9281 treatment significantly lowered blood pressure to 142 ± 7 mmHg in angiotensin hypertension. Histological analysis demonstrated decreased injury to the juxtamedullary glomeruli. Renal expression of inflammatory genes was increased in angiotensin hypertension and two weeks of AR9281 treatment decreased this index of renal inflammation. Vascular function in angiotensin hypertension was also improved by AR9281 treatment. Decreased afferent arteriolar and mesenteric resistance endothelial dependent dilator responses were ameliorated by AR9281 treatment of angiotensin hypertensive rats. These data demonstrate that the first-in-class sEHI, AR9281, lowers blood pressure, improves vascular function and reduces renal damage in angiotensin hypertension.

  18. The role of the renal afferent and efferent nerve fibers in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lindsea C; May, Clive N; Yao, Song T

    2015-01-01

    Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF.

  19. [Compatibility of Banxia Houpo decoction on hepatic CYP450 and renal organicion transporters in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fumeng; Lu, Yan; Kong, Lingdong

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the related indicators [hepatic CYP450 subtype and renal organic anion and cation transporters (OATs and OCTs)], the present study investigated the effects of formula Banxia Houpo decoction principal drug pinellia, assistant drug magnolia, their compatibility and the principle of the whole decoction on the metabolism ability in the liver and the transport change in the kidney of mice. Biochemical and molecular (RT-PCR and western blotting) results indicated that pinellia increased activity and expression of hepatic Cyp2e1 and Cyp3a11 in mice, respectively. Pinellia and magnolia increased expression of renal OAT1, OAT3, OCT1 and OCT2 in mice, respectively. The compatibility of pinellia and magnolia, as well as Banxia Houpo decoction synergistically restrained the activated effect of pinellia on hepatic Cyp2e1, therefore avoiding liver peroxidation and reducing toxicity potential. The compatibility of this drug pair and Banxia Houpo decoction not only reduced activity and expression of hepatic Cyp3a11 to control drug metabolism speed, but also balanced the expression of renal OAT1/3 and OCT1/2 to enhance drug efficacy. The effect of compatibility of Banxia Houpo decoction was better than that of pinellia and magnolia pair, and the normal dosage was better than the high dosage. The present study proved the advantage of the compatibility of pinellia combined with magnolia and the principle of Banxia Houpo decoction, which related to hepatic CYP450 and renal organic ion transporters, and guided the clinical use of Banxia Houpo decoction to exert its toxicity reduction and efficacy enhancement.

  20. Congestive renal failure: the pathophysiology and treatment of renal venous hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Edward A

    2012-12-01

    Longstanding experimental evidence supports the role of renal venous hypertension in causing kidney dysfunction and "congestive renal failure." A focus has been heart failure, in which the cardiorenal syndrome may partly be due to high venous pressure, rather than traditional mechanisms involving low cardiac output. Analogous diseases are intra-abdominal hypertension and renal vein thrombosis. Proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms include reduced transglomerular pressure, elevated renal interstitial pressure, myogenic and neural reflexes, baroreceptor stimulation, activation of sympathetic nervous and renin angiotensin aldosterone systems, and enhanced proinflammatory pathways. Most clinical trials have addressed the underlying condition rather than venous hypertension per se. Interpreting the effects of therapeutic interventions on renal venous congestion are therefore problematic because of such confounders as changes in left ventricular function, cardiac output, and blood pressure. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence from small studies of intense medical therapy or extracorporeal ultrafiltration for heart failure that there can be changes to central venous pressure that correlate inversely with renal function, independently from the cardiac index. Larger more rigorous trials are needed to definitively establish under what circumstances conventional pharmacologic or ultrafiltration goals might best be directed toward central venous pressures rather than left ventricular or cardiac output parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 镰状细胞对内皮诱导一氧化氮的清除能力低下%Ability of sickle cells to scavenge endothelium-derived nitric oxide is reduced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leopoldo OLMOS; Jean-Vivien MOMBOULI; Nathan WASSERSTRUM; Paul M VANHOUTTE

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of sickle cells to interfere with the release or transfer of endothelium-derived relaxingfactor (EDRF) in comparison to normal erythrocytes. METHODS: A perfusion-superfusion bioassay system wasused a canine carotid artery with endothelium (donor of EDRF) and a ring of the same vessel without endothelium(detector) were separated by tubing resulting in a five second interval for transfer of EDRF from donor to detector.Changes in isometric tension were monitored in both the donor and the detector preparations. Release of EDRF, asdetermined by sustained relaxations during the contractions to phenylephrine, was induced by infusing acetylcho-line through the donor artery. RESULTS: Superfusion with normal and sickle erythrocytes caused impairment ofthe endothelium-dependent relaxations in both detector and donor tissues. When infused through the transfer line,sickle cells were less potent than normal erythrocytes in inhibiting relaxation in the detector tissues. In contrast,infusion of either normal erythrocytes or sickle cell through the donor artery caused similar degrees of inhibition indonor and detector arteries. Hemolysates from both types of erythrocytes were equieffective at either site ofinfusion. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that sickle cells are intrinsically less potent scavengers of EDRFthan normal erythrocytes. However, exposure to the endothelium enhances the ability of sickle cells to inhibitlumenal release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.

  2. A bioartificial renal tubule device embedding human renal stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Giovanna Sciancalepore

    Full Text Available We present a bio-inspired renal microdevice that resembles the in vivo structure of a kidney proximal tubule. For the first time, a population of tubular adult renal stem/progenitor cells (ARPCs was embedded into a microsystem to create a bioengineered renal tubule. These cells have both multipotent differentiation abilities and an extraordinary capacity for injured renal cell regeneration. Therefore, ARPCs may be considered a promising tool for promoting regenerative processes in the kidney to treat acute and chronic renal injury. Here ARPCs were grown to confluence and exposed to a laminar fluid shear stress into the chip, in order to induce a functional cell polarization. Exposing ARPCs to fluid shear stress in the chip led the aquaporin-2 transporter to localize at their apical region and the Na(+K(+ATPase pump at their basolateral portion, in contrast to statically cultured ARPCs. A recovery of urea and creatinine of (20±5% and (13±5%, respectively, was obtained by the device. The microengineered biochip here-proposed might be an innovative "lab-on-a-chip" platform to investigate in vitro ARPCs behaviour or to test drugs for therapeutic and toxicological responses.

  3. Malignant renal tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scott Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. 

  4. Implications of Renal Denervation Therapy in Patients with Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Jaén-Águila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA syndrome is a prevalent condition characterized by repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway, leading to intermittent hypoxemia and important endothelial and anatomical dysfunctions that cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The finding of the relationship between OSA and hypertension, especially resistant hypertension (RHT, has increased the interest in therapeutic strategies that affect renal sympathetic activity in these patients. The observational studies published until now demonstrated that renal denervation therapy can reduce the severity of OSA syndrome. Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN could be a future therapeutic possibility for conditions other than RHT, such as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, obesity, and OSA syndrome, where renal sympathetic system plays an important physiological role. The aim of this review was to elucidate the implications of renal sympathetic activity in OSA syndrome.

  5. Renal Denervation for Chronic Heart Failure: Background and Pathophysiological Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix

    2017-01-01

    The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, renal denervation in heart failure is worthy of further investigation, although its effectiveness still has to be proven. Herein, we describe the pathophysiological rationale and the effect of renal denervation on surrogates of the heart failure syndrome.

  6. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Nathalia O; de Oliveira, Thiago S; Naves, Lara M; Filgueira, Fernando P; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Schoorlemmer, Gerard H M; de Castro, Carlos H; Freiria-Oliveira, André H; Xavier, Carlos H; Colugnati, Diego B; Rosa, Daniel A; Blanch, Graziela T; Borges, Clayton L; Soares, Célia M A; Reis, Angela A S; Cravo, Sergio L; Pedrino, Gustavo R

    2014-01-01

    Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT), but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g) were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1), i.v.). A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF). Renal vascular conductance (RVC) was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6), OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1), i.v.) induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR) reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1) b.wt., i.v.) was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6), hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1) • h(-1), i.v.; n = 7) and renal denervation (RX) reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7) completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively), whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  7. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia O Amaral

    Full Text Available Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT, but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1, i.v.. A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP and renal blood flow (RBF. Renal vascular conductance (RVC was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6, OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1, i.v. induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1 b.wt., i.v. was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6, hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1 • h(-1, i.v.; n = 7 and renal denervation (RX reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7 completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively, whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  8. Dopamine and angiotensin type 2 receptors cooperatively inhibit sodium transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Wang, Xiaoli; Shah, Neema; Tran, Hanh; Spinosa, Michael; Van Sciver, Robert; Sasaki, Midori; Yatabe, Junichi; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-08-01

    Little is known regarding how the kidney shifts from a sodium and water reclaiming state (antinatriuresis) to a state where sodium and water are eliminated (natriuresis). In human renal proximal tubule cells, sodium reabsorption is decreased by the dopamine D(1)-like receptors (D(1)R/D(5)R) and the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT(2)R), whereas the angiotensin type 1 receptor increases sodium reabsorption. Aberrant control of these opposing systems is thought to lead to sodium retention and, subsequently, hypertension. We show that D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation increased plasma membrane AT(2)R 4-fold via a D(1)R-mediated, cAMP-coupled, and protein phosphatase 2A-dependent specific signaling pathway. D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation also reduced the ability of angiotensin II to stimulate phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, an effect that was partially reversed by an AT(2)R antagonist. Fenoldopam did not increase AT(2)R recruitment in renal proximal tubule cells with D(1)Rs uncoupled from adenylyl cyclase, suggesting a role of cAMP in mediating these events. D(1)Rs and AT(2)Rs heterodimerized and cooperatively increased cAMP and cGMP production, protein phosphatase 2A activation, sodium-potassium-ATPase internalization, and sodium transport inhibition. These studies shed new light on the regulation of renal sodium transport by the dopaminergic and angiotensin systems and potential new therapeutic targets for selectively treating hypertension.

