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Sample records for renal reabsorption vitamin

  1. Recent advances in renal tubular calcium reabsorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensenkamp, A.R.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Knowledge of renal Ca2+ reabsorption has evolved greatly in recent years. This review focuses on two recent discoveries concerning passive and active Ca2+ reabsorption. RECENT FINDINGS: The thiazide diuretics are known for their hypocalciuric effect. Recently, it has been

  2. A microfluidic renal proximal tubule with active reabsorptive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else M Vedula

    Full Text Available In the kidney, the renal proximal tubule (PT reabsorbs solutes into the peritubular capillaries through active transport. Here, we replicate this reabsorptive function in vitro by engineering a microfluidic PT. The microfluidic PT architecture comprises a porous membrane with user-defined submicron surface topography separating two microchannels representing a PT filtrate lumen and a peritubular capillary lumen. Human PT epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells in respective microchannels created a PT-like reabsorptive barrier. Co-culturing epithelial and endothelial cells in the microfluidic architecture enhanced viability, metabolic activity, and compactness of the epithelial layer. The resulting tissue expressed tight junctions, kidney-specific morphology, and polarized expression of kidney markers. The microfluidic PT actively performed sodium-coupled glucose transport, which could be modulated by administration of a sodium-transport inhibiting drug. The microfluidic PT reproduces human physiology at the cellular and tissue levels, and measurable tissue function which can quantify kidney pharmaceutical efficacy and toxicity.

  3. Effect of renal venous pressure elevation on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Amtorp, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    of [51Cr]EDTA was used as a measure of the rate of glomerular filtration (GFR). GFR, urinary excretion rates of sodium and water, and lithium clearance were used for assessing the absolute and fractional reabsorption rates of sodium and water in the proximal as well as in more distal segments......This study was performed in order to quantify the effects of renal venous pressure (RVP) elevation on absolute and fractional reabsorption rates of sodium and water in proximal and distal segments of the nephron in dog kidneys. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured electromagnetically. Clearance...

  4. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2) a...... effect. Changes in renal prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the decrease in renal blood flow. The lithium clearance data suggest that an increased proximal tubular reabsorption rate may contribute to the decreased sodium clearance during recombinant interleukin-2 treatment....

  5. Why Do SGLT2 inhibitors inhibit only 30-50% of renal glucose reabsorption in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiwen Jim; Lee, TaeWeon; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2012-09-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition is a novel and promising treatment for diabetes under late-stage clinical development. It generally is accepted that SGLT2 mediates 90% of renal glucose reabsorption. However, SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical development inhibit only 30-50% of the filtered glucose load. Why are they unable to inhibit 90% of glucose reabsorption in humans? We will try to provide an explanation to this puzzle in this perspective analysis of the unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical trials and examine possible mechanisms and molecular properties that may be responsible.

  6. Why Do SGLT2 Inhibitors Inhibit Only 30–50% of Renal Glucose Reabsorption in Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiwen (Jim); Lee, TaeWeon; DeFronzo, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition is a novel and promising treatment for diabetes under late-stage clinical development. It generally is accepted that SGLT2 mediates 90% of renal glucose reabsorption. However, SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical development inhibit only 30–50% of the filtered glucose load. Why are they unable to inhibit 90% of glucose reabsorption in humans? We will try to provide an explanation to this puzzle in this perspective analysis of the unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical trials and examine possible mechanisms and molecular properties that may be responsible. PMID:22923645

  7. Local pH domains regulate NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, James L.; McDonough, Alicia A.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    The proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), located in the apical dense microvilli (brush border), plays a major role in the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the renal proximal tubule. In response to a rise in blood pressure NHE3 redistributes in the plane of the plasma membrane to the base of the brush border, where NHE3 activity is reduced. This NHE3 redistribution is assumed to provoke pressure natriuresis; however, it is unclear how NHE3 redistribution per se reduces NHE3 activity. To investigate if the distribution of NHE3 in the brush border can change the reabsorption rate, we constructed a spatiotemporal mathematical model of NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption across a proximal tubule cell and compared the model results with in vivo experiments in rats. The model predicts that when NHE3 is localized exclusively at the base of the brush border, it creates local pH microdomains that reduce NHE3 activity by >30%. We tested the model's prediction experimentally: the rat kidney cortex was loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and cells of the proximal tubule were imaged in vivo using confocal fluorescence microscopy before and after an increase of blood pressure by ∼50 mmHg. The experimental results supported the model by demonstrating that a rise of blood pressure induces the development of pH microdomains near the bottom of the brush border. These local changes in pH reduce NHE3 activity, which may explain the pressure natriuresis response to NHE3 redistribution. PMID:25298526

  8. Targeting renal glucose reabsorption to treat hyperglycaemia: the pleiotropic effects of SGLT2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallon, Volker; Thomson, Scott C

    2017-02-01

    Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule. In the absence or with inhibition of SGLT2, the renal reabsorptive capacity for glucose declines to ∼80 g/day (the residual capacity of SGLT1), i.e. the safety valve opens at a lower threshold, which makes it relevant to glucose homeostasis from day-to-day. Several SGLT2 inhibitors are now approved glucose lowering agents for individuals with type 2 diabetes and preserved kidney function. By inducing glucosuria, these drugs improve glycaemic control in all stages of type 2 diabetes, while their risk of causing hypoglycaemia is low because they naturally stop working when the filtered glucose load falls below ∼80 g/day and they do not otherwise interfere with metabolic counterregulation. Through glucosuria, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce body weight and body fat, and shift substrate utilisation from carbohydrates to lipids and, possibly, ketone bodies. Because SGLT2 reabsorbs sodium along with glucose, SGLT2 blockers are natriuretic and antihypertensive. Also, because they work in the proximal tubule, SGLT2 inhibitors increase delivery of fluid and electrolytes to the macula densa, thereby activating tubuloglomerular feedback and increasing tubular back pressure. This mitigates glomerular hyperfiltration, reduces the kidney's demand for oxygen and lessens albuminuria. For reasons that are less well understood, SGLT2 inhibitors are

  9. Mobilization and removing of cadmium from kidney by GMDTC utilizing renal glucose reabsorption pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiaojiang; Zhu, Jinqiu; Zhong, Zhiyong; Luo, Minhui; Li, Guangxian; Gong, Zhihong; Zhang, Chenzi; Fei, Fan; Ruan, Xiaolin; Zhou, Jinlin; Liu, Gaofeng; Li, Guoding; Olson, James; Ren, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium compounds (Cd 2+ ) is one of the major public health problems facing humans in the 21st century. Cd 2+ in the human body accumulates primarily in the kidneys which leads to renal dysfunction and other adverse health effects. Efforts to find a safe and effective drug for removing Cd 2+ from the kidneys have largely failed. We developed and synthesized a new chemical, sodium (S)-2-(dithiocarboxylato((2S,3R,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6 pentahydroxyhexyl)amino)-4-(methylthio) butanoate (GMDTC). Here we report that GMDTC has a very low toxicity with an acute lethal dose (LD50) of more than 10,000 mg/kg or 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively, via oral or intraperitoneal injection in mice and rats. In in vivo settings, up to 94% of Cd 2+ deposited in the kidneys of Cd 2+ -laden rabbits was removed and excreted via urine following a safe dose of GMDTC treatment for four weeks, and renal Cd 2+ level was reduced from 12.9 μg/g to 1.3 μg/g kidney weight. We observed similar results in the mouse and rat studies. Further, we demonstrated both in in vitro and in animal studies that the mechanism of transporting GMDTC and GMDTC-Cd complex into and out of renal tubular cells is likely assisted by two glucose transporters, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Collectively, our study reports that GMDTC is safe and highly efficient in removing deposited Cd 2+ from kidneys assisted by renal glucose reabsorption system, suggesting that GMDTC may be the long-pursued agent used for preventive and therapeutic purposes for both acute and chronic Cd 2+ exposure.

  10. Mobilization and removing of cadmium from kidney by GMDTC utilizing renal glucose reabsorption pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaojiang, E-mail: river-t@126.com [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Zhu, Jinqiu [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Zhong, Zhiyong; Luo, Minhui; Li, Guangxian [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Gong, Zhihong [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Zhang, Chenzi; Fei, Fan [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Ruan, Xiaolin [Guangdong Poison Control Center (China); Zhou, Jinlin [Golden Health (Foshan) Technology Co., Ltd (China); Liu, Gaofeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University (China); Li, Guoding [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Olson, James [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Ren, Xuefeng, E-mail: xuefengr@buffalo.edu [Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Center (China); Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Chronic exposure to cadmium compounds (Cd{sup 2+}) is one of the major public health problems facing humans in the 21st century. Cd{sup 2+} in the human body accumulates primarily in the kidneys which leads to renal dysfunction and other adverse health effects. Efforts to find a safe and effective drug for removing Cd{sup 2+} from the kidneys have largely failed. We developed and synthesized a new chemical, sodium (S)-2-(dithiocarboxylato((2S,3R,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6 pentahydroxyhexyl)amino)-4-(methylthio) butanoate (GMDTC). Here we report that GMDTC has a very low toxicity with an acute lethal dose (LD50) of more than 10,000 mg/kg or 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively, via oral or intraperitoneal injection in mice and rats. In in vivo settings, up to 94% of Cd{sup 2+} deposited in the kidneys of Cd{sup 2+}-laden rabbits was removed and excreted via urine following a safe dose of GMDTC treatment for four weeks, and renal Cd{sup 2+} level was reduced from 12.9 μg/g to 1.3 μg/g kidney weight. We observed similar results in the mouse and rat studies. Further, we demonstrated both in in vitro and in animal studies that the mechanism of transporting GMDTC and GMDTC-Cd complex into and out of renal tubular cells is likely assisted by two glucose transporters, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Collectively, our study reports that GMDTC is safe and highly efficient in removing deposited Cd{sup 2+} from kidneys assisted by renal glucose reabsorption system, suggesting that GMDTC may be the long-pursued agent used for preventive and therapeutic purposes for both acute and chronic Cd{sup 2+} exposure.

  11. Renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water during infusion of low-dose dopamine in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hansen, J M; Ladefoged, S D

    1990-01-01

    of sodium and water during dopamine infusion (3 micrograms min-1 kg-1) were estimated in 12 normal volunteers. 2. CNa increased by 128% (P less than 0.001). Effective renal plasma flow and GFR increased by 43% (P less than 0.001) and 9% (P less than 0.01), respectively. CLi increased in all subjects by......, on average, 44% (P less than 0.001). Fractional proximal reabsorption [1-(CLi/GFR)] decreased by 13% after dopamine infusion (P less than 0.001), and estimated absolute proximal reabsorption rate (GFR-CLi) decreased by 8% (P less than 0.01). Absolute distal sodium reabsorption rate [(CLi-CNa) x PNa, where...... PNa is plasma sodium concentration] increased (P less than 0.001), and fractional distal sodium reabsorption [(CLi-CNa)/CLi] decreased (P less than 0.001). 3. It is concluded that natriuresis during low-dose dopamine infusion is caused by an increased outflow of sodium from the proximal tubules...

  12. Increase in SGLT1-mediated transport explains renal glucose reabsorption during genetic and pharmacological SGLT2 inhibition in euglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Timo; Masuda, Takahiro; Gerasimova, Maria; Mayoux, Eric; Platt, Kenneth; Powell, David R.; Thomson, Scott C.; Koepsell, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    In the kidney, the sodium-glucose cotransporters SGLT2 and SGLT1 are thought to account for >90 and ∼3% of fractional glucose reabsorption (FGR), respectively. However, euglycemic humans treated with an SGLT2 inhibitor maintain an FGR of 40–50%, mimicking values in Sglt2 knockout mice. Here, we show that oral gavage with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I) dose dependently increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in wild-type (WT) mice. The dose-response curve was shifted leftward and the maximum response doubled in Sglt1 knockout (Sglt1−/−) mice. Treatment in diet with the SGLT2-I for 3 wk maintained 1.5- to 2-fold higher urine glucose/creatinine ratios in Sglt1−/− vs. WT mice, associated with a temporarily greater reduction in blood glucose in Sglt1−/− vs. WT after 24 h (−33 vs. −11%). Subsequent inulin clearance studies under anesthesia revealed free plasma concentrations of the SGLT2-I (corresponding to early proximal concentration) close to the reported IC50 for SGLT2 in mice, which were associated with FGR of 64 ± 2% in WT and 17 ± 2% in Sglt1−/−. Additional intraperitoneal application of the SGLT2-I (maximum effective dose in metabolic cages) increased free plasma concentrations ∼10-fold and reduced FGR to 44 ± 3% in WT and to −1 ± 3% in Sglt1−/−. The absence of renal glucose reabsorption was confirmed in male and female Sglt1/Sglt2 double knockout mice. In conclusion, SGLT2 and SGLT1 account for renal glucose reabsorption in euglycemia, with 97 and 3% being reabsorbed by SGLT2 and SGLT1, respectively. When SGLT2 is fully inhibited by SGLT2-I, the increase in SGLT1-mediated glucose reabsorption explains why only 50–60% of filtered glucose is excreted. PMID:24226519

  13. Pharmacokinetics of S-Allyl-l-cysteine in Rats Is Characterized by High Oral Absorption and Extensive Renal Reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hirotaka; Kazamori, Daichi; Itoh, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is a key component of aged garlic extract, one of many garlic products. However, information on its pharmacokinetics has been scant except for data from a few animal studies. We designed this study to determine the overall pharmacokinetics of SAC in rats. After oral or intravenous administration of SAC to rats at a dose of 5 mg/kg, the plasma concentration-time profile of SAC and its metabolites, as well as the amounts excreted in bile and urine, were analyzed by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After oral administration, SAC was well absorbed with a bioavailability of 98%. Two major metabolites of SAC, N-acetyl-S-allylcysteine (NAc-SAC) and N-acetyl-S-allylcysteine sulfoxide (NAc-SACS), were detected in plasma, but their concentrations were markedly lower than those of SAC. SAC was metabolized to a limited extent, but most of the orally absorbed SAC was excreted into urine in the form of its N-acetylated metabolites. The amounts of SAC, NAc-SAC, and NAc-SACS excreted in urine over 24 h were 2.9%, 80%, and 11% of the orally administered SAC, respectively. The very low renal clearance (0.016 L ⋅ h(-1) ⋅ kg(-1)) of SAC indicated that it undergoes extensive renal reabsorption. These results collectively suggested that SAC was ultimately metabolized to NAc-SAC and NAc-SACS through the cycles of urinary excretion, renal reabsorption, and systemic recirculation. The pharmacokinetics of SAC in rats were characterized by high oral absorption, limited metabolism, and extensive renal reabsorption, all of which potentially contribute to its high and relatively long-lasting plasma concentrations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Regulation of renal NaPi-2 expression and tubular phosphate reabsorption by growth hormone in the juvenile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Craig B; Halaihel, Nabil; Wilson, Paul V; Haramati, Aviad; Levi, Moshe; Mulroney, Susan E

    2004-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an important factor in the developmental adaptation to enhance P(i) reabsorption; however, the nephron sites and mechanisms by which GH regulates renal P(i) uptake remain unclear and are the focus of the present study. Micropuncture experiments were performed after acute thyroparathyroidectomy in the presence and absence of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in adult (14- to 17-wk old), juvenile (4-wk old), and GH-suppressed juvenile male rats. While the phosphaturic effect of PTH was blunted in the juvenile rat compared with the adult, suppression of GH in the juvenile restored fractional P(i) excretion to adult levels. In the presence or absence of PTH, GH suppression in the juvenile rat caused a significant increase in the fractional P(i) delivery to the late proximal convoluted (PCT) and early distal tubule, so that delivery was not different from that in adults. These data were confirmed by P(i) uptake studies into brush-border membrane (BBM) vesicles. Immunofluorescence studies indicate increased BBM type IIa NaP(i) cotransporter (NaPi-2) expression in the juvenile compared with adult rat, and GH suppression reduced NaPi-2 expression to levels observed in the adult. GH replacement in the [N-acetyl-Tyr(1)-d-Arg(2)]-GRF-(1-29)-NH(2)-treated juveniles restored high NaPi-2 expression and P(i) uptake. Together, these novel results demonstrate that the presence of GH in the juvenile animal is crucial for the early developmental upregulation of BBM NaPi-2 and, most importantly, describe the enhanced P(i) reabsorption along the PCT and proximal straight nephron segments in the juvenile rat.

  15. Response of copper deficient rats to inhibitors of renal sodium reabsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordewier, B.; Saari, J.T. (Northwestern College, Orange City, IA (United States) USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of furosemide (Furo), a Loop diuretic, and amiloride (Am), a potassium (K)-sparing diuretic, on the excretion of sodium (Na) and K in copper-adequate (CuAdeq) and copper-deficient (CuDef) rats. Weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a CuDef or CuAdeq diet ad libitum and given deionized water to drink. After 5 weeks on the diets, rats were assigned to one of four treatment regimens: Furo, Am or Furo + Am. Rats were anesthetized and electrolyte excretion was measured in 2 {times} 15 min control periods followed by 3 {times} 15 min treatment periods. Furo increased Na excretion in a dose dependent manner in both the CuAdeq and the CuDef rats. The response of the CuAdeq rats was slightly greater than that of the CuDef rats in each of the 3 treatment groups in which Furo was given. K excretion following Furo increased to the same extent in the CuAdeq and CuDef rats. The natriuretic response to Am alone was slightly greater in the CuDef than the CuAdeq rats. The antikaliuretic response of the CuDef rats was similar to that of the CuAdeq rats whether Am was given alone or in combination with Furo. These data show that CuDef rats respond to Furo and Am in a manner which is similar to that of CuAdeq rats, this indicates that the sensitivity of the Na reabsorption mechanisms to inhibition by diuretics is not markedly affected by copper deficiency.

  16. Effects of intravenous bumetanide administration on renal haemodynamics and proximal and distal tubular sodium reabsorption in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalmi, M.; Petersen, J.S.; Christensen, S. (Department of pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    The renal effects of 0.02-62.5 mg/kg bumetanide given as intravenous bolus injections were studied in water diuretic conscious rats. Clearances of {sup 14}C-tetraethylammonium, {sup 3}H-inulin and lithium were used as markers for renal plasma flow (RPF), glomerular filtion rate (GFR) and proximal tubular output, respectively. Bumetanide caused biphasic, transient and dose-independent changes in the renal haemodynamics without significant alterations of the filtration fraction. At dose-levels above 0.02 mg/kg bumetanide increased urine flow, absolute and fractional Na excretion as well as the indices for fractional output of Na from the proximal tubules (C{sub Li}/C{sub I}n) and the distal nephron segments (C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}). The changes in C{sub Li}/C{sub In} became maximal at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, whereas C{sub Na}/C{sub Li} was increased with the dose up to 12.5 mg/kg. Paradoxically, doses above 12.5 mg/kg were less natriuretic due to a decrease of C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}. It is concluded that in rats bumetanide is an effective although short-acting diuretic when administered intravenously. When comparing peak responses bumetanide is equipotent to furosemide but has a lower maximal efficacy. Judged from the changes in fractional lithium excretion, the natriuretic effect of bumetanide is effected by inhibition of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule in addition to the well-known effect on the distal nephron segment. (author).

  17. Use of systems pharmacology modeling to elucidate the operating characteristics of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in renal glucose reabsorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yasong; Griffen, Steven C; Boulton, David W; Leil, Tarek A

    2014-01-01

    In the kidney, glucose in glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed primarily by sodium-glucose cotransporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2) along the proximal tubules. SGLT2 has been characterized as a high capacity, low affinity pathway responsible for reabsorption of the majority of filtered glucose in the early part of proximal tubules, and SGLT1 reabsorbs the residual glucose in the distal part. Inhibition of SGLT2 is a viable mechanism for removing glucose from the body and improving glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Despite demonstrating high levels (in excess of 80%) of inhibition of glucose transport by SGLT2 in vitro, potent SGLT2 inhibitors, e.g., dapagliflozin and canagliflozin, inhibit renal glucose reabsorption by only 30-50% in clinical studies. Hypotheses for this apparent paradox are mostly focused on the compensatory effect of SGLT1. The paradox has been explained and the role of SGLT1 demonstrated in the mouse, but direct data in humans are lacking. To further explore the roles of SGLT1/2 in renal glucose reabsorption in humans, we developed a systems pharmacology model with emphasis on SGLT1/2 mediated glucose reabsorption and the effects of SGLT2 inhibition. The model was calibrated using robust clinical data in the absence or presence of dapagliflozin (DeFronzo et al., 2013), and evaluated against clinical data from the literature (Mogensen, 1971; Wolf et al., 2009; Polidori et al., 2013). The model adequately described all four data sets. Simulations using the model clarified the operating characteristics of SGLT1/2 in humans in the healthy and diabetic state with or without SGLT2 inhibition. The modeling and simulations support our proposition that the apparent moderate, 30-50% inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption observed with potent SGLT2 inhibitors is a combined result of two physiological determinants: SGLT1 compensation and residual SGLT2 activity. This model will enable in silico inferences and predictions related to SGLT1/2 modulation.

  18. Inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption as a novel treatment for diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Cersosimo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the kidney in glucose homeostasis has been recognized for many years. Recent observations indicating a greater role of renal glucose metabolism in various physiologic and pathologic conditions have rekindled the interest in renal glucose handling as a potential target for the treatment of diabetes. The enormous capacity of the proximal tubular cells to reabsorb the filtered glucose load entirely, utilizing the sodium-glucose co-transporter system (primarily SGLT-2, became the focus of attention. Original studies conducted in experimental animals with the nonspecific SGLT inhibitor phlorizin showed that hyperglycemia after pancreatectomy decreased as a result of forced glycosuria. Subsequently, several compounds with more selective SGLT-2 inhibition properties (“second-generation” were developed. Some agents made it into pre-clinical and clinical trials and a few have already been approved for commercial use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In general, a 6-month period of therapy with SGLT-2 inhibitors is followed by a mean urinary glucose excretion rate of ~80 g/day accompanied by a decline in fasting and postprandial glucose with average decreases in HgA1C ~1.0%. Concomitant body weight loss and a mild but consistent drop in blood pressure also have been reported. In contrast, transient polyuria, thirst with dehydration and occasional hypotension have been described early in the treatment. In addition, a significant increase in the occurrence of uro-genital infections, particularly in women has been documented with the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors. Conclusion: Although long-term cardiovascular, renal and bone/mineral effects are unknown SGLT-2 inhibitors, if used with caution and in the proper patient provide a unique insulin-independent therapeutic option in the management of obese type 2 diabetes patients.

  19. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  20. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers, E-mail: idz7@cdc.gov [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Community Health Investigations, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey [Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  1. Use systems pharmacology modeling to elucidate the operating characteristics of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in renal glucose reabsorption in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasong eLu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the kidney, glucose in glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed primarily by sodium-glucose cotransporters 1 (SGLT1 and 2 (SGLT2 along the proximal tubules. SGLT2 has been characterized as a high capacity, low affinity pathway responsible for reabsorption of the majority of filtered glucose in the early part of proximal tubules, and SGLT1 reabsorbs the residual glucose in the distal part. Inhibition of SGLT2 is a viable mechanism for removing glucose from the body and improving glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Despite demonstrating high levels (in excess of 80% of inhibition of glucose transport by SGLT2 in vitro, potent SGLT2 inhibitors, e.g., dapagliflozin and canagliflozin, inhibit renal glucose reabsorption by only 30-50% in clinical studies. Hypotheses for this apparent paradox are mostly focused on the compensatory effect of SGLT1. The paradox has been explained and the role of SGLT1 demonstrated in the mouse, but direct data in humans are lacking. To further explore the roles of SGLT1/2 in renal glucose reabsorption in humans, we developed a systems pharmacology model with emphasis on SGLT1/2 mediated glucose reabsorption and the effects of SGLT2 inhibition. The model was calibrated using robust clinical data in the absence or presence of dapagliflozin (DeFronzo et al. data (2013, and evaluated against clinical data from the literature (Mogensen, 1971;Wolf et al., 2009;Polidori et al., 2013. The model adequately described all four data sets. Simulations using the model clarified the operating characteristics of SGLT1/2 in humans in the healthy and diabetic state with or without SGLT2 inhibition. The modeling and simulations support our proposition that the apparent moderate, 30-50% inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption observed with potent SGLT2 inhibitors is a combined result of two physiological determinants: SGLT1 compensation and residual SGLT2 activity. This model will enable in silico inferences and predictions related to

  2. Use of systems pharmacology modeling to elucidate the operating characteristics of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in renal glucose reabsorption in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yasong; Griffen, Steven C.; Boulton, David W.; Leil, Tarek A.

    2014-01-01

    In the kidney, glucose in glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed primarily by sodium-glucose cotransporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2) along the proximal tubules. SGLT2 has been characterized as a high capacity, low affinity pathway responsible for reabsorption of the majority of filtered glucose in the early part of proximal tubules, and SGLT1 reabsorbs the residual glucose in the distal part. Inhibition of SGLT2 is a viable mechanism for removing glucose from the body and improving glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Despite demonstrating high levels (in excess of 80%) of inhibition of glucose transport by SGLT2 in vitro, potent SGLT2 inhibitors, e.g., dapagliflozin and canagliflozin, inhibit renal glucose reabsorption by only 30–50% in clinical studies. Hypotheses for this apparent paradox are mostly focused on the compensatory effect of SGLT1. The paradox has been explained and the role of SGLT1 demonstrated in the mouse, but direct data in humans are lacking. To further explore the roles of SGLT1/2 in renal glucose reabsorption in humans, we developed a systems pharmacology model with emphasis on SGLT1/2 mediated glucose reabsorption and the effects of SGLT2 inhibition. The model was calibrated using robust clinical data in the absence or presence of dapagliflozin (DeFronzo et al., 2013), and evaluated against clinical data from the literature (Mogensen, 1971; Wolf et al., 2009; Polidori et al., 2013). The model adequately described all four data sets. Simulations using the model clarified the operating characteristics of SGLT1/2 in humans in the healthy and diabetic state with or without SGLT2 inhibition. The modeling and simulations support our proposition that the apparent moderate, 30–50% inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption observed with potent SGLT2 inhibitors is a combined result of two physiological determinants: SGLT1 compensation and residual SGLT2 activity. This model will enable in silico inferences and predictions related to SGLT1

  3. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors: blocking renal tubular reabsorption of glucose to improve glycaemic control in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, S A; Goldstein, B J

    2008-08-01

    The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of plasma glucose levels, although until recently this has not been widely appreciated or considered a target for therapeutic intervention. The sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) located in the plasma membrane of cells lining the proximal tubule mediates the majority of renal glucose reabsorption from the tubular fluid, which normally prevents the loss of glucose in the urine. Competitive inhibitors of SGLT2 that provoke the renal excretion of glucose have been discovered, thereby providing a unique mechanism to potentially lower the elevated blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. To explore the physiology of SGLT2 action and discuss several SGLT2 inhibitors that have entered early clinical development. All publicly available data were identified by searching the internet for 'SGLT2' and 'SGLT2 inhibitor' through 1 November 2007. Published articles, press releases and abstracts presented at national and international meetings were considered. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibition is a novel treatment option for diabetes, which has been studied in preclinical models and a few potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitors have been reported and are currently in clinical development. These agents appear to be safe and generally well tolerated, and will potentially be a beneficial addition to the growing battery of oral antihyperglycaemic agents.

  4. Experimental dissociation of the effects of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, E; Branca, G F; Faedda, R; Olmeo, N A; Satta, A; Soggia, G

    1982-07-01

    1 The relative importance of the effect of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption was assessed in rats. 2 Clearance experiments were performed on 24 anaesthetized rats divided into 3 groups. Each group was infused throughout either with Ringer solution at 9 ml/h (Protocol I), or at 3 ml/h (Protocol II) or with hypotonic fluid at 5 ml/h (Protocol III). Clearance periods were performed before and after intravenous injection of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) and then of aspirin (20 mg/kg). The natriuretic response to different degrees of volume expansion was not modified during the action of the inhibitors. 3 When baseline urine osmolality (Uosm) was high (Protocol II) no further increase occurred in the presence of prostaglandin inhibition. Conversely, Uosm rose from 771 +/- 134 to 1356 +/- 414 and from 575 +/- 245 to 841 +/- 407 mosm/kg (P less than 0.05) in Protocol I and Protocol III respectively, when antidiuretic hormone secretion was inhibited by the higher degree of volume expansion. 4 There was a significant correlation between the change in urine flow rate induced by cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the attendant variations in Na excretion, r = 0.42, n = 41, P less than 0.01. 5 Thus, prostaglandins affect Na loss during saline load as a side effect of their action on water permeability. They could play an important role in volume depletion by counterbalancing the large secretion rate of renal vasoconstrictors.

  5. Experimental dissociation of the effects of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, E.; Branca, G. F.; Faedda, R.; Olmeo, N. A.; Satta, A.; Soggia, G.

    1982-01-01

    1 The relative importance of the effect of prostaglandins on renal sodium and water reabsorption was assessed in rats. 2 Clearance experiments were performed on 24 anaesthetized rats divided into 3 groups. Each group was infused throughout either with Ringer solution at 9 ml/h (Protocol I), or at 3 ml/h (Protocol II) or with hypotonic fluid at 5 ml/h (Protocol III). Clearance periods were performed before and after intravenous injection of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) and then of aspirin (20 mg/kg). The natriuretic response to different degrees of volume expansion was not modified during the action of the inhibitors. 3 When baseline urine osmolality (Uosm) was high (Protocol II) no further increase occurred in the presence of prostaglandin inhibition. Conversely, Uosm rose from 771 +/- 134 to 1356 +/- 414 and from 575 +/- 245 to 841 +/- 407 mosm/kg (P less than 0.05) in Protocol I and Protocol III respectively, when antidiuretic hormone secretion was inhibited by the higher degree of volume expansion. 4 There was a significant correlation between the change in urine flow rate induced by cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the attendant variations in Na excretion, r = 0.42, n = 41, P less than 0.01. 5 Thus, prostaglandins affect Na loss during saline load as a side effect of their action on water permeability. They could play an important role in volume depletion by counterbalancing the large secretion rate of renal vasoconstrictors. PMID:6809089

  6. Recombinant human erythropoietin in humans down-regulates proximal renal tubular reabsorption and causes a fall in glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Oturai, Peter

    2010-01-01

    HuEPO for 28 days in doses raising the hematocrit to 48.3 (4.1) %. Renal clearance studies with urine collections (N = 8) were done at baseline and at days 4, 11, 29, and 42. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured by (51)Cr-EDTA. Renal clearance of lithium (C(Li)) was used as an index of proximal...... tubular outflow and to assess segmental renal tubular handling of sodium and water. rHuEPO-induced increases in hematocrit occurred from day 10 onwards and was caused by both an increase in red cell volume and a fall in plasma volume. Well before that (from day 2 and throughout the treatment time), r...... and water (APR = GFR - C(Li), P

  7. Renal albumin absorption in physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, H; Christensen, E I

    2006-02-01

    Albumin is the most abundant plasmaprotein serving multiple functions as a carrier of metabolites, hormones, vitamins, and drugs, as an acid/base buffer, as antioxidant and by supporting the oncotic pressure and volume of the blood. The presence of albumin in urine is considered to be the result of the balance between glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. Albuminuria has been accepted as an independent risk factor and a marker for renal as well as cardiovascular disease, and during the past decade, evidence has suggested that albumin itself may cause progression of renal disease. Thus, the reduction of proteinuria and, in particular, albuminuria has become a target in itself to prevent deterioration of renal function. Studies have shown albumin and its ligands to induce expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators, and it has been hypothesized that increased filtration of albumin causes excessive tubular reabsorption, resulting in inflammation and fibrosis, resulting in the loss of renal function. In addition, it is known that tubular dysfunction in itself may cause albuminuria owing to decreased reabsorption of filtered albumin, and, recently, it has been suggested that significant amounts of albumin fragments are excreted in the urine as a result of tubular degradation. Thus, although both tubular and glomerular dysfunction influences renal handling of albumin, it appears that tubular reabsorption plays a central role in mediating the effects of albumin on renal function. The present paper will review the mechanisms for tubular albumin uptake and the possible implications for the development of renal disease.

  8. The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C. Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Aims: To review the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on blood pressure, endothelial and renal function with emphasis on recent findings in postmenopausal women. Methods: Included in this review was a PubMed database search for English language articles through March 2013. This review discussed the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, the recent evidence for the role vitamin D in blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Results: Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Low vitamin D concentrations appear to significantly associate with hypertension, endothelial and renal dysfunction. However, the results of clinical trials have generally been mixed. Studies specifically conducted among postmenopausal women are limited and findings are still inconsistent. Conclusions: Definitive studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on vascular and renal function and a more detailed work is needed to outline the route, duration and optimal dose of supplementation. It is premature to recommend vitamin D as a therapeutic option in the improvement of vascular and renal function at the current stage.

  9. Vitamin C Depletion and All-Cause Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotomayor, C. G.; Eisenga, Michele F; Neto, Antonio W Gomes; Ozyilmaz, Akin; Gans, Rijk O B; Jong, Wilhelmina H A de; Zelle, Dorien M; Berger, Stefan P; Gaillard, Carlo A J M; Navis, Gerjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C may reduce inflammation and is inversely associated with mortality in the general population. We investigated the association of plasma vitamin C with all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR); and whether this association would be mediated by inflammatory biomarkers.

  10. alpha-Adducin mutations increase Na/K pump activity in renal cells by affecting constitutive endocytosis: implications for tubular Na reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torielli, Lucia; Tivodar, Simona; Montella, Rosa Chiara; Iacone, Roberto; Padoani, Gloria; Tarsini, Paolo; Russo, Ornella; Sarnataro, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Ferrari, Patrizia; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2008-08-01

    Genetic variation in alpha-adducin cytoskeletal protein is implicated in the polymerization and bundling of actin and alteration of the Na/K pump, resulting in abnormal renal sodium transport and hypertension in Milan hypertensive rats and humans. To investigate the molecular involvement of alpha-adducin in controlling Na/K pump activity, wild-type or mutated rat and human alpha-adducin forms were, respectively, transfected into several renal cell lines. Through multiple experimental approaches (microscopy, enzymatic assays, coimmunoprecipitation), we showed that rat and human mutated forms increased Na/K pump activity and the number of pump units; moreover, both variants coimmunoprecipitate with Na/K pump. The increased Na/K pump activity was not due to changes in its basolateral localization, but to an alteration of Na/K pump residential time on the plasma membrane. Indeed, both rat and human mutated variants reduced constitutive Na/K pump endocytosis and similarly affected transferrin receptor trafficking and fluid-phase endocytosis. In fact, alpha-adducin was detected in clathrin-coated vesicles and coimmunoprecipitated with clathrin. These results indicate that adducin, besides its modulatory effects on actin cytoskeleton dynamics, might play a direct role in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The constitutive reduction of the Na/K pump endocytic rate induced by mutated adducin variants may be relevant in Na-dependent hypertension.

  11. Vitamin C-induced hyperoxaluria causing reversible tubulointerstitial nephritis and chronic renal failure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Shradha

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin C is a precursor of oxalate and promoter of its absorption, potentially causing hyperoxaluria. Malabsorption causes Calcium (Ca chelation with fatty acids, producing enteric hyperoxaluria. Case A 73-year-old man with both risk factors was hospitalized with serum creatinine of 8.4 mg/dL (versus 1.2 mg/dL four months earlier (normal 0.6–1.3 mg/dL. Given his oxalate-rich diet, chronic diarrhea, and daily 680 mg vitamin C and furosemide, we postulated Ca oxalate-induced nephropathy, a diagnosis confirmed by documenting hyperoxaluria, and finding of diffuse intraluminal crystals and extensive interstitial fibrosis on biopsy. He was hemodialysed 6 times to remove excess oxalate. Two weeks off vitamin C, his creatinine spontaneously fell to 3.1 mg/dL. Three months later, on low oxalate diet and 100 mg vitamin B6, urine oxalate to creatinine ratio decreased from 0.084 to 0.02 (normal Conclusion 1 High-dose vitamin C can induce hyperoxaluric nephropathy and progressive renal failure, especially if aggravated by diarrhea, oxalate-rich diet, metabolic acidosis, and dehydration. 2 The diagnosis should be suspected in unexplained renal insufficiency when associated with these risk factors. 3 Since prompt treatment could avert end-stage renal disease, we recommend monitoring urinary oxalate in patients on high-dose vitamin C and renal biopsy if necessary.

  12. Antioxidative vitamines for prevention of cardiovascular disease for patients after renal transplantation and patients with chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The mortality from cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic renal failure is much higher than in the general population. In particular, patients with chronic renal failure with replacement therapies (dialysis patients and patients with renal transplantation show both increased traditional risk factors and risk factors due to the dysfunction of the renal system. In combination with necessary medication for renal insufficiency oxidative stress is elevated. Progression of atherosclerosis is promoted due to increased oxidation of lipids and endothelium damage. This link between lipid oxidation and artherogenesis provides the rationale for the supposed beneficial effect of supplementation with antioxidative vitamins (vitamin A, C and E. Such an effect could not be demonstrated for patients with a history of cardiovascular disease and without kidney diseases. However, in high risk patients with chronic renal failure and renal replacement therapies this could be different. Objectives: The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of supplementation with antioxidative vitamins A, C or E to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney diseases, dialysis-requiring patients and patients after a renal transplantation with or without cardiovascular diseases. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted with documented search and selection of the literature, using a priori defined inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as a documented extraction and assessment of the literature according to the methods of evidence-based medicine. Results: 21 publications met the inclusion criteria for the evaluation of clinical effectiveness. No study could be identified for the economic evaluation. Two studies (four publications analysed the effect of oral supplementation on the secondary prevention of clinical cardiovascular endpoints. Studies analysing the

  13. Assessment of insulin, lectin and vitamin C in chronic renal failure patients before and after haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.M.; El-Yamani, N.A.; Youssif, Z.A.; Abdel-Razik, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the relative interaction between insulin, leptin and vitamin C in male patients with chronic renal failure and undergo regular haemodialysis (3 times/week). The study was carried out on 20 healthy volunteers as control (group I) and 20 with chronic renal failure (group II) which were studied before dialysis (A) and after dialysis (B). The serum results showed significant increases in creatinine, insulin and leptin levels in patient groups as compared to the control. On the other hand, significant decreases in the levels of glucose and vitamin C were recorded

  14. [Actual vitamin and main foodstuffs consumption by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, G M; Tutel'ian, A V

    2011-01-01

    Actual consumption of vitamins A, E, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, thiamin, pyridoxine and main foodstuffs by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome has been given. Frequency analysis of foodstuffs consumption was used to study actual nourishment of recovered patients. Surplus consumption of fat mainly due to the use of saturated fatty acids, deficiency of poly unsaturated fatty acids, surplus sugar consumption and predominance of proteins of animal origin over proteins of vegetable origin in ration has been revealed. Deficiency of water soluble vitamins equals to 41,6-78,7% of all examined patients, deficiency of fat water soluble vitamins is lower (21,4-38,3%).

  15. Role of Vitamin D in Maintaining Renal Epithelial Barrier Function in Uremic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Mihajlovic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As current kidney replacement therapies are not efficient enough for end-stage renal disease (ESRD treatment, a bioartificial kidney (BAK device, based on conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC, could represent an attractive solution. The active transport activity of such a system was recently demonstrated. In addition, endocrine functions of the cells, such as vitamin D activation, are relevant. The organic anion transporter 1 (OAT-1 overexpressing ciPTEC line presented 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1, 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1 and vitamin D receptor (VDR, responsible for vitamin D activation, degradation and function, respectively. The ability to produce and secrete 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3, was shown after incubation with the precursor, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3. The beneficial effect of vitamin D on cell function and behavior in uremic conditions was studied in the presence of an anionic uremic toxins mixture. Vitamin D could restore cell viability, and inflammatory and oxidative status, as shown by cell metabolic activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS production, respectively. Finally, vitamin D restored transepithelial barrier function, as evidenced by decreased inulin-FITC leakage in biofunctionalized hollow fiber membranes (HFM carrying ciPTEC-OAT1. In conclusion, the protective effects of vitamin D in uremic conditions and proven ciPTEC-OAT1 endocrine function encourage the use of these cells for BAK application.

  16. Non-Traditional Aspects of Renal Diets: Focus on Fiber, Alkali and Vitamin K1 Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D’Alessandro, Claudia; Gesualdo, Loreto; Cosola, Carmela; Gallieni, Maurizio; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Fusaro, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential. We examined the energy and nutrients composition of four types of renal diets according to their protein content: normal diet (ND, 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (bw)), low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 g protein/kg bw), vegan diet (VD, 0.7 g protein/kg bw), very low protein diet (VLPD, 0.3 g protein/kg bw). Fiber content is much higher in the VD and in the VLPD than in the ND or LPD. Vitamin K1 content seems to follow the same trend, but vitamin K2 content, which could not be investigated, might have a different pattern. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) value decreases from the ND and LPD to the vegetarian diets, namely VD and VLPD; the same finding occurred for the potential renal acid load (PRAL). In conclusion, renal diets may provide additional benefits, and this is the case of vegetarian diets. Namely, VD and VLPD also provide high amounts of fibers and Vitamin K1, with a very low acid load. These features may have favorable effects on Vitamin K1 status, intestinal microbiota and acid-base balance. Hence, we can speculate as to the potential beneficial effects on vascular calcification and bone disease, on protein metabolism, on colonic environment and circulating levels of microbial-derived uremic toxins. In the case of vegetarian diets, attention must be paid to serum potassium levels. PMID:28468236

  17. Vitamin E Intake and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis of 7 Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yonggang; Yi, Shanhong; Cui, Dong; Han, Guangwei; Liu, Chengcheng

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin E intake may reduce the risk of renal cell carcinoma, but the results were inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of renal cell carcinoma. We searched PubMed to identify the relevant case-control studies up to June 2014. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of renal cell carcinoma. We identified 7 case-control studies regarding dietary vitamin E intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma, involving 5789 cases and 14866 controls. The odds ratio of renal cell carcinoma for the highest compared with the lowest dietary vitamin E intake was 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.91), and heterogeneity was observed across studies. The association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of renal cell carcinoma was not significantly differed by gender, but this association were inconsistent in the North American and European populations. Our study provided a evidence that there was a significant inverse association of dietary vitamin E intake with risk of renal cell carcinoma. However, this finding was based on the case-control studies, more well-designed cohort studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypercalcemia and renal function impairment associated with vitamin D toxicity: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Guerra

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays vitamin D (25-OHD deficiency is supposed to be a global epidemic condition. Expectedly, vitamin D measurement and intake exponentially increased in Brazil in this decade. Although the benefit of vitamin D to general health is still in debate, its indiscriminate use potentially may lead to enhance the incidence of vitamin D intoxication, which is considered a rare disorder. We report a case of a 70 year old diabetic male with chronic renal disease (blood creatinine of 1.6 mg/dL who progressed suddenly to acute kidney injury (blood creatinine of 5.7 mg/dL associated with hypercalcemia and high blood levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D and calcitriol were discontinued and hypercalcemia was managed by hydration followed by furosemide. Thereafter, disodium pamidronate was administered and the patient did not undergo on dialysis. It took approximately 14 months to normalize 25-OHD levels and blood creatinine returned to basal levels only after 24 months. The indicated labeling dosage was 2000 IU, but most likely the vitamin D manipulated preparation was higher as the vitamin D blood levels were very high. Although rare, vitamin D intoxication is becoming more frequent as the patients use frequently manipulated preparations that could be subject to errors in the manufacturing and labeling of the tablets or capsules. The present report alerts to the potential increase in the incidence of severe vitamin D intoxication due to the frequent use of this secosteroid as a nutritional supplement. At the same time, it is necessary to improve regulation on the nutrient supplement market.

  19. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  20. Vitamin C Depletion and All-Cause Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, Camilo G; Eisenga, Michele F; Gomes Neto, Antonio W; Ozyilmaz, Akin; Gans, Rijk O B; Jong, Wilhelmina H A de; Zelle, Dorien M; Berger, Stefan P; Gaillard, Carlo A J M; Navis, Gerjan J; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2017-06-02

    Vitamin C may reduce inflammation and is inversely associated with mortality in the general population. We investigated the association of plasma vitamin C with all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR); and whether this association would be mediated by inflammatory biomarkers. Vitamin C, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) were measured in a cohort of 598 RTR. Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the association between vitamin C depletion (≤28 µmol/L; 22% of RTR) and mortality. Mediation analyses were performed according to Preacher and Hayes's procedure. At a median follow-up of 7.0 (6.2-7.5) years, 131 (21%) patients died. Vitamin C depletion was univariately associated with almost two-fold higher risk of mortality (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.95; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.35-2.81, p C depletion is frequent and independently associated with almost two-fold higher risk of mortality in RTR. It may be hypothesized that the beneficial effect of vitamin C at least partly occurs through decreasing inflammation.

  1. The role of vitamin D metabolites in the osteomalacia of renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, J.A.; Brown, C.B.; Cameron, E.C.; Cundy, T.; Platts, M.M.; Paterson, M.; Russell, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Osteomalacia is commonly found in patients with severe renal impairment. Its aetiology is multifactional and not simply due to deficient production of active metabolites of vitamin D. Decreased availability of calcium and phosphate and the accumulation of aluminium is some dialysis-treated patients are also important aetiological factors. The treatment of osteomalacia depends, in part, upon its accurate diagnosis, and identifying and reversing the underlying cause.

  2. Aging Selectively Modulates Vitamin C Transporter Expression Patterns in the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Katherine; Martínez, Fernando; Cifuentes, Manuel; Bertinat, Romina; Salazar, Katterine; Nualart, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    In the kidney, vitamin C is reabsorbed from the glomerular ultrafiltrate by sodium-vitamin C cotransporter isoform 1 (SVCT1) located in the brush border membrane of the proximal tubules. Although we know that vitamin C levels decrease with age, the adaptive physiological mechanisms used by the kidney for vitamin C reabsorption during aging remain unknown. In this study, we used an animal model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8 mice) to define the morphological alterations and aging-induced changes in the expression of vitamin C transporters in renal tissue. Aging induced significant morphological changes, such as periglomerular lymphocytic infiltrate and glomerular congestion, in the kidneys of SAMP8 mice, although no increase in collagen deposits was observed using 2-photon microscopy analysis and second harmonic generation. The most characteristic histological alteration was the dilation of intracellular spaces in the basolateral region of proximal tubule epithelial cells. Furthermore, a combination of laser microdissection, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemical analyses allowed us to determine that SVCT1 expression specifically increased in the proximal tubules from the outer strip of the outer medulla (segment S3) and cortex (segment S2) during aging and that these tubules also express GLUT1. We conclude that aging modulates vitamin C transporter expression and that renal over-expression of SVCT1 enhances vitamin C reabsorption in aged animals that may synthesize less vitamin C. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2418-2426, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Analysis of SNPs and haplotypes in vitamin D pathway genes and renal cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Karami

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the kidney vitamin D is converted to its active form. Since vitamin D exerts its activity through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR, most genetic studies have primarily focused on variation within this gene. Therefore, analysis of genetic variation in VDR and other vitamin D pathway genes may provide insight into the role of vitamin D in renal cell carcinoma (RCC etiology. RCC cases (N = 777 and controls (N = 1,035 were genotyped to investigate the relationship between RCC risk and variation in eight target genes. Minimum-p-value permutation (Min-P tests were used to identify genes associated with risk. A three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP sliding window was used to identify chromosomal regions with a False Discovery Rate of <10%, where subsequently, haplotype relative risks were computed in Haplostats. Min-P values showed that VDR (p-value = 0.02 and retinoid-X-receptor-alpha (RXRA (p-value = 0.10 were associated with RCC risk. Within VDR, three haplotypes across two chromosomal regions of interest were identified. The first region, located within intron 2, contained two haplotypes that increased RCC risk by approximately 25%. The second region included a haplotype (rs2239179, rs12717991 across intron 4 that increased risk among participants with the TC (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.09-1.57 haplotype compared to participants with the common haplotype, TT. Across RXRA, one haplotype located 3' of the coding sequence (rs748964, rs3118523, increased RCC risk 35% among individuals with the variant haplotype compared to those with the most common haplotype. This study comprehensively evaluated genetic variation across eight vitamin D pathway genes in relation to RCC risk. We found increased risk associated with VDR and RXRA. Replication studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  4. Changes in renal function after discontinuation of vitamin D analogues in advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Azevedo, Lilia; Luna, Enrique

    In routine clinical practice, the prescription of vitamin D analogues (VDA) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often associated with a decline of the estimated renal function. The reason for this is not fully understood. To analyse the effects of VDA discontinuation in advanced CKD and to determine the factors associated with changes in renal function. Retrospective cohort study of adult patients with advanced CKD. The case subgroup was treated with VDA and this medication was discontinued at baseline (the first visit). The control subgroup was not treated with VDA and they were selected according to comparability principles for CKD progression by propensity score matching. The primary outcome measure was a change to both the estimated glomerular filtration rate (MDRD-GFR) and the measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR by combined creatinine and urea clearances). Baseline parameters related to mineral metabolism and creatinine generation were analysed as potential determinants of renal function changes. The study sample consisted of 67 cases and 67 controls. Renal function improved in 67% of cases and worsened in 72% of controls (p<0.0001). Changes in MDRD-GFR for the case subgroup and the control subgroup were +0.455±0.997 vs. -0.436±1.103ml/min/1.73 m 2 /month (p<0.0001), respectively. Total creatinine excretion was slightly higher in cases than in controls but the difference was not significant. According to multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses, baseline total serum calcium was one of the best determinants of both renal function recovery (Odds ratio=3.49; p=0.001), and of the extent of renal function recovery (beta=0.276; p=0.001). Discontinuation of VDA treatment in CKD patients is associated with significant recovery of estimated renal function. The extent of these changes is mainly associated with baseline total serum calcium. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  5. Changes in renal function after discontinuation of vitamin D analogues in advanced chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Caravaca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In routine clinical practice, the prescription of vitamin D analogues (VDA in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD is often associated with a decline of the estimated renal function. The reason for this is not fully understood. Aims: To analyze the effects of VDA discontinuation in advanced CKD and to determine the factors associated with changes in renal function. Material and methods: Retrospective cohort study of adult patients with advanced CKD. The case subgroup was treated with VDA and this medication was discontinued at baseline (the first visit. The control subgroup was not treated with VDA and they were selected according to comparability principles for CKD progression by propensity score matching. The primary outcome measure was a change to both the estimated glomerular filtration rate (MDRD-GFR and the measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR by combined creatinine and urea clearances. Baseline parameters related to mineral metabolism and creatinine generation were analyzed as potential determinants of renal function changes. Results: The study sample consisted of 67 cases and 67 controls. Renal function improved in 67% of cases and worsened in 72% of controls (p < 0.0001. Changes in MDRD-GFR for the case subgroup and the control subgroup were +0.455 ± 0.997 vs. −0.436 ± 1.103 ml/min/1.73 m2/month (p < 0.0001, respectively. Total creatinine excretion was slightly higher in cases than in controls but the difference was not significant.According to multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses, baseline total serum calcium was one of the best determinants of both renal function recovery (Odds ratio = 3.49; p = 0.001, and of the extent of renal function recovery (beta = 0.276; p = 0.001. Conclusions: Discontinuation of VDA treatment in CKD patients is associated with significant recovery of estimated renal function. The extent of these changes is

  6. Prognostic Importance of Vitamins A, E and Retinol-binding Protein 4 in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Roman; Čapoun, Otakar; Kalousová, Marta; Hanuš, Tomáš; Zima, Tomáš; Koštířová, Milada; Soukup, Viktor

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prognostic importance of serum levels of retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and vitamin E at the time of diagnosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this prospective study, in a cohort of 102 renal cell carcinoma patients, relationships between serum levels of the aforementioned markers and recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), as well as cancer-specific survival (CSS), were evaluated. The vitamin A and vitamin E levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the RBP4 level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median follow-up period was 39 months. Renal cell carcinoma recurred in 9 patients; 23 patients died with 12 of them from RCC. The preoperative vitamin E level was associated to RFS (p=0.02). We found a significant relationship between OS and the level of RBP4 (p=0.002), retinol (p=0.037) and vitamin E (p=0.007). The CSS period was significantly associated with the level of RBP4 (p=0.0001) and retinol (p=0.0003). Patients with an RBP4 level less than 21.0 mg/l at the time of diagnosis had a 13.5-times higher risk of death due to RCC progression; this risk was up to 7.7-times higher with vitamin A levels under 0.52 mg/l. Low levels of vitamin A, E and RBP4 at the time of RCC diagnosis are associated with a poorer prognosis after surgery. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Depression of calcium pump activity in renal cortex of vitamin D-deficient rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Saitoh, Michiyo; Takita, Yumiko; Nakano, Toshiaki; Tamura, Teiichi

    1990-01-01

    To examine the hormonal regulation of the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump in the kidneys, the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ uptake by the basolateral membrane vesicles in the renal cortex was measured using radioactive calcium ( 45 Ca 2+ ) in rats with vitamin D deficiency or rats undergoing thyroparathyroidectomy. The V max of the Ca 2+ pump activity was increased not only by administering calcitriol, but also by normalizing the serum calcium level in vitamin D-deficient rats. PTH suppressed the Ca 2+ pump activity in normocalcemic vitamin D-deficient rats. Thyroparathyroidectomy did not affect the Ca 2+ pump activity in the kidneys of normal rats. It was concluded that the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump activity was depressed by secondary hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-deficient rats. (author)

  8. Renoprotective Effects of SGLT2 Inhibitors: Beyond Glucose Reabsorption Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimihodimos, V; Filippatos, T D; Filippas-Ntekouan, S; Elisaf, M

    2017-01-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that inhibit glucose and sodium reabsorption at proximal tubules. These drugs may exhibit renoprotective properties, since they prevent the deterioration of the glomerular filtration rate and reduce the degree of albuminuria in patients with diabetes-associated kidney disease. In this review we consider the pathophysiologic mechanisms that have been recently implicated in the renoprotective properties of SGLT2 inhibitors. The beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the conventional risk factors for kidney disease (such as blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, body weight and serum uric acid levels) may explain, at least in part, the observed renal-protecting properties of these compounds. However, it has been hypothesized that the most important mechanisms for this phenomenon include the reduction in the intraglomerular pressure, the changes in the local and systemic degree of activation of the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system and a shift in renal fuel consumption towards more efficient energy substrates such as ketone bodies. The beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on various aspects of renal function make them an attractive choice in patients with (and possibly without) diabetes-associated renal impairment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's time for them to be used, special carriers in your body take them to where they're needed. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are different. When you eat foods ...

  10. Effects of vitamin D compounds on renal and intestinal Ca2+ transport proteins in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Kemp, J.W.C.M. van der; Urben, C.M.; Strugnell, S.A.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D compounds are used clinically to control secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) due to renal failure. Newer vitamin D compounds retain the suppressive action of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the parathyroid glands and may have less Ca(2+)-mobilizing activity, offering potentially safer

  11. The association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Dai, Yan; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhu, Guoying; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Taiyi

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium exposure can cause renal tubular dysfunction. Recent studies show that vitamin D can play multiple roles in the body. However, the association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium has not been clarified. We performed study to assess the effects of cadmium on serum 25(OH) D levels and the association between serum 25(OH) D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a population environmentally exposed to cadmium. A total of 133 subjects living in control area and two cadmium polluted areas were included in the present study. Cadmium in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd), urinary β2Microglobulin (UBMG), urinary retinol binding protein (URBP) and serum 25 (OH) D were determined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between 25 (OH) D and prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction. No significant differences were observed in serum 25(OH) D levels among the four quartile of UCd and BCd after adjusting with cofounders. After adjusted with the confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of subjects with 25(OH) D ≥ 40 ng/ml were 0.20 (95%CI: 0.1-0.8) if UBMG was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction and 0.28 (95%CI: 0.1-1.1) if URBP was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction, compared with those with 25(OH) D < 30 ng/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed in those subjects living in cadmium polluted areas or with high level of UCd or BCd. Our data indicated that cadmium exposure did not affect serum 25(OH) D level and high 25 (OH) D levels were associated with a decreased risk of renal tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium.

  12. Vitamin D-dependent rat renal calcium-binding protein: development of a radioimmunoassay, tissue distribution, and immunologic identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, J.; Pansini, A.R.; Christakos, S.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive double antibody RIA has been developed for the 28,000 mol wt rat renal vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. Using this assay, concentrations of calcium-binding protein (CaBP) as low as 30 ng can be measured. The assay is precise (intraassay variability, 5.0%) and reproductible (interassay variability, 8.2%). Measurements of renal CaBP by RIA showed a good correlation with measurements of CaBP by the chelex resin assay and by polyacrylamide gel analysis by densitometric tracing using a purified CaBP marker. The concentration of CaBP in the vitamin D-replete rat kidney is 7.3 +/- 1.0 (mean +/- SEM) micrograms/mg protein. In vitamin D-deficient rats the level of renal CaBP is 2.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms/mg protein. Tissue distribution of immunoreactive rat renal CaBP showed the highest concentration of CaBP in the rat cerebellum (38.3 +/- 5.1 micrograms/mg protein). Lower concentrations of immunoreactive CaBP were detected in several other rat tissues. No immunoreactive CaBP was detected in rat or human serum. In necropsy human kidney and cerebellum, high levels of immunoreactive CaBP were also detected (1.5 +/- 0.1 and 27.3 +/- 2.1 micrograms/mg protein, respectively). When extracts of rat kidney and brain and human cerebellum and kidney were assayed at several dilutions, immunodisplacement curves parallel to that of pure renal CaBP were observed, indicating immunochemical similarity. Fractionation of extracts of rat cerebellum, human kidney, and human cerebellum on Sephadex G-100 revealed immunoreactivity and calcium-binding activity in the 28,000 mol wt region similar to rat kidney

  13. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. Keywords: Cadmium (Cd, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Nephrotoxicity, PAGE analysis

  14. Risk of renal failure with the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Daniel; Gonçalves, Nilza; Pinto, Fausto J; Costa, João; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKA)-related nephropathy is a novel entity characterized by acute kidney injury related to International Normalized Ratio supratherapeutic levels. Non-vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have a predictable dose-response relationship and an improved safety profile. We hypothesized that these drugs do not have an increased risk of incident renal failure, which may be detrimental for the use of NOACs. Systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Trials were searched through Medline, Cochrane Library and public assessment reports in August 2014. Primary outcome was renal failure. NOACs were evaluated against any comparator. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed by default, and pooled estimates were expressed as Risk Ratio (RR) and 95%CI. Heterogeneity was evaluated with I(2) test. Ten RCTs fulfilled inclusion criteria (one apixaban RCT, three dabigatran RCTs, and six rivaroxaban RCTs), enrolling 75 100 patients. Overall NOACs did not increase the risk of renal failure with an RR 0.96, 95%CI 0.88-1.05 compared with VKA or Low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH), without significant statistical heterogeneity (I(2)  = 3.5%). Compared with VKA, NOACs did not increase the risk of renal failure (RR 0.96, 95%CI 0.87-1.07; I(2)  = 17.8%; six RCTs). Rivaroxaban did not show differences in the incidence of renal failure compared with LMWH (RR 1.20, 95%CI 0.37-3.94; four trials), but there was an increased risk of creatinine elevation RR 1.25, 95%CI 1.08-1.45; I(2)  = 0%. NOACs had a similar risk of renal failure compared with VKA/LMWH in phase III RCTs. Post-marketing surveillance should be warranted. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  16. Vitamin K2 supplementation and arterial stiffness among renal transplant recipients-a single-arm, single-center clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Anthony G; Hariri, Essa; Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; El Alam, Andrew; Protogerou, Athanase D; Kilany, Hala; Karam, Albert; Stephan, Antoine; Bahous, Sola Aoun

    2017-09-01

    Subclinical vitamin K deficiency is prevalent among renal transplant recipients and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association between vitamin K supplementation and improvement of arterial stiffness has not been explored in the renal transplant population. The KING trial (vitamin K2 In reNal Graft) is a single-arm study that evaluated the association between the change in vitamin K status and indices of arterial stiffness following 8 weeks of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation (360 μg once daily) among renal transplant recipients (n = 60). Arterial stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). Subclinical vitamin K deficiency was defined as plasma concentration of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) >500 pmol/L.At baseline, 53.3% of the study subjects had subclinical vitamin K deficiency. Supplementation was associated with a 14.2% reduction in mean cfPWV at 8 weeks (cfPWV pre-vitamin K2 = 9.8 ± 2.2 m/s vs. cfPWV post-vitamin K2 = 8.4 ± 1.5 m/s; P K2 supplementation was associated with improvement in subclinical vitamin K deficiency and arterial stiffness. (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02517580). Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of allopurinol and vitamin E on renal function in patients with cardiac coronary artery bypass grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Nouri-Majalan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nader Nouri-Majalan1, Ehsan Fotouhi Ardakani2, Khalil Forouzannia3, Hosein Moshtaghian41Department of Nephrology, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, 4Department of Anesthesiology, Afshar Hospital, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 2Ali bin Abu Taleb Medical College, Yazd Azad University, Yazd, IranBackground: Acute renal failure is a common complication of cardiac surgery, with oxidants found to play an important role in renal injury. We therefore assessed whether the supplemental antioxidant vitamin E and the inhibitor of xanthine oxidase allopurinol could prevent renal dysfunction after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery.Methods: Of 60 patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 60 mL/min scheduled to undergo CABG surgery, 30 were randomized to treatment with vitamin E and allopurinol for 3–5 days before surgery and 30 to no treatment. Serum creatinine levels and potassium and creatinine clearances were measured preoperatively and daily until day 5 after surgery. Results: The patients consisted of 31 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 63 ± 9 years. After surgery, there were no significant differences in mean serum creatinine (1.2 ± 0.33 vs 1.2 ± 0.4 mg/dL; p = 0.43 concentrations, or creatinine clearance (52 ± 12.8 vs 52 ± 12.8 mL/min; p = 0.9. The frequency of acute renal failure did not differ in treatment group compared with control (16% vs 13%; p = 0.5. Length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU was significantly longer in the control than in the treated group (3.9 ± 1.5 vs 2.6 ± 0.7 days; p < 0.001.Conclusion: Prophylactic treatment with vitamin E and allopurinol had no renoprotective effects in patients with pre-existing renal failure undergoing CABG surgery. Treatment with these agents, however, reduces the duration of ICU stay.Keywords: antioxidants, coronary artery bypass, prevention and control, renal function

  18. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metals-induced renal and testicular injuries in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2010-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals in water, air and soil are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity. Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. The antioxidant and protective influences of vitamin E on a mixture of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd and Cu)-induced oxidative stress and renal and testicular injuries were evaluated in male mice. Exposure of mice to these heavy metals in d...

  19. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  20. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade decreases vasopressin-induced water reabsorption and AQP2 levels in NaCl-restricted rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Nielsen, Jakob; Knepper, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin and ANG II, which are known to play a major role in renal water and sodium reabsorption, are mainly coupled to the cAMP/PKA and phosphoinositide pathways, respectively. There is evidence for cross talk between these intracellular signaling pathways. We therefore hypothesized that vaso......Vasopressin and ANG II, which are known to play a major role in renal water and sodium reabsorption, are mainly coupled to the cAMP/PKA and phosphoinositide pathways, respectively. There is evidence for cross talk between these intracellular signaling pathways. We therefore hypothesized...

  1. Expression of the vitamin D receptor, 25-hydroxylases, 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase in the human kidney and renal clear cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Andersen, Claus B.; Nielsen, John E

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR), CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 are expressed in the human kidney, but the segmental expression of the 25-hydroxylases is unknown. A comprehensive analysis of CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1 expression in normal kidney and renal clear cell cancer (CCc) would reveal...

  2. Development and application of novelty pretreatment method for the concurrent quantitation of eleven water-soluble B vitamins in ultrafiltrates after renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkus, Dorota; Jakubus, Aleksandra; Owczuk, Radosław; Stepnowski, Piotr; Paszkiewicz, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Continous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is particularly recommended for septic shock patients in intensive care units. The CRRT technique used most frequently is high volume continuous veno-venous haemofiltration. It provides a high rate of clearance of uremic toxins and inflammatory cytokines. However, it should also be taken into account that substances important for homeostasis may be concurrently unintentionally removed. Accordingly, water-soluble vitamins can be removed during continuous renal replacement therapy, and the estimate of the loss is critical to ensure appropriate supplementation. The aim of this work was to develop a simple methodology for a purification step prior to the LC-MS/MS determination of water-soluble vitamins in ultrafiltrate samples. For this purpose, two types of resin and a mix of resins were used as sorbents for the purification step. Moreover, parameters such as the amount of resin and the extraction time were optimized. The LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for final determination of 11 vitamins. The results demonstrated the high purification capability of DEAE Sephadex resin with recoveries between 65 and 101% for water-soluble vitamins from ultrafiltrate samples. An optimized method was applied to assess the loss of B-group vitamins in patients after 24h of renal replacement therapy. The loss of vitamins B2, B6 pyridoxamine, B6 pyridoxal, B7, B1, and B5 in ultrafiltrates was similar in all patients. In the native ultrafiltrates, vitamins B6 pyridoxine, B9 and B12 were not detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential Cardiovascular and Renal Protective Effects of Vitamin D and Coenzyme Q10 in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamardl, Hanan A; El-Ashmony, Sahar M; Kamel, Hala F; Fatani, Sameer H

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is one of the primary modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Adequate vitamin D (vit D) levels have been shown to reduce vascular smooth muscle contraction and to increase arterial compliance, which may be beneficial in hypertension. Further, coenzyme Q10 (COQ10) through its action to lower oxidative stress has been reported to have beneficial effects on hypertension and heart failure. This study examined the possible cardiac and renal protective effects of vit D and COQ10 both separately and in combination with an angiotensin II receptor blocker, valsartan (vals) in l-NAME hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in rats by l-NAME administration. Following induction of hypertension, the rats were assigned into the following 6 subgroups: an l-NAME alone group and treated groups receiving the following drugs intraperitoneally for 6 weeks; vals, vit D, COQ10 and combination of vals with either vit D or COQ10. A group of normotensive rats were used as negative controls. At the end of the treatment period, blood pressure, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lipids and serum, cardiac and renal parameters of oxidative stress were measured. Compared to the l-NAME only group, all treatments lowered systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatinine levels as well as TNF-α and malondialdehyde. Further, the agents increased serum, cardiac and renal total antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the combination of agents had further effects on all the parameters compared to treatment with each single agent. The study suggests that the additive protective effects of vit D and COQ10 when used alone or concurrent with vals treatment in hypertensive rats may be due to their effects as antioxidants, anticytokines and blood pressure conservers. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Iwakawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes.

  5. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Tomiho; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yukio; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes.

  6. Functional vitamin B-6 status and long-term mortality in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minović, Isidor; Veen, van der Anna; Faassen, van Martijn; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Berg, van den Else; Ley, van der Claude; Gomes-Neto, António W.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Navis, Gerjan J.; Kema, Ido P.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) are common in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and confer increased risk of long-term mortality. To our knowledge, it is not known whether low plasma PLP concentrations have functional (i.e., intracellular) consequences and,

  7. PGE2 receptor EP3 inhibits water reabsorption and contributes to polyuria and kidney injury in a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Ramzi; Nasrallah, Rania; Zimpelmann, Joe; Gutsol, Alex; Eckert, David; Ghossein, Jamie; Burns, Kevin D; Hébert, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The first clinical manifestation of diabetes is polyuria. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP3 antagonises arginine vasopressin (AVP)-mediated water reabsorption and its expression is increased in the diabetic kidney. The purpose of this work was to study the contribution of EP3 to diabetic polyuria and renal injury. Male Ep 3 (-/-) (also known as Ptger3 (-/-)) mice were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to generate a mouse model of diabetes and renal function was evaluated after 12 weeks. Isolated collecting ducts (CDs) were microperfused to study the contribution of EP3 to AVP-mediated fluid reabsorption. Ep 3 (-/-)-STZ mice exhibited attenuated polyuria and increased urine osmolality compared with wild-type STZ (WT-STZ) mice, suggesting enhanced water reabsorption. Compared with WT-STZ mice, Ep 3 (-/-)-STZ mice also had increased protein expression of aquaporin-1, aquaporin-2, and urea transporter A1, and reduced urinary AVP excretion, but increased medullary V2 receptors. In vitro microperfusion studies indicated that Ep 3 (-/-) and WT-STZ CDs responded to AVP stimulation similarly to those of wild-type mice, with a 60% increase in fluid reabsorption. In WT non-injected and WT-STZ mice, EP3 activation with sulprostone (PGE2 analogue) abrogated AVP-mediated water reabsorption; this effect was absent in mice lacking EP3. A major finding of this work is that Ep 3 (-/-)-STZ mice showed blunted renal cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression, reduced renal hypertrophy, reduced hyperfiltration and reduced albuminuria, as well as diminished tubular dilation and nuclear cysts. Taken together, the data suggest that EP3 contributes to diabetic polyuria by inhibiting expression of aquaporins and that it promotes renal injury during diabetes. EP3 may prove to be a promising target for more selective management of diabetic kidney disease.

  8. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Dimke, H.; Schoeber, J.P.H.; Hsu, S.C.; Lin, S.H.; Chu, P.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had

  9. The use of vitamin D analogs is independently associated with the favorable renal prognosis in chronic kidney disease stages 4-5: the CKD-ROUTE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yohei; Kanda, Eiichiro; Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Noda, Yumi; Kawasaki, Tomoki; Sato, Hidehiko; Ando, Ryoichi; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-06-01

    Vitamin D analogs have generally been recommended for treatment of mineral bone disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the association between this treatment and CKD progression has not yet been established. We designed a post hoc propensity score-matched cohort analysis derived from 3-year follow-up data of a prospective cohort. Adult participants with pre-dialysis CKD stages 4-5 who had newly been prescribed active vitamin D analogs during the observation period were eligible as matched cases. Then, matched controls were extracted from participants who had never been prescribed active vitamin D analogs. The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage renal disease or a 50 % reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A Cox proportional hazards model evaluated the association between the use of vitamin D analogs and the primary outcome. We enrolled 240 patients (males, 65 %). The number of matched cases and controls was 30 and 210, respectively. The primary outcome was observed in 94 patients, whereas 25 patients died. The mean ± standard deviation age and eGFR were 69 ± 12 years and 17 ± 5.7 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. In a Cox proportional hazard model, the use of vitamin D analogs was independently associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome (crude hazard ratio 0.41; 95 % confidence interval 0.19, 0.89; adjusted hazard ratio 0.38; 95 % confidence interval 0.17, 0.88). The use of vitamin D analogs is independently associated with the preservation of renal function in patients with pre-dialysis CKD stages 4-5.

  10. Hypocapnic but not metabolic alkalosis impairs alveolar fluid reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrianthefs, Pavlos M; Briva, Arturo; Lecuona, Emilia; Dumasius, Vidas; Rutschman, David H; Ridge, Karen M; Baltopoulos, George J; Sznajder, Jacob Iasha

    2005-06-01

    Acid-base disturbances, such as metabolic or respiratory alkalosis, are relatively common in critically ill patients. We examined the effects of alkalosis (hypocapnic or metabolic alkalosis) on alveolar fluid reabsorption in the isolated and continuously perfused rat lung model. We found that alveolar fluid reabsorption after 1 hour was impaired by low levels of CO2 partial pressure (PCO2; 10 and 20 mm Hg) independent of pH levels (7.7 or 7.4). In addition, PCO2 higher than 30 mm Hg or metabolic alkalosis did not have an effect on this process. The hypocapnia-mediated decrease of alveolar fluid reabsorption was associated with decreased Na,K-ATPase activity and protein abundance at the basolateral membranes of distal airspaces. The effect of low PCO2 on alveolar fluid reabsorption was reversible because clearance normalized after correcting the PCO2 back to normal levels. These data suggest that hypocapnic but not metabolic alkalosis impairs alveolar fluid reabsorption. Conceivably, correction of hypocapnic alkalosis in critically ill patients may contribute to the normalization of lung ability to clear edema.

  11. A low plasma 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D/PTH (1-84) ratio predicts worsening of renal function in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Colotta, Francesco; Magnoli, Michela; Bonelli, Fabrizio; Moro, Milena; Marchioli, Roberto; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tognoni, Gianni; Latini, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Dysregulation of the vitamin D system promotes renal dysfunction and has direct detrimental effects on the heart. Progressive deterioration of renal function is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and is invariably associated with unfavorable outcomes which can be improved by early identification and timely interventions. We examined the relation between two plasma markers of vitamin D metabolism and worsening of renal function (WRF) in a large cohort of patients with chronic HF. Plasma levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) and parathyroid hormone PTH (1-84) were measured in 1237 patients with clinical evidence of chronic and stable HF enrolled in the multicentre GISSI-HF trial and followed for 3.9years. We examined the relation of 1,25(OH) 2 D, PTH(1-84), and their ratio with WRF, defined as first increase in serum creatinine concentration ≥0.3mg/dL and ≥25% at two consecutive measurements at any time during the study. Lower 1,25(OH) 2 D/PTH(1-84) ratio was associated with a higher baseline serum concentration of creatinine, winter season, female sex and older age; 335 patients (29.6%) experienced an episode of WRF. After adjustment, a lower 1,25(OH) 2 D/PTH(1-84) ratio remained significantly associated with a higher risk of WRF (HR=0.75 [0.62-0.90], p=0.002) and correctly reclassified events. This ratio also independently predicted mortality and admission to hospital for cardiovascular reasons. The plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D/PTH(1-84) ratio is a promising indicator of future risk of deterioration of renal function in patients with chronic HF and mild renal impairment, that may serve to optimize therapies and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels on Helicobacter Pylori infections in patients with end-stage renal failure on regular hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasri, H.; Baradaran, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D influence the occurrence of infection with Helicobacter Pylori (H.Pylori) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). The study subjects were patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing maintenance dialysis at the hemodialysis section, Hajar Medical, Educational and Therapeutic Center, Shahrekord, Iran. The serum 25-OH vitamin D level and serum H. Pylori specific antibody titers were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. A total of 36 patients were studied including 21 males and 15 females. The mean age of study group was 47(+ 1 7) years. The mean level of serum 25-OH vitamin D was 0.5+-18.7 nmol/L (median: 3.5) while the mean value of serum H.Pylori specific IgG antibody titer was 7.7 (+-9.9) u/ml (median: 2 u/ml). Thus, a significant positive correlation was found between the levels of serum 25-OH vitamin D and serum H.Pylori specific IgG antibody titers (data adjusted for age, urea reduction rate, duration and dose of dialysis) (r=0.36, p=0.043). Our study suggests that vitamin D may positively affect the chronic inflammatory status of dialysis patients and may potentiate the immune response in such patients. Because of this immuno-modulatory effect, vitamin D analogs may offer new means to control the inflammatory status in patients on maintenance dialysis. (author)

  13. Patterned dye structures limit reabsorption in luminescent solar concentrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoi, S.; Broer, D.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Debije, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a method for limiting internal losses of a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) due to reabsorption through patterning the fluorescent dye doped coating of the LSC. By engineering the dye coating into regular line patterns with fill factors ranging from 20 - 80%, the surface

  14. Effect of cisplatin on renal haemodynamics and tubular function in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) to dogs results in polyuric renal failure due initially to a proximal tubular functional impairment. 48-72 h after the cisplatin administration the depressed renal function can be attributed to impairment of proximal as well as distal tubular reabsorptive cap...... capacities associated with increased renal vascular resistance. The polyuria seems to be due to the impaired reabsorption rate in the distal nephron segments....