  9. Should blunt segmental vascular renal injuries be considered an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Grade 4 renal injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Bahaa; Figler, Brad; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2014-02-01

    Renal segmental vascular injury (SVI) following blunt abdominal trauma is not part of the original American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury grading system. Recent recommendations support classifying SVI as an AAST Grade 4 (G4) injury. Our primary aim was to compare outcomes following blunt renal SVI and blunt renal collecting system lacerations (CSLs). We hypothesize that renal SVI fare well with conservative management alone and should be relegated a less severe renal AAST grade. We retrospectively identified patients with SVI and G4 CSL admitted to a Level 1 trauma center between 2003 and 2010. Penetrating trauma was excluded. Need for surgical intervention, length of stay, kidney salvage (>25% renal preservation on renography 6-12 weeks after injury), and delayed complication rates were compared between the SVI and CSL injuries. Statistical analysis used χ, Fisher's exact, and t tests. A total of 56 patients with SVI and 88 patients with G4 CSL sustained blunt trauma. Age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and length of stay were similar for the two groups. Five patients in each group died of concomitant, nonrenal injuries. In the G4 CSL group, 15 patients underwent major interventions, and 32 patients underwent minor interventions. Only one patient in the SVI group underwent a major intervention. The renal salvage rate was 85.7% following SVI versus 62.5% following CSL (p = 0.107). Overall, surgical interventions are significantly lower among the SVI cohort than the G4 CSL cohort. Further analysis using a larger cohort of patients is recommended before revising the current renal grading system. Adding SVI as a G4 injury could potentially increase the heterogeneity of G4 injuries and decrease the ability of the AAST renal injury grading system to predict outcomes, such as nephrectomy rate. Epidemiologic study, level IV.

  10. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Buob, David [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); Flamand, Vincent [Service d' Urologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Hennino, Marie-Flore [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Perrais, Michaël [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); and others

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies. - Highlights: • Renal proximal tubular (PT) cells are highly sensitive to xenobiotics. • Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic disposition was measured. • PT cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue.

  11. The relationship between the anthocyanin and vitamin C contents of red-fleshed sweet cherries and the ability of fruit digests to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David J; Hocquel, Alice; Penberthy, Ari; Oey, Indrawati

    2017-07-15

    The present work investigated the bioprotective capacities of red-fleshed sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium; Lapins, Stella, Sweetheart and Staccato), with distinct differences in anthocyanins and vitamin C contents, on human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. Three assays of cell health, the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide cell viability assay, the lactate dehydrogenase membrane leakage assay and nitric oxide production, were used to determine if these cherry digests differed in their ability to protect Caco-2 cells from H2O2. Cells treated with digests from cherries identified as containing high anthocyanins provided the greatest protection against H2O2. A strong linear correlation (-0.82stress than vitamin C.

  12. Drug administration in patients with renal insufficiency. Minimising renal and extrarenal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, G R; Frye, R F

    1997-03-01

    Renal insufficiency has been associated with an increased risk of adverse effects with many classes of medications. The risk of some, but not all, adverse effects has been linked to the patient's degree of residual renal function. This may be the result of inappropriate individualisation of those agents that are primarily eliminated by the kidney, or an alteration in the pharmacodynamic response as a result of renal insufficiency. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for alterations in drug disposition, especially metabolism and renal excretion, is the accumulation of uraemic toxins that may modulate cytochrome P450 enzyme activity and decrease glomerular filtration as well as tubular secretion. The general principles to enhance the safety of drug therapy in patients with renal insufficiency include knowledge of the potential toxicities and interactions of the therapeutic agent, consideration of possible alternatives therapies and individualisation of drug therapy based on patient level of renal function. Although optimisation of the desired therapeutic outcomes are of paramount importance, additional pharmacotherapeutic issues for patients with reduced renal function are the prevention or minimisation of future acute or chronic nephrotoxic insults, as well as the severity and occurrence of adverse effects on other organ systems. Risk factors for the development of nephrotoxicity for selected high-risk therapies (e.g. aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ACE inhibitors and radiographic contrast media) are quite similar and include pre-existing renal insufficiency, concomitant administration of other nephrotoxins, volume depletion and concomitant hepatic disease or congestive heart failure. Investigations of prophylactic approaches to enhance the safety of these agents in patients with renal insufficiency have yielded inconsistent outcomes. Hydration with saline prior to drug exposure has given the most consistent benefit, while sodium

  13. Prevention Of Chronic Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzi Alushi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it. This postulate is a foundation stone of the contemporary medicine, furthermore its mission. The Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD, amongst them the Chronic Pyelonephrites (CP and the mass kidney reduction  take an important  place in human pathologies in general, and in particular in renal ones. The Chronic Pyelonephrites  are chronic renal pathologies, which on one side are of various causes and on the other side are multi systemic. At the same time they tend, earlier or later, depending on their course, to bring the patient towards the Chronic Kidney Insufficiency  in stage of uremia, consequently in need of substitution therapies e.g. dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant. It is worthy to emphasize that from the prevention and correct cure of CP make profit the patients, the family, the state and in the last analyses  the entire society, because in that way the budget expense destined for the fore going substitution cures, dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant, is considerably  reduced. The same should be mentioned  in relation to the CP and the mass kidney reduction, speaking about our country, which are still at the first place as the very cause of Chronic Kidney  Insufficiencies (CRI, later on advancing toward uremia and terminal uremia along with its grave consequences. In general  the very foundation of the CP is on  the  infections of urinary roads, in particular on the complicated ones, among them it should be mentioned-congenital kidney anomalies, renal calculosis  so much present in our country, and pathologies of segment or vesical-ureteral reflux, and rarely the pathologies of prostate.

  14. Post-renal-transplant hypertension. Urine volume, free water clearance and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone before and after oral water loading in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1986-09-01

    Urine volume (V), free water clearance (CH2O) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (A II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were determined before and three times during the first 5 h after an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body wt in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), in 13 normotensive renal transplant recipients (group II) and in 20 control subjects (group III). Both V and CH2O increased significantly in all groups, but considerably less in groups I and II than in group III. When CH2O was related to glomerular filtration rate no differences existed between patients and control subjects. Basal AVP was the same in groups I (3.3 pmol/l, median) and II (3.0 pmol/l), but significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than in group III (1.9 pmol/l). Basal A II was significantly (p less than 0.01) elevated in group I (18 pmol/l) when compared to both groups II (10 pmol/l) and III (11 pmol/l), and the level was independent of the presence of native kidneys. Basal Aldo was the same in all groups. During loading, AVP was reduced in all groups, A II was almost unchanged, and Aldo was increased in groups I and II and reduced in group III depending on alterations in serum potassium. Thus urinary diluting ability is reduced in renal transplant recipients due to a reduced glomerular filtration rate. The enhanced A II in hypertensive renal transplant recipients gives further evidence for the point of view that hypertension is angiotensin-dependent in most of these patients.

  15. Can renal infarction occur after renal cyst aspiration? Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, Habib; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul; Tanik, Serhat; Gecit, Ilhan; Begenik, Huseyin; Pirincci, Necip; Erkoc, Reha

    2011-01-01

    Renal infarction (RI) is a rarely seen disorder, and the diagnosis is often missed. The two major causes of RI are thromboemboli originhating from a thrombus in the heart or aorta, and in-situ thrombosis of a renal artery. We report a case of RI that developed due to renal artery and vein thrombosis, as confirmed by pathological evaluation of the nephrectomy material, three weeks after renal cyst aspiration.

  16. Uses and limitations of renal scintigraphy in renal transplantation monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaf, J.G. [Department of Nephrology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Iversen, J. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The value of thrice weekly technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography after renal transplantation was investigated in 213 consecutive transplants. A grading system was used: 0 = normal renogram; 1 = normal uptake, reduced excretion; 2 = normal uptake, flat excretion curve; 3 = rising curve; 4 = reduced rate of uptake, rising curve and reduced absolute uptake; 5 = minimal uptake. The initial renogram grade (RG) was primarily a marker of ischaemic damage, being poorer with cadaver donation, long cold ischaemia (>24 h), and high donor and recipient age. High primary RG predicted primary graft non-function, long time to graft function, low discharge Cr EDTA clearance and low 1- and 5-year graft survival. Discharge RG predicted late (>6 months) graft loss. RG was highly correlated (P<0.001) with creatinine and creatinine clearance, and changes in RG were correlated with changes in renal function. A change in RG of 0.5 was non-specific, while a change of 1 or more predicted clinical complications in 95% of cases. The negative predictive value was low (58%). RG change antedated clinical diagnosis in only 38% of cases, and in only 14% of acute rejections did an RG change of 1 or more antedate a rising creatinine. RG did not contribute to the differential diagnosis between acute rejection, acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy and cyclosporine toxicity. In conclusion, an initial renography after transplantation is valuable as it measures ischaemic damage and predicts duration of graft non-function and both short and long-term graft survival. A review of the literature suggests that the indication for serial scintigraphic monitoring for functioning grafts is less certain: the diagnostic specificity is insufficient for it to be the definitive investigation for common diagnostic problems and it does not give sufficient advance warning of impending problems. (orig.)

  17. Renovascular heart failure: heart failure in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarada, Osami; Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ogawa, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery disease presents with a broad spectrum of clinical features, including heart failure as well as hypertension, and renal failure. Although recent randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate renal artery stenting can reduce blood pressure or the number of cardiovascular or renal events more so than medical therapy, increasing attention has been paid to flash pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure associated with atherosclerotic renal artery disease. This clinical entity "renovascular heart failure" is diagnosed retrospectively. Given the increasing global burden of heart failure, this review highlights the background and catheter-based therapeutic aspects for renovascular heart failure.

  18. Malaria induced acute renal failure: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanodia K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria has protean clinical manifestations and renal complications, particularly acute renal failure that could be life threatening. To evaluate the incidence, clinical profile, out-come and predictors of mortality in patients with malarial acute renal failure, we retrospectively studied the last two years records of malaria induced acute renal failure in patients with peripheral smear positive for malarial parasites. One hundred (10.4% (63 males, 37 females malaria induced acute renal failure amongst 958 cases of acute renal failure were evaluated. Plasmodium (P. falciparum was reported in 85%, P. vivax in 2%, and both in 13% patients. The mean serum creatinine was 9.2 ± 4.2 mg%, and oligo/anuria was present in 82%; 78% of the patients required hemodialysis. Sixty four percent of the patients recovered completely, 10% incompletely, and 5% developed chronic kidney failure; mortality occurred in 21% of the patients. Low hemoglobin, oligo/anuria on admission, hyperbilirubinemia, cerebral malaria, disseminated intravascular coa-gulation, and high serum creatinine were the main predictors of mortality. We conclude that ma-laria is associated with acute renal failure, which occurs most commonly in plasmodium falci-parum infected patients. Early diagnosis and prompt dialysis with supportive management can reduce morality and enhance recovery of renal function.

  19. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  20. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  1. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...