  15. [History of the development of new vitamin D analogs for the treatment of renal failure, and future aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Yasuho

    2002-06-01

    In 1981, Suda and colleagues reported the new activity of calcitriol namely its ability to differentiate the myeloid leukemia cells into monocyte-macrophages. Several companies and organic chemists initiated the synthesis of vitamin D analogs with the aim to separate the calcemic actions of calcitriol from its actions on regulating the cell growth and differentiation. The group of Chugai company succeeded in marketing OCT, Oxarol, as a therapeutic agent for secondary hyperparathyroidism and psoriasis, and Leo company, MC903, Dovonex, as a drug for psoriasis. The work on OCT and MC903 vigorously stimulated research world-wide in the development of vitamin D analogs into pharmaceutical products. More new impressive vitamin D analogs are being developed. I am convinced that various vitamin D analogs will become highly effective therapeutic agents at the clinical level in the new century, and also that a new theory on the mechanism of vitamin D action will be generated.

  16. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...... than its blood flow. This is probably due to decreased filtration fraction and filtered sodium with subsequent reduction in absolute tubular re-absorption of sodium ions....

  17. Hereditary tubular transport disorders: implications for renal handling of Ca2+ and Mg2+.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimke, H.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The kidney plays an important role in maintaining the systemic Ca2+ and Mg2+ balance. Thus the renal reabsorptive capacity of these cations can be amended to adapt to disturbances in plasma Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations. The reabsorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+ is driven by transport of other electrolytes,

  18. Urinary Vitamin D Binding Protein and KIM-1 Are Potent New Biomarkers of Major Adverse Renal Events in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Chaykovska

    Full Text Available Vitamin-D-binding protein (VDBP is a low molecular weight protein that is filtered through the glomerulus as a 25-(OH vitamin D 3/VDBP complex. In the normal kidney VDBP is reabsorbed and catabolized by proximal tubule epithelial cells reducing the urinary excretion to trace amounts. Acute tubular injury is expected to result in urinary VDBP loss. The purpose of our study was to explore the potential role of urinary VDBP as a biomarker of an acute renal damage.We included 314 patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment undergoing coronary angiography and collected blood and urine before and 24 hours after the CM application. Patients were followed for 90 days for the composite endpoint major adverse renal events (MARE: need for dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine after 90 days, unplanned emergency rehospitalization or death.Increased urine VDBP concentration 24 hours after contrast media exposure was predictive for dialysis need (no dialysis: 113.06 ± 299.61 ng/ml, n = 303; need for dialysis: 613.07 ± 700.45 ng/ml, n = 11, Mean ± SD, p<0.001, death (no death during follow-up: 121.41 ± 324.45 ng/ml, n = 306; death during follow-up: 522.01 ± 521.86 ng/ml, n = 8; Mean ± SD, p<0.003 and MARE (no MARE: 112.08 ± 302.00 ng/ml, n = 298; MARE: 506.16 ± 624.61 ng/ml, n = 16, Mean ± SD, p<0.001 during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast media exposure. Correction of urine VDBP concentrations for creatinine excretion confirmed its predictive value and was consistent with increased levels of urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 and baseline plasma creatinine in patients with above mentioned complications. The impact of urinary VDBP and KIM-1 on MARE was independent of known CIN risk factors such as anemia, preexisting renal failure, preexisting heart failure, and diabetes.Urinary VDBP is a promising novel biomarker of major contrast induced nephropathy-associated events 90 days after contrast media exposure.

  19. Vitamin D for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, Anouk M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D has been identified as an important factor in healthy aging and is receiving growing attention in clinical research. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble molecule, which is synthesized by hepatic and renal or extra-renal hydroxylation into the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D).

  20. Influence of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Low Dietary Calcium, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Renal Failure on Circulating Rat PTH Molecular Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Pierre; Rousseau, Louise; Hornyak, Stephen; Yang, Zan; Cantor, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Rats(r) with secondary hyperparathyroidism were studied to define the relationship between vitamin D metabolites and rPTH levels measured by 3 different rat ELISAs. Controls and renal failure (RF) rats were on a normal diet, while 2 groups on a low-calcium (-Ca) or a vitamin D-deficient (-D) diet. RF was induced surgically. Mild RF rats had normal calcium and 25(OH)D but reduced 1,25(OH)(2)D levels (P < .001) with a 2.5-fold increased in rPTH (P < .001). Severe RF rats and those on a -Ca or -D diet had reduced calcium (P < .01) and 25(OH)D levels (P < .05), with rPTH increased by 2 (-Ca diet; P < .05), 4 (-D diet; P < .001), and 20-folds (RF; P < .001) while 1,25(OH)(2)D was high (-Ca diet: P < .001) or low (-D diet, RF: P < .001). 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were positively and negatively related on the -Ca and -D diets, respectively. rPTH molecular forms behaved as expected in RF and on -Ca diet, but not on -D diet with more C-rPTH fragments when less were expected. This may be related to the short-time course of this study compared to prior studies.

  1. Reabsorption kinetics of albumin from pleural space of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniati, M.; Parker, J.C.; Pistolesi, M.; Cartledge, J.T.; Martin, D.J.; Giuntini, C.; Taylor, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The reabsorption of albumin from the pleural space was measured in eight dogs receiving 0.5 ml intrapleural injection of 131 I-labeled albumin and a simultaneous intravenous injection of 125 I-labeled albumin. Plasma curves for both tracers were obtained over 24 h. The 125 I-albumin curve served as input function of albumin for interstitial spaces, including pleura, whereas the 131 I-albumin curve represented the output function from pleural space. The frequency function of albumin transit times from pleural space to plasma was obtained by deconvolution of input-output plasma curves. Plasma recovery of 131 I-albumin was complete by 24 h, and the mean transit time from pleura to plasma averaged 7.95 +/- 1.57 (SD) h. Albumin reabsorption occurred mainly via lymphatics as indicated by experiments in 16 additional dogs in which their right lymph ducts or thoracic ducts were ligated before intrapleural injection. A pleural lymph flow of 0.020 +/- 0.003 (SD) ml.kg-1.h-1 was estimated, which is balanced by a comparable filtration of fluid into the pleural space. This suggests that, under physiological conditions, the subpleural lymphatics represent an important control mechanism of pleural liquid pressure

  2. Dalteparin versus vitamin K antagonists for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer and renal impairment: a Canadian pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Lesley G Shane,2 Mark Crowther,3 Guillaume Feugere,4 Seth Woodruff2 1Health Economic and Outcomes Research, Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 3McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, 4Pfizer Canada, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE and the risk is further elevated after a primary VTE. To reduce the risk of recurrent events, extended prophylaxis with vitamin K antagonists (VKA is available for use. However, in a large randomized trial (Comparison of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer [CLOT]; Lee et al, extended duration dalteparin reduced the relative risk of recurrent VTE by 52% compared to VKA (p=0.002. A recent subgroup analysis of patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment also revealed lower absolute VTE rates with dalteparin (3% vs. 17%; p=0.011. To measure the economic value of dalteparin as an alternative to VKA, a patient-level cost utility analysis was conducted from a Canadian perspective. Methods: Resource use data captured during the CLOT trial were extracted and linked to 2015 Canadian unit cost estimates. Health state utilities were then measured using the Time-Trade-Off technique in 24 randomly selected members of the general Canadian public to estimate the gains in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Results: For the entire CLOT trial population (n=676, the dalteparin group had significantly higher mean costs compared to the VKA group ($Can5,771 vs. $Can2,569; p<0.001. However, the utility assessment revealed that 21 of 24 respondents (88% selected dalteparin over VKA, with an associated gain of 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10–0.18 QALYs. When the incremental cost of dalteparin was combined with the QALY gain, dalteparin had a cost of $Can23,100 (95% CI: $Can19,200

  3. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  4. Vitamin D receptor: key roles in bone mineral pathophysiology, molecular mechanism of action, and novel nutritional ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurutka, Peter W; Bartik, Leonid; Whitfield, G Kerr; Mathern, Douglas R; Barthel, Thomas K; Gurevich, Miriam; Hsieh, Jui-Cheng; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Haussler, Carol A; Haussler, Mark R

    2007-12-01

    The vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], binds with high affinity to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), which recruits its retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimeric partner to recognize vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) in target genes. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is known primarily as a regulator of calcium, but it also controls phosphate (re)absorption at the intestine and kidney. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone produced in osteoblasts that, like PTH, lowers serum phosphate by inhibiting renal reabsorption through Npt2a/Npt2c. Real-time PCR and reporter gene transfection assays were used to probe VDR-mediated transcriptional control by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Reporter gene and mammalian two-hybrid transfections, plus competitive receptor binding assays, were used to discover novel VDR ligands. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces FGF23 78-fold in osteoblasts, and because FGF23 in turn represses 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) synthesis, a reciprocal relationship is established, with FGF23 indirectly curtailing 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated intestinal absorption and counterbalancing renal reabsorption of phosphate, thereby reversing hyperphosphatemia and preventing ectopic calcification. Therefore, a 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-FGF23 axis regulating phosphate is comparable in importance to the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-PTH axis that regulates calcium. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also elicits regulation of LRP5, Runx2, PHEX, TRPV6, and Npt2c, all anabolic toward bone, and RANKL, which is catabolic. Regulation of mouse RANKL by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) supports a cloverleaf model, whereby VDR-RXR heterodimers bound to multiple VDREs are juxtapositioned through chromatin looping to form a supercomplex, potentially allowing simultaneous interactions with multiple co-modulators and chromatin remodeling enzymes. VDR also selectively binds certain omega3/omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with low affinity, leading to transcriptionally active VDR-RXR complexes. Moreover, the turmeric

  5. Renal Blood Flow, Glomerular Filtration Rate, and Renal Oxygenation in Early Clinical Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte Larsson, Jenny; Krumbholz, Vitus; Enskog, Anders; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2018-06-01

    Data on renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation in early clinical septic shock are lacking. We therefore measured renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and oxygenation in patients with early septic shock. Prospective comparative study. General and cardiothoracic ICUs. Patients with norepinephrine-dependent early septic shock (n = 8) were studied within 24 hours after arrival in the ICU and compared with postcardiac surgery patients without acute kidney injury (comparator group, n = 58). None. Data on systemic hemodynamics and renal variables were obtained during two 30-minute periods. Renal blood flow was measured by the infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid, corrected for renal extraction of para-aminohippuric acid. Renal filtration fraction was measured by renal extraction of chromium-51 labeled EDTA. Renal oxygenation was estimated from renal oxygen extraction. Renal oxygen delivery (-24%; p = 0.037) and the renal blood flow-to-cardiac index ratio (-21%; p = 0.018) were lower, renal vascular resistance was higher (26%; p = 0.027), whereas renal blood flow tended to be lower (-19%; p = 0.068) in the septic group. Glomerular filtration rate (-32%; p = 0.006) and renal sodium reabsorption (-29%; p = 0.014) were both lower in the septic group. Neither renal filtration fraction nor renal oxygen consumption differed significantly between groups. Renal oxygen extraction was significantly higher in the septic group (28%; p = 0.022). In the septic group, markers of tubular injury were elevated. In early clinical septic shock, renal function was lower, which was accompanied by renal vasoconstriction, a lower renal oxygen delivery, impaired renal oxygenation, and tubular sodium reabsorption at a high oxygen cost compared with controls.

  6. Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

  7. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal.

  8. Renal rickets-practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Rickets/osteomalacia is an important problem in a tropical country. Many cases are due to poor vitamin D intake or calcium deficient diets and can be corrected by administration of calcium and vitamin D. However, some cases are refractory to vitamin D therapy and are related to renal defects. These include rickets of renal tubular acidosis (RTA), hypophosphatemic rickets, and vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR). The latter is due to impaired action of 1α-hydroxylase in renal tubule. These varieties need proper diagnosis and specific treatment. PMID:24251212

  9. Paracellular transport and energy utilization in the renal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan S L

    2017-09-01

    Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule. Knockout of claudin-2 in mice impairs proximal sodium and fluid reabsorption but is compensated by upregulation of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. This occurs at the expense of increased renal oxygen consumption, hypoxia of the outer medulla and increased susceptibility to ischemic kidney injury. Paracellular transport can be viewed as a mechanism to exploit the potential energy in existing electrochemical gradients to drive passive transepithelial transport without consuming additional energy. In this way, it enhances the efficiency of energy utilization by transporting epithelia.

  10. Zero-reabsorption doped-nanocrystal luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Christian S; Bradshaw, Liam R; McDowall, Stephen; Gilbertson, John D; Gamelin, Daniel R; Patrick, David L

    2014-04-22

    Optical concentration can lower the cost of solar energy conversion by reducing photovoltaic cell area and increasing photovoltaic efficiency. Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to combined spectral and spatial concentration of both specular and diffuse light without tracking, but they have been plagued by luminophore self-absorption losses when employed on practical size scales. Here, we introduce doped semiconductor nanocrystals as a new class of phosphors for use in luminescent solar concentrators. In proof-of-concept experiments, visibly transparent, ultraviolet-selective luminescent solar concentrators have been prepared using colloidal Mn(2+)-doped ZnSe nanocrystals that show no luminescence reabsorption. Optical quantum efficiencies of 37% are measured, yielding a maximum projected energy concentration of ∼6× and flux gain for a-Si photovoltaics of 15.6 in the large-area limit, for the first time bounded not by luminophore self-absorption but by the transparency of the waveguide itself. Future directions in the use of colloidal doped nanocrystals as robust, processable spectrum-shifting phosphors for luminescent solar concentration on the large scales required for practical application of this technology are discussed.

  11. Observations on the mechanism and location of ascites reabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, W.G. Jr.; Ibarra, F.

    1987-01-01

    Animal data indicate that ascites is reabsorbed by a lymphatic mechanism and that these vessels are subdiaphragmatic in location. We evaluated the relative role of lymphatics in ascites reabsorption in man by comparing the ascites clearance and plasma appearance rates of intraperitoneally injected radiolabeled albumin to those of intraperitoneally injected labeled autologous red blood cells, which require, owing to their large size, lymphatic removal, in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. To evaluate the location of reabsorption, we repeated these measurements after replacing ascites in the subdiaphragmatic region with 500-1000 ml of intraperitoneally injected air, reasoning that this maneuver should slow or eliminate ascites reabsorption occurring at this site. We found that the transfer rates of albumin and red cells out of ascites were similar and that creation of pneumoperitoneum did not influence these rates. These data confirm that ascites protein reabsorption occurs via a lymphatic mechanism in man. They suggest, however, that these vessels may not be subdiaphragmatic in location

  12. The Association of Albuminuria With Tubular Reabsorption of Uric Acid : Results From a General Population Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheven, Lieneke; Joosten, Michel M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background-Elevated albuminuria as well as an increased serum uric acid concentration is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. We questioned whether these 2 variables (albuminuria and serum uric concentration) may be interrelated via tubular uric acid reabsorption. Methods and

  13. Alternative therapeutic approach to renal-cell carcinoma: induction of apoptosis with combination of vitamin K3 and D-fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Michael; Alexander, Bobby; Choudhury, Muhammad; Eshghi, Majid; Konno, Sensuke

    2013-12-01

    Because of a dismal prognosis for advanced renal-cell carcinoma (RCC), an alternative therapeutic approach, using vitamin K3 (VK3) and D-fraction (DF) was investigated. VK3 is a synthetic VK derivative and DF is a bioactive mushroom extract, and they have been shown to have antitumor activity. We examined if the combination of VK3 and DF would exhibit the improved anticancer effect on RCC in vitro. Human RCC, ACHN cell line, were treated with varying concentrations of VK3, DF, or a combination of the two. Cell viability was assessed at 72 hours by MTT assay. To explore the possible anticancer mechanism, studies on cell cycle, chromatin modifications, and apoptosis were conducted. VK3 alone led to a ~20% reduction in cell viability at 4 μM, while DF alone induced a 20% to 45% viability reduction at ≥ 500 μg/mL. A combination of VK3 (4 μM) and DF (300 μg/mL) led to a drastic >90% viability reduction, however. Cell cycle analysis indicated that VK3/DF treatment induced a G1 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by the up-regulation of p21(WAF1) and p27(Kip1). Histone deacetylase (HDAC) was also significantly (~60%) inactivated, indicating chromatin modifications. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed that the up-regulation of Bax and activation of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) were seen in VK3/DF-treated cells, indicating induction of apoptosis. The combination of VK3 and DF can lead to a profound reduction in ACHN cell viability, through a p21(WAF1)-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest, and ultimately induces apoptosis. Therefore, the combination of VK3/DF may have clinical implications as an alternative, improved therapeutic modality for advanced RCC.

  14. Nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in male and female flowers of Cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stpiczynska, M.; Nepi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The production and secretion of nectar has an energy cost that can be a substantial part of the energy economy of the plant. Plants may therefore recover part of the energy allocated to nectar secretion by reabsorbing nectar not collected by pollinators. This energy-saving strategy has been demonstrated by several authors by different methods. Here we demonstrate nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in Cucurbita pepo by means of microautoradiography. Our results confirm that the dynamics of nectar reabsorption is different in male and female flowers. Differences in the dynamics of nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation were also found in pollinated and unpollinated female flowers. Pollinated female flowers reabsorbed sugar very quickly and translocated it to developing fruits in which ovules were the main sugar sink. Sugar translocation was slower and ovules did not label in unpollinated female flowers. (author)

  15. Is nectar reabsorption restricted by the stalk cells of floral and extrafloral nectary trichomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, P; Davis, A R

    2015-01-01

    Reabsorption is a phase of nectar dynamics that occurs concurrently with secretion; it has been described in floral nectaries that exude nectar through stomata or unicellular trichomes, but has not yet been recorded in extrafloral glands. Apparently, nectar reabsorption does not occur in multicellular secretory trichomes (MST) due to the presence of lipophilic impregnations - which resemble Casparian strips - in the anticlinal walls of the stalk cells. It has been assumed that these impregnations restrict solute movement within MST to occur unidirectionally and exclusively by the symplast, thereby preventing nectar reflux toward the underlying nectary tissues. We hypothesised that reabsorption is absent in nectaries possessing MST. The fluorochrome lucifer yellow (LYCH) was applied to standing nectar of two floral and extrafloral glands of distantly related species, and then emission spectra from nectary sections were systematically analysed using confocal microscopy. Passive uptake of LYCH via the stalk cells to the nectary tissues occurred in all MST examined. Moreover, we present evidence of nectar reabsorption in extrafloral nectaries, demonstrating that LYCH passed the stalk cells of MST, although it did not reach the deepest nectary tissues. Identical (control) experiments performed with neutral red (NR) demonstrated no uptake of this stain by actively secreting MST, whereas diffusion of NR did occur in plasmolysed MST of floral nectaries at the post-secretory phase, indicating that nectar reabsorption by MST is governed by stalk cell physiology. Interestingly, non-secretory trichomes failed to reabsorb nectar. The role of various nectary components is discussed in relation to the control of nectar reabsorption by secretory trichomes. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Distribution of glucose transporters in renal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Szablewski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Kidneys play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Renal gluconeogenesis prevents hypoglycemia by releasing glucose into the blood stream. Glucose homeostasis is also due, in part, to reabsorption and excretion of hexose in the kidney. Lipid bilayer of plasma membrane is impermeable for glucose, which is hydrophilic and soluble in water. Therefore, transport of glucose across the plasma membrane depends on carrier proteins expressed in the plasma membrane. In humans, there are three famil...

  17. Towards a system-based pharmacology approach to predict developmental changes in renal drug clearance in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Cock, Roosmarijn Frieda Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Renal clearance is responsible for the elimination of a large number of water-soluble drugs and metabolites and is therefore of large importance when characterizing the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Renal clearance includes glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and reabsorption and each of these

  18. The Association of Albuminuria With Tubular Reabsorption of Uric Acid: Results From a General Population Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheven, Lieneke; Joosten, Michel M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated albuminuria as well as an increased serum uric acid concentration is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. We questioned whether these 2 variables (albuminuria and serum uric concentration) may be interrelated via tubular uric acid reabsorption. Methods and Results Included were 7688 participants of the PREVEND Study, an observational, general population‐based cohort study. Linear regression analyses were used to test associations of baseline albuminuria with baseline serum uric acid concentration and tubular uric acid reabsorption (calculated as [100−fractional uric acid excretion]%). Cox regression analyses were used to study the association of baseline serum uric acid and albuminuria with incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In cross‐sectional analyses, albuminuria was associated positively with serum uric acid concentration, both crude and after adjustment for potential confounders (both Puric acid reabsorption, again both crude and after adjustment for potential confounders (both Puric acid were associated with incident cardiovascular events (Hazard Ratios 1.09 [1.03 to 1.17], P=0.01 and 1.19 [1.09 to 1.30], Puric acid being less predictive for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the presence of high albuminuria and vice versa. Conclusions Albuminuria is strongly associated with tubular uric acid reabsorption, and consequently with serum uric acid concentration. This phenomenon may explain in part why albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular outcome. PMID:24772520

  19. Effects of renal denervation on tubular sodium handling in rats with CBL-induced liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, T.E.; Brond, L.; Torp, M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of bilateral renal denervation (DNX) on thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) function in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by common bile duct ligation (CBL). The CBL rats had, as previously shown, sodium retention associated with hypertrophy...... renal sympathetic nerve activity known to be present in CBL rats plays a significant role in the formation of sodium retention by stimulating sodium reabsorption in the TAL via increased renal abundance of NKCC2....

  20. Insulin's acute effects on glomerular filtration rate correlate with insulin sensitivity whereas insulin's acute effects on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption correlate with salt sensitivity in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    1999-01-01

    Background. Insulin induces increasing distal tubular sodium reabsorption. Opposite effects of insulin to offset insulin-induced sodium retention are supposedly increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreases in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. Defects in these opposing effects

  1. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  2. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  3. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultraviolet light from the sun. The body also needs vitamin E to boost its immune system so that ... important functions. How much vitamin E do I need? The amount of vitamin E you need each day depends on your ...

  4. Renal Control of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. PMID:25287933

  5. Photobiogenesis and metabolism of vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holick, M.F.; Clark, M.B.

    1978-01-01

    Provitamin D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol) is converted to previtamin D3 by the action of ultraviolet radiation on the skin. Previtamin D3 thermally isomerizes to vitamin D3 in the skin and the vitamin is then transported to the liver on the vitamin D-binding protein. Although there are extrahepatic vitamin D-25-hydroxylases, the liver is the major site for the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D. In response to hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia, 25-OH-D is metabolized by a renal-cytochrome. Parathyroid hormone has clearly been shown to be a trophin for the renal synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D; however, the role and significance of the adrenal steroids, or gonadal and pituitary hormones, on the renal 25-OH-D-1alpha-hydroxylase is not well defined

  6. Effects of hyperventilation and hypocapnic/normocapnic hypoxemia on renal function and lithium clearance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H; Klausen, T; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1998-01-01

    Using the renal clearance of lithium as an index of proximal tubular outflow, this study tested the hypothesis that acute hypocapnic hypoxemia decreases proximal tubular reabsorption to the same extent as hypocapnic normoxemia (hyperventilation) and that this response is blunted during normocapnic...

  7. Demeclocycline Attenuates Hyponatremia by Reducing Aquaporin-2 Expression in the Renal Inner Medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L. A.; Sinke, Anne P.; Hadrup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Binding of vasopressin to its type-2 receptor in renal collecting ducts induces cAMP signaling, transcription and translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels to the plasma membrane and water reabsorption from the pro-urine. Demeclocycline is currently used to treat hyponatremia in patients...

  8. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  9. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role in ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds Leafy ...

  10. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thin, and brittle bones, a condition known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D ... the body. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, a condition in which the bones become soft ...

  11. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one ... building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis ...

  12. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your ... healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include ...

  13. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnberg, P O; de Villota, E D; Eklund, J; Granberg, P O

    1978-01-01

    The effects were studied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on renal function in eight patients with acute respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation. On application of PEEP + 10 cm H2O, central venous pressure increased, systolic blood pressure decreased, urine flow and PAH-clearance were reduced, while inulin clearance remained stable. There was a marked increase in fractional sodium reabsorption and a concurrent decrease in fractional osmolal excretion. Fractional free-water clearance and the ratio UOsm/POsm did change.

  14. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... values to calculate your total daily recommended amount. What foods provide vitamin C? Fruits and vegetables are the ... lessen cooking losses. Fortunately, many of the best food sources of vitamin C, ... raw. What kinds of vitamin C dietary supplements are available? ...

  15. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  16. Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation of Na/K-ATPase Regulates Fibrosis and Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Na/K-ATPase is the primary force regulating renal sodium handling and plays a key role in both ion homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Recently, cardiotonic steroids (CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling has been shown to regulate fibrosis, renal proximal tubule (RPT sodium reabsorption, and experimental Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension in response to a high-salt diet. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are an important modulator of nephron ion transport. As there is limited knowledge regarding the role of ROS-mediated fibrosis and RPT sodium reabsorption through the Na/K-ATPase, the focus of this review is to examine the possible role of ROS in the regulation of Na/K-ATPase activity, its signaling, fibrosis, and RPT sodium reabsorption.

  17. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  18. Inhibition of renal Na+/H+ exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl 2 (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V max of Na + /H + antiport with no changes in K Na in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na + /H + exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na + -HCO 3 - cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na + -K + -ATPase α-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal

  19. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Sherliker, Paul; Hin, Harold

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired vitamin B(12) function and decreased vitamin B(12) status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B(12) concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component......, carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B(12). METHODS: We compared the utility of serum holoTC with conventional vitamin B(12) for detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency in a population-based study of older people, using increased methylmalonic acid (MMA......) concentrations as a marker of metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency in the overall population (n = 2403) and in subsets with normal (n = 1651) and abnormal (n = 752) renal function. RESULTS: Among all participants, 6% had definite (MMA >0.75 micromol/L) and 16% had probable (MMA >0.45 micromol/L) metabolic vitamin...

  20. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on proximal tubular fluid reabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Karlsen, F M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1997-01-01

    flow rate decreased by 2.0 +/- 0.8 nl/min, and early distal NaCl concentration decreased by 4.3 +/- 0.8 mM (mean +/- SE). No changes were observed after microperfusion with saline. Because the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was operating in the closed-loop mode, the decreased NaCl load...... to the macula densa will be compensated by an increase in the single-nephron glomerular filtration rate. In agreement with this, the early proximal flow rate, measured proximal to the site of losartan administration, increased by 5.7 +/- 1.3 nl/min. The increase in the rate of proximal reabsorption between...

  1. Ion transporters for fluid reabsorption in the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, J M; Dalponte, M; Janssen, S; Bunick, D; Nakai, M

    2006-10-01

    Testicular fluid is highly condensed during its passage through the epididymal region in the avian species. In the present study, major ion transporters that are responsible for condensation mainly by water resorption in the reproductive tract as identified in the mammalian epididymis were localized within the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymis by immunohistochemistry. The results show that the efferent ductule epithelium expressed sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and that the connecting ductule and epididymal duct epithelia expressed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and CAII. These data suggest that a model proposed for reabsorption in mammalian efferent ductules can be applied to avian efferent ductules.

  2. Localisation and mechanism of renal retention of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Marleen; Krenning, Eric P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Barone, Raffaella [UCL, Centre of Nuclear Medicine and Laboratory of PET, Brussels (Belgium); Visser, Theo J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    Radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide and octreotate, are used for tumour scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy. The kidney is the most important critical organ during such therapy owing to the reabsorption and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The aim of this study was to investigate in a rat model both the localisation and the mechanism of renal uptake after intravenous injection of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. The multi-ligand megalin/cubilin receptor complex, responsible for reabsorption of many peptides and proteins in the kidney, is an interesting candidate for renal endocytosis of these peptide analogues. For localisation studies, ex vivo autoradiography and micro-autoradiography of rat kidneys were performed 1-24 h after injection of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues and compared with the renal anti-megalin immunohistochemical staining pattern. To confirm a role of megalin in the mechanism of renal retention of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide, the effects of three inhibitory substances were explored in rats. Renal ex vivo autoradiography showed high cortical radioactivity and lower radioactivity in the outer medulla. The distribution of cortical radioactivity was inhomogeneous. Micro-autoradiography indicated that radioactivity was only retained in the proximal tubules. The anti-megalin immunohistochemical staining pattern showed a strong similarity with the renal [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide ex vivo autoradiograms. Biodistribution studies showed that co-injection of positively charged d-lysine reduced renal uptake to 60% of control. Sodium maleate reduced renal [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide uptake to 15% of control. Finally, cisplatin pre-treatment of rats reduced kidney uptake to 70% of control. Renal retention of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide is confined to proximal tubules in the rat kidney, in which megalin-mediated endocytosis may play an important part. (orig.)

  3. Regulation of Mg2+ Reabsorption and Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Type 6 Activity by cAMP Signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, M.G.; Kittikulsuth, W.; Nair, A.V.; Baaij, J.H.F. de; Latta, F.; Genzen, J.R.; Kohan, D.E.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential melastatin type 6 (TRPM6) epithelial Mg(2+) channels participate in transcellular Mg(2+) transport in the kidney and intestine. Previous reports suggested a hormonal cAMP-dependent regulation of Mg(2+) reabsorption in the kidney. The molecular details of this process

  4. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seem to benefit older women who still have strong bones. Taking vitamin K1 seems to increase bone strength and might prevent fractures in older women. But it might not work as well in older men. Vitamin K1 doesn't seem to improve bone ...

  5. B Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid These ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, ...

  6. Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry Kurt

    2017-01-01

    To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2) along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer. Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required. Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health.

  7. Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Kurt Schwalfenberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. Quality of Evidence. PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2 along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer. Main Message. Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required. Conclusion. Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health.

  8. B vitamins in stroke prevention: time to reconsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David; Yi, Qilong; Hankey, Graeme J

    2017-09-01

    B vitamin therapy lowers plasma total homocysteine concentrations, and might be a beneficial intervention for stroke prevention; however, cyanocobalamin (a form of vitamin B12) can accelerate decline in renal function and increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with impaired renal function. Although early trials did not show benefit in reduction of stroke, these results might have been due to harm in participants with impaired renal function. In patients with diabetic nephropathy, cyanocobalamin is harmful, whereas B vitamins appear to reduce cardiovascular events in study participants with normal renal function. Our meta-analysis of individual patient data from two large trials of B vitamin therapy (VISP and VITATOPS) indicates that patients with impaired renal function who are exposed to high-dose cyanocobalamin do not benefit from therapy with B vitamins for the prevention of stroke (risk ratio 1·04, 95% CI 0·84-1·27), however, patients with normal renal function who are not exposed to high-dose cyanocobalamin benefit significantly from this treatment (0.78, 0·67-0·90; interaction p=0·03). The potential benefits of B vitamin therapy with folic acid and methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin, instead of cyanocobalamin, to lower homocysteine concentrations in people at high risk of stroke warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin K antagonist use and mortality in dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Pauline W.M.; Rookmaaker, Maarten B.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Ocak, Gurbey

    2018-01-01

    Background. The risk-benefit ratio of vitamin K antagonists for different CHA2DS2-VASc scores in patients with end-stage renal disease treated with dialysis is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vitamin K antagonist use and mortality for different CHA2DS2-VASc

  10. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Novica Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Nina Jančić; Nataša Đinđić

    2013-01-01

    Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E) or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K). Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solub...

  11. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carrots, and squash. Fruits, including cantaloupe, apricots, and mangos. Dairy products, which are among the major sources ... medicines might interfere with how your body absorbs, uses, or breaks down nutrients . Vitamin A and healthful ...

  12. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as the clotting vitamin, because without it blood would not clot. Some studies suggest that it helps maintain strong bones in the older adults. Food Sources The best way to get the daily ...

  13. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease.

  14. Calcium response to vitamin D supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show the importance of serum vitamin D sufficient levels to prevent multiple chronic diseases. However, vitamin D supplementation and its effects on urine calcium excretion remain controversial. The objective of this prospective and interventional study was to evaluate urine calcium excretion in women with normal calciuria or hypercalciuria, once serum vitamin D sufficiency was achieved. We studied 63 women with idiopathic hypercalciuria, (9 with renal lithiasis and 50 normocalciuric women. Both groups had serum vitamin D levels low (deficiency or insufficiency. Baseline urine calcium excretion was measured before being supplemented with vitamin D2 or D3 weekly or vitamin D3 100.000 IU monthly. Once serum vitamin D levels were corrected achieving at least 30 ng/ml, a second urine calcium excretion was obtained. Although in the whole sample we did not observe significant changes in urine calcium excretion according to the way of supplementation, some of those with weekly supplementation had significant higher urine calcium excretion, 19% (n = 12 of hypercalciuric women and 12% (n = 6 of the normocalciuric group. Monthly doses, also showed higher urine calcium excretion in 40% of hypercalciuric women (n = 4/10 and in 44% (n = 4/9 of the renal lithiasis hypercalciuric patients. In conclusion, different ways of vitamin D supplementation and adequate serum levels are safe in most patients, although it should be taken into account a subgroup, mainly with monthly loading doses, that could increase the calciuria significantly eventually rising renal lithiasis risk or bone mass loss, if genetically predisposed.

  15. The mythology of renal function measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    The kidney is a conservative organ. In principle it retains what the body needs, and what is not needed is excreted. It has a number of basic properties. It has the ability to take solutes up from the blood whether by filtration or secretion, which is best called its Uptake function. In the special circumstance where the kidneys are the only exit for the solute from the body, then the rate of loss from the blood is equal to the rate of uptake by the kidney. It has the ability to move solutes among its nephrons, which is its Transit function. The solutes may be absorbed in whole or part and be retained or returned to the blood, its Reabsorption function. In the special case where the solute is non- reabsorbable, then, if there is an increase in salt and water reabsorption as in functionally significant renovascular disease or obstructive nephropathy, the transit function is altered and the transit time through the parenchyme is prolonged. In renovascular disorder the transit time is prolonged through both cortical and juxta-medullary nephrons and collecting ducts. In obstructive nephropathy the transit time is prolonged through the cortical nephrons, but usually is shortened through the juxta-medullary nephrons and collecting ducts due to loss of medullary concentrating ability. After transit through the kidney, the solutes move through the pelvis and ureter, its Excretory function. No more can come out of the kidney then went in previously. If less comes out than what went in, then an increased resistance to outflow is predicted. The balance between excretory function and uptake function is measurable by the Output (Outflow) Efficiency. The kidney also has receptors for hormones, which may modify its reabsorptive functions, for example increased Vasopressin binding decreases the permeability of the collecting duct to water. The kidney also has the ability through enzymes to modify solutes, such as the activation of Vitamin D

  16. Reduced reabsorption and enhanced propagation induced by large Stokes shift in quantum dot-filled optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hua; Zhang, Yu, E-mail: yuzhang@jlu.edu.cn; Lu, Min; Liu, Wenyan [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering (China); Xu, Jian [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics (United States); Yu, William W., E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-07-15

    With tunable emission wavelength, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and broad absorption, colloidal quantum dots are attractive for the application in optical fiber as dopants. However, most of the quantum dots have a large overlap between their absorption and photoluminescence spectra, resulting in reabsorption loss which hinders the realization of long-distance waveguides. Therefore, ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots with large Stokes shift were proposed to fabricate a liquid-core optical fiber in this work. In this work, ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs with an average size of 3.3 nm were synthesized and the optical properties of the QD-filled fiber were also investigated as a function of fiber length and doping concentration. Compared to the control sample filled with CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot-based waveguides showed reduced reabsorption and enhanced signal propagation, which demonstrates great potential of large Stokes-shift quantum dots in optical waveguide devices.Graphical AbstractA reduced reabsorption and enhanced propagation of ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs-doped liquid-core optical fiber was achieved due to the large Stokes shift.

  17. Validation of phenol red versus gravimetric method for water reabsorption correction and study of gender differences in Doluisio's absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğcu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a method for water flux reabsorption measurement in Doluisio's Perfusion Technique based on the use of phenol red as a non-absorbable marker and to validate it by comparison with gravimetric procedure. The compounds selected for the study were metoprolol, atenolol, cimetidine and cefadroxil in order to include low, intermediate and high permeability drugs absorbed by passive diffusion and by carrier mediated mechanism. The intestinal permeabilities (Peff) of the drugs were obtained in male and female Wistar rats and calculated using both methods of water flux correction. The absorption rate coefficients of all the assayed compounds did not show statistically significant differences between male and female rats consequently all the individual values were combined to compare between reabsorption methods. The absorption rate coefficients and permeability values did not show statistically significant differences between the two strategies of concentration correction. The apparent zero order water absorption coefficients were also similar in both correction procedures. In conclusion gravimetric and phenol red method for water reabsorption correction are accurate and interchangeable for permeability estimation in closed loop perfusion method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of renal ammonia metabolism other than in acid-base homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David

    2017-06-01

    The importance of renal ammonia metabolism in acid-base homeostasis is well known. However, the effects of renal ammonia metabolism other than in acid-base homeostasis are not as widely recognized. First, ammonia differs from almost all other solutes in the urine in that it does not result from arterial delivery. Instead, ammonia is produced by the kidney, and only a portion of the ammonia produced is excreted in the urine, with the remainder returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. In normal individuals, systemic ammonia addition is metabolized efficiently by the liver, but in patients with either acute or chronic liver disease, conditions that increase the addition of ammonia of renal origin to the systemic circulation can result in precipitation and/or worsening of hyperammonemia. Second, ammonia appears to serve as an intrarenal paracrine signaling molecule. Hypokalemia increases proximal tubule ammonia production and secretion as well as reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, thereby increasing delivery to the renal interstitium and the collecting duct. In the collecting duct, ammonia decreases potassium secretion and stimulates potassium reabsorption, thereby decreasing urinary potassium excretion and enabling feedback correction of the initiating hypokalemia. Finally, the stimulation of renal ammonia metabolism by hypokalemia may contribute to the development of metabolic alkalosis, which in turn can stimulate NaCl reabsorption and contribute to the intravascular volume expansion, increased blood pressure and diuretic resistance that can develop with hypokalemia. The evidence supporting these novel non-acid-base roles of renal ammonia metabolism is discussed in this review.

  19. Renal venogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be black. Other structures will be shades of gray. Veins are not normally seen in an x- ... Venogram - kidney; Renal vein thrombosis - venogram Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal veins References ...

  20. The plasma carnitine concentration regulates renal OCTN2 expression and carnitine transport in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schürch, R; Todesco, L; Novakova, K; Mevissen, M; Stieger, B; Krähenbühl, S

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings in rats and in human vegetarians suggest that the plasma carnitine concentration and/or carnitine ingestion may influence the renal reabsorption of carnitine. We tested this hypothesis in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency following treatment with N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP) for 2 weeks and rats treated with excess L-carnitine for 2 weeks. Compared to untreated control rats, treatment with THP was associated with an approximately 70% decrease in plasma car...