  2. Renal denervation: Results of a single-center cohort study; Renale Denervation. Ergebnisse einer Single-Center Kohortenstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetkens, J.A.; Thomas, D.; Doerner, J.; Schild, H.H.; Naehle, C.P. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wilhelm, K. [Johanniter Hospital, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Duesing, R. [Hypertension Center, Bonn (Germany); Woitas, R.P.; Hundt, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine I

    2015-01-15

    To investigate the effect of renal denervation on office-based and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) in a highly selective patient population with drug-resistant hypertension. Patients with drug resistant hypertension eligible for renal denervation were included in the study population. Office blood pressure and ABPM were assessed prior to and after renal denervation. To detect procedure related renal or renal artery damage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) were performed pre-interventional, one day post-interventional, and one month after renal denervation. Mean follow-up time between renal denervation and blood pressure re-assessment was 9.5 ± 3.9 months. Between August 2011 and March 2013, 17 patients prospectively underwent renal denervation. Pre-interventional mean office blood pressure and ABPM were 177.3 ± 20.3/103.8 ± 20.4 mmHg and 155.2 ± 20.5/93.7 ± 14.5 mmHg, respectively. Post-interventional, office blood pressure was significantly reduced to 144.7 ± 14.9/89.5 ± 12.1 (p < 0.05). ABPM values remained unchanged (147.9 ± 20.3/90.3 ± 15.6, p > 0.05). The number of prescribed antihypertensive drugs was unchanged after renal denervation (4.7 ± 2.0 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, p = 0.18). No renovascular complications were detected in follow-up MRI. After renal denervation, no significant decrease in ABPM was observed. These results may indicate a limited impact of renal denervation for drug resistant hypertension.

  3. Mixed Ability Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Poul

    1986-01-01

    As a basis for taking a position on the future school structure in grades 8-10 in Denmark, an extensive study was carried out on mixed ability teaching (teaching in heterogeneous classes) on these grade levels. Results showed that mixed ability teaching gave at least as good results as teaching in differentiated classes. (Author/LMO)

  4. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  5. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  6. Dyslipoproteinemia in renal transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjotikar R

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven live related donor renal allograft recipients were evaluated for dyslipoproteinemia. Twenty-two patients received dual immunosuppression with prednisolone and azathioprine. Five patients received cyclosporin as well. Total cholesterol (Tch, triglycerides (TG, HDL cholesterol (HDLch, LDL cholesterol (LDLch and VLDL cholesterol (VLDLch levels were estimated. Fifteen (56% patients showed significant lipoprotein abnormalities. Renal allograft recipients showed significantly lower levels of Tch (p < 0.05 and LDLch (p < 0.05 and higher levels of TG (p < 0.005 and HDLch (p < 0.05. Diet and beta blockers did not influence lipoprotein levels. A significant negative correlation was noted between post-transplant duration and Tch, TG and VLDLch levels. Increased TG levels were associated with increase in weight and higher daily prednisolone dosage at the time of evaluation. The study confirms the existence of dyslipoproteinemia in renal allograft recipients.

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  8. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of ... sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal (kidney) disease during their lifetime. There are three ...

  9. Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; Cervera, Ricard

    2014-02-01

    Renal involvement can be a serious problem for patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, this complication has been poorly recognized and studied. It can be present in patients who have either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus-associated APS. Clinical and laboratory features of renal involvement in APS include hypertension, hematuria, acute renal failure, and progressive chronic renal insufficiency with mild levels of proteinuria that can progress to nephrotic-range proteinuria. The main lesions are renal artery stenosis, venous renal thrombosis, and glomerular lesions (APS nephropathy) that may be acute (thrombotic microangiopathy) and/or chronic (arteriosclerosis, arterial fibrous intimal hyperplasia, tubular thyroidization, arteriolar occlusions, and focal cortical atrophy). APS can also cause end-stage renal disease and allograft vascular thrombosis. This article reviews the range of renal abnormalities associated with APS, and their diagnosis and treatment options.

  10. [Renal transplantation and urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechevallier, E; Saussine, C; Traxer, O

    2008-12-01

    Renal lithiasis in renal donors is rare. A renal stone in a donor, or in a renal transplant, is not a contraindication for harvesting nor transplantation. If possible, the stone must be removed at the time of the transplantation. The risk of lithiasis is increased in the renal transplant recipient, with a frequency of 2-6%. Metabolic abnormalities for lithiasis are frequent and can be induced by the immunosuppressive treatment, anticalcineurins. Lithiasis can have a poor prognosis in the renal recipient with a risk for infection or renal dysfunction. Small (renal transplant can be followed-up. Stones of 0.5-1.5cm need an extracorporeal lithotripsy with a previous safety JJ stent. Stones greater than 1.5cm can be treated by ureteroscopy or percutaneous surgery.

  11. Renal Artery Stent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Cooper, Christopher J.; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Pencina, Karol M.; Jamerson, Kenneth; Tuttle, Katherine R.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; D’Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Henrich, William; Dworkin, Lance D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple randomized clinical trials comparing renal artery stent placement plus medical therapy with medical therapy alone have not shown any benefit of stent placement. However, debate continues whether patients with extreme pressure gradients, stenosis severity, or baseline blood pressure benefit from stent revascularization. OBJECTIVES The study sought to test the hypothesis that pressure gradients, stenosis severity, and/or baseline blood pressure affects outcomes after renal artery stent placement. METHODS Using data from 947 patients with a history of hypertension or chronic kidney disease from the largest randomized trial of renal artery stent placement, the CORAL (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) study, we performed exploratory analyses to determine if subsets of patients experienced better outcomes after stent placement than the overall cohort. We examined baseline stenosis severity, systolic blood pressure, and translesion pressure gradient (peak systolic and mean) and performed interaction tests and Cox proportional hazards analyses for the occurrence of the primary endpoint through all follow-up, to examine the effect of these variables on outcomes by treatment group. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in outcomes based on the examined variables nor were there any consistent nonsignificant trends. CONCLUSIONS Based on data from the CORAL randomized trial, there is no evidence of a significant treatment effect of the renal artery stent procedure compared with medical therapy alone based on stenosis severity, level of systolic blood pressure elevation, or according to the magnitude of the transstenotic pressure gradient. (Benefits of Medical Therapy Plus Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions [CORAL]; NCT00081731) PMID:26653621

  12. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan

    2013-04-06

    Apr 6, 2013 ... renal blood flow; MoAbs, monoclonal antibodies; PE, phycoerythrin; ... entiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple .... tion, was done by the spectrophotometric method.31.

  13. Localisation and mechanism of renal retention of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Marleen; Krenning, Eric P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Barone, Raffaella [UCL, Centre of Nuclear Medicine and Laboratory of PET, Brussels (Belgium); Visser, Theo J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    Radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide and octreotate, are used for tumour scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy. The kidney is the most important critical organ during such therapy owing to the reabsorption and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The aim of this study was to investigate in a rat model both the localisation and the mechanism of renal uptake after intravenous injection of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. The multi-ligand megalin/cubilin receptor complex, responsible for reabsorption of many peptides and proteins in the kidney, is an interesting candidate for renal endocytosis of these peptide analogues. For localisation studies, ex vivo autoradiography and micro-autoradiography of rat kidneys were performed 1-24 h after injection of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues and compared with the renal anti-megalin immunohistochemical staining pattern. To confirm a role of megalin in the mechanism of renal retention of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide, the effects of three inhibitory substances were explored in rats. Renal ex vivo autoradiography showed high cortical radioactivity and lower radioactivity in the outer medulla. The distribution of cortical radioactivity was inhomogeneous. Micro-autoradiography indicated that radioactivity was only retained in the proximal tubules. The anti-megalin immunohistochemical staining pattern showed a strong similarity with the renal [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide ex vivo autoradiograms. Biodistribution studies showed that co-injection of positively charged d-lysine reduced renal uptake to 60% of control. Sodium maleate reduced renal [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide uptake to 15% of control. Finally, cisplatin pre-treatment of rats reduced kidney uptake to 70% of control. Renal retention of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide is confined to proximal tubules in the rat kidney, in which megalin-mediated endocytosis may play an important part. (orig.)

  14. Renal Failure in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.

  15. Renal lithiasis and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M

    2006-09-06

    Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified through diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine) is discussed.

  16. Pediatric Renal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Sarangarajan

    2009-03-01

    Renal tumors in childhood consist of a diverse group of tumors ranging from the most common Wilms' tumor, to the uncommon and often fatal rhabdoid tumor. Diagnosis is based on morphologic features and aided by ancillary techniques such as immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics. Molecular techniques have helped identify a group of pediatric renal cell carcinomas that have specific translocations, called translocation-associated carcinomas. Differential diagnosis of the various tumors is discussed. Pathogenesis and nephroblastomatosis, the precursor lesions of Wilms tumor, also are discussed briefly, as are the handling of these tumor specimens and prognostic factors. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gravidez e transplante renal

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Joana Rita Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Enquadramento: A gravidez é rara em mulheres com Doença Renal Crónica, sobretudo em estadio avançado, em virtude de várias condicionantes como a disfunção ovárica, hemorragias vaginais anovulatórias e amenorreia. Contudo, após transplante renal é possível alimentar o sonho de constituir família, mas é preciso considerar os riscos aumentados para o enxerto e a maior susceptibilidade para complicações da gravidez. Objectivo: Avaliar os riscos e identificar as variáveis que influenciam o suce...

  18. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  19. Diuretic use in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Domenic A

    2011-12-20

    Diuretics are agents commonly used in diseases characterized by excess extracellular fluid, including chronic kidney disease, the nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis and heart failure. Multiple diuretic classes, including thiazide-type diuretics, loop diuretics and K(+)-sparing diuretics, are used to treat patients with these diseases, either individually or as combination therapies. An understanding of what determines a patient's response to a diuretic is a prerequisite to the correct use of these drugs. The response of patients with these diseases to diuretics, which is related to the dose, is best described by a sigmoid curve whose contour can become distorted by any of the several sodium-retaining states that are directly or indirectly associated with renal disease. Diuretic actions are of considerable importance to patients who have renal disease, as their effective use assists in extracellular fluid volume control, reducing excretion of protein in urine and lessening the risk of developing hyperkalemia. Diuretic-related adverse events that involve the uric acid, Na(+) and K(+) axes are not uncommon; therefore the clinician must be vigilant in looking for biochemical disturbances. As a result of diuretic-related adverse events, clinicians must be resourceful in the dose amount and frequency of dosing.

  20. The role of renal adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the control of erythropoietin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G M; Fisher, J W; George, W J

    1975-01-01

    A regulatory role for adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in the production of the renal hormone rythropoietin following erythropoietic stimulation with cobaltous chloride hexahydrate is proposed. Studies in rates reveal a temporal relationship between renal cyclic AMP levels and plasma titers of erythropoietin. In addition, cobalt increases the activity of an erythropoietin-generating enzyme (renal erythropoietic factor) with maximal enzyme activity occurring after the rise in cyclic AMP levels but before the increase in erythropoietin titers. This increase in renal cyclic AMP is localized to the renal cortex. Cobalt stimulates renal cortical adenylate cyclase but has no effect on renal cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. The addition of cyclic AMP (3 time 10-6 M) and a partially purified cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from rat kidney to an inactive preparation of renal erythropoietic factor increases the ability of renal erythropoietic factor to generate erythropoietin. Data from the polycythemic mouse assay, a bioassay used to quantitate erythropoietic activity of test substances, indicate that dibutyryl cyclic AMP is erythropoietically active with respect to its ability to increase radioactive-labelled iron (59Fe) incorporation into heme of newly formed red blood cells. Theophylline, which by itself is erythropoietically inactive, potentiated the erythropoietic effect of cobalt in polycythemic mice. These results suggest that cyclic AMP plays a significant role in the renal production of erythropoietin following cobalt administration. It is postulated that cobalt stimulates renal cortical adenyoate cyclase, thus increasing renal cyclic AMP levels. Cyclic AMP then activates a protein kinase which subsequently stimulates renal erythropoietic factor to generate erythropoietin. A similar cyclic AMP mechanism may be operative after erythropoietic stimulation by exposure to hypoxia or prostaglandin treatment.

  1. Management of patients with hepatitis C infection and renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchorntavakul, Chalermrat; Maneerattanaporn, Monthira; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya

    2015-02-27

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with more rapid liver disease progression and reduced renal graft and patients' survival following kidney transplantation. Evaluations and management of HCV in patients with renal disease are challenging. The pharmacokinetics of interferons (IFN), ribavirin (RBV) and some direct acting antiviral (DAA), such as sofosbuvir, are altered in patients with ESRD. With dose adjustment and careful monitoring, treatment of HCV in patients with ESRD can be associated with sustained virological response (SVR) rates nearly comparable to that of patients with normal renal function. DAA-based regimens, especially the IFN-free and RBV-free regimens, are theoretically preferred for patients with ESRD and KT in order to increase SVR rates and to reduce treatment side effects. However, based on the data for pharmacokinetics, dosing safety and efficacy of DAA for patients with severe renal impairment are lacking. This review will be focused on the evaluations, available pharmacologic data, and management of HCV in patients with severe renal impairment, patients who underwent KT, and those who suffered from HCV-related renal disease, according to the available treatment options, including DAA.

  2. Branchio-oto-renal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Jawad; Basheer, Faisal; Shafique, Mobeen

    2014-05-01

    The association of branchial arch anomalies (branchial cysts, branchial fistulas), hearing loss and renal anomalies constitutes the branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome also known as Melnick Fraser syndrome. We present a case of this rare disorder in a girl child who presented with profound deafness, preauricular pits, branchial sinuses and renal hypoplasia.

  3. Drug-induced renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J R

    1979-11-01

    The clinical manifestations of drug-induced renal disease may include all the manifestations attributed to natural or spontaneous renal diseases such as acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, acute nephritic syndrome, renal colic, haematuria, selective tubular defects, obstructive nephropathy, etc. It is therefore vital in any patient with renal disease whatever the clinical manifestations might be, to obtain a meticulous drug and toxin inventory. Withdrawal of the offending drug may result in amelioration or cure of the renal disorder although in the case of severe renal failure it may be necessary to utilise haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis to tide the patient over the period of acute renal failure. Analgesic nephropathy is an important cause of terminal chronic renal failure and it is therefore vital to make the diagnosis as early as possible. The pathogenesis of some drug-induced renal disorders appears to be immunologically mediated. There are many other pathogenetic mechanisms involved in drug-induced renal disorders and some drugs may under appropriate circumstances be responsible for a variety of different nephrotoxic effects. For example, the sulphonamides have been incriminated in examples of crystalluria, acute interstitial nephritis, acute tubular necrosis, generalised hypersensitivity reactions, polyarteritis nodosa and drug-induced lupus erythematosus.

  4. Renal trauma: kidney preservation through improved vascular control-a refined approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, J W; Carroll, P R

    1982-04-01

    Indications for renal exploration, nephrectomy, or renal repair for patients with renal trauma continue to be a subject of controversy. The present survey evaluates the results of two series of patients from a single hospital having had renal exploration for injury: Series I (1964-1973) 185 patients previously reported; and Series II (1977-1981), 190 patients. The indications for renal exploration were generally the same in each series. In Series II we used a uniform technique for control of the renal artery and vein before entering Gerota's fascia and exploring the kidney. When renal explorations were required, nephrectomy rates were reduced by this technique to 18% (seven of 39) in Series II, compared to 56% (19 of 34) in Series I. Comparison of the two series indicates that renal salvage can be improved by a consistent approach to evaluation, specific indications for retroperitoneal exploration, and vascular control before opening the retroperitoneum. Results of repair show that renography or partial nephrectomy was performed successfully in 82% of operated cases. All nephrectomies in series II were done because of massive renal destruction or as life-saving procedures for hemorrhage. No patient in Series II having had renal repair needed reoperation or had delayed hemorrhage, urine extravasation, retroperitoneal abscess, or hypertension. Although both time periods had comparable numbers of renal injury and comparable numbers of renal explorations, attention to the above criteria made possible significant improvement in kidney salvage.

  5. Desulfovibrio frigidus sp. nov. and Desulfovibrio ferrireducens sp. nov., psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from Arctic fjord sediments (Svalbard) with the ability to reduce Fe(III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, Verona; Knoblauch, Christian; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2006-01-01

    fermentation products such as hydrogen, formate and lactate with sulfate as the electron acceptor. Sulfate could be replaced by sulfite, thiosulfate or elemental sulfur. Poorly crystalline and soluble Fe(III) compounds were reduced in sulfate-free medium, but no growth occurred under these conditions......Strains 18T, 61T and 77 were isolated from two permanently cold fjord sediments on the west coast of Svalbard. The three psychrotolerant strains, with temperature optima at 20-23 degrees C, were able to grow at the freezing point of sea water, -2 degrees C. The strains oxidized important...

  6. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  7. Cigarette smoking: an important renal risk factor – far beyond carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orth SR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, it has become apparent that smoking has a negative impact on renal function, being one of the most important remediable renal risk factors. It has been clearly shown that the risk for high-normal urinary albumin excretion and microalbuminuria is increased in smoking compared to non-smoking subjects of the general population. Data from the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT indicate that at least in males, smoking increases the risk to reach end-stage renal failure. Smoking is particularly "nephrotoxic" in older subjects, subjects with essential hypertension and patients with preexisting renal disease. Of interest, the magnitude of the adverse renal effect of smoking seems to be independent of the underlying renal disease. Death-censored renal graft survival is decreased in smokers, indicating that smoking also damages the renal transplant. Cessation of smoking has been show to reduce the rate of progression of renal failure both in patients with renal disease or a renal transplant. The mechanisms of smoking-induced renal damage are only partly understood and comprise acute hemodynamic (e.g., increase in blood pressure and presumably intraglomerular pressure and chronic effects (e.g., endothelial cell dysfunction. Renal failure per se leads to an increased cardiovascular risk. The latter is further aggravated by smoking. Particularly survival of smokers with diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis is abysmal. In the present review article the current state of knowledge about the renal risks of smoking is reviewed. It is the aim of the article to point out that smoking not only increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma or uroepithelial cell carcinoma, but also the risk of a faster decline of renal function. The latter is a relatively new negative aspect which has not been widely recognized.

  8. Dissociating the ability and propensity for empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging suggests psychopaths have reduced vicarious activations when simply witnessing pain but less so when asked to empathize. This inspired us to distinguish the ability from the propensity to empathize. We argue that (i) this ability-propensity distinction is crucial to characterizing empat

  9. Dissociating the ability and propensity for empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging suggests psychopaths have reduced vicarious activations when simply witnessing pain but less so when asked to empathize. This inspired us to distinguish the ability from the propensity to empathize. We argue that (i) this ability-propensity distinction is crucial to characterizing empat

  10. Contribution of renal innervation to hypertension in rat autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattone, Vincent H; Siqueira, Tibério M; Powell, Charles R; Trambaugh, Chad M; Lingeman, James E; Shalhav, Arieh L

    2008-08-01

    The kidney has both afferent (sensory) and efferent (sympathetic) nerves that can influence renal function. Renal innervation has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of many forms of hypertension. Hypertension and flank pain are common clinical manifestations of autosomal dominant (AD) polycystic kidney disease (PKD). We hypothesize that renal innervation contributes to the hypertension and progression of cystic change in rodent PKD. In the present study, the contribution of renal innervation to hypertension and progression of renal histopathology and dysfunction was assessed in male Han:SPRD-Cy/+ rats with ADPKD. At 4 weeks of age, male offspring from crosses of heterozygotes (Cy/+) were randomized into either 1) bilateral surgical renal denervation, 2) surgical sham denervation control, or 3) nonoperated control groups. A midline laparotomy was performed to allow the renal denervation (i.e., physical stripping of the nerves and painting the artery with phenol/alcohol). Blood pressure (tail cuff method), renal function (BUN) and histology were assessed at 8 weeks of age. Bilateral renal denervation reduced the cystic kidney size, cyst volume density, systolic blood pressure, and improved renal function (BUN) as compared with nonoperated controls. Operated control cystic rats had kidney weights, cyst volume densities, systolic blood pressures, and plasma BUN levels that were intermediate between those in the denervated animals and the nonoperated controls. The denervated group had a reduced systolic blood pressure compared with the operated control animals, indicating that the renal innervations was a major contributor to the hypertension in this model of ADPKD. Renal denervation was efficacious in reducing some pathology, including hypertension, renal enlargement, and cystic pathology. However, sham operation also affected the cystic disease but to a lesser extent. We hypothesize that the amelioration of hypertension in Cy/+ rats was due to the effects

  11. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  12. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...

  13. Insuficiencia renal aguda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernán Mejía

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia renal aguda se diagnostica aproximadamente en 5% de los pacientes hospitalizados. Sus principales causas se relacionan con la alteración del flujo sanguíneo renal, sea por depleción de volumen, baja perfusión renal o por distribución intrarrenal inadecuada y obstrucción del árbol urinario. El diagnóstico parte de la historia clínica y un buen examen físico que corrobore el estado de volemia del paciente y se complementa con el uso adecuado de los índices urinarios (excreción de sodio y osmolaridad, el uroanálisis y la ecografía renal. Su tratamiento consiste en una adecuada recuperación del volumen, manejo de los diuréticos, soporte nutricional, conservación del equilibrio hidroelectrolítico y brindar terapia de diálisis si hay toxicidad urémica, hipercaliemia severa (>6.5 mEq/l, acidosis metabólica o sobrecarga severa de volumen.