  1. Nutritional status of renal transplant patients | du Plessis | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 0.0001) during the post-transplant period. Conclusions. Several nutritional abnormalities were observed, which primarily reflect the side-effects of immunosuppressive therapy. The causes, consequences and treatment of the vitamin B6 and vitamin C deficiencies in renal transplant recipients need further investigation.

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two categories of vitamins. ... vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D ( ...

  3. Renal morphology of Bradypus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Kastein Faria da Cunha Bianchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the Xenarthras, sloths present a hydric ingestion restricted to water from leaves, fruits, and vegetables. As a first approach to verify whether these animals have some morphophysiological difference which could justify or compensate this low hydric ingestion, the renal anatomy of these animals was investigated, particularly that of maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus. Kidneys from these animals were macroscopically analyzed, through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Bradypus torquatus kidneys are bean-shaped paired organs, located dorso-cranially to the pelvic girdle, between the peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall. The use of histological techniques allowed us to identify, in the cortical region, the renal corpuscles and tubules, and, in the medullary region, a significant amount of interstitial tissue with a collecting duct. The results of this study showed that, although Bradypus torquatus doesn’t drink water directly, its kidneys doesn’t differ from that of most mammals, presenting the same anatomical structure, suggesting that these animals fully reach their hydric needs, basically by consuming leaves, fruits, and sprouts. Nevertheless, in order to confirm this hypothesis, studies on the effectiveness of water reabsorption, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, must be carried out.

  4. Vitamin D and Risk for Vitamin A Intoxication in an 18-Month-Old Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Talarico, Valentina; Barreca, Massimo; Galiano, Rossella; Galati, Maria Concetta; Raiola, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    An 18-month-old boy presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and poor appetite for 6 days. He had been given a multivitamin preparation once daily, containing 50.000 IU of vitamin D and 10.000 IU of vitamin A for a wide anterior fontanelle for about three months. He presented with hypercalcemia, low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), and very high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels. Renal ultrasound showed nephrocalcinosis. He did not have sign or symptom of vitamin A intox...

  5. Vitamin D and Risk for Vitamin A Intoxication in an 18-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Talarico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-month-old boy presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and poor appetite for 6 days. He had been given a multivitamin preparation once daily, containing 50.000 IU of vitamin D and 10.000 IU of vitamin A for a wide anterior fontanelle for about three months. He presented with hypercalcemia, low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH, and very high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels. Renal ultrasound showed nephrocalcinosis. He did not have sign or symptom of vitamin A intoxication. Patient was successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and prednisolone. With treatment, serum calcium returned rapidly to the normal range and serum 25-OHD levels were reduced progressively. In conclusion the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets without checking 25-OHD levels may cause redundant treatment that leads to vitamin D intoxication (VDI.

  6. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  7. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body that produces vitamin D. As many of us spend more and more time on computers and game consoles, we're not outdoors as much as we once were. And, when we do spend time in the sun, more of us are making the wise decision to use sunscreen ...

  8. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  9. Non-postural serial changes in renal function during the third trimester of normal human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezimokhai, M; Davison, J M; Philips, P R; Dunlop, W

    1981-05-01

    Seventeen healthy women were investigated near the beginning and again near the end of the third trimester of their normal pregnancies. Infusion studies were performed in the left lateral position. There was a highly significant decrease in effective renal plasma flow but not in glomerular filtration rate, measured as inulin clearance. Plasma creatinine concentration increased significantly, but the renal handling of creatinine was unchanged; simultaneous 24-hour creatinine clearance showed a tendency to decrease. Serum urate concentration also increased significantly, apparently due to an increase in net tubular reabsorption of urate.

  10. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  11. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  12. MEDICAL METHODS OF CORRECTION OF RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L V Egshatyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review summarizing the contemporary data on the effects of drug therapy on various parameters of renal osteodystrophy: phosphate binders, vitamin D preparations, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and calcimimetics. We discuss the results of pilot study of the efficacy of teriparatide and denosumab on parameters of bone metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  13. Roles of Akt and SGK1 in the Regulation of Renal Tubular Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Satoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine/threonine kinase Akt is a key mediator in various signaling pathways including regulation of renal tubular transport. In proximal tubules, Akt mediates insulin signaling via insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2 and stimulates sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1, resulting in increased sodium reabsorption. In insulin resistance, the IRS2 in kidney cortex is exceptionally preserved and may mediate the stimulatory effect of insulin on NBCe1 to cause hypertension in diabetes via sodium retention. Likewise, in distal convoluted tubules and cortical collecting ducts, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation mediates several hormonal signals to enhance sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activities, resulting in increased sodium reabsorption. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1 mediates aldosterone signaling. Insulin can stimulate SGK1 to exert various effects on renal transporters. In renal cortical collecting ducts, SGK1 regulates the expression level of ENaC through inhibition of its degradation. In addition, SGK1 and Akt cooperatively regulate potassium secretion by renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK. Moreover, sodium-proton exchanger 3 (NHE3 in proximal tubules is possibly activated by SGK1. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding of the roles of Akt and SGK1 in the regulation of renal tubular transport.

  14. Facts about Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... milligrams of vitamin C every day. Three large strawberries provide 33 milligrams of vitamin C. Figure 1. ... and citrus fruit juices, sweet peppers, papayas, and strawberries. Table 2. Food sources of vitamin C. Food ...

  15. A new human NHERF1 mutation decreases renal phosphate transporter NPT2a expression by a PTH-independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Courbebaisse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1 binds to the main renal phosphate transporter NPT2a and to the parathyroid hormone (PTH receptor. We have recently identified mutations in NHERF1 that decrease renal phosphate reabsorption by increasing PTH-induced cAMP production in the renal proximal tubule. METHODS: We compared relevant parameters of phosphate homeostasis in a patient with a previously undescribed mutation in NHERF1 and in control subjects. We expressed the mutant NHERF1 protein in Xenopus Oocytes and in cultured cells to study its effects on phosphate transport and PTH-induced cAMP production. RESULTS: We identified in a patient with inappropriate renal phosphate reabsorption a previously unidentified mutation (E68A located in the PDZ1 domain of NHERF1.We report the consequences of this mutation on NHERF1 function. E68A mutation did not modify cAMP production in the patient. PTH-induced cAMP synthesis and PKC activity were not altered by E68A mutation in renal cells in culture. In contrast to wild-type NHERF1, expression of the E68A mutant in Xenopus oocytes and in human cells failed to increase phosphate transport. Pull down experiments showed that E68A mutant did not interact with NPT2a, which robustly interacted with wild type NHERF1 and previously identified mutants. Biotinylation studies revealed that E68A mutant was unable to increase cell surface expression of NPT2a. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the PDZ1 domain is critical for NHERF1-NPT2a interaction in humans and for the control of NPT2a expression at the plasma membrane. Thus we have identified a new mechanism of renal phosphate loss and shown that different mutations in NHERF1 can alter renal phosphate reabsorption via distinct mechanisms.

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, ... excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ...

  18. Relaxation of atomic state multipoles by radiation re-absorption: Neon 2p2 atoms in a discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimura, M.; Imagawa, T.; Hasuo, M.; Fujimoto, T.

    2005-01-01

    In a positive column of a glow discharge in the magnetic field of 36.4G, a linearly polarized laser pulse or a circularly polarized laser pulse has produced polarized neon atoms (alignment or orientation) in the 2p 2 (Paschen notation) level from the 1s 3 level. The subsequent fluorescence to the 1s 2 level was observed with its polarized components resolved. Depopulation, disorientation and disalignment rates of the 2p 2 atom were measured and their discharge current dependences were examined for a discharge current from 0.4 to 2.0mA. The degrees of radiation re-absorption, or the optical thickness, of the transition lines from the 2p 2 level to the 1s 2 -1s 5 levels were measured as functions of the discharge current. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed by which the depopulation, disorientation and disalignment rates by the radiation re-absorption for these transitions were determined. The calculated rates were compared with the observed ones and found to reproduce the their discharge current dependences. D'Yankonov and Perel's analytical expression for these rates was quantified from comparison with the Monte Carlo results

  19. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  20. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  1. Technique of experimental measurements of the optical thickness of a pulse discharge plasma channel in water on a contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Hα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Fedorovich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of development and application of the technique of experimental definition of optical thickness (τ of the pulse discharge plasma channel in water which are based on the distribution of radiation intensities on contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Ha (656.3 nm are given. Optical thickness of continues spectrum was defined by extrapolation of intensities in far wing of contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Ha, where t value did not vary any more, and the line smoothly transferred in continuous spectrum. The atomic concentration Na, received on a method of definition of t on a contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Ha., agreed with calculation obtained from the equation of the plasma state. The recommendations on the correct definition of optical thickness of plasma of pulse discharge in liquids are given.

  2. Factors Influencing the Increase in Na-K-ATPase in Compensatory Renal Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H.; Charney, Alan N.; Silva, Patricio

    1978-01-01

    An increase in Na-K-ATPase in kidney homogenates usually accompanies compensatory renal hypertrophy. While it may be evident in both the cortex and medulla of the kidney, it is most marked in the outer medulla and may be present only in that region. The increase in enzyme activity does not depend on an intact adrenal cortex and can be elicited in the absence of adrenal glucocorticoids. It is not seen in the form of renal hypertrophy produced by potassium depletion, in which the transport of sodium and potassium by the kidney is not increased. When present in compensatory renal growth, the enzyme change is correlated with an increase in the reabsorption of sodium, or the excretion of potassium, or both, per unit of renal tissue. It proceeds in the presence of either, but not in the absence of both. PMID:216164

  3. Hepatic, renal, and total body galactose elimination in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Tygstrup, N

    1993-01-01

    Galactose elimination capacity is used as a quantitative measure of liver function on the assumption that galactose elimination outside the liver is negligible or easily corrected for. The relationship between hepatic and extrahepatic removal of galactose was studied in anesthetized pigs during...... reabsorption (Tm 178 +/- 3.0 mumol/min, Km 3.8 +/- 0.9 mmol/l, n = 20). Metabolic conversion of galactose in the kidney was not demonstrable. At all concentrations studied (0.4-5.8 mmol/l), total galactose elimination from the body exceeded the sum of hepatic and renal elimination by approximately 100 mumol....../min, independent of the concentration. At blood concentrations usually used for clinical estimation of the galactose elimination capacity (approximately 4 mmol/l), hepatic removal in the pig accounted for 55% and renal removal for 30% of total removal; 15% of removal occurred in other organs. We conclude...

  4. Recombinant erythropoietin acutely decreases renal perfusion and decouples the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aachmann-Andersen, Niels J; Christensen, Soren J; Lisbjerg, Kristian; Oturai, Peter; Johansson, Pär I; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Olsen, Niels V

    2018-03-01

    The effect of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) on renal and systemic hemodynamics was evaluated in a randomized double-blinded, cross-over study. Sixteen healthy subjects were tested with placebo, or low-dose rhEPO for 2 weeks, or high-dose rhEPO for 3 days. Subjects refrained from excessive salt intake, according to instructions from a dietitian. Renal clearance studies were done for measurements of renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the segmentel tubular handling of sodium and water (lithium clearance). rhEPO increased arterial blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, and renal vascular resistance, and decreased renal plasma flow in the high-dose rhEPO intervention and tended to decrease GFR. In spite of the decrease in renal perfusion, rhEPO tended to decrease reabsorption of sodium and water in the proximal tubule and induced a prompt decrease in circulating levels of renin and aldosterone, independent of changes in red blood cell mass, blood volumes, and blood pressure. We also found changes in biomarkers showing evidence that rhEPO induced a prothrombotic state. Our results suggest that rhEPO causes a direct downregulation in proximal tubular reabsorption that seems to decouple the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system from changes in renal hemodynamics. This may serve as a negative feed-back mechanism on endogenous synthesis of EPO when circulating levels of EPO are high. These results demonstrates for the first time in humans a direct effect of rhEPO on renal hemodynamics and a decoupling of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  6. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  7. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  8. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K. Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solubile vitamins intake in athletes, as well as evidence that athletic performance may be improved due to fat-solubile vitamins supplementation. In a small number of studies, it was shown that an antioxidant effect of beta carotene and vitamin E can prevent muscle damage and facilitate recovery after exercise. Also, athletes who perform the exercises in the halls should be informed about the necessity of sun exposure, as vitamin D is synthesised in the skin. Most athletes are not familiar with their needs for vitamins and trace elements, and take these compounds as supplements without consulting a nutritionist. It is important to emphasize that liposulubile vitamins are deposited in the body and can cause hypervitaminosis and toxic effects if taken in excess. It is indisputable that the lack of any fat-soluble vitamin cause problems in normal physiological processes, but supplementation is generally not required in athlets who have a well-balanced diet.

  9. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  10. Effect of vitamin C on N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin C on paraquat-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Three groups of Swiss albino mice (n = 10), i.e., control, paraquat (15 mg/kg) and paraquat (15 mg/kg) + vitamin C (20 mg/kg) were used in the study. The drugs were administered ...

  11. The beneficial effect of combined administration of vitamins C and E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the progression of kidney damage induced by zinc deficiency in diabetic rats and to evaluate the effect of combined treatment of vitamin E and vitamin C in renal injury by providing protection against deleterious action of zinc deficiency. Female diabetic albino Wistar rats were randomly ...

  12. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  13. Calcium and vitamin D in post menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and Vitamin D are widely used therapies for Osteoporosis. Vitamin D is not a vitamin in true sense since it is produced in response to the action of sunlight on skin. Vitamin D has multiple roles in the body, not all of them well-understood. Vitamin D supplementation must be considered a form of hormone replacement therapy. Therefore it raises all the questions about efficacy, dose, and side effects. The Efficacy of use of Calcium and Vitamin D in all post menopausal women in terms of the prevention of fracture is uncertain. The Annual worldwide sales of these supplements have been several billion dollars. The variation of the results from various studies of Calcium and Vitamin D supplementation in elderly women suggest that benefit of calcium plus vitamin D on bone mineral density or the risk of fracture is small and may vary from group to group and baseline Vitamin D status. Women taking supplemental vitamin D and calcium have a statistically increased incidence of renal stones, according to evidence from the Women′s Health Initiative. Studies have shown association between calcium use and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In a recent review of evidence from 6 randomized trials evaluating the use of vitamin D and calcium to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women who are not living in a nursing home or other institution, the United States Preventive Task Force (USPTF found no evidence of a benefit from supplementation with 400 IU or less of vitamin D3 and 1000 mg or less of calcium. Also in a report from institute of Medicine Committee, there was insufficient evidence, particularly from randomized trials, that vitamin D treatment affected the risk of non skeletal outcomes like risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, infections, autoimmune disease, and other extra skeletal outcomes.

  14. Controlling reabsorption effect of bi-color CdSe quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siao, Cyuan-Bin; Chung, Shu-Ru; Wang, Kuan-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have the potentials to be used in white light-emitting diode (WLED) as a down-converting component to replace incandescent lamps, because the traditional WLED composed of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce) phosphor lack of red color emissions and shows low color quality. Among various QDs, CdSe has been extensively studied because it possesses attractive characteristics such as high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission spectral bandwidth, as well as size-tunable optical characteristics. However, in order to enhance the color rendering index (CRI) of WLED, blending materials with different emission wavelengths has been used frequently. Unfortunately, these procedures are complex and time-consuming, and the emission energy of smaller QDs can be reabsorbed by larger QDs, resulting in decreasing the excitation intensity in yellowish-green region. Therefore, in this study, in order to decrease the reabsorption effect and to simplify the procedures, we have demonstrated a facile thermal pyrolyzed route to prepare bicolor CdSe QDs with dual-wavelengths. The emission wavelengths, particle sizes, and QYs of QDs can be tuned from 537/595 to 537/602 nm, 2.59/3.92 to 2.59/4.01 nm, and 27 to 40 %, for GR1 to 3 samples, respectively when the amount of Se precursor is decreased from 1.5 to 0.75 mmol. Meanwhile, the area ratio of green to red (Ag/Ar) in fluorescence spectra is gradually increased, due to the increase in growth rate, and decrease in nuclei formation in red emission. The GR1, GR2, and GR3 QDs are then encapsulated by convert types to form the LED, in which the QDs are deposited on the blue-emitting InGaN LED chip (λem = 450 nm). After encapsulation, the devices properties of Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity and Ag/Ar area ratio are (0.40, 0.24), 0.28/1, (0.40, 0.31), 0.52/1, and (0.40, 0.38), 1.02/1, respectively for GR1, GR2, and GR3. The results show that the green emission intensity are strongly

  15. Vitamin D and Anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Biricik, Ebru; Güneş, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a vitamin not only associated with calcium-phosphorus metabolism but also affects many organ systems. Because of its effect on the immune system in recent years, it has attracted much attention. Vitamin D deficiency is a clinical condition that can be widely observed in the society. Thus, patients with vitamin D deficiency are often seen in anaesthesia practice. In the absence of vitamin D, prolongation of intensive care unit stay, increase in mortality and morbidity and also ass...

  16. Evidence of active transport of cadmium complexing dithiocarbamates into renal and hepatic cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, G.R.; Smith, A.B.; Jones, M.M.; Singh, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of certain inhibitors of transport systems on the actions of four cadmium (Cd) complexing N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in mobilizing murine renal and hepatic Cd in vivo. Probenecid, the prototypical antagonist of organic anion transport in the kidney, when given 1 hr prior to each DTC, sharply suppressed the DTC-induced reduction of renal Cd but was virtually without effect on mobilization of Cd from liver. Sulfinpyrazone, which blocks tubular reabsorption of uric acid and also inhibits transport of a variety of organic acids, inhibited markedly the mobilization of both renal and hepatic Cd by DTCs. Phlorizin, an inhibitor of tubular sugar reabsorption, did not affect the Cd mobilizing actions of DTCs in any consistent fashion. We propose that the high degree of selectivity of DTCs in mobilizing renal hepatic Cd is dependent, at lest in part, upon active transport of DTCs into these tissues via the organic anion transport systems. This report presents the first evidence that compounds of the (R) 2 NCSS - class may gain access to intracellular space by an active, carrier-mediated process. (au)

  17. Albumin-derived peptides efficiently reduce renal uptake of radiolabelled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegt, Erik; Eek, Annemarie; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C.; Jong, Marion de

    2010-01-01

    In peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), the maximum activity dose that can safely be administered is limited by high renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The kidney radiation dose can be reduced by coinfusion of agents that competitively inhibit the reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, such as positively charged amino acids, Gelofusine, or trypsinised albumin. The aim of this study was to identify more specific and potent inhibitors of the kidney reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, based on albumin. Albumin was fragmented using cyanogen bromide and six albumin-derived peptides with different numbers of electric charges were selected and synthesised. The effect of albumin fragments (FRALB-C) and selected albumin-derived peptides on the internalisation of 111 In-albumin, 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide by megalin-expressing cells was assessed. In rats, the effect of Gelofusine and albumin-derived peptides on the renal uptake and biodistribution of 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide was determined. FRALB-C significantly reduced the uptake of all radiolabelled peptides in vitro. The albumin-derived peptides showed different potencies in reducing the uptake of 111 In-albumin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-minigastrin in vitro. The most efficient albumin-derived peptide (peptide 6), was selected for in vivo testing. In rats, 5 mg of peptide 6 very efficiently inhibited the renal uptake of 111 In-minigastrin, by 88%. Uptake of 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide was reduced by 26 and 33%, respectively. The albumin-derived peptide 6 efficiently inhibited the renal reabsorption of 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide and is a promising candidate for kidney protection in PRRT. (orig.)

  18. Renal Cu and Na excretion and hepatic Cu metabolism in both Cu acclimated and non acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, M.; Hogstrand, C.; Wood, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    protein depending on whether the Cu is derived from recent branchial uptake or is already present in the plasma prior to Cu-64 exposure. The plasma Cu pool derived from recent branchial uptake and the Cu pool present in the plasma prior to Cu-64 exposure is accessible to renal excretion to different...... Na+ efflux decreased by 40%, which was largely due to increased tubular Na+ reabsorption. Renal compensation for the impaired branchial Na+ uptake, seen during Cu exposure, thus seems to be involved in Cu acclimation in rainbow trout. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  19. Vitamins in dialysis: who, when and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmadakis, George; Da Costa Correia, Enrique; Carceles, Odette; Somda, Frederic; Aguilera, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Despite the significant technical evolution of the blood purification methods, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients is still several times higher than that observed in the general population. Vitamins are playing a crucial role in multiple key metabolic pathways. Due to multiple factors, dialysis patients present very often hypo- or hypervitaminosis for a broad range of vitamins. Dialysis in the context of renal replacement therapy is associated with a non-physiological potassium-sparing dietetic regime. Additionally, there is a non-selective intradialytic loss of micro- and macronutrients, deranged intracellular kinetics and gastrointestinal malabsorption due to uratemia. Frequent treatment with antibiotics due to infections associated with the acquired uremia-related immunosuppression may derange the vitamin-producing intestinal microflora. Certain agents prescribed in the context of renal failure or other conditions may reduce the absorption of vitamins from the gastrointestinal tract. These factors may deplete a dialysis patient from vitamins, especially the ones with antioxidant activity that may be associated with cardioprotective properties. In other cases, vitamins metabolized and excreted by the kidneys may be accumulated and exert toxic effects. The scope of this paper is to describe the main issues on vitamin therapy in dialysis patients in view of the ever contradictory opinions and practices.

  20. Níveis séricos de vitamina D e periodontite crônica em pacientes com doença renal crônica Serum levels of vitamin D and chronic periodontitis in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica do Amaral Bastos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO A concomitância de periodontite crônica (PC em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC tem sido associada a desfechos adversos. A deficiência de vitamina D (25(OHD parece desempenhar papel importante na PC e níveis inadequados de vitamina D têm sido descritos em pacientes com DRC. OBJETIVO: Examinar a relação entre níveis séricos de vitamina D e PC em pacientes com DRC pré-dialítica. MÉTODO: Estudo de caso-controle, definidos, respectivamente, como pacientes com DRC e PC e DRC sem PC. Os dados demográficos, de exame físico e laboratoriais foram obtidos no dia da consulta. A DRC foi definida e estagiada segundo a NKF QDOKI TM. Os níveis séricos de 25(OH D foram dosados por quimioluminescência quando da avaliação da PC, a qual foi caracterizada segundo os critérios de Academia Americana de Periodontologia (1999. Os resultados de 25(OHD foram estratificados em deficiência ( 30 ηg/mL. RESULTADOS: Um total de 29 pacientes foram estudados, 15 no grupo caso e 14 no grupo controle. Os pacientes casos apresentaram mediana de 25(OH D inferior a dos pacientes controles (22,6 vs. 28,6 ηg/mL; p INTRODUCTION: Concomitance of chronic periodontitis (CP in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD have been associated with adverse outcomes. Vitamin D (25(OHD deficiency my play a role in CP and inadequate vitamin D status is common among patients with CKD. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between vitamin 25(OHD and CP in patients with CKD not yet on dialysis. METHOD: A case-control study was conducted. Cases and controls were defined as patients with CKD with and without CP, respectively. The demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained when the patient was attended in the outpatient clinic. CKD was defined and staged according to the NKF QDOKI TM. Serum 25(OH D levels were measured by chemiluminescence when assessing the CP, which was definined according to the American Academy of Periodontoly (1999. Serum

  1. Renal glucose metabolism in normal physiological conditions and in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Mazen; Gerich, John E

    2017-11-01

    The kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis via gluconeogenesis, glucose utilization, and glucose reabsorption from the renal glomerular filtrate. After an overnight fast, 20-25% of glucose released into the circulation originates from the kidneys through gluconeogenesis. In this post-absorptive state, the kidneys utilize about 10% of all glucose utilized by the body. After glucose ingestion, renal gluconeogenesis increases and accounts for approximately 60% of endogenous glucose release in the postprandial period. Each day, the kidneys filter approximately 180g of glucose and virtually all of this is reabsorbed into the circulation. Hormones (most importantly insulin and catecholamines), substrates, enzymes, and glucose transporters are some of the various factors influencing the kidney's role. Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased renal glucose uptake and release in the fasting and the post-prandial states. Additionally, glucosuria in these patients does not occur at plasma glucose levels that would normally produce glucosuria in healthy individuals. The major abnormality of renal glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes appears to be impaired renal glucose release during hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in transient renal artery occluded rats evaluated with iron-oxide particles and oxygenation-sensitive imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Michael; Aarhus Univ.; Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2; Laustsen, Christoffer; Perot, Vincent; Grenier, Nicolas; Basseau, Fabrice; Moonen, Chrit

    2010-01-01

    Mild or severe renal arterial occlusion is a phenomenon occasionally observed in daily clinical practice, potentially leading to renal ischemia and a general impairment of renal function. Secondly, closing the blood flow to the kidneys can also occur during kidney transplantation procedures. However, the exact physiological effects of these conditions on renal blood perfusion as well as the renal oxygen handling are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were therefore to measure the lateral changes of renal blood perfusion in rats subjected to transient unilateral arterial occlusion (RAS), and in addition, to measure the consequences on the intrarenal oxygenation. Experimental studies were performed using sixteen adolescent rats. The left renal artery was exposed through a flank incision and acute RAS for 45 min was achieved by placing a ligature around the renal artery. MRI was performed 3 days after the surgical procedure, where a blood oxygenation sensitive sequence (BOLD MRI) was performed, followed by a perfusion-weighted imaging sequence using a single bolus of the iron-oxide nanoparticle Sinerem. The renal oxygenation of blood was indirectly measured by the BOLD-parameter R2 * , and perfusion measures include relative renal blood flow, relative renal blood volume and mean transit time. Histopathologic changes through the outer stripe of the outer medulla showing typical histopathologic findings of ischemia. This study demonstrated that rats with transient renal arterial stenosis (for 45 min) showed a reduction in intrarenal oxygenation and intrarenal blood flow three days after the surgical procedure. A decreased R2 * was measured within the ipsilateral medulla in parallel with a decreased medullary blood flow, is probably related to a lower reabsorption load within the ipsilateral kidney. MRI may therefore be a promising tool in long-term evaluation of RAS. (orig.)

  3. Renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in transient renal artery occluded rats evaluated with iron-oxide particles and oxygenation-sensitive imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Michael [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). MR Research Centre; Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Experimental Clinical Medicine; Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France). Lab. Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231; Laustsen, Christoffer [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). MR Research Centre; Perot, Vincent; Grenier, Nicolas [Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux (France). Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte; Basseau, Fabrice; Moonen, Chrit [Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France). Lab. Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231

    2010-07-01

    Mild or severe renal arterial occlusion is a phenomenon occasionally observed in daily clinical practice, potentially leading to renal ischemia and a general impairment of renal function. Secondly, closing the blood flow to the kidneys can also occur during kidney transplantation procedures. However, the exact physiological effects of these conditions on renal blood perfusion as well as the renal oxygen handling are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were therefore to measure the lateral changes of renal blood perfusion in rats subjected to transient unilateral arterial occlusion (RAS), and in addition, to measure the consequences on the intrarenal oxygenation. Experimental studies were performed using sixteen adolescent rats. The left renal artery was exposed through a flank incision and acute RAS for 45 min was achieved by placing a ligature around the renal artery. MRI was performed 3 days after the surgical procedure, where a blood oxygenation sensitive sequence (BOLD MRI) was performed, followed by a perfusion-weighted imaging sequence using a single bolus of the iron-oxide nanoparticle Sinerem. The renal oxygenation of blood was indirectly measured by the BOLD-parameter R2{sup *}, and perfusion measures include relative renal blood flow, relative renal blood volume and mean transit time. Histopathologic changes through the outer stripe of the outer medulla showing typical histopathologic findings of ischemia. This study demonstrated that rats with transient renal arterial stenosis (for 45 min) showed a reduction in intrarenal oxygenation and intrarenal blood flow three days after the surgical procedure. A decreased R2{sup *} was measured within the ipsilateral medulla in parallel with a decreased medullary blood flow, is probably related to a lower reabsorption load within the ipsilateral kidney. MRI may therefore be a promising tool in long-term evaluation of RAS. (orig.)

  4. The skull in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.; Bedani, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Skull X-ray of 60 patients with chronic renal failure were examined. Alterations included diminished or increased bone density, radiolucent areas, pepper pot skull and the disappearance of vascular grooves and sutures. It is suggested that the radiological aspect of the skull is of very little diagnostic use in the assessment of uremic osteopathy since specific alterations are rare and tardive and show no correlation with clinical and laboratory findings. Skull X-ray can be usefull in assessing the effects of treatment (vitamin D derivaties, parathyroidectomy) and for the identification of focal lesions (brown tumors)

  5. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Its Modulation in Renal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Yusuke; Head, Geoffrey A; Denton, Kate; May, Clive N; Schlaich, Markus P

    2018-01-01

    The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation. Renal afferent nerves complete the feedback loop via central autonomic nuclei where the signals are integrated and modulate central sympathetic outflow; thus both types of nerves form integral parts of the self-regulated renorenal reflex loop. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is commonly increased in pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension and chronic- and end-stage renal disease. Increased RSNA raises blood pressure and can contribute to the deterioration of renal function. Attempts have been made to eliminate or interfere with this important link between the brain and the kidneys as a neuromodulatory treatment for these conditions. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been successfully applied in patients with resistant hypertension and was associated with significant falls in blood pressure and renal protection in most studies performed. The focus of this review is the neural contribution to the control of renal and cardiovascular hemodynamics and renal function in the setting of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, as well as the specific roles of renal efferent and afferent nerves in this scenario and their utility as a therapeutic target.

  6. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Its Modulation in Renal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation. Renal afferent nerves complete the feedback loop via central autonomic nuclei where the signals are integrated and modulate central sympathetic outflow; thus both types of nerves form integral parts of the self-regulated renorenal reflex loop. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA is commonly increased in pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension and chronic- and end-stage renal disease. Increased RSNA raises blood pressure and can contribute to the deterioration of renal function. Attempts have been made to eliminate or interfere with this important link between the brain and the kidneys as a neuromodulatory treatment for these conditions. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been successfully applied in patients with resistant hypertension and was associated with significant falls in blood pressure and renal protection in most studies performed. The focus of this review is the neural contribution to the control of renal and cardiovascular hemodynamics and renal function in the setting of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, as well as the specific roles of renal efferent and afferent nerves in this scenario and their utility as a therapeutic target.

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as over- ... including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ... magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, ... nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, ...

  12. The crosstalk between the kidney and the central nervous system: the role of renal nerves in blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Erika E; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Campos, Ruy R

    2015-04-20

    What is the topic of this review? This review describes the role of renal nerves as the key carrier of signals from the kidneys to the CNS and vice versa; the brain and kidneys communicate through this carrier to maintain homeostasis in the body. What advances does it highlight? Whether renal or autonomic dysfunction is the predominant contributor to systemic hypertension is still debated. In this review, we focus on the role of the renal nerves in a model of renovascular hypertension. The sympathetic nervous system influences the renal regulation of arterial pressure and body fluid composition. Anatomical and physiological evidence has shown that sympathetic nerves mediate changes in urinary sodium and water excretion by regulating the renal tubular water and sodium reabsorption throughout the nephron, changes in the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate by regulating the constriction of renal vasculature, and changes in the activity of the renin-angiotensin system by regulating the renin release from juxtaglomerular cells. Additionally, renal sensory afferent fibres project to the autonomic central nuclei that regulate blood pressure. Hence, renal nerves play a key role in the crosstalk between the kidneys and the CNS to maintain homeostasis in the body. Therefore, the increased sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney and the renal afferent nerve activity to the CNS may contribute to the outcome of diseases, such as hypertension. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  13. The role of intraperitoneally administered vitamin C during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of daily intraperitoneally administered doses of 100 mg/kg bd. wt. vitamin C on levels of some endogenous antioxidants as well as hepatic and renal function were investigated in a group of rabbits infected with a strain of Trypanosoma congolense (strain number: BS2/TC /SP28/P4). Values of parameters ...

  14. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  15. Renal handling of sodium and water in the hypothyroid rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Ulrich F.; Barenberg, Robert L.; Chavez, Rafaelita; Vaamonde, Carlos A.; Papper, Solomon

    1972-01-01

    Hypothyroid rats were examined with conventional renal clearance and micropuncture techniques to elicit the mechanism and site within the nephron responsible for the increased salt and water excretion observed in these animals. When compared with age-matched control rats, a decrease in inulin clearance of 30% (P < 0.001) and in Hippuran clearance of 32% (P < 0.005) was observed in the hypothyroid rats. Absolute excretion of sodium and water was increased 3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2-fold (P < 0.025), respectively, while fractional excretion of sodium and water was increased 4.3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2.9-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, in the hypothyroid animals. Fractional proximal reabsorption of sodium as assessed from proximal tubular fluid to plasma ratios of inulin ([TF/P]IN) was found to be decreased by 28% (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. Superficial single nephron filtration rate was reduced proportionately to the decrease in total filtration rate in the hypothyroid rats. These data indicate that the proximal tubule is one of the sites of diminished sodium and water reabsorption in the hypothyroid rat. The data also suggest that the observed decrease in glomerular filtration rate in the hypothyroid animals is not caused by a decrease in the number of functioning nephrons and that the observed increase in sodium and water excretion is not caused by a redistribution of filtrate from juxtamedullary to superficial nephrons. Although the exact mechanisms of the observed changes in proximal tubular function remain unknown, the data suggest that they are probably related to the lack of thyroid hormone. Whatever their mechanism, it appears that the enhanced sodium and water excretion observed in the hypothyroid animals must be determined by further reduction in tubular sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:5024038

  16. Ameliorative effect of antioxidants (vitamins C and E against abamectin toxicity in liver, kidney and testis of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilson Magdy

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion, it appears that vitamins C and E, or in combination (as antioxidants ameliorate the hepato-renal and testicular toxicity of abamectin, but are not completely protective, especially in liver tissue.

  17. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  18. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  19. Facts about Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yolks. Table 2. Food sources of vitamin A Food Vitamin A (RAE*) Sweet potato, cooked, 1 medium 1,400 Spinach, frozen, boiled, ½ cup 580 Carrot, raw, ½ cup 460 Pumpkin, cooked, ½ cup 305 Cantaloupe, cubed, 1 cup ...

  20. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  1. Vitamin D Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. If your results show you have an excess of (too much) vitamin D, it is most likely due to taking ... 2 screens]. Available from: ... Merck & Co. Inc.; c2017. Vitamin D [cited 2017 Apr 10]; [about 2 screens]. ...

  2. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A higher than normal value means you have excess vitamin A in your blood (toxic levels). This may ... Saunders; 2013:1175-1177. Ross AC, Tan L. Vitamin A deficiencies and excess. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  3. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the body through the urine. Because B vitamins are water-soluble, only small amounts are stored by the body and they must be obtained from foods rich in B vitamins or from supplements on a regular basis. Severe ...

  4. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation is described of specified vitamin D 3 esters containing alkyl and hydroxy groups. They can be used, in particular, for preparing radiolabeled vitamin D 3 compounds of high specific activity. (U.K.)

  5. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to cyclo-vitamin intermediates of specified formula. They can be used, in particular, for preparing 26,27-isotopically labeled vitamin D 3 compounds of high specific activity. (author)

  6. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  7. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  8. Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Renal urea excretion was studied in three llamas under various feeding conditions. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from inulin clearance. Tubular reabsorbed urea was the difference between glomerular filtered and renal excreted urea. Plasma urea concentration increased significantly when feeding was reduced by 40% and 60%, not applicable to a straw diet. With reduced hay feeding and on a straw diet only a slight and insignificant decrease was observed in renal urea excretion, with only a 3% lowering in GFR and glomerular filtered urea. With a straw diet, the glomerular filtered urea was significantly below the controls. The fraction of filtered urea reabsorbed in the tubules was constant (36%-47%). Very high reabsorption (87%) on a supplemented straw dietwas observed in one llama which after nearly 6 months on this low protein diet - could be shown to have lost only 5% of its body weight

  9. The influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on renal tubular function in progressive chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1996-01-01

    The influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on renal tubular function in progressive chronic nephropathy was investigated in 69 patients by the lithium clearance (C(Li)) method. Studies were done repeatedly for up to 2 years during a controlled trial on the effect of enalapril...... on progression of renal failure. The pattern of proteinuria was followed over the first 9 months. At baseline, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 5 to 68 mL/min. Absolute proximal tubular reabsorption rate of fluid (APR), estimated as the difference between GFR and C(Li), was 1 to 54 mL/min. Calculated...... in either treatment regimen was associated with a long-term slower progression of renal failure. Over 9 months, the 24-hour fractional clearance of albumin decreased in the ACE inhibitor group (P

  10. Vitamin D and gallstone disease-A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    sample. Determinants of vitamin D status were also explored. A random sample of 4130 people from the population of Copenhagen with ages 41–71 years were invited (N = 4130) and 2650 participants were included. Ultrasound examinations were performed to assess gallstone status and blood samples were drawn...... to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D and biomarkers of renal and hepatic function. Gallstone disease was found in 422 participants. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not significantly associated with gallstone disease. Time of birth during low vitamin D....... Findings suggest gallstones to be associated to low vitamin D exposure in utero and to renal failure suggesting that vitamin D might have an impact on gallstone disease. Future studies should explore associations for vitamin D and gallstone disease prospectively....

  11. Vitamin D – The Vitamin Hormone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a lot has changed, and vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is now a global public-health ... Open Access article distributed under the terms of the. Creative Commons ..... as excess vitamin D3 is destroyed by sunlight. Conclusion. It appears ...

  12. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and can be stored in your body. The water-soluble vitamins — C and the B-complex vitamins (such as vitamins B6, B12, niacin, riboflavin, and folate) — need to dissolve in water before your body can absorb them. Because of ...

  13. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  14. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pork Nuts Poultry Whole grains and fortified cereals Canned chickpeas Fortified breads and cereals may also contain vitamin B6. Fortified means that a vitamin or mineral has been added to the food. Side Effects Large doses of vitamin B6 can cause: Difficulty ...