  14. Management of Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Yeşil, Süleyman; Zengin, Kürşad; Yalcınkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. Methods: A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Results: Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy. PMID:25848184

  15. Primary renal graft thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, N; Sluiter, WJ; Ploeg, RJ; van Son, WJ; Tegzess, Adam

    1996-01-01

    Background. Renal allograft thrombosis is a serious complication of kidney transplantation that ultimately leads to graft loss. Its association with acute and hyperacute rejection is well documented; however, in a large proportion of patients the precise cause remains obscure. The exact incidence an

  16. STUDY OF RENAL FAILURE IN MALARIA

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    Girish Pamappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure is a serious complication of malaria, with a mortality of 14 to 33%. In view of the significant morbidity and mortality due to acute renal failure in malaria, there is need to identify patients at an early stage and to intensify care given to reduce morbidity and mortality. AIMS  To evaluate the clinical profile of Acute Renal Failure (ARF in malaria.  To evaluate the factors associated with adverse outcome, relation of severity of renal impairment on final outcome in patients with ARF due to malaria. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital over a period of 12 months. STUDY DESIGN  Type of study: Prospective Analytical, Observational Study.  Sample Size: 50 patients admitted to ICU, Kidney Unit, and the Medicine Wards with Malaria and ARF. Inclusion Criteria Clinically screened patients with evidence of malarial parasites in the blood smears or by antigen detection with clinical features or biochemical evidence of acute renal failure. Exclusion Criteria  Presence of any disease or condition leading to ARF or affecting the outcome of malarial ARF.  Other causes of Fever, Jaundice and Oliguria, like Leptospirosis, Dengue. METHODOLOGY Fifty patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were interrogated with regards to the complaints, clinical signs. Blood tests were sent on admission. Details were recorded as per the clinical proforma. The patients were followed until their discharge/death. RESULTS Oliguria was present in only 30% of patients. 30% of patients received haemodialysis. The mortality was 12% for severe renal failure. On Univariate analysis, Acidosis and Cerebral malaria were highly significant predictors of mortality. Other significant predictors were Renal failure, Oliguria, Shock, DIC, Hyperparasitemia, Leukocytosis (TLC. On Multivariate analysis, Oliguria, Cerebral malaria, Acidosis, Shock and two or more complications were the independent predictors of mortality

  17. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function.

  18. Renal Function Outcomes for Multifocal Renal Neoplasms Managed by Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pushpender, E-mail: pugupta@wakehealth.edu; Allen, Brian C., E-mail: bcallen2@wakehealth.edu; Chen, Michael Y., E-mail: mchen@wakehealth.edu; Childs, David D., E-mail: dchilds@wakehealth.edu; Kota, Gopi, E-mail: gkota@wakehealth.edu; Zagoria, Ronald J., E-mail: rzagoria@wakehealth.edu [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate renal function changes related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms. Methods: This is an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study of all patients treated with computed tomography guided RFA for multifocal renal neoplasms at one institution. Fifty-seven subjects, mean age 70 (range 37-88) years, underwent RFA of 169 renal neoplasms (average size 2.0 cm). Subjects had between 2 and 8 (mean 2.96) neoplasms ablated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured before and after RFA. Complications related to RFA were recorded. Results: eGFR decreased on average of 4.4 % per tumor treated and 6.7 % per ablation session (average 1.76 tumors treated per session). For subjects with the largest neoplasm measuring >3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 14.5 % during the course of their treatment. If the largest neoplasm measured 2-3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 7.7 %, and if the largest neoplasm measured <2 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 3.8 %. Subjects with reduced baseline renal function were more likely to have a greater decline in eGFR after RFA. There was a minor complication rate of 6.3 % (6 of 96 sessions), none of which required treatment, and a major complication rate of 4.2 % (4 of 96 sessions). Conclusion: RFA for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms results in mild decline of renal function.

  19. Increased expression of intranuclear matrix metalloproteinase 9 in atrophic renal tubules is associated with renal fibrosis.

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    Jen-Pi Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced turnover of extracellular matrix has a role in renal fibrosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs is associated with many glomerular diseases, but the histological association of MMPs and human renal fibrosis is unclear. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the review of patients' medical records, data analysis and pathological specimens staining with waiver of informed consents. Specimens of forty-six patients were examined by immunohistochemical stain of MMP-9 in nephrectomized kidneys, and the association of renal expression of MMP-9 and renal fibrosis was determined. MMP-9 expression in individual renal components and fibrosis was graded as high or low based on MMP-9 staining and fibrotic scores. RESULTS: Patients with high interstitial fibrosis scores (IFS and glomerular fibrosis scores (GFS had significantly higher serum creatinine, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and were more likely to have chronic kidney disease (CKD and urothelial cell carcinoma. Univariate analysis showed that IFS and GFS were negatively associated with normal and atrophic tubular cytoplasmic MMP-9 expression and IFS was positively correlated with atrophic tubular nuclear MMP-9 expression. Multivariate stepwise regression indicated that MMP-9 expression in atrophic tubular nuclei (r = 0.4, p = 0.002 was an independent predictor of IFS, and that MMP-9 expression in normal tubular cytoplasm (r = -0.465, p<0.001 was an independent predictor of GFS. CONCLUSIONS: Interstitial fibrosis correlated with MMP-9 expression in the atrophic tubular nuclei. Our results indicate that renal fibrosis is associated with a decline of MMP-9 expression in the cytoplasm of normal tubular cells and increased expression of MMP-9 in the nuclei of tubular atrophic renal tubules.

  20. Lithium causes g2 arrest of renal principal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T. de; Alsady, M.; Jaklofsky, M.T.; Otte-Holler, I.; Baumgarten, R.; Giles, R.H.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressin-regulated expression and insertion of aquaporin-2 channels in the luminal membrane of renal principal cells is essential for urine concentration. Lithium affects urine concentrating ability, and approximately 20% of patients treated with lithium develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (ND

  1. Growth Hormone Therapy in Children with Chronic Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Cayir, Atilla; Kosan, Celalettin

    2014-01-01

    Growth is impaired in a chronic renal failure. Anemia, acidosis, reduced intake of calories and protein, decreased synthesis of vitamin D and increased parathyroid hormone levels, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy and changes in growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor and the gonadotropin-gonadal axis are implicated in this study. Growth is adversely affected by immunosuppressives and corticosteroids after kidney transplantation. Treating metabolic disorders using the recombinant huma...

  2. Mechanisms by which heme oxygenase rescue renal dysfunction in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fomusi Ndisang

    2014-01-01

    Collectively, these data suggest that hemin ameliorates nephropathy by potentiating the expression of proteins of repair/regeneration, abating oxidative/inflammatory mediators, reducing renal histo-pathological lesions, while enhancing nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin, CD2AP and creatinine clearance, with corresponding reduction of albuminuria/proteinuria suggesting improved renal function in hemin-treated ZFs. Importantly, the concomitant potentiation regeneration proteins and podocyte cytoskeletal proteins are novel mechanisms by which hemin rescue nephropathy in obesity.

  3. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  4. Upregulation of Interleukin-33 in obstructive renal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu, E-mail: wychen624@cgmh.org.tw [Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ya-Jen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chia-Hao [Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Tzu-Hsien [Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shang-Der [Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hsing, Chung-Hsi [Department of Anesthesiology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jenq-Lin, E-mail: jyang@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2016-05-13

    Interstitial fibrosis and loss of parenchymal tubular cells are the common outcomes of progressive renal diseases. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been known contributing to the damage of tubular cells and fibrosis responses after renal injury. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a tissue-derived nucleus alarmin that drives inflammatory responses. The regulation and function of IL-33 in renal injury, however, is not well understood. To investigate the involvement of cytokines in the pathogenesis of renal injury and fibrosis, we performed the mouse renal injury model induced by unilateral urinary obstruction (UUO) and analyze the differentially upregulated genes between the obstructed and the contralateral unobstructed kidneys using RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Our RNAseq data identified IL33 and its receptor ST2 were upregulated in the UUO kidney. Quantitative analysis confirmed that transcripts of IL33 and ST2 were upregulated in the obstructed kidneys. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that IL-33 was upregulated in Vimentin- and alpha-SMA-positive interstitial cells. By using genetically knockout mice, deletion of IL33 reduced UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Moreover, in combination with BrdU labeling technique, we observed that the numbers of proliferating tubular epithelial cells were increased in the UUO kidneys from IL33-or ST2-deficient mice compared to wild type mice. Collectively, our study demonstrated the upregulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling in the obstructed kidney may promote tubular cell injury and interstitial fibrosis. IL-33 may serve as a biomarker to detect renal injury and that IL-33/ST2 signaling may represent a novel target for treating renal diseases. -- Highlights: •Interleukin (IL)-33 was upregulated in obstructed kidneys. •Interstitial myofibroblasts expressed IL-33 after UUO-induced renal injury. •Deficiency of IL33 reduced interstitial fibrosis and promoted tubular cell proliferation.

  5. Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for renal salvage after filter migration and renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Misaki; McDonald, Kerry-Ann; Govindarajan, Siddarth; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2011-05-01

    A 64-year-old woman underwent prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement immediately after spinal surgery for pulmonary embolus prophylaxis. One week after surgery, acute renal failure developed, and she required hemodialysis secondary to filter migration with iliocaval and renal vein thrombosis. Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis was performed, with complete recovery of renal function and no evidence of recurrence on follow-up imaging. This report highlights an important and rare complication of filter placement and the importance of prompt thrombus debulking to preserve end organ function while reducing the risks of hemorrhagic complications. Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis allows prompt clearance of venous outflow channels and is attractive in patients with end-organ compromise and high risk for bleeding.

  6. Pilot study of transcatheter arterial ethanol embolization under closed renal circuit for large renal cell carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Satoru; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Onozawa, Shiro; Kumita, Shinichiro [Nippon Medical School, Department of Radiology/Center for Advanced Medical Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Yukihiro [Nippon Medical School, Department of Urology, Tokyo (Japan); Nomura, Kazuhiro [Tokyo Labor-Welfare Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    The safety of a new technique, designated ''transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with aspiration via a balloon-occluded renal drainage vein'' (TAE-ABOD), for the management of large renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The subjects were 25 patients with RCC who underwent a total of 27 sessions of TAE-ABOD. This TAE-ABOD technique incorporates two procedures: balloon occlusion of renal drainage vein and infusion of absolute ethanol into the tumor-feeding arteries during aspiration of blood via a balloon catheter, thereby reducing leakage of absolute ethanol into the systemic circulation. Our primary endpoint was to establish a safe regimen for high-dose ethanol injection therapy, and our secondary endpoint was to assess global survival of the patients. The administered dose of ethanol ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 ml/kg [median: 0.34 (SD: 0.10) ml/kg], increased in a stepwise manner. The systemic ethanol concentration was measurable in 14 patients, and was less than 0.1 mg/ml in 12 and from 0.1 to less than 0.2 mg/ml in two. There were no major complications such as renal failure or renal abscess. TAE-ABOD can safely deliver a high dose of absolute ethanol for the treatment of large RCCs. (orig.)