  15. Is the renal kallikrein-kinin system a factor that modulates hypercalciuria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Luis Negri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular calcium reabsorption is one of the principal factors that determine serum calcium concentration and calcium excretion. Calcium excretion is regulated by the distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, where the epithelial calcium channel TRPV5 can be found, which limits the rate of transcellular calcium transport. The dynamic presence of the TRPV5 channel on the surface of the tubular cell is mediated by an endosomal recycling process. Different intrarenal factors are involved in calcium channel fixation in the apical membrane, including the anti-ageing hormone klotho and tissue kallikrein (TK. Both proteins are synthesised in the distal tubule and secreted in the tubular fluid. TK stimulates active calcium reabsorption through the bradykinin receptor B2 that compromises TRPV5 activation through the protein kinase C pathway. TK-deficient mice show hypercalciuria of renal origin comparable to that seen in TRPV5 knockout mice. There is a polymorphism with loss of function of the human TK gene R53H (allele H that causes a marked decrease in enzymatic activity. The presence of the allele H seems to be common at least in the Japanese population (24%. These individuals have a tendency to greater calcium and sodium excretion in urine that is more evident during furosemide infusion. Future studies should analyse if manipulating the renal kallikrein-kinin system can correct idiopathic hypercalciuria with drugs other than thiazide diuretics.

  16. [Immunoglobulin filtration and reabsorption as possible factors in the pathogenesis of chronic glomerulonephritis. Clinical, immunomorphological and histoenzymological research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, A V; Travkina, E S; Zel'tser, G L; Nevorotin, A I

    1992-01-01

    Kidney biopsy specimens obtained from a group of individuals with chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) have been processed for light and electron microscopic immunolocalization of total immunoglobulins (Igs). In a few cases, acid phosphatase (ACPase), a lysosomal enzyme marker, was ultrastructurally visualized. In the glomeruli, horseradish peroxidase-stained Igs were revealed in capillary lumina, urinary spaces and in transit through occasional loci of the glomerular basal membranes while ACPase-containing lysosomes resided both within and outside the cells. In the proximal tubules, Igs were traced in the endocytic vesicles and vacuoles, the latter also being positive for ACPase. Statistically significant relationships have been revealed between the number of IGs-labeled proximal tubules and some clinical or pathomorphological stigmata of CGN, in particular, proteinuria and arterial hypertension levels, marked interstitial sclerosis, etc. The data obtained are discussed in regard to the mechanisms of increased macromolecular filtration and the different proteinuria selectivity levels as well as the development of interstitial sclerosis as a result of the elevated reabsorption and incomplete lysosomal degradation of Igs in CGN.

  17. Low vitamin K1 intake in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Noale, Marianna; Tripepi, Giovanni; Plebani, Mario; Veronese, Nicola; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Rossini, Maurizio; Tarroni, Giovanni; Lucatello, Sandro; Vianello, Alberto; Santinello, Irene; Bonfante, Luciana; Fabris, Fabrizio; Sella, Stefania; Piccoli, Antonio; Naso, Agostino; Ciurlino, Daniele; Aghi, Andrea; Gallieni, Maurizio; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin K acts as a coenzyme in the γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and the growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein. Osteocalcin is a key factor for bone matrix formation. MGP is a local inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. GAS6 activity prevents the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Few data on vitamin K intake in chronic kidney disease patients and no data in patients on a Mediterranean diet are available. In the present study, we evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin K1 in a cohort of patients undergoing haemodialysis. In this multi-centre controlled observational study, data were collected from 91 patients aged >18 years on dialysis treatment for at least 12 months and from 85 age-matched control subjects with normal renal function. Participants completed a food journal of seven consecutive days for the estimation of dietary intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients (minerals and vitamins). Compared to controls, dialysis patients had a significant lower total energy intake, along with a lower dietary intake of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibres, and of all the examined minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu, and Mg). With the exception of vitamin B12, vitamins intake followed a similar pattern, with a lower intake in vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E, folates, K1 and PP. These finding were confirmed also when normalized for total energy intake or for body weight. In respect to the adequate intakes recommended in the literature, the prevalence of a deficient vitamin K intake was very high (70-90%) and roughly double than in controls. Multivariate logistic model identified vitamin A and iron intake as predictors of vitamin K deficiency. Haemodialysis patients had a significantly low intake in vitamin K1, which could contribute to increase the risk of bone fractures and vascular calcifications. Since the deficiency of vitamin K intake seems to be remarkable, dietary

  18. OBESITY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION: INTERACTION OF NEUROHUMORAL AND RENAL MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Wang, Zhen; Hall, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Excess weight gain, especially when associated with increased visceral adiposity, is a major cause of hypertension, accounting for 65–75% of the risk for human primary (essential) hypertension. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption impairs pressure natriuresis and plays an important role in initiating obesity hypertension. The mediators of abnormal kidney function and increased blood pressure during development of obesity hypertension include 1) physical compression of the kidneys by fat in and around the kidneys, 2) activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and 3) increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Activation of the RAAS system is likely due, in part, to renal compression as well as SNS activation. However, obesity also causes mineralocorticoid receptor activation independent of aldosterone or angiotensin II. The mechanisms for SNS activation in obesity have not been fully elucidated but appear to require leptin and activation of the brain melanocortin system. With prolonged obesity and development of target organ injury, especially renal injury, obesity-associated hypertension becomes more difficult to control, often requiring multiple antihypertensive drugs and treatment of other risk factors, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes, and inflammation. Unless effective anti-obesity drugs are developed, the impact of obesity on hypertension and related cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders is likely to become even more important in the future as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase. PMID:25767285

  19. Mini-review: regulation of the renal NaCl cotransporter by hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Vega, Lorena; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. The activity of this cotransporter is critical for regulation of several physiological variables such as blood pressure, serum potassium, acid base metabolism, and urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it is not surprising that numerous hormone-signaling pathways regulate NCC activity to maintain homeostasis. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most recent evidence on NCC modulation by aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin, glucocorticoids, insulin, norepinephrine, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Mathematical rationalization for the renal tubular transport: revised concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, Roberto; Marega, Alessandra; Romano, Giulio; Montanaro, Domenico

    2017-09-01

    The current emphasis on kinetics and in situ control of molecular exchanges, across the tubular membrane, has not been paralleled by corresponding improvements in our understanding of tubular behaviour at the macroscopic level of classical physiology. In this paper, we propose a mathematical rationalization of macroscopic tubular transport by means of a principal transport equation, originating from the law of mass action between substrate and carrier. The other equations, derived from the main one, demonstrate the possibility of distinguishing between transporters with low affinity and high capacity and transporters with high affinity and low capacity. Moreover, our model formalizes both tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion. Regarding the renal calcium handling, our model confirms the two-compartment system proposed by Mioni in 1971, with some important variants, which are in agreement with the fractional reabsorptions of this cation along the tubule, as verified by micro-puncture technique. To obtain the frequency distribution of saturated tubules, we have utilized the infinitesimal analysis method, starting from the equations proposed by Smith in 1943, concluding that all titration curves result from the combined effect of enzymatic approach and anatomical heterogeneity of the nephrons. The theoretical equations included in our manuscript reflect substantial and palpable physiological mechanisms able to suggest diagnosis and therapy of some electrolyte and hormonal disorders. At the end of this paper, we highlight advantages and disadvantages detectable by comparing our mathematical approach with Marshall's and Bijvoet's methods, proposed, respectively, in 1976 and 1984.

  1. The influence of diffusion and of reabsorption of radiation on the particle and energy balance of an infinitely long quasi-cylindrical discharge in hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedheer, W.J.

    1978-09-01

    A numerical study of the pressure and temperature profiles of an infinitely long quasi-cylindrical discharge in hydrogen gas is presented. In particular the influence of the diffusion of atoms in the ground state and the reabsorption of Lyman-α and Lyman-β radiation on both the particle balance and the energy balance of the discharge is studied. Because the transport of the charged particles is corrected for toroidal effects in the regime of high collisionality which is present in the discharge, the model is quasi-cylindrical. The results obtained show an increase of the neutral density on the axis and of the ion and electron density near the wall of the discharge, as compared with earlier calculations in which both diffusion and reabsorption of radiation were neglected. The results are in agreement with measurements in the 'Ringboog' experiment. (Auth.)

  2. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  3. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  4. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  5. [Vitamins in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, K

    2012-09-01

    Vitamins are organic substances essential to the maintenance of many physiological functions, and necessary for growth. They are subdivided into two groups: the fat soluble vitamins which include vitamins A, D, E and K and the water-soluble vitamins which include Group B vitamins and vitamin C. The recommendations for vitamins intake must be evaluated at regular intervals, and vary according to the different methods used and the different environments assessed. The shortcomings, but equally the measures of prevention must be taken into account. In industrialized countries, provided that the diet is balanced and in the absence of chronic disease, the majority of needs are covered. Vitamin requirements vary depending on age, sex, state of pregnancy, chronic disease or a specific diet. In industrialized countries, chronic alcoholics and malabsorption cases represent groups at risk of vitamin deficiency. Dietary anamnesis remains the best tool to assess needs and nutritional deficiencies. In infants fed exclusively on milk, the required intake is easy to deduce; on the other hand, the needs assessment becomes more difficult with dietary diversification. In industrialized countries, vitamin D should be administered throughout one's life, and vitamin K during the first three months of life for breast-fed new-borns. In developing countries, nutritional status is precarious and supplementation needs to be adapted accordingly.

  6. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  7. Vitamin D: the iceberg nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Heaney, Robert P

    2011-03-01

    The understanding of vitamin D's role in human health has recently expanded. It is now recognized as more than a hormone activated in the kidney only for calcium homeostasis. It is metabolized and used by virtually every cell in the body. Patients with chronic kidney disease have a deficit in their kidney production of 1,25(OH)(2)D and have classically been treated with calcitriol or its active analogues. Despite often having lower systemic levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D, patients with chronic kidney disease retain the capability of extra renal production of 1,25(OH)(2)D. This has far reaching implications for their health. This review examines clinical trials and observations in 3 areas that impact chronic kidney disease patients. Cancer, cardiovascular disease and infections are responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality in this patient population. We will discuss vitamin D's role in these disease states with a focus on the chronic kidney disease patient. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, S.; Malik, N.; Khandelwal, N.

    1990-01-01

    Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs

  9. A novel member of the trehalose transporter family functions as an H+-dependent trehalose transporter in the reabsorption of trehalose in Malpighian tubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo eKikuta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In insects, Malpighian tubules are functionally analogous to mammalian kidneys in that they not only are essential to excrete waste molecules into the lumen but also are responsible for the reabsorption of indispensable molecules, such as sugars, from the lumen to the principal cells. Among sugars, the disaccharide trehalose is highly important to insects because it is the main hemolymph sugar to serve as a source of energy and carbon. The trehalose transporter TRET1 participates in the transfer of newly synthesized trehalose from the fat body across the cellular membrane into the hemolymph. Although transport proteins must play a pivotal role in the reabsorption of trehalose in Malpighian tubules, the molecular context underlying this process remains obscure. Previously, we identified a Tret1 homolog (Nlst8 that is expressed principally in the Malpighian tubules of the brown planthopper (BPH. Here, we used the Xenopus oocyte expression system to show that NlST8 exerts trehalose transport activity that is elevated under low pH conditions. These functional assays indicate that Nlst8 encodes a proton-dependent trehalose transporter (H-TRET1. To examine the involvement of Nlst8 in trehalose reabsorption, we analyzed the sugar composition of honeydew by using BPH with RNAi gene silencing. Trehalose was detected in the honeydew as waste excreted from Nlst8-dsRNA-injected BPH under hyperglycemic conditions. However, trehalose was not expelled from GFP-dsRNA-injected BPH even under hyperglycemic conditions. We conclude that NlST8 could participate in trehalose reabsorption driven by a H+ gradient from the lumen to the principal cells of the Malpighian tubules.

  10. Renal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorico F. da Costa Neto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal hemangioma is a relatively rare benign tumor, seldom diagnosed as a cause of hematuria. CASE REPORT: A female 40-year old patient presented with continuous gross hematuria, anemia and episodic right lumbar pain, with onset about 3 months previously. The patient underwent multiple blood transfusions during her hospital stay and extensive imaging propedeutics was performed. Semi-rigid ureterorenoscopy evidenced a bleeding focus in the upper calix of the right kidney, with endoscopic treatment being unfeasible. The patient underwent right upper pole nephrectomy and presented a favorable outcome. Histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen showed that it was a renal hemangioma. COMMENTS: Imaging methods usually employed for diagnostic investigation of hematuria do not have good sensitivity for renal hemangioma. However, they are important to exclude the most frequent differential diagnoses. The ureterorenoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice and endoscopic treatment can be feasible when the lesion is accessible and electrocautery or laser are available. We emphasize the open surgical treatment as a therapeutic option upon failure of less invasive methods.

  11. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, Silvia

    1994-01-01

    Between the diagnostic techniques using radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine it find renal studies.A brief description about renal glomerular filtration(GFR) and reliability renal plasma flux (ERPF),renal blood flux measurement agents (RBF),renal scintillation agents and radiation dose estimates by organ physiology was given in this study.tabs

  13. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Water-Soluble Vitamins Water-soluble vitamins include all the B vitamins and vitamin C. The body does not easily store water-soluble vitamins and flushes out the extra in the urine. ...

  14. Calcium and vitamin D metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chen Hsing; Yang, Chweishiun; Patel, S.R.; Stevens, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have studied the effect of dietary vitamin D restriction on serum levels of vitamin D metabolites, measured by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Both WKY and SHR were fed a vitamin D-deficient or a vitamin D-supplemented diet beginning at 4 wk of age. In vitamin D-supplemented animals, the serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] concentration of WKY was similar to the level of SHR. Plasma calcium concentration was not different between WKY and SHR. In animals fed a vitamin D-deficient diet, the serum concentration of 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 of SHR was significantly lower than that of WKY. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol level was markedly decreased in both WKY and SHR. The SHR, but not the WKY, developed hypocalcemia. Despite hypocalcemia, fasting urinary Ca 2+ excretion of SHR exceeded that of WKY. They conclude that the lower 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 level in SHR fed a vitamin D-deficient diet may be due to a defect in the synthesis of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . The low level of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is associated with renal wasting of calcium and hypocalcemia in SHR

  15. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  16. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  17. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal denervation (RDN) has, within recent years, been suggested as a novel treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge on this procedure as well as limitations and questions that remain to be answered. RECENT FINDINGS...... selection, anatomical and physiological effects of RDN as well as possible beneficial effects on other diseases with increased sympathetic activity. The long awaited Symplicity HTN-3 (2014) results illustrated that the RDN group and the sham-group had similar reductions in BP. SUMMARY: Initial studies...

  18. Aromatase deficiency causes altered expression of molecules critical for calcium reabsorption in the kidneys of female mice *.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, O.K.; Hajibeigi, A.; Howard, K.; Cummins, C.L.; Abel, M. van; Bindels, R.J.M.; Word, R.A.; Kuro-o, M.; Pak, C.Y.; Zerwekh, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Kidney stones increase after menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. ArKO mice have hypercalciuria and lower levels of calcium transport proteins, whereas levels of the klotho protein are elevated. Thus, estrogen deficiency is sufficient to cause altered renal calcium handling.

  19. Renal papillary necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asking your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bushinsky DA, Monk RD. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. ...

  20. Effect of vitamin D status on chick kidney proteins: detection of a 45-kilodalton mitochondrial protein suppressed by vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, S.R.; Kamrath, K.S.; Henry, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis along with L-[ 35 S]methionine radiolabeling studies were used to examine the effect of chronic vitamin D status on the composition and relative abundance of chick kidney proteins. Comparison of silver-stained gels revealed no extensive differences in either the electrophoretic mobility or the amounts of kidney proteins present in the mitochondrial fraction from vitamin D-replete and vitamin D-deficient chicks. A similar result was obtained in studies with L-[ 35 S]methionine-labeled proteins. Vitamin D deficiency specifically elevated levels of a 45-kilodalton mitochondrial protein (pI 5.0 to 5.5) by approximately 5- to 12-fold relative to amounts present in vitamin D-replete tissue. This protein could not be detected in postmitochondrial supernatant fractions and was only faintly visible in crude kidney homogenates. The specificity of the observed suppression of this 45-kilodalton protein by vitamin D suggests that it may play an important role in renal functions influenced by the vitamin D endocrine system

  1. Scurvy and Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Mayberry, Jason A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of scurvy and vitamin C. The first section of the paper outlines the science of vitamin C. The second discusses outlines the medical progression of vitamin C deficiency and scurvy. The third section gives a brief timeline of scurvy throughout human history. The fourth section discusses the conditions during the age of sail that combined to make scurvy the greatest killer of sailors. The final section follows the scientific drive to find a cure and eventual elim...

  2. The science behind vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The use of topically applied vitamins has become a ubiquitous part of clinical skin care. While a part of the skin's antioxidant system that assists in protecting it from oxidative damage, vitamins A, C, and E have also proven their ability to treat photoaging, acne, cutaneous inflammation, and hyperpigmentation ((Burgess, 2008). Understanding these vitamins' unique mechanisms of action and how they work in concert helps the clinician select the appropriate topicals for their patients.

  3. Vitamine K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal dit Sollier Claire

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subclasses of vitamin K, their origins, their differential characteristics of absorption and metabolism, their relative effects on gammacarboxylation of various proteins implicated in hemostasis andcoagulation, in bone calcification are not well known even by experts in these fields. These misunderstandings explain errors in recommendations for public and for patients. This review will not expose again the fundamentals on vitamins K as presented in the paper by Marc Guillaumont published in 2000 in this same journal. This 2011 review will try to update our actual knowledge and most of all will insist on their practical implications especially on the management of oral anticoagulant treatments since until recently vitamin K antagonist was the only available type of such a treatment. Several examples illustrate the need for a better understanding of this subject. The fear that diet vitamin K could deregulate the equilibrium of oral vitamin K antagonist treatment leads to recommend a quite total suppression of vitamin K containing components in the diet of anticoagulated patients. This leads to an opposite effect: a high sensitivity to vitamin K and to disequilibrium of the anticoagulant treatment while a comprehensivemoderate and regular diet intake of vitamin K first facilitates the food choice of the patients but also helps to stabilise the treatment of chronically anticoagulated patients. Vitamin K plays a role in bone calcification and in osteoporosis prevention. Until recently the food supplementation with vitamin K in view of preventing osteoporosis in general population was strongly limited due to fear to affect the treatment equilibrium in anticoagulated patients. While an understanding that the effects of moderate supplementation in vitamin K has no or limited effect on anticoagulation and on the long run could at the opposite help to stabilize the daily level of anticoagulation in patients chronically treated with vitamin K.

  4. Vitamin D and Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    PITTAS, ANASTASSIOS G.; DAWSON-HUGHES, BESS

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) effects on various mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of both types of diabetes, including pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, impaired insulin action and systemic inflammati...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body and are eliminated in the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers ... calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... toc Also, the AAFP lists the following side effects that are sometimes associated with taking too much ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin ... providers before combining or substituting them with other foods or medicines." Frankos adds, "Do not self-diagnose ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? ... good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as over-the-counter multivitamins. According to the American ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... Subscribe to FDA RSS feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on ...

  14. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and ... into the body with the use of bile acids, which are fluids used to absorb fat. The ...

  16. Pregnancy and Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Ingole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency is common in women across different races of childbearing age. It is being increasingly discovered that vitamin D has many important bodily functions apart from skeletal actions pertaining to Calcium homeostasis. Evidence suggests that the maternal risks due to vitamin D deficiency includes eclampsia, increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance; and fetal risks include risk of rickets, osteoporotic fracture in late adulthood. It may be prudent to include screening of all pregnant women for vitamin D level as a part of routine antenatal care and supplementation be given if found deficient.

  17. Vitamin E in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abid Keen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is an important fat-soluble antioxidant and has been in use for more than 50 years in dermatology. It is an important ingredient in many cosmetic products. It protects the skin from various deleterious effects due to solar radiation by acting as a free-radical scavenger. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin E has antitumorigenic and photoprotective properties. There is a paucity of controlled clinical studies providing a rationale for well-defined dosages and clinical indications of vitamin E usage in dermatological practice. The aim of this article is to review the cosmetic as well as clinical implications of vitamin E in dermatology.

  18. Vitamin C In Neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are necessary factors in human development and normal brain function. Vitamin C is a hydrosoluble compound that humans cannot produce; therefore, we are completely dependent on food intake for vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidative agent and is present in high concentrations in neurons and is also crucial for collagen synthesis throughout the body. Ascorbic acid has a role in modulating many essential neurotransmitters, enables neurogenesis in adult brain and protects cells against infection. While SVCT1 enables the absorption of vitamin C in the intestine, SVCT2 is primarily located in the brain.

  19. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Henrik; Schmedes, Anne; Horn, Peer

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin D for osteoporosis and fractures has been known for more than 40 years. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed by measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), which should be > 50 nmol/l year round. Recent research suggests that a number of severe diseases could be prevented...... by increasing 25-OHD to 80 nmol/l. Despite a strong focus on such increase, recommendations for intake of Vitamin D have not been changed and the present recommendations are too low even to ensure > 50 nmol/l. To achieve optimal concentrations > 80 nmol/l, we estimate that 50-70 microgram of vitamin D per day...

  20. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Nielsen, Lars Rejnmark; Larsen, Erik Roj

    2005-01-01

    During the last two decades, biochemical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been available, and based on plasma measurements various definitions of vitamin D deficiency have been suggested. Whereas severe vitamin D deficiency is usually recognised relatively easy, it has been more difficult to d......% and 47%, respectively. Thus, a suboptimal vitamin D status is common among Danes. It is therefore important to consider how their vitamin D status can be improved.......During the last two decades, biochemical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been available, and based on plasma measurements various definitions of vitamin D deficiency have been suggested. Whereas severe vitamin D deficiency is usually recognised relatively easy, it has been more difficult...... to delimit the more subtle forms of vitamin D insufficiency. Today, a suboptimal vitamin D status is considered to be when the plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is below 50 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiency is defined as a plasma concentration between 25 and 50 nmol/L, whereas the term deficiency is used...

  1. [Renal risks of dietary complements: a forgotten cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Olympia; Humbert, Antoine; Burnier, Michel; Teta, Daniel

    2014-02-26

    The use of dietary complements like vitamins, minerals, trace elements, proteins, aminoacids and plant-derived agents is prevalent in the general population, in order to promote health and treat diseases. Dietary complements are considered as safe natural products and are easily available without prescription. However, these can lead to severe renal toxicity, especially in cases of unknown pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). In particular, Chinese herbs including aristolochic acid, high doses of vitamine C, creatine and protein complements may lead to acute and chronic renal failure, sometimes irreversible. Dietary complement toxicity should be suspected in any case of unexplained renal impairement. In the case of pre-existing CKD, the use of potentially nephrotoxic dietary complements should be screened for.

  2. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  3. Renal tubular dysfunction nephrocalcinosis in a patient with BetaThalassemia Minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabahar, M.R.; Jain, M.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Indumathi, E.; Soundrarajan, P.

    2008-01-01

    Thalassemia is a hereditary anemia resulting from defect in hemoglobinproduction. Beta thalassemia is due to impaired production. Beta thalassemiais due to impaired production of beta globin chains, leading to a relativeexcess of alpha globin chains. The term beta thalassemia minor is used todescribe heterozygotes, who carry one normal beta globin and one betathalassemic allele. The vast majority of these patients are asymptomatic.However, a variety of renal tubular abnormalities including hypercaliuria,hypomagnesemia with renal magnesium wasting, decreased tubular absorption ofphosphorous, hypouricemia with renal uric acid wasting, renal glycosuria andtubular proteinuria have been described even in patients with betathalassemia minor. We here in report a 24-year old patient who was found tohave thalassemia minor and nephrocalcinosis with evidence of renal tubulardysfunction. Investigations revealed normal renal function, hypercalciuria,reduced tubular reabsorption of phosphorous, hypomagnesemia and renalmagnesium wasting. Screening for aminoaciduria was found to be negative. Anacid loading test revealed normal urinary acidification. Ultrasonogram of theabdomen revealed nephrocalcinosis and splenomegaly. Detailed work up foranemia showed normal white cell and platelet count while peripheral smearshowed microcytic hypochromic anemia with few target cells. Hemoglobinelectrophoresis revealed hemoglobin A of 92%, hemoglobin A2 of 6.2% andhemoglobin F of 1.8% consistent with beta thalassemia minor. Her parentalscreening was normal. A diagnosis of beta thalassemia minor with renaltubular dysfunction was made and the patient was started on thiazidediuretics to reduce hypercalciuria and advised regular follow-up. (author)

  4. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You Need Eating During Pregnancy Sun Safety Figuring Out Food Labels Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Vitamin D Vitamins and Minerals ...

  5. Adenosine contribution to normal renal physiology and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Carlos; Garrido, Wallys; Alarcón, Sebastián; Yáñez, Alejandro; Sobrevia, Luis; Quezada, Claudia; San Martín, Rody

    2017-06-01

    Adenosine is a nucleoside that is particularly interesting to many scientific and clinical communities as it has important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the kidney. The distribution of adenosine receptors has only recently been elucidated; therefore it is likely that more biological roles of this nucleoside will be unveiled in the near future. Since the discovery of the involvement of adenosine in renal vasoconstriction and regulation of local renin production, further evidence has shown that adenosine signaling is also involved in the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, sodium reabsorption and the adaptive response to acute insults, such as ischemia. However, the most interesting finding was the increased adenosine levels in chronic kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy and also in non-diabetic animal models of renal fibrosis. When adenosine is chronically increased its signaling via the adenosine receptors may change, switching to a state that induces renal damage and produces phenotypic changes in resident cells. This review discusses the physiological and pathophysiological roles of adenosine and pays special attention to the mechanisms associated with switching homeostatic nucleoside levels to increased adenosine production in kidneys affected by CKD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  7. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  8. Effects of acute hypoxia on renal and endocrine function at rest and during graded exercise in hydrated subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Kanstrup, I L; Richalet, J P

    1992-01-01

    Renal effects of altitude hypoxia are unclear. Renal and hormonal function was investigated in eight males at rest and during graded exercise at sea level (SL) and 48 h after rapid ascent to 4,350 m (HA). HA did not change resting values of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration...... rate (GFR), sodium clearance (CNa), urine flow, or lithium clearance (CLi), which was used as an index of proximal tubular outflow. At rest, HA increased plasma norepinephrine concentration and decreased plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone. Exercise decreased ERPF similarly in both...... environments. Normoxic exercise progressively reduced GFR, but at HA GFR only decreased during heavy exercise. This resulted in a higher filtration fraction during light and moderate hypoxic exercise. However, calculated absolute proximal reabsorption rate (GFR-CLi) at HA was higher during low...

  9. Sodium restriction potentiates the renoprotective effects of combined vitamin D receptor activation and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in established proteinuric nephropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirkovic, K.; Frenay, A.S.; Born, J. van den; Goor, H van; Navis, G.; Borst, M.H. de; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Hillebrands, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade provides renoprotective effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD); yet progressive renal function loss remains common. Dietary sodium restriction potentiates the renoprotective effects of RAAS blockade. Vitamin D receptor activator

  10. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Glucotoxicity and Tumorigenesis Downstream the Renal Proximal Tubule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinat, Romina; Nualart, Francisco; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    At present, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Effective glycaemic management is the most powerful tool to delay the establishment of diabetic complications, such as diabetic kidney disease. Together with reducing blood glucose levels, new anti-diabetic agents are expected not only to control the progression but also to restore known defects of the diabetic kidney. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are promising anti-diabetic agents that reduce hyperglycaemia by impairing glucose reabsorption in proximal tubule of the kidney and increasing glucosuria. SGLT2 inhibitors have shown to reduce glucotoxicity in isolated proximal tubule cells and also to attenuate expression of markers of overall kidney damage in experimental animal models of diabetes, but the actual renoprotective effect for downstream nephron segments is still unknown and deserves further attention. Here, we briefly discuss possible undesired effects of enhanced glucosuria and albuminuria in nephron segments beyond the proximal tubule after SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, offering new lines of research to further understand the renoprotective action of these anti-diabetic agents. Strategies blocking glucose reabsorption by renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) may be protective for RPTEC, but downstream nephron segments will still be exposed to high glucose and albumin levels through the luminal face. The actual effect of constant enhanced glucosuria over distal nephron segments remains to be established. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1635-1637, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  12. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  13. [The role of vitamin D in the prevention and the additional therapy of cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Gábor

    2010-12-01

    The active metabolite of vitamin D apart from a crucial role in maintaining mineral homeostasis and skeletal functions, has antiproliferative, apoptosis and differentiation inducing as well as immunomodulatory effects in cancer. It is well known that with increasing sunshine exposure the incidence of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer is decreasing. A number of in vitro and in vivo experiments documented the effects of vitamin D in the inhibition of the tumorigenesis. In studying the role of vitamin D in cancer, it is imperative to examine the potential pathways that control local tissue levels of vitamin D. The enzyme 24-hydroxylase converts the active vitamin D to inactive metabolite. Extra-renal production of this enzyme is observed and has been increasingly recognized as present in cancer cells. This enzyme is rate limiting for the amount of local vitamin D in cancer tissues and elevated expression is associated with an adverse prognosis. 24-hydroxylase may be a predictive marker of vitamin D efficacy in patients with cancer as an adjunctive therapy. There are many vitamin D analogs with no pronounced hypercalcemizing effects. Some analogs are in phase 1 and 2 clinical test, and they might have a role in the therapy of several types of cancer. At present our main task is to make an effort to decrease the vitamin D deficiency in Hungary. Speer G. The D-day. The role of vitamin D in the prevention and the additional therapy of cancers.

  14. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  15. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults need it to keep their bones strong and healthy. If you don’t get enough vitamin D, and you’re more likely to break bones as you age. How Much Vitamin D Do You Need? Women and Men Under age 50 400-800 international units (IU) ...

  16. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  17. Rediscovering vitamin D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... closely linked to that of the childhood bone disease rickets. Although the .... milk with vitamin D3, which resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of ... The overall effect of calcitriol on the adaptive immune system is ..... non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: vitamin. D as a possible ...

  18. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was last reviewed on October 21, 2015. This article was last modified on June 29, 2018. At a Glance Why Get Tested? To detect vitamin A deficiency or toxicity When To Get Tested? When you have symptoms suggesting a vitamin A deficiency or excess, or are at risk for a deficiency Sample ...

  19. Riboflavin : A multifunctional vitamin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza, ACS; Ferreira, CV; Juca, MB; Aoyama, H; Cavagis, ADM; Peppelenbosch, MP

    2005-01-01

    Riboflavin, a component of the B-2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated

  20. Vitamin D and Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    industrial absenteeism caused by colds and respiratory illness; days of missed work was reduced by 30%. (n=3031) Homes AD, et al. Industrial...greater than ~87nmol/L. Vitamin D from sunlight affects TB The 1903 Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery that vitamin D from sunlight could cure cutaneous TB….

  1. A novel description of FDG excretion in the renal system: application to metformin-treated models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, S.; Caviglia, G.; Sambuceti, G.; Benvenuto, F.; Piana, M.

    2014-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel compartmental model describing the excretion of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) in the renal system and a numerical method based on the maximum likelihood for its reduction. This approach accounts for variations in FDG concentration due to water re-absorption in renal tubules and the increase of the bladder’s volume during the FDG excretion process. From the computational viewpoint, the reconstruction of the tracer kinetic parameters is obtained by solving the maximum likelihood problem iteratively, using a non-stationary, steepest descent approach that explicitly accounts for the Poisson nature of nuclear medicine data. The reliability of the method is validated against two sets of synthetic data realized according to realistic conditions. Finally we applied this model to describe FDG excretion in the case of animal models treated with metformin. In particular we show that our approach allows the quantitative estimation of the reduction of FDG de-phosphorylation induced by metformin.

  2. A novel description of FDG excretion in the renal system: application to metformin-treated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, S; Caviglia, G; Piana, M; Sambuceti, G; Benvenuto, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel compartmental model describing the excretion of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) in the renal system and a numerical method based on the maximum likelihood for its reduction. This approach accounts for variations in FDG concentration due to water re-absorption in renal tubules and the increase of the bladder’s volume during the FDG excretion process. From the computational viewpoint, the reconstruction of the tracer kinetic parameters is obtained by solving the maximum likelihood problem iteratively, using a non-stationary, steepest descent approach that explicitly accounts for the Poisson nature of nuclear medicine data. The reliability of the method is validated against two sets of synthetic data realized according to realistic conditions. Finally we applied this model to describe FDG excretion in the case of animal models treated with metformin. In particular we show that our approach allows the quantitative estimation of the reduction of FDG de-phosphorylation induced by metformin. (paper)

  3. Vitamin D and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Overbergh, Lut; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2011-01-01

    directly thereby rendering them more resistant to the types of cellular stress encountered during T1D and T2D. This review evaluates the role of vitamin D signaling in the pathogenesis of T1D and T2D with a special emphasis on the direct effects of vitamin D on pancreatic beta cells.......Experimental evidence indicates that vitamin D may play a role in the defense against type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of both T1D and T2D, whereas early and long-term vitamin...

  4. Vitamin D – The vitamin hormone | Muntingh | South African Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin D supplements and specific foods can aid in maintaining sufficient levels of vitamin D, particularly in people at risk of deficiency. However, there is still a lot of uncertainty around what are “optimal” or “sufficient” levels, how much sunlight different people need to achieve a given level of vitamin D, and whether vitamin ...

  5. Results, meta-analysis and a first evaluation of UNOxR, the urinary nitrate-to-nitrite molar ratio, as a measure of nitrite reabsorption in experimental and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Hanff, Erik; Bollenbach, Alexander; Kruger, Ruan; Pham, Vu Vi; Chobanyan-Jürgens, Kristine; Wedekind, Dirk; Arndt, Tanja; Jörns, Anne; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Princen, Hans M G; Lücke, Thomas; Mariotti, François; Huneau, Jean-François; Ückert, Stefan; Frölich, Jürgen C; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2018-05-04

    We recently found that renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) is involved in the reabsorption of inorganic nitrite (NO 2 - ), an abundant reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) in tissues and cells. Impaired NO synthesis in the endothelium and decreased NO bioavailability in the circulation are considered major contributors to the development and progression of renal and cardiovascular diseases in different conditions including diabetes. Isolated human and bovine erythrocytic CAII and CAIV can convert nitrite to nitrous acid (HONO) and its anhydride N 2 O 3 which, in the presence of thiols (RSH), are further converted to S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) and NO. Thus, CA may be responsible both for the homeostasis of nitrite and for its bioactivation to RSNO/NO. We hypothesized that enhanced excretion of nitrite in the urine may contribute to NO-related dysfunctions in the renal and cardiovascular systems, and proposed the urinary nitrate-to-nitrite molar ratio, i.e., U NOx R, as a measure of renal CA-dependent excretion of nitrite. Based on results from clinical and experimental animal studies, here, we report on a first evaluation of U NOx R. We determined U NOx R values in preterm neonates, healthy children, and adults, in children suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), in elderly subjects suffering from chronic rheumatic diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), or peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We also determined U NOx R values in healthy young men who ingested isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN), or inorganic nitrate. In addition, we tested the utility of U NOx R in two animal models, i.e., the LEW.1AR1-iddm rat, an animal model of human T1DM, and the APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a model of human dyslipidemia. Mean U NOx R values were lower in adult patients with rheumatic diseases (187) and in T2DM patients of the DALI study (74) as compared to healthy elderly adults

  6. Deregulated Renal Calcium and Phosphate Transport during Experimental Kidney Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco P Pulskens

    Full Text Available Impaired mineral homeostasis and inflammation are hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD, yet the underlying mechanisms of electrolyte regulation during CKD are still unclear. Here, we applied two different murine models, partial nephrectomy and adenine-enriched dietary intervention, to induce kidney failure and to investigate the subsequent impact on systemic and local renal factors involved in Ca(2+ and Pi regulation. Our results demonstrated that both experimental models induce features of CKD, as reflected by uremia, and elevated renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL expression. In our model kidney failure was associated with polyuria, hypercalcemia and elevated urinary Ca(2+ excretion. In accordance, CKD augmented systemic PTH and affected the FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D axis by elevating circulatory FGF23 levels and reducing renal αklotho expression. Interestingly, renal FGF23 expression was also induced by inflammatory stimuli directly. Renal expression of Cyp27b1, but not Cyp24a1, and blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 were significantly elevated in both models. Furthermore, kidney failure was characterized by enhanced renal expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5, calbindin-D28k, and sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2b (NaPi2b, whereas the renal expression of sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2a (NaPi2a and type 3 (PIT2 were reduced. Together, our data indicates two different models of experimental kidney failure comparably associate with disturbed FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D signalling and a deregulated electrolyte homeostasis. Moreover, this study identifies local tubular, possibly inflammation- or PTH- and/or FGF23-associated, adaptive mechanisms, impacting on Ca(2+/Pi homeostasis, hence enabling new opportunities to target electrolyte disturbances that emerge as a consequence of CKD development.

  7. Role of NH3 and NH4+ transporters in renal acid-base transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Verlander, Jill W

    2011-01-01

    Renal ammonia excretion is the predominant component of renal net acid excretion. The majority of ammonia excretion is produced in the kidney and then undergoes regulated transport in a number of renal epithelial segments. Recent findings have substantially altered our understanding of renal ammonia transport. In particular, the classic model of passive, diffusive NH3 movement coupled with NH4+ "trapping" is being replaced by a model in which specific proteins mediate regulated transport of NH3 and NH4+ across plasma membranes. In the proximal tubule, the apical Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE-3, is a major mechanism of preferential NH4+ secretion. In the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, the apical Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, NKCC2, is a major contributor to ammonia reabsorption and the basolateral Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE-4, appears to be important for basolateral NH4+ exit. The collecting duct is a major site for renal ammonia secretion, involving parallel H+ secretion and NH3 secretion. The Rhesus glycoproteins, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), are recently recognized ammonia transporters in the distal tubule and collecting duct. Rhcg is present in both the apical and basolateral plasma membrane, is expressed in parallel with renal ammonia excretion, and mediates a critical role in renal ammonia excretion and collecting duct ammonia transport. Rhbg is expressed specifically in the basolateral plasma membrane, and its role in renal acid-base homeostasis is controversial. In the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase enables active basolateral NH4+ uptake. In addition to these proteins, several other proteins also contribute to renal NH3/NH4+ transport. The role and mechanisms of these proteins are discussed in depth in this review.

  8. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  9. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: Evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are ... Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More ...

  14. Vitamin C revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Spoelstra-de Man, Angelique Me; de Waard, Monique C

    2014-08-06

    This narrative review summarizes the role of vitamin C in mitigating oxidative injury-induced microcirculatory impairment and associated organ failure in ischemia/reperfusion or sepsis. Preclinical studies show that high-dose vitamin C can prevent or restore microcirculatory flow impairment by inhibiting activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, augmenting tetrahydrobiopterin, preventing uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and decreasing the formation of superoxide and peroxynitrite, and by directly scavenging superoxide. Vitamin C can additionally restore vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictors, preserve endothelial barrier by maintaining cyclic guanylate phosphatase and occludin phosphorylation and preventing apoptosis. Finally, high-dose vitamin C can augment antibacterial defense. These protective effects against overwhelming oxidative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion, sepsis or burn seems to mitigate organ injury and dysfunction, and promote recovery after cardiac revascularization and in critically ill patients, in the latter partially in combination with other antioxidants. Of note, several questions remain to be solved, including optimal dose, timing and combination of vitamin C with other antioxidants. The combination obviously offers a synergistic effect and seems reasonable during sustained critical illness. High-dose vitamin C, however, provides a cheap, strong and multifaceted antioxidant, especially robust for resuscitation of the circulation. Vitamin C given as early as possible after the injurious event, or before if feasible, seems most effective. The latter could be considered at the start of cardiac surgery, organ transplant or major gastrointestinal surgery. Preoperative supplementation should consider the inhibiting effect of vitamin C on ischemic preconditioning. In critically ill patients, future research should focus on the use of short-term high-dose intravenous vitamin

  15. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproduct...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance....

  16. Hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 protects against early-onset diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varsha, M K N; Raman, Thiagarajan; Manikandan, R; Dhanasekaran, G

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin K is a potent regulator of vascular dynamics and prevents vascular calcification. Vitamin K is increasingly being recognized for its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Recently we demonstrated that vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg) protects against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and diabetic cataract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could inhibit early-onset diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced rat kidney. Male Wistar rats were administered with 35 mg/kg STZ and after 3 days were treated with vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg, twice a week) for 3 months. Blood glucose was monitored once a month. At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed and kidney was dissected out and analysed for free radicals, antioxidants, aldose reductase, membrane ATPases, histopathology evaluation and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, albumin and insulin levels were also estimated. Treatment of diabetic rats with vitamin K1 resulted in a decrease in blood glucose and prevented microalbuminuria. Vitamin K1 also reduced oxidative stress and protected renal physiology by modulating Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Vitamin K1 inhibited renal inflammation by reducing nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Interleukin-10 levels were increased in renal tissues, suggesting the ability of vitamin K1 to trigger antiinflammatory state. The hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could have an indirect effect by inhibiting early-onset diabetic nephropathy triggered by high blood glucose. Vitamin K1 could be an important nutrient based interventional strategy for early onset diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accurate determination of renal function in patients with intestinal urinary diversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougal, W.S.; Koch, M.O.

    1986-01-01

    The regular determination of renal function is a critical part of the management of patients who have had the urinary tract reconstructed with intestinal segments. These intestinal segments reabsorb urinary solutes and, thereby, complicate the determination of renal function by conventional methods. Urinary clearances of urea, creatinine and inulin were performed in patients with intestinal segments in the urinary tract and controls under varying diuretic conditions. Patients with intestinal diversions also underwent radioisotopic determination of renal function. The urinary clearances of urea, creatinine and inulin are highly dependent on the rate of urine flow in patients with intestinal segments in the urinary tract. Diuresis maximizes the urinary clearances of these solutes by minimizing intestinal reabsorption. Creatinine clearance prediction from the serum creatinine underestimates true glomerular filtration rate. Radioisotopic determination of renal function correlates poorly with true glomerular filtration rate. Only creatinine clearance measured under diuretic conditions correlates well with true renal function. Urine concentrating ability cannot be assessed accurately in patients with intestinal segments in the urinary tract, since osmolality rapidly equilibrates across the segments

  18. Ectopic germinal center and megalin defect in primary Sjogren syndrome with renal Fanconi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wen, Yubing; Zhou, Mengyu; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Jiang, Lanping; Li, Mingxi; Yu, Yang; Li, Xuemei; Li, Xuewang; Zhang, Wen; Lundquist, Andrew L; Chen, Limeng

    2017-06-02

    This study reports the clinical and pathological features of 12 cases of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS) with renal involvement presenting with proximal tubular dysfunction in a single center, and investigates the possible correlation of ectopic germinal center formation and megalin/cubilin down-expression. Clinical and pathological records were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to detect megalin, cubilin, CD21 and IL-17 expression. Patients presented with different degrees of proximal renal tubule lesion and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Renal biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis, with tubular epithelial cell degeneration, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and focal fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of megalin and cubilin, two important multiligand protein receptors on the brush border of proximal tubular epithelial cells. IL-17 secreted by Th17 subtype effector T cells was diffusely detected in the renal proximal tubule, with a negative correlation of IL-17 and megalin expression. In addition, ectopic germinal centers characterized by CD21 + follicular dendritic cells were present in the renal interstitium. In patients with a decreased eGFR, treatment with 4 weeks of glucocorticoid therapy resulted in an improved eGFR in 75% of patients. We report 12 cases of pSS characterized by Fanconi syndrome. The decreased megalin and cubilin expression may contribute to the proximal tubular reabsorption defect, possibly secondary to Th17 infiltration and formation of ectopic germinal centers.

  19. Tick-Tock Chimes the Kidney Clock – from Biology of Renal Ageing to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rowland

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing of the kidney is a multi-dimensional process that occurs simultaneously at the molecular, cellular, histological, anatomical and physiological level. Nephron number and renal cortical volume decline, renal tubules become atrophic and glomeruli become sclerotic with age. These structural changes are accompanied by a decline in glomerular filtration rate, decreased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion, reduced urinary concentrating capacity and alterations in the endocrine activity of the kidney. However, the pace of progression of these changes is not identical in everyone - individuals of the same age and seemingly similar clinical profile often exhibit stark differences in the age-related decline in renal health. Thus, chronological age poorly reflects the time-dependent changes that occur in the kidney. An ideal measure of renal vitality is biological kidney age – a measure of the age-related changes in physiological function. Replacing chronological age with biological age could provide numerous clinical benefits including improved prognostic accuracy in renal transplantation, better stratification of risk and identification of those who are on a fast trajectory to an age-related drop in kidney health.

  20. Use of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Renal Anemia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rahman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin is a hormone highly effective as like as natural erythropoietin to maintain target hemoglobin and hematocrit level in renal anemia. Its advantage over blood transfusion has been proved by improving the quality of life and decreasing morbidity and mortality in ESRD patients. Effectiveness of r-erythropoietin depends on absences of infection, inflammation and vitamin deficiency and iron status. Iron supplementation is needed before r-erythropoietin administration and sub-cutaneous rout is better in renal anemia because of slow and sustained releases of r-erythropoietin from the site of administration. Target hemoglobin level is 11-12.5 gm/dl and hematocrit is 33% which can be achieved by this hormone therapy. Key words- Recombinant erythropoietin, renal anemia, end stage renal disease.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3713 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 50-53  

  1. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graceli, J.B.; Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of extracellular Na + and Cl - concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na + and Cl - reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc). We assessed Na + and Cl - fractional excretion (FE Na + and FE Cl - , respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function

  2. Hemodynamic and renal implications of sodium-glucose cotransporter- 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor Jorge, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    In DM2, there is increased expression of the proximal glucose transporter SGLT2. The increased glucose reabsorption from the urine to the proximal tubule and subsequently to the bloodstream, has three direct effects on the prognosis of patients with DM2: a) it increases the daily glucose load by raising the renal threshold for glucose, thus augmenting requirements for oral antidiabetics and insulin. This progressive increase occurs throughout the course of the disease and in parallel with the increase in renal mass (renal hypertrophy); b) because of the greater glucose reabsorption, glycosuria is lower than the level corresponding to glycaemia, decreasing the stimulus on the tubuloglomerular feedback system of the distal nephron. As a result, the glomerular vasodilation caused by hyperglycaemia is not arrested, maintaining glomerular hyperfiltration, and c) the excess glucose transported to the proximal tubular cells modifies their redox status, increasing local production of glycosylating products and activating local production of proinflammatory and profibrotic proliferative mediators. These mediators are responsible for the direct free radical damage to proximal tubular cells, for increased SGLT2 expression, increased production of collagen IV and extracellular matrix, and activation of monocyte/macrophages able to cause endothelial injury. The use of SGLT2 inhibitors not only reduces the reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulationthus improving metabolic control in diabetesbut also restores tubuloglomerular feedback by increasing glycosuria and distal urinary flow. However, the most notable effect is due to inhibition of glucose entry to the proximal tubular cells. Glycosuria is toxic to the kidney: it harms glucosetransporting cells, that is, the proximal cells, which contain SGLT2. In animal models, SGLT2 inhibition reduces local production of oxygen-free radicals, the formation of mesangial matrix and collagen IV

  3. Synergistic cytotoxic action of vitamin C and vitamin K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Negoro, T; Satoh, K; Jiang, Y; Hashimoto, K; Kikuchi, H; Nishikawa, H; Miyata, T; Yamamoto, Y; Nakano, K; Yasumoto, E; Nakayachi, T; Mineno, K; Satoh, T; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the combination effect of sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) and menadione (vitamin K3) on the viability of various cultured cells. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2, HSC-3) and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were more sensitive to these vitamins as compared to normal cells (human gingival fibroblast HGF, human periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF, human pulp cell HPC). The combination of vitamin C and vitamin K3 produced synergistic cytotoxicity against all these 6 cell lines. Treatment with vitamin C or vitamin K3, or their combination, induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation only in HL-60 cells, but not in the oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSG). ESR spectroscopy showed that vitamins C and K3 produce radicals under alkaline conditions and that the combination of these two vitamins synergistically enhanced their respective radical intensities.

  4. The effects of dietary phosphorus and vitamin D3 on the cadmium accumulation in the tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruki, Fukiko; Wung, Houi-Ling; Moriuchi, Sachiko; Hosoya, Norimasa

    1979-01-01

    The effects of dietary Ca and vitamin D 3 on the Cd accumulation in the liver and the kidney were observed and discussed in relation with the responses to the intestinal Ca transport and vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein (CaBP). 1. Ca transport in rat duodenum was significantly increased by vitamin D 3 , especially in rats raised on low P diet. However, this effect was reduced in Cd-exposed rats. 2. 45 Ca binding activity of the smaller CaBP (PIII), which was found predominantly in the duodenum and jejunum was increased by low P diet. However, in Cd-exposed rats, 45 Ca binding activity was suppressed significantly. On the other hand, the larger CaBP (PII) found mainly in jejunum and ileum showed a good response to vitamin D 3 , too, but not influenced by dietary P and Cd levels as the smaller CaBP. 3. Renal Cd accumulation was influenced by neither dietary P nor vitamin D 3 . However, hepatic Cd accumulation was significantly decreased in vitamin D 3 repleted rat, although it was not influenced by dietary P. These results suggest that dietary P modulates the inhibitory effect of Cd on intestinal vitamin D-stimulated Ca transport, presumably through the inhibition of Ca binding to the smaller CaBP (PIII). But Cd accumulation in the liver was decreased in vitamin D repleted groups, presumably, vitamin D dependent CaBP acts as the barrier in the Cd-exposed rats. (author)

  5. Association Between Vitamin D Insufficiency and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Taeyoung; Choi, Wonsuk; Hong, Jin-Hee; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yang, Soo Jin; Amminger, Paul; Berk, Michael; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the association between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome in patients with psychotic disorders. The study enrolled 302 community-dwelling patients with psychotic disorders. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, including blood pressure, physical activity, and dietary habit were gathered. Laboratory examinations included vitamin D, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, liver function, and renal function. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as vitamin D insufficiency were identified. Among the 302 participants, 236 patients (78.1%) had a vitamin D insufficiency and 97 (32.1%) had metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (p=0.006) and hypertension (p=0.017). Significant increases in triglycerides and alanine transaminase were observed in the group with a vitamin D insufficiency (p=0.002 and 0.011, respectively). After adjusting for physical activity and dietary habit scores, vitamin D insufficiency remained significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Vitamin D insufficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome and was particularly associated with high blood pressure, although the nature, direction and implications of this association are unclear.

  6. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off the market in 1983 because they were running up expensive legal bills in defense of their ... effects and are not likely to increase the beneficial effects. Movement disorders (tardive dyskinesia).Taking vitamin B6 ...

  7. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other diseases. In children, it can cause rickets. Rickets is a rare disease that causes the bones ... and children are at higher risk of getting rickets. In adults, severe vitamin D deficiency leads to ...

  8. Facts about Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national ... content in food (US Department of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture, 2015). Food Vitamin ...

  9. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunscreen or sun avoidance also lowers the skin’s production of vitamin D. There has been much confusion ... treatment can improve bone, body composition (how much lean muscle mass an individual has), and quality of life in ...

  10. Effects of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on vitamin A catabolism and the regulation of vitamin A homeostasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAH) are known to adversely affect vitamin A status resulting in the hepatic depletion and enhanced excretion of vitamin A. Increased renal and serum vitamin A content occurs subsequent to these PHAH-related alterations. Vitamin A, a highly regulated system, appears to undergo rapid compensatory changes to maintain homeostasis in response to nutritional, metabolic, or toxicologic conditions. The present study was undertaken in order to elucidate the mechanism(s) responsible for these PHAH-related effects on vitamin A homeostasis. To this end, the toxin prototype of the PHAH class 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromo- or hexachloro-biphenyls were used in this study. Results presented in this study indirectly showed that PHAH caused enhanced hepatic and extrahepatic catabolism of intravenously administered 3 H-retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin as evidenced by increased inactive polar retinoids in liver, kidney, bile, and excreta. These polar retinoids were isolated from tissues and bile and are thought to represent oxidized and/or glucuronidated, elimination metabolites of vitamin A. PHAH increased the microsomal activity of cytochrome P-450 MFO and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase toward retinoic acid (RA), enzyme systems that are also known to be coordinately induced by PHAH. Increased serum and kidney vitamin A is likely a homeostatic response to PHAH-related increased target tissue catabolism. For serum, this was shown directly by the finding that PHAH caused decreased liver esterification of retinol recycled from the extrahepatic tissues and indirectly by the administration of the active target tissue metabolite, RA. After RA, both control and PHAH-treated rats lowered their serum vitamin A

  11. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  13. A Practical Approach to Vitamin D Deficiency and Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgrove, Jeremy; Shaw, Nick J

    2015-01-01

    Rickets is a condition in which there is failure of the normal mineralisation (osteomalacia) of growing bone. Whilst osteomalacia may be present in adults, rickets cannot occur. It is generally caused by a lack of mineral supply, which can either occur as a result of the deficiency of calcium (calciopaenic rickets, now known as parathyroid hormone-dependent rickets) or of phosphate (phosphopaenic rickets, now called FGF23-dependent rickets). Renal disorders may also interfere with the process of mineralisation and cause rickets. Only parathyroid hormone-dependent rickets and distal renal tubular disorders will be discussed in this chapter. The most common cause of rickets is still vitamin D deficiency, which is also responsible for other problems. Disorders of vitamin D metabolism or responsiveness may also cause similar issues. Distal renal tubular acidosis may also be caused by a variety of metabolic errors similar to those of osteoclasts. One form of distal renal tubular acidosis also causes a type of osteopetrosis. This chapter describes these conditions in detail and sets out a logical approach for treatment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney ...

  15. Mechanisms controlling renal hemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, L.L.; Mizelle, H.L.; Montani, J.P.; Hall, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the mechanisms by which increased plasma amino acids elevate renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since transport of amino acids and Na + is linked in the proximal tubule, the authors hypothesized that increased amino acids might stimulate proximal tubular Na + reabsorption (PR/sub Na/) and thus increase RBF and GFR by a macula densa feedback mechanism. A solution of four amino acids (Ala, Ser, Gly, Pro) was infused intravenously into anesthetized dogs with normal kidneys (NK) and with kidneys in which the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was blunted by lowering renal artery pressure (LPK) or blocked by making the kidneys nonfiltering (NFK). In NK, RBF and GFR increased by 35 +/- 4% and 30 +/- 7% after 90 min of amino acid infusion, while PR/sub Na/ (estimated from lithium clearance) and O 2 consumption increased by 31 +/- 5% and 29 +/- 5% and distal Na + delivery remained relatively constant. Autoregulation of RBF and GFR in response to step deceases in renal artery pressure was impaired during amino acids in NK. The hemodynamic responses to amino acids were abolished in LPK and NFK. Infusion of the nonmetabolized α-aminoisobutyric acid into NK produced changes in renal hemodynamics that were similar to the responses observed with the four metabolizable amino acids. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevation of plasma amino acids increases RBF and GFR by a mechanism that requires an intact macula densa feedback. Metabolism of the amino acids does not appear to be necessary for these changes to occur

  16. Cyclophilin B expression in renal proximal tubules of hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainer, D B; Doris, P A

    2000-04-01

    Rat cyclophilin-like protein (Cy-LP) is a candidate hypertension gene initially identified by differential hybridization and implicated in renal mechanisms of salt retention and high blood pressure. We report the molecular characterization of rat cyclophilin B (CypB) and demonstrate, through sequence analysis and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction primer assay, that CypB but not Cy-LP is expressed in rat kidney. CypB is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized prolyl-isomerase that interacts with elongation initiation factor 2-beta, an important regulator of protein translation and a central component of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response to hypoxia or ATP depletion. Active renal transport of sodium is increased in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and there is evidence that this coincides with hypoxia and ATP depletion in the renal cortex. In the present studies we have examined expression of CypB in rat proximal tubules, which contributes to the increased renal sodium reabsorption in this model of hypertension. We report that CypB transcript abundance is significantly elevated in proximal convoluted tubules from SHR compared with the control Wistar-Kyoto strain. This upregulation occurs in weanling animals and precedes the development of hypertension, indicating that it is not a simple response to hypertension in SHR. Further, CypB expression is also higher in a proximal tubule cell line derived from SHR compared with a similar line derived from Wistar-Kyoto rats, indicating that this difference is genetically determined. No sequence differences were observed in the CypB cDNA from these 2 strains. These observations suggest that a genetically determined alteration in proximal tubules from SHR occurs that leads to increased expression of CypB. In view of evidence linking CypB to the regulation of elongation initiation factor-2, the upregulation of CypB may result from metabolic stress.

  17. Mechanisms controlling renal hemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, L.L.; Mizelle, H.L.; Montani, J.P.; Hall, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the mechanisms by which increased plasma amino acids elevate renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since transport of amino acids and Na is linked in the proximal tubule, the authors hypothesized that increased amino acids might stimulate proximal tubular Na reabsorption (PR/sub Na/) and thus increase RBF and GFR by a macula densa feedback mechanism. A solution of four amino acids (Ala, Ser, Gly, Pro) was infused intravenously into anesthetized dogs with normal kidneys (NK) and with kidneys in which the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was blunted by lowering renal artery pressure (LPK) or blocked by making the kidneys nonfiltering (NFK). In NK, RBF and GFR increased by 35 +/- 4% and 30 +/- 7% after 90 min of amino acid infusion, while PR/sub Na/ (estimated from lithium clearance) and O2 consumption increased by 31 +/- 5% and 29 +/- 5% and distal Na delivery remained relatively constant. Autoregulation of RBF and GFR in response to step deceases in renal artery pressure was impaired during amino acids in NK. The hemodynamic responses to amino acids were abolished in LPK and NFK. Infusion of the nonmetabolized -aminoisobutyric acid into NK produced changes in renal hemodynamics that were similar to the responses observed with the four metabolizable amino acids. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevation of plasma amino acids increases RBF and GFR by a mechanism that requires an intact macula densa feedback. Metabolism of the amino acids does not appear to be necessary for these changes to occur.

  18. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  19. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  20. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  1. Acute renal response to rapid onset respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Stewart, Randolph H; Cudd, Timothy A

    2011-03-01

    Renal strong ion compensation to chronic respiratory acidosis has been established, but the nature of the response to acute respiratory acidosis is not well defined. We hypothesized that the response to acute respiratory acidosis in sheep is a rapid increase in the difference in renal fractional excretions of chloride and sodium (Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na)). Inspired CO(2) concentrations were increased for 1 h to significantly alter P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) from 32 ± 1 mm Hg and 7.52 ± 0.02 to 74 ± 2 mm Hg and 7.22 ± 0.02, respectively. Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) increased significantly from 0.372 ± 0.206 to 1.240 ± 0.217% and returned to baseline at 2 h when P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) were 37 ± 0.6 mm Hg and 7.49 ± 0.01, respectively. Arterial pH and Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) were significantly correlated. We conclude that the kidney responds rapidly to acute respiratory acidosis, within 30 min of onset, by differential reabsorption of sodium and chloride.

  2. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeh, Nisreen A.; Al-Dhaheri, Najlaa M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore renal toxicity caused by sub-acute exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and Vitamin E (vit-E)on Acrylamide (ACR) induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g) aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone). After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E PMID:28133684

  3. Traumatic renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Naobumi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kokubo, Takashi; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of traumatic renal artery occlusion were described and illustrated. In two cases, direct blows to the abdomen compressed the renal artery against the vertebral column. Clinically, they were severely injured with macroscopic hematuria. Aortograms showed abrupt truncation of renal arteries. In the other two, rapid deceleration caused sudden displacement of the kidney producing an intimal tear with resultant thrombosis. Although they showed little injury without macrohematuria, aortograms revealed tapered occlusion of renal arteries. One of them developed hypertension. ''Rim sign'' of post-contrast CT and hypertension resulted from traumatic renal artery occlusion were reviewed. (author)

  4. Urinary Excretion of Tetrodotoxin Modeled in a Porcine Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cell Line, LLC-PK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Matsumoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the urinary excretion of tetrodotoxin (TTX modeled in a porcine renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1. Time course profiles of TTX excretion and reabsorption across the cell monolayers at 37 °C showed that the amount of TTX transported increased linearly for 60 min. However, at 4 °C, the amount of TTX transported was approximately 20% of the value at 37 °C. These results indicate that TTX transport is both a transcellular and carrier-mediated process. Using a transport inhibition assay in which cell monolayers were incubated with 50 µM TTX and 5 mM of a transport inhibitor at 37 °C for 30 min, urinary excretion was significantly reduced by probenecid, tetraethylammonium (TEA, l-carnitine, and cimetidine, slightly reduced by p-aminohippuric acid (PAH, and unaffected by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+, oxaliplatin, and cefalexin. Renal reabsorption was significantly reduced by PAH, but was unaffected by probenecid, TEA and l-carnitine. These findings indicate that TTX is primarily excreted by organic cation transporters (OCTs and organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTNs, partially transported by organic anion transporters (OATs and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs, and negligibly transported by multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporters (MATEs.

  5. Vitamin D, vitamin D receptor and the importance of its activation in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Jordi; Egido, Jesús; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Praga, Manuel; Solozábal-Campos, Carlos; Torregrosa, José V; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to many different pathologies, especially with morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. The progressive loss of renal function leads to calcitriol deficiency and homeostatic changes in calcium, phosphorus, FGF-23 and PTH, among others. All these changes can also influence vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation and the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The biologic actions of both vitamin D and its synthetic analogues are mediated by binding to the same VDR, acting on different genes. There is a narrow relationship between low levels of calcitriol and SHPT. The combined approach of VDR activation and phosphate restriction, among others, plays an important role in the early treatment of the chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The Spanish Society of Nephrology, in order to reduce the uniform and significant association with CKD-associated mortality, calcidiol and high phosphate levels suggests normalization of phosphate as well as calcidiol levels in both CKD and dialysis patients. Moreover, it considers that, in addition to selective/non selective activation of VDR for the prevention and treatment of SHPT, VDR could be activated in dialysis patients by native vitamin D or even low paricalcitol doses, independently of PTH levels, as some cohort studies and a recent metaanalysis have found an association between treatment with active vitamin D and decreased mortality in patients with CKD. In general it is considered reasonable to use all this information to individualise decision making.

  6. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  7. Zeeman effect on disalignment of excited atoms by radiation re-absorption: neon 2p2 atoms in a discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, K; Imagawa, T; Shikama, T; Hasuo, M

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the relaxation rate of alignment of neon atoms in a 2p 2 (in Paschen notation) level, which were excited by a linearly polarized laser pulse in a glow discharge plasma at 77 K, in a magnetic field of up to 3 T in the Voigt configuration. The relaxation rate decreased with an increase in the magnetic field strength of up to 0.5 T and showed no magnetic field dependence above 0.5 T. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate alignment relaxation, or disalignment, by radiation re-absorption of atomic resonance lines in a magnetic field. The simulated result was found to be consistent with the observed magnetic field dependence. We analysed the results of the simulation from a point of competition between the Zeeman splitting and the Doppler broadening of the transition lines from the 2p 2 level.

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

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  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve ... the Dietary guidelines include the following: Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and ...

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    Full Text Available ... thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two ... flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D (for ... may become pregnant, eat foods high in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or ...

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    Full Text Available ... the following tips before buying a dietary supplement: Think twice about chasing the latest headline. Sound health ... For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for ... a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ...

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    Full Text Available ... that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their ...

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  6. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    Science.gov (United States)

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... follow any instructions for not eating before the test. ... This test is done to determine if you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood.

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ... comes to purchasing dietary supplements, Vasilios Frankos, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Division of Dietary Supplement Programs, ...

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  11. Successful Management of Repetitive Urinary Obstruction and Anuria Caused by Double J Stent Calculi Formation after Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyao Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report firstly describes an extremely rare case of repetitive double J stent calculi formation after renal transplantation caused by the antihyperparathyroidism (HPT drug calcitriol. In 2012, a woman initially presented to our hospital for anuria with lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with allograft hydronephrosis and double J stents obstruction by calculi formation after transplantation and treated with triplicate stents replacements in another hospital without clinical manifestations improvements. Through detailed exploration of medical history, we conclude that the abnormal calculi formation is due to the calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration, a drug which can increase renal tubular reabsorption of calcium for treating posttransplant HPT bone disease. After discontinuing calcitriol, the patient was stone-free and had a good recovery without severe complications during the 9-month follow-up. Our novel findings may provide an important clue and approach to managing formidable repetitive double J stent calculi formation in the clinical trial.

  12. Serum vitamin D levels in kidney transplant recipients: the importance of an immunosuppression regimen and sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Ophir; Aharon, Michal; Safadi, Rifaat; Elhalel, Michal Dranitzki

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency was shown to be prevalent among renal transplant recipients in northern countries, but little is known regarding risk factors. To test vitamin D levels in kidney transplant recipients residing closer to the equator, compare them to levels in liver transplant recipients and hemodialysis patients, and identify possible risk factors. In a cross-sectional study 103 kidney transplant recipients, 27 liver transplant recipients and 50 hemodialysis patients followed at our institute were tested for vitamin D levels. Demographic data, medical history and current treatment were recorded from the medical files. Inadequate vitamin D levels (Vitamin D levels were higher among dialysis patients than transplant recipients, though deficiency rates were similar. No association was found between kidney function and vitamin deficiency. Deficiency was associated with higher prednisone doses, use of mycophenolate sodium, tacrolimus, and iron supplements, or lower doses of vitamin D supplementation. Despite potential higher ultraviolet B exposure, inadequate vitamin D levels were prevalent in our study group. Importantly, some immunosuppressive medications were associated with vitamin D deficiency and high doses of vitamin D were associated with less deficiency.

  13. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  14. Renal transport and metabolism of nicotinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, S.; Rose, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Renal metabolism and brush-border transport of nicotinic acid were studied in renal cortical slices and brush-border membrane vesicles exposed to a physiological concentration of vitamin (2.2-3.5 microM). Vesicle transport of [ 3 H]nicotinic acid was found to be Na+ dependent and concentrative. The presence of a Na+ gradient resulted in a fivefold increase in the rate of nicotinic acid uptake over that observed with mannitol and caused a transient nicotinic acid accumulation two- to fourfold above the equilibrium value. The effects of membrane potential, pH, and elimination of Na+-H+ exchange were also studied. Cortical slices and isolated tubules exposed to 2.2 microM [ 14 C]nicotinic acid took up vitamin and rapidly metabolized most of it to intermediates in the Preiss-Handler pathway for NAD biosynthesis; little free nicotinic acid was detectable intracellularly. The replacement of Na+ with Li+ in the bathing medium reduced total accumulation of 14 C label primarily as a result of reduced nicotinic acid uptake. Cortical tissue concentrated free nicotinic acid only when the involved metabolic pathways were saturated by levels of nicotinic acid far in excess of what occurs in vivo

  15. Determining the Levels of Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone in Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaylov R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is fequently observed in chronic kidney disease. We conducted this study to determine the concentration of the above-mentioned parameters and the correlation between them in order to optimize therapy with vitamin D in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on hemodialysis. In 53 patients on hemodialysis due to ESRD, vitamin D [Calcidiol (25(OHD], parathyroid hormone (PTH, calcium, phosphorus, albuminuria, albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR and other parameters have been followed up. Analysis of the levels of vitamin D has been carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, the PTH is determined by the system Centaur XP, Siemens Diagnostic, Electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA, and for albumin in urine we used immunological method [Miltigent microalbumin assay (Abbott Laboratories Diagnostics. We found out deficiency and insufficiency of vitamin D in 56.6% and 37.7%, as well as average 4.5 times increase in the PTH, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, albuminuria (A2 or A3, over 10 times increase in the ACR, secondary hyperparathyroidism. We registered a negative correlation between vitamin D and PTH. We confirmed the increase in creatinine and cystatin C in the patients on hemodialysis. There are few literature data for patients on hemodialysis, however, regarding the extent of the vitamin deficiency and its relationship with PTH, albuminuria, calcium, phosphorus, etc. Our data have indicated that patients on hemodialysis due to ESRD are associated with high incidence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency.

  16. An evaluation of vitamin D status in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Leanne C; Magee, Pamela J; Wallace, Julie M W; McSorley, Emeir M

    2011-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system inflammatory disease where genetic susceptibility coupled with largely undefined environmental factors is reported to underlie the aetiology of the disease. One such factor is low vitamin D status. The primary source of vitamin D is endogenous synthesis following exposure of the skin to UVB light. Photosensitivity, sunlight avoidance and the use of sun protection factor in combination with medications prescribed to treat the symptoms of the disease, puts SLE patients at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. Decreased conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to the metabolically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is possible, due to renal impairment common in SLE putting additional stress on vitamin D metabolism. The majority of studies have identified low 25-hydroxyvitamin D in SLE patients, albeit using varying cut-offs (importance of optimal vitamin D status in SLE, critically evaluates research carried out to date that has investigated vitamin D in SLE, and highlights the need for a well-designed observational study that controls for diet, medication use, dietary supplements, UV exposure and seasonality, that uses sensitive methods for measuring vitamin D status and disease activity in SLE to conclusively establish the role of vitamin D in SLE.

  17. [Relation between parathyroid hormone and cardiovascular risk in patients with vitamin D deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Cerrada, Jesús; Parra Caballero, Pedro; Vega Piris, Lorena; Suárez Fernández, Carmen

    2013-10-05

    Vitamin D deficiency and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness. The aim of our study is to compare the cardiovascular risk in subjects with low vitamin D, attending to the PTH concentration, as well as evaluating the response after administration of vitamin D. Prospective study of patients with a concentration of 25(OH)-vitamin D below 30nmol/l. We evaluated vascular risk parameters as blood pressure, arterial stiffness, lipid profile and glucose metabolism. Patients received vitamin D supplements for 3 months, after which the previous parameters were reassessed. A total of 32 patients were included. Those with PTH over 65pg/ml were older, had worse renal function, higher systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. Treatment with vitamin D showed a statistically significant trend to lower blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. The increase in PTH in patients with low vitamin D involves poor control of blood pressure and increased vascular stiffness. Vitamin D replacement shows a tendency to reduce these parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. The renal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors and a mini-review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianesis, Vasileios; Glykofridi, Spyridoula; Doupis, John

    2016-12-01

    Sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new and promising class of antidiabetic agents which target renal tubular glucose reabsorption. Their action is based on the blockage of SGLT2 sodium-glucose cotransporters that are located at the luminal membrane of tubular cells of the proximal convoluted tubule, inducing glucosuria. It has been proven that they significantly reduce glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), along with fasting and postprandial plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The glucosuria-induced caloric loss as well as the osmotic diuresis significantly decrease body weight and blood pressure, respectively. Given that SGLT2 inhibitors do not interfere with insulin action and secretion, their efficacy is sustained despite the progressive β-cell failure in T2DM. They are well tolerated, with a low risk of hypoglycemia. Their most frequent adverse events are minor: genital and urinal tract infections. Recently, it was demonstrated that empagliflozin presents a significant cardioprotective effect. Although the SGLT2 inhibitors' efficacy is affected by renal function, new data have been presented that some SGLT2 inhibitors, even in mild and moderate renal impairment, induce significant HbA1c reduction. Moreover, recent data indicate that SGLT2 inhibition has a beneficial renoprotective effect. The role of this review paper is to explore the current evidence on the renal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors.

  19. Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA: Evidence for glomerular filtration and peritubular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lange, M.J.; Piers, D.A.; Kosterink, J.G.; van Luijk, W.H.; Meijer, S.; de Zeeuw, D.; van der Hem, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    The finding of an enhanced excretion of [ 99m Tc]dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in patients with tubular reabsorption disorders prompted us to investigate the role of filtration in the renal handling of [ 99m Tc]DMSA. Our studies in human serum indicated that binding to serum proteins was approximately 90%. Chromatography of human urine and studies in rats showed that the complex was excreted unaltered into the urine. Renal extraction of [ 99m Tc]DMSA in a human volunteer was 5.8%. Continuous infusion of [ 99m Tc]DMSA in 13 individuals with normal renal function gave the following results (mean +/- s.d.): plasma clearance of [ 99m Tc]DMSA 34 +/- 4 ml/min, urinary clearance of [ 99m Tc]DMSA 12 +/- 3 ml/min. The calculated filtered load of [ 99m Tc]DMSA closely resembled the urinary clearance, whereas the plasma clearance was about three times faster. This indicates that peritubular uptake accounts for approximately 65% and filtration for approximately 35% of the renal handling of [ 99m Tc]DMSA

  20. Mechanistic insights of intestinal absorption and renal conservation of folate in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Thakur, Shilpa; Najar, Rauf Ahmad; Nada, Ritambhara; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2013-03-01

    Folate mediated one-carbon metabolism is of fundamental importance for various cellular processes, including DNA synthesis and methylation of biological molecules. Due to the exogenous requirement of folate in mammals, there exists a well developed epithelial folate transport system for regulation of normal folate homeostasis. The intestinal and renal folate uptake is tightly and diversely regulated and disturbances in folate homeostasis like in alcoholism have pathological consequences. The study was sought to delineate the regulatory mechanism of folate uptake in intestine and reabsorption in renal tubular cells that could evaluate insights of malabsorption during alcoholism. The folate transporters PCFT and RFC were found to be associated with lipid rafts of membrane surfaces in intestine and kidney. Importantly, the observed lower intestinal and renal folate uptake was associated with decreased levels of folate transporter viz. PCFT and RFC in lipid rafts of intestinal and renal membrane surfaces. The decreased association of folate transporters in lipid rafts was associated with decreased protein and mRNA levels. In addition, immunohistochemical studies showed that alcoholic conditions deranged that localization of PCFT and RFC. These findings could explain the possible mechanistic insights that may result in folate malabsorption during alcoholism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor cobalt chloride prevents inhibition of renal Na,K-ATPase and redistribution of apical NHE-3 during acute hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y B; Magyar, C E; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    by cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Four groups of rats (n = 4 to 5) were studied: (1) sham-operated; (2) 50 mg of CoCl2/kg subcutaneously for 2 d; (3) acute hypertension by constricting arteries for 5 min; and (4) acute hypertension after CoCl2 treatment as in group 3. Renal cortex was analyzed after sorbitol...... reabsorption and diuresis and abolishes Na,K-ATPase inhibition and NHE-3 redistribution during acute hypertension, evidence that these responses may be mediated by cytochrome P-450 arachidonate metabolites....

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ... iron-absorption enhancer, such as foods high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body and are eliminated in the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for how they ...

  4. Too Much Vitamin C: Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too much of it. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that supports normal growth and development and helps ... Dec. 12, 2017. Pazirandeh S, et al. Overview of water-soluble vitamins. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Dec. ...

  5. Vitamin D and bone health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holick, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton for most land vertebrates including humans. Sunlight causes the photoproduction of vitamin D3 in the skin. Once formed, vitamin D3 is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological function of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is to keep the serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range to maintain essential cellular functions and to promote mineralization of the skeleton. Most foods do not contain any vitamin D. Foods fortified with vitamin D have a variable amount present and cannot be depended on as a sole source of vitamin D nutrition. Exposure to sunlight provides most humans with their vitamin D requirement. Aging, sunscreen use and the change in the zenith angle of the sun can dramatically affect the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency is now being recognized as a major cause of metabolic bone disease in the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency not only causes osteomalacia but can exacerbate osteoporosis. It is generally accepted that an increase in calcium intake to 1000-1500 mg/d along with an adequate source of vitamin D of at least 400 IU/d is important for maintaining good bone health

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of ... supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as ...