  7. The new technique of using the epigastric arteries in renal transplantation with multiple renal arteries

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    Mohammad Ali Amirzargar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common anatomic variant seen in the donor kidneys for renal transplantation is multiple renal arteries (MRA, which can cause an increased risk of complications. We describe the long-term outcomes of 16 years of experience in 76 kidney transplantations with MRAs. In a new reconstruction technique, we remove arterial clamps after anastomosing the donor to the recipient′s main renal vessels, which cause backflow from accessory arteries to prevent thrombosis. By this technique, we reduce the ischemic times as well as the operating times. Both in live or cadaver donor kidneys, lower polar arteries were anastomosed to the inferior epigastric artery and upper polar arteries were anastomosed to the superior epigastric arteries. Injection of Papaverine and ablation of sympathic nerves of these arteries dilate and prevent them from post-operative spasm. Follow-up DTPA renal scan in all patients showed good perfusion and function of the transplanted kidney, except two cases of polar arterial thrombosis. Mean creatinine levels during at least two years of follow-up remained acceptable. Patient and graft survival were excellent. No cases of ATN, hypertension, rejection and urologic complications were found. In conclusion, this technique can be safely and successfully utilized for renal transplantation with kidneys having MRAs, and may be associated with a lower complication rate and better graft function compared with the existing techniques.

  8. Renal Papillary Necrosis: Role of Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Vaidehi K.

    2016-01-01

    Renal Papillary Necrosis (RPN) is idefined as Ischemic necrobiosis of the papilla in the medulla of the kidneys. Variety of etiological factors are recognized which cause papillary necrosis, such as analgesic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, urinary obstruction and sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. The early diagnosis of RPN is important to improve prognosis and reduce morbidity. Radiological Imaging offers early diagnosis and can guide prompt treatment of papillary necrosis and can minimize a decline in renal function. Here we report three cases of RPN with typical imaging findings. One of them was diabetic and hypertensive female with recurrent Urinary tract Infections and other was a male with no known co-morbidity. Both of them were diagnosed to have renal papillary necrosis on CT scan and were managed operatively and conservatively, respectively. Third case was a healthy female being investigated to be renal donor for her son. Here RPN was an incidental finding and was treated conservatively. Thus CT scan could detect it pre-operatively and complications due to transplantation of a kidney with papillary necrosis were avoided. So, we want to emphasize the importance of Radiology, particularly CT scanning in detection of RPN and to guide early and prompt treatment. PMID:26894147

  9. Boldine Prevents Renal Alterations in Diabetic Rats

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    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue homeostasis. Since current treatments for diabetic nephropathy do not prevent renal damage, we postulated an alternative treatment with boldine, an alkaloid obtained from boldo with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated or not treated with boldine (50 mg/Kg/day for ten weeks. In addition, mesangial cells were cultured under control conditions or in high glucose concentration plus proinflammatory cytokines, with or without boldine (100 µmol/L. Boldine treatment in diabetic animals prevented the increase in glycemia, blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Boldine also reduced alterations in matrix proteins and markers of renal damage. In mesangial cells, boldine prevented the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in gap junctional communication, and the increase in cell permeability due to connexin hemichannel activity induced by high glucose and proinflammatory cytokines but did not block gap junction channels. Thus boldine prevented both renal and cellular alterations and could be useful for preventing tissue damage in diabetic subjects.

  10. Giant renal artery aneurysm: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindolo, Luca; Ingrosso, Manuela; De Francesco, Piergustavo; Castellan, Pietro; Berardinelli, Francesco; Fiore, Franco; Schips, Luigi

    2015-07-07

    A case of a 12 cm giant renal artery aneurysm (RAA) in an 59-year-old woman is reported. The patient was referred to our hospital for flank pain and spot hematuria. Ultrasonography (US) revealed some wide lacunar areas in her right kidney and a thin cortex. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) revealed a giant right renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). AngioCT scan showed a pervious right renal artery. The cavities of the right kidney were dilated and the parenchyma was markedly reduced. Two months later the patient underwent an open resection of the aneurysm and a right nephrectomy. She had an uneventful recovery and a healthy status (last follow-up: 9 month). In this particular case, a safe approach is the transabdominal approach since the aneurysm was very large, friable, and located on the right side. This report confirms the opportunity of a planned nephrectomy once there is adequate renal reserve in the opposite kidney using a midline approach.

  11. Giant renal artery aneurysm: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cindolo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of a 12 cm giant renal artery aneurysm (RAA in an 59-year-old woman is reported. The patient was referred to our hospital for flank pain and spot hematuria. Ultrasonography (US revealed some wide lacunar areas in her right kidney and a thin cortex. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT revealed a giant right renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM. AngioCT scan showed a pervious right renal artery. The cavities of the right kidney were dilated and the parenchyma was markedly reduced. Two months later the patient underwent an open resection of the aneurysm and a right nephrectomy. She had an uneventful recovery and a healthy status (last follow-up: 9 month. In this particular case, a safe approach is the transabdominal approach since the aneurysm was very large, friable, and located on the right side. This report confirms the opportunity of a planned nephrectomy once there is adequate renal reserve in the opposite kidney using a midline approach.

  12. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).

  13. CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE AND RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

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    R. Suganya Gnanadeepam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The kidney and the skin are the two large networks of the body with abundant blood supply associated with various cutaneous manifestations. This study aims to detect the various cutaneous manifestations and its incidence in patients with chronic renal failure and renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done for a period of 1 year from January 2016 to December 2016 at Nephrology OPD ward and Medicine wards, Government KAPV Medical College Hospital, Trichy. During this period, 100 patients who had the presence of skin manifestations were selected and studied (80 renal failure patients and 20 renal transplantation patients. RESULTS Most of the specific cutaneous manifestations of chronic renal failure and renal transplantation were noted in this study. Pruritus and xerosis were the most common manifestations noted in chronic renal failure while infections was commonly noted in renal transplantation patients. CONCLUSION Pruritus and xerosis were the most common among the specific cutaneous manifestations in chronic renal failure followed by nail abnormalities and pigmentary changes. Cutaneous manifestations of renal transplantation were mostly due to infections of which fungal infection is the most common followed by viral infection.

  14. Transarterial embolization for serious renal hemorrhage following renal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dan; Liu, Guihua; Sun, Xiangzhou; Zhuang, Wenquan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wenbo; Yang, Jianyong; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous transarterial embolization for the treatment of serious renal hemorrhage after renal biopsy. Nine patients with renal hemorrhage had frank pain and gross hematuria as main symptoms after renal biopsy. Intrarenal arterial injuries and perinephric hematoma were confirmed by angiography in all cases. The arterial injuries led to two types of renal hemorrhage, Type I: severe renal injure or intrarenal renal artery rupture (n=5), with contrast medium spilling out of the artery and spreading into renal pelvis or kidney capsule in angiography; Type II, pseudo aneurysm or potential risk of intrarenal artery injure (n=4), where contrast medium that spilled out of intraartery was retained in the parenchyma as little spots less than 5 mm in diameter in angiography. Transcatheter superselective intrarenal artery embolization was performed with coils or microcoils (Type I intrarenal artery injure) and polyvinyl alcohol particles (Type II injure). The intrarenal arterial injuries were occluded successfully in all patients. Light or mild back or abdominal pain in the side of the embolized kidney was found in three patients following embolization procedures and disappeared 3 days later. Serum creatinine and perinephric hematoma were stable, and gross hematuresis stopped immediately (n=4) or 3-5 days (n=3) after embolization. In conclusions, transcatheter superselective intrarenal artery embolization as a minimally invasive therapy is safe and effective for treatment of serious renal hemorrhage following percutaneous renal biopsy.

  15. The effect of industrial processing of salmon oil on its ability to reduce serum concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein- β2-glycoprotein-I complex in a mouse model

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    Bomi Framroze

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circulating serum levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, β2-glycoprotein I complex (oxLDL-GP, have been previously correlated with adverse cardiovascular events and have been shown to be reduced by consumption of enzymatically liberated extra virgin salmon oil (EVSO. This mouse study measured the changes in the oxLDL-GP lowering effect when consuming EVSO with varying levels of EPA+DHA (eicosapentenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid as well as when consuming EVSO that was subjected to various processing treatments commonly carried out during fish oil production. Methods: Sprague Dawley mice were fed a diet containing eight different EVSO’s incorporated into a normal diet at the Human Equivalent Dose (HED of 1000 mg for 8 weeks. Serum was collected at the start and at the end of the trial and the oxLDL-GP concentrations were measured using an ELISA assay. Statistical analysis of the results was carried out using a 1-tail, paired Student t-Test. Results: In order to lower circulatory oxLDL-GP levels, the mice had to consume a minimum of 80 mg per day HED of EPA+DHA. Heat treatment of the EVSO did not affect this bioactivity but hydrolysis with acid or base and re-esterification to the triglyceride form or significant oxidation (rancidity rendered the oil inactive on this important cardio-vascular disease (CVD biomarker. Conclusions: This result shows that harsh processing conditions on fish oils can lead to the destruction of biological efficacy in spite of increasing the concentration of typical fish oil bioactive constituents such as EPA+DHA. It also lends support to the developing nutrition theory that eating highly-refined, processed or concentrated-ingredient supplements derived from functional foods may not be able to reproduce their full nutritive and health-benefiting effects

  16. Evidence of Uncoupling between Renal Dysfunction and Injury in Cardiorenal Syndrome: Insights from the BIONICS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Matthieu; De Berardinis, Benedetta; Gaggin, Hanna K.; Magrini, Laura; Belcher, Arianna; Zancla, Benedetta; Femia, Alexandra; Simon, Mandy; Motiwala, Shweta; Sambhare, Rasika; Di Somma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Januzzi, James L.; (GREAT), from the Global Research on Acute Conditions Team