  7. Vitamin Excess and Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Liliane; Krebs, Nancy F

    2018-04-01

    The published literature supports the high prevalence of supplement use in children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatricians today are faced with questions from parents and patients about the benefits, safety, efficacy, and correct dose of vitamins and minerals. In this article, we review 7 vitamins with the most clinical relevance as judged by abundance in food, risks and symptoms of deficiency, and potential for toxicity. Specifically, we focus on possible clinical scenarios that can be indicative of nutritional deficiency. We synthesize and summarize guidelines from nutrition experts, various medical societies, the World Health Organization, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin D across growth hormone (GH) disorders: From GH deficiency to GH excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciresi, A; Giordano, C

    2017-04-01

    The interplay between vitamin D and the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I system is very complex and to date it is not fully understood. GH directly regulates renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity, although the action of GH in modulating vitamin D metabolism may also be IGF-I mediated. On the other hand, vitamin D increases circulating IGF-I and the vitamin D deficiency should be normalized before measurement of IGF-I concentrations to obtain reliable and unbiased IGF-I values. Indeed, linear growth after treatment of nutritional vitamin D deficiency seems to be mediated through activation of the GH/IGF-I axis and it suggests an important role of vitamin D as a link between the proliferating cartilage cells of the growth plate and GH/IGF-I secretion. Vitamin D levels are commonly lower in patients with GH deficiency (GHD) than in controls, with a variable prevalence of insufficiency or deficiency, and this condition may worsen the already known cardiovascular and metabolic risk of GHD, although this finding is not common to all studies. In addition, data on the impact of GH treatment on vitamin D levels in GHD patients are quite conflicting. Conversely, in active acromegaly, a condition characterized by a chronic GH excess, both increased and decreased vitamin D levels have been highlighted, and the interplay between vitamin D and the GH/IGF-I axis becomes even more complicated when we consider the acromegaly treatment, both medical and surgical. The current review summarizes the available data on vitamin D in the main disorders of the GH/IGF-I axis, providing an overview of the current state of the art. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Daijo, K; Okabe, T; Kawamura, J; Hara, A [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1979-08-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1.

  10. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Daijo, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Tatsushiro; Kawamura, Juichi; Hara, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1. (author)

  11. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rossini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we observed an increasing number of publications about the vitamin D, due to its recognised therapeutic actions and to the widespread hypovitaminosis D. In addition to the well known skeletal benefits, vitamin D can have multiple effects on other tissues.Muscular apparatus: hypovitaminosis D is associated with myopathy, sarcopenia, muscular strength reduction and increased risk of falls. The vitamin D supplementation increases the muscle functionality indexes. Cardiovascular system: low levels of vitamin D are related to increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a decreased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a good vitamin D status is related to a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; a vitamin D supplementation in the early childhood reduces (nearly 30% the risk of having type 1 diabetes. Cancer: vitamin D deficit is associated with breast, colorectal cancer and melanoma relapses. Low and high levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD are related to a higher neoplastic mortality. Infectious diseases: hypovitaminosis D is associated with higher incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and worse interferon response in chronic hepatitis C. Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of having type A influence. Rheumatic diseases: in rheumatoid arthritis low serum levels of vitamin D metabolites are related to a higher disease activity, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a higher probability of remission or response to therapy and a lower degree of disability. Neurologic diseases: associations between vitamin D deficit and risk of multiple sclerosis, depression, cognitive deficits, and Parkinson’s disease have been reported.There is evidence of the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, but most derive from observational studies: clinical trials

  12. The effects of vitamin-E on oxidative stress and metabolic imbalance induced by acute unilateral ureteral obstruction in anaesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Obstructive nephropathy has been associated with disorders in metabolism state and oxidative balance of kidney. Stress oxidative play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of renal diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of vitamin-E, as a powerful antioxidant, on renal oxidative stress and metabolism defect induced by 24-hr unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO. "nMethods: Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group were sterilely operated to occlude the left ureter. In UUO+NS, we had a single dose normal saline injection and in UUO+VitE and UUO+OO groups, D-α-tocopherol (50 mg/kg, the main component of vitamin-E, and its vehicle (Olive Oil, respectively, were twicely infused I.P. before and after UUO-induction. There were also sham-operated and control groups. 24-hr after of UUO-induction, both kidneys were removed and stored in -70°C. To determine metabolism condition, the levels of ATP and ADP; and to evaluate redox state, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP of kidneys were assessed. "nResults: The comparisons between UUO+NS and sham groups indicated that UUO increased MDA (p<0.001 and ADP (p<0.05, but decreased FRAP, and ATP/ADP ratio in obstructed kidney (all p<0.001. In UUO+VitE group, MDA and FRAP were equal to their levels in sham group, while ATP, ADP and ATP/ADP ratio were not different from those of UUO+NS group in obstructed kidney. "nConclusion: Twenty four hour of UUO caused renal reduction in oxidative metabolism and elevations in reactive oxygen species; and administration of vitamin-E, although considerably ameliorated the oxidative stress, could not improve the defected metabolism.

  13. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  14. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevtic, V.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination

  15. Vitamin d and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel S; McClung, James P; Kohen, Tal; Lieberman, Harris R

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D is an essential nutrient obtained from the diet and exposure to sunlight. Roles for vitamin D have been established in the function of the cardiovascular, immune, and musculoskeletal systems. An electronic database search was conducted using EMBASE (1967 to August 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to August 2012), SPORTDiscus™ (1975 to August 2012), and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) (1998 to August 2012) with no limits of language of publication. Articles that described vitamin D and performance were considered eligible for this review. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D maintains physical performance in athletes and other active populations, e.g., maximal oxygen consumption may be related to vitamin D status. Poor vitamin D status affects muscle strength, and vitamin D may participate in protein synthesis through the actions of the vitamin D receptor in muscle tissue. Vitamin D may protect against overuse injuries, such as stress fracture, through its well-documented role in calcium metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to review recent evidence regarding the importance of vitamin D for maintaining physical performance, and includes specific examples of how vitamin D supports the cardiovascular, immune, and musculoskeletal systems.

  16. Vitamin D and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Brinkley, D; Ali, Omair M; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Wang, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is principally known for its role in calcium homeostasis, but preclinical studies implicate multiple pathways through which vitamin D may affect cardiovascular function and influence risk for heart failure. Many adults with cardiovascular disease have low vitamin D status, making it a potential therapeutic target. We review the rationale and potential role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of chronic heart failure. Substantial observational evidence has associated low vitamin D status with the risk of heart failure, ventricular remodeling, and clinical outcomes in heart failure, including mortality. However, trials assessing the influence of vitamin D supplementation on surrogate markers and clinical outcomes in heart failure have generally been small and inconclusive. There are insufficient data to recommend routine assessment or supplementation of vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of chronic heart failure. Prospective trials powered for clinical outcomes are warranted.

  17. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  18. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  19. Tumoral vitamin D synthesis by CYP27B1 1-alpha-hydroxylase delays mammary tumor progression in the PyMT-MMTV mouse model and its action involves NF-kappaB modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biologically-active vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is synthetized from inactive prohormone 25(OH)D by the enzyme CYP27B1 1-a-hydroxylase in kidney and several extra-renal tissues including breast. While the development of breast cancer has been linked to inadequate vitamin D status, the importance of bioac...

  20. Calcium homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism and expression in strongly calcifying laying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Arie

    2008-12-01

    Egg laying and shell calcification impose severe extra demands on ionic calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis; especially in birds characterized by their long clutches (series of eggs laid sequentially before a "pause day"). These demands induce vitamin D metabolism and expression. The metabolism of vitamin D is also altered indirectly, by other processes associated with increased demands for calcium, such as growth, bone formation and egg production. A series of intestinal, renal or bone proteins are consequently expressed in the target organs via mechanisms involving a vitamin D receptor. Some of these proteins (carbonic anhydrase, calbindin and calcium-ATPase) are also found in the uterus (eggshell gland) or are believed to be involved in calcium transport in the intestine or kidney (calcium channels). The present review deals with vitamin D metabolism and the expression of the above-mentioned proteins in birds, with special attention to the strongly calcifying laying bird.

  1. Vitamin D and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Minu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone is synthesized in response to sunlight. Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D may reduce the risk of cancer through regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as inhibition of angiogenesis. These anticancer properties have been attributed primarily to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH 2 D] (calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D. Extensive research has shown that cells, including cancer cells, express specific receptors (VDR for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. When bound to the VDR, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D regulates> 60 genes that exert prodifferentiating, antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects on cells, including effects on cell cycle. The amount of exposure to the sun has been found to correlate inversely with cancer mortality and survival in numerous epidemiological studies. An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Several ecological studies suggest that sunlight may protect against prostate, colon, rectal, female breast and ovarian cancer, all diseases that contribute to a substantially higher proportion of cancer mortality in the western industrialized world. Some analytical studies also suggest a protective association between circulating vitamin D in blood, which is largely derived from sunlight, or dietary vitamin D. Paricalcitol (calcitriol analogue is as effective as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in transactivating the prostatic VDR and in inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer cell lines and primary cultures of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Promising preclinical evaluations of calcitriol and analogues have appeared in prostate cancer animal models.

  2. Renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desberg, A.; Paushter, D.M.; Lammert, G.K.; Hale, J.; Troy, R.; Novic, A.; Nally, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Renal artery disease is a potentially correctable cause of hypertension. Previous studies have suggested the utility of duplex sonography in accurately detecting and grading the severity of renal artery stenosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate color flow Doppler for this use. Forty-three kidneys were examined by color-flow Doppler and conventional duplex sampling in patients with suspected renovascular hypertension or those undergoing aortography for unrelated reasons. Doppler tracings were obtained from the renal arteries and aorta with calculation of the renal aortic ratio (RAR) and resistive index (RI). Results of Doppler sampling with color flow guidance were compared with aortograms in a blinded fashion

  3. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  4. The effects of valproic acid on renal corpuscle of pregnant rats and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of valproic acid on renal corpuscle of pregnant rats and protective role of folic acid and vitamin E. Ayfer Aktas, Yusuf Nergız, Yusuf Nergız, Murat Akkus, Murat Akkus, Yasemin Nasır, Yasemin Nasır ...

  5. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  6. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  7. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  8. Endogenous versus exogenous lithium clearance for evaluation of dopamine-induced changes in renal tubular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Fogh-Andersen, N; Strandgaard, S

    1996-01-01

    1. The present randomized, double-blind cross-over study compared endogenous and exogenous lithium clearance (CLi) for estimation of the effect of dopamine on tubular sodium reabsorption. Twelve normal, salt-repleted male subjects were investigated on three different occasions with either placebo...... or 450 mg or 600 mg of lithium given in random order at 22.00 hours. After an overnight fast, renal clearance studies were performed during a 1 h baseline period and subsequently during the second hour of an infusion of 3 micrograms min-1 kg-1 of dopamine. 2. Baseline values of endogenous CLi.......3-31.0)% (P lithium increased the baseline sodium clearance (CNa), but glomerular filtration rate and urine flow rate remained unchanged. 3. Dopamine increased CNa to similar values on the three study days. CLi increased to 40.9 (35.5-46.5) ml/min (endogenous lithium, P

  9. Renal response to L-arginine in diabetic rats. A possible link between nitric oxide system and aquaporin-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Ortiz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether L-Arginine (L-Arg supplementation modifies nitric oxide (NO system and consequently aquaporin-2 (AQP2 expression in the renal outer medulla of streptozotocin-diabetic rats at an early time point after induction of diabetes. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Control, Diabetic, Diabetic treated with L-Arginine and Control treated with L-Arginine. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity was estimated by [14C] L-citrulline production in homogenates of the renal outer medulla and by NADPH-diaphorase staining in renal outer medullary tubules. Western blot was used to detect the expression of AQP2 and NOS types I and III; real time PCR was used to quantify AQP2 mRNA. The expression of both NOS isoforms, NOS I and NOS III, was decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg failed to prevent these decreases. However, L-Arg improved NO production, NADPH-diaphorase activity in collecting ducts and other tubular structures, and NOS activity in renal homogenates from diabetic rats. AQP2 protein and mRNA were decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg administration prevented these decreases. These results suggest that the decreased NOS activity in collecting ducts of the renal outer medulla may cause, at least in part, the decreased expression of AQP2 in this model of diabetes and constitute additional evidence supporting a role for NO in contributing to renal water reabsorption through the modulation of AQP2 expression in this pathological condition. However, we cannot discard that another pathway different from NOS also exists that links L-Arg to AQP2 expression.

  10. Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on cardio-renal protection in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    The specific sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) inhibit glucose reabsorption in proximal renal tubular cells, and both fasting and postprandial glucose significantly decrease because of urinary glucose loss. As a result, pancreatic β-cell function and peripheral insulin action significantly improve with relief from glucose toxicity. Furthermore, whole-body energy metabolism changes to relative glucose deficiency and triggers increased lipolysis in fat cells, and fatty acid oxidation and then ketone body production in the liver during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors have profound hemodynamic effects including diuresis, dehydration, weight loss and lowering blood pressure. The most recent findings on SGLT2 inhibitors come from results of the Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes trial. SGLT2 inhibitors exert extremely unique and cardio-renal protection through metabolic and hemodynamic effects, with long-term durability on the reduction of blood glucose, bodyweight and blood pressure. Although a site of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is highly specific to inhibit renal glucose reabsorption, whole-body energy metabolism, and hemodynamic and renal functions are profoundly modulated during the treatment of SGLT2 inhibitors. Previous studies suggest multifactorial clinical benefits and safety concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors. Although ambivalent clinical results of this drug are still under active discussion, the present review summarizes promising recent evidence on the cardio-renal and metabolic benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  12. Vitamin D in Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helde-Frankling, Maria; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda

    2017-10-18

    Vitamin D is a hormone synthesized in the skin in the presence of sunlight. Like other hormones, vitamin D plays a role in a wide range of processes in the body. Here we review the possible role of vitamin D in nociceptive and inflammatory pain. In observational studies, low vitamin D levels have been associated with increased pain and higher opioid doses. Recent interventional studies have shown promising effects of vitamin D supplementation on cancer pain and muscular pain-but only in patients with insufficient levels of vitamin D when starting intervention. Possible mechanisms for vitamin D in pain management are the anti-inflammatory effects mediated by reduced cytokine and prostaglandin release and effects on T-cell responses. The recent finding of vitamin D-mediated inhibition of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is especially interesting and exhibits a credible mechanistic explanation. Having reviewed current literature, we suggest that patients with deficient levels defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels 50 nmol/L probably have little benefit from supplementation. Our conclusion is that vitamin D may constitute a safe, simple and potentially beneficial way to reduce pain among patients with vitamin D deficiency, but that more randomized and placebo-controlled studies are needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

  13. Vitamin D in allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a factor that plays a significant role in calcium-phosphate balance. It has an effect on bone metabolism and also has modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. It is claimed that vitamin D inhibits immunological reactions with Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. The influence of vitamin D on Th2 lymphocytes is not clear. The main effect of vitamin D is probably the activation of Treg lymphocytes. It was observed that vitamin D had a beneficial influence on diseases connected with excessive activation of Th1 lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific enteritis, diabetes type 1 or psoriasis. The role of vitamin D in allergic diseases, in which increased activation of Th2-dependent reactions are of great importance, is controversial. However, due to a wide range of vitamin D activity, this view seems to be simplified. A beneficial effect on the course of allergic diseases was observed in up-to-date studies although the role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis has not been explained yet. On the basis of recent studies and well-known mechanisms of vitamin D activity on particular elements of the immunological system, the influence of vitamin D on the course of chosen allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was presented considering the possibility of contribution of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  14. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D

  15. Vitamin K intake and mortality in people with chronic kidney disease from NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ching-Lung; Sahni, Shivani; Cheung, Bernard M Y; Sing, Chor-Wing; Wong, Ian C K

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), partly due to increased vascular calcification. Vitamin K plays a role in preventing vascular calcification in CKD yet the relationship between vitamin K intake and mortality in CKD patients remains unclear. This observational cohort study included 3401 participants with CKD from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Vitamin K intake was estimated from 24-h dietary recalls (1988-94). Mortality was determined from the National Death Index records through 2006. Cox-proportional hazards regression was used to estimate Hazard Ratios (HR) by comparing those with adequate intake of vitamin K to those with low intake, adjusting for advanced CKD covariates. For sensitivity analysis, these associations were also examined among those with different renal status. During a median follow-up of 13.3 years (37,408 person-years), 1815 and 876 participants died from all-cause and CVD causes, respectively. 72% of the participants had vitamin K intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. Participants with vitamin K intake higher than recommended adequate intake for vitamin K were associated with lower risk of all-cause (HR = 0.85; 95%: 0.72-1; P = 0.047) and CVD mortality (HR = 0.78; 95%: 0.64-95; P = 0.016). Sensitivity analyses in subgroups with advanced CKD revealed similar findings. This observational study suggests that adequate intake of vitamin K may be associated with reduced all-cause and CVD mortality in CKD patients. However, vitamin K may be a marker of a healthy diet; therefore clinical trials may help in clarifying the effect of vitamin K independent of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen A. Rajeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA and Vitamin E (vit-Eon Acrylamide (ACR induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone. After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E

  17. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, lung function and structure in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Isaac; Hanson, Corrine; Sayles, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP.......Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP....

  18. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Khalid, M; Elfaki, M.; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  19. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. S; Ahmed, M.I; Elfaki, H.M; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)

  20. Disappearing renal calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomas, Johanna; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-04-10

    We present a case of a renal calculus treated solely with antibiotics which has not been previously reported in the literature. A man with a 17 mm lower pole renal calculus and concurrent Escherichia coli urine infection was being worked up to undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, after a course of preoperative antibiotics the stone was no longer seen on retrograde pyelography or CT imaging.

  1. Bilateral triple renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestemalci, Turan; Yildiz, Yusuf Zeki; Yildirim, Mehmet; Mavi, Ayfer; Gumusburun, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radio logic techniques being performed in recent years. We report the presence of bilateral triple renal arteries, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver. On the right side, one additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta (distributed to superior pole of the kidney) and one other originated from the right common iliac artery (distributed to lower pole of the kidney). On the left side, both additional renal arteries originated from the abdominal aorta. Our observation has been compared with variations described in the literature and their clinical importance has been emphasized. (author)

  2. Radiology of renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of imaging studies in patients with renal failure. The initial chapter provides basic information on contrast agents, intravenous urography, and imaging findings in the urinary tract disorders responsible for renal failure and in patients who have undergone transplantation. It illustrates common gastro-intestinal abnormalities seen on barium studies in patients with renal failure. It illustrates the cardiopulmonary complications of renal failure and offers advice for radiologic differentiation. It details different aspects of skeletal changes in renal failure, including a basic description of the pathophysiology of the changes; many excellent illustrations of classic bone changes, arthritis, avascular necrosis, and soft-tissue calcifications; and details of bone mineral analysis

  3. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  4. Cardiovascular Diseases and Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin D and Vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the associations between insufficiency of fat soluble vitamins and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported. Vitamin D affects the cardiovascular system via several pathways, such as suppression of parathyroid hormone, the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular endothelial growth and the immune system. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown the association between the concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), which is a vitamin D metabolite indicating nutritional vitamin D status, and hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure and CVD mortality. On the other hand, the association between vitamin K status and CVDs, especially vascular calcification, has been also reported. Cross-sectional and cohort studies show that high vitamin K status is associated with reduced coronary artery calcification, CVDs and mortality risk. Epidemiological and basic studies indicate that vitamin K possesses a benefit in the prevention of the progression of coronary artery calcification via activation of matrix-gla protein (MGP). While these data in epidemiological and basic studies suggest the protective role of vitamin D and K in CVDs, the benefits of supplementation of both vitamins have not been validated in randomized controlled trials. Further basic and interventional studies are needed to confirm the benefit of both vitamins in protection against CVDs.

  5. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  6. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, and risk of falling in older adults. Special consideration is given to the impact of both the starting 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the dose administered on the clinical response to supplemental vitamin D in older men and women. Based on available evidence, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D dose range of 800-1000 IU per day has been effective in many studies; lower doses have generally been ineffective and several doses above this range have increased the risk of falls. In conclusion, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-04-13

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  8. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L Trump

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  9. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  10. Vitamins D3 and K2 may partially counterbalance the detrimental effects of pentosidine in ex vivo human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguineti, R; Monacelli, F; Parodi, A; Furfaro, A L; Borghi, R; Pacini, D; Pronzato, M A; Odetti, P; Molfetta, L; Traverso, N

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic multifaceted disorder, characterized by insufficient bone strength. It has been recently shown that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a role in senile osteoporosis, through bone cell impairment and altered biomechanical properties. Pentosidine (PENT), a wellcharacterized AGE, is also considered a biomarker of bone fracture. Adequate responses to various hormones, such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , are prerequisites for optimal osteoblasts functioning. Vitamin K 2 is known to enhance in vitro and in vitro vitamin D-induced bone formation. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of Vitamins D 3 and K 2 and PENT on in vitro osteoblast activity, to convey a possible translational clinical message. Ex vivo human osteoblasts cultured, for 3 weeks, with vitamin D 3 and vitamin K 2 were exposed to PENT, a well-known advanced glycoxidation end product for the last 72 hours. Experiments with PENT alone were also carried out. Gene expression of specific markers of bone osteoblast maturation [alkaline phosphatase, ALP; collagen I, COL Iα1; and osteocalcin (bone-Gla-protein) BGP] was measured, together with the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoproteregin (RANKL/OPG) ratio to assess bone remodeling. Expression of RAGE, a well-characterized receptor of AGEs, was also assessed. PENT+vitamins slightly inhibited ALP secretion while not affecting gene expression, indicating hampered osteoblast functional activity. PENT+vitamins up-regulated collagen gene expression, while protein secretion was unchanged. Intracellular collagen levels were partially decreased, and a significant reduction in BGP gene expression and intracellular protein concentration were both reported after PENT exposure. The RANKL/OPG ratio was increased, favouring bone reabsorption. RAGE gene expression significantly decreased. These results were confirmed by a lower mineralization rate. We provided in vitro evidence that glycoxidation might

  11. Effects of Vitamin D3 and Paricalcitol on Immature Cardiomyocytes: A Novel Role for Vitamin D Analogs in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Branca, Jacopo J. V.; Aterini, Stefano; Amato, Marcello; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular protection has led, in recent years, to an increase in the administration of therapies based on the use of this molecule; nevertheless, several studies warned that an excess of vitamin D3 may increase the risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcifications. In this study we evaluated the effects of vitamin D3, and of its selective analog paricalcitol, on immature cardiomyocytes. Results show that vitamin D3 induces cAMP-mediated cell proliferation and significant intracellular calcification. Paricalcitol, however, induces cell differentiation, morphological modifications in cell shape and size, and no intracellular calcification. Furthermore, vitamin D3 and paricalcitol differently affect cardiomyoblasts responses to acetylcholine treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the effects of vitamin D3 and paricalcitol on cardiomyoblasts are different and, if these in vitro observations could be extrapolated in vivo, they suggest that paricalcitol has the potential for cardiovascular protection without the risk of inducing intracellular calcification. PMID:23749205

  12. Effects of Vitamin D3 and Paricalcitol on Immature Cardiomyocytes: A Novel Role for Vitamin D Analogs in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruggiero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular protection has led, in recent years, to an increase in the administration of therapies based on the use of this molecule; nevertheless, several studies warned that an excess of vitamin D3 may increase the risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcifications. In this study we evaluated the effects of vitamin D3, and of its selective analog paricalcitol, on immature cardiomyocytes. Results show that vitamin D3 induces cAMP-mediated cell proliferation and significant intracellular calcification. Paricalcitol, however, induces cell differentiation, morphological modifications in cell shape and size, and no intracellular calcification. Furthermore, vitamin D3 and paricalcitol differently affect cardiomyoblasts responses to acetylcholine treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the effects of vitamin D3 and paricalcitol on cardiomyoblasts are different and, if these in vitro observations could be extrapolated in vivo, they suggest that paricalcitol has the potential for cardiovascular protection without the risk of inducing intracellular calcification.

  13. Development and application of radioimmunoassays for vitamin D metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, T.L.

    1980-04-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, the most potent derivative of vitamin D 3 is described and has been used to measure its concentration in human serum from normal subjects, patients with clinical osteomalacia,, anephric patients and those with chronic renal failure. The absorption and clearance of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol have been studied in healthy and uremic patients by following the changes of its circulating concentration after administration of a single (2ug) dose of synthetic 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol orally. The radioimmunoassay was also used to investigate the underlying cause of the hypercalcaemia of sarcoidosis. (author)

  14. Photon Reabsorption in Mixed CsPbCl3:CsPbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystal Films for Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Nathaniel J. L. K.

    2017-01-24

    Cesium lead halide nanocrystals, CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), exhibit photoluminescence quantum efficiencies approaching 100% without the core–shell structures usually used in conventional semiconductor nanocrystals. These high photoluminescence efficiencies make these crystals ideal candidates for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, because of the large surface area to volume ratio, halogen exchange between perovskite nanocrystals of different compositions occurs rapidly, which is one of the limiting factors for white-light applications requiring a mixture of different crystal compositions to achieve a broad emission spectrum. Here, we use mixtures of chloride and iodide CsPbX3 (X = Cl, I) perovskite nanocrystals where anion exchange is significantly reduced. We investigate samples containing mixtures of perovskite nanocrystals with different compositions and study the resulting optical and electrical interactions. We report excitation transfer from CsPbCl3 to CsPbI3 in solution and within a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix via photon reabsorption, which also occurs in electrically excited crystals in bulk heterojunction LEDs.

  15. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  16. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  17. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Are ... you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your body needs ...

  18. Reversal of Proximal Renal Tubular Dysfunction after Nucleotide Analogue Withdrawal in Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Proximal renal tubular dysfunction (PRTD is an infrequent complication after nucleotide analogue therapy. We evaluated the outcomes of PRTD and nephrotoxicity after nucleotide analogue withdrawal in chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Methods. A longitudinal follow-up study was performed in patients with PRTD after nucleotide analogue discontinuation. Serum and urine were collected at baseline and every 3 months for one year. The fractional excretion of phosphate (PO4, uric acid (UA, and potassium and tubular maximal reabsorption rate of PO4 to glomerular filtration rate (TmPO4/GFR were calculated. Renal losses were defined based on the criteria of substance losses. Subclinical PRTD and overt PRTD were diagnosed when 2 and ≥3 criteria were identified. Results. Eight subclinical and eight overt PRTD patients were enrolled. After nucleotide analogue withdrawal, there were overall improvements in GFR, serum PO4, and UA. Renal loss of PO4, UA, protein, and β2-microglobulin reduced over time. At one year, complete reversal of PRTD was seen in 13 patients (81.2%. Improvements in PRTD were seen in all but one patient. Conclusion. One year after nucleotide analogue withdrawal, PRTD was resolved in most patients. Changes in TmPO4/GFR, urinary protein, and β2-microglobulin indicate that urinary biomarkers may represent an early sign of PRTD recovery.

  19. Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA in rats with proximal tubular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1985-01-01

    The renal handling of technetium-/sup 99m/ dimercaptosuccinic acid ([/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA) was studied in rats before and after treatment with Na-maleate (2 mmol/kg i.v.). In the control period, when measured 2 hr after the intravenous injection of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA, 39.9% of the injected dose was in the kidneys and 14.6% was in the bladder. After Na-maleate treatment, only 6.4% of the injected dose of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA was retained in the kidneys while 37.9% was found in the bladder. Subsequent studies revealed that Na-maleate produced a fall in the glomerular filtration rate, the effective renal plasma flow, and a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction. The latter was characterized by polyuria and an increased excretion of glucose, protein, albumin, calcium, and inorganic phosphate. It was concluded that proximal tubular dysfunction markedly alters the renal handling of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA. Whether this augmented urinary excretion is due to an inhibition of reabsorption or an enhanced cellular efflux of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA remains to be answered

  20. Radioresponse of mice testes with or without vitamin-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, T.K.; Goyal, P.K.; Dev, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamins have generated a great deal of interest in recent years for a wide range of protective effects in biological systems. The present study is an attempt to assess the prophylactic use of Vitamin-E against radiation induced changes in the testicular cell counts of Swiss albino mice after exposure to low dose of gamma rays. Quantitative changes in different type of testicular cells of adult Swiss albino mice exposed to 1.6 Gy gamma rays after 7 days prior treatment of vitamin-E (as α-tocopherol), once a day, were studied. The results were compared with those obtained from animals irradiated with the same dose of gamma rays in the absence of Vitamin-E. It was found that the number of different cell counts declined in the testes after irradiation. A continuous depletion was found in the frequency of different spermatogonia types and primary spermatocytes from 6 h to 5 d after irradiation both with control and experimental groups. The counts of such testicular components started elevating from day 10, but remained below normal till 20 days post-irradiation. A progressive decline in the counts of spermatids was also observed from 6 h to the last autopsy interval. However, the experimental values were significantly higher than their corresponding controls at days 10 and 20 post-irradiation intervals. It appears that the higher surviving germ cells population and lesser testicular degeneration in Vitamin-E treated animals is the result of high degree of protection provided by Vitamin-E to the germ cells, which continue to retain their proliferative activities. (author)

  1. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were based on, for example, LC. Koontz et al. showed results of total folate concentrations measured by microbiological assay in a variety of foods. Samples were submitted in a routine manner to experienced laboratories that regularly perform folate analysis fee-for-service basis in the United States. Each laboratory reported the use of a microbiological method similar to the AOAC Official Method for the determination of folic acid. Striking was, the use of 3 different pH extraction conditions by 4 laboratories. Only one laboratory reported using a tri-enzyme extraction. Results were evaluated. Results for folic acid fortified foods had considerably lower between-laboratory variation, 9-11%, versus >45% for other foods. Mean total folate ranged from 14 to 279 microg/100 g for a mixed vegetable reference material, from 5 to 70 microg/100 g for strawberries, and from 28 to 81 microg/100 g for wholemeal flour. One should realize a large variation in results, which might be caused by slight modifications in the microbiological analysis of total folate in foods or the analysis in various (unfortified) food matrixes. Furthermore, optimal

  2. Renal imaging in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porn, U.; Hahn, K.; Fischer, S.

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent renal diseases in paediatrics include urinary tract infections, hydronephrosis, kidney anomalies and reflux. The main reason for performing DMSA scintigraphy in paediatrics is the detection of cortical abnormalities related to urinary tract infection. Because the amount of tracer retained in the tubular cells is associated with the distribution of functioning renal parenchyma in the kidney, it is possible, to evaluate the split renal function. In comparison to ultrasound and intravenous urography the sensitivity in the detection of acute as well as chronic inflammatory changes is very high, however less specific. An indication for a renography in neonates and children is beside an estimation of the total renal function and the calculation of the split renal function, the assessment of renal drainage in patients with unclear dilatation of the collecting system in ultrasound. The analysis of the time activity curve provides, especially for follow-up studies, a reproducible method to assess the urinary outflow. The diuretic scintigraphy allows the detection of urinary obstruction. Subsequently it is possible to image the micturition phase to detect vesico-ureteric reflux (indirect MCU) after drainage of tracer from the renal pelvis. An reflux in the ureters or the pelvicalyceal system is visible on the scintigraphic images and can be confirmed by time activity curves. A more invasive technique is the direct isotope cystography with bladder catheterization. The present paper should give an overview about the role of nuclear medicine in paediatric urology. (orig.) [de

  3. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  4. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  5. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma

    2011-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Hypercalcemia, hypervitaminosis A and 3-epi-25-OH-D3 levels after consumption of an "over the counter" vitamin D remedy. a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Rubio, E; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Rodríguez-Pena, R; García López, F J

    2012-06-01

    Intoxication from vitamin D supplements has been rarely reported but, nowadays, it occurs more frequently. 3-epi-25-OH-D(3) is highly prevalent in adults and it is considered of biological relevance. We report a case of vitamin D toxicity with hypercalcemia, acute renal failure and hypervitaminosis A after consuming an over-the-counter vitamin D supplement. Our data suggest that the contribution of 3-epi-25-OH-D(3) is not altered during vitamin D toxicity, although the serum levels of 25-OH-D(3) and 3-epi-25-OH-D(3) may display a different rate of clearance. The patient also displayed hypervitaminosis A unrelated to diet, possibly caused by renal failure related to the hypercalcemia induced by vitamin D toxicity. Because of the increasing use of over-the-counter vitamin D supplements and the potential iatrogenic hypercalcemia related to hypervitaminosis A, the present case highlights the importance of evaluating both the use of (non-) prescribed medication and vitamin A status during vitamin D toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  8. Renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryoablation of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makki, Ahmad; Graumann, Ole; Hoyer, Soren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small series have reported that cryoablation (CA) is a safe and feasible minimally invasive nephron-sparing alternative for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas (renal AMLs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CA in patients with renal AML......-guided CA. The mean patient age was 46 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30] and the mean tumor volume was 50.1 cm(3) (IQR 53.3). In all cases, the procedure was effectively conducted with no conversion to open surgery, and no major complications were experienced. The mean follow-up time was 25 months (IQR...

  10. Acute renal failure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergesslich, K.A.; Balzar, E.; Weninger, M.; Ponhold, W.; Sommer, G.; Wittich, G.R.; Vienna Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) may be due to obstructive uropathy or renal parenchymal disease. Twenty-five children with acute renal failure secondary to renal parenchymal disease underwent ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys. Changes of renal size and cortical echogenicity were correlated with renal function. All patients presented with bilaterally enlarged kidneys with the exception in renal function resulted in normalization of renal size. With regard to cortical echogenicity two groups were formed. Group A comprised 11 patients whose kidneys had the same echogenicity as the liver, while in group B the kidneys were more echogenic (14 patients). Cortical echogenicity was always increased. Determination of creatinine levels showed a statistically significant difference between group A (3.32 mg% ± 1.40 S.D.) and group B (5.95 mg% ± 1.96 S.D.), p < 0.001. Changes in renal function were paralleled by rapid changes in renal size and cortical echogenicity. (orig.)

  11. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  12. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN JAMMU IN SUBJECTS WITH NO COMORBIDITY- A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Kapoor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Deficiency of the vitamin D may result in metabolic bone diseases leading to rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults.1,2 The vitamin D may provide protection against hypertension, cancer and multiple sclerosis.3 The vitamin D level is regulated through the interaction of various factors including intestinal absorption, renal function, serum calcium level and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH.3 The 2 main sources for vitamin D are synthesis in the skin on exposure to Ultraviolet-B (UVB light from sunlight and dietary intake. The aim of the study is to evaluate status of the vitamin D of a cohort of Jammu population with no comorbidity. A questionnaire was given to 119 patients (77 males and 42 females where information regarding intake of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, intake of calcium rich food and exposure to vitamin D was sought. MATERIALS AND METHODS Estimation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH3 and plasma Parathyroid Hormone (PTH intact levels was done the subjects. Serum 25 (OH 2D3 levels did not differ significantly between males and females, although the levels were low (males 9.72 ng/mL ± 4.2 and females 8.5 ng/mL ± 4.7. RESULTS The vitamin D was still in the deficiency range even after excluding the subjects with very high PTH levels. CONCLUSION There was a high prevalence of a vitamin D deficiency in this sample of Jammu despite >70% of participants having adequate exposure to sunlight and >80% reporting adequate intake of dairy products.

  13. Vitamin C: intravenous use by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners and adverse effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Padayatty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal information and case reports suggest that intravenously administered vitamin C is used by Complementary and Alternate Medicine (CAM practitioners. The scale of such use in the U.S. and associated side effects are unknown.We surveyed attendees at annual CAM Conferences in 2006 and 2008, and determined sales of intravenous vitamin C by major U.S. manufacturers/distributors. We also queried practitioners for side effects, compiled published cases, and analyzed FDA's Adverse Events Database. Of 199 survey respondents (out of 550, 172 practitioners administered IV vitamin C to 11,233 patients in 2006 and 8876 patients in 2008. Average dose was 28 grams every 4 days, with 22 total treatments per patient. Estimated yearly doses used (as 25 g/50 ml vials were 318,539 in 2006 and 354,647 in 2008. Manufacturers' yearly sales were 750,000 and 855,000 vials, respectively. Common reasons for treatment included infection, cancer, and fatigue. Of 9,328 patients for whom data is available, 101 had side effects, mostly minor, including lethargy/fatigue in 59 patients, change in mental status in 21 patients and vein irritation/phlebitis in 6 patients. Publications documented serious adverse events, including 2 deaths in patients known to be at risk for IV vitamin C. Due to confounding causes, the FDA Adverse Events Database was uninformative. Total numbers of patients treated in the US with high dose vitamin C cannot be accurately estimated from this study.High dose IV vitamin C is in unexpectedly wide use by CAM practitioners. Other than the known complications of IV vitamin C in those with renal impairment or glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, high dose intravenous vitamin C appears to be remarkably safe. Physicians should inquire about IV vitamin C use in patients with cancer, chronic, untreatable, or intractable conditions and be observant of unexpected harm, drug interactions, or benefit.

  14. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  15. Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.; Knipschild, P.; ter Riet, G.

    1989-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials of the effects of Vitamin E on complaints of intermittent claudication and angina pectoris are reviewed, and their methodological shortcomings are considered. Mechanisms by which Vitamin E might act in cardiovascular disease are discussed. The evidence about the possible

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. ... amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some supplement products may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body and are eliminated in the ...

  18. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D include these, among many others: • Some cancers • Heart disease • Diabetes (high blood sugar) • Obesity • Muscle weakness However, it is not clear if ... vitamin D can become “trapped” in body fat, obesity may cause low vitamin D. People ... heart disease, and stroke.) These diseases are even more likely ...

  19. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Hamilton, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  20. vitamin c - jf-f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impo

    delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) which peaks after. 24 - 48 hours and subsides after ... As the evidence regarding the effect of vitamin C (VC) supple- mentation on systemic ..... Pederson EW, Ostowski K, Ibfedt T, et al. Effect of vitamin ...

  1. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... product worth the money?'" Frankos advises. "Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some supplement products may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B ... Americans, many people consume more calories than they need without taking in ... nutrients—including vitamins—for which low dietary intake may be a ...