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to assess urinary biomarkers of renal injury for their individual or collective ability to predict Worsening renal function (WRF) in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Methods In a prospective, blinded international study, 87 emergency department (ED) patients with ADHF were evaluated with biomarkers of cardiac stretch (B type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and its amino terminal equivalent [NT-proBNP], ST2), biomarkers of renal function (creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) and biomarkers of renal injury (plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin [pNGAL], urine kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase [NAG], urine Cystatin C, urine fibrinogen). The primary endpoint was WRF. Results 26% developed WRF; baseline characteristics of subjects who developed WRF were generally comparable to those who did not. Biomarkers of renal function and urine biomarkers of renal injury were not correlated, while urine biomarkers of renal injury correlated between each other. Biomarker concentrations were similar between patients with and without WRF except for baseline BNP. Although plasma NGAL was associated with the combined endpoint, none of the biomarker showed predictive accuracy for WRF. Conclusions In ED patients with ADHF, urine biomarkers of renal injury did not predict WRF. Our data suggest that a weak association exists between renal dysfunction and renal injury in this setting (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT#0150153). PMID:25386851

  17. Evidence of uncoupling between renal dysfunction and injury in cardiorenal syndrome: insights from the BIONICS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Legrand

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess urinary biomarkers of renal injury for their individual or collective ability to predict Worsening renal function (WRF in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF.In a prospective, blinded international study, 87 emergency department (ED patients with ADHF were evaluated with biomarkers of cardiac stretch (B type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and its amino terminal equivalent [NT-proBNP], ST2, biomarkers of renal function (creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and biomarkers of renal injury (plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin [pNGAL], urine kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase [NAG], urine Cystatin C, urine fibrinogen. The primary endpoint was WRF.26% developed WRF; baseline characteristics of subjects who developed WRF were generally comparable to those who did not. Biomarkers of renal function and urine biomarkers of renal injury were not correlated, while urine biomarkers of renal injury correlated between each other. Biomarker concentrations were similar between patients with and without WRF except for baseline BNP. Although plasma NGAL was associated with the combined endpoint, none of the biomarker showed predictive accuracy for WRF.In ED patients with ADHF, urine biomarkers of renal injury did not predict WRF. Our data suggest that a weak association exists between renal dysfunction and renal injury in this setting (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT#0150153.

  18. Development of arithmetical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Levstek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic (from the word 'arithmos' which means 'numbers' is an elementary branch of mathematics. Numeracy is essential for understanding mathematics, so the development of arithmetic abilities has been an area of scientific research for a long time. Recent research has shown that the development of arithmetic abilities is not based only on gaining experience and learning. Some arithmetic abilities, especially the sense of quantity, are innate. Even babies are able to distinguish between groups with different number of elements and they perceive numeracy amodally. Six-month-olds distinguish between two groups with the numeracy ratio of 1 : 2. With age this ratio improves rapidly. Five-year-old children already distinguish between groups with the number ratio 7 : 8. The ability to compare two quantities begins to develop after 15 months of age and children learn how to count spontaneously, together with the acquisition of language. Speech enables children to understand number in its abstract, symbolic sense, thus opening the way to symbolic arithmetic. During the preschool period children use intuition when doing calculations, but in school the arithmetic is based on the knowledge of arithmetical algorithms. So, in order to acquire mathematical knowledge, it is necessary to incorporate memory and automate arithmetical processes, without the use of intuition. However, research has shown that intuition is very important and is even a predictive factor for the development of mathematical abilities throughout the schooling process.

  19. Association of renal failure with thyroid dysfunction: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maimoona Mushtaq

    2014-09-01

    Chronic renal failure is often associated with multiple organ co-morbidities, including thyroid dysfunction. This has been associated with poorer prognosis, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study aimed to examine the relationship between renal failure and thyroid dysfunction in an outpatient setting at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, from January 2011 to June 2012. Demographic and biochemical data were extracted from medical records. Differences in the levels of thyroid hormones and lipids between the four renal function groups were analyzed using the chi-square test for categorical variables and Kruskal- Wallis test for binomial variables. A total of 486 patients were included in the study population, of whom approximately half were female, and the median (range) age was 61 (17-90) years. According to creatinine measurements, renal function was normal in 48 participants, 290 had mild renal failure, 122 had moderate renal failure and 26 had severe renal failure. No significant relationships were observed between renal failure and cardiac or pulmonary dysfunction. Free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels were significantly reduced (P = 0.005) and both free thyroxin (FT4; P = 0.034) and parathyroid hormone (PTH; P = 0.028) significantly increased with increasing severity of renal failure. Patients with moderate to severe renal failure displayed reduced hemoglobin levels and were significantly more likely to be anemic (P renal dysfunction. To conclude, it was observed that renal dysfunction is associated with notable changes to other organ systems, including the thyroid. Further studies may investigate the association of multiple organ co-morbidities with prognosis in patients with chronic renal failure.

  20. [Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskurica, Mileta; Petrović, Dejan; Poskurica, Mina

    2016-01-01

    `Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al.), as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc.), can lead to acute or chronic renal failure.The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS). It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, although on significantly fewer occasions it is likely to occur spontaneously or after radiotherapy. Essentially, failure is the disorder of functionally conserved kidney or of kidney with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, which render the kidney impaired and unable to effectively eliminate the end products of massive cytolysis and to correct the resulting disorders: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and others. The risk of TLS depends on tumour size, proliferative potential of malignant cells, renal function and the presence of accompanying diseases and disorders. Hydration providing adequate diuresis and administration of urinary suppressants (allopurinol, febuxostat) significantly reduce the risk of developing TLS. If prevention of renal impairment isn't possible, the treatment should be supplemented with hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacological support, with the possible application of recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme (rasburicase). Depending on the severity of azotemia and hydroelectrolytic disorders, application of some of the methods of renal replacement therapy may be considered.

  1. Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poskurica Mileta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al., as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc., can lead to acute or chronic renal failure. The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS. It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, although on significantly fewer occasions it is likely to occur spontaneously or after radiotherapy. Essentially, failure is the disorder of functionally conserved kidney or of kidney with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, which render the kidney impaired and unable to effectively eliminate the end products of massive cytolysis and to correct the resulting disorders: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and others. The risk of TLS depends on tumour size, proliferative potential of malignant cells, renal function and the presence of accompanying diseases and disorders. Hydration providing adequate diuresis and administration of urinary suppressants (allopurinol, febuxostat significantly reduce the risk of developing TLS. If prevention of renal impairment isn’t possible, the treatment should be supplemented with hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacological support, with the possible application of recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme (rasburicase. Depending on the severity of azotemia and hydroelectrolytic disorders, application of some of the methods of renal replacement therapy may be considered.

  2. Donor dopamine treatment in brain dead rats is associated with an improvement in renal function early after transplantation and a reduction in renal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeger, Simone; Reisenbuechler, Anke; Gottmann, Uwe; Doyon, Fabian; Braun, Claude; Kaya, Ziya; Seelen, Marc A.; van Son, Willem J.; Waldherr, Ruediger; Schnuelle, Peter; Yard, Benito A.

    2008-01-01

    Brain death (BD) is associated with tissue inflammation. As dopamine treatment of BD donor rats reduces renal monocyte infiltration, we tested if this treatment affects renal function and inflammation in recipients. BD was induced in F344 rats and was maintained for 6 h in all experiments. Dopamine

  3. Safety and efficacy of coronary drug eluting stent for atherosclerotic stenosis of the small renal artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-jie; WU Zheng; YAN Hong-bing; WANG Jian; ZHAO Han-jun

    2009-01-01

    @@ Small diameter renal artery refers to the renal artery with the cross-section diameter less than 5 mm, the incidence of which is approximately 8%.1 Small diameter renal artery is common in patients with congenital multi-branch renal arteries, diabetes and multi-coronary artery lesions. Renal artery bare-mental stent (BMS) implantation is the standard treatment for ostial renal artery stenosis.2,3 However, the restenosis rate4-6 is too high and becomes one of the relative contraindications for small diameter renal artery stent implantation. Clinical trials (e.g. RAVEL,7,8 SIRIUS9 and TAXUS-IV10) have proved that drug eluting stent (DES), compared with BMS, can reduce the restenosis rate after the percutanous coronary intervention (PCI). And Huda et al11 claimed that DES had the better results than BMS in the treatment of obstructive superficial femoral artery disease. However,there are few studies involved restenosis after the renal artery intervention. We hypothesized that coronary DES applied in renal artery stenosis might inhibit intimal proliferation effectively as in coronary artery disease;therefore we evaluated the results of 25 patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis treated using coronary DES to assess the safety and efficacy of coronary DES in patients with small renal artery stenotic lesions.

  4. Decreased renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase activity in calcium oxalate calculi patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊汇; 刘继红; 章咏裳; 叶章群; 王少刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the activity of vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis compared with healthy individuals and to assess its relationship to the renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Methods Renal parenchymas were harvested from urolithic patients and renal tumor patients undergoing nephrectomy. The renal carboxylase activity was evaluated as the radioactivity of [14C] labeled sodium bicarbonate in carboxylic reactions in vitro using β-liquid scintillation counting. Results Significantly reduced activity of renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase was observed in the urolithic group as compared with normal controls (P<0.01). Conclusion It suggests that the reduced carboxylase activity observed in the urolithic patients may play an important role in the course of renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

  5. Problemas renales de la cirrosis Renal problems of cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro García

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una revisión actualizada y condensada acerca de los problemas renales más relevantes que ocurren en la cirrosis tales como las alteraciones en el manejo del sodio y del agua, el tratamiento de la ascitis y el edema y el enfoque de la falla renal que ocurre en esta enfermedad, es decir síndrome hepato-renal y necrosis tubular aguda.

    We present a condensed and updated review on the most common renal problems occurring in cirrhosis such as the handling of sodium and water, the treatment of ascites and edema and the approach to the renal failure that frequently takes place in this disease, namely hepato-renal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis.

  6. MR imaging findings of renal infarction induced by renal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Suck; Kim, Yong Woo; Hu, Jin Sam; Choi, Sang Yoel; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Su; Lee, Chang Hun [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Repulic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    To assess the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in evaluating serial parenchymal changes in renal infarction induced by renal artery ligation, by comparing this with the conventional spin echo technique and correlating the results with the histopathological findings. In 22 rabbits, renal infarction was induced by ligation of the renal artery. Spin-echo T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), turbo spin-echo (TSE) T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and DWI were performed, using a 1.5-T superconductive unit, at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2,3,6, 12 and 24 hours, and 2, 3, 7 and 20 days after left renal artery ligation. Changes in signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI, and DWI were correlated with histopathologic findings. Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful for the detection of hyperacute renal infarction, and the apparent diffusion coefficient may provide additional information concerning its evolution. (author). 21 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Assessment of Renal Perfusion in a Canine Model Using FS069, A New Transpulmonary Echocontrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarek, Sameh K.; Kates, Marc A.; Murgo, Joseph P.; Moreno, Carlos A.; Revall, Susan; Cheirif, Jorge

    1997-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated the safety and efficacy of FS069, a new transpulmonary echocontrast agent, for myocardial opacification. To our knowledge, no information exists regarding the use of this agent for transcutaneous assessment of renal perfusion. We studied 14 mongrel dogs using intravenously administered FS069. Renal ultrasound imaging was performed with a Hewlett-Packard Sonos 1500 using a 3.5-MHz transducer. Renal blood flow (ReBF) was altered using renal artery occlusion in four dogs and dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg IV) in ten dogs. Renal perfusion was quantitatively assessed before and after each intervention using background subtracted peak intensity. ReBF was assessed with radiolabeled microspheres in ten dogs. Renal opacification was observed in all 14 dogs at baseline. The intravenous contrast dose required to produce optimal renal opacification ranged from 0.3-0.7 cc. After renal artery occlusion, peak intensity was reduced from 5.4 +/- 5.8 to 0.93 +/- 1.1 units (r = 0.99, P change from baseline). The inverse relation between ReBF and peak intensity observed suggests vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles in response to dipyridamole and a reduced clearance of the contrast. These findings are in agreement with previous data demonstrating decreased renal thallium clearance postdipyridamole administration. Our data document the feasibility to assess renal perfusion under various flow states after intravenous injection of FS069.

  8. TRAP1 ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction by protecting renal tubular epithelial cell mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Feng; Wu, Qi-Shun; Xie, Yu-Xian; Si, Bo-Lin; Yang, Ping-Ping; Wang, Wen-Yan; Hua, Qin; He, Qing

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction causes renal tubular epithelial cell injury and promotes cell apoptosis and renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) progression. TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a molecular chaperone protein that is localized in mitochondria. It plays an important role in cell apoptosis; however, its functional mechanism in TIF remains unclear. In this study, we observed the effects of TRAP1 in renal tubular epithelial cell mitochondria in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and its function in cell apoptosis and TIF. Results show that TRAP1 could protect the mitochondrial structure in renal tubular epithelial cells; maintain the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP, and mitochondrial DNA copy number; inhibit reactive oxygen species production; stabilize the expression of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein mitofilin; reduce renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis; and inhibit TIF. These results provide new theoretical foundations for additional understanding of the antifibrotic mechanism of TRAP1 in the kidney.-Chen, J.-F., Wu, Q.-S., Xie, Y.-X., Si, B.-L., Yang, P.-P., Wang, W.-Y., Hua, Q., He, Q. TRAP1 ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction by protecting renal tubular epithelial cell mitochondria. © FASEB.

  9. The effect of high-dose nifedipine on renal hemodynamics of cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnac, A; Zevin, D; Ori, Y; Korzets, A; Hirsh, J; Levi, J

    1992-04-01

    Cyclosporine has been shown to reduce renal perfusion and to decrease glomerular filtration rate. Experimental studies suggest that nifedipine might reverse this renal vasoconstrictive effect of cyclosporine. We studied renal hemodynamics of 5 cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients before and after 2 weeks of therapy with high-dose nifedipine (up to 120 mg/day). Pretreatment GFR and renal plasma flow (RPF) were decreased. Following administration of nifedipine, RPF increased by 18% (P less than 0.01), while GFR did not change. Filtration fraction decreased by 10.5% (P less than 0.01). Mean arterial pressure declined from 111 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 3 mmHg (P less than 0.01). Renal vascular resistance dropped by 25% (P less than 0.01). Calculated postglomerular plasma flow increased by 20.5% (P less than 0.01). Urinary albumin excretion rate was unaffected. Cyclosporine whole blood levels were unchanged. The increase in RPF and in postglomerular plasma flow suggests that high-dose nifedipine might lessen cyclosporine-induced glomerular and interstitial ischemia in renal allograft recipients.

  10. Dopamins renale virkninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1990-01-01

    Dopamine is an endogenic catecholamine which, in addition to being the direct precursor of noradrenaline, has also an effect on peripheral dopaminergic receptors. These are localized mainly in the heart, splanchnic nerves and the kidneys. Dopamine is produced in the kidneys and the renal metaboli...... dialysis unnecessary in a number of patients on account of increased diuresis and natriuresis. The effect of GFR and the significance for the prognosis are not known....

  11. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Rafel M; Costa-Bauza Antonia; Grases Felix

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of...

  12. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  13. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  14. DIFFERENTIAL COGNITIVE ABILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, ELEANOR E.; RAU, LUCY

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF PATTERNS OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND PERSONALITY TRAITS WERE INVESTIGATED IN THIS STUDY OF 6 GROUPS OF CHILDREN (120) IN GRADE 5. SCORES ON THE PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES TEST, IOWA ACHIEVEMENT TEST, AND CALIFORNIA TEST OF MENTAL MATURITY WERE USED AS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES. (JK)

  15. Synchronization of Mental Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2008-01-01

    I think it is better to summarize some cognitive issues in relation to this subject; how we learn, how we should organize learning (instructions), knowledge, etc. before treating creativity and rationality. Is it, really, possible to consider creativity without any kind of involvement of the ability

  16. Nutrition and renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris de Castaño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Kidney plays an important roll in body homeostasis through excretory, metabolic and endocrine functions. Kidneys filter fluids and solutes and reabsorbed water , electrolytes an minerals. Urine volume and solute excretion are adjusted to keep composition of the extracellular space, serum osmolarity and intravascular volume in constant balance. Kidneys also regulate acid base equilibrium, hormone metabolism and excretion and amino acid concentration. Vitamin D hydroxylation takes place in the kidney, this is the active form of this vitamin, which inhibits PTH. In addition they produce erythropoietin which control hemoglobin concentration in erythrocytes. When renal insufficiency develops, and glormerular filtration rate is between 50 to 75% of normal, this functions are decreased .When renal function is less than 10%, this functions ceased. In children small changes in water, solute, acid base, calcium and phosphorus can alter normal growth and development. If kidneys can not maintain internal equilibrium, specific nutrients should be used. Compensation should be done according to age, type or renal disease and level of glomerular filtration rate.

  17. Impaired renal H+ secretion and NH3 production in mineralocorticoid-deficient glucocorticoid-replete dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulter, H N; Ilnicki, L P; Harbottle, J A; Sebastian, A

    1977-02-01

    When the administration of exogenous mineralocorticoid hormones was discontinued in adrenalectomized dogs maintained on glucocorticoid, net acid excretion decreased due largely to a reduction in urinary ammonium excretion (UNH4+V), and hyperchloremic hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis occurred and persisted. The reduction in UNH4+V was not associated with an increase in urine pH (UpH) or a decrease in urine flow, but correlated with the severity of hyperkalemia and was mitigated by dietary potassium restriction. UpH decreased to values as low as 5.3. During acidosis, UpH varied directly with UNH4+V, but in relation to UNH4+V, UpH exceeded that in acid-fed mineralocorticoid-replete dogs. Extrapolated to UNH4+V=0, however, UpH was not significantly different in the two groups (5.27 vs. 5.44). When distal delivery of sodium was increased by infusion of sodium phosphate, titratable acid excretion increased in both groups but pateaued at lower rates in the mineralocorticoid-deficient dogs. These results suggest that in mineralocorticoid-deficient dogs, renal ammonia production is diminished, in part due to potassium retention and hyperkalemia; renal hydrogen ion secretory capacity is reduced even when sodium and buffer delivery to the distal nephron is not reduced; and the ability of the kidney to generate normally steep urine-to-blood hydrogen ion concentration gradients is unimpaired.

  18. Renal artery aneurysm mimicking renal calculus with hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanwen; Meng, Hongzhou; Cao, Min; Shen, Baihua

    2013-06-01

    A 51-year-old woman was found to have a left renal calculus with hydronephrosis. She underwent unsuccessful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, leading to the recommendation that percutaneous lithotomy was necessary to remove the renal calculus. In view of the unusual shape of the calculus and absence of abnormalities in urine sediment, preoperative computed tomography and renal angiography were performed, which instead showed a calcified left renal artery aneurysm. Subsequent efforts to perform an aneurysmectomy also failed, eventually necessitating left nephrectomy. This case illustrates the pitfalls in the diagnosis of a renal artery aneurysm, which is a relatively common condition that may have unusual presentations. Hence, it is suggested that the possibility of a renal artery aneurysm be considered in the differential diagnosis when one detects a renal calculus with an unusual appearance. In addition, we propose that 3-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography be performed before considering surgical options for such renal calculi to rule out the possibility of a renal artery aneurysm.

  19. Renal scintigraphy in infants with antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdinović Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most frequent entities identified on the basis of antenatal hydronephrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and pattern of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings in postnatal investigation of children with antenatal hydronephrosis. Methods. Twenty four infants (19 boys and five girls presented with antenatal hydronephrosis and mild to moderate hydronephrosis on ultrasound in newborn period were referred for renal scintigraphy. Ten patients with vesicoureteral reflux documented on micturating cystoureterography underwent 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy and 14 patients were subjected to 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Results. Anteroposterior pelvic diameter on ultrasound ranged from 11 to 24 mm. Renal DMSA scans identified congenital scars in two boys with bilateral reflux of grade V and unilateral reflux of grade III. Relative kidney uptake (RKU less than 40% was found in three, and poor kidney function (RKU less than 10% in two patients. Significant obstruction was shown on DTPA diuretic renal scintigraphy in 6/14 patients. Some slowing in dranaige (T1/2 greater than 10 minutes with no reduction in differential renal function was identified in three patients. Differential renal function less than 10% was obtained in one case. Conclusion. A high percent of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings was obtained. Renal scintigraphy was useful in determination of underlying cause of antenatally detected hydronephrosis.

  20. Effect calcusol to reduce the calcium crystal retention in kidney epithelial cells model of nephrolothiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kidney stones is a disease that characterized by a disturbance in the bladder. The main constituent of kidney stones namely Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM crystals. The presence of a COM crystal adhesion to renal tubular cells, will initiate the internalization which will further lead to the formation of crystals retention in the kidney. In Indonesia, there are many herbal products are considered able to cope the complaints due to the kidney stone disease. One of the herbal product is Calcusol „¢, which is the main constituent of those herbal product was the leaf extract of tempuyung. This study observed the effectiveness of Calcusol „¢ in reducing crystals retention that was formed in kidney epithelial cells model of nephrolithiasis. The result showed that Calcusol „¢ is able to reduce the average number of calcium crystals retention in the renal epithelial cells. It indicate that Calcusol „¢ has the ability to reduce crystals retention that already formed in