  4. [Vitamin D and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Natielen Jacques; Garcia, Vivian Cristina; Martini, Ligia Araújo

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been worldwide reported in all age groups in recent years. It has been considered a Public Health matter since decreased levels of vitamin D has been related to several chronic diseases, as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and hypertension. Glucose intolerance and insulin secretion has been observed during vitamin D deficiency, both in animals and humans resulting in T2DM. The supposed mechanism underlying these findings is presence of vitamin D receptor in several tissues and cells, including pancreatic beta-cells, adipocyte and muscle cells. In obese individuals, the impaired vitamin D endocrine system, characterized by high levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could induce a negative feedback for the hepatic synthesis of 25(OH)D and also contribute to a higher intracellular calcium, which in turn secrete less insulin and deteriorate insulin sensitivity. In hypertension, vitamin D could act on renin-angiotensin system and also in vascular function. Administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could decreases renin gene expression and inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, prospective and intervention human studies that clearly demonstrates the benefits of vitamin D status adequacy in the prevention and treatment of endocrine metabolic diseases are lacking. Further research still necessary to assure the maximum benefit of vitamin D in such situations.

  5. Vitamin K and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Cheung, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K has been purported to play an important role in bone health. It is required for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone), making osteocalcin functional. There are 2 main forms (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), and they come from different sources and have different biological activities. Epidemiologic studies suggest a diet high in vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in aging men and women. However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation in white populations did not increase bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fractures, but the trials that examined fractures as an outcome have methodological limitations. Large well-designed trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures. We conclude that currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D and muscle trophicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Faria, Carla; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, discrepancies still exist about an enhancement or a decrease of muscle proliferation and differentiation by the vitamin D. Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. Finally, apart from its genomic and nongenomic effects, recent investigations have demonstrated a genetic contribution of vitamin D to muscle functioning. Recent studies support the importance of vitamin D in muscle health, and the impact of its deficiency in regard to muscle mass and function. These 'trophic' properties are of particular importance for some specific populations such as elderly persons and athletes, and in situations of loss of muscle mass or function, particularly in the context of chronic diseases.

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fat-soluble vitamins.” For some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that it recommends not be exceeded during any given day. (For more information, visit ... the AAFP lists the following side effects that are ...

  8. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  9. Vitamin D and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Potrokhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review discusses the effect of vitamin D on the tolerogenic modulation of an immune response, its relationship to cells of the monocyte-macrophage series, including dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, in the context of the impact of the expression of anti-inflammatory proinflammatory cytokines in some autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Crohn`s disease. It discusses the role of vitamin D in the development of innate and adaptive immunity. Despite some conflicting evidence, the immune regulatory function of vitamin D is generally directed toward inhibition of the components of innate and acquired immunity, which are responsible for the induction of autoimmune reactions; in this connection there are a growing number of publications devoted to the issues of vitamin D supplementation in patients with autoimmune diseases, the preventive effect of vitamin D intake on the risk of an abnormality and that of therapeutic doses of the vitamin on its course. The maintenance of the threshold value for serum 25(OHD3 at least 30 ng/ml, which is achieved by the intake of about 2000 IU of vitamin D, is shown to be required for its immune regulatory function. The data given raise the question as to whether it is necessity to revise the Russian recommended daily dietary allowances for vitamin D through its infant food fortification.

  10. [Osteomalacia and vitamin D deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, C P; Corsten, N; Rolf, O

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin D and calcium deficiency has a higher incidence in the orthopedic-trauma surgery patient population than generally supposed. In the long term this can result in osteomalacia, a form of altered bone mineralization in adults, in which the cartilaginous, non-calcified osteoid does not mature to hard bone. The current value of vitamin D and its importance for bones and other body cells are demonstrated. The causes of vitamin D deficiency are insufficient sunlight exposure, a lack of vitamin D3 and calcium, malabsorption, and rare alterations of VDR signaling and phosphate metabolism. The main symptoms are bone pain, fatigue fractures, muscular cramps, muscle pain, and gait disorders, with an increased incidence of falls in the elderly. Osteopathies induced by pharmaceuticals, tumors, rheumatism or osteoporosis have to be considered as the main differential diagnoses. In addition to the recording of symptoms and medical imaging, the diagnosis of osteomalacia should be ensured by laboratory parameters. Adequate treatment consists of the high-dose intake of vitamin D3 and the replacement of phosphate if deficient. Vitamin D is one of the important hormone-like vitamins and is required in all human cells. Deficiency of vitamin D has far-reaching consequences not only for bone, but also for other organ systems.

  11. Lithium clearance and renal tubular sodium handling during acute and long-term nifedipine treatment in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, N E; Ibsen, H; Skøtt, P

    1988-01-01

    1. In two separate studies the lithium clearance method was used to evaluate the influence of acute and long-term nifedipine treatment on renal tubular sodium reabsorption. 2. In the acute study, after a 4 week placebo period two doses of 20 mg of nifedipine decreased supine blood pressure from 155...... were also unchanged, as were potassium clearance, urine flow and body weight. 3. In the long-term study, lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate, sodium clearance, potassium clearance, urine flow and body fluid volumes were measured after a 4 weeks placebo period and after 6 and 12 weeks....../101 (20.6/13.5) +/- 11/4 (1.5/0.5) to 139/88 (18.5/11.7) +/- 16/9 (2.1/1.2) mmHg (kPa) (means +/- SD; P less than 0.01). Lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate and sodium clearance did not change. Therefore the calculated values of absolute proximal and absolute distal sodium reabsorption rates...

  12. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  13. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney tumor - CT scan Kidney metastases, CT scan Kidney - blood and urine flow References Campbell SC, Lane BR. Malignant renal tumors. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  14. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  15. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  16. Common paediatric renal conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few children in South Africa have access to dialysis or renal transplantation, so it is important to .... the chronic administration of antibiotics increases the risk of a UTI with a resistant .... factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women.

  17. Renal and perirenal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.E.; Andriole, V.T.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge of the spectrum of renal abscesses has increased as a result of more sensitive radiologic techniques. The classification of intrarenal abscess now includes acute focal bacterial nephritis and acute multifocal bacterial nephritis, as well as the previously recognized renal cortical abscess, renal corticomedullary abscess, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. In general, the clinical presentation of these entities does not differentiate them; various radiographic studies can distinguish them, however. The intrarenal abscess is usually treated successfully with antibiotic therapy alone. Antistaphylococcal therapy is indicated for the renal cortical abscess, whereas therapy directed against the common gram-negative uropathogens is indicated for most of the other entities. The perinephric abscess is often an elusive diagnosis, has a more serious prognosis, and is more difficult to treat. Drainage of the abscess and sometimes partial or complete nephrectomy are required for resolution. 73 references

  18. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  19. Renal dynamic scintigraphy in renal graft evaluation; Cintilografia renal dinamica na avaliacao do transplante renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Marco Antonio Cadorna; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros; Souza, Ricardo Alberto Manhaes de; Evangelista, Maria Gardenia; Cavalcante, Carlos Alberto Provasi; Neder, Jacqueline de Roure e; Espinola, Ircania Jorge [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this was to describe the use of the dynamic renal scintigraphy in patients grafted. The authors described the scintigraphy method utilised and results were discussed 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Renal Proteome in Mice with Different Susceptibilities to Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Salvato, Fernanda; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Everett, Eric T.; Whitford, Gary Milton; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    A/J and 129P3/J mouse strains have different susceptibilities to dental fluorosis due to their genetic backgrounds. They also differ with respect to several features of fluoride (F) metabolism and metabolic handling of water. This study was done to determine whether differences in F metabolism could be explained by diversities in the profile of protein expression in kidneys. Weanling, male A/J mice (susceptible to dental fluorosis, n = 18) and 129P3/J mice (resistant, n = 18) were housed in pairs and assigned to three groups given low-F food and drinking water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppm [F] for 7 weeks. Renal proteome profiles were examined using 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. Quantitative intensity analysis detected between A/J and 129P3/J strains 122, 126 and 134 spots differentially expressed in the groups receiving 0, 10 and 50 ppmF, respectively. From these, 25, 30 and 32, respectively, were successfully identified. Most of the proteins were related to metabolic and cellular processes, followed by response to stimuli, development and regulation of cellular processes. In F-treated groups, PDZK-1, a protein involved in the regulation of renal tubular reabsorption capacity was down-modulated in the kidney of 129P3/J mice. A/J and 129P3/J mice exhibited 11 and 3 exclusive proteins, respectively, regardless of F exposure. In conclusion, proteomic analysis was able to identify proteins potentially involved in metabolic handling of F and water that are differentially expressed or even not expressed in the strains evaluated. This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to dental fluorosis, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies. PMID:23308176

  1. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  2. Human Sodium Phosphate Transporter 4 (hNPT4/SLC17A3) as a Common Renal Secretory Pathway for Drugs and Urate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutabha, Promsuk; Anzai, Naohiko; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Kaneko, Shuji; Yan, Kunimasa; Yamada, Hideomi; Shimada, Hidetaka; Kimura, Toru; Katada, Tomohisa; Fukutomi, Toshiyuki; Tomita, Kimio; Urano, Wako; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Seki, George; Fujita, Toshiro; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Yamada, Akira; Uchida, Shunya; Wempe, Michael F.; Endou, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary loss of hepatic urate oxidase (uricase) has resulted in humans with elevated serum uric acid (urate). Uricase loss may have been beneficial to early primate survival. However, an elevated serum urate has predisposed man to hyperuricemia, a metabolic disturbance leading to gout, hypertension, and various cardiovascular diseases. Human serum urate levels are largely determined by urate reabsorption and secretion in the kidney. Renal urate reabsorption is controlled via two proximal tubular urate transporters: apical URAT1 (SLC22A12) and basolateral URATv1/GLUT9 (SLC2A9). In contrast, the molecular mechanism(s) for renal urate secretion remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that an orphan transporter hNPT4 (human sodium phosphate transporter 4; SLC17A3) was a multispecific organic anion efflux transporter expressed in the kidneys and liver. hNPT4 was localized at the apical side of renal tubules and functioned as a voltage-driven urate transporter. Furthermore, loop diuretics, such as furosemide and bumetanide, substantially interacted with hNPT4. Thus, this protein is likely to act as a common secretion route for both drugs and may play an important role in diuretics-induced hyperuricemia. The in vivo role of hNPT4 was suggested by two hyperuricemia patients with missense mutations in SLC17A3. These mutated versions of hNPT4 exhibited reduced urate efflux when they were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings will complete a model of urate secretion in the renal tubular cell, where intracellular urate taken up via OAT1 and/or OAT3 from the blood exits from the cell into the lumen via hNPT4. PMID:20810651

  3. Vitamin D: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, M; Alonso, G; García-Martín, A

    2014-10-01

    In recent years has been a growing interest by vitamin D, not only for its important role in the bone mineral metabolism, but also by the extra-osseous effects. Most of the scientific societies consider that deposits are sufficient if the serum concentration of 25-OH vitamin D is above 30ng/ml and are considered deficient if levels are below 20ng/ml. The majority of studies found that supplements of calcium plus vitamin D have a positive effect in reducing the risk of fracture and the risk of falls in the elderly, although several specifies that doses should be 700-1.000 IU daily. The treatment of the deficit can be performed with vitamin D2, D3 as well as calcidiol or the active metabolite calcitriol. In certain pathologies also selective vitamin D receptor activators can be used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of irradiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical process involving treatment of food with ionising radiation. Its main uses are reduction in spoilage and pathogenic organisms, inhibition of ripening and sprouting processes, and insect disinfestation. Chemical changes in the treated foods are small, and expert committees have concluded that they carry no special nutritional problems. Some vitamins are sensitive to irradiative degradation, however, and opponents of the process have claimed that extensive destruction will occur. Irradiation doses will, however, be limited by organoleptic changes, and maximum levels are being introduced into legislation for specific foods. Examination of the published literature shows that vitamins C and B 1 are the most sensitive water-soluble vitamins, and that E and A are the most sensitive fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin losses on irradiation of permitted foods in western countries will not be of nutritional importance. (Author)

  5. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  6. Effects Of Ischemic Preconditioning On The Renal Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyamanesh S

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available  During kidney and other organ transplantation, the organ to be transplanted, must inevitably remain out of the body with little or no blood perfusion at all for a long period of time (ischemia. These events have been suggested to cause the formation of oxygen- derived free radicals (OFR. Reperfusion (reintroduction of blood flow will further exacerbate the initial damage caused by the ischemic insult and may result in the production of free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether induction of brief periods of renal artery occlusion (ischemic pre¬conditioning, IPC can provide protection from the effects of a subsequent period of ischemia and reperfusion (IR in the rat kidney."nMaterials and Methods: In this regard, 28 white, male rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: Control (sham- operated, IPC alone, IR alone (30 min ischemia followed by 10 min reperfusion, and IPC- IR. Preconditioning involved the sequential clamping of the right renal artery for 5 min and declamping for 5 min for a total of 3 cycles. To demonstrate the effectiveness of IPC regimen, vitamin E as an endogenous antioxidant and an index of lipid peroxidation was measured by HPLC after its extraction from right renal venous plasma and right renal tissue."nResults: Results of this study showed that the amount of vitamin E of renal tissue and venous plasma in the IR group had a significant decrease when compared to the control group (P< 0.0001. Whereas the amount of this vitamin in both renal tissue and venous plasma of the IPC- IR group was significantly higher than that in the IR group (P< 0.0001, but did not show any significant difference with the control group."nConclusion: In this study, preconditioning method prevented the reduction of the endogenous antioxidant (Vit. E in encountering the following sustained ischemic insult. Therefore, we suggest that ischemic preconditioning can be used to protect the Vit. E level of kidney from its

  7. Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Inácio Roman

    Full Text Available Abstract The renal artery pseudoaneurysm embody a rare vascular complication coming of percutaneous procedures, renal biopsy, nephrectomy, penetrating traumas and more rarely blunt traumas. The clinical can be vary according the patient, the haematuria is the symptom more commom. Is necessary a high level of clinical suspicion for your diagnosis, this can be elucidated by through complementary exams as the eco-color Doppler and the computed tomography scan (CT. This report is a case of a patient submitted a right percutaneous renal biopsy and that, after the procedure started with macroscopic haematuria, urinary tenesmus and hypogastric pain. The diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm was given after one week of evolution when the patient was hospitalized because gross haematuria, tachycardia, hypotension and hypochondrium pain. In the angiotomography revealed a focal dilation of the accessory right renal inferior polar artery, dilation of renal pelvis and all the ureteral course with presence hyperdenso material (clots inside the middle third of the ureter. The treatment for the majority of this cases are conservative, through arterial embolization, indicated for thouse of smaller dimensions in patients who are hemodynamically stable. However, it was decided by clinical treatment with aminocaproic acid 1 g, according to previous studies for therapy of haematuria. The patient received discharge without evidence of macroscopic haematuria and with normal renal ultrasound, following ambulatory care.

  8. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in Fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatty, S.A.; Shaikh, N.A.; Irfan, M.; Kashif, S.M.; Vaswani, A.S.; Sumbhai, A.; Gunpat

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To check the Vitamin D levels in patients diagnosed as fibromyagia in our population. Methods: Study was done at Medical OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi, from January to March 2009. Female patients diagnosed as Fibromyalgia according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and exclusion of systemic illness on examination, and normal reports of blood CP, ESR, serum calcium, phosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase, were asked to get Vitamin D levels in their serum. Vitamin D deficiency is defined as 30 ng/ml. Result: Forty female patients were included in the study. The mean age was 37.65 +- 11.5 years. Mean Vitamin D level was 17.41 +- 5.497 ng/ml. Thirty two (80%) of patients had Vitamin D deficiency, mean levels of 15.855 +- 4.918 ng/ml and 8(20%) had Vitamin D insufficiency, mean levels of 23.64 +- 2.39 ng/ml. Patients with vitamin D deficiency and age less than 45 years were 22 (68.75%), had mean vitamin D level 16.87 +- 4.48 ng/ml whereas in age ranging from 46-75 years were 10 (31.25%) had mean vitamin D level 16.09 +- 6.45 ng/ml. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently seen in patients diagnosed as fibromyalgia and nonspecific musculoskeletal pain in our population. Although the sample size of the study is small, but the figures are so alarming that it is an eye opener towards the need of a population based study, including normal population as well as those presenting with musculoskeletal pain. (author)

  10. Vitamin C and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitra C. Carr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day, which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.

  11. Vitamin k intake and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels in kidney transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Y Boxma

    Full Text Available Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP. Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60 with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42-77] (median [interquartile range] ml/min, who were 75 [35-188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP. Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06 and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p500 pmol/L in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.

  12. Vitamin k intake and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxma, Paul Y; van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Laverman, Gozewijn D; Schurgers, Leon J; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P; Muskiet, Frits A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; de Borst, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60) with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42-77] (median [interquartile range]) ml/min), who were 75 [35-188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06) and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p500 pmol/L) in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.

  13. Eco-friendly luminescent solar concentrators with low reabsorption losses and resistance to concentration quenching based on aqueous-solution-processed thiolate-gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. Y.; Cai, K. B.; Chang, L. Y.; Chen, P. W.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Talite, M. J.; Chou, W. C.; Yuan, C. T.

    2017-09-01

    Heavy-metal-containing quantum dots (QDs) with engineered electronic states have been served as luminophores in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) with impressive optical efficiency. Unfortunately, those QDs involve toxic elements and need to be synthesized in a hazardous solvent. Recently, biocompatible, eco-friendly gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), which can be directly synthesized in an aqueous solution, have gained much attention for promising applications in ‘green photonics’. Here, we explored the solid-state photophysical properties of aqueous-solution-processed, glutathione-stabilized gold nanoclusters (GSH-AuNCs) with a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) state for developing ‘green’ LSCs. We found that such GSH-AuNCs exhibit a large Stokes shift with almost no spectral overlap between the optical absorption and PL emission due to the LMCT states, thus, suppressing reabsorption losses. Compared with GSH-AuNCs in solution, the photoluminescence quantum yields (PL-QYs) of the LSCs can be enhanced, accompanied with a lengthened PL lifetime owing to the suppression of non-radiative recombination rates. In addition, the LSCs do not suffer from severe concentration-induced PL quenching, which is a common weakness for conventional luminophores. As a result, a common trade-off between light-harvesting efficiency and solid-state PL-QYs can be bypassed due to nearly-zero spectral overlap integral between the optical absorption and PL emission. We expect that GSH-AuNCs hold great promise for serving as luminophores for ‘green’ LSCs by further enhancing solid-state PL-QYs.

  14. Eco-friendly luminescent solar concentrators with low reabsorption losses and resistance to concentration quenching based on aqueous-solution-processed thiolate-gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H Y; Cai, K B; Chang, L Y; Chen, P W; Lin, T N; Lin, C A J; Shen, J L; Talite, M J; Chou, W C; Yuan, C T

    2017-09-15

    Heavy-metal-containing quantum dots (QDs) with engineered electronic states have been served as luminophores in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) with impressive optical efficiency. Unfortunately, those QDs involve toxic elements and need to be synthesized in a hazardous solvent. Recently, biocompatible, eco-friendly gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), which can be directly synthesized in an aqueous solution, have gained much attention for promising applications in 'green photonics'. Here, we explored the solid-state photophysical properties of aqueous-solution-processed, glutathione-stabilized gold nanoclusters (GSH-AuNCs) with a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) state for developing 'green' LSCs. We found that such GSH-AuNCs exhibit a large Stokes shift with almost no spectral overlap between the optical absorption and PL emission due to the LMCT states, thus, suppressing reabsorption losses. Compared with GSH-AuNCs in solution, the photoluminescence quantum yields (PL-QYs) of the LSCs can be enhanced, accompanied with a lengthened PL lifetime owing to the suppression of non-radiative recombination rates. In addition, the LSCs do not suffer from severe concentration-induced PL quenching, which is a common weakness for conventional luminophores. As a result, a common trade-off between light-harvesting efficiency and solid-state PL-QYs can be bypassed due to nearly-zero spectral overlap integral between the optical absorption and PL emission. We expect that GSH-AuNCs hold great promise for serving as luminophores for 'green' LSCs by further enhancing solid-state PL-QYs.

  15. Risks of rapid decline renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jing; Sheen; Wayne; HH; Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Progressive rising population of diabetes and related nephropathy, namely, diabetic kidney disease and associated end stage renal disease has become a major global public health issue. Results of observational studies indicate that most diabetic kidney disease progresses over decades; however, certain diabetes patients display a rapid decline in renal function, which may lead to renal failure within months. Although the definition of rapid renal function decline remained speculative, in general,it is defined by the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate(e GFR) in absolute rate of loss or percent change. Based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2012 clinical practice guidelines, a rapid decline in renal function is defined as a sustained declinein e GFR of > 5 m L/min per 1.73 m2 per year. It has been reported that potential factors contributing to a rapid decline in renal function include ethnic/genetic and demographic causes, smoking habits, increased glycated hemoglobin levels, obesity, albuminuria, anemia, low serum magnesium levels, high serum phosphate levels, vitamin D deficiency, elevated systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity values, retinopathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. This article reviews current literatures in this area and provides insight on the early detection of diabetic subjects who are at risk of a rapid decline in renal function in order to develop a more aggressive approach to renal and cardiovascular protection.

  16. Vitamin D metabolism impairment in the rat's offspring following maternal exposure to 137cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissandie, E; Guéguen, Y; Lobaccaro, J M A; Grandcolas, L; Grison, S; Aigueperse, J; Souidi, M

    2009-04-01

    Previous works clearly showed that chronic contamination by 137cesium alters vitamin D metabolism. Since children are known to be a high-risk group for vitamin D metabolism disorders, effects of 137Cs on vitamin D biosynthetic pathway were investigated in newborn rats. The experiments were performed in 21-day-old male offspring of dams exposed to 137Cs in their drinking water at a dose of 6,500 Bq/l (150 Bq/rat/day) during the lactation period. Significant modifications of blood calcium (-7%, P < 0.05), phosphate (+80%, P < 0.01) and osteocalcin (-25%, P < 0.05) levels were observed in contaminated offspring, associated with an increase of blood vitamin D3 (+25%, P < 0.01). Besides, decreased expression levels of cyp2r1 and cyp27b1 (-26 and -39%, respectively, P < 0.01) were measured in liver and kidney suggesting a physiological adaptation in response to the rise in vitamin D level. Expressions of vdr, ecac1, cabp-d28k, ecac2 and cabp-9k involved in renal and intestinal calcium transport were unaffected. Altogether, these data show that early exposure to post-accidental doses of 137Cs induces the alteration of vitamin D metabolism, associated with a dysregulation of mineral homeostasis.

  17. Chronic moderate ethanol intake differentially regulates vitamin D hydroxylases gene expression in kidneys and xenografted breast cancer cells in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Quiroz, Janice; García-Becerra, Rocío; Lara-Sotelo, Galia; Avila, Euclides; López, Sofía; Santos-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Barrera, David; Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Ibarra-Sánchez, María J; Esparza-López, José; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2017-10-01

    Factors affecting vitamin D metabolism may preclude anti-carcinogenic effects of its active metabolite calcitriol. Chronic ethanol consumption is an etiological factor for breast cancer that affects vitamin D metabolism; however, the mechanisms underlying this causal association have not been fully clarified. Using a murine model, we examined the effects of chronic moderate ethanol intake on tumoral and renal CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 gene expression, the enzymes involved in calcitriol synthesis and inactivation, respectively. Ethanol (5% w/v) was administered to 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 -treated or control mice during one month. Afterwards, human breast cancer cells were xenografted and treatments continued another month. Ethanol intake decreased renal Cyp27b1 while increased tumoral CYP24A1 gene expression.Treatment with 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 significantly stimulated CYP27B1 in tumors of non-alcohol-drinking mice, while increased both renal and tumoral CYP24A1. Coadministration of ethanol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 reduced in 60% renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 -dependent Cyp24a1 upregulation (Pintake decreases renal and tumoral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 bioconversion into calcitriol, while favors degradation of both vitamin D metabolites in breast cancer cells. The latter may partially explain why alcohol consumption is associated with vitamin D deficiency and increased breast cancer risk and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  19. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor agonist Ac-RYYRWKKKKKKK-NH2 (ZP120) induces antinatriuresis in rats by stimulation of amiloride-sensitive sodium reabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurs, Ulla S K; Hadrup, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg

    2008-01-01

    receptors are expressed in the distal convoluted tubules, the connecting tubules, and the collecting ducts. Using clearance techniques, we evaluated renal excretory function during acute administration of ZP120 (1 nmol/kg/min) in chronically catheterized, conscious rats (n = 8/group). To examine...

  20. C-Vitamin mod åreforkalkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme.......Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme....

  1. Paricalcitol for secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillini, Matias; Cortinovis, Monica; Ruggenenti, Piero; Reyes Loaeza, Jorge; Courville, Karen; Ferrer-Siles, Claudia; Prandini, Silvia; Gaspari, Flavio; Cannata, Antonio; Villa, Alessandro; Perna, Annalisa; Gotti, Eliana; Caruso, Maria Rosa; Martinetti, Davide; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Perico, Norberto

    2015-05-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to post-transplant CKD mineral and bone disorder. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. This single-center, prospective, randomized, crossover, open-label study compared the effect of 6-month treatment with paricalcitol (1 μg/d for 3 months and then uptitrated to 2 µg/d if tolerated) or nonparicalcitol therapy on serum parathyroid hormone levels (primary outcome), mineral metabolism, and proteinuria in 43 consenting recipients of renal transplants with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Participants were randomized 1:1 according to a computer-generated sequence. Compared with baseline, median (interquartile range) serum parathyroid hormone levels significantly declined on paricalcitol from 115.6 (94.8-152.0) to 63.3 (52.0-79.7) pg/ml (Psecondary hyperparathyroidism. Long-term studies are needed to monitor directly measured GFR, ensure that the bone remodeling and mineral effects are sustained, and determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Renal PTA stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common condition that may lead to hypertension, progressive renal dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. Catheter-based therapy for symptomatic, haemodynamically significant, RAS has become the preferred method of revascularization. Balloon angioplasty has been the traditional treatment of choice for fibromuscular dysplasia, however stents are increasingly used for the treatment of atheromatous lesions; in many cases-such as in ostial lesions-, direct stenting is strongly indicated. Despite the increased use of endovascular therapy for renal artery stenosis, there is still controversy regarding the optimal management and the net benefit of this treatment. Several randomized trials of balloon angioplasty or stenting for renal artery stenosis compared with medical therapy alone have been conducted, however these could not show definite advantage of endovascular therapy. Problems encountered with those trials include enrollment of small number of patients, frequent crossover from medical to interventional therapy compromising the intention-to-treat results, or selection of patients that are not expected to show clear benefit. The Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) is the most important of these trials; however, it,s study design was faulty and therefore did not provide conclusive evidence to answer the question of whether angioplasty and stenting or medical therapy is the best treatment for haemodynamically significant RAS. All expectations are now focused on the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial which was designed to answer the same question, and its methodologies took into consideration the weaknesses of the ASTRAL trial. Regarding stent device itself, it seems that the optimal design is probably a stainless steel, laser cut, open-cells stent mounted on a rapid exchange delivery balloon catheter compatible with 0.014-in and 0.018-in guidewire. As a future

  3. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  4. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel; Lanske, Beate; Juul, Anders; Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus of this review. Current evidence is primarily based on small human association studies and rodent models. This highlights the need for randomized clinical trials, but also functional animal and human in vitro studies, and larger, prospective cohort studies are warranted. Given the high number of men and women suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin D in Vascular Calcification: A Double-Edged Sword?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification (VC as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification. Therefore, more complex underlying processes involving physiochemical changes to mineral balance, vascular remodelling and perturbed hormonal responses such as parathyroid hormone (PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 are likely to contribute to VC. In particular, VC resulting from modifications to calcium, phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis has been recently elucidated. Notably, deregulation of vitamin D metabolism, dietary calcium intake and renal mineral handling are associated with imbalances in systemic calcium and phosphate levels and endothelial cell dysfunction, which can modulate both bone and soft tissue calcification. This review addresses the current understanding of VC pathophysiology, with a focus on the pathogenic role of vitamin D that has provided new insights into the mechanisms of VC.

  6. Vitamin D deficiency and its relationship with cardiac iron and function in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejkhamron, Prapai; Wejaphikul, Karn; Mahatumarat, Tuanjit; Silvilairat, Suchaya; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Saekho, Suwit; Unachak, Kevalee

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with thalassemia. Vitamin D deficiency could be related to cardiac dysfunction. Increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) is also known to be associated with heart failure. To determine the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and to explore the impact of Vitamin D deficiency on cardiac iron and function in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. A cross-sectional study in patients with Transfusion-dependent thalassemia was conducted. Patients with liver disease, renal disease, type 1 diabetes, malabsorption, hypercortisolism, malignancy, and contraindication for MRI were excluded. Calcium, phosphate, PTH, vitamin D-25OH were measured. CardiacT2 * and liver iron concentration (LIC) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined. Results Sixty-one (33M/28F) patients with Transfusion-dependent thalassemia were enrolled. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency was 50.8%. Patients with cardiac siderosis had tendency for lower D-25OH than those without siderosis (15.9 (11.7-20.0) vs. 20.2 (15.85-22.3) ng/mL); p = 0.06). Serum calcium, phosphate, PTH, LIC, cardiac T2 * , and LVEF were not different between the groups with or without Vitamin D deficiency. Patients with Vitamin D deficiency had significantly lower hemoglobin levels compared to those without Vitamin D deficiency (7.5 (6.93-8.33) vs. 8.1 (7.30-8.50) g/dL; p = 0.04). The median hemoglobin in the last 12 months was significantly correlated with D-25OH. Cardiac T2 * had significant correlation with PTH. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in patients with Transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Vitamin D level is correlated with hemoglobin level. Vitamin D status should be routinely assessed in these patients. Low PTH is correlated with increased cardiac iron. This study did not demonstrate an association between Vitamin D deficiency and cardiac iron or function in patients with Transfusion-dependent thalassemia.

  7. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D status (which is involved in glucose homeostasis) is related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is characterized by increased resistance to and impaired secretion of insulin and results in higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including operative delivery......, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Women with GDM and their babies are at increased risk for developing type II diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: International definitions of vitamin D deficiency and normality are inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women particularly...

  8. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D...... is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to ensure vitamin D intakes that are protective against vitamin D deficiency...

  10. Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, D

    1989-01-01

    The results of supplementing crustacean feeds with vitamins are examined specifically from the standpoint of shrimp culture. Micro-nutrients selected for discussion include: water-soluble vitamins of the B-complex, choline and inositol, vitamin C and the fat-soluble group of vitamins: A, D, E and K. Ways in which utilization of vitamins and ultimately dietary demand are altered by physiological state, conditions of culture, as well as factors which impact on feed levels, are explored.

  11. Immunomodulation by vitamin D: implications for TB

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Rene F; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    TB remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of TB and other immune disorders. These observations suggest a role for vitamin D as a modulator of normal human immune function. This article will detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system and how vitamin D insufficiency may lead to immune dysregulation. The importance of vitamin D bioavailability as a mechanism for defining the ...

  12. Accounting for oxygen in the renal cortex: a computational study of factors that predispose the cortex to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Joon; Gardiner, Bruce S; Ngo, Jennifer P; Kar, Saptarshi; Evans, Roger G; Smith, David W

    2017-08-01

    We develop a pseudo-three-dimensional model of oxygen transport for the renal cortex of the rat, incorporating both the axial and radial geometry of the preglomerular circulation and quantitative information regarding the surface areas and transport from the vasculature and renal corpuscles. The computational model was validated by simulating four sets of published experimental studies of renal oxygenation in rats. Under the control conditions, the predicted cortical tissue oxygen tension ([Formula: see text]) or microvascular oxygen tension (µPo 2 ) were within ±1 SE of the mean value observed experimentally. The predicted [Formula: see text] or µPo 2 in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury, acute hemodilution, blockade of nitric oxide synthase, or uncoupling mitochondrial respiration, were within ±2 SE observed experimentally. We performed a sensitivity analysis of the key model parameters to assess their individual or combined impact on the predicted [Formula: see text] and µPo 2 The model parameters analyzed were as follows: 1 ) the major determinants of renal oxygen delivery ([Formula: see text]) (arterial blood Po 2 , hemoglobin concentration, and renal blood flow); 2 ) the major determinants of renal oxygen consumption (V̇o 2 ) [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the efficiency of oxygen utilization for sodium reabsorption (β)]; and 3) peritubular capillary surface area (PCSA). Reductions in PCSA by 50% were found to profoundly increase the sensitivity of [Formula: see text] and µPo 2 to the major the determinants of [Formula: see text] and V̇o 2 The increasing likelihood of hypoxia with decreasing PCSA provides a potential explanation for the increased risk of acute kidney injury in some experimental animals and for patients with chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient......, this has important therapeutic implications. The pathological sequence in renal stone formers with dRTA is discussed....

  14. Water-soluble vitamins in people with low glomerular filtration rate or on dialysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clase, Catherine M; Ki, Vincent; Holden, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    People with low glomerular filtration rate and people on dialysis are spontaneously at risk for vitamin deficiency because of the potential for problems with decreased appetite and decreased sense of smell and taste, leading to decreased intake, and because decreased energy or decreased cognitive ability results in difficulties in shopping and cooking. Imposed dietary restrictions because of their renal dysfunction and because of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes exacerbate this problem. Finally, particularly for water-soluble vitamins, loss may occur into the dialysate. We did not identify any randomized trials of administering daily doses close to the recommended daily allowances of these vitamins. In people who are eating at all, deficiencies of B5 and B7 seem unlikely. It is unclear whether supplements of B2 and B3 are necessary. Because of dialyzability and documented evidence of insufficiency in dialysis patients, B1 supplementation is likely to be helpful. B6, B9, and B12 are implicated in the hyperhomocysteinemia observed in patients on dialysis. These vitamins have been studied in combinations, in high doses, with the hope of reducing cardiovascular outcomes. No reductions in patient-important outcomes were seen in adequately powered randomized trials. Because of their involvement in the homocysteine pathway, however, supplementation with lower doses, close to the recommended daily allowances, may be helpful. Vitamin C deficiency is common in patients on dialysis who are not taking supplements: low-dose supplements are warranted. Vitamins for dialysis patients contain most or all of the B vitamins and low-dose vitamin C. We are not aware of any medical reasons to choose one over another. © 2013. The Authors. Seminars in Dialysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Influence of lifestyle on vitamin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Henk; van der Gaag, Martijn; Hendriks, Henk

    2002-01-01

    In this review the effects of lifestyle factors, especially alcohol consumption, on vitamin bioavailability are summarized and discussed. Alcohol effects are clearly dose-dependent. Excessive chronic alcohol intake is generally associated with vitamin deficiency (especially folate, thiamine, and vitamin B6) due to malnutrition, malabsorption, and ethanol toxicity. Effects of moderate alcohol use are mainly explained by a lower vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin A and beta-carotene, effects on post-absorptive (lipoprotein) metabolism have been demonstrated. In one diet-controlled crossover study, alcohol consumption resulted in an increase in the plasma vitamin B6 (PLP) content, especially after beer consumption (containing vitamin B6), but also after wine and spirit consumption (not containing vitamin B6). Smoking is also associated with a lower dietary vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin C, B12, folate, and beta-carotene, evidence has been presented for effects on postabsorptive metabolism, due to smoke-induced oxidative stress and/or vitamin inactivation. For vitamin E a direct effect of smoking on absorption has been demonstrated. There is no convincing evidence that low-fat diets negatively affect fat-soluble vitamin absorption, but cholesterol-lowering compounds (diets), or unabsorbable fat substitutes, may do so. Vitamin bioavailability may be compromised from certain vegetables (particularly raw), and/or from high-fiber foods, because of limited digestion and inefficient release of vitamins from the food matrix.

  16. Inflammatory Markers: C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, and Leukocyte Count in Vitamin D Deficient Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yildirim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some studies revealed a positive relationship between vitamin D3 deficiency and inflammatory markers, there have been also many studies that failed to find this relationship. The aim of this large scaled study is to determine the association between the level of plasma 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 [25-(OH D3] and inflammatory markers in the general population without chronic kidney disease (CKD and in patients with CKD. Participants with simultaneously measured inflammatory markers and 25-(OH D3 levels were retrospectively analyzed (n=1897. The incidence of all-cause inflammation infection, hospitalization, chronic renal failure, and vitamin B12 deficiency was evaluated. The medians of serum creatinine levels in subjects without renal failure were lower in 25-(OH D3 deficient group. Patients with CKD were more likely to have vitamin D3 deficiency compared with normal GFR. 25-(OH D3 levels were associated with a greater incidence of all-cause hospitalization, hypoalbuminemia, and vitamin B12 deficiency. However, there was no relationship between inflammatory markers and vitamin D3 levels. In 25-(OH D3 deficient patients, inflammatory markers can be related to other inflammatory and infectious status such as malnutrition and cachexia. We believed that there must be a relationship between vitamin deficiency and inflammatory markers due to other causes than low 25-(OH D3 status.

  17. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  18. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  19. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina

    2010-01-01

    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  20. Update on the biologic role of the vitamin D endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusso, Adriana S

    2014-03-01

    The integrity of the vitamin D endocrine system is essential for human health. Nutritional vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy individuals, associates with a higher risk of mortality for all causes, despite normal serum calcitriol. These deadly causes extend beyond the recognized adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on calcium and phosphate homeostasis predisposing to secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and vascular calcification. Vitamin D deficiency also associates with an early onset of disorders of aging, including hypertension, proteinuria, insulin resistance, immune abnormalities that enhance the propensity for viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, cancer, and multiple organ damage due to excessive systemic inflammation causing atherosclerosis, vascular stiffness, renal lesions, and impaired DNA-damage responses. The frequency and severity of all of these disorders markedly increase in chronic kidney disease (CKD) because the kidney is essential to maintain serum levels of calcitriol, the most potent endogenous endocrine activator of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and also of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, for local rather than systemic VDR activation. The goal of this review is to update the current understanding of the pathophysiology behind the classical and non-classical actions of VDR activation that help prevent the onset and/or attenuate the progression of renal and cardiovascular damage in CKD. This knowledge is essential to identify non-invasive, sensitive and accurate biomarkers of the severity of these disorders, a first step to generate evidence-based recommendations for a safe correction of vitamin D and/or calcitriol deficiency in the course of CKD that effectively improves outcomes